Sample records for rapid neg id3

  1. Threshold extended ID3 algorithm (United States)

    Kumar, A. B. Rajesh; Ramesh, C. Phani; Madhusudhan, E.; Padmavathamma, M.


    Information exchange over insecure networks needs to provide authentication and confidentiality to the database in significant problem in datamining. In this paper we propose a novel authenticated multiparty ID3 Algorithm used to construct multiparty secret sharing decision tree for implementation in medical transactions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article was study about decision process data meaning with algoritma ID3. Data meaning is an atomatic extraction process of large data. It was found with a contour data. Data meaning have a function to produce a different contour wich other. The function of classification of data meaning is helping write decision tree, the function with algoritma ID3. Key words: data meaning, classification, decision tree

  3. NEG-shift, Licensing, and Repair Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj


    I entertain the idea that the cross-linguistic variation in the licensing of NEG-shift, the movement of negative objects to spec-NegP, can be accounted for by a few representational constraints that are not directly related to case licensing or feature checking, and which potentially conflict wit...

  4. Prospective studies exploring the possible impact of an ID3 polymorphism on changes in obesity measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Appel, Emil V R; Sandholt, Camilla H


    OBJECTIVE: Changes in fat mass depend on adipogenesis and angiogenesis, mechanisms regulated by the inhibitor of differentiation-3 (ID3). Id3 knockout mice showed attenuated increases in BMI and visceral fat mass. We hypothesized that the ID3 missense variant (rs11574-A) would lead to an attenuated...... increase over time in fat mass, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in humans. METHODS: The genotyped study populations included the Obesity Research Group - Genetics (ORGGEN) cohort, a cohort of men with obesity (N = 716) and of randomly selected men (N = 826) from the Danish draft...

  5. Analisis Perbandingan Algoritma ID3 Dan C4.5 Untuk Klasifikasi Penerima Hibah Pemasangan Air Minum Pada PDAM Kabupaten Kendal

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    Dana Melina Agustina


    Full Text Available Program hibah air minum bertujuan untuk meningkatkan cakupan pelayanan air minum yang diprioritaskan bagi masyarakat berpenghasilan rendah dalam rangka meningkatkan derajat kualitas kesehatan masyarakat. Pengklasifikasian data masyarakat berperan untuk menentukan pemberian sambungan air minum secara objektif dan akurat. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan perbandingan metode data mining yaitu algoritma ID3 dan C4.5 yang diterapkan pada data masyarakat berpenghasilan rendah pada PDAM Kabupaten Kendal dengan menggunakan RapidMiner. Hasil pengujian yang menunjukkan bahwa algoritma ID3 nilai akurasi sebesar 98,91%. Sedangkan pada algoritma C4.5 nilai accuracy sebesar 99,14%. Jadi algoritma C4.5 memiliki tingkat akurasi yang lebih besar dari pada algoritma ID3. Sehingga pada kasus penerima hibah pemasangan sambungan air minum diterapkan pada framework php dapat menentukan penerima hibah pemasangan sambungan air minum dengan menggunakan acuan pada algoritma C4.5 yang memiliki akurasi yang lebih baik. Kata kunci—Klasifikasi,Algoritma ID3,Algoritma C4.5, Air Minum, PDAM

  6. A functionally significant polymorphism in ID3 is associated with human coronary pathology.

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    Ani Manichaikul

    Full Text Available We previously identified association between the ID3 SNP rs11574 and carotid intima-media thickness in the Diabetes Heart Study, a predominantly White diabetic population. The nonsynonymous SNP rs11574 results in an amino acid substitution in the C-terminal region of ID3, attenuating the dominant negative function of ID3 as an inhibitor of basic HLH factor E12-mediated transcription. In the current investigation, we characterize the association between the functionally significant polymorphism in ID3, rs11574, with human coronary pathology.The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA is a longitudinal study of subclinical cardiovascular disease, including non-Hispanic White (n = 2,588, African American (n = 2,560 and Hispanic (n = 2,130 participants with data on coronary artery calcium (CAC. The Coronary Assessment in Virginia cohort (CAVA included 71 patients aged 30-80 years, undergoing a medically necessary cardiac catheterization and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS at the University of Virginia. ID3 SNP rs11574 risk allele was associated with the presence of CAC in MESA Whites (P = 0.017. In addition, the risk allele was associated with greater atheroma burden and stenosis in the CAVA cohort (P = 0.003, P = 0.04 respectively. The risk allele remained predictive of atheroma burden in multivariate analysis (Model 1: covariates age, gender, and LDL, regression coefficient = 9.578, SE = 3.657, p = 0.0110; Model 2: covariates Model 1, presence of hypertension, presence of diabetes, regression coefficient = 8.389, SE = 4.788, p = 0.0163.We present additional cohorts that demonstrate association of ID3 SNP rs11574 directly with human coronary artery pathology as measured by CAC and IVUS: one a multiethnic, relatively healthy population with low levels of diabetes and the second a predominantly White population with a higher incidence of T2DM referred for cardiac catheterization.

  7. NEG pumps can go to the extremes

    CERN Multimedia

    Manini, Paolo


    Non-evaporable getters are highly reactive materials, generally made of zirconium or titanium; NEG pumps are efficient and clean sinks for molecules and they regularly achieve pressures as low as 10¯11, or even 10¯13 mbar (½ page)

  8. Decision support system for determining the contact lens for refractive errors patients with classification ID3 (United States)

    Situmorang, B. H.; Setiawan, M. P.; Tosida, E. T.


    Refractive errors are abnormalities of the refraction of light so that the shadows do not focus precisely on the retina resulting in blurred vision [1]. Refractive errors causing the patient should wear glasses or contact lenses in order eyesight returned to normal. The use of glasses or contact lenses in a person will be different from others, it is influenced by patient age, the amount of tear production, vision prescription, and astigmatic. Because the eye is one organ of the human body is very important to see, then the accuracy in determining glasses or contact lenses which will be used is required. This research aims to develop a decision support system that can produce output on the right contact lenses for refractive errors patients with a value of 100% accuracy. Iterative Dichotomize Three (ID3) classification methods will generate gain and entropy values of attributes that include code sample data, age of the patient, astigmatic, the ratio of tear production, vision prescription, and classes that will affect the outcome of the decision tree. The eye specialist test result for the training data obtained the accuracy rate of 96.7% and an error rate of 3.3%, the result test using confusion matrix obtained the accuracy rate of 96.1% and an error rate of 3.1%; for the data testing obtained accuracy rate of 100% and an error rate of 0.

  9. GLCE regulates PC12 cell neuritogenesis induced by nerve growth factor through activating SMAD/ID3 signalling. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fang, Jianping; Qin, Yi; Liao, Wenfeng; Liu, Hailing; Zhou, Yifa; Ding, Kan


    Neurodevelopment is orchestrated by a series of growth factor-HS (heparan sulfate) interactions which are involved in neuritogenesis. GLCE (glucuronic acid epimerase) is a critical enzyme involved in HS synthesis, which converts GlcA (D-glucuronic acid) into IdoA (L-iduronic acid). However, the function of GLCE in neuritogenesis is largely unknown. In the present study we showed that GLCE depletion caused arrested PC12 cell growth and promoted the cell neuritogenesis and differentiation induced by NGF (nerve growth factor). PC12 cell growth was boosted by overexpression of GLCE, and neuritogenesis was impaired when GLCE depletion was rescued. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type GLCE with Y168A and Y222A mutations led to enhanced PC12 cell growth and attenuated the neuritogenesis triggered by GLCE silencing. We showed further that GLCE depletion blocked SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation; however, this signalling could be restored by GLCE or the mutation of its active enzymatic site. In addition, the downstream effector of SMAD1/5/8, ID3 (inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 3) was induced by GLCE. ID3 silencing inhibited PC12 cell growth and induced cell neuritogenesis and differentiation. In addition, ectopic expression of ID3 partially rescued the phenotype caused by GLCE silencing. The results of the present study suggest that GLCE plays a key role in PC12 cell growth and neuritogenesis through SMAD/ID3 signalling.

  10. Policy Issues in NEG Models: Established Results and Open Questions


    Commendatore, Pasquale; Hammer, Christoph; Kubin, Ingrid; Petraglia, Carmelo


    This paper provides a non-technical overview of NEG models dealing with policy issues. Considered policy measures include alternative categories of public expenditure, international tax competition, unilateral actions of protection/liberalisation, and trade agreements. The implications of public intervention in two-region NEG models are discussed by unfolding the impact of policy measures on agglomeration/dispersion forces. Results are described in contrast with those obtained in standard non...

  11. Modelos de Negócio na Era Digital


    Siqueira, Luciene Diana; CRISPIM, Sérgio Feliciano


    O termo de modelo de negócio passou a ser utilizado proeminente no final dos anos 1990, coincidindo com o advento da Internet no mundo dos negócios e acentuando-se com o desenvolvimento do mercado de ações da NASDAQ para empresas de tecnologia. Usado não somente no âmbito de mercados digitais, e muitas vezes tomado como sinônimo de estratégia, a literatura ainda apresenta uma falta de consenso quanto sua definição conceitual. Com a nova economia, a evolução da Internet possibilita novos model...

  12. Performance characteristics of lumped nonevaporable getter (NEG) pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Sang-Ryul; Yokouchi, Shigeru; Be, Suck-Hee (JAERI-RIKEN SPring-8 Project Team, Wako, Saitama (Japan)); Maruyama, Takashi


    A prototype of the lumped NEG pump (LNP) designed as a main pump of the crotches and absorbers of the SPring-8 storage ring was manufactured with 14 nonevaporable getter (NEG) modules and a cylindrical pump body made of aluminum alloy. Vacuum Performance and operating characteristics of the LNP have been tested. Initial pumping speeds of the LNP for H{sub 2}, CO, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were typically 3 m{sup 3}/s, 1.7 m{sup 3}/s, 1 m{sup 3}/s and 1.3 m{sup 3}/s, respectively. The experimental results were compared with the pumping speeds calculated by the Monte Carlo method. Equilibrium characteristics of the LNP in the activation period were studies to obtain basic data for the design of the auxiliary pumping system, and to set a pertinent activation schedule for the LNP. Operating characteristics such as the power consumption of the NEG modules and the temperature rise of the adjacent chambers including the aluminum alloy pump body during the NEG activation were also investigated. (author).

  13. BTG/Tob family members Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells via Id3 mRNA degradation

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    Chen, Yuanfan; Wang, Chenchen [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Stem Cell Research Center, China National Center for International Research, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); SARI Center for Stem Cell and Nanomedicine, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200120 (China); Wu, Jenny [SARI Center for Stem Cell and Nanomedicine, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200120 (China); Li, Lingsong, E-mail: [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Stem Cell Research Center, China National Center for International Research, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); SARI Center for Stem Cell and Nanomedicine, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200120 (China)


    The mammalian BTG/Tob family is a group of proteins with anti-proliferative ability, and there are six members including BTG1, BTG2/PC3/Tis21, BTG3/ANA, BTG4/PC3B, Tob1/Tob and Tob2. Among them, Tob subfamily members, specifically Tob1/Tob and Tob2, have the most extensive C-terminal regions. As previously reported, overexpression of BTG/Tob proteins is associated with the inhibition of G1 to S-phase cell cycle progression and decreased cell proliferation in a variety of cell types. Tob subfamily proteins have similar anti-proliferative effects on cell cycle progression in cultured tumor cells. An important unresolved question is whether or not they have function in rapidly proliferating cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Tob1 and Tob2 were expressed ubiquitously in mouse ESCs (mESCs), suggesting a possible role in early embryonic development and mESCs. To address the above question and explore the possible functions of the Tob subfamily in ESCs, we established ESCs from different genotypic knockout inner cell mass (ICM). We found that Tob1{sup −/−}, Tob2{sup −/−}, and Tob1/2 double knockout (DKO, Tob1{sup −/−} & Tob2{sup −/−}) ESCs grew faster than wild type (WT) ESCs without losing pluripotency, and we provide a possible mechanistic explanation for these observations: Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit the cell cycle via degradation of Id3 mRNA, which is a set of directly targeted genes of BMP4 signaling in mESCs that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties. Together, our data suggest that BTG/Tob family protein Tob1 and Tob2 regulation cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. - Highlights: • We established mouse Tob1/2 double knockout embryonic stem cells. • Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit the proliferation of ESCs without effect on pluripotency. • Tob1 and Tob2 involved in the degradation of Id3 in mESCs.

  14. Livros digitais e os modelos de negócios


    Serra, Liliana Giusti; Silva, José Fernando Modesto da


    O estudo enfoca a questão do licenciamento de livros digitais pelas bibliotecas a partir da análise dos principais modelos de negócios existentes (Aquisição perpétua, Assinatura, DDA, STL e EBS), com o objetivo de analisar as alterações decorrentes para o desenvolvimento de coleções. A partir de revisão de literatura e dos relatos de experiências identificam-se particularidades e características dos modelos de negócios e suas implicações para a gestão dos acervos bibliográficos, apresentando ...

  15. Interacting mechanism of ID3 HLH domain towards E2A/E12 transcription factor – An Insight through molecular dynamics and docking approach

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    Nishith Saurav Topno


    Full Text Available Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 3 (ID3 has long been characterized as an oncogene that implicates its functional role through its Helix–Loop–Helix (HLH domain upon protein–protein interaction. An insight into the dimerization brought by this domain helps in identifying the key residues that favor the mechanism behind it. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed for the HLH proteins ID3 and Transcription factor E2-alpha (E2A/E12 and their ensemble complex (ID3-E2A/E12 to gather information about the HLH domain region and its role in the interaction process. Further evaluation of the results by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Free Energy Landscape (FEL helped in revealing residues of E2A/E12: Lys570, Ala595, Val598, and Ile599 and ID3: Glu53, Gln63, and Gln66 buried in their HLH motifs imparting key roles in dimerization process. Furthermore the T-pad analysis results helped in identifying the key fluctuations and conformational transitions using the intrinsic properties of the residues present in the domain region of the proteins thus specifying their crucial role towards molecular recognition. The study provides an insight into the interacting mechanism of the ID3-E2A/E12 complex and maps the structural transitions arising in the essential conformational space indicating the key structural changes within the helical regions of the motif. It thereby describes how the internal dynamics of the proteins might regulate their intrinsic structural features and its subsequent functionality.

  16. Interacting mechanism of ID3 HLH domain towards E2A/E12 transcription factor - An Insight through molecular dynamics and docking approach. (United States)

    Topno, Nishith Saurav; Kannan, Muthu; Krishna, Ramadas


    Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 3 (ID3) has long been characterized as an oncogene that implicates its functional role through its Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) domain upon protein-protein interaction. An insight into the dimerization brought by this domain helps in identifying the key residues that favor the mechanism behind it. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for the HLH proteins ID3 and Transcription factor E2-alpha (E2A/E12) and their ensemble complex (ID3-E2A/E12) to gather information about the HLH domain region and its role in the interaction process. Further evaluation of the results by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Free Energy Landscape (FEL) helped in revealing residues of E2A/E12: Lys570, Ala595, Val598, and Ile599 and ID3: Glu53, Gln63, and Gln66 buried in their HLH motifs imparting key roles in dimerization process. Furthermore the T-pad analysis results helped in identifying the key fluctuations and conformational transitions using the intrinsic properties of the residues present in the domain region of the proteins thus specifying their crucial role towards molecular recognition. The study provides an insight into the interacting mechanism of the ID3-E2A/E12 complex and maps the structural transitions arising in the essential conformational space indicating the key structural changes within the helical regions of the motif. It thereby describes how the internal dynamics of the proteins might regulate their intrinsic structural features and its subsequent functionality.

  17. Marked induction of the helix-loop-helix protein Id3 promotes the gammadelta T cell fate and renders their functional maturation Notch independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Wong, Gladys W; Lee, Sang-Yun


    alphabeta and gammadelta T cells arise from a common thymocyte progenitor during development in the thymus. Emerging evidence suggests that the pre-T cell receptor (pre-TCR) and gammadelta T cell receptor (gammadeltaTCR) play instructional roles in specifying the alphabeta and gammadelta T...... IFNgamma-producing effectors. Taken together, these findings identify Id3 as a central player that controls both adoption of the gammadelta fate and its maturation in the thymus....

  18. Panorama dos modelos de negócios emerg entes da tv digital aberta


    Felippe Souza de Lima; Danilo Leme Bressan; Francisco Rolfsen Belda; Gisleine Fátima Durigan; Matheus Monteiro de Lima


    O presente artigo tem como objetivo descrever modelos de negócios emergentes aplicados àTV digital aberta. A partir de uma pesquisa exploratória, o trabalho apresenta a atual realidadeda televisão aberta e seus modelos de negócios. Posteriormente, é feito um mapeamentopanorâmico buscando, assim, novas oportunidades de geração de receitas em negócio decomunicação audiovisual, considerando novos recursos tecnológicos que foramproporcionados pela digitalização da televisão aberta. Por fim, são a...

  19. Panorama dos modelos de negócios emerg entes da tv digital aberta

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    Felippe Souza de Lima


    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo descrever modelos de negócios emergentes aplicados àTV digital aberta. A partir de uma pesquisa exploratória, o trabalho apresenta a atual realidadeda televisão aberta e seus modelos de negócios. Posteriormente, é feito um mapeamentopanorâmico buscando, assim, novas oportunidades de geração de receitas em negócio decomunicação audiovisual, considerando novos recursos tecnológicos que foramproporcionados pela digitalização da televisão aberta. Por fim, são apresentados casos,demonstrando maneiras adotadas por emissoras televisivas para gerar conteúdo adicionalmultiplataforma e desdobramentos estratégicos desenvolvidos para captar receitas por meiodestes modelos de negócios emergentes.

  20. Development of low-cost, high-performance non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, Kazuhiko, E-mail: [Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Tanaka, Masato [Faculty of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku 263-8522 (Japan); Ida, Naoya [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 1 Bunkyocho, Hirosaki 036-8560 (Japan); Kodama, Hiraku [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kikuchi, Takashi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)


    Low-cost, high-performance non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps were constructed using commercial NEG pills comprising 70 wt% Zr, 24.6 wt% V, and 5.4 wt% Fe, a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 70, 152, or 203 mm (DN 40 CF, DN 100 CF, and DN 160 CF, respectively), and a tantalum heater. After activation at 400 °C for 30 min, the pumping speeds of a DN 40 CF NEG pump measured with the orifice method were 47–40, 8–6, 24–17, and 19–15 L/s for H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} gasses, respectively. NEG pumps using DN 100 CF and DN 160 CF were also developed, and their pumping speeds are estimated. These NEG pumps are favorable alternatives to sputtering ion pumps in VSX beamlines because they do not produce hydrocarbons except during the activation period. The NEG pumps can also be used for accelerators, front ends, end stations, and differential pumping systems.

  1. Electron Stimulated Molecular Desorption of a NEG St 707 at Room Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Le Pimpec, F; Laurent, Jean Michel


    Electron stimulated molecular desorption (ESD) from a NEG St 707 (SAES GettersTM) sample after conditioning and after saturation with isotopic carbon monoxide2,13C18O, has been studied on a laboratory setup. Measurements were performed using an electron beam of 300 eV kinetic energy, with an average electron intensity of 1.6 1015 electrons s-1. The electrons were impinging on the 15 cm2 target surface at perpendicular incidence. It is found that the desorption yields h (molecules/electron) of the characteristic gases in an UHV system (hydrogen, methane, water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide) for a fully activated NEG as well as for a NEG fully saturated with 13C18O are lower than for OFHC copper baked at 120oC. A small fraction only of the gas which is required to saturate the getter surface can be re-desorbed and thus appears to be accessible to ESD.

  2. Terminal Differentiation of Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells Is a Step Functionally Dissociable from Proliferation and Is Controlled by Tis21, Id3 and NeuroD2. (United States)

    Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Gioia, Roberta; D'Andrea, Giorgio; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Costanzi, Marco; Saraulli, Daniele; Cestari, Vincenzo; Tirone, Felice


    Cell proliferation and differentiation are interdependent processes. Here, we have asked to what extent the two processes of neural progenitor cell amplification and differentiation are functionally separated. Thus, we analyzed whether it is possible to rescue a defect of terminal differentiation in progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus, where new neurons are generated throughout life, by inducing their proliferation and/or their differentiation with different stimuli appropriately timed. As a model we used the Tis21 knockout mouse, whose dentate gyrus neurons, as demonstrated by us and others, have an intrinsic defect of terminal differentiation. We first tested the effect of two proliferative as well as differentiative neurogenic stimuli, one pharmacological (fluoxetine), the other cognitive (the Morris water maze (MWM) training). Both effectively enhanced the number of new dentate gyrus neurons produced, and fluoxetine also reduced the S-phase length of Tis21 knockout dentate gyrus progenitor cells and increased the rate of differentiation of control cells, but neither factor enhanced the defective rate of differentiation. In contrast, the defect of terminal differentiation was fully rescued by in vivo infection of proliferating dentate gyrus progenitor cells with retroviruses either silencing Id3, an inhibitor of neural differentiation, or expressing NeuroD2, a proneural gene expressed in terminally differentiated dentate gyrus neurons. This is the first demonstration that NeuroD2 or the silencing of Id3 can activate the differentiation of dentate gyrus neurons, complementing a defect of differentiation. It also highlights how the rate of differentiation of dentate gyrus neurons is regulated genetically at several levels and that a neurogenic stimulus for amplification of neural stem/progenitor cells may not be sufficient in itself to modify this rate.

  3. Employee Identification with Corporate Values within the Danish Windmill Company NEG Micon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mona Agerholm


    This paper presents the findings of a holistic study of the communication processes during a corporate value implementation within the Danish windmill company NEG Micon. This implies firstly a study of the different processes of management's formulation, construction and communication of the value...

  4. DEEPEN: A negation detection system for clinical text incorporating dependency relation into NegEx. (United States)

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Krishnan, Anand; Sohn, Sunghwan; Roch, Alexandra M; Schmidt, Heidi; Kesterson, Joe; Beesley, Chris; Dexter, Paul; Max Schmidt, C; Liu, Hongfang; Palakal, Mathew


    In Electronic Health Records (EHRs), much of valuable information regarding patients' conditions is embedded in free text format. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques have been developed to extract clinical information from free text. One challenge faced in clinical NLP is that the meaning of clinical entities is heavily affected by modifiers such as negation. A negation detection algorithm, NegEx, applies a simplistic approach that has been shown to be powerful in clinical NLP. However, due to the failure to consider the contextual relationship between words within a sentence, NegEx fails to correctly capture the negation status of concepts in complex sentences. Incorrect negation assignment could cause inaccurate diagnosis of patients' condition or contaminated study cohorts. We developed a negation algorithm called DEEPEN to decrease NegEx's false positives by taking into account the dependency relationship between negation words and concepts within a sentence using Stanford dependency parser. The system was developed and tested using EHR data from Indiana University (IU) and it was further evaluated on Mayo Clinic dataset to assess its generalizability. The evaluation results demonstrate DEEPEN, which incorporates dependency parsing into NegEx, can reduce the number of incorrect negation assignment for patients with positive findings, and therefore improve the identification of patients with the target clinical findings in EHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. As Interfaces entre Empreendedorismo Social, Negócios Sociais e Redes Sociais no Campo Social

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    Maria de Fátima da Silva


    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute os conceitos do empreendedorismo social, dos negócios sociais e das redes sociais no enfrentamento das demandas sociais, respondendo à pergunta: há interfaces entre esses conceitos? A busca pela mudança social tem no empreendedorismo social, nos negócios sociais e nas redes sociais a possibilidade de gerar ações inovadoras por organizações que atuam tanto no setor público como no privado, com o objetivo de promover a transformação social. As interfaces podem contribuir para a construção do campo da gestão social na medida em que a ação empreendedora no desenvolvimento dos negócios sociais intensifica-se com as redes sociais. O debate dessas ideias sugere a abertura de novos caminhos que possam contribuir para o enfrentamento dos problemas sociais.

  6. Escopo de projeto para criação de um Plano de Negócios

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    Armando Terribili Filho


    Full Text Available No Brasil, 27% das empresas criadas encerrem suas atividades no primeiro ano de existência, e 58% delas até o final do quinto ano. Assim, os objetivos do artigo são: apresentar a composição de um Plano de Negócios por meio da EAP (Estrutura Analítica de Projetos utilizando o padrão do Guia PMBOK® (Project Management Body of Knowledge, e discutir se a criação de um Plano de Negócios aumentaria a probabilidade de sucesso de uma nova empresa. A metodologia utilizada foi composta de três etapas: revisão bibliográfica, definição dos entregáveis de um projeto para criação de um novo negócio e análise das principais razões para o encerramento de uma empresa em seus primeiros anos de existência. Os resultados apontaram que a existência de um Plano de Negócios não é sinônimo de sucesso, mas, certamente aumenta a probabilidade disto acontecer, pois a maioria das causas identificadas teria sido suprida pela elaboração de um Plano de Negócios.

  7. POS-1 promotes endo-mesoderm development by inhibiting the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of neg-1 mRNA (United States)

    Elewa, Ahmed; Shirayama, Masaki; Kaymak, Ebru; Harrison, Paul F.; Powell, David R.; Du, Zhuo; Chute, Christopher D.; Woolf, Hannah; Yi, Dongni; Ishidate, Takao; Srinivasan, Jagan; Bao, Zhirong; Beilharz, Traude H.; Ryder, Sean; Mello, Craig C.


    SUMMARY The regulation of mRNA translation is of fundamental importance in biological mechanisms ranging from embryonic axis specification to formation of long-term memory. POS-1 is one of several CCCH zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins that regulate cell-fate specification during C. elegans embryogenesis. Paradoxically, pos-1 mutants exhibit striking defects in endo-mesoderm development, but have wildtype distributions of SKN-1, a key determinant of endo-mesoderm fates. RNAi screens for pos-1 suppressors identified genes encoding the cytoplasmic poly(A)-polymerase homolog GLD-2, the Bicaudal-C homolog GLD-3, and the protein NEG-1. We show that NEG-1 localizes in anterior nuclei where it negatively regulates endo-mesoderm fates. In posterior cells, POS-1 binds the neg-1 3′UTR to oppose GLD-2 and GLD-3 activities that promote NEG-1 expression and cytoplasmic lengthening of the neg-1 mRNA poly(A) tail. Our findings uncover an intricate series of post-transcriptional regulatory interactions that together achieve precise spatial expression of endo-mesoderm fates in C. elegans embryos. PMID:26096734

  8. Plano de negócios: empresa de comércio electrónico


    Simões, Paula Marise Martins Jorge


    Mestrado em Gestão O crescimento exponencial da internet potenciou profundas alterações nos comportamentos dos consumidores, dando origem a uma nova forma de comprar, o comércio electrónico. Neste trabalho é elaborado o plano de negócios da empresa G2R que propõe a comercialização de equipamentos para motociclistas exclusivamente através de uma loja online. A proposta da empresa é inovadora em Portugal pela quase inexistência de pure players 1 no mercado nacional e pela l...

  9. Plano de Negócios de uma microempresa de Pescaturismo no litoral caminhense




    O presente estudo de dissertação consiste no estudo da viabilidade económica e financeira de uma microempresa de Pescaturismo. Trata-se da apresentação de um plano de negócios turístico-pesqueiro, onde a principal ideia - através de um modelo de intraempreendedorismo marítimo de criação de valor social, económico e financeiro - é a conceção de uma unidade empresarial, sob o conceito de turismo marítimo-pesqueiro, estrategicamente posicionada no nicho de mercado de turismo criativo e costeiro,...

  10. Maturidade do Negócio e Comércio Electrónico nas Microempresas Portuguesas


    Barros, Luís Gonzaga Valente de


    Dissertação de Mestrado em em Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação O negócio electrónico está associado à utilização intensiva de tecnologias de informação e comunicação. No entanto, para implementar iniciativas de negócio electrónico, é necessário bem mais do que utilizar computadores e redes. Aspectos como o mercado, o nível de integração funcional das organizações e de preparação de sistemas e a oferta de produtos e serviços têm de estar devidamente acautelados. O termo negócio ele...

  11. A Internet das Coisas e o Big Data inovando os negócios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma de Oliveira Santos


    Full Text Available A Internet das Coisas e o Big Data permitem que grandes volumes de dados sejam analisados, verificados e transformados em informações organizadas para as empresas. Essas informações são utilizadas para que as empresas possam tomar as melhores decisões, apoiando o surgimento de novas perspectivas e, assim, possibilitando que novos impactos transformem a maneira de criar e expandir os negócios. O uso dessas ferramentas cresceu nos últimos anos e existem previsões de crescimento ainda maiores para os próximos anos, inovando o tratamento de dados no cotidiano das empresas fazendo com que os negócios sofram impactos em seus paradigmas. Empresas e usuários precisam se preocupar com as consequências dessa nova maneira de tratamento de dados. O objetivo desse artigo é tratar os aspectos que modificam a forma de trabalho, o uso em empresas e de usuários com o advento da conectividade entre objetos: máquinas com máquinas e pessoas com objetos e máquinas. Além de se propor a analisar as vantagens, as desvantagens e os riscos do uso dessas tecnologias.

  12. NEG (non evaporable getter) pumps for organic compounds and water removal in EUVL tools (United States)

    Conte, A.; Manini, P.; Raimondi, S.


    One of present EUVL challenges is to reduce as much as possible the organic compounds and water partial pressures during the lithographic process. These gases can in fact interact with sensitive surfaces and, in the presence of EUV radiation, decompose to generate carbon-based films and oxides, which are detrimental to the optics, reducing its performance, lifetime and significantly increasing the equipment total cost of ownership. With this respect, use of Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) pumps seems particularly attractive. Getter pumps are very clean, vibration-free, compact, able to deliver large pumping speed for all active gases, including water and hydrogen. In the present paper, we report for the first time the results of specific tests aimed at measuring the pumping speed for some selected organic compounds, namely toluene and decane (n-decane). The study shows that getter pumps can effectively sorb these large organic molecules with high speed and capacity. Speed and capacity increases when operating the getter cartridge at moderate temperature (e.g. 150-200°C), however remarkable sorption is achieved, even at room temperature, without any power applied. When coupled with turbo-molecular pumps NEG pumps have therefore the potential to improve the ultimate vacuum and mitigate the carbon/oxygen contamination in a UHV lithographic system.

  13. Ética nos negócios e ética pessoal: uma questão de integridade


    Ventura, Adriana Miguel


    Este trabalho aborda os conceitos de Ética nos Negócios e Ética Pessoal, usando como base a Ética das Virtudes de Robert Solomon, oriunda da abordagem Aristotélica. Discorre sobre conceitos como Valores, Atitudes e Comportamentos, bem como Dissonância Cognitiva e Tomada de Decisão. A coerência da Ética nos Negócios e da Ética Pessoal leva à integridade, a maior das virtudes. Com base no referencial teórico, foi realizada uma pesquisa que tinha por objetivo verificar a coerência entre os compo...

  14. Comércio eletrônico, modelos de negócios e a dinâmica organizacional : caso Cisco


    Rufino, Mônica Soares


    Trata dos modelos de negócio que as empresas adotam para implantar o comércio eletrônico e obter vantagens competitivas. Aborda as características dos modelos de negócio, assim como, as estratégias e a dinâmica organizacional inerentes ao processo.

  15. CD28neg. T lymphocytes of a melanoma patient harbor tumor immunity and a high frequency of germline-encoded and public TCRs. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hisayoshi; Sterk, Marco; Schilbach, Karin


    Increased numbers of CD8+CD28neg. T cells have been detected in the peripheral blood of patients with several types of malignancies. However, the role of these cells in anticancer immunity are not yet clear and CD8+CD28neg. T cells are a controversially discussed subpopulation reported both as immunosuppressive and cytotoxic. In this study, we examined the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and complementarity-determining region 3 sequences of CD28neg. T cells in a melanoma patient with recurrent disease who achieved long-term disease-free status. As a result, the patient's oligoclonal CD8+CD28neg. T cell compartment holds TCRs that are public and specific for Melan-A as well as several public TCRs reported for common viral antigens. While over 80% of his CD8+CD28neg. T cells expressed a cytotoxicity marker, CD57, only 0.01% of CD8+ CD28neg. T cells were positive for Foxp3. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that besides virus-specific also tumor-associated self-antigen targeting T cells accumulate in the CD28neg. compartment of the immunological memory. Since the patient is in ongoing complete remission for more than 9 years, CD8+CD28neg. T cells with the Melan-A-specific TCR might contribute to antitumor immunity in this patient.

  16. Book review. Procedure cliniche e terapeutiche negli animali esotici. Marta Avanzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani


    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni è in costante aumento il numero degli animali da compagnia, con la diretta conseguenza che negli ambulatori veterinari arrivano sempre più pet diversi dal cane e dal gatto. Per dare loro cure di qualità non è sufficiente conoscere soltanto la fisiologia e la patologia ma c'è bisogno di saper maneggiare correttamente questi animali non convenzionali, oltre che conoscere le procedure per arrivare a una diagnosi e quindi ad una terapia appropriata. Procedure cliniche e terapeutiche negli animali esotici di Marta Avanzi risponde al bisogno di conoscenza in un settore in cui la formazione accademica è ancora scarsa, a fronte di un aumento della richiesta di cure da parte dei proprietari. Come scrive l'autrice nella prefazione: "Non sempre il professionista ha la possibilità di seguire un periodo di tirocinio pratico presso colleghi più esperti e spesso è la mancanza di esperienza che scoraggia il neofita ad ampliare il range di specie a cui dedicarsi. Il libro nasce proprio dall'esigenza di colmare questa lacuna, rispondendo al bisogno crescente di formazione nel campo della cura e del trattamento degli animali esotici da compagnia". Il manuale della dott.ssa Avanzi illustra con chiarezza le procedure diagnostiche, anestesiologiche, terapeutiche indispensabili per la pratica clinica. Per questo è rivolto principalmente ai medici veterinari che si occupano degli animali esotici da compagnia quali furetti, conigli, roditori, uccelli e rettili, di cui vengono illustrate le tecniche fondamentali per maneggiarli e contenerli con competenza e sicurezza. Il volume, pubblicato nel grande formato 19,5x26,5 cm, contiene più di mille fotografie a colori, comprese quelle delle attrezzature specifiche per i vari casi. Un'iconografia ricchissima che ha la funzione di descrivere passo dopo passo le manovre e le procedure per trattare questi particolari pazienti. I capitoli sono 14 e descrivono circa 150 procedure, dalla dermatologia all

  17. Food bike Rosa Mel: viabilidade do empreendimento por meio de Plano de Negócio


    Danielle de Oliveira Barutti; Daphne de Oliveira Barutti; Ivani Ferreira da Cruz Ribeiro


    Este artigo objetiva propor a criação de um comércio itinerante de doces caseiros comercializando pão de mel, nos sabores brigadeiro, doce de leite e coco, trufas tradicionais, alfajor, café e água na modalidade Food Bike, na cidade de São Paulo. A modalidade Food Bike é o tipo de comércio itinerante em que se vendem comidas e bebidas, tendo como suporte uma bicicleta e não havendo necessidade de muito espaço para sua instalação. Utiliza-se como metodologia de análise, plano de negócio e pesq...

  18. Unionismo fiorentino negli anni Venti. L’Associazione Cristiana dei Giovani di Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Pagliai


    Full Text Available Scarni sono i riferimenti storiografici sulla sezione fiorentina dell’Associazione Cristiana dei Giovani (ACDG, il corrispettivo italiano della Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA, costituita dopo la Grande Guerra da quel Giovanni Battista Giorgini (1898-1971, noto piuttosto come talento imprenditoriale della ‘moda italiana’ negli anni del Miracolo economico. Sotto la presidenza di Giorgini (1924-1933, di formazione religiosa valdese, la sezione fiorentina dell’ACDG divenne punto di riferimento di tutta l’organizzazione italiana. Questo contributo, attraverso documenti esemplificativi, segue alcune fondamentali tappe e aspetti della vita dell’Associazione fino al 1931, quando il governo fascista ne intimò drasticamente lo scioglimento con ordinanza prefettizia.

  19. The distribution of micro zooplankton in the lagoon environments; La distribuzione del microzooplancton negli ambienti lagunari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenni, P.; Creo, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The aim of this work is to verify the possible use of micro zooplankton as a biological indicator in aquatic environments. In particular, studies carried out in lagoon environments are reported, relatively to the Venice lagoon and the Pontine coastal lakes (Italy). New methodologies to assess the micro plankton component are developed and tested, particularly the concentration and count steps. The use of the same methodologies to assess nano plankton component, as biological indicator. are reported. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro viene analizzata la possibilita' di utilizzare il microzooplancton quale indicatore biologico negli ambienti acquatici (mmarini, acquadulcicoli, salmastri). In particolare, vengono riportati gli studi effettuati dall'ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) su tale componente in ambienti lagunari, con riferimento alla laguna di Venezia e alle lagune pontine.

  20. Application of datamining method (ID3) to data analysis for ultra deep hydrodesulfurization of straight-run light gas oil determination of effective factor of the feed properties to reaction rate of HDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narinobu Kagami; Ryuichiro Iwamoto; Tetsuji Tani [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd, (Japan). Manufacturing Department, Petroleum Refining Technology Center


    Six kinds of straight run light gas oils were tested under various conditions in high pressure fixed bed reactor. First the formula of the corrected WAT (weight average temperature) normalized to the standard conditions was made by trial and error method, using the parameters chosen by the information of literature. Next the analysis of datamining method (ID3) and correlation coefficient were applied. This method is very unique and useful to evaluate the validity of the chosen parameters. The valid parameters of feed properties were density (SpGr), nitrogen content, and the temperature of 90% distillation (T90) under our experimental conditions. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A rede de negócios do turismo: um estudo sobre suas características e implicações estratégicas


    Donaire, Denis; Silva,Marcos Pereira da; GASPAR, Marcos Antonio


    A atividade turística é representativa para o país em termos econômicos e sociais. A rede de negócios do turismo é formada por um complexo conjunto de elementos, que incluem os relacionamentos entre seus integrantes como parte fundamental no seu desenvolvimento. O presente trabalho busca analisar os relacionamentos existentes na rede de negócios do turismo, a fim de averiguar a qualidade dos negócios nela gerados. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo exploratório junto às entidades representa...

  2. Marketing de Relacionamento: Agregando Valor ao Negócio com Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Borges Coutrim dos Reis


    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, as constantes inovações tecnológicas, o aumento exponencial do volume de dados, junto às evoluções nas tendências de consumo, geraram um cenário global de grandes desafios para as organizações. O uso de tecnologias de Big Data, para análise do volume crescente de dados, disponíveis no mundo virtual globalizado, oferece uma nova visão sobre o mercado e pode contribuir com o futuro das organizações, por meio da disponibilização de informações de qualidade que apoiarão fortemente a tomada de decisão. Nesse cenário de alta competitividade, considerar o contexto de análises de dados, com o uso de tecnologias de Big Data, pode ampliar a visão das empresas para as tendências do mercado, favorecendo a identificação de estratégias melhor direcionadas aos perfis de comportamentos e preferências de consumo. O objetivo da pesquisa é investigar como o uso das tecnologias de Big Data pode ampliar a capacidade do marketing de relacionamento das organizações, agregando valor ao negócio. Os resultados demonstram que as organizações que fazem uso das tecnologias de Big Data, conseguem melhor definir suas estratégias de marketing de relacionamento com os clientes, obtendo como resultados relacionamentos mais duradouros com o mercado e seus clientes e retornos favoráveis aos seus negócios. Em um futuro próximo, a utilização de Big Data, para ampliação das estratégias de marketing de relacionamento, serão regras de sobrevivência para as organizações. O diferencial estará na forma como o gestor interpretará as informações disponíveis e agirá para alcançar os resultados almejados.

  3. Flux pinning and superconducting properties of melt-textured NEG-123 superconductor with TiO.sub.2./sub. addition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muralidhar, M.; Jirsa, Miloš; Tomita, M.


    Roč. 470, 13-14 (2010), s. 592-597 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0722 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : flux pinning, NEG-123 * high-Tc superconductors * high temperature levitation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 1.407, year: 2010

  4. Francisco Ferreira Saturnino Braga: negócios e fortuna em Campos dos Goytacazes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Luiz Carneiro de Mattos Pereira


    Full Text Available O artigo pretende investir no estudo da dinâmica da economia em Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, nas duas décadas que antecedem a abolição da escravatura no Brasil, a partir dos negócios e da fortuna de Francisco Ferreira Saturnino Braga, proprietário de terras, escravos, usineiro, industrial, concessionário de ferrovias e banqueiro, figura-chave para se perceberem as transformações ocorridas em uma área de produção açucareira voltada para o mercado interno. As singularidades e particularidades obtidas pela observação em escala reduzida podem revelar a possibilidade de perceber uma articulação mais ampla com as estruturas de uma economia de mercado.The article intends to invest in the study of the dynamics of the economy in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, in the two decades preceding the abolition of slavery in Brazil, from the business and fortune of Francisco Ferreira Saturnino Braga, owner of land, slaves, mill owner, industrial, railroad dealer and banker, a key figure to understand the changes occurred in an area of the sugar production directs to the domestic market. The singularities and particularities obtained by observation in small scale may reveal the possibility of perceiving a broader articulation with the structures of a market economy.

  5. Food bike Rosa Mel: viabilidade do empreendimento por meio de Plano de Negócio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Oliveira Barutti


    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva propor a criação de um comércio itinerante de doces caseiros comercializando pão de mel, nos sabores brigadeiro, doce de leite e coco, trufas tradicionais, alfajor, café e água na modalidade Food Bike, na cidade de São Paulo. A modalidade Food Bike é o tipo de comércio itinerante em que se vendem comidas e bebidas, tendo como suporte uma bicicleta e não havendo necessidade de muito espaço para sua instalação. Utiliza-se como metodologia de análise, plano de negócio e pesquisa qualitativa exploratória para verificar o perfil do comércio itinerante e analisar o consumidor desse serviço. Foi concluído que este tipo de empreendimento é inovador, atraente, de baixo custo inicial, rentável e com taxa de retorno em torno de onze meses.

  6. O que tem sido estudado sobre escolas de negócio? A evolução dos trabalhos e a estrutura intelectual que os suporta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Scafuto


    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo foi de mapear a estrutura intelectual da pesquisa sobre escolas de negócios a partir das referências das publicações nesse tema. O método utilizado para a avaliação da pesquisa existente foi uma análise bibliométrica de citação e cocitação, em conjunto com análise fatorial e escalonamento multidimensional (MDS. Os resultados apresentam quatro campos que orientam as pesquisas em escolas de negócio: Críticas ao currículo e à formação de executivos nas escolas de negócio; ações para a mudança das escolas de negócio; visão crítica das escolas de negócio como produtoras e disseminadoras de conhecimento; comportamento e pressões institucionais nas escolas de negócio.

  7. NegAIT: A new parser for medical text simplification using morphological, sentential and double negation. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Partha; Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Rajanarayanan, Srinidhi; Romero Diaz, Damian Y; Yuan, Nicole P; Pritchard, T Gail; Colina, Sonia


    Many different text features influence text readability and content comprehension. Negation is commonly suggested as one such feature, but few general-purpose tools exist to discover negation and studies of the impact of negation on text readability are rare. In this paper, we introduce a new negation parser (NegAIT) for detecting morphological, sentential, and double negation. We evaluated the parser using a human annotated gold standard containing 500 Wikipedia sentences and achieved 95%, 89% and 67% precision with 100%, 80%, and 67% recall, respectively. We also investigate two applications of this new negation parser. First, we performed a corpus statistics study to demonstrate different negation usage in easy and difficult text. Negation usage was compared in six corpora: patient blogs (4K sentences), Cochrane reviews (91K sentences), PubMed abstracts (20K sentences), clinical trial texts (48K sentences), and English and Simple English Wikipedia articles for different medical topics (60K and 6K sentences). The most difficult text contained the least negation. However, when comparing negation types, difficult texts (i.e., Cochrane, PubMed, English Wikipedia and clinical trials) contained significantly (pstudy to show the importance of negation in distinguishing between easy and difficulty text. Five binary classifiers (Naïve Bayes, SVM, decision tree, logistic regression and linear regression) were trained using only negation information. All classifiers achieved better performance than the majority baseline. The Naïve Bayes' classifier achieved the highest accuracy at 77% (9% higher than the majority baseline). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estratégia empresarial e modos de busca de novos negócios - uma análise das estratégias de busca de novos negócios em empresas brasileiras


    Vasconcelos, Flávio Carvalho de


    O objetivo deste trabalho é a investigação de como as empresas brasileiras, no contexto nacional, empreendem a busca de novas oportunidades de negócios, identificando quais os fatores que mais claramente influenciam este comportamento. Este trabalho se estruturou a partir da operacionalização do modelo de modelo de busca estratégica e interpretação ambiental proposto por Richard Daft e Karl Weick em 1984. Foram para tanto realizadas análises estatísticas e teóricas a partir de uma pesquisa em...

  9. Modelos de negócio na economia compartilhada: uma investigação multi-caso


    Villanova, Ana Luisa


    A economia compartilhada teve origem na década de 1990 nos Estados Unidos impulsionada pelos avanços tecnológicos que propiciaram a redução dos custos das transações on-line peer-to-peer (SHIRKY, 2008), viabilizando a criação de novos modelos de negócio baseados na troca e no compartilhamento de bens e serviços entre pessoas desconhecidas (SCHOR, 2015). A economia compartilhada é constituída por práticas comerciais que possibilitam o acesso a bens e serviços, sem que haja, necessariamente, a ...

  10. Turismo de Negócios. Convention & Visitors Bureau na Região Centro de Portugal


    Marques, Jorge Humberto Soares


    Tese de doutoramento em Turismo, Lazer e Cultura, apresentada ao Departamento de Geografia da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra Para além do alojamento, dos espaços para reuniões, das acessibilidades e das organizações locais de apoio (como é o caso dos Convention & Visitors Bureaux) representarem uma grande importância no momento de escolha do local para realizar ou assistir a uma conferência ou outro evento de negócios, também a atratividade do destino, relacionada com as at...

  11. Sucesso, mídia de negócios e a cultura do management no Brasil


    Ituassu, Cristiana Trindade; Tonelli, Maria José


    A lógica das modernas práticas de gestão ultrapassou a esfera econômica e disseminou-se como modelo de conduta para outras esferas da vida social, em um processo denominado management ou cultura do management, intensamente difundido após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ao se expandir para países em desenvolvimento, argumentamos que esse processo trouxe, entre outros valores, modelos de sucesso que se propagaram a partir da mídia de negócios. A mídia, entendida como comunicação de massa, possibilita...

  12. Educação gerencial para atuação em ambientes de negócios sustentáveis: desafios e tendências de uma escola de negócios brasileira.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cyrlene de Araujo Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever e analisar, por meio de um estudo de caso de natureza qualitativa, como o projeto pedagógico de um programa de educação gerencial viabiliza a formação de gestores para atuação em ambientes de negócios sustentáveis. Para isso, estabeleceu-se um debate sobre os temas negócios sustentáveis e educação gerencial no contexto de uma escola de negócios brasileira com atuação internacional. Considera-se que o ambiente de negócios passa por transformações que implicam repensar a relação entre o homem, a organização e o mundo, o paradigma econômico e a forma de produzir e de gerar valor não só para o presente, mas também para as gerações futuras. Em relação ao papel gerencial, assume-se que há uma transição em curso que extrapola as funções administrativas típicas, como planejamento, organização, liderança e controle, chegando ao campo da influência, da adaptação a diferentes contextos, da imprevisibilidade, do pensamento para além das cercas mentais e da convivência com os paradoxos. Os dados foram coletados via triangulação, ao articular a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas com dez profissionais do corpo diretivo e técnico da escola, com análise documental e observação assistemática. As evidências apontam que há esforços da escola para viabilizar seus projetos pedagógicos com base em pressupostos de uma educação voltada para a sustentabilidade, ao disponibilizar um ambiente de aprendizagem experiencial, colaborativo, coletivo e interdisciplinar, e promover a educação de pessoas reflexivas, conscientes, autônomas, com visão ampliada e responsável por suas ações. Entretanto, a escola vive situações paradoxais ao atender às demandas de um mundo corporativo, que ainda insiste em práticas gerenciais que já não são mais suficientes para o modelo de negócios em ambientes sustentáveis, uma vez que o universo corporativo ainda vivencia a l

  13. Molecular Desorption of a NEG St 707 Irradiated at Room Temperature with Synchrotron Radiation of 194 eV Critical Photon Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Le Pimpec, F; Laurent, Jean Michel


    Photon stimulated molecular desorption from a NEG St 707 (SAES Getters$^{TM}$) surface after conditioning and after saturation with isotopic carbon monoxide, 13C18O, has been studied on a dedicated beam line at the EPA ring at CERN. The synchrotron radiation of 194 eV critical energy and with an average photon intensity of ~1 10**17 photons.s**-1 was impinging on the sample at perpendicular incidence. It is found that the desorption yields h molecules/photon) of the characteristic gases in an UHV system (hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) for a freshly activated NEG and for a NEG fully saturated with 13C18O are lower than that of 300 C baked stainless steel.

  14. Fatores relevantes de competitividade no negócio de consultoria de tecnologia da informação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Calicchio

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo identifica como as empresas de consultoria de tecnologia da informação (TI utilizam seus recursos e capacidades na busca pela vantagem competitiva, sob a abordagem da Visão Baseada em Recursos (VBR. A pesquisa foi do tipo exploratório e de natureza descritiva, tendo-se adotado o método qualitativo, com entrevistas em profundidade orientadas por um roteiro padrão com perguntas abertas. Foram entrevistados sete executivos da alta gestão de empresas de consultoria de TI classificadas entre as Top 10 deste segmento. Para a análise e interpretação dos dados, foi aplicada a Análise de Conteúdo, com o apoio de uma planilha para gerar as categorias da análise. Como resultado, foi identificado que as empresas que participaram da pesquisa utilizam-se do conhecimento dos seus recursos humanos e do relacionamento com os clientes, como componentes cruciais de suas estratégias de negócios. Esses recursos e capacidades são estrategicamente utilizados, aproveitando o vínculo estabelecido com o cliente na busca de novas oportunidades de negócios, de maneira a criar uma barreira às ameaças de novos entrantes.

  15. Fatores críticos na implementação de estratégias de negócios


    Yazaki, Paulo Akihumi


    Identifica-se os fatores críticos na implementação de estratégias de negócios, as dificuldades e as barreiras quando da formulação da estratégia, na gestão de pessoas e no desenho dos processos para se alcançar as metas e os resultados planejados. Uma pesquisa de campo realizada dentro de um ambiente real de negócios permitiu identificar e avaliar a pertinência dos fatores críticos de implementação de estratégia.

  16. A influência das arenas esportivas na criação e sobrevivência de micro e pequenos negócios


    Orlando, Silvia Simoni


    O futebol é um esporte reconhecido no Brasil como fenômeno cultural e mobilizador da economia por influenciar e movimentar diversos segmentos de negócio. Tendo em vista essa característica do esporte, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar a influência das arenas esportivas dos principais clubes de futebol do estado de São Paulo, na criação e sobrevivência de micro e pequenos negócios empreendedores em seu entorno. As arenas pesquisadas foram: Arena Corinthians, Allianz Park, Estádio Cícer...

  17. Gerenciamento de processos de negócio em biblioteca pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiane Aparecida de Lima Giviani


    Full Text Available Este trabalho traz um estudo da Divisão de Tratamento Técnico da Informação do Sistema Integrado de Bibliotecas do Município de São Carlos (SIBI/SC. O objetivo é mapear os processos do setor de processamento técnico do material bibliográfico do sistema, desde sua aquisição até sua disponibilização para o usuário. Para isto, fez uso da modelagem de processos de negócios.  A metodologia empregada foi a pesquisa-ação e bibliográfica. Como resultado do mapeamento foram identificados pontos críticos e propostas soluções, visando a melhoria dos serviços prestados no Sistema Integrado de Bibliotecas do Município de São Carlos. Abstract: This paper presents a study from Division of Information Technical Treatment belonging to the Library Integrated System of São Carlos City (SIBI-SC. Technical Treatment is responsible for receiving works, classification and indexing, tipping, availability on the collection and inventory of all library materials of system integrators libraries. The aim is to map the processes from division of technical treatment of the system, since its acquisition to its availability to the user. For such, the study applied the business process modeling approach. The methodological procedures used in the research include action research and bibliographic research. The result of mapping identified critical points for which solutions were proposed, aiming to improve the services provided by the system. Keywords: Library. BPM. Business processes management. Public management. Process integration. Process mapping. Resumen: En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la División de Tratamiento Técnico de Información del Sistema Integrado de Biblioteca en São Carlos / SP (SIBI-SC. Tratamiento Técnico se encarga de recibir las obras, la clasificación y la indexación, la propina, disponible en los activos e inventario de todos los materiales de la biblioteca de las bibliotecas integradores de sistemas. El

  18. Nanoemulgel (NEG) of Ketoprofen with eugenol as oil phase for the treatment of ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Srivastava, Manish; Neupane, Yub Raj; Kumar, Parveen; Kohli, Kanchan


    The aim of the novel study was to check the efficacy of a locally applied 2%w/w nanoemulgel (NEG) of Ketoprofen (KP) in preventing the periodontitis, and was also checked NEG without KP to ensure the effect of eugenol in NEG as an oil phase. For experimentally induced periodontitis, sterile silk ligatures (3/0) were placed around the crevices of the first left lower molar teeth of the male Wistar rats. During 8 weeks, all rats were fed with 10%w/v sucrose solution. The experimental assessment was carried out at 11 d after treatment of experimental periodontal disease (EPD) rats by various clinical parameters like gingival index (GI), tooth mobility (TM), alveolar bone loss (ABL), histological analysis, detection of TNF-α, and IL-1β in gingival tissue by ELISA and the roughness were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in tapping modes. After treatment, comparison studies with EPD were performed. NEG loaded with KP prevents significantly (p eugenol as the oil phase, which have potential antibacterial, analgesic, and anesthetic properties to combat periodontal disease.

  19. Lógica de empreendedorismo no Ensino Superior: empreendedorismo de negócio e empreendedorismo social


    Lopes, Rui Pedro; Mesquita, Cristina


    Os recentes Relatório da União Europeia (2012) e da OECDE (2012) sobre o ensino superior têm acentuado a importância da dinamização da cultura empreendedora, enunciado mesmo os impactos que esta tem ao nível da construção de competências- chave, da inserção no mercado de trabalho e do desenvolvimento da economia e da sociedade. Tem surgido, neste âmbito, uma diversidade de estudos que fazem emergir duas correntes de empreendedorismo: o social e o de negócios. A interação das IES com parcei...

  20. Sviluppo e validazione di un antigene-capture ELISA basato su anticorpi monoclonali specifici per Listeria monocytogenes negli alimenti

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    Rossella Lelli


    Full Text Available È stato standardizzato e validato un dosaggio immunoenzimatico capture ELISA per l’identificazione di Listeria monocytogenes negli alimenti. Il dosaggio è stato messo a punto analizzando campioni di prodotti carnei, ittici e lattiero-caseari, pasta di semola e di farina di grano. Il metodo è risultato specifico al 100% per Listeria spp., con limite di rivelazione di 6,6 × 10(3 cfu/ml. Il metodo L. monocytogenes capture ELISA è stato confrontato con il metodo ufficiale ISO 11290-1:1996 per l’isolamento e l’identificazione di L. monocytogenes in matrici alimentari ottenendo un indice di concordanza significativo. Il dosaggio è stato validato in base alle indicazioni della norma ISO 16140:2003 relativamente ai metodi di analisi qualitativi. Il dosaggio è risultato accurato, specifico, sensibile, selettivo, riproducibile e rapido da eseguire, consentendo nello screening degli alimenti la riduzione di tempi e costi dell’indagine microbiologica.

  1. Gerando Modelo de Negócio: a pré-incubação como ambiente experimental

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    Anderson Paiva Cruz


    Full Text Available Este estudo visa contribuir para a construção de um modelo de monitoramento e avaliação que possibilite um melhor acompanhamento das empresas na fase de pré-incubação em uma incubadora de base tecnológica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN. O modelo de monitoramento e avaliação foi estruturado de acordo com o programa definido para a pré-incubação da incubadora. Na etapa de pré-incubação a incubadora tem a função de apoiar empreendedores a transformarem ideias inovadoras em negócios rentáveis e, para isso, oferece cursos e mentorias sobre Business Model Generation (BMG; Design Thinking Startup Enxuta; Estratégia do Oceano Azul; Métricas e Indicadores; e Pitch. A forma de acompanhamento dos empreendedores concilia os conceitos apresentados nos módulos do curso com as etapas de construção do BMG, desenvolvimento do protótipo e validação do negócio proposto pelos empreendedores. Metodologicamente, trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, com abordagem qualitativa, sendo utilizada a Pesquisa-ação para o modelo de acompanhamento das empresas e definição dos módulos do curso.A definição de um modelo padrão para acompanhamento e avaliação das empresas pré-incubadas permitiu um acompanhamento mais preciso do estágio de desenvolvimento da empresa e possibilitou que a incubadora pudesse cumprir seu papel de forma mais eficiente.

  2. Systemic immune suppression in glioblastoma: the interplay between CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes, tumor factors, and dexamethasone. (United States)

    Gustafson, Michael P; Lin, Yi; New, Kent C; Bulur, Peggy A; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Gastineau, Dennis A; Dietz, Allan B


    Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit profound systemic immune defects that affect the success of conventional and immune-based treatments. A better understanding of the contribution of the tumor and/or therapy on systemic immune suppression is necessary for improved therapies, to monitor negative effects of novel treatments, to improve patient outcomes, and to increase understanding of this complex system. To characterize the immune profile of GBM patients, we phenotyped peripheral blood and compared these to normal donors. In doing so, we identified changes in systemic immunity associated with both the tumor and dexamethasone treated tumor bearing patients. In particular, dexamethasone exacerbated tumor associated lymphopenia primarily in the T cell compartment. We have also identified unique tumor and dexamethasone dependent altered monocyte phenotypes. The major population of altered monocytes (CD14(+)HLA-DR(lo/neg)) had a phenotype distinct from classical myeloid suppressor cells. These cells inhibited T cell proliferation, were unable to fully differentiate into mature dendritic cells, were associated with dexamethasone-mediated changes in CCL2 levels, and could be re-created in vitro using tumor supernatants. We provide evidence that tumors express high levels of CCL2, can contain high numbers of CD14(+) cells, that tumor supernatants can transform CD14(+)HLA-DR(+) cells into CD14(+)HLA-DR(lo/neg) immune suppressors, and that dexamethasone reduces CCL2 in vitro and is correlated with reduction of CCL2 in vivo. Consequently, we have developed a model for tumor mediated systemic immune suppression via recruitment and transformation of CD14(+) cells.

  3. Modelos de negócios para periódicos científicos eletrônicos de acesso aberto.


    Katiúcia Araujo Gumeiro


    Trata-se de uma pesquisa que estuda o uso de modelos de negócios no contexto da publicação de periódicos científicos eletrônicos de acesso aberto, em que as diferenças disciplinares são consideradas, especificamente quanto às seguintes questões: velocidades de publicação exigidas, financiamentos e particularidades que envolvem a edição de um periódico científico. Tem como objetivo elaborar um modelo que permita identificar os elementos necessários para configurar um modelo de negócios adequad...

  4. O uso de modelos de negócios por editoras de periódicos científicos eletrônicos de acesso aberto


    Gumieiro,Katiucia Araujo; Costa, Sely Maria de Souza


    Estuda o uso de modelos de negócios, no contexto da atividade de publicação de periódicos científicos eletrônicos de acesso aberto. Adicionalmente, discute as diferenças disciplinares, especificamente quanto às seguintes questões: velocidades de publicação exigidas, financiamentos e particularidades que envolvem a edição de um periódico científico. O estudo objetivou identificar os componentes necessários para configurar modelos de negócios adequados à atividade de publicação de periódicos ci...

  5. L'aquila e il littorio: direttive, strutture e strumenti della propaganda fascista negli Stati Uniti d'America (1922-1941)


    Di Legge, Francesco


    L’oggetto di questa ricerca è la propaganda fascista negli Stati Uniti nel periodo compreso tra la marcia su Roma e l’ingresso dell’America nella seconda guerra mondiale. In particolare, questo lavoro intende delineare gli orientamenti, i temi, le strutture e gli strumenti di propaganda utilizzati dal regime fascista per migliorare la propria immagine presso il pubblico americano e per sviluppare un senso di rinnovato orgoglio nazionale in seno alle numerose comunità italo-americane, al fine ...

  6. Espressione genica e proteica dell’albumina negli adipociti umani maturi. Relazione tra albuminemia e tessuto adiposo nei pazienti in trattamento dialitico.


    Sirico, Maria Luisa


    Scopo: Lo scopo di questo lavoro era quello di indagare l’espressione genica dell’albumina negli adipociti umani maturi, la regolazione di tale espressione da parte dell’infiammazione e il contributo del tessuto adiposo ai livelli circolanti di albumina. Metodi: Campioni di tessuto adiposo sono stati prelevati da soggetti sani e infiammati. Sono state effettuate analisi di espressione genica (RT-PCR e Real-Time PCR) e proteica (Western Blot ) sugli adipociti e preadipociti estratti. Inoltr...

  7. Defining a functionally distinct subset of human memory CD4+ T cells that are CD25POS and FOXP3NEG. (United States)

    Triplett, Todd A; Curti, Brendan D; Bonafede, Peter R; Miller, William L; Walker, Edwin B; Weinberg, Andrew D


    Surface expression of the IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) has been used to discriminate between CD4(+) CD25(HI) FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4(+) CD25(NEG) FOXP3(-) non-Treg cells. However, this study reports that the majority of resting human memory CD4(+) FOXP3(-) T cells expresses intermediate levels of CD25 and that CD25 expression can be used to delineate a functionally distinct memory subpopulation. The CD25(NEG) memory T-cell population contains the vast majority of late differentiated cells that respond to antigens associated with chronic immune responses and are increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In contrast, the CD25(INT) memory T cells respond to antigens associated with recall responses, produce a greater array of cytokines, and are less dependent on costimulation for effector responses due to their expression of CD25. Lastly, compared to the CD25(NEG) and Treg-cell populations, the CD25(INT) memory population is lost to a greater degree from the blood of cancer patients treated with IL-2. Collectively, these results show that in humans, a large proportion of CD4(+) memory T cells express intermediate levels of CD25, and this CD25(INT) FOXP3(-) subset is a functionally distinct memory population that is uniquely affected by IL-2. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Modelo de Negócio: Uma Abordagem Evolutiva no Setor de SVA sob a Ótica do Método Canvas.

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    Fábio Luiz Zandoval Bonazzi


    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou analisar e descrever o modelo de negócios da empresa Movile e sua forma de criação e captura de valor. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa com foco empírico, baseada em um estudo de caso único realizado por meio de entrevista, análise documental e observações indiretas da empresa. O estudo permitiu analisar a concepção do modelo de negócio atual da empresa com base em todo em seu processo evolutivo delineado pelas alterações vivenciadas pelo segmento de serviço de valor agregado – SVA na última década, além de inferir sobre sua participação na cadeia de valor no setor de telecomunicações e descrever as nove dimensões de seu modelo de acordo com o Business Model Canvas – BMC (OSTERWALDER E PIGNEUR, 2010. Como contribuição teórica destaca-se a aproximação de antigos autores como Penrose (2006 e Chandler Jr. (2000 com o tema modelo de negócio, bem como o dinamismo que os mesmos puderam fornecer à ferramenta CANVAS, essencialmente caracterizada como um método estático, a partir da discussão do processo evolutivo organizacional.

  9. A gestão ordinária dos pequenos negócios: outro olhar sobre a gestão em estudos organizacionais

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    Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o objetivo é apresentar a gestão ordinária, que foge aos parâmetros gerencialistas ao focar o cotidiano do homem comum que administra negócios ordinários, os empreendimentos familiares, com suas relações sociais estabelecidas, sua forma de organizar seus negócios, suas estratégias de sobrevivência, seus usos e sentidos dos espaços – de negócio e de família – e a rede de relações tecidas por eles. Neste texto, questiona-se a perspectiva da administração como única, baseada em um conhecimento tido como puro ou neutro (restrito ao racional, absoluto e universal (excludente de outros saberes concorrentes e que triunfou política e economicamente por meio das tecnologias de gestão. Em contrapartida a esse posicionamento, defende-se que se devem levar em consideração os fatores históricos, sociais, culturais e identitários que diferenciam os sujeitos e na prática cotidiana pluralizam a gestão. Portanto, há outras abordagens capazes de contribuir para o avanço do conhecimento científico na área de estudos organizacionais, sendo a gestão ordinária uma dessas abordagens.

  10. I sistemi biometrici lo sviluppo dei mercati negli Usa, UE e nel mondo. La normativa frena quello italiano

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    Franco Zucchetti


    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni il settore biometrico sta compiendo, a livello mondiale, importanti passi in avanti soprattutto in termini di sviluppo e di diffusione. Questo trend positivo riguarda il mondo anglosassone e, in particolare, la realtà statunitense dove i sistemi biometrici vengono utilizzati, nelle più svariate situazioni, sia come controllo della sicurezza fisica delle persone, sia come terminali per l’autorizzazione all’accesso. La stessa diffusione non è riscontrabile nella maggior parte dei Paesi europei e in Italia dove raffrontiamo una realtà assai atipica nella quale la biometria fa un gran parlare di sé ma, in concreto, viene utilizzata con molta difficoltà. Tuttavia, un punto di contatto tra tutti gli attori europei ed extraeuropei può essere individuato nello sviluppo del settore relativo al riconoscimento biometrico applicato ai passaporti ed alle carte di identità. Il processo di globalizzazione ha generato, infatti, grandi masse di individui in continuo e costante movimento da un Paese all’altro e, contestualmente, ha prodotto una crescente domanda di sicurezza soprattutto nei confronti della minaccia terroristica. Appare chiaro, quindi, come l’identificazione certa delle persone diventi una necessità e debba presentare tecnologie simili per essere utilizzate ovunque.

  11. Folga Organizacional em Unidades de Negócios de Empresa Descentralizada na Percepção dos Controllers

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    Ilse Maria Beuren


    Full Text Available O estudo objetiva examinar determinantes da folga organizacional em unidades de negócios (UN de empresa descentralizada na percepção dos controllers. Pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, foi realizada por meio de um estudo de caso em cinco UN de empresa multinacional do setor de embalagens. Entrevista estruturada foi realizada com os controllers da UN do Brasil e de quatro UN dos Estados Unidos, pautada no instrumento de pesquisa de Indjejikian e Matejka (2006. Na análise de conteúdo das respostas constata-se a existência de folga organizacional em maior ou menor proporção no alcance das metas orçamentárias; nas informações disponibilizadas sob o enfoque da assimetria entre o gerente geral da unidade e o controller corporativo; na autoridade das decisões relativas à gestão de pessoas e de mudanças nas técnicas e procedimentos contábeis; e na autonomia das UN. Conclui-se que os quatro determinantes da folga organizacional identificados na pesquisa de Indjejikian e Matejka (2006 também possuem relativa presença nas UN da empresa pesquisada, o que justifica ampliar o estudo para outras empresas e de futuras pesquisas explorar motivações para a folga organizacional e de novos determinantes.

  12. Regimes de convocação do ambientalismo nas revistas brasileiras de negócios

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    Jose Luiz Aidar Prado


    Full Text Available As tensões entre o discurso liberal-capitalista e os discursos antagonistas do ambientalismo revestem-se de um especial interesse no Brasil. Este artigo apresenta um estudo dos regimes de convocação das reportagens sobre meio ambiente publicadas em 2010 nas duas revistas brasileiras mais influentes de economia e negócios, cujos contratos de comunicação propõem a modalização de executivos e empresas em direção ao sucesso econômico. Seu objetivo é analisar como os enunciadores tematizam os antagonismos ambientais conservando seu contrato geral de comunicação sob o paradigma liberal. Para isso, o enunciador constitui um regime de mesmidade/alteridade, sendo que a mesmidade é construída nos termos da corrente reformista do ambientalismo, enquanto a ecologia profunda e a ecologia radical são apresentadas como alteridades. Os pontos nodais que suturam as cadeias de equivalência do campo discursivo do ambientalismo, nos termos da mesmidade ambiental reformista, ou “sustentabilidade”, são a tecnologia e a gestão eficiente, que restituem o enunciatário ao contrato de comunicação original.

  13. Anatomic and radiologic correlations in spontaneous hematomas of the rectus abdomninis muscles; Correlazioni anatomo-radiologiche negli ematomi spontanei dei muscoli retti dell'addome

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    Cavagna, E.; Carubia, G.; Schiavon, F. [Ospedale di S. Martino, Unita' Operativa Autonoma di Radiologia, Belluno (Italy)


    Rectus sheath hematomas are a frequent but sometimes misdiagnosed disease in patients under anticoagulative drugs, hemodialysis, or simply in the elderly. The most frequent localization is in the lower part of the abdomen: the explanation lies in the anatomy of the abdominal wall, especially in the arcuate line of the rectus sheath. Aim of this work is to explain the reason of the almost constant location correlating the anatomy with the CT features. The rectus abdominis muscle lies between the aponeuroses of the transverse and oblique muscles which form the so called rectus sheath. This arrangement is found from the costal arch to a level approximately between the umbilicus and the pubic symphisis, where the rear layer of the rectus sheath ends with a curved edge, called the arcuate or semicircular line of Douglas. Beneath this line the aponeuroses of the three muscles pass in front of the rectus which is separated from the peritoneum only by the fascia trasversalis, a thin connective layer between the rectus and the preperitoneal fat. In this lower aspect of the muscle the perforating branches of the inferior epigastric artery running in the preperitoneal fat may rupture causing a large hematoma widely spreading in this loose space. 11 cases of rectus sheath hematoma diagnosed over 5 years were reviewed. They were referred to US because of a rapidly growing palpable mass o painful swelling of the abdominal wall with acute anemia. Sonography was performed in 11 patients and CT in 7. 10 hematomas were located in the lower third of the rectus muscle below the arcuate line in the pelvis, 1 was in the upper third of the muscle: the vast majority of pelvic hematomas is easily accounted for by the peculiar anatomy of the region. The diagnosis of hematoma of the rectus abdominis, sometimes misleading, should be included as a differential in all the patients who present with acute abdominal pain and blood loss. The anatomy of abdominal wall correlates well with CT

  14. Práticas do CMMI® como regras de negócio CMMI® practices as business rules

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    Gisele P. Morgado


    Full Text Available A busca pela qualidade de software leva à adoção de boas práticas no processo do desenvolvimento de software, como as práticas especificadas pelo modelo de maturidade do CMMI. A implantação do CMMI, entretanto, constitui um processo penoso e demorado. Além disso, a qualidade deste processo afeta diretamente os resultados obtidos. Este artigo explora a possibilidade de formalização das práticas do CMMI através do seu mapeamento para Regras de Negócio. A viabilidade desta proposta é estudada através do mapeamento da parte do CMMI relativa à área Gerência de Requisitos. As vantagens desta abordagem encontram-se tanto no aumento da qualidade do processo de certificação/auditoria do CMMI, quanto na melhoria da qualidade do sistema de informação que apóia o processo de desenvolvimento de software.The search for software quality results in the adoption of best practices in the software development process, such as the practices specified by the CMMI maturity model. However, the CMMI implementation constitutes a difficult and slow process. Besides, the quality of such a process directly affects the results obtained. This article explores the possibility of formalizing the CMMI practices via their mapping into Business Rules. This proposal viability was studied through the mapping of the CMMI part that concerns the Requirements Management area. This approach implies in an improvement of the CMMI certification/audit process and of the information system that supports the software development process.

  15. Attivitá fisica extra-scolastica negli adolescenti: il ruolo dello stato socio-economico delle famiglie

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    G. Capelli


    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: l’associazione fra stato socio-economico (SES ed attività fisica è poco indagata. Obiettivo del presente studio è quello di valutare la relazione tra attività fisica extra-scolastica di adolescenti scolarizzati e lo SES della famiglia di provenienza.

    Metodi: l’indagine ha previsto la somministrazione nel corso dell’anno scolastico 2002-2003 di un apposito questionario anonimo autocompilato, già validato in uno studio pilota, ad un campione di studenti delle scuole medie inferiori del Lazio (province di Roma, Frosinone e Latina.

    Risultati: hanno partecipato allo studio 1486 studenti di cui 756 maschi (50.9% e 730 femmine (49.1%. L’età dei partecipanti varia fra gli 11 ed i 15 anni (età mediana 12 anni. Il 72.7% degli studenti dichiara di svolgere attività fisica al di fuori della scuola. Il livello di istruzione dei genitori e la loro attività lavorativa sembrano avere un peso notevole sui determinanti dell’attività fisica negli studenti. Infatti, svolgono prevalentemente attività fisica extra-scolastica i figli di genitori manager/libero professionisti (OR = 3.29 e con un elevato livello educativo (OR = 10.38 per i figli di genitori laureati.

    Conclusioni: i risultati confermano quanto la situazione socio-economica delle famiglie sia in netta relazione con l’attività fisico-sportiva dei giovani. Tali risultati potranno essere utili per gli operatori scolastici e gli amministratori nell’ispirare e realizzare azioni volte a diminuire il divario esistente fra i giovani che hanno le possibilità economiche e svolgono attività sportiva extra-scolastica e quelli che, invece, appartenendo a famiglie svantaggiate, hanno minore accesso a tali attività.

  16. Predictive validity of measures of comorbidity in older community dwellers: the Insufficienza Cardiaca negli Anziani Residenti a Dicomano Study. (United States)

    Di Bari, Mauro; Virgillo, Adriana; Matteuzzi, Daniela; Inzitari, Marco; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Pozzi, Claudia; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Masotti, Giulio; Marchionni, Niccolò; Pini, Riccardo


    To compare the ability of five measures of comorbidity to predict mortality and incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADLs) in unselected older persons. An assessment of the data obtained from the Insufficienza Cardiaca negli Anziani Residenti a Dicomano (ICARe Dicomano) Study, a longitudinal epidemiological survey on heart failure in older people. Dicomano, a small, rural town near Florence, Italy. The entire population aged 65 and older living in Dicomano, Italy, was enrolled in the ICARe Dicomano Study. At baseline (1995), comorbidity was quantified in 688 participants, based on clinical diagnoses, using disease count (DC), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Index of Co-Existent Diseases (ICED), and Geriatric Index of Comorbidity (GIC), or on drug use, using Chronic Disease Score (CDS). Incident ADL disability was assessed in 1999 and vital status in 2004. Mortality increased with the severity of comorbidity, with hazard ratios around 2 when comparing the highest and the lowest quartiles of DC, CCI, and ICED in Cox regressions adjusted for age, sex, and physical and cognitive performance. Prediction of mortality with GIC and CDS was only borderline significant. All measures predicted incident ADL disability; the strongest risk gradient (hazard ratio = 8.2 between the highest and lowest quartiles) was observed with ICED. Physical and, to a minor extent, cognitive performance added significantly to predicting mortality and incident BADL disability. All the measures of comorbidity predicted death and BADL disability in older community dwellers. DC, CCI, and ICED performed better than GIC and CDS. Physical performance measures are strong, independent contributors to the prediction of these outcomes.

  17. Dynamic emergence of the mesenchymal CD44(pos)CD24(neg/low) phenotype in HER2-gene amplified breast cancer cells with de novo resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin). (United States)

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Cufí, Silvia; Del Barco, Sonia; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Brunet, Joan; Menendez, Javier A


    Evidence is mounting that the occurrence of the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) cell population, which contains potential breast cancer (BC) stem cells, could explain BC clinical resistance to HER2-targeted therapies. We investigated whether de novo refractoriness to the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Tzb; Herceptin) may relate to the dynamic regulation of the mesenchymal CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) phenotype in HER2-positive BC. We observed that the subpopulation of Tzb-refractory JIMT-1 BC cells exhibiting CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low)-surface markers switched with time. Low-passage JIMT-1 cell cultures were found to spontaneously contain approximately 10% of cells bearing the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) immunophenotype. Late-passage (>60) JIMT-1 cultures accumulated approximately 80% of CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) cells and closely resembled the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low)-enriched ( approximately 85%) cell population constitutively occurring in HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 mesenchymal BC cells. Dynamic expression of mesenchymal markers was not limited to CD44/CD24 because high-passages of JIMT-1 cells exhibited also reduced expression of the HER2 protein and over-secretion of pro-invasive/metastatic chemokines and metalloproteases. Accordingly, late-passage JIMT-1 cells displayed an exacerbated migratogenic phenotype in plastic, collagen, and fibronectin substrates. Intrinsic genetic plasticity to efficiently drive the emergence of the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) mesenchymal phenotype may account for de novo resistance to HER2 targeting therapies in basal-like BC carrying HER2 gene amplification. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A perspective on reagent diversity and non-covalent binding of reactive carbonyl species (RCS) and effector reagents in nonenzymatic glycation (NEG): Mechanistic considerations and implications for future research (United States)

    Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Holman, R. W.; Ropski, Pamela S.; Huang, Mingdong; Swislocki, Arthur L. M.


    This perspective focuses on illustrating the underappreciated connections between reactive carbonyl species (RCS), initial binding in the nonenzymatic glycation (NEG) process, and nonenzymatic covalent protein modification (here termed NECPM). While glucose is the central species involved in NEG, recent studies indicate that the initially-bound glucose species in the NEG of human hemoglobin (HbA) and human serum albumin (HSA) are non-RCS ring-closed isomers. The ring-opened glucose, an RCS structure that reacts in the NEG process, is most likely generated from previously-bound ring-closed isomers undergoing concerted acid/base reactions while bound to protein. The generation of the glucose RCS can involve concomitantly-bound physiological species (e.g., inorganic phosphate, water, etc.); here termed effector reagents. Extant NEG schemes do not account for these recent findings. In addition, effector reagent reactions with glucose in the serum and erythrocyte cytosol can generate RCS (e.g., glyoxal, glyceraldehyde, etc.). Recent research has shown that these RCS covalently modify proteins in vivo via NECPM mechanisms. A general scheme that reflects both the reagent and mechanistic diversity that can lead to NEG and NECPM is presented here. A perspective that accounts for the relationships between RCS, NEG, and NECPM can facilitate the understanding of site selectivity, may help explain overall glycation rates, and may have implications for the clinical assessment/control of diabetes mellitus. In view of this perspective, concentrations of ribose, fructose, Pi, bicarbonate, counter ions, and the resulting RCS generated within intracellular and extracellular compartments may be of importance and of clinical relevance. Future research is also proposed.

  19. Processo de inclusão digital como indutor de estratégia para a sustentabilidade dos negócios

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    Silvia Gattai


    Full Text Available As estratégias empresariais têm como principal função garantir a sustentabilidade das organizações, o que depende, entre outros fatores, a médio e longo prazos, da existência de mercados que sejam capazes economicamente de absorver seus produtos. Por outro lado, a concentração de riqueza em pequenos grupos econômicos e o aumento da pobreza em muitos países geram riscos para a perpetuidade dos negócios. As empresas, nesse contexto, necessitam de estratégias que considerem o desenvolvimento estrutural dos países onde atuam, e essa compreensão passa pelo entendimento de sua participação na governança das cidades nas quais possuem suas unidades de negócios, condição fundamental nesse processo. Tal visão é necessária para o desenvolvimento do meio no qual a empresa se insere e, conseqüentemente, à sustentabilidade do negócio. O objetivo deste artigo é buscar compreender o papel de processo de desenvolvimento social, promovido pela empresa, como indutor de estratégias empresariais sustentáveis. Nesse sentido, o artigo aborda os conceitos de prospecção de cenários, ações estratégicas, desenvolvimento empresarial e a agregação de valor social ao ambiente no qual as organizações estão inseridas. A título de exemplificação, relata projeto de inclusão digital envolvendo cadeia de distribuição de empresa cimenteira brasileira de grande porte e o analisa à luz dos conceitos acima referenciados.

  20. Changes in natural Foxp3(+Treg but not mucosally-imprinted CD62L(negCD38(+Foxp3(+Treg in the circulation of celiac disease patients.

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    Marieke A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD is an intestinal inflammation driven by gluten-reactive CD4(+ T cells. Due to lack of selective markers it has not been determined whether defects in inducible regulatory T cell (Treg differentiation are associated with CD. This is of importance as changes in numbers of induced Treg could be indicative of defects in mucosal tolerance development in CD. Recently, we have shown that, after encounter of retinoic acid during differentiation, circulating gut-imprinted T cells express CD62L(negCD38(+. Using this new phenotype, we now determined whether alterations occur in the frequency of natural CD62L(+Foxp3(+ Treg or mucosally-imprinted CD62L(negCD38(+Foxp3(+ Treg in peripheral blood of CD patients. In particular, we compared pediatric CD, aiming to select for disease at onset, with adult CD. METHODS: Cell surface markers, intracellular Foxp3 and Helios were determined by flow cytometry. Foxp3 expression was also detected by immunohistochemistry in duodenal tissue of CD patients. RESULTS: In children, the percentages of peripheral blood CD4(+Foxp3(+ Treg were comparable between CD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Differentiation between natural and mucosally-imprinted Treg on the basis of CD62L and CD38 did not uncover differences in Foxp3. In adult patients on gluten-free diet and in refractory CD increased percentages of circulating natural CD62L(+Foxp3(+ Treg, but normal mucosally-imprinted CD62L(negCD38(+Foxp3(+ Treg frequencies were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our data exclude that significant numeric deficiency of mucosally-imprinted or natural Foxp3(+ Treg explains exuberant effector responses in CD. Changes in natural Foxp3(+ Treg occur in a subset of adult patients on a gluten-free diet and in refractory CD patients.

  1. Bovine peripheral blood WC1+ and WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes modulate monocyte-derived macrophage effector functions during in vitro Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. (United States)

    Baquero, Monica M; Plattner, Brandon L


    The importance of bovine γδ T lymphocytes during anti-mycobacterial immunity is recognized; however, the role of major subsets of γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+ and WC1neg) in this process remains unclear. We investigated how WC1+ and WC1neg γδ T lymphocyte subsets of calves modulate monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) functions during Map infection in vitro. To achieve this, Map-infected or uninfected MDMs from young calves were co-cultured with autologous WC1+ or WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that WC1+ and WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes of young calves modulate effector functions of MDMs with respect to Map killing, CD11b and MHC-II expression. We observed differences in IFN-γ production and CD25 expression on γδ T lymphocyte subsets, as well as MDM expression of CD1b when in contact with WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. O modelo de negócio da Starbucks e a sua aplicação ao caso português


    Pereira, Feliciano Pires


    Relatório de Projecto / Mestrado em Gestão / Códigos do JEL Classification System: M10, M16. Classificações do JEL Classification System: Gestão, Estratégia Empresarial. O caso em estudo insere-se no âmbito da estratégia empresarial e descreve o modelo de negócio da Starbucks, um dos gigantes mundiais no fornecimento, torrefacção e retalho do mercado do café de alta qualidade. A empresa, criada em Seattle em 1971, teve um crescimento exponencial nos últimos anos, conseguindo em...

  3. Valor das capacidades de TI para o negócio: análise de desempenho multinível nas organizações brasileiras

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    Deyvison de Lima Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resumo: Considerando as demandas da Teoria Baseada em Recursos (TBR e da literatura de Sistemas de Informação (SI quanto à captação do valor da TI em multiníveis de desempenho do negócio, este artigo objetiva identificar em que medida as Capacidades de TI impactam diretamente o Desempenho em nível de Processos e indiretamente o Desempenho em nível de Firma. Adota-se como método a survey, aplicada em três fases de pesquisa: i. Survey pré-teste – com pesquisadores representantes das áreas de TI e de negócios; ii. Survey piloto – com profissionais de TI e de negócios; e iii. Survey completa – aplicada a gestores de TI e de negócios em organizações brasileiras de grande porte, conforme ranking de 2012 das maiores empresas do Brasil. Por meio da Modelagem de Equações Estruturais, o modelo de medida é definido no estudo piloto e confirmado no estudo completo – sendo testadas as hipóteses de pesquisa no modelo estrutural. Os resultados evidenciam que as Capacidades de TI impactam positivamente o Desempenho de Processos e este impacta o Desempenho em nível da Firma. Adicionalmente, constata-se o impacto indireto das Capacidades de TI no Desempenho da Firma, configurando-se a mediação parcial pelo Desempenho de Processos. Testa-se a moderação de quatro variáveis (tamanho da firma, tempo de atuação, dinamismo do setor e indústria na relação entre Capacidades de TI e Desempenho de Processos, obtendo-se resultados nulos para ambas as moderadoras. As contribuições teóricas da pesquisa, as limitações e oportunidades de investigação constam na discussão e nas conclusões do artigo.

  4. Indicadores de Sustentabilidade em Simulações de Negócios: uma proposição no contexto do jogo de empresas SEE


    Paulo da Costa Lopes; Rafael Bonrim de Souza


    O artigo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de propor a inserção de indicadores de sustentabilidade em simulações de negócios. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa básica, qualitativa, descritiva, bibliográfica e documental. Foi elaborado um levantamento teórico-metodológico sobre jogos de empresas e sustentabilidade, foi introduzida a Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) como promotora de um padrão de comunicação global em ações empresariais sustentáveis, e apresentou-se o jogo de empresas SEE (...

  5. Impactos da internet na indústria farmacêutica: novo modelo de negócios na economia da informação


    Andrade, Marcelo Gelamos de


    Trata dos efeitos da Internet sobre as organizações, abordando as características da chamada Nova Economia da Informação. Focando a Indústria Farmacêutica, analisa os fundamentos que devem ser considerados pelas na revisão de seus modelos estratégicos e a proposição de um novo modelo de negócios para a Indústria Farmacêutica tomando em conta os impactos da Internet.

  6. Adoção das IFRS para operações de combinações de negócios nas demonstrações financeiras consolidadas de empresas listadas na Espanha e Reino Unido


    Cristal, Carisa Santos Portela


    Operações de combinação de negócios representam uma estratégia de crescimento para muitas companhias ao redor do mundo. No Brasil observa-se um grande aumento no volume de operações de combinação de negócios nos últimos anos. A edição da Lei n° 11.638/07 vem propiciar condições para que o Brasil caminhe para a convergência às normas internacionais, tornando obrigatória a adoção dessas normas, incluídas aquelas concernentes às operações de combinações de negócios. Esse estudo tem por objetivo:...

  7. Do mainframe à nuvem: inovações, estrutura industrial e modelos de negócios nas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação


    Paulo Bastos Tigre; Vitor Branco Noronha


    Inovações radicais nas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação (TIC) abrem oportunidades para o desenvolvimento de novos modelos de negócios que, quando bem-sucedidos, acabam por alterar a própria estrutura da indústria global. A partir da revisão de mudanças estruturais ocorridas nas TIC nas últimas cinco décadas, neste artigo analisam-se a relação entre novas tecnologias, o surgimento de empresas consideradas paradigmas e seus respectivos modelos de negócios visando contribuir para o pro...

  8. Modelo conceitual de decisões no estágio de criação de um negócio: base para construção de um simulador para jogos de empresas


    André Rosenfeld Rosas; Antonio Carlos Aidar Sauaia


    O estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver um modelo conceitual para jogo de empresas que reúne as principais decisões de um empreendedor no estágio de criação de um negócio. As decisões, identificadas na literatura de empreendedorismo que foca o processo de criação de negócios, foram modeladas pelo método do diagrama de influências e confirmadas com especialistas norte-americanos e brasileiros no tema. O modelo conceitual resultante, aqui proposto para a criação de um simulador, foi comparado a...

  9. A Opinião dos Turistas de Negócios sobre a Imagem da Cidade de São Paulo

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    Luis Noriega Vera


    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo apresenta a análise descritiva dos principais resultados obtidos em pesquisa de campo realizada entre a segunda quinzena de junho e primeira de julho do ano de 2006 nos dois aeroportos da cidade de São Paulo. A pesquisa teve como público alvo os turistas de negócios que visitam a cidade. A amostra foi escolhida intencionalmente e o critério de estratificação foi o local de residência permanente dos turistas. O principal objetivo da pesquisa foi aprimorar o entendimento sobre a avaliação da imagem de um destino turístico. Foi proposto um modelo conceitual a partir do referencial teórico sobre comportamento do consumidor existente nas áreas de turismo e marketing. Os resultados apontam que o perfil dos turistas é consistente com estudos anteriores e a imagem da cidade consolidada como destino de negócios. Em adição é destacada a qualidade dos serviços consumidos, a satisfação e a intenção do turista de retornar e indicar o destino a parentes e amigos. Palavras-chave: destino turístico; turista de negócios; avaliação de imagem; qualidade; lealdade. Abstract This article presents the descriptive analysis of the main results of a survey held from June 15th through July 15th 2006 in the two São Paulo City airports. The survey targeted business tourists visiting the city. It was used an intentional sample and the stratification parameter was tourists’ place of permanent residence. The main objective was to enhance the knowledge on tourism destination image evaluation. A conceptual model was proposed based on tourism and marketing literature consumer behavior theoretical background. The results obtained pointed out that tourist profile are consistent with prior studies and the consolidated city image as a business destination. It is also highlighted its service quality, satisfaction and tourist’s intention to return or indicate the destination to relatives and friends. Keywords: tourism

  10. Plano de negócios para a instalação de uma comercial de implementos agrícolas


    Tengaten, Juliane


    Em um ambiente competitivo, ao implementar um empreendimento, é de suma importância a análise de um plano de negócio como um todo, nesse foco, o objetivo principal do estudo é analisar se é viável ou não a instalação da organização, ou seja, a constituição de uma empresa de revenda de máquinas e implementos agrícolas, empreendimento ligado diretamente ao agronegócio. A metodologia utilizada constitui-se em pesquisa aplicada, descritiva, bibliográfica, buscando em livros, internet, artigos e p...

  11. Transplantation of Allogeneic PW1pos/Pax7neg Interstitial Cells Enhance Endogenous Repair of Injured Porcine Skeletal Muscle

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    Fiona C. Lewis, BSc, PhD


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle-derived PW1pos/Pax7neg interstitial cells (PICs express and secrete a multitude of proregenerative growth factors and cytokines. Utilizing a porcine preclinical skeletal muscle injury model, delivery of allogeneic porcine PICs (pPICs significantly improved and accelerated myofiber regeneration and neocapillarization, compared with saline vehicle control-treated muscles. Allogeneic pPICs did not contribute to new myofibers or capillaries and were eliminated by the host immune system. In conclusion, allogeneic pPIC transplantation stimulated the endogenous stem cell pool to bring about enhanced autologous skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. This allogeneic cell approach is considered a cost-effective, easy to apply, and readily available regenerative therapeutic strategy.

  12. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain (United States)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S. K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.


    The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr-Tyr cross-linking (o,o‧-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  13. Congruências entre posicionamentos estratégicos e redes de negócios: estudo de caso de uma subsidiária brasileira

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    Márcio Roberto Moran


    Full Text Available Na pesquisa exploratória aqui relatada, realizada em 2009 e guiada por uma extensa revisão bibliográfica e pelo emprego do método de estudo de caso, busca-se identificar congruências entre o posicionamento estratégico adotado pela subsidiária brasileira de uma corporação multinacional e o tipo de rede de negócios por ela integrada. Apoiando-se em dois modelos específicos da literatura acadêmica sobre os temas mencionados (posicionamento estratégico e redes, as conclusões dessa investigação sugerem que as Redes Verticais de Demanda e Fornecimento (MOLLER e RAJALA, 2007 são adequadas para operacionalizar o posicionamento definido como Melhor Produto no Modelo Delta (HAX e WILDE II, 1999; 2001.

  14. Elaboração do mapa de recursos: processo de apoio ao planejamento de um novo negócio de internet

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    Josué Vitor de Medeiros Júnior


    Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a aplicação de um método de elaboração do Mapa de Recursos para apoiar o planejamento de um novo negócio baseado na internet a partir da percepção do seu empreendedor. O mapa de recursos resultante é uma representação visual das inter-relações entre os recursos estratégicos, assim caracterizados em função dos pressupostos teóricos da Visão Baseada em Recursos (VBR, bem como da Dinâmica de Sistemas, que caracteriza tais representações por enlaces de feedback, fluxos e acumulações, responsáveis por comportamentos de aspectos sistêmicos como o desempenho organizacional. Em relação a metodologia, a pesquisa se caracteriza como exploratória descritiva, subtipo estudo de caso e para a coleta de dados foram utilizados questionários e entrevistas com o empreendedor responsável pelo negócio. O método da elaboração do mapa ocorreu em algumas etapas como levantamento e seleção dos recursos estratégicos da empresa, definição dos fluxos de acúmulo dos recursos e os relacionamentos entre eles, identificação das políticas de desenvolvimento dos recursos, incorporação de variáveis financeiras e identificação das capacidades responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento do negócio. Como resultados da pesquisa, obteve-se a identificação e classificação dos recursos estratégicos da organização e como esses recursos se inter-relacionam e impactam no seu desempenho. A originalidade do trabalho se justifica pela construção do mapa de recursos em uma empresa nascente, auxiliando o empreendedor a identificar e explorar os recursos estratégicos iniciais e como a tomada de decisão por parte do empreendedor pode impactar no desempenho da empresa. Como contribuição, o processo de elaboração do mapa, através de uma representação visual não linear dos recursos estratégicos, a partir do modelo mental do empreendedor, mostrou-se como um processo de aprendizado e reflexão sobre

  15. Elaboração do mapa de recursos: processo de apoio ao planejamento de um novo negócio de internet


    Josué Vitor Medeiros Júnior; Miguel Eduardo Moreno Añez; Manoel Veras de Sousa Neto; Marcelo Hugo de Medeiros Bezerra


    RESUMOO artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a aplicação de um método de elaboração do mapa de recursos para apoiar o planejamento de um novo negócio baseado na internet a partir da percepção do seu empreendedor. O mapa de recursos resultante é uma representação visual das inter-relações entre os recursos estratégicos, assim caracterizados em função dos pressupostos teóricos da visão baseada em recursos (resource-based view – VBR), bem como da dinâmica de sistemas, que caracteriza tais r...

  16. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  17. Sensemaking e o Desenvolvimento de Redes de Relacionamentos de Negócios no Contexto das Empresas de Base Tecnológica

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    Ricardo Sérgio Gomes Vieira


    Full Text Available Nas últimas três décadas, questões relativas ao papel e à importância das redes sociais de negócio têm surgido como foco de amplo e acalorado debate entre acadêmicos e profissionais da Administração. Apesar da existência de diversos arcabouços conceituais ligados à Network Theory, o modelo Ator-Atividades-Recursos (AAR desenvolvido pelo IMP-Group tem sido amplamente utilizado numa variedade de contextos organizacionais. Neste artigo, utilizamos o AAR para investigar como oportunidades de negócios são identificadas por dirigentes de empresas de base tecnológica. Nesta pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, básica e de caráter exploratório-descritivo, foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade. A análise de conteúdo foi adotada como método para interpretar os dados coletados pelas entrevistas. O principal resultado aponta para uma dinâmica coletiva desenvolvida nas redes de relacionamentos de negócios. Além disso, observam-se a importância e o papel do sensemaking em tal atividade. Em linhas gerais, o sensemaking é o processo pelo qual as pessoas geram sentido de suas experiências. Reflexões teóricas sobre os achados são discutidas e implicações para a academia e a prática organizacional, bem como indicações para futuras pesquisas são consideradas. ----- Sensemaking and Business Relationships Network Development in the Context of High-Tech Firms ----- ABSTRACT ----- In the last three decades, issues concerning the role and influence of business social networks have sprung up as the main focus of debate amongst academics and professionals from the Business Area. Although there have been many theoretical backgrounds bounded to Network Theory, the Actor-Activities-Resources model (AAR model developed by IMP-Group has been mostly adopted in a wide array of organizational contexts. Bearing this in mind, the AAR model was used to investigate how business opportunities are identifi ed by the CEOs of High-Tech Firms

  18. Photo-dynamics of the BLUF domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Kateriya, Suneel [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)


    Graphical abstract: The photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (nPAC) from Naegleria gruberi was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and its photo-cycling dynamics was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Highlights: {yields} Photo-activated adenylyl cyclase (nPAC) from Naegleria gruberi NEG-M was expressed. {yields} Photodynamics of BLUF domain in BLUF sensor - cyclase actuator protein was studied. {yields} Photo-excitation caused BLUF photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation. {yields} Re-conformed protein enabled photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. {yields} Fluorescence of flavin in dark- and light-adapted state of nPAC was characterized. - Abstract: The amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M comprises a BLUF (blue light sensor using flavin) regulated adenylate cyclase (nPAC). The nPAC gene was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the photo-dynamics of the nPAC protein was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Blue-light exposure of nPAC caused a typical BLUF-type photo-cycle behavior (spectral absorption red-shift, fluorescence quenching, absorption and fluorescence recovery in the dark). Additionally, time-delayed reversible photo-induced one-electron reduction of fully oxidized flavin (Fl{sub ox}) to semi-reduced flavin (FlH{sup {center_dot}}) occurred. Furthermore, photo-excitation of FlH{sup {center_dot}} caused irreversible electron transfer to fully reduced anionic flavin (FlH{sup -}). A photo-induced electron transfer from Tyr or Trp to flavin (Tyr{sup {center_dot}+}-Fl{sup {center_dot}-} or Trp{sup {center_dot}+}-Fl{sup {center_dot}-} radical ion-pair formation) is thought to cause H-bond restructuring responsible for BLUF-type photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation enabling photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. Some photo-degradation of Fl{sub ox} to lumichrome was observed. A model of the photo-dynamics of nPAC is developed.

  19. A alavanca que move o mundo: o discurso da mídia de negócios sobre o capitalismo empreendedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mello da Costa

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se da perspectiva da teoria social do discurso de Norman Fairclough (2001, tem-se por objetivo identificar e discutir possíveis implicações nas relações de trabalho contemporâneas da criação e disseminação do conceito de "empreendedorismo" pelas revistas de negócios. A suposição que norteia este estudo é a de que o discurso utilizado vincula - de forma acrítica e sem questionamentos - o tema "empreendedorismo" a crescimento, desenvolvimento e enriquecimento das organizações e dos indivíduos que nelas trabalham, elegendo e naturalizando o capitalismo de mercado como único modelo possível de desenvolvimento socioeconômico. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto, este estudo baseia-se no método da análise crítica do discurso (ACD e concentra seu foco no material publicado nas revistas de negócios brasileiras Você S/A Exame, Carta Capital e HSM Management, no período de março de 2004 a abril de 2009, totalizando 112 reportagens e 400 páginas. Os resultados da pesquisa permitiram a identificação e a seleção de três objetos discursivos (capitalismo empreendedor, ascensão econômica no livre mercado e herói global vinculados ao tema "empreendedorismo". Em conjunto, os três objetos discursivos identificados permitem que se explorem algumas possíveis implicações nas relações de trabalho contemporâneas em relação: (1 ao discurso da mídia, que estabelece uma convergência entre os interesses das organizações e os interesses dos indivíduos; (2 às novas configurações da esfera do trabalho em um modelo de capitalismo empreendedor; (3 à busca do sucesso profissional como organizador do comportamento humano no mundo do trabalho.

  20. Uma metodologia para a implementação de comércio e negócio electrónico em pequenas e médias empresas


    São Mamede, José Henrique Pereira


    Tese de doutoramento em Tecnologias e Sistemas de Informação A tecnologia da World Wide Web, que se suporta na Internet, está a transformar todas as actividades de negócio em actividades baseadas em informação, assistindo-se a uma mudança radical dos modelos teóricos e de organização tradicionais. As pequenas e médias empresas constituem o tipo de empresa que mais vantagens podem retirar da utilização da Internet para o comércio electrónico e o negócio electrónico. No ent...

  1. O professor de inglês para negócios: reflexos de uma identidade em construção = The business english teacher: reflexes of an identity under construction

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    Sá, Elisa Mattos de


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como principal objetivo refletir sobre a identidade do professor de inglês para negócios, considerando-se a identidade como um processo construído pelas relações que os sujeitos estabelecem entre si em situações de interação social (Moita Lopes, 2003; Hall, 2000; Rajagopalan, 1998, pela linguagem, lugar onde o ser humano se constitui como sujeito e constrói sua realidade (Bakhtin, 1981. Pensado qualitativamente, este trabalho apresenta excertos de uma entrevista semi-estruturada baseada no modelo de Bereckzky (2009, nos quais pode-se perceber reflexos identitários de um professor de inglês para negócios, identidade essa negociada e renegociada nas relações que o professor estabelece com seus alunos e suas práticas de ensino

  2. Uso Estratégico dos Sistemas de Informação no Apoio aos Processos de Negócio: Estudo de Caso na Indústria de Alimentos

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    Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é identificar o uso dos sistemas de informação no apoio aos processos de negócios na indústria de alimentos como um fator estratégico. A pesquisa contemplou o estudo de caso em uma grande empresa internacional de referência na área de alimentos, no qual os métodos utilizados foram observação-participante e pesquisa ex-post-facto. As fontes de evidência foram primárias e secundárias, e coletadas no segundo semestre de 2014. Como resultado, observou-se que a maturidade dos negócios precisa estar minimamente nivelada para a integração dos processos, e que a empresa adota um modelo fortemente focado em na gestão de outsourcing.

  3. O turismo de negócios na cidade de São Paulo: políticas públicas e investimentos no período 2007/2014


    LIMA, Rosineide; BRESCIANI, Luis Paulo; LUZ, Renato Henrique; Uvinha, Ricardo Ricci


    O presente artigo discute as políticas públicas que influenciaram o Turismo de Negócios na cidade de São Paulo, no período 2007/2014, a partir da revisão de literatura nos campos do turismo, das políticas públicas, da gestão sustentável do território e do marketing de lugares. Partiu-se do conceito de Políticas Públicas como um conjunto de ações de governo, direcionadas para atender às necessidades da sociedade. Assim, se destaca o Turismo de Negócios como toda viagem motivada por atividades...

  4. Teoria do caos e gestão da informação: uma integração na complexidade dos negócios e dos sistemas de informação

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    Luiz Henrique Cardoso

    Full Text Available É abordado o planejamento de sistemas de informação, em seu aspecto teórico, sob a ótica da Teoria do Caos e da Complexidade. Descreve as características dos sistemas físicos, a visão da ciência como sistema fechado e a visão da ciência como sistema aberto. Discute ainda a gestão da informação, tanto frente à complexidade dos sistemas de informação, quanto em suas correlações com o mundo dos negócios, enfatizando a necessidade do profissional da informação de estar apto para planejar o seu trabalho diante do cenário complexo dos negócios.

  5. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut für Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)


    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  6. Bovine WC1+ and WC1neg γδ T Lymphocytes Influence Monocyte Differentiation and Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cell Maturation during In Vitro Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection

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    Monica M. Baquero


    Full Text Available During early Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map infection, complex interactions occur between the bacteria, cells from the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS including both resident (macrophages and dendritic cells and recruited (monocytes cells, and other mucosal sentinel cells such as γδ T lymphocytes. Though the details of early host–pathogen interactions in cattle remain largely underexplored, our hypothesis is that these significantly influence development of host immunity and ultimate success or failure of the host to respond to Map infection. The aims of the present study were to first characterize monocyte-derived MPS cells from young calves with respect to their immunophenotype and function. Then, we set out to investigate the effects of WC1+ and WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes on (1 the differentiation of autologous monocytes and (2 the maturation of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs. To achieve this, peripheral blood WC1+ or WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes were cocultured with either autologous freshly isolated peripheral blood-derived monocytes or autologous immature MDDCs (iMDDCs. We began by measuring several markers of interest on MPS cells. Useful markers to distinguish monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs from MDDCs include CD11b, CD163, and CD172a, which are expressed significantly higher on MDMs compared with MDDCs. Function, but not phenotype, was influenced by WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes: viability of Map harvested from monocytes differentiated in the presence of WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes (dMonWC1neg was significantly lower compared to MDMs and MDDCs. With respect to DC maturation, we first showed that mature MDDCs (mMDDCs have significantly higher expression of CD11c, CD80, and CD86 compared with iMDDCs, and the phagocytic capacity of mMDDCs is significantly reduced compared to iMDDCs. We then showed that γδ T lymphocyte subsets induce functional (reduced phagocytosis but not phenotypic (surface

  7. O Processo de Criação de Novos Negócios em Turismo: Estudo de Casos Múltiplos em Agências de Viagens em Curitiba, Paraná

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    Rivanda Meira Teixeira


    Full Text Available


    O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o processo de criação de negócios, identificando os estágios de iniciação, preparação, start up e consolidação em quatro agências de viagens localizadas em Curitiba, Paraná.  Foi adotado o modelo teórico de referência de quatro estágios de Borges, Simard e Filion (2005. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi o estudo de caso múltiplo, e as evidências foram coletadas através de entrevistas pessoais semiestruturadas com os empreendedores. Observou-se que os negócios iniciaram informalmente e que os empreendedores não possuíam informações sobre o setor. No estágio da preparação do negócio, constatou-se que, apesar do apoio gratuito oferecido pelo SEBRAE, os empresários iniciam seus empreendimentos sem realizar o plano de negócios. A consolidação do negócio foi o estágio mais difícil para todos os empreendedores, pois tiveram de lidar com problemas de sazonalidade e dificuldade de gerenciar o fluxo de caixa entre os períodos de alta e baixa estação.  Além disso, os empreendedores apontam grande dificuldade em conciliar a vida pessoal e o negócio. No entanto, apesar das dificuldades enfrentadas, afirmaram que a atividade empresarial é compensadora, em função do retorno financeiro e da satisfação pessoal.

    Palavras-Chave: empreendedorismo; turismo; processo empreendedor; criação de negócios; agências de viagens.Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of photo-activated adenylate cyclase nano-clusters from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)


    Graphical abstract: Protein color center emissions were observed in the wavelength range from 340 nm to 900 nm from nano-clusters of the photo-activated adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adenylyl cyclase nPAC in aqueous pH 7.5 buffer dissolved only to nano-clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-cluster size was determined by light attenuation (scattering) measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of the nano-clusters was growing by coalescing during observation period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In nPAC nano-clusters color centers were present in emission range of 360-900 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nPAC color center emission is compared with fluorescent protein emission. - Abstract: The spectroscopic characteristics of BLUF (BLUF = sensor of blue light using flavin) domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC = Naegleria photo-activated cyclase) samples from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain is studied at room temperature. The absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic development in the dark was investigated over two weeks. Attenuation coefficient spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence excitation distributions were measured. Thawing of frozen nPAC samples gave solutions with varying protein nano-cluster size and varying flavin, tyrosine, tryptophan, and protein color-center emission. Protein color-center emission was observed in the wavelength range of 360-900 nm with narrow emission bands of small Stokes shift and broad emission bands of large Stokes shift. The emission spectra evolved in time with protein nano-cluster aging.

  8. Carreira, família e a dialógica do assujeitamento: o discurso vigente em uma revista popular de negócios

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    Andrea Poleto Oltramari

    Full Text Available Há uma série de pesquisas acadêmicas sobre assuntos relacionados à gestão em mídias populares de negócios que possibilitam uma visão do modelo de gestão disseminado na atualidade. O objetivo deste artigo é compreender, por meio do estudo da discursividade em nível verbal e não verbal, como tal modelo gerencial, no que concerne às relações entre carreira e família, revela-se na revista Você S/A. A abordagem teórica do modelo gerencialista é de Vicent de Gaulejac, para quem os princípios da vida são substituídos por princípios interiorizados pela lógica da organização, tornando o sujeito pronto a tudo para ter sucesso. A sustentação metodológica é construída com base nos pressupostos da semiologia barthesiana, por intermédio de três categorias a priori: discurso, estereótipo e mito. Elas estão organizadas em uma disposição que contempla a discursividade, transitando dos seus aspectos mais concretos para os mais abstratos, com a finalidade de facilitar a leitura do nosso objeto. Os resultados indicam que a principal oferta feita ao leitor manifesta-se por meio de uma série de receituários no que concerne à solução dos dilemas relativos à família e/ou carreira, cuja decisão de prioridade, de um lado, fica a cargo do empregado, e do outro, já está predeterminada pela condição de seu assujeitamento.

  9. Discutindo sustentabilidade no contexto de negócios e em relatórios de desempenho: análise de estudos de caso brasileiros

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    Sandra Naomi Morioka


    Full Text Available Resumo: As empresas têm mostrando crescente interesse na adoção de práticas relacionadas à sustentabilidade para mitigar riscos e aumentar suas chances de sobrevivência. Nesse contexto, os indicadores de desempenho alinhados ao desenvolvimento sustentável são fundamentais para apoiar decisões gerenciais e operacionais. O presente artigo teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos ligados ao desempenho da sustentabilidade corporativa aplicados no contexto brasileiro. Mais especificamente, a pesquisa buscou analisar o desdobramento de iniciativas socioambientais no negócio das empresas e a adoção de relatórios com indicadores de sustentabilidade, destacando os desafios envolvidos nessas questões A pesquisa baseou-se em estudos de casos, explorando evidências empíricas em duas empresas de grande porte situadas no Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com os gestores responsáveis pelo departamento de sustentabilidade. Além disso, documentos internos e publicados, tais como relatórios de sustentabilidade das empresas, foram usados para gerar evidências adicionais para triangulação dos dados. A análise dos estudos de caso apontaram a dificuldade da incorporação da sustentabilidade no contexto empresarial, exigindo empenho intensivo de equipes multidisciplinares para compreensão das inter-relações e trade-offs entre os pilares da sustentabilidade. Além disso, verificou-se que o uso dos indicadores GRI (Global Reporting Initiative podem servir como base para as discussões iniciais, mas ainda existem desafios para a implantação de sistemas de mensuração de desempenho de sustentabilidade estruturado nas empresas.

  10. Programação Matemática Aplicada à Gestão de Performance de Unidades de Negócios

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    Raimundo Nonato Sousa Silva


    Full Text Available As companhias que adotaram o modelo de descentralização no processo de tomada de decisão delegando às divisões internas mais autoridade, invariavelmente tiveram que instituir um sistema formal de relacionamento entre as divisões. Tal sistema tem como objetivo buscar a total harmonia entre os interesses das divisões e os objetivos gerais da organização. Especificamente é composto de normas de conduta, mecanismos de arbitragem e preços de transferência. Com base nesse sistema, espera-se que sejam resolvidos conflitos relacionados ao processo de descentralização caracterizada por certo grau de independência da divisão em relação à companhia e a necessidade de otimização de resultados. Por conta disso, problemas inerentes à falta de congruência de objetivos, dificuldades de determinação de preços de transferências, problemas relacionados com decisões de produzir ou comprar, entre outros, fazem parte da complexidade de gerenciar uma organização cuja administração é descentralizada e que tem por necessidade avaliar corretamente o desempenho das unidades de negócios uma vez que a partir delas derivará o resultado da própria organização como um todo. Isto posto, este artigo pretende examinar através da programação matemática problemas recorrentes em organizações divisionalizadas através do exame de estudos de caso.

  11. Unidades estratégicas de negócios: uma ferramenta para gestão competitiva de empresas Strategic business units: a tool for the competitive management

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    José Paulo Alves Fusco


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir e apresentar algumas considerações acerca das vantagens e implicações da utilização do conceito de UEN - Unidade Estratégica de Negócios, na gestão de empresas, de modo geral. O artigo discute algumas relações que devem ser esclarecidas antes da plena adoção do conceito. Baseado na literatura e na experiência do autor em consultoria em empresas, o artigo propõe uma abordagem metodológica para permitir que gerentes possam definir, analisar e compreender os efeitos da utilização do conceito de UEN - Unidade Estratégica de Negócios, considerando as dimensões competitivas ou Fatores Críticos de Sucesso típicos e intrínsecos da natureza de cada negócio.This paper is an attempt to discuss and present some considerations concerning the advantages and relationships involving the adoption of the SBU - Strategic Business Unit concepts and business management in a broad sense. The paper discusses some aspects which must be clarified before a full adoption of the concepts. Based on the literature and the author's experience in business consultancy, the paper suggests a methodological approach which aims to help managers to define, analyse and understand the effects of the adoption of the SBU concepts, considering the typical competitive dimensions (critical success factors involved in any kind of business.

  12. Modelo de Negócio: As Operações de uma Distribuidora de Combustíveis no Complexo Industrial Portuário de Suape/PE

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    Davi Lucas Arruda de Araújo


    Full Text Available O objetivo principal desta pesquisa consiste em identificar as dimensões do modelo de negócios utilizando o Canvas Business Model, da empresa ALFA Combustíveis no Complexo Industrial Portuário de Suape/PE. O estudo é de natureza exploratória e foi desenvolvido mediante uma pesquisa de campo qualitativa. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas considerando como sujeitos de pesquisa profissionais desta distribuidora que atuam na base de operações do complexo de Suape/PE. E no tratamento, interpretação e análise dos resultados acerca dos dados coletados foi utilizada a técnica de categorização baseado em (Flores, 1994. Os resultados revelam que a empresa, no que diz respeito a oferta de valor, desenvolve ações para melhoria da eficiência na prestação do serviço. No que tange a infraestrutura, pessoas com expertise, atividades bem alinhadas e política de custos bem definidas são necessárias para o desenvolvimento deste tipo de negócio. E, no que se refere aos clientes, a segmentação em postos revendedores, o desenvolvimento de softwares que auxiliam no relacionamento com os clientes, projetos de entrega de produtos em tempo hábil e delimitação das fontes de receitas em função das atividades que são executadas na base configuram o modelo de negócio de uma distribuidora de combustíveis.

  13. Modelagem de processos de negócios na implementação de ERPs nacionais em PMEs Business processes modeling in the implementation of national ERPs within SMEs

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    Fernanda Pereira Carneiro da Silva


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta evidências encontradas em uma pesquisa que teve como objetivo investigar a contribuição do uso da Modelagem dos Processos dos Negócios (MPN na implementação do Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP em pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs. Foi observado, nos principais fornecedores nacionais deste sistema, o uso da MPN, verificando sua influência na integração dos processos internos dos negócios de seus clientes. Para esta investigação buscaram-se as informações nos fornecedores nacionais de sistema ERP e seus clientes, mediante questionários específicos. Esta pesquisa possibilitou obter informações reais das principais características de implementação nas PMEs, destacando-se como a MPN contribui efetivamente na implementação para otimizar a integração dos processos internos dos negócios.This article presents evidences found in a research whose objective was to investigate the contribution of using business processes modeling (BPM in the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP in small and middle companies (SMEs. The use of the BPM and assessment of its influence for the integration of the internal business processes of their customers, was also observed in the main national ERP system suppliers. To carry out this research, information was obtained by means of specific questionnaires answered by the national ERP system suppliers and their customers. This research allowed to obtain actual data about the main implementation characteristics within the SMEs, showing how the BPM effectively contributes for the implementation and better integration of the internal business processes.

  14. Modelos de negócios adotados para o uso de dados governamentais abertos: estudo exploratório de prestadores de serviços na cadeia de valor dos dados governamentais abertos


    Edson Carlos Germano


    A presente investigação tem como objetivo identificar tipos de usos que podem ser agregados aos dados governamentais abertos por prestadores de serviço, para oferecer produtos e serviços através de aplicativos para smartphones ou através de páginas web. O foco desta pesquisa buscou explorar modelos de negócios que utilizam bases de DGA, as quais devem estar organizadas em sítios, com objetivos de dar transparência, podendo ainda utilizar bases de dados construídas a partir da captura de dados...

  15. Tecnologia da Informação: Estratégia para os Negócios do Sistema Unimed do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Rafael Panozzo


    Full Text Available No contexto atual em que vivemos a Tecnologia de Informação (TI está cada vez mais inserida no ambiente empresarial já que está sendo considerado um componente fundamental para a gestão das empresas. Se por um lado essa tecnologia aplicada com sucesso rende muitos benefícios para as empresas por outro traz grandes desafios para a administração deste recurso, dos quais as empresas passam a ter elevada dependência. Nesse mesmo período, as Unimeds passaram a atuar num cenário complexo, em virtude da lei dos planos de saúde, que resultou em maior competitividade, melhoria da qualidade dos produtos e serviços oferecidos aos clientes. Dentro deste contexto o presente artigo teve como objetivo investigar os investimentos estratégicos feitos em Tecnologia da Informação, avaliando os impactos gerados na gestão de negócios do Sistema Unimed do Rio Grande do Sul. Para a realização da coleta de dados foi realizada uma pesquisa de caráter descritiva através de um questionário, onde foram enviados 58 questionários às singulares. A pesquisa permitiu analisar que as Unimeds na sua grande maioria estão fazendo investimentos modestos, ou seja, até 1% do faturamento anual, visando atender as determinações legais primeiramente e após utilizando a TI como uma ferramenta para se obter vantagem competitiva. Observou-se também que seus CEOs foram classificados como de segundo nível (1 – causal ou ad hoc conforme o Modelo de Maturidade de Capacidade (CMM –Capability Maturity Model definido por Humphrey (1989, ou seja, quando os executivos percebem que existe a necessidade de envolvimento, mas não existe nenhum processo ou comportamento estabelecido para isto.

  16. Cadeia de valor de megaeventos: um estudo de caso de uma feira de negócios agropecuários

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    Fabrício Silva Barbosa


    Full Text Available O turismo de eventos definitivamente consolidou-se como uma das ramificações do turismo que mais favorecem o desenvolvimento econômico das localidades onde se realizam. No Brasil, a prática de megaeventos impulsiona o segmento e alavanca o setor de serviços que atua na localidade. Contudo, para que atendam às expectativas de seus organizadores, alguns processos necessitam ser introduzidos de forma adequada. A cadeia de valor aparece como uma ferramenta indispensável nas suas realizações. Este artigo teve como objetivo analisar a Feira de Negócios Agropecuários da Fronteira Oeste – Fenaoeste, realizada em São Borja/RS - Brasil, tomando como base a cadeia de valor porteriana com uma adaptação das suas atividades primárias e secundárias com as lentes de serviços. De caráter qualitativo e exploratório, o trabalho teve como método um estudo de caso. Com base nas entrevistas com os especialistas e na literatura da área, apresentam-se pontos e questões estratégicos para a competitividade de megaeventos, em que os aspectos ligados à tecnologia de informações e ao envolvimento dos clientes internos e externos têm intensas influências. Para melhoria das atividades na busca de vantagens competitivas, sugere-se um uso mais intenso de tecnologia de informações principalmente no pós-evento, em que existe maior necessidade da interação humana com os clientes, que são coprodutores, para obtenção de conhecimento sobre estas partes interessadas. Para tanto, deve-se coordenar os aspectos de intangibilidade, perecibilidade e simultaneidade com atenção em pontos como treinamentos, divulgação do evento, riscos de contratação, sistemas de gestão e terceirização dos funcionários (com cuidado aos estratégicos para promover produtos essenciais dos eventos: qualidade de serviços, experiência do cliente e show. A universidade pode ajudar neste desenvolvimento. Ainda que esta pesquisa não seja de caráter conclusivo, s

  17. Ética no Marketing: ação isolada ou do negócio?

    Ethics in Marketing: isolated action or business?

    Ética en el Marketing: ¿acción aislada o del negocio?


    Filho, Miguel Arantes Normanha


    RESUMOEste artigo, sobre a ética no marketing parte do pressuposto que a mesma não existe se ela não estiver inserida na ética dos negócios. Não pode ser entendida e definida como uma área de estudo acadêmica de forma desvinculada da ética dos negócios. Falarmos de ética no marketing pressupõe que exista sólido conhecimento do que é marketing, dessa forma suas definições, conceitos, abrangência e limitações são detalhadas para amplo conhecimento. A ética no marketing está inserida na dos negó...

  18. Do mainframe à nuvem: inovações, estrutura industrial e modelos de negócios nas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bastos Tigre


    Full Text Available Inovações radicais nas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação (TIC abrem oportunidades para o desenvolvimento de novos modelos de negócios que, quando bem-sucedidos, acabam por alterar a própria estrutura da indústria global. A partir da revisão de mudanças estruturais ocorridas nas TIC nas últimas cinco décadas, neste artigo analisam-se a relação entre novas tecnologias, o surgimento de empresas consideradas paradigmas e seus respectivos modelos de negócios visando contribuir para o processo de formulação de estratégias empresariais e políticas públicas. O caso da empresa Google, responsável pela última onda de inovações radicais no setor, é analisado com base na recente literatura sobre a economia da informação visando exemplificar o impacto das mudanças tecnológicas no padrão de competição da indústria.

  19. Personalidade artística nos negócios mundanos: a celebração do "gosto do povo" em Joãosinho Trinta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Farias


    Full Text Available Ao escrever Mozart: a sociologia de um gênio e A Peregrinação de Watteau à Ilha do Amor, Norbert Elias deixou importante legado ao tratamento sociológico da formação das subjetividades artísticas e das expressões estético-culturais, a partir do problema em torno da relação entre transformação e conservação sócio-históricas, mas do ponto de vista das possibilidades e limites na conduta de indivíduos. Desse modo, neste artigo, a proposta de focar a trajetória de Joãosinho Trinta, no âmbito da cultura urbana do Carnaval do Rio de Janeiro, situa-se na contrapartida da aplicação do modelo figuracional e, assim, voltarmos à discussão sobre a funcionalidade arte-cultura enquanto espaço estratégico à catalisação de valores e à produção e difusão de significados. Isso, em busca das duas seguintes questões: Que dinâmica sócio-histórica é caracterizada pela ascendência do gosto popular na valoração do fazer e dos bens artístico-culturais? E, no reverso da medalha, em que medida esse mesmo processo se traduz na relação entre personalidade artística e negócios mundanos, encarnada na figura histórica do carnavalesco?When writing Mozart: The Sociology of a Genius and Watteau's Pilgrimage to the Island of Love, Norbert Elias left an important legacy to the sociological treatment of the formation of artistic subjectivities and aesthetic and cultural expressions, coming from the problems surrounding the relationship between processing and preserving the socio-historical aspect from the standpoint of the possibilities and limitations in the conduct of individuals. Thus, in this article, the propose of focusing on the trajectory of Joãosinho Trinta within the urban culture of Carnival in Rio de Janeiro is the counterpart of the application of the figurational model and thus to return to the discussion on the feature art-culture as a strategic area of catalysis of values and for the production and dissemination of

  1. Processos de aprendizagem: um estudo em três restaurantes de um clube étnico alemão de negócios, gastronomia e cultura.

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    Jorge Flavio Ferreira


    Full Text Available As inúmeras, contínuas e profundas mudanças que ocorrem na sociedade e na arena organizacional impactam nos trabalhadores, diretos e indiretos, no sentido em que cada vez mais são exigidos quanto à aprendizagem para demonstrar competências atualizadas no cotidiano do trabalho. Nesta investigação, prevalece o entendimento de que a aprendizagem organizacional ocorre por meio da aprendizagem individual em ambientes organizacionais, compreendida na perspectiva da aprendizagem como um processo social. Esta pesquisa explorou os processos de aprendizagem organizacional presentes no espaço organizacional de três restaurantes na cidade de São Paulo. Uma questão básica orienta a investigação aqui relatada: “Como as pessoas que trabalham em restaurantes aprenderam e aprendem as práticas de trabalho necessárias ao funcionamento do negócio?”. A partir dessa pergunta, estabeleceram-se dois objetivos: 1. Identificar como os trabalhadores, da cozinha e do salão, aprenderam e aprendem as práticas cotidianas de trabalho necessárias ao funcionamento desse tipo de organização; 2. descrever os processos individuais e coletivos por meio dos quais esses atores sociais aprenderam o exercício do seu trabalho. O levantamento realizado nas bases internacionais e nas revistas nacionais do campo da administração, focando a aprendizagem organizacional no espaço de restaurantes, no período de 1995 a 2013, mostra que o tema tem recebido pouca atenção no tipo de organização aqui proposto. Foi utilizado o estudo de caso qualitativo, adotando-se um enfoque descritivo e interpretativo complementado por histórias de vida dos sujeitos que atuam nas brigadas de cozinha e de salão do espaço social examinado. A análise textual realizada permitiu a identificação de um conjunto de oito categorias reveladoras dos processos de aprendizagem: aprender por etapas; aprender a partir de erros, acertos e feedback; aprender pela repetição, mem

  2. Mecanismos de coordenação em redes de pequenos negócios supermercadistas no estado de São Paulo: formalidade, informalidade e coesão relacional

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    Luciano Mitidieri Bento Garcia


    Full Text Available Alguns supermercadistas de pequeno porte têm procurado enfrentar o maior poder de mercado dos grandes grupos do setor mediante ações cooperativas que se desenvolvem nas chamadas centrais de negócio. De acordo com as perspectivas teóricas representadas pelo neoinstitucionalismo e pela abordagem de redes, especialmente quanto à sua perspectiva relacional, as centrais de negócio de pequenos supermercadistas podem ser definidas como redes cooperativas horizontais, cuja eficácia está associada aos mecanismos formais e informais de coordenação e à coesão relacional entre seus membros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a percepção de eficácia, os mecanismos de coordenação e a coesão relacional de uma central de negócios, dentro de uma perspectiva dinâmica, antes e após a fusão ocorrida com uma central de maior porte. Dentro de uma abordagem qualitativa de pesquisa e, para aferir as percepções dos entrevistados com relação à eficácia da rede estudada, a efetividade de seus mecanismos formais e informais de coordenação e a intensidade das relações para a coesão, este trabalho está baseado em entrevistas semiestruturadas com os integrantes da referida central, utilizando-se de um roteiro composto por itens relacionados à percepção de eficácia, aspectos de coordenação e coesão relacional. Constatou-se uma alta percepção de eficácia entre os supermercadistas da rede estudada e que aumenta consideravelmente a partir da integração com a rede de maior porte. Constatou-se também uma importante convivência entre mecanismos formais e informais de coordenação, além de relações coesas entre os membros da central.

  3. Ética no Marketing: ação isolada ou do negócio?Ethics in Marketing: isolated action or business?Ética en el Marketing: ¿acción aislada o del negocio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILHO, Miguel Arantes Normanha


    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo, sobre a ética no marketing parte do pressuposto que a mesma não existe se ela não estiver inserida na ética dos negócios. Não pode ser entendida e definida como uma área de estudo acadêmica de forma desvinculada da ética dos negócios. Falarmos de ética no marketing pressupõe que exista sólido conhecimento do que é marketing, dessa forma suas definições, conceitos, abrangência e limitações são detalhadas para amplo conhecimento. A ética no marketing está inserida na dos negócios, uma vez que um plano de marketing está atrelado e em consonância com o plano estratégico da empresa, e a postura ética empresarial está definida explicita ou implicitamente na missão organizacional.ABSTRACTThis article, about the ethics in marketing, presupposes that it does not exist if it is not inserted in business ethics. It cannot be understood and defined like a subject of academy study away from the ethics of business. Speaking about marketing ethics requires solid marketing knowledge; in this way its definition, concepts, understanding and limitations are detailed for broader knowledge. The ethics in marketing is inserted in business since a marketing plan is related to the strategic plan of the company and ethics of business posture is defined intrinsically or extrinsically in the organizational mission.RESUMENEste artículo sobre la ética en el marketing parte de la presuposición de que ella no existe si no está incluida en la ética de los negocios. No puede ser entendida y definida como un área académica de estudio desvinculada de la ética en los negocios. Al hablar de ética en el marketing se supone que hay sólidos conocimientos de lo que es marketing, de forma que sus definiciones, conceptos, alcance y limitaciones se detallan para amplio conocimiento. La ética en el marketing está incorporada en la de los negocios, pues un plan de marketing está unido y en consonancia con el plan estratégico de la

  4. Permanências e transformações no espaço comercial da pequena cidade de Juazeirinho-PB: da feira livre às redes de negócios


    Silva, Izabelle Trajano da


    O presente trabalho objetivou compreender as implicações da chegada das redes de negócios em Juazeirinho, pequena cidade localizada no Seridó Oriental da Paraíba, destacando as relações de permanências e as transformações ocorridas em seu espaço comercial nos últimos 15 anos, período em que começou a chegar essa nova modalidade comercial de cunho associativista. Esse recorte temporal também corresponde ao período de ampliação do setor terciário, como consequência do aumento do poder de compra...

  5. A resignificação da crise ambiental pela mídia de negócios: responsabilidade empresarial e redenção pelo consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isleide Arruda Fontenelle


    Full Text Available O artigo analisa como o consumidor ambientalmente responsável tem sido produzido pela mídia de negócios em duas revistas: The Economist e Exame, no período de 1996-2007. O método de pesquisa apoia-se na Teoria do Discurso de Ernesto Laclau e Chantal Mouffe e em autores lacanianos que encamparam essa teoria. A análise empírica, apoiada por uma revisão bibliográfica sobre crise ambiental, consumo e responsabilidade empresarial, permite concluir que a construção midiática do consumidor responsável tem se utilizado da culpabilização presente no discurso da crise ambiental para vender redenção como mercadoria.

  6. Ideas de Negocios y Modelos Mentales: un estudio exploratorio cuantitativoIdeias de Negócios e Modelos Mentais: um estudo exploratório quantitativoBusiness Ideas and Mental Models: an exploratory qualitative study

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    CAMPOS, Héctor Montiel


    Full Text Available RESUMENEn el proceso empresarial, la etapa que corresponde a la generación de ideas de negocio es importante, sin embargo, no se tiene el suficiente conocimiento de ella. En consecuencia, el objetivo de esta comunicación es el de explorar cómo la estructura de conocimiento que tienen las personas, influye en la concepción de ideas de negocio. Dado el objetivo que se persigue, la perspectiva teórica del estudio viene desde los modelos mentales, que a través de un estudio cuantitativo, ayuda a identificar cómo se relacionan algunas variables y de qué forma influyen al generar una idea de negocio. Los resultados indican que no hay una variable que influya considerablemente para formar una idea de negocio, al menos en la muestra del estudio. La variable que muestra un comportamiento interesante, porque se relaciona con otras variables independientes, es la de recompensa e incentivos. No obstante, conviene que en futuros estudios, se analice en mayor profundidad esta variable al convertirla en la nueva variable de estudio.RESUMONo processo empresarial, é importante a etapa correspondente à geração de ideias de negócios, porém, não se tem conhecimento suficiente sobre ela. Consequentemente, esta comunicação tem por objetivo analisar de que forma a estrutura do conhecimento das pessoas influi na concepção de ideias de negócios. Em razão do objetivo que se persegue, a perspectiva teórica do estudo provem dos modelos mentais, que através de um estudo quantitativo, ajuda a identificar a forma como algumas variáveis se relacionam e qual a sua influência na geração de ideias de negócios. Os resultados indicam que não existe uma variável capaz de ter influencia significativa na formação de ideias de negócios, pelo menos na amostra do estudio. A variável que mostra um comportamento interessante é a de recompensa e incentivos, porque se relaciona com outras variáveis independentes. Porém, é aconselhável que em estudos

  7. Estratégias de comunicação e tecnologia para o sucesso de novos negócios nas indústrias criativas: dois estudos de caso


    Salvador, Ana Catarina Macedo


    As Indústrias Culturais e Criativas (ICC) têm um papel cada vez mais importante na economia e na afirmação identitária dos países, ao mesmo tempo que diversos setores de atividade beneficiam do potencial de inovação e de criatividade destas indústrias – daí que se fale de uma economia criativa. A globalização, a evolução tecnológica e a revolução comunicacional não só potenciam o crescimento deste setor como modificam a forma de se iniciar e conduzir negócios criativos. Os novos n...

  8. Uso de algoritmos genéticos para definição de mix de produção em simulador de plano de negócios


    Luciano Frontino de Medeiros


    ResumoAlgoritmos Genéticos (AG) constituem-se numa técnica heurística de busca de soluções que pode ser aplicada em uma variedade de problemas na área de gestão da manufatura e estoques. Este artigo detalha a aplicação de um AG implementado em um simulador de plano de negócios, cujo objetivo é a determinação aproximada do mixde produção envolvendo mais de um produto, considerando ainda os preços estimados no mercado e restrições via gargalos de produção. O simulador contém os dados referentes...

  9. A indústria do petróleo como uma organização complexa: modelagem de negócios e processo decisório Complex organizations' business modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Milani Júnior


    Full Text Available Este texto propõe a formulação de modelos de negócios para apoiar o processo decisório em organizações complexas. O processo decisório é estudado, explorando-se os temas da racionalidade limitada, da estruturação de problemas, dos modelos mentais, dos mundos virtuais e da modelagem como apoio à decisão. A dinâmica de sistemas é introduzida como um instrumento para a construção de modelos, a identificação de regras de decisão e sua comunicação. É desenvolvido um modelo de negócios para as atividades do segmento exploração e produção de petróleo. Conclui-se o texto com simulações para uma empresa típica desse segmento.This paper proposes the formulation of business models to support the decision-making process in complex organizations. The decision-making process is studied, being explored the themes of the bounded rationality, of the problems' structuring, of the mental models, of the virtual worlds and of the modeling as support to the decision. The system dynamics is introduced as an instrument for models' construction, the identification of decision's rules and its communication. A businesses model is developed for the activities of exploration and production of the petroleum segment. The paper is concluded with simulations to a typical company of that segment.

  10. Estratégia em negócios internacionais: evidência em uma trading company que atua entre economias emergentes International business strategy: evidence from a trading company that operates in emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Marini Thomé


    Full Text Available No presente estudo retomam-se os questionamentos de Peng (2004; 2003 a respeito do que direciona a estratégia da firma e do que determina o sucesso ou o fracasso em negócios internacionais. Mais especificamente, investiga-se o que direcionou a estratégia de uma trading company e o que determinou o seu sucesso em negócios internacionais. O referencial teórico é dividido em duas partes. A primeira diz respeito ao negócio da trading company, pautada na atuação triangular de relacionamento entre trading company, clientes e fornecedores. Na segunda parte versa-se sobre as distintas abordagens ou bases da estratégia em negócios internacionais: competição industrial, recursos e capacidades da firma e condições e transições institucionais. O estudo é de natureza descritiva e qualitativa. Na coleta dos dados primários foram utilizados roteiro de entrevistas em profundidade, observação direta não participativa e análise documental, ao longo dos meses de julho de 2010 a janeiro de 2011. O caso selecionado para estudo é uma trading company que apresenta elevado volume transacionado entre economias emergentes. Os resultados evidenciaram que não há direcionador único na estratégia da trading company estudada. O que se observou foi uma variedade de estratégias baseadas ora em competitividade industrial, ora em recursos e capacidades da firma, ora em condições institucionais. Cada direcionador correspondeu, assim, a um determinado momento na trajetória da trading company estudada. Da mesma maneira, não foi observada uma ordem cronológica linear entre os direcionadores, tampouco a obsolescência dos direcionadores. Ao contrario, as evidências apontam que os direcionadores são cumulativos e cíclicos, e necessitam ser revisados e, até mesmo, repensados, em função de atributos organizacionais e de contexto ambiental que se modificam. O determinante de sucesso da trading company estudada em negócios internacionais entre

  11. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  12. Uma análise dos jogos de negócios como estratégia de ensino-aprendizagem à luz do interacionismo pelo viés dialético [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20121102008

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    Mario Nei Pacagnan


    Full Text Available Tendo como sustentação, o interacionismo sujeito-objeto de Piaget no ensino-aprendizagem propiciado pela linha pedagógica predominante nos jogos de negócios dirigidos ao ensino de Administração, bem como a proposta de superação via interacionismo sujeito-social de Vygotsky, é que se estrutura o presente trabalho. Norteado pela dúvida sobre qual alternativa pedagógica incorporada à prática metodológica dos jogos de negócios permite avançar de um interacionismo sujeito-objeto para um interacionismo sujeito-social, busca-se como objetivo principal nesse ensaio, apresentar uma alternativa pedagógica para os jogos de negócios que avance para além da perspectiva interacionista piagetiana na direção do interacionismo vygotskyano. Nesse sentido a metodologia adotada constitui-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, que discorre inicialmente sobre as características das principais tendências pedagógicas, partindo da tradicional até a histórico-crítica. Na sequencia destaca-se que os jogos em si, apresentam desdobramentos relacionados as tendências humanista e cognitivista apoiando-se na valorização dos interesses e ritmos individuais. Explicando a diferença entre os modelos piagetiano e vygotskyano que possibilitaria uma superação interacionista, é apresentado um detalhamento dos processos avaliativos para os jogos de negócios dentro de uma proposta pedagógica com pano de fundo dialético que reforça a dimensão social do conhecimento a partir da perspectiva histórico-critica de Saviani. A partir da analise do processo ensino-aprendizagem, destacando as diferenças das contribuições de Piaget e Vygotsky, conclui-se que os jogos podem avançar ao propor critérios avaliativos objetivos que pressupõe tomada de consciência por meio da zona de desenvolvimento proximal, caracterizada pela distância entre o nível de desenvolvimento real do indivíduo e seu nível de desenvolvimento potencial.   Palavras-chave Pedagogia

  13. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID) (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.


    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  14. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  15. Rapid Strep Test (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  16. RAPID3? Aptly named! (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M


    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  17. A rentabilidade dos eventos de negócios para os hotéis da cidade de São Paulo: um estudo de caso do Hotel SB SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Caroline Soares Caetano


    Full Text Available O mercado hoteleiro da cidade de São Paulo se encontra em um momento competitivo e as grandes redes hoteleiras buscam alternativas para captar e fidelizar clientes. Elas identificam no turista de negócios e eventos um grande potencial de compra, pois esse turista tem uma maior demanda por diversos serviços e produtos hoteleiros que geram maiores receitas, mais contratações de mão de obra, além de aumentar o gasto médio. Os eventos corporativos são os mais atendidos pelos hotéis paulistanos devido à localização e a praticidade, visto que os empresários encontram os serviços de alimentos e bebidas e todos os outros itens necessários para a realização de seus eventos em um único lugar. Diante desse cenário, os hotéis buscam investir em novas tecnologias para atrair novos clientes e planejar ações de melhorias como a expansão de suas áreas comuns. Fato esse que, é fortemente presente no hotel SB SP.

  18. Uso de algoritmos genéticos para definição de mix de produção em simulador de plano de negócios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Frontino de Medeiros


    Full Text Available ResumoAlgoritmos Genéticos (AG constituem-se numa técnica heurística de busca de soluções que pode ser aplicada em uma variedade de problemas na área de gestão da manufatura e estoques. Este artigo detalha a aplicação de um AG implementado em um simulador de plano de negócios, cujo objetivo é a determinação aproximada do mixde produção envolvendo mais de um produto, considerando ainda os preços estimados no mercado e restrições via gargalos de produção. O simulador contém os dados referentes à estrutura de matéria-prima e ao fluxo de produção, permitindo o cálculo de forma dinâmica do resultado operacional e lucratividade. Uma série de cenários é explorada, nela o AG tende a encontrar soluções heurísticas na tentativa de maximização do lucro líquido, calculado a partir do demonstrativo de resultado gerado no simulador, considerando-se, em alguns casos, um fator de penalização como restrição ao problema.

  19. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.


    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  20. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  1. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K


    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  2. Rapid Prototyping in PVS (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)


    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  3. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered (United States)

    Desrosier, James


    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  4. Les images dans les Alexipharmaques de Nicandre The images in Nicander’s Alexipharmaca: how to assimilate epic tradition? Le immagini negli Alexipharmaca di Nicandro: come assimilare la tradizione epica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Cusset


    Full Text Available In this article I show how Nicander, in his Alexipharmaca, reappropriates a standard epic practice, the use of similes, and how he uses these for ends that are not purely ornamental, but which answer as much to the construction of his hexameter poem as to the mythological or metapoetic discourse into a technical one. But the similes are not only a window open on another discursive type: they are also at times fully operative in the technical discourse and so take full part in medical description.In questo articolo mostriamo come, negli Alexipharmaca, Nicandro si appropri di una pratica stilistica comune nella poesia epica, vale a dire l’uso delle similitudini, e come egli le impiega per motivi che non sono puramente esornativi, ma che derivano tanto dalla costruzione del suo poema epico quanto dall’incursione in un discorso tecnico del discorso mitologico oppure metapoetico. Ma le similitudini non sono soltanto una finestra aperta su un altro tipo di discorso; sono talvolta anche pienamente assunte dal discorso tecnico e partecipano allora in pieno alla descrizione iologica.Nous montrons dans cet article comment Nicandre dans les Alexipharmaques se réapproprie une pratique stylistique ordinaire de la poésie épique, à savoir l’usage des comparaisons, et comment il les utilise à des fins qui ne sont pas purement ornementales, mais qui relèvent aussi bien de la construction de son poème hexamétrique que de l’incursion dans un discours technique du discours mythologique voire métapoétique. Mais les comparaisons ne sont pas seulement une fenêtre ouverte sur un autre type de discours ; elles sont aussi parfois pleinement assumées par le discours technique et participent alors pleinement à la description iologique.

  5. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation


    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell


    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  6. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin


    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  7. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino


    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  8. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.


    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  9. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.


    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  10. Right-Rapid-Rough (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig


    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  11. Negócios de família: notas sobre o capital econômico familiar de um governador republicano (Rio Grande do Sul, século XIX = Family business: notes about family economic capital of a republican governor (Rio Grande do Sul, century XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiny, Carina


    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de alguns aspectos da trajetória do líder republicano Júlio Prates de Castilhos a partir da análise da dinâmica econômica de sua família ao longo da segunda metade do século XIX. Objetiva analisar a relação entre a construção do capital econômico familiar com a formação da carreira político-profissional de Júlio de Castilhos. Partindo da análise qualitativa de inventários e correspondências familiares, investiga os investimentos e atividades econômicas da família Castilhos e evidencia a centralidade dos negócios pecuários e comércio de muares na construção do capital econômico familiar. Demonstra a vinculação e dependência da formação superior de Júlio de Castilhos aos negócios familiares, uma vez que o capital que financiou seus estudos provinha de rendimentos gerados por meio das atividades econômicas de sua família. Demonstra também que, mesmo residindo na capital do estado e desempenhando atividade de advogado, jornalista e político, Júlio de Castilhos manteve vinculação com negócios da família, seja pela manutenção dos bens herdados, seja através de investimentos em atividades pecuárias

  12. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking. (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C


    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  14. Uma proposta de vocabulário bilíngue inglês/português para o Turismo de Negócios e Eventos direcionada pelo corpus: da teoria à prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Alves Carvalho


    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem o objetivo de evidenciar as etapas de construção de um vocabulário bilíngue direcionado pelo corpus. Mas antes mesmo de demonstrar esta sequência de etapas metodológicas, vamos abordar, ainda que rapidamente, as bases teóricas que orientam a produção desta obra terminológica, como: a Teoria Comunicativa da Terminologia de Cabré (1995; a tipologia das obras lexicais e definição de campo de Barbosa (2007; os estudos de Krieger e Finatto (2010 sobre Terminologia; a tese de Fromm (2009 que trabalha a construção de vocabulários eletrônicos para aprendizes de tradução e os pressupostos teóricos da Linguística de Corpus de Parodi (2008 e Teixeira (2008. Depois de realizada uma breve compreensão teórica, as etapas metodológicas são descritas, e são elas: a criação da árvore de domínio do turismo – esta elaborada a partir da realidade brasileira e de base motivacional; a Linguística de Corpus enquanto metodologia para a coleta e tratamento de dados via suíte WordSmith Tools, e a inserção de dados nas fichas terminológicas da plataforma Votec, que trabalha com a gestão terminológica online e também é fonte de inspiração deste trabalho (; FROMM, 2007 , para a construção das definições. Assim, acreditamos que estas informações possam ajudar os iniciantes em Terminologia com foco em construção vocabulários, além de contribuir com estudos científicos relacionados à área. Palavras-chave: Vocabulário Bilíngue. Linguística de Corpus. Turismo de Negócios e Eventos.

  15. Inovação aberta em serviços e o papel do cliente no ambiente de negócios: uma análise com estudantes universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glessia Silva


    Full Text Available O intenso fluxo de informações no ambiente competitivo obrigou as organizações a buscar como estratégia de inovação parcerias e fontes de conhecimento canalizadas em diversos agentes aos quais se comunica, compondo o que se denomina modelo de inovação aberta. Diante disso, o cliente passa a adquirir um novo papel dentro da cadeia de inovação das empresas, redefinindo a forma pela qual os serviços são prestados e alterando o padrão de competição das empresas. Com base nessas considerações, o artigo busca explorar como o cliente percebe-se dentro do paradigma da inovação aberta em sua relação com as empresas de serviços. Esta pesquisa é quantitativa com abordagem descritiva, partindo do método hipotético-dedutivo e tendo como estratégia de pesquisa uma survey realizada com estudantes universitários. Os dados foram coletados mediante o uso de questionário com perguntas fechadas e analisados por meio de análise fatorial exploratória, como forma de validar os construtos e suas dimensões e buscar por fatores capazes de demonstrar se as três hipóteses levantadas são válidas ou não: (i os clientes atualmente percebem seu papel dentro da cadeia de inovação das empresas; (ii os clientes valorizam empresas de serviços que inovam abertamente; e (iii o modelo de inovação aberta modificou o ambiente de negócios na perspectiva do cliente. Como resultado obteve-se a validação das hipóteses levantadas e a elaboração de um modelo intitulado “Modelo dos Seis Fatores de Percepção”, que representa a percepção do cliente perante o modelo de inovação aberta.

  16. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N


    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  19. Building a rapid response team. (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard


    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  20. Problems of rapid growth. (United States)

    Kim, T D


    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  1. Rapid Polymer Sequencer (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)


    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  2. Rapidly rotating red giants (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric


    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  3. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques. (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J


    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  4. Rapid Active Sampling Package (United States)

    Peters, Gregory


    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  5. Governança Gestora na Rede de Negócios: um estudo comparativoGovernance in the Network Business Structure: a comparative studyGobernanza Gestora en la Red de Negocios: un estudio comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KWASNICKA, Eunice Lacava


    Full Text Available RESUMOO presente artigo busca entender, na gestão de rede de negócios, a importância da estrutura organizacional formal para o sucesso da rede e como ela influencia esse resultado. A partir de uma profunda pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o tema, observamos que os autores são muito divergentes. A grande maioria considera que a estrutura formal impede a funcionalidade das redes, dentro de sua própria concepção. Para fundamentar essa idéia, usamos dois casos distintos na busca da estrutura de cada caso e seus efeitos no desempenho da rede. O resultado foi que a estrutura tem seu papel de destaque e nem sempre pode ser dispensada. Como objetivo secundário, propomos ampliar essa pesquisa envolvendo outros casos e outras variáveis, além das estudadas: poder, comunicação, liderança e cultura.ABSTRACTThis article seeks the comprehension in the management field of business networks about the importance of formal organizational structure to assure networks effectiveness. and how formal structure influences the final results. From a deep research of national and international articles on this subject we could assure there is a serious divergency in thought. Most authors consider that formal structure does not permit the functionality of the network. To prove this idea we use two distinct cases and study their structure and effect on results. The findings were that the structure has its important role and sometimes cannot be ignored. As a second objective we propose to involve more cases in this study and to introduce new This article seeks the comprehension in the management field of business networks about the importance of formal organizational structure to assure networks effectiveness and how formal structure influences the final results. From a deep research of national and international articles on this subject we could assure there is a serious divergence in thought. Most authors consider that formal structure does not permit the

  6. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  7. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  8. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset (United States)

    Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Casrouge, Armanda; Huot, Nicolas; Passaes, Caroline; Lécuroux, Camille; Essat, Asma; Boufassa, Faroudy; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Jochems, Simon P.; Petitjean, Gaël; Angin, Mathieu; Gärtner, Kathleen; Garcia-Tellez, Thalía; Booiman, Thijs; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte D.; Roques, Pierre; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Vaslin, Bruno; Dereudre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Ghislain, Mathilde; Rouzioux, Christine; Lambotte, Olivier; Albert, Matthew L.; Goujard, Cécile; Kootstra, Neeltje; Meyer, Laurence; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.


    Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort), as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts). We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT) and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker) gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10. PMID:27509048

  9. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël J Ploquin


    Full Text Available Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort, as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts. We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10.

  10. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth


    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  11. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston


    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  12. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  13. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  14. Composites by rapid prototyping technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S


    Full Text Available powder is a fiber, problems of manufacturing occur. The method has also been used to make Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), e.g Fe and graphite [17], WC-Co [18,19], WC-Co and Cu [20,21], Fe, Ni and TiC [22] etc and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) e.g. Si... of various materials used. Key words: : Rapid Prototyping (RP), Laser, Composites 1 Introduction Rapid Prototyping (RP) initially focussed on polymers. These were later re- placed/supplemented by ceramics, metals and composites. Composites are used in RP...

  15. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation. (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael


    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  16. Multigrade Teaching Rapid Appraisal Procedure. (United States)

    Nielsen, Dean

    Multigrade classes have been recognized as part of elementary education for many years, but their special needs have been largely ignored. This manual focuses on the survey research that should predate the design of instructional management strategies in multigrade classrooms. It describes rapid and reliable ways to collect information about the…

  17. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E


    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  18. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der


    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  19. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration (United States)


    BIM Building Information Modeling BPA Building Performance Analysis BTU British Thermal Unit CBECS Commercial Building ...geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generates 3D Building Information Models ( BIM ) guided by satellite views of building footprints and...Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy analysis.

  20. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  1. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities


    Franco Pettenati; Livio Sirovich


    After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology), which is reproduced for Figure 1. T...

  2. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng


    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  3. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pettenati


    Full Text Available After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which is reproduced for Figure 1. The general matter of the use of intensities in damage scenarios was discussed in a special session at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America (, and was also discussed in the NIS-1 session of the European Congress in Moscow, in August 2012 ( The purposes of the present report are to: (i compare different types of intensities; (ii check two rapid scenarios of intensity; and (iii understand whether the KF formula [Sirovich 1996, Sirovich et al. 2009] can be used as a new 'attenuation' relationship to improve rapid scenarios. […

  4. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Drancourt


    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  5. Vínculos de negócios entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais: implicações para políticas públicas e desenvolvimento Business linkages between large buyers and small local suppliers: implications for public policy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milber Fernandes Morais Bourguignon


    Full Text Available Este artigo verifica as condições nas quais os programas e as políticas públicas promotoras de vínculos de negócios (VNs, entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais agem, pressupondo que o Estado tem um importante papel nesse estímulo e que tais vínculos geram desenvolvimento regional e reduzem o desequilíbrio social. A pesquisa empírica, de natureza qualitativa, busca analisar ações e programas de promoção de VNs desenvolvidos no Brasil, bem como as instituições envolvidas, verificar os benefícios dessas ações e identificar oportunidades de intervenção do Estado. Os resultados indicam que políticas públicas podem ser criadas como complemento às políticas de desenvolvimento, voltadas à educação, ualificação de profissionais e incentivadoras de transferência de tecnologia e, de maneira mais ampla, como promotoras de um ambiente propício à atração de investimentos estrangeiros diretos e ao ambiente de negócios. Sugestões de pesquisas futuras são apresentadas como sistemas de governança que abrangem a relação entre as empresas e sua conexão com o setor público.This article analyzes the conditions under which public policies promoting business linkages (BL between large and small/medium enterprises act, assuming that the state has a fundamental role stimulating them, and those linkages generate regional development and reduce social inequalities. The empirical research, qualitative in nature, was designed to analyze actions and programs promoting BL developed in Brazil, as well as the institutions involved in it. It also verifies the benefits of those actions and identifies opportunities for public sector intervention. The results show that public policies can be created so as to complement those related to promoting development directed toward education, competence building and technology transfer, and, more generally, to those promoting favorable environment for business and foreign


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Robles Aranda


    Full Text Available In this research, data mining and decision tree techniques were analyzed as well as the induction of rules to integrate their many algorithms into the database managing system (DBMS, PostgreSQL, due to the defficiencies of the free use tools avaialable. A mechanism to optimize the performance of the implemented algorithms was proposed with the purpose of taking advantage of the PostgreSQL. By means of an experiment, it was proven that the time response and results obtained are improved when the algorithms are integrated into the managing system.

  7. Combining the Locator System with WinID3--identifying victims from dental remains in a large disaster. (United States)

    Lewis, C; Leventhal, L


    Computer software programs are typically used at disaster sites to help identify victims from dental remains. Using a simulated disaster with 300 simulated victims and 105 simulated dental fragments, previous research compared two computer programs, WinID and CAPMI4, to a non-computer identification system--the Locator System (LS). LS performed best. LS requires dental professionals manually to sort antemortem and postmortem files into dental categories and then compare postmortem and antemortem files in the same category to find matches. We combined LS with the better of the two computer programs, WinID, to create a single method. This method was used by two teams of forensic odontologists to identify victims in the same simulated disaster employed in previous research. One team had 8 members and the other had 5 members. The 5-member team performed better than all previous teams and the 8-member team performed better than the 5-member team. The 8-member team was large enough to assign a different member to each category as a specialist. We make practical recommendations on identifying disaster victims from dental remains.

  8. The brown bear (Ursus arctos L. in Trentino, Italy: geographical distribution and population size during 1987-1991 / L'orso bruno (Ursus arctos L. nel Trentino: distribuzione geografica e consistenza numerica negli anni 1987-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Osti


    Full Text Available Abstract The present research on alpine Brown bears (Ursus arctos L., covers a period of five years (1987-1991 of collection of data about the status of this population in Western Trentino (Northeastern Italy. The last wild brown bears survive in the Alps in a range of about 800 km² in the western province of Trento, on the slopes of the Brenta mountains. At present, only about 240 km² of this area are usually utilized by bear population. Within the last five years the bear population has probably remained stable. About 10 bears are presently believed to live in Trentino, with an annual reproduction until 1989. Riassunto La presente ricerca sulla distribuzione e consistenza numerica dell'Orso bruno (Ursus arctos L. in Trentino comprende un periodo di cinque anni. Nel Trentino occidentale è ancora presente una piccola popolazione di orsi bruni nelle montagne del gruppo di Brenta su un territorio di circa 800 kmq. Di questi soltanto 240 kmq risultano di importanza primaria per la presenza costante della specie. Negli anni della ricerca la popolazione sembra essersi mantenuta numericamente stabile (circa 10 orsi con una riproduzione annuale fino al 1989.

  9. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.


    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  10. Rapid self-healing hydrogels (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni


    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  11. Rapid generalization in phonotactic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Linzen


    Full Text Available Speakers judge novel strings to be better potential words of their language if those strings consist of sound sequences that are attested in the language. These intuitions are often generalized to new sequences that share some properties with attested ones: Participants exposed to an artificial language where all words start with the voiced stops [b] and [d] will prefer words that start with other voiced stops (e.g., [g] to words that start with vowels or nasals. The current study tracks the evolution of generalization across sounds during the early stages of artificial language learning. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received varying amounts of exposure to an artificial language. Learners rapidly generalized to new sounds: In fact, following short exposure to the language, attested patterns were not distinguished from unattested patterns that were similar in their phonological properties to the attested ones. Following additional exposure, participants showed an increasing preference for attested sounds, alongside sustained generalization to unattested ones. Finally, Experiment 3 tested whether participants can rapidly generalize to new sounds based on a single type of sound. We discuss the implications of our results for computational models of phonotactic learning.

  12. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas


    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)


    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  14. Rapid starting methanol reactor system (United States)

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.


    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  15. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen


    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  16. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars


    the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles.......In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...

  17. Moved by a Rapid Transit (United States)

    Bueter, C.


    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  18. [Rapid diagnostic test for malaria]. (United States)

    Houzé, S


    The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) whose main interest lies in their implementation without special equipment by unskilled personnel have grown significantly over the past fifteen years to diagnose malaria. They rely on the detection of specific Plasmodium proteins, PfHRP2, pLDH and aldolase. If the detection of PfHRP2 has very good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the detection of pLDH or aldolase is less efficient for other species, leaving its place to the reference microscopic diagnosis. RDT could not generally be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy because they can remain positive after clinical and parasitological cure. Furthermore, the development of the use of these tests has highlighted the need for quality assurance programs to monitor their production as their use.

  19. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides (United States)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.


    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  20. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid ...

  1. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.


    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  2. Análise do perfil dos estudantes de um curso Lato Sensu utilizando ferramenta RapidMiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Leonardi


    Full Text Available   A pesquisa tem como objetivo levantar o perfil dos participantes selecionados num curso em nível Lato Sensu na modalidade EaD realizado pela Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC. Foi utilizada a ferramenta de extração de conhecimento RapidMiner para observar e estruturar os dados (usando algoritmos de classificação baseado na técnica de árvore ID3 numérico sobre a formação, experiência em EaD e produção acadêmica dos candidatos selecionados. Com tal análise foi proposta uma abordagem pedagógica do curso congruente com o perfil dos selecionados, facilitando o desenvolvimento de situações de aprendizagem e formação de professores na interação de duas grandes áreas: gestão e docência. A organização do curso preocupa-se em preservar a unidade do conhecimento na formação dos participantes. Nesta perspectiva as disciplinas se integram pelos quatro eixos temáticos que constituem a organização curricular. Os eixos e os temas tratados como disciplinas propõem o cruzamento e a complementaridade durante o decorrer do curso, contemplando o olhar prismático da interdisciplinaridade e transversalidade.

  3. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Michael D.


    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  4. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.


    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  5. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  6. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  7. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.


    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  8. Adoção de E-Business e mudanças no modelo de negócio: inovação organizacional em pequenas empresas dos setores de comércio e serviços E-Business adoption and business model changes: organizational innovation in small businesses in the trade and service sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Braz de Araujo


    Full Text Available As pequenas empresas constituem um segmento relevante da economia brasileira, pois representam 98% das empresas e empregam 67% da mão de obra economicamente ativa, sendo responsáveis por somente 20% do PIB do País (SEBRAE, 2005. Isto mostra que a produtividade dessas empresas é relativamente pequena, podendo melhorar com a adoção de práticas organizacionais que aumentem o seu desempenho, entre elas, o e-business. Para que o e-business promova a melhoria de desempenho nessas empresas, é necessário que esteja inserido adequadamente em seu modelo de negócios, de forma a atender aos anseios mais amplos da empresa. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever o modelo de negócios utilizado pelas pequenas empresas dos setores de comércio e serviços para a adoção de e-business, observando as principais dificuldades para essa adoção e os principais resultados obtidos por essas empresas. Este estudo caracteriza-se por uma pesquisa descritiva, realizada em duas etapas: qualitativa, com um estudo exploratório em 13 empresas; e quantitativa, com uma coleta de dados em 156 empresas. Os principais aspectos identificados na pesquisa foram a centralização das decisões referentes à adoção de e-business e à sua operação pelos sócios-proprietários, o uso da Internet para divulgação da marca ou do produto das empresas como principal proposta de valor e a separação da operação da loja física e da loja virtual na maioria das empresas. Os principais resultados obtidos pelas empresas pesquisadas foram a ampliação no alcance geográfico das vendas, a melhoria na organização das tarefas de comercialização e a utilização de redes sociais para relacionamento com clientes.Small businesses are an important segment of the Brazilian economy because they account for 98% of all enterprises and employ 67% of economically active manpower, but they represent only 20% of Brazil's GDP (SEBRAE, 2005. This shows that these companies can improve

  9. Business tourism: a guest opinion about relationship marketing practices of the hotel network in São José dos Campos (SP Turismo de negócios: a opinião de hóspedes sobre as ações de marketing de relacionamento da rede hoteleira de São José dos Campos (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fátima da Silva Cané


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the Relationship Marketing used in the hotel network in Sao José dos Campos, facing the tourism business. Relationship Marketing is an ongoing process of identifying and creating new value with individual customers and sharing their benefits for a lifetime partnership and a proper marketing aspect of the hospitality industry. The aim of this study was to identify the views of customers in relation to the practices of Relationship Marketing used by the chain of São José dos Campos (SP. The methodology used in this study consisted of an empirical field studies in which questionnaires were administered to 90 clients of hotels in São José dos Campos. The results indicate that the public, which is partly composed of foreigners, and therefore have references international hotel chain, identify some of the actions taken by the hotel chain. It is evident that the major hotel chains working in the city of São José dos Campos, conduct their business by applying some elements of relationship marketing, which make, in general, the public served opine positively on the services provided.Este trabalho buscou analisar o Marketing de Relacionamento utilizado na rede hoteleira de São José dos Campos, voltada para o turismo de negócios. O Marketing de Relacionamento é o processo contínuo de identificação e criação de novos valores, com clientes individuais, o compartilhamento de seus benefícios durante uma vida toda de parceria e uma vertente do marketing adequada ao setor hoteleiro. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi identificar a opinião dos clientes em relação às práticas de Marketing de Relacionamento usadas pela rede hoteleira de São José dos Campos (SP. A metodologia utilizada neste estudo consistiu em uma pesquisa empírica de campo, na qual foram aplicados questionários a 90 clientes dos hotéis de São José dos Campos. Os resultados indicaram que o público, que é parcialmente composto por

  10. Níveis de Governança Corporativa da Bovespa e a Revelação de Informações ao Mercado: uma Comparação da Divulgação de Combinações de Negócios em Notas Explicativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kolozsvari


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a revelação de informações associada à Governança Corporativa, a partir dos segmentos de listagem da Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (Bovespa, é abordada pela divulgação de combinações de negócios nas demonstrações financeiras anuais. Com base no Pronunciamento Técnico CPC 15, foram analisadas as notas explicativas das demonstrações de 2012 das empresas listadas na Bovespa, considerando os segmentos diferenciados de listagem, para investigar se os segmentos de maior nível de governança apresentariam também maior nível de divulgação. As informações publicadas foram analisadas quanto ao tipo: simples, descritivas e detalhistas, de maneira descritiva e com confirmação estatística, através dos testes de Mann-Whitney para comparação entre os segmentos de Novo Mercado e Mercado Tradicional e de Wilcoxon, para comparação dos blocos de informações. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no nível de divulgação atribuídas à governança, entretanto, constatou-se menor divulgação conforme maior a complexidade da informação requerida. Os resultados apontam para uma maior sensibilidade ao tipo de informação relacionada aos segmentos de listagem, uma abordagem aplicável a outros pronunciamentos normativos ou outros indicadores de Governança Corporativa.

  11. Dosage of high COD industrial wastewaters as an external carbon source in the pre-denitrification step of activated sludge plants; Utilizzo di reflui industriali a elevato COD come fonte esterna di carbonio in pre-denitrificazione negli impianti a fanghi attivi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertanza, G.; Collivignarelli, C.; Pedrazzani, R. [Brescia Univ., Brescia (Italy). Facolta' di Ingegneria, Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile


    In pre-denitrification plants, the organic carbon shortage in the influent wastewater can inhibit the denitrification process. In this case, the dosage of organic substrates can be considered, when the F/M ratio in the nitrification stage is adequate. Beside commonly available substances (acetic acid, methanol etc.) industrial wastewaters can be dosed. This research was aimed to assess the feasibility of this alternative, by testing several industrial wastewaters in addition to real municipal wastewater. The experiment consisted in running a continuous-flow activated sludge pilot plant and in carrying out NUR (Nitrogen Uptake Rate) tests. The studied wastewaters derive from the food industry and, more precisely, from cocoa working and from the cold drink industry. Results were compared with two reference situations (dosage of sodium acetate and of an available organic solution). [Italian] Negli impianti con pre-denitrificazione, il processo di denitrificazione puo' essere inibito dalla carenza di carbonio organico nel liquame influente. Un rimedio (applicabile qualora il carico del fango in nitrificazione sia compatibile) consiste nel dosaggio di substrati carboniosi. Accanto alle soluzioni commercializzate (acido acetico, metanolo, ecc.) e' possibile dosare reflui industriali aventi caratteristiche adeguate. Nel presente studio si e' voluta verificare tale alternativa mediante una sperimentazione svolta su liquame fognario a cui sono stati aggiunti, di volta in volta, diversi substrati carboniosi. Le prove sono state effettuate sia in continuo (mediante l'impiego di un impianto pilota a fanghi attivi) sia in batch (test di NUR - Nitrogen Uptake Rate). I reflui studiati originano dall'industria alimentare, in particolare, dalla laovrazione del cacao e dalla produzione di bevande analcoliche. I risultati sono stati confrontati con due situazioni di riferimento (dosaggio di acetato di sodio e di una soluzione carboniosa disponibile in

  12. A Bibliometric Study of John Dunning’s Contribution to International Business ResearchUm Estudo Bibliométrico da Contribuição de John Dunning na Pesquisa em Negócios InternacionaisUn Estudio Bibliométrico de la Contribución de John Dunning a la Investigación en los Negocios Internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA, Manuel Anibal Silva Portugal Vasconcelos


    Dunning na pesquisa em negócios internacionais, para entender o impacto de sua obra e do paradigma Eclético na disciplina. A contribuição de Dunning e do paradigma Eclético – usualmente referido como OLI – é uma referência central na pesquisa atual em negócios internacionais e, mais frequentemente, para o estudo de decisões de localização, investimento, modos de entrada e internacionalização e para a teoria da empresa multinacional. Primeiro, fazemos uma revisão dos fundamentos da contribuição acadêmica de Dunning. Segundo, metodologicamente, realizamos um estudo bibliométrico dos artigos publicados em 14 periódicos acadêmicos de alta reputação na área da Administração, em um período de 31 anos, entre 1980 e 2010. Uma amostra de 697 artigos que citam o trabalho de Dunning apoia a análise de matrizes de citações e cocitações e dos temas abordados, permitindo verificar a influência dos trabalhos de Dunning na disciplina de negócios internacionais e em Administração, em sentido mais amplo. Este estudo permitiu identificar a rede de ligações do paradigma Eclético de Dunning com uma variedade de teorias, conceitos e autores em negócios internacionais, além de com os principais temas estudados na disciplina. Observamos as ligações com a teoria dos custos de transação, visão baseada nos recursos, organização industrial e teoria evolucionária. Contribui, também, para os acadêmicos compreenderem melhor o desenvolvimento da disciplina e a estrutura do conhecimento nas inter-relações entre teorias e autores. Alguns autores, como John Dunning, marcam a forma como as disciplinas e o conhecimento evoluem com suas contribuições. O trabalho de Dunning, no paradigma Eclético, sistematizou três condições que presidem a internacionalização das empresas e é hoje uma referência para a prática empresarial, os acadêmicos e a pesquisa.RESUMENEste artículo ofrece una revisión de la contribución de John Dunning a la investigaci

  13. Desafios logísticos às redes de negócios no Brasil: o que podem as parcerias público-privadas (PPPs? Logistical challenges to business networks in Brazil: what can public-private partnerships (PPPs do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlan Mendes Mesquita


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a distribuição regional dos investimentos prioritários para parcerias público-privadas (PPPs, tendo por base as condições logísticas para formação de redes de negócios nas regiões e a perspectiva de estratégia de redução das desigualdades regionais, e como foco os sistemas de transporte. Considerando-se os aspectos positivos da regulamentação e o fato de não ter o objetivo de promover uma descentralização da riqueza nacional, conclui-se que além de não se poder esperar das PPPs o efeito de redução das desigualdades regionais no Brasil - uma distorção com repercussões extremamente negativas para o desenvolvimento brasileiro - é bastante possível que o efeito seja no sentido de reforçar as desigualdades.This article investigates the regional distribution of priority investments of public-private partnerships (PPP, based on the logistic conditions for business-oriented networks in the regions and the strategic perspective of reducing regional inequalities, with a focus on transportation systems. Taking into consideration the positive aspects of regulation and the fact that it does not have as its objective the promotion of decentralization of the national wealth, the article concludes that PPPs are not supposed to reduce regional inequalities in Brazil, a distortion with extremely negative repercussions for Brazilian development. Besides, the article indicates that it is even possible for PPPs to have an adverse effect, strengthening inequalities.

  14. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin


    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  15. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  16. WIST: toolkit for rapid, customized LIMS development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Y Wayne; Arkin, Adam P; Chandonia, John-Marc


    Workflow Information Storage Toolkit (WIST) is a set of application programming interfaces and web applications that allow for the rapid development of customized laboratory information management systems (LIMS...

  17. JIEDDO Experience Provides Rapid Acquisition Insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James P Craft


    .... JIDA's rapid acquisition capabilities were preserved by transitioning the expedient organization that received supplemental funding into the Defense Department's newest combat support agency (CSA...

  18. Test plan for the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.


    This document describes the test plant for demonstrating and testing a set of optically pumped cesium-based total field magnetometers using the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor platform. The proposed testing will be used to assess the function of these magnetometers as deployed on the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor and evaluate the practical utility of high resolution magnetic data for supporting waste retrieval efforts.

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B


    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  20. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games (United States)

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu


    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  1. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.


    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  2. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A


    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  3. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration. (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L


    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  4. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead


    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  5. A scoping review of rapid review methods. (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E


    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  6. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)


    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  7. Misure di similarità negli adjustment grid methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuela De Ruggiero; Francesco Salvo


    ...", which means that properties features are to be close one to the other, and reliability of the real estate selling prices, which could be conditioned by fortuitous circumstances and present different "reliability degree...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nella 52° Sessione della Commissione Geodetica
    Italiana tenuta a Padova il 27 febbraio 1954, allorché venne fatto il
    consuntivo dello stato attuale del rilievo gravimetrico di 1° ordine in
    Italia, risultò ancora non rilevata la regione fra l'Emilia (rilievo dell'Istituto
    di Geodesia dell'Università di Bologna, la Toscana (Istituto
    Geografico Militare e la congiungente Roma-Pescara (limite Nord
    del rilievo del Servizio Geologico d'Italia.

  9. Autocrate negli encomi imperiali di Michele Psello (1018-1081

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauritzen Frederick


    Full Text Available In the imperial encomia of Michael Psellos (1018-1081? the terms αυτοκράτωρ and βασιλευς are not equivalent and the former appears quite rarely. One may deduce that αυτοκράτωρ is not a generic term but has a specific meaning which indicates that the emperor has delegated his executive power to a minister. The term βασιλευς, instead, simply indicates an emperor. The term αυτοκράτωρ was used mainly when the μεσάζωυ was Constantine Leichoudes (1042-1050. Therefore the term αυτοκράτωρ actually indicates not only the delegation of executive power to a μεσάζωυ but also that a certain cultural current was present at court to which belonged Psellos. Moreover, the term αυτοκράτωρ is employed as an adjective with moral connotations. Such an understanding of the meaning of αυτοκράτωρ implies that the encomia were written for the person of the emperor but also included the culture of his μεσάζωυ.

  10. Aspetti areali negli studi di slavistica: Polonia e dintorni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Brogi Bercoff


    Full Text Available Polish and East Central European Area Studies in the Last Two Decades In Western Slavic countries one may observe changes similar to those of the other Eastern European countries. Scholars have introduced new themes to investigate, they published many new texts and translations of Western books. This cultural evolution took place in Poland [and the Czech Republic] in a less dramatic way than in the Balkan or ex-Soviet areas. Czechs and Poles, political difficulties notwithstanding, have always fostered strong ties with Western tradition. The author focuses on two main aspects: the growing interest in East Central European area studies and the Polish-Ukrainian relationships in the past and present. Interest in East Central Europe has a long history, having begun with the Independence of Poland and Czechoslovakia after WWI. It was less .fashionable. in the Communist period, but has become very important immediately after 1990 as a possible alternative to the European choice. The entry of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary into the European Union does not diminish the importance of the idea of a regional East Central European community. On the contrary, the cultural integration within East Central Europe is very important for its relationship to Western Europe on the one hand and Ukraine on the other. In the last two decades Poland has made enormous efforts to investigate Ukrainian culture and to construct cultural bridges towards Ukraine. As many new publications show, Poland.s efforts concentrate both on re-thinking its own role and attitudes towards Ukraine in the past and on disseminating Ukrainian literature in Poland. Thus, Poland plays a leading role in the cultural activity of Eastern Europe and in the organisation of relationships between East Central and Western Europe, and between Ukraine, Russia and Europe as well. It is hard to say whether Ukraine will be included in the East Central European cultural (and political area. Its integration depends on many factors, internal and external to Ukraine and Poland. But it is important that the interest in these delicate problems continues in Poland, Ukraine and Western Europe at the level of cultural activity and in historical, literary and linguistic studies. This paper reviews some of the main trends and provides bibliographical information about new publications dealing with these problems in various languages.

  11. L’analisi delle decisioni negli studi di farmacoeconomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bacchieri


    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the decision tree methodology. This is a very useful technique in complex decision making, when the consequences of the decisions are distant in time and the information upon which we can rely is uncertain. Decision trees are the basic structure underlying most applications of decision analysis in medicine. However, in this review we only cover their application to the pharmaco-economic field. The main steps of this decision analysis are explained. Thereafter, a case study from the literature is used as an example, i.e. an application of the decision tree analysis to a study aimed at comparing two different drugs in the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux. The main focus of our paper is on the statistical aspects, which include the definition and quantification of the outcome variables, the definition and quantification of the probabilities of occurrence of the uncertain events considered in the decision tree, and the sensitivity analysis. The knowledge of the basic laws of the probability theory is mandatory for assigning correct values to the parameters of the decision tree (outcomes and probabilities. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is an important part of the work to be performed in the last stage of the decision analysis in order to measure the degree of robustness of the results when varying the assumptions.

  12. Implementation of rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship. (United States)

    Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie


    Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.

  13. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  14. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  15. Rapid Chemical Exposure and Dose Research (United States)

    EPA evaluates the potential risks of the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. To assist with this evaluation, EPA scientists developed a rapid, automated model using off the shelf technology that predicts exposures for thousands of chemicals.

  16. Innovative rapid construction/reconstruction methods. (United States)


    Innovative construction and reconstruction methods provide the opportunity to significantly reduce the time of roadway projects while maintaining the necessary quality of workmanship. The need for these rapid methods stems from the increase in ...

  17. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  18. Development of a Rapid Thermoplastic Impregnation Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weustink, A.P.D.


    A melt impregnation device for rapid thermoplastic impregnation of fiber bundles has been developed through modeling and experiments. The basic principles behind the thermoplastic impregnation process are investigated and the properties needed for a successful thermoplastic impregnation device are

  19. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A


    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  20. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  1. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.


    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  2. Rapidly separating microneedles for transdermal drug delivery. (United States)

    Zhu, Dan Dan; Wang, Qi Lei; Liu, Xu Bo; Guo, Xin Dong


    The applications of polymer microneedles (MNs) into human skin emerged as an alternative of the conventional hypodermic needles. However, dissolving MNs require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. To address these issues, we introduce rapidly separating MNs that can rapidly deliver drugs into the skin in a minimally invasive way. For the rapidly separating MNs, drug loaded dissolving MNs are mounted on the top of solid MNs, which are made of biodegradable polylactic acid which eliminate the biohazardous waste. These MNs have sufficient mechanical strength to be inserted into the skin with the drug loaded tips fully embedded for subsequent dissolution. Compared with the traditional MNs, rapidly separating MNs achieve over 90% of drug delivery efficiency in 30s while the traditional MNs needs 2min to achieve the same efficiency. With the in vivo test in mice, the micro-holes caused by rapidly separating MNs can heal in 1h, indicating that the rapidly separating MNs are safe for future applications. These results indicate that the design of rapidly separating dissolvable MNs can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient, safe and potentially self-administered method of drug delivery. Polymer microneedles offer an attractive, painless and minimally invasive approach for transdermal drug delivery. However, dissolving microneedles require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin due to the skin deformation, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. In this work we proposed rapidly separating microneedles which can deliver over 90% of drug into the skin in 30s. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the new design of these microneedles can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient and safe method for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  3. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew


    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  4. Transverse vetoes with rapidity cutoff in SCET (United States)

    Hornig, Andrew; Kang, Daekyoung; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas


    We consider di-jet production in hadron collisions where a transverse veto is imposed on radiation for (pseudo-)rapidities in the central region only, where this central region is defined with rapidity cutoff. For the case where the transverse measurement (e.g., transverse energy or min p T for jet veto) is parametrically larger relative to the typical transverse momentum beyond the cutoff, the cross section is insensitive to the cutoff parameter and is factorized in terms of collinear and soft degrees of freedom. The virtuality for these degrees of freedom is set by the transverse measurement, as in typical transverse-momentum dependent observables such as Drell-Yan, Higgs production, and the event shape broadening. This paper focuses on the other region, where the typical transverse momentum below and beyond the cutoff is of similar size. In this region the rapidity cutoff further resolves soft radiation into (u)soft and soft-collinear radiation with different rapidities but identical virtuality. This gives rise to rapidity logarithms of the rapidity cutoff parameter which we resum using renormalization group methods. We factorize the cross section in this region in terms of soft and collinear functions in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory, then further refactorize the soft function as a convolution of the (u)soft and soft-collinear functions. All these functions are calculated at one-loop order. As an example, we calculate a differential cross section for a specific partonic channel, qq ' → qq ' , for the jet shape angularities and show that the refactorization allows us to resum the rapidity logarithms and significantly reduce theoretical uncertainties in the jet shape spectrum.

  5. Prostate treatments, 1MRT o RapidArc; Tratamiento de prostata, IMART o RapidArc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro novais, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Cerro Penalver, E.


    Techniques that modulate the dose (as IMRT or RapidArcTM) improve dose homogeneity within the target volume decreasing the dose in healthy organs. The aim of this work is to study the dosimetric differences in prostate radiotherapy treatments with IMRT and RapidArcTM. The results of the 109 patients studied show that plans to RapidArcTM have better coverage, compliance and dose gradient outside the target volume. (Author)

  6. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP


    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  7. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech. (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T


    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued


    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  9. Polyjet technology applications for rapid tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udroiu Razvan


    Full Text Available Polymer Jetting (PolyJet has proved to be one of the most accurate additive manufacturing technologies, in order to manufacture rapid tools. Rapid Tooling (RT is different from conventional tooling as follow: manufacturing time is shorter, the cost is much less, but the tool life is shorter and tolerances are wider. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study between the soft tools (silicon moulds and hard tools (acrylic thermoplastic moulds based on the Polymer Jetting technology. Thus, two types of moulds have been made in order to manufacture a test part. Reaction injection moulding (RIM and casting techniques were used to fill these moulds with resins that simulate the plastic injection materials. Rapid tooling applications, such as indirect tooling and direct tooling, based on PolyJet technology were experimentally investigated.

  10. Rapid Hepatitis B Vaccination in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Özcan


    Full Text Available Vaccination is a very important method in prevention of HBV.Especially rapid immunization takes an important place in subjects at highrisk. We have injected HBV vaccine to health workers who are attending inour hospital by rapid immunisation programme (at 0, 1 and 2 months andaimed to identify it’s efficiacy. Eighty seven subjects (69% male, 31%female were included to our study. Median age was 34 for male and 32 forwomen. We obtained 90% achievement of immunity rate after theprogramme finished. There were no significant difference between maleend female groups, and age groups. The non-responder rate was 11.6% inmale, and 7.4% in female. This rate was 6% in under 40 years old group,and 22.7% in 40 or older group. This difference was significant in twogroups statistically (p=0.02. The rapid immunization programme, weperformed has nearly the same success results as in standard programme.

  11. Rapid solidification of Nb-base alloys (United States)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Javed, K. R.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Lewis, R. E.


    New Nb-base alloys are of interest for aerospace structural applications at high temperatures, viz, 800 to 1650 C. Fundamental information regarding the effects of rapid solidification in achieving greatly refined microstructures, extended solid solubility, suppression of embrittling equilibrium phases, and formation of new phases is desired in a number of Nb-X alloys. The microstructures and selected properties of Nb-Si and other Nb-base alloys are presented for materials both rapidly quenched from the equilibrium liquidus and rapidly solidified following deep supercooling. Electromagnetic levitation was used to achieve melting and supercooling in a containerless inert gas environment. A variety of solidification conditions were employed including splatting or drop casting of supercooled samples. The morphology and composition of phases formed are discussed in terms of both solidification history and bulk composition.

  12. Rapid determination of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Jeong, Yu-Dong; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young; Paeng, Ki-Jung


    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 μL) mixed with 80 μL of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 μL) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, α-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and α-hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully

  13. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert


    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  14. Accuracy of rapid disposition by emergency clinicians. (United States)

    Backay, Andrew; Bystrzycki, Adam; Smit, De Villiers; Keogh, Martin; O'Reilly, Gerard; Mitra, Biswadev


    Objectives Rapid disposition protocols are increasingly being considered for implementation in emergency departments (EDs). Among patients presenting to an adult tertiary referral hospital, this study aimed to compare prediction accuracy of a rapid disposition decision at the conclusion of history and examination, compared with disposition following standard assessment. Methods Prospective observational data were collected for 1 month between October and November 2012. Emergency clinicians (including physicians, registrars, hospital medical officers, interns and nurse practitioners) filled out a questionnaire within 5min of obtaining a history and clinical examination for eligible patients. Predicted patient disposition (representing 'rapid disposition') was compared with final disposition (determined by 'standard assessment'). Results There were 301 patient episodes included in the study. Predicted disposition was correct in 249 (82.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 78.0-86.8) cases. Accuracy of predicting discharge to home appeared highest among emergency physicians at 95.8% (95% CI 78.9-99.9). Overall accuracy at predicting admission was 79.7% (95% CI 67.2-89.0). The remaining 20.3% (95% CI 11.0-32.8) were not admitted following standard assessment. Conclusion Rapid disposition by ED clinicians can predict patient destination accurately but was associated with a potential increase in admission rates. Any model of care using rapid disposition decision making should involve establishment of inpatient systems for further assessment, and a culture of timely inpatient team transfer of patients to the most appropriate treating team for ongoing patient management. What is known about the topic? In response to the National Emergency Access Targets, there has been widespread adoption of rapid-disposition-themed care models across Australia. Although there is emerging data that clinicians can predict disposition accurately, this data is currently limited. What does this

  15. Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis can mimic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Hart, MD


    Full Text Available The intraoperative appearance of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis and septic arthritis can be similar. Three patients at our institution demonstrated preoperative or intraoperative findings potentially consistent with infection during primary total hip arthroplasty; however, none of these patients were found to have an actual infection. One of these patients underwent an unnecessary 2-stage total hip arthroplasty secondary to the intraoperative appearance of their joint fluid. We advocate performing an infection workup preoperatively when patients present with rapid degenerative changes of their hip joint to diminish the uncertainty of proceeding with arthroplasty.

  16. O campo publicitário, a agência e a noção de aceleração do tempo: questões iniciais para pensar novos modelos e negócios na prática do mercado publicitário = The advertising feld, the agency and the notion of the acceleration of time: initial issues to think about new models and business practices in the advertising market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Cristiane Mafacioli


    Full Text Available Como etapa inicial de uma pesquisa em desenvolvimento, o presente artigo objetiva traçar aspectos referenciais, que auxiliem a pensar as principais mudanças sociais, culturais e tecnológicas que potencialmente interferem na prática publicitária. Em especial, neste momento, pretende-se reconhecer o campo publicitário e suas lógicas e as agências enquanto lugar da prática publicitária como conceitos necessá- rios. E, considerando um dos aspectos compreendidos como fundamentais da vida contemporânea, deseja-se também levantar a noção de aceleração do tempo e sua possível interferência na prática da publicidade e propaganda. O propósito é dar suporte para uma pesquisa mais ampla que visa reconhecer os novos lugares da prática de publicidade no Rio Grande do Sul e suas características, com vistas a compreender as mudanças e os novos modelos e negó- cios do mercado publicitário

  17. Corrosion of metal samples rapidly measured (United States)

    Maskell, C. E.


    Corrosion of a large number of metal samples that have been exposed to controlled environment is accurately and rapidly measured. Wire samples of the metal are embedded in clear plastic and sectioned for microexamination. Unexposed wire can be included in the matrix as a reference.

  18. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.


    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  19. Rapid resistome mapping using nanopore sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric; Imamovic, Lejla; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim


    of bacterial infections. Yet, rapid workflows for resistome characterization are lacking. To address this challenge we developed the poreFUME workflow that deploys functional metagenomic selections and nanopore sequencing to resistome mapping. We demonstrate the approach by functionally characterizing the gut...

  20. Rapid Targeted Genomics in Critically Ill Newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diemen, Cleo C; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Bergman, Klasien A; de Koning, Tom J; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Velde, Joeri K; Abbott, Kristin M; Herkert, Johanna C; Löhner, Katharina; Rump, Patrick; Meems-Veldhuis, Martine T; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Jongbloed, Jan D H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; Swertz, Morris A; Sinke, Richard J; van Langen, Irene M; Wijmenga, Cisca


    BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic whole-genome sequencing has been explored in critically ill newborns, hoping to improve their clinical care and replace time-consuming and/ or invasive diagnostic testing. A previous retrospective study in a research setting showed promising results with diagnoses in

  1. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.


    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  2. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition (United States)


    ordering systems to facilitate streamlined commercial item acquisitions that reap the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced overall costs, and...PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...streamlined commercial item acquisitions that reap the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced overall costs, and timeliness. This thesis

  3. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Ma’ayeh


    Full Text Available This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient’s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  4. Preparation, Evaluation and Optimization of Rapidly Disintegrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unit dose content uniformity, dissolution rate, assay values and other tablet characteristics evaluated were all within the acceptable limits. Thus, it was possible to formulate an RDT of artemether-lumefantrine FDC using CPVP as a disintegrant and camphor as a pore forming agent. Keywords: rapidly disintegrating tablet ...

  5. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    fast and inexpensive supply for polymer master models and a ceramic shaping method that enables the replication of the RP model into multiple ceramic materials within a short time. (Knitter et al 1999). 2. Rapid prototyping process chains. The manufacturing of ceramic microparts presented here set out with the 3D-CAD ...

  6. RESEARCH NOTE Rapid isolation and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fraser c


    Oct 25, 2017 ... Rapid isolation and characterization of microsatellites in the critically endangered Mountain Bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci). Authors: Fraser J Combe1, Evelyn Taylor-Cox1, Graeme Fox1, Tommy Sandri1,3, Nick Davis2, Martin J Jones1, Bradly Cain1, David. Mallon1, W Edwin Harris1*. 1. Division of ...

  7. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan


    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  8. Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish Communities on Selected Reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago. ... the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for their sound management and conservation. Keywords: Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, ichthyofauna, fish surveys, underwater visual census, coral reefs.

  9. Rapid response systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Hamming, Annette; de Jonge, Evert; Fikkers, Bernard G.


    Sixty-three (approximately 80%) of the 81 hospitals that responded to a survey sent to all hospitals in The Netherlands with nonpediatric intensive care units had a rapid response system (RRS) in place or were in the final process of starting one. Among many other findings regarding RRS

  10. Rapid micropropagation of three elite Sugarcane (Saccharum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 4, 2008 ... For rapid multiplication the regenerated shoots were transferred on liquid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2% sucrose, supplemented with. BAP in combinations with GA3. Optimum multiplication was observed at 1 mg/l BAP in combination with. 0.1 mg/l GA3 for variety HSF-240. Best response of ...

  11. Rapid micropropagation of Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 14, 2011 ... A rapid multiplication method is required to supply sufficient disease-free plant material for large scale cultivation using in vitro propa- gation. In vitro propagation of Zingiberaceae has already been reported, for example Alpinia galanga (Inden and. Asahir, 1988) and Zingiber officinale (Hosoki and Sagawa,.

  12. The RapidEye mission design (United States)

    Tyc, George; Tulip, John; Schulten, Daniel; Krischke, Manfred; Oxfort, Michael


    The RapidEye mission is a commercial remote sensing mission by the German Company RapidEye AG. The RapidEye mission will deliver information products for various customers in the agricultural insurance market, large producers, international institutions and cartography. The mission consists of a constellation of five identical small satellites and a sophisticated ground infrastructure based on proven systems. The five satellites will be placed in a single sun-synchronous orbit of approximately 620 km, with the satellites equally spaced over the orbit. The RapidEye system has the unique ability to image any area on earth once per day and can also provide large area coverage within 5 days. The satellites will each carry a 5 band multi-spectral optical imager with a ground sampling distance of 6.5 m at nadir and a swath width of 80 km. These capabilities along with the processing throughput of the ground segment allows the system to deliver the information products needed by the customers reliably and in a time frame that meets their specific needs.

  13. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim


    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  14. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration Project (United States)


    BIM Building Information Model BLCC building life cycle costs BPA Building Performance Analysis CAD computer assisted...utilizes information on operations, geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generating Three-Dimensional (3D) Building Information Models ( BIM ...executed a demonstration of Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and

  15. Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of chlorpropamide in human plasma. MTB Odunola, IS Enemali, M Garba, OO Obodozie. Abstract. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic layer evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in methanol, and 25 ìl aliquot injected ...

  16. Rapidly progressive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirolimus, a potent inhibitor of B- and T-cell activation, is a commonly used immunosuppressant after renal transplantation. Withdrawal of sirolimus from the immunosuppression regimen may reduce B-cell surveillance. We present a case of rapidly progressive central nervous system (CNS) polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus ...

  17. Diffraction and rapidity gap measurements with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kus, V; The ATLAS collaboration


    Two diffraction related measurements of proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider at $\\surd s$ = 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy are reviewed. First of them is a fraction of diffractive contribution to the inelastic cross section. Second measurement is dedicated to the identification of Single Diffractive interactions with large pseudo-rapidity gaps using early 2010 data sample of integrated luminosity 7.1 $\\mu b^{-1}$. Differential cross sections of largest forward areas of the ATLAS detector starting at its most forward edges $\\eta = \\pm 4.9$ without any particle activity above different transverse momentum thresholds are measured. Results are compared to several distinctive Monte Carlo models resulting in constraint of Pomeron intercept value in triple Pomeron based approach. Furthermore, proton-proton interactions in small pseudo-rapidity gap region test qualitatively a description of different hadronisation models as well as statistical fluctuations during hadronisation pr...

  18. To Internationalize Rapidly from Inception: Crowdsource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosh Kannangara


    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurs continuously search for tools to accelerate the internationalization of their startups. For the purpose of internationalizing rapidly from inception, we propose that technology startups use crowdsourcing to internalize the tacit knowledge embodied in members of a crowd distributed across various geographies. For example, a technology startup can outsource to a large crowd the definition of a customer problem that occurs across various geographies, the development of the best solution to the problem, and the identification of attractive business expansion opportunities. In this article, we analyze how three small firms use crowdsourcing, discuss the benefits of crowdsourcing, and offer six recommendations to technology entrepreneurs interested in using crowdsourcing to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception.

  19. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  20. Rapid quenching effects in PVC films (United States)

    Lee, H. D.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.


    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin films (with no additives, 30-100 micrometers thick), due to rapid quenching (approximately 300 C/sec) through the glass transition temperature, have been observed. The more severe the quench, the greater is the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC has also been studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements takes place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra have been applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching have been monitored by tensile creep and stress-strain to failure. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content, due to rapid quenching.

  1. Rapid parapatric speciation on holey adaptive landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S; Vose, M D; Gavrilets, Sergey; Li, Hai; Vose, Michael D.


    A classical view of speciation is that reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic divergence. Here, individual-based simulations are used to evaluate whether the mechanisms implied by this view may result in rapid speciation if the only source of genetic divergence are mutation and random genetic drift. Distinctive features of the simulations are the consideration of the complete process of speciation (from initiation until completion), and of a large number of loci, which was only one order of magnitude smaller than that of bacteria. It is demonstrated that rapid speciation on the time scale of hundreds of generations is plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographic isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. The plausibility of speciation is enhanced by population subdivision. Simultaneous emergence of more than two new species from a subdivided population is highly probable. Numerical examples relevant to the theory of ce...

  2. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeba Quadri


    Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders. (United States)

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y


    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  4. Rapidly moving contact lines and damping contributions (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul


    Contact angle varies dynamically with contact line (CL) speed when a liquid moves across a solid support, as when a liquid spreads rapidly. For sufficiently rapid spreading, inertia competes with capillarity to influence the interface shape near the support. We use resonant-mode plane-normal support oscillations of droplets to drive lateral contact-line motion. Reynolds numbers based on CL speeds are high and capillary numbers are low. These are inertial-capillary motions. By scanning the driving frequency, we locate the frequency at peak amplification (resonance), obtain the scaled peak height (amplification factor) and a measure of band-width (damping ratio). We report how a parameter for CL mobility depends on these scanning metrics, with the goal of distinguishing contributions from the bulk- and CL-dissipation to overall damping.

  5. Organizational Design for USSOCOM Rapid Acquisition (United States)


    2 Ibid., 249. 25 of the programs.3 In rapid innovation , it is important for Program Executive Officers to ensure that technical...organizational learning is what the company does in order to create innovative products and survive. They note that, “interviewees emphasized the importance ...14. ABSTRACT USSOCOM Special Operations Forces (SOF) Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L) struggles to keep pace with technology innovation

  6. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method


    Ryu, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Woong; Kim, Geun-Dong; Rhee, Hae-Ik


    Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid–liquid extraction and liquid–liquid extraction in test tubes ...

  7. Rapid Set Materials for Advanced Spall Repair (United States)


    compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, and the coefficient of thermal expansion. pavement , spall repair, airfield damage repair...expediency and quality. Rapid repairs extend the life of a pavement using more forgiving methods than those used in traditional repairs, but...cement-based polymer -cement mortar and concrete • Magnesium-ammonium-phosphate-cement mortar and concrete • Polymer -based mortar and concrete

  8. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration (United States)


    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  9. Development and tendency of rapid prototyping technology (United States)

    Yan, Yongnian; Hong, Guodong


    The definition of the rapid prototyping is given in this paper. Various RP processes, which build the prototypes with 2.5 or 3 dimensional layers, are introduced. The relative techniques of RP and the differences between RP technique and CNC manufacturing are analyzed. The paper discusses the RP's applied fields and methods and presents the RP development in the world. According to the idea that requirements determine the developing, the RP's tendency is discussed.

  10. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.


    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  11. Removable partial dentures: use of rapid prototyping. (United States)

    Lima, Julia Magalhaes Costa; Anami, Lilian Costa; Araujo, Rodrigo Maximo; Pavanelli, Carlos A


    The CAD/CAM technology associated with rapid prototyping (RP) is already widely used in the fabrication of all-ceramic fixed prostheses and in the biomedical area; however, the use of this technology for the manufacture of metal frames for removable dentures is new. This work reports the results of a literature review conducted on the use of CAD/CAM and RP in the manufacture of removable partial dentures. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Diffraction and rapidity gap measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bernat, P; The ATLAS collaboration


    The early data recorded by the ATLAS detector during 2010 presents a great opportunity to study diffraction cross section in proton-proton collision. The differential cross section of diffractive dissociation is studied as a function of the maximum rapidity gap, up to 8 in rapidity units. Data are compared to different models of diffractive dynamics in standard event generators. A rise at large rapidity gaps is interpreted with a triple pomeron based approach, using Pythia 8 prediction (with a Donnachie-Landshoff model). A pomeron intercept of 1.058 ± 0.003(stat) +0.034-0.039 (syst) is found. A measurement of the dijet production with a jet veto on additional central activity using 2010 data is also presented. The use of a veto scale at 20 GeV allows to measure the jet activity in dijet events. As the veto scale is much larger than Lambda_s different QCD phenomena can be studied. Moreover, ATLAS data explores regions of the phase space for the first time. The main observable in this analysis is the fraction ...

  13. Rapidly progressive young-onset dementia. (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan J; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith A


    To characterize a cohort of individuals who have experienced rapidly progressive dementia with onset before age 45. Very little data regarding the clinical features or clinical spectrum of rapidly progressive young-onset dementia (RP-YOD) is available, primarily consisting of case reports or small series. A search of the Mayo Clinic medical record was employed to identify patients who had onset before age 45 of rapidly progressive dementia. All available medical records, laboratory data, neuroimaging studies, and pathologic data were reviewed. Twenty-two patients met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Behavioral and affective disorders, cerebellar dysfunction, and visual and/or oculomotor dysfunction were common early clinical features within the cohort, as were clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Diagnostic testing identified an etiology in most patients. Presentations of RP-YOD result from a variety of etiologies and significant overlap in clinical features is observed. Clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seem to be common within the entire cohort of RP-YOD patients. Diagnostic studies aided in establishing a diagnosis in most patients, however 5 had uncertain diagnoses despite exhaustive evaluation.

  14. Rapid Prototyping and its Application in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. V. Madhav


    Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.

  15. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ... (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  16. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim


    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  17. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.


    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  18. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence


    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  19. Rapidly progressive periodontitis. A distinct clinical condition. (United States)

    Page, R C; Altman, L C; Ebersole, J L; Vandesteen, G E; Dahlberg, W H; Williams, B L; Osterberg, S K


    We report radiographic, clinical, historical, and laboratory observations on seven patients selected to illustrate the features and characteristics of rapidly progressive periodontitis, with the aim of establishing this disease as a distinct clinical entity. This form of periodontitis is seen most commonly in young adults in their twenties, but it can occur in postpubertal individuals up to approximately 35 years of age. During the active phase, the gingival tissues are extremely inflamed and there is hemorrhage, proliferation of the marginal gingiva, and exudation. Destruction is very rapid, with loss of much of the alveolar bone occurring within a few weeks or months. This phase may be accompanied by general malaise, weight loss, and depression, although these symptoms are not seen in all patients. The disease may progress, without remission, to tooth loss, or alternatively, it may subside and become quiescent with or without therapy. The quiescent phase is characterized by the presence of clinically normal gingiva that may be tightly adapted to the roots of teeth with very advanced bone loss and deep periodontal pockets. The quiescent phase may be permanent, it may persist for an indefinite period, or the disease activity may return. Most patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis have serum antibodies specific for various species of Bacteroides, Actinobacillus, or both, and manifest defects in either neutrophil or monocyte chemotaxis. Affected patients generally respond favorably to treatment by scaling and open or closed curettage, especially when accompanied by standard doses of antibiotics for conventional time periods. A small minority of patients do not respond to any treatment, including antibiotics, and the disease progresses inexorably to tooth loss even in the presence of aggressive periodontal therapy and maintenance. At the present time it is not possible to distinguish prior to treatment which individuals will respond to therapy and which will

  20. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lyngvi Fougner


    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  1. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  2. Rapid visual colorimetry of peritoneal lavage fluid. (United States)

    Tandberg, D; Reitmeyer, S T; Cheney, P R


    That visual colorimetry can be used to rapidly and precisely estimate the erythrocyte count of 1:5 dilutions of simulated peritoneal lavage fluid. Fifty-four normal adult human subjects. The automated or chamber RBC count is often used on fluid obtained by peritoneal lavage in patients with abdominal trauma to help determine the need for surgery. Unfortunately, this method sometimes results in excessive delay. We designed and built a simple colorimeter that facilitated rapid direct visual comparison of unknown samples with known color standards. A radiograph view box was used as a light source. Standards were prepared in 16-mm glass tubes to simulate peritoneal lavage fluid with RBC counts ranging from 0 to 140,000 in 10,000 cell/microL increments; 1:5 dilutions with water were used throughout to reduce opacity. Thimerosal was added to unknowns and standards to stabilize color; all samples were kept refrigerated at 4 C when not in use. In a double-blind in-vitro study, each subject matched 20 randomly distributed unknowns ranging from 12,000 to 131,000 erythrocytes/microL to the nearest standard. The mean absolute error for all 1,080 determinations was 3,560 RBC/microL (95% CI = 4,290-4,830; SD = 4,560; t = 39.6; df = 1,079; P less than .001). This method correctly predicted the RBC count to within 9,000 cells/microL 95% of the time. Visual comparison of 1:5 dilutions of simulated peritoneal lavage fluid with known color standards can be used to rapidly and precisely estimate the erythrocyte count.

  3. Sheet metal forming using rapid prototyped tooling (United States)

    Park, Young-Bin

    The demand for rapid, low-cost die fabrication and modification technology is greater than ever in sheet metal forming industry. One category of rapid tooling technology involves the application of advanced polymers and composites to fabricate metal forming dies. Despite their advantages in lead time and cost reductions, polymer dies for sheet metal forming applications have several drawbacks. Due to their lack of strength as compared to conventional die materials, the use of polymer dies is often limited to prototype or short-run production. In addition, because the mechanisms by which they fail are not fully understood, the dies are designed on the basis of experience and intuition. The research (1) characterized the mechanical behavior of an advanced polymer composite tooling material, (2) developed a method to predict the failure mode and the life of a polymer die, and (3) established optimal die design guidelines. The focus was on rapid prototyped, aluminum trihydrate(ATH)-filled, polyurethane-based dies in sheet metal forming. The study involved the determination of dominant process parameters based on the finite element analyses of 90° V-die bending and cylindrical cup drawing processes. The effects of process parameters on stress distribution in the die provided guidelines to the modification of die design for achieving the desired die life. The presented parametric study lays the groundwork for providing reliable tool failure prediction and design optimization guidelines for advanced polymer tooling materials in metal forming. In addition, the failure mechanisms were investigated to predict the failure mode and the fatigue life of the die. To establish a fundamental understanding of the fatigue behavior of the polyurethane-based die material, extensive material tests were performed, the microstructure was studied, and the fatigue properties were identified experimentally. The test data were incorporated into the local stress-based fatigue analysis to

  4. CFD Script for Rapid TPS Damage Assessment (United States)

    McCloud, Peter


    This grid generation script creates unstructured CFD grids for rapid thermal protection system (TPS) damage aeroheating assessments. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, and slow. The invention takes a large-scale geometry grid and its large-scale CFD solution, and creates a unstructured patch grid that models the TPS damage. The flow field boundary condition for the patch grid is then interpolated from the large-scale CFD solution. It speeds up the generation of CFD grids and solutions in the modeling of TPS damages and their aeroheating assessment. This process was successfully utilized during STS-134.

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul


    and neurological disease. RBD is related to brainstem pathology. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that RBD is frequently related to Parkinsonian disorders and narcolepsy. This article reviews recent knowledge about RBD with focus on the diagnostic process and management. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-May......Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  6. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.


    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  7. Rapid thermal processing science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fair, Richard B


    This is the first definitive book on rapid thermal processing (RTP), an essential namufacturing technology for single-wafer processing in highly controlled environments. Written and edited by nine experts in the field, this book covers a range of topics for academics and engineers alike, moving from basic theory to advanced technology for wafer manufacturing. The book also provides new information on the suitability or RTP for thin film deposition, junction formation, silicides, epitaxy, and in situ processing. Complete discussions on equipment designs and comparisons between RTP and other

  8. Rapid prototyping of composite aircraft structures (United States)

    Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott

    The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.

  9. Onset of chaos in rapidly rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, S. (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (USA) Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden))


    The onset of chaos is investigated for excited, rapidly rotating nuclei, utilizing a schematic two-body residual interaction added to the cranked Nilsson Hamiltonian. Dynamical effects at various degrees of mixing between regularity and chaos are studied in terms of fragmentation of the collective rotational strength. It is found that the onset of chaos is connected to a saturation of the average standard deviation of the rotational strength function. Still, the rotational-damping width may exhibit motional narrowing in the chaotic regime.

  10. Chaotic Maps Dynamics, Fractals, and Rapid Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Goong


    This book consists of lecture notes for a semester-long introductory graduate course on dynamical systems and chaos taught by the authors at Texas A&M University and Zhongshan University, China. There are ten chapters in the main body of the book, covering an elementary theory of chaotic maps in finite-dimensional spaces. The topics include one-dimensional dynamical systems (interval maps), bifurcations, general topological, symbolic dynamical systems, fractals and a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are induced by interval maps, plus rapid fluctuations of chaotic maps as a

  11. Rapid HIV Testing and Counselling in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conseil et le test rapide du VIH pendant le travail dans un milieu du Nigéria du nord Entre avril et aôut. 2004 toutes les femmes en travail à]UTH ont subi le test pour le VIH et ont reçu du conseil avec l'opportunité de refuser le test. Les femmes séro-positives reçu la monothérapie de névirapine standard shéma prophylaxie.

  12. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  13. Crowdsourced Translation for Rapid Internationalization in Cyberspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Yonatany, Moshe; Mahnke, Volker


    This paper explores how Facebook effectively used crowdsourced translation to accelerate its rapid internationalization. We apply the learning perspective of internationalization theory to unpack what the firm learned in order to mobilize crowd-based knowledge to facilitate internationalization...... and codified knowledge, rather than the experiential knowledge traditionally suggested in the literature on the process of internationalization, and (2) the firm's success rested on its ability to use virtual learning tools and incentive systems to acquire, articulate and integrate knowledge from communities...... of internationally dispersed users – the “crowd” – to accelerate its internationalization in cyberspace. This empirical study extends internationalization theory regarding knowledge and organizational learning....

  14. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.


    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  15. An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Thornton


    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of hyperbilirubinemia with rapid early progression leading to bilirubin encephalopathy in a term neonate. Despite early recognition and intervention, the total serum bilirubin reached a maximum level of 39 mg/dL at 32 hours of life. Prior to an emergent exchange transfusion, the patient’s diagnostic evaluation was significant for Coombs-negative microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Further testing revealed a deficiency of ADAMTS13 protein, or von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease, a finding diagnostic of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or Upshaw-Schulman syndrome. This rare disease is often misdiagnosed, especially in the newborn period.

  16. Rapid Genetic Analysis in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Alm, Jan


    with a paternal germline ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation and a focal loss of maternal chromosome 11p15, whereas a maternal mutation, or homozygous/compound heterozygous ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations predict diffuse-type disease. However, genotyping usually takes too long to be helpful in the absence of a founder mutation....... One patient had a paternal KCNJ11 mutation and focal disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. One patient had a de novo heterozygous ABBC8 mutation and unexplained diffuse disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. CONCLUSION: A rapid analysis...

  17. Rapid disturbances in Arctic permafrost regions (Invited) (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.


    Permafrost thaw is often perceived as a slow process dominated by press disturbances such as gradual active layer thickening. However, various pulse disturbances such as thermokarst formation can substantially increase the rate of permafrost thaw and result in rapid landscape change on sub-decadal to decadal time scales. Other disturbances associated with permafrost thaw are even more dynamic and unfold on sub-annual timescales, such as catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage. The diversity of processes results in complex feedbacks with soil carbon pools, biogeochemical cycles, hydrology, and flora and fauna, and requires a differentiated approach when quantifying how these ecosystem componentsare affected,how vulnerablethey are to rapid change, and what regional to global scale impacts result. Here we show quantitative measurements for three examples of rapid pulse disturbances in permafrost regions as observed with remote sensing data time series: The formation of a mega thaw slump (>50 ha) in syngenetic permafrost in Siberia, the formation of new thermokarst ponds in ice-rich permafrost regions in Alaska and Siberia, and the drainage of thermokarst lakes along a gradient of permafrost extent in Western Alaska. The surprising setting and unabated growth of the mega thaw slump during the last 40 years indicates that limited information on panarctic ground ice distribution, abundance, and vulnerability remains a key gap for reliable projections of thermokarst and thermo-erosion impacts, and that the natural limits on the growth and size of thaw slumps are still poorly understood. Observed thermokarst pond formation and expansion in our study regions was closely tied to ice-rich permafrost terrain, such as syngenetic Yedoma uplands, but was also found in old drained thermokarst lake basins with epigenetic permafrost and shallow drained thermokarst lake basins whose ground ice had not been depleted by the prior lake phase. The very different substrates in which new

  18. A rapid diagnostic test for schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Christina Mello-Silva


    Full Text Available This article presents an improvement to the Kato-Katz (KK method, making it faster and more efficient for the visualisation of fertile eggs in stool samples. This modified KK method uses sodium acetate formalin as a fixative and reveals the intensity of infection in less than 1 h, reducing the diagnostic time without increasing the cost. This modified method may contribute to future epidemiological studies in both hospitals and the field due to its rapid and precise diagnostic, which allow for immediate treatment.

  19. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie


    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  20. Experiments on rapidly-sheared wall turbulence (United States)

    Diwan, Sourabh; Morrison, Jonathan


    The use of linear theories in wall turbulence dates back to Townsend (1976, Cambridge University Press) who extensively used Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) for understanding the structure of near-wall turbulence. Various other linear tools have been used in more recent investigations. The present study is an attempt to further explore this aspect and is in part motivated by the recent numerical work of Sharma et al. (Phys. Fluids 23, 2011) that highlighted the possible role of linear mechanisms in wall turbulence. Our experimental arrangement involves passing a grid-generated turbulent flow over a flat plate mounted downstream of the grid in a wind tunnel. The grid turbulence is subjected to large rates of shear strain by the wall layer close to the leading edge of the plate and as a result, over a certain region in its vicinity, the approximations of the RDT can be expected to be approximately satisfied. We present detailed single-point and planar velocity measurements, and pressure measurements using surface-mounted pressure transducers, the aim being to establish a turbulent wall layer in which linear processes are dominant. Such a flow can be used to evaluate the ideas relating to linear theories of Townsend and Landahl, among others. We also present the structural changes that take place as the rapidly-sheared wall layer evolves towards a more conventional boundary layer further downstream. We acknowledge financial support from EPSRC under Grant No. EP/I037938.


    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira


    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time.

  2. Rapid and precise genotyping of porcine microsatellites. (United States)

    Yue, G H; Beeckmann, P; Bartenschlager, H; Moser, G; Geldermann, H


    Microsatellites are useful markers for genetic mapping and linkage analysis because they are highly polymorphic, abundant in genomes and relatively easily scored with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A rapid genotyping system for microsatellites was developed, which included multiplex PCRs, multiple use of Hydrolink gels, automated fluorescent detection of fragments on an A.L.F. DNA sequencer, automatic assignment of alleles to each locus and verification of genotypes with a self-developed computer program "Fragtest". Eight multiplex PCRs have been developed to genotype 29 microsatellites for genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping on pig chromosomes 6, 7, 12 and 13. Three to six microsatellites could be amplified in one multiplex PCR. Each multiplex reaction required only different concentrations of each pair of primers and a low concentration of dNTP (100 microM). A dNTP concentration of 100 microM proved to be optimal for the coamplification of microsatellites under the concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. Using four internal size standards added in each sample, the 5% Hydrolink gel could subsequently be used up to five times (total running time of 500 min) on the A.L.F. automated sequencer without significant loss of resolution and precision of fragment length analysis. Automatic assignment of alleles on each locus using "Fragtest" significantly increased the efficiency and precision of the genotyping. This system is thus a rapid, cheap, and highly discriminating genotyping system.

  3. Rapid Glass Refiner Development Program, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A rapid glass refiner (RGR) technology which could be applied to both conventional and advanced class melting systems would significantly enhance the productivity and the competitiveness of the glass industry in the United States. Therefore, Vortec Corporation, with the support of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-90ID12911, conducted a research and development program for a unique and innovative approach to rapid glass refining. To provide focus for this research effort, container glass was the primary target from among the principal glass types based on its market size and potential for significant energy savings. Container glass products represent the largest segment of the total glass industry accounting for 60% of the tonnage produced and over 40% of the annual energy consumption of 232 trillion Btu/yr. Projections of energy consumption and the market penetration of advanced melting and fining into the container glass industry yield a potential energy savings of 7.9 trillion Btu/yr by the year 2020.

  4. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.


    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  5. Rapid prototyping with high power fiber lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, R.M. [Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University Lisbon (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lopes, G. [Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Quintino, L. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail:; Rodrigues, J.P. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Williams, S. [Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)


    Laser rapid prototyping technologies comprise a set of technologies used in a wide range of materials to produce prototypes or small batches of complex shaped components. This paper presents a research work on rapid prototyping technology with laser additive manufacture of wire based alloy Ti-6Al-4V with an 8 kW fiber laser for the production of components with cylindrical geometry. For this, an engineering system was developed, a demonstration part produced and the deposition process was characterized. Two processing parameters were investigated: and these were the relative position between the wire feeding system and the substrate and the laser beam to wire width ratio. The former affects the molten metal transfer mode and the pressure exerted by the wire tip on the molten pool, while the laser beam to wire width ratio affects the process efficiency, since this is a compromise of process stability and process speed. Both parameters control surface finishing and the smoothness of the part. The melting efficiency of the process is low when compared to alternative processes involving powder pre deposition, but the density of the part is improved with homogeneous structural characteristics.

  6. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika E Boström

    Full Text Available Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively, which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  7. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lian Sun


    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  8. Rapid magnetic hardening by rapid thermal annealing in NdFeB-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-T.; Jin, Z Q; Chakka, Vamsi M; Liu, J P [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)


    A systematic study of heat treatments and magnetic hardening of NdFeB-based melt-spun nanocomposite ribbons have been carried out. Comparison was made between samples treated by rapid thermal annealing and by conventional furnace annealing. Heating rates up to 200 K s{sup -1} were adopted in the rapid thermal processing. It was observed that magnetic hardening can be realized in an annealing time as short as 1 s. Coercivity of 10.2 kOe in the nanocomposites has been obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 1 s, and prolonged annealing did not give any increase in coercivity. Detailed results on the effects of annealing time, temperature and heating rate have been obtained. The dependence of magnetic properties on the annealing parameters has been investigated. Structural characterization revealed that there is a close correlation between magnetic hardening and nanostructured morphology. The coercivity mechanism was also studied by analysing the magnetization minor loops.

  9. Algoritmo ID3 en la Detección de Ataques en Aplicaciónes Web-Edición Única


    García Pichardo, Víctor H.


    Actualmente con el propósito de tener presencia en el mercado mundial, toda empresa cuenta con una página en Internet donde exhibe información sobre sus servicios y aplicaciones. Una empresa de esta índole al menos cuenta con un cortafuegos1 como esquema de protección, permitiendo circular el tráfico HTTP o HTTPS (puertos 80 y 443 respectivamente).En diciembre del 2003, la empresa de seguridad informática española S2ISEC realizó un estudio durante los Últimos cinco meses (junio-noviembre), en...

  10. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle P.; Harding, Robert


    1.Technology Description-Researchers discovered that when the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) reactivates from latency in the body, the virus is consistently present in saliva before the appearance of skin lesions. A small saliva sample is mixed with a specialized reagent in a test kit. If the virus is present in the saliva sample, the mixture turns a red color. The sensitivity and specificity emanates from an antibody-antigen reaction. This technology is a rapid, non-invasive, point of-of-care testing kit for detecting the virus from a saliva sample. The device is easy to use and can be used in clinics and in remote locations to quickly detect VZV and begin treatment with antiviral drugs. 2.Market Opportunity- RST Bioscience will be the first and only company to market a rapid, same day test kit for the detection of VZV in saliva. The RST detection test kit will have several advantages over existing, competitive technology. The test kit is self contained and laboratory equipment is not required for analysis of the sample. Only a single saliva sample is required to be taken instead of blood or cerebral spinal fluid. The test kit is portable, sterile and disposable after use. RST detection test kits require no electrical power or expensive storage equipment and can be used in remote locations. 3.Market Analysis- According to the CDC, it is estimated that 1 million cases of shingles occur each year in the U.S. with more than half over the age of sixty. There is a high demand for rapid diagnostics by the public. The point-of-care testing (POCT) market is growing faster than other segments of in vitro diagnostics. According to a July 2007 InteLab Corporation industry report the overall market for POCT was forecast to increase from $10.3 billion in 2005 to $18.7 billion by 2011. The market value of this test kit has not been determined. 4.Competition- The VZV vaccine prevents 50% of cases and reduces neuralgia by 66%. The most popular test detects VZV-specific IgM antibody

  11. Seismogeodesy for rapid earthquake and tsunami characterization (United States)

    Bock, Y.


    Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude and fault mechanism is critical for earthquake and tsunami warning systems. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. These methods are well developed for ocean basin-wide warnings but are not timely enough to protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure from the effects of local tsunamis, where waves may arrive within 15-30 minutes of earthquake onset time. Direct measurements of displacements by GPS networks at subduction zones allow for rapid magnitude and slip estimation in the near-source region, that are not affected by instrumental limitations and magnitude saturation experienced by local seismic networks. However, GPS displacements by themselves are too noisy for strict earthquake early warning (P-wave detection). Optimally combining high-rate GPS and seismic data (in particular, accelerometers that do not clip), referred to as seismogeodesy, provides a broadband instrument that does not clip in the near field, is impervious to magnitude saturation, and provides accurate real-time static and dynamic displacements and velocities in real time. Here we describe a NASA-funded effort to integrate GPS and seismogeodetic observations as part of NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii. It consists of a series of plug-in modules that allow for a hierarchy of rapid seismogeodetic products, including automatic P-wave picking, hypocenter estimation, S-wave prediction, magnitude scaling relationships based on P-wave amplitude (Pd) and peak ground displacement (PGD), finite-source CMT solutions and fault slip models as input for tsunami warnings and models. For the NOAA/NASA project, the modules are being integrated into an existing USGS Earthworm environment, currently limited to traditional seismic data. We are focused on a network of

  12. Rapid determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Utsey, Robin C.


    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium and yttrium isotopes in seawater samples for measurement. The new SRNL method employs a novel and effective pre-concentration step that utilizes a blend of calcium phosphate with iron hydroxide to collect both strontium and yttrium rapidly from the seawater matrix with enhanced chemical yields. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with rapid Sr Resin and DGA Resin cartridge separation options using vacuum box technology, allow seawater samples up to 10 liters to be analyzed. The total 89Sr + 90Sr activity may be determined by gas flow proportional counting and recounted after ingrowth of 90Y to differentiate 89Sr from 90Sr. Gas flow proportional counting provides a lower method detection limit than liquid scintillation or Cerenkov counting and allows simultaneous counting of samples. Simultaneous counting allows for longer count times and lower method detection limits without handling very large aliquots of seawater. Seawater samples up to 6 liters may be analyzed using Sr Resin for 89Sr and 90Sr with a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of 1-10 mBq/L, depending on count times. Seawater samples up to 10 liters may be analyzed for 90Sr using a DGA Resin method via collection and purification of 90Y only. If 89Sr and other fission products are present, then 91Y (beta energy 1.55 MeV, 58.5 day half-life) is also likely to be present. 91Y interferes with attempts to collect 90Y directly from the seawater sample without initial purification of Sr isotopes first and 90Y ingrowth. The DGA Resin option can be used to determine 90Sr, and if 91Y is also present, an ingrowth option with using DGA

  13. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others


    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  14. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... as the Transmission System Operator (TSO) requests demand response and the winning endusers are disconnected immediately if the TSO accepts the result of the auction. The endusers are compensated with a uniform auction price job by job and the Aggregator receives part of the surplus. The simulation captures...

  15. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  16. Dysfunction of Rapid Neural Adaptation in Dyslexia. (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E


    Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben


    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  18. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures. (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R


    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  19. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  20. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction. (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei


    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated.

  1. Rapid eye-fixation training without eyetracking. (United States)

    Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Leung, Parkson; Franconeri, Steve; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru


    Maintenance of stable central eye fixation is crucial for a variety of behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging experiments. Naive observers in these experiments are not typically accustomed to fixating, either requiring the use of cumbersome and costly eyetracking or producing confounds in results. We devised a flicker display that produced an easily detectable visual phenomenon whenever the eyes moved. A few minutes of training using this display dramatically improved the accuracy of eye fixation while observers performed a demanding spatial attention cuing task. The same amount of training using control displays did not produce significant fixation improvements, and some observers consistently made eye movements to the peripheral attention cue, contaminating the cuing effect. Our results indicate that (1) eye fixation can be rapidly improved in naive observers by providing real-time feedback about eye movements, and (2) our simple flicker technique provides an easy and effective method for providing this feedback.

  2. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology]. (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel


    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Microfluidic Wheatstone bridge for rapid sample analysis. (United States)

    Tanyeri, Melikhan; Ranka, Mikhil; Sittipolkul, Natawan; Schroeder, Charles M


    We developed a microfluidic analogue of the classic Wheatstone bridge circuit for automated, real-time sampling of solutions in a flow-through device format. We demonstrate precise control of flow rate and flow direction in the "bridge" microchannel using an on-chip membrane valve, which functions as an integrated "variable resistor". We implement an automated feedback control mechanism in order to dynamically adjust valve opening, thereby manipulating the pressure drop across the bridge and precisely controlling fluid flow in the bridge channel. At a critical valve opening, the flow in the bridge channel can be completely stopped by balancing the flow resistances in the Wheatstone bridge device, which facilitates rapid, on-demand fluid sampling in the bridge channel. In this article, we present the underlying mechanism for device operation and report key design parameters that determine device performance. Overall, the microfluidic Wheatstone bridge represents a new and versatile method for on-chip flow control and sample manipulation.

  4. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E


    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  5. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher


    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  6. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mrad


    Full Text Available Personal rapid transit (PRT is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consumed by the PRT system while assuming predeterministic list of orders; then we solve it using some constructive heuristics. Experiments are run on 1320 randomly generated test problems with various sizes. Our algorithms are shown to give good results over large trip instances.

  7. Physical Mechanisms of Rapid Lake Warming (United States)

    Lenters, J. D.


    Recent studies have shown significant warming of inland water bodies around the world. Many lakes are warming more rapidly than the ambient surface air temperature, and this is counter to what is often expected based on the lake surface energy balance. A host of reasons have been proposed to explain these discrepancies, including changes in the onset of summer stratification, significant loss of ice cover, and concomitant changes in winter air temperature and/or summer cloud cover. A review of the literature suggests that no single physical mechanism is primarily responsible for the majority of these changes, but rather that the large heterogeneity in regional climate trends and lake geomorphometry results in a host of potential physical drivers. In this study, we discuss the variety of mechanisms that have been proposed to explain rapid lake warming and offer an assessment of the physical plausibility for each potential contributor. Lake Superior is presented as a case study to illustrate the "perfect storm" of factors that can cause a deep, dimictic lake to warm at rate that exceeds the rate of global air temperature warming by nearly an order of magnitude. In particular, we use a simple mixed-layer model to show that spatially variable trends in Lake Superior surface water temperature are determined, to first order, by variations in bathymetry and winter air temperature. Summer atmospheric conditions are often of less significance, and winter ice cover may simply be a correlate. The results highlight the importance of considering the full range of factors that can lead to trends in lake surface temperature, and that conventional wisdom may often not be the best guide.

  8. Rapid palatal expansion: the role of microcirculation. (United States)

    Bilello, G; Currò, G; Messina, P; Scardina, G


    Transverse palate modifications fall under expansive orthopedic therapy of the upper maxilla. The only practical approach to the problem on the transverse plane is that of performing the expansion of the maxillary arch through an opening of the median palatal suture. It is important to understand the changes of the vascular network in midpalatal suture following the starting of rapid maxillary expansion. It is critical to maintain the blood supply and circulation for the osteogenesis and bone remodeling after the expansion. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of rapid orthopedic expansion (REP) at the microcirculatory level through capillaroscopic examination. Fifteen patients in their developing years between 9 and 15 years of age (average age 12.16 years) were examined. The application of the REP was the first step in the planning of orthopedic-orthodontic treatment which foresaw further stages in the odonto-osseous movement. The method of Biomicroscopic Video-Imaging of the microcirculation of oral mucosa is performed through the technique of computerized capillaroscopy and the related software. From the results it is evident that immediately after achieving the expansion of the upper maxilla (t1), a slight decrease in the number of vessels per mm² can be observed. In addition, a slight ectasia can be observed in these vessels in comparison to t0. Comparing the videocapillaroscopic images of t1 and t2, an increase in the capillaries per mm² can be observed. Ectasia of the capillaries, though subject to strictly individual variables, can be considered perfectly normal and it is compatible with the normal biology and physiology of vessel microcirculation.

  9. Connecting network properties of rapidly disseminating epizoonotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel L Rivas

    Full Text Available To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure.Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006, two models were compared: 1 'connectivity', a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent's transmission cycle, road topology into indicators designed to measure networks ('nodes' or infected sites with short- and long-range links, and 2 'contacts', which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity.THE CONNECTIVITY MODEL SHOWED FIVE NETWORK PROPERTIES: 1 spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters, 2 links among similar 'nodes' (assortativity, 3 simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity, 4 disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality, and 5 a few nodes accounting for most cases (a "20:80" pattern. In both epizoonotics, 1 not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2 highly connected, small areas (nodes accounted for most cases, 3 several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4 the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads.Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory's nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished classes of cases, nodes, and networks, generating information usable

  10. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities. (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M


    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  11. Rapid genetic detection of ingested Amanita phalloides. (United States)

    Gausterer, Christian; Penker, Martina; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Stein, Christina; Stimpfl, Thomas


    Mushrooms are often poorly digested by humans. Thus, their remains (tissues, spores) may persist in the gastrointestinal tract and can be detected in feces several days after mushroom consumption. In this report, we present protocols for the rapid PCR-based detection of fungal traces in a variety of complex samples. Novel primers were designed to amplify portions of ribosomal DNA from deadly poisonous European members of the genus Amanita, namely the death cap (A. phalloides), the destroying angel (A. virosa) and the fool's mushroom (A. verna), respectively. Assay sensitivity was sufficient to discover diluted DNA traces in amounts below the genomic content of a single target mushroom cell. Specificity testing was performed with DNA extracts from a variety of mushroom species. Template amplification was exclusively observed with intended targets and it was not compromised by a vast excess of non-target DNA (i.e. DNA from human and human fecal origin, respectively). A series of experiments was conducted with prepared specimens in order to follow the course of mushroom food processing and digestion. Amplification by direct PCR was successful with raw, fried and digested mixed mushrooms. To improve assay performance with fecal samples, a rapid protocol for sample pre-processing (including water-ether sedimentation and bead beating) and a modified PCR reaction mix were applied. Thereby, it was possible to detect the presence of A. phalloides DNA in spiked feces as well as in clinical samples (vomit, stool) from two independent cases of suspected mushroom poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 11678 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)


    .... ADDRESSES: Marilyn Merdzinski, Director of Education & Interpretation, Grand Rapids Public Museum, 272 Pearl... time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a... associated funerary objects should contact Marilyn Merdzinski, Director of Education & Interpretation, Grand...

  13. Is the rapid adaptation paradigm too rapid? Implications for face and object processing. (United States)

    Nemrodov, Dan; Itier, Roxane J


    Rapid adaptation is an adaptation procedure in which adaptors and test stimuli are presented in rapid succession. The current study tested the validity of this method for early ERP components by investigating the specificity of the adaptation effect on the face-sensitive N170 ERP component across multiple test stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed identical response patterns for house and upright face test stimuli using the same adaptor stimuli. The results were also identical to those reported in a previous study using inverted face test stimuli (Nemrodov and Itier, 2011). In Experiment 3 all possible adaptor-test combinations between upright face, house, chair and car stimuli were used and no interaction between adaptor and test category, expected in the case of test-specific adaptation, was found. These results demonstrate that the rapid adaptation paradigm does not produce category-specific adaptation effects around 170-200 ms following test stimulus onset, a necessary condition for the interpretation of adaptation results. These results suggest the rapid categorical adaptation paradigm does not work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the challenges of rapid urbanization on the sustainable development of Nyanya, Abuja. An interesting finding of the study is that the primary factor for the rapid urbanization of Nyanya within a short period of time is migration. The consequence of this rapid urbanization and population rise within a short ...

  15. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai


    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  16. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests. (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya


    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 11680 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)


    ...: Marilyn Merdzinski, Director of Education & Interpretation, Grand Rapids Public Museum, 272 Pearl St. NW... near individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony and... Education & Interpretation, Grand Rapids Public Museum, 272 Pearl St. NW., Grand Rapids, MI 49501, telephone...

  18. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization. (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui


    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  19. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Bhirud


    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples becomes important in the control of TB both for the treatment of patients and for curbing of disease transmission to the others in the community. The study objective was to perform Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN staining, fluorochrome staining, line probe assay (LPA, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid detection of pulmonary TB (PTB and to compare the results of LPA and LAMP in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and turnaround time. Methods: A total of 891 sputum samples from clinically diagnosed/suspected cases of TB were subjected to ZN and fluorochrome staining. Smear positive samples were subjected to LPA, and smear negative were cultured on Lowenstein–Jensen media. A total of 177 samples were subjected to liquid culture and LAMP. Conventional culture was considered as “gold standard” for calculation of parameters. Results: Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy had the same sensitivity as ZN with similar high specificity. LPA was performed on 548 sputum samples which includes 520 smear positive and 28 smear negative culture positive samples and multidrug-resistant TB was detected in 32.64%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of TB-LAMP on direct sputum samples was found to be 98.96%, 95%, 96%, and 98.70%, respectively, when compared with ZN smear microscopy. By considering culture as “gold standard,” LAMP showed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 98.94%, 96.34%, 96.90%, and 98.75%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TB-LAMP were 98.97% and 96%, respectively, when compared with LPA. Conclusions: A successful rapid laboratory diagnosis of PTB is possible when one combines the available methodology of microscopy, culture as well as molecular techniques. The LAMP

  20. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. (United States)

    Bhirud, Prasanna; Joshi, Ameeta; Hirani, Nilma; Chowdhary, Abhay


    Tuberculosis (TB) ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples becomes important in the control of TB both for the treatment of patients and for curbing of disease transmission to the others in the community. The study objective was to perform Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, fluorochrome staining, line probe assay (LPA), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of pulmonary TB (PTB) and to compare the results of LPA and LAMP in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and turnaround time. A total of 891 sputum samples from clinically diagnosed/suspected cases of TB were subjected to ZN and fluorochrome staining. Smear positive samples were subjected to LPA, and smear negative were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen media. A total of 177 samples were subjected to liquid culture and LAMP. Conventional culture was considered as "gold standard" for calculation of parameters. Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy had the same sensitivity as ZN with similar high specificity. LPA was performed on 548 sputum samples which includes 520 smear positive and 28 smear negative culture positive samples and multidrug-resistant TB was detected in 32.64%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of TB-LAMP on direct sputum samples was found to be 98.96%, 95%, 96%, and 98.70%, respectively, when compared with ZN smear microscopy. By considering culture as "gold standard," LAMP showed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 98.94%, 96.34%, 96.90%, and 98.75%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TB-LAMP were 98.97% and 96%, respectively, when compared with LPA. A successful rapid laboratory diagnosis of PTB is possible when one combines the available methodology of microscopy, culture as well as molecular techniques. The LAMP assay was found to be simple, self-contained, and efficacious for

  1. Using Bedside Ultrasound to Rapidly Differentiate Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Moussa


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 62-year-old female presented from a nursing home for altered mental status. She had an initial Glascow coma score of 9. Her blood pressure was 70/44, temperature 36.8 C, heart rate 82, respiratory rate 23, and oxygen saturation 88% on room air. The patient’s initial lactate was 3.1 mmol/L. A rapid ultrasound for shock and hypotension (RUSH exam demonstrated the need for fluid resuscitation. 2 liters of normal saline was given, resulting in the improvement of her blood pressure to 93/53. Ultimately, the patient required intubation because of the severity of her pneumonia. A subsequent lactate of 0.8 mmol/L demonstrated adequate resuscitation. Significant findings: A RUSH exam demonstrated hyperdynamic cardiac contractility and collapse of the inferior vena cava (IVC with probe compression more than 50% suggesting hypovolemia likely secondary to sepsis. Incidentally, Morrison’s pouch revealed a large right renal cyst but no signs of free fluid. A computed tomography of abdomen/pelvis showed a 10.8 x 9.5 cm right renal cyst and left lower lobe pneumonia. Discussion: Sepsis is defined as organ dysfunction in a patient with a known source of infection. Signs of sepsis include hypotension, tachypnea, and altered mental status.1 Although not a standard of care yet, the RUSH exam proves to be a valuable and rapid instrument to evaluate the cause of shock and hypotension in critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED. The components of the RUSH exam can be remembered by the mnemonic HI-MAP: Heart, IVC, Morrison’s/FAST abdominal views, Aorta, and Pneumothorax scanning.2 Ultrasound can be used to quickly differentiate cardiogenic, distributive, and hypovolemic shock. RUSH has a sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 100% for shock with distributive etiology.3 Measurement of the IVC diameter can be used to estimate CVP and thus a patient’s likelihood to respond to fluid resuscitation. A maximum IVC diameter

  2. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  3. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao


    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.

  4. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry. (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor


    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  5. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar


    Full Text Available The word rapid prototyping (RP was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD. To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  6. Rapid prototyping--when virtual meets reality. (United States)

    Beguma, Zubeda; Chhedat, Pratik


    Rapid prototyping (RP) describes the customized production of solid models using 3D computer data. Over the past decade, advances in RP have continued to evolve, resulting in the development of new techniques that have been applied to the fabrication of various prostheses. RP fabrication technologies include stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling, and, more recently, selective laser sintering (SLS). The applications of RP techniques for dentistry include wax pattern fabrication for dental prostheses, dental (facial) prostheses mold (shell) fabrication, and removable dental prostheses framework fabrication. In the past, a physical plastic shape of the removable partial denture (RPD) framework was produced using an RP machine, and then used as a sacrificial pattern. Yet with the advent of the selective laser melting (SLM) technique, RPD metal frameworks can be directly fabricated, thereby omitting the casting stage. This new approach can also generate the wax pattern for facial prostheses directly, thereby reducing labor-intensive laboratory procedures. Many people stand to benefit from these new RP techniques for producing various forms of dental prostheses, which in the near future could transform traditional prosthodontic practices.

  7. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Bhutan. (United States)

    Lepcha, Nor Tshering; Chettri, Chandra Kumar; Getshen, Kunzang; Rai, Bhim Bahadur; Ramaswamy, Shamanna Bindiganavale; Saibaba, Saravanan; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar; Demarchis, Emilia Hansson; Tabin, Geoffrey; Morley, Michael; Morley, Katharine


    To conduct a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness survey in Bhutan to obtain estimates of blindness, visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage, outcomes and barriers among persons ≥50 years old. A total of 82 clusters of 50 people ≥50 years were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Eligible participants were selected from households using compact segment sampling, and underwent ophthalmic examination for visual acuity, followed by penlight and direct ophthalmoscopy. Participants with cataract were interviewed regarding surgical outcomes and barriers to surgery. Overall, 4046 of 4100 persons enumerated (98.7%) underwent ophthalmic examination. Adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of bilaterally blind persons with available correction was 1.5% (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.89). Most blindness (67.1%) and severe visual impairment (74.1%) resulted from cataract, but 22.1% resulted from posterior segment pathology. Cataract surgical coverage for bilaterally blind persons was 72.7%. Almost 90% of patients reported moderate or good satisfaction, despite poor surgical outcomes in 23.6%. The prevalence of blindness in people aged ≥50 years in Bhutan was relatively low when compared with neighboring countries and World Health Organization sub-region estimates. Areas for improvement include community outreach, surgical outcomes, and posterior segment diseases.

  8. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method. (United States)

    Ryu, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Woong; Kim, Geun-Dong; Rhee, Hae-Ik


    Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid-liquid extraction and liquid-liquid extraction in test tubes followed by a colorimetric analysis on the capsaicinoids by a selective chromogenic reaction with Gibbs reagent (2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide). In the comparison of the capsaicinoid content by the colorimetric method and HPLC using acetone extracts of fresh pepper and dry red pepper as samples, R2 was 0.9973 and 0.9816, respectively, which shows a high linear correlation. In addition, a minimum of 1 μg/mL capsaicinoids can be detected and it was therefore determined that the method can efficiently analyze a great quantity of samples in a short time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Kyun Ryu


    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid–liquid extraction and liquid–liquid extraction in test tubes followed by a colorimetric analysis on the capsaicinoids by a selective chromogenic reaction with Gibbs reagent (2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide. In the comparison of the capsaicinoid content by the colorimetric method and HPLC using acetone extracts of fresh pepper and dry red pepper as samples, R2 was 0.9973 and 0.9816, respectively, which shows a high linear correlation. In addition, a minimum of 1 μg/mL capsaicinoids can be detected and it was therefore determined that the method can efficiently analyze a great quantity of samples in a short time.

  10. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  11. Web tools for rapid experimental visualization prototyping (United States)

    Decker, Jonathan W.; Livingstion, Mark A.


    Quite often a researcher finds themselves looking at spreadsheets of high-dimensional data generated by experimental models and user studies. We can use analysis to challenge or confirm hypothesis, but unexpected results can easily be lost in the shuffle. For this reason, it would be useful to visualize the results so we can explore our data and make new discoveries. Web browsers have become increasingly capable for creating complex, multi-view applications. Javascript is quickly becoming a de facto standard for scripting, online and offline. This work demonstrates the use of web technologies as a powerful tool for rapid visualization prototyping. We have developed two prototypes: One for high-dimensional results of the abELICIT - multi-agent version of the ELICIT platform tasked with collaborating to identify the parameters of a pending attack. Another prototype displays responses to a user study on the effectiveness of multi-layer visualization techniques. We created coordinated multiple views prototypes in the Google Chrome web browser written in Javascript, CSS and HTML. We will discuss the benefits and shortcomings of this approach.

  12. Literacy acquisition influences children's rapid automatized naming. (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Arnett, Anne B; Pennington, Bruce F; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K


    Previous research has established that learning to read improves children's performance on reading-related phonological tasks, including phoneme awareness (PA) and nonword repetition. Few studies have investigated whether literacy acquisition also promotes children's rapid automatized naming (RAN). We tested the hypothesis that literacy acquisition should influence RAN in an international, longitudinal population sample of twins. Cross-lagged path models evaluated the relationships among literacy, PA, and RAN across four time points from pre-kindergarten through grade 4. Consistent with previous research, literacy showed bidirectional relationships with reading-related oral language skills. We found novel evidence for an effect of earlier literacy on later RAN, which was most evident in children at early phases of literacy development. In contrast, the influence of earlier RAN on later literacy was predominant among older children. These findings imply that the association between these two related skills is moderated by development. Implications for models of reading development and for dyslexia research are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rapid flow-based peptide synthesis. (United States)

    Simon, Mark D; Heider, Patrick L; Adamo, Andrea; Vinogradov, Alexander A; Mong, Surin K; Li, Xiyuan; Berger, Tatiana; Policarpo, Rocco L; Zhang, Chi; Zou, Yekui; Liao, Xiaoli; Spokoyny, Alexander M; Jensen, Klavs F; Pentelute, Bradley L


    A flow-based solid-phase peptide synthesis methodology that enables the incorporation of an amino acid residue every 1.8 min under automatic control or every 3 min under manual control is described. This is accomplished by passing a stream of reagent through a heat exchanger into a low volume, low backpressure reaction vessel, and through a UV detector. These features enable continuous delivery of heated solvents and reagents to the solid support at high flow rate, thereby maintaining maximal concentration of reagents in the reaction vessel, quickly exchanging reagents, and eliminating the need to rapidly heat reagents after they have been added to the vessel. The UV detector enables continuous monitoring of the process. To demonstrate the broad applicability and reliability of this method, it was employed in the total synthesis of a small protein, as well as dozens of peptides. The quality of the material obtained with this method is comparable to that for traditional batch methods, and, in all cases, the desired material was readily purifiable by RP-HPLC. The application of this method to the synthesis of the 113-residue Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RNase and the 130-residue DARPin pE59 is described in the accompanying manuscript. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Rapid innovation diffusion in social networks. (United States)

    Kreindler, Gabriel E; Young, H Peyton


    Social and technological innovations often spread through social networks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents' responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks.

  15. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change. (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew


    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world (United States)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan


    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  17. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Interface dynamics and banding in rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A.; Sarkissian, A. (Physics Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States))


    Rapid-solidification experiments on metallic alloys in the last decade have provided widespread observations of a novel banded structure.'' We report the results of numerical and analytical studies of the interface dynamics underlying the formation of this structure in a model of directional solidification which includes both solute and heat diffusion and nonequilibrium effects. The thrust of these studies is on the unsteady dynamics of the planar interface and thermal effects. The main conclusion is that the origin of banding can be related to relaxation oscillations of the solidification front, characterized by large variations of the interface velocity, which are dramatically affected by latent-heat diffusion. Without the latter, the oscillations are found to be reasonably well approximated by the phenomenological model of Carrard [ital et] [ital al]. [Acta Metall. 40, 983 (1992)], and the band spacing is inversely proportional to the temperature gradient. In contrast, with latent-heat diffusion the band spacing is insensitive to the temperature gradient, but is controlled instead by the interplay of solute and heat diffusion. The smallness of the solutal diffusivity to thermal diffusivity ratio is exploited to explain analytically this effect and to derive considerably simpler equations of interface motion that provide an efficient numerical means to study the nonplanar interface dynamics expected to cause dark bands. A reasonable agreement with experiment is found for the spacing of banded structures dominated by light-band microsegregation-free regions in Al-Fe alloys.

  19. Nanostructured bioluminescent sensor for rapidly detecting thrombin. (United States)

    Chen, Longyan; Bao, Yige; Denstedt, John; Zhang, Jin


    Thrombin plays a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The abnormal level of thrombin in body fluids may lead to different diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, etc. Detection of thrombin level in blood and/or urine is one of important methods for medical diagnosis. Here, a bioluminescent sensor is developed for non-invasively and rapidly detecting thrombin in urine. The sensor is assembled through conjugating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and a recombinant protein containing Renilla luciferase (pRluc) by a peptide, which is thrombin specific substrate. The luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescence can be quenched by peptide-conjugating Au NPs. In the presence of thrombin, the short peptide conjugating luciferase and Au NPs is digested and cut off, which results in the recovery of bioluminescence due to the release of luciferase from Au NPs. The bioluminescence intensity at 470 nm is observed, and increases with increasing concentration of thrombin. The bioluminescence intensity of this designed sensor is significantly recovered when the thrombin digestion time lasts for 10 min. In addition, a similar linear relationship between luminescence intensity and the concentration of thrombin is found in the range of 8 nM to 8 μM in both buffer and human urine spiked samples. The limit of detection is as low as 80 pM. It is anticipated that our nanosensor could be a promising tool for clinical diagnosis of thrombin in human urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A rapid molecular approach for chromosomal phasing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Regan

    Full Text Available Determining the chromosomal phase of pairs of sequence variants - the arrangement of specific alleles as haplotypes - is a routine challenge in molecular genetics. Here we describe Drop-Phase, a molecular method for quickly ascertaining the phase of pairs of DNA sequence variants (separated by 1-200 kb without cloning or manual single-molecule dilution. In each Drop-Phase reaction, genomic DNA segments are isolated in tens of thousands of nanoliter-sized droplets together with allele-specific fluorescence probes, in a single reaction well. Physically linked alleles partition into the same droplets, revealing their chromosomal phase in the co-distribution of fluorophores across droplets. We demonstrated the accuracy of this method by phasing members of trios (revealing 100% concordance with inheritance information, and demonstrate a common clinical application by phasing CFTR alleles at genomic distances of 11-116 kb in the genomes of cystic fibrosis patients. Drop-Phase is rapid (requiring less than 4 hours, scalable (to hundreds of samples, and effective at long genomic distances (200 kb.

  1. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran


    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  2. Rapid Raman mapping of a fulgurite. (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth A; Pasek, Matthew A; Smith, Tim; Kee, Terence P; Hines, Peter; Edwards, Howell G M


    A fulgurite is a naturally occurring glass formed when lightning hits sand, rock, or soil. The formation of fulgurites is accompanied by mineralogical and sometimes compositional changes, and may record information about the environment in which they were formed. A previous investigation using Raman point spectroscopy discovered the presence of anatase, a low-temperature polymorph of TiO(2), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons within a fulgurite. These findings indicate that there were regions within the sample that were not subjected to temperatures of 2,000 K or more that the matrix is reported to attain when struck by lightning. This paper seeks to expand the previous research by utilizing the capabilities of a new Raman spectroscopic technological development that enables rapid mapping. The entire surface area of a cross-sectioned fulgurite (approximately 40 mm x 23 mm) sample was mapped allowing several regions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and anatase to be located. Furthermore, shocked quartz was found within the boundary regions of the fulgurite, and is proposed to have resulted from contact with vaporized material during the lightning strike. Shocked quartz is typically indicative of extraterrestrial impact, yet its discovery here suggests that its formation is not exclusive to the impact process.

  3. Bulgaria: Ethnic differentials in rapidly declining fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov


    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed description of the fertility changes in Bulgaria during recent decades and discusses possible reasons and consequences. It also gives an overview of the steps that the government has undertaken to offset the considerable decline in fertility. Before the fall of communism, fertility trends in Bulgaria were stable and characterized by a nearly universal entry into parenthood, dominance of a two-child family model, an early start and early end of childbearing, stable mean ages at entry into childbearing and marriage, and low percentages of non-marital births. During the 1990s and in the first years of the new century, we observe a marked, rapid change in fertility behaviour. Together with the severe decline in overall fertility rates, demographic data reveal a significant postponement of entry into motherhood and marriage, a decline of the two-child family model, and an emergence of new family forms. Most research attributes these changes to the particular political and social situation in Bulgaria since 1989.

  4. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  5. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey


    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  6. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.


    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  7. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: Work Plan (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Garman, Steven L.; Walters, Annika; Ray, Andrea; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wesner, Jeff S.; O’Donnell, Michael S.; Sherrill, Kirk R.; Babel, Nils C.; Bowen, Zachary H.


    The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant aquatic and terrestrial species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change (Change Agents) currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements. We selected 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages to be included as Conservation Elements. We will address the four primary Change Agents—development, fire, invasive species, and climate change—required for the REA. The purpose of the work plan for the Wyoming Basin REA is to document the selection process for, and final list of, Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents. The work plan also presents the overall assessment framework that will be used to assess the status of Conservation Elements and answer Management Questions.

  8. Rapid Delivery of Cyber Capabilities: Evaluation of the Requirement for a Rapid Cyber Acquisition Process (United States)


    capabilities and rapid implementation of tactics—all aspects readily addressed using non-material solutions. Additionally, configuration and maintenance of...Offict Symbol: 4. Co~ttac-t 1nror11tation: (l\\’am~ Pj Rcqu.-$1/.Uomtlt’nttNU POC) (RD.11J.!Crrult’) (0/ Jit ’’ Spn) Phone’ 1\\’un.rbo S. T ec:hni<’lll POC 6

  9. A rapid mitochondrial toxicity assay utilizing rapidly changing cell energy metabolism. (United States)

    Sanuki, Yosuke; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakazono, Osamu; Tsurui, Kazuyuki


    Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of safety-related drug-marketing withdrawals. Several drugs have been reported to disrupt mitochondrial function, resulting in hepatotoxicity. The development of a simple and effective in vitro assay to identify the potential for mitochondrial toxicity is thus desired to minimize the risk of causing hepatotoxicity and subsequent drug withdrawal. An in vitro test method called the "glucose-galactose" assay is often used in drug development but requires prior-culture of cells over several passages for mitochondrial adaptation, thereby restricting use of the assay. Here, we report a rapid version of this method with the same predictability as the original method. We found that replacing the glucose in the medium with galactose resulted in HepG2 cells immediately shifting their energy metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation due to drastic energy starvation; in addition, the intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by mitotoxicants when glucose in the medium was replaced with galactose. Using our proposed rapid method, mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells can be evaluated by drug exposure for one hour without a pre-culture step. This rapid assay for mitochondrial toxicity may be more suitable for high-throughput screening than the original method at an early stage of drug development.

  10. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide


    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  11. Hi'iaka: Haumea's Rapidly Spinning Moon (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    An image from the Keck telescope of the dwarf planet Haumea (center) and its two moons, Hiiaka (above) and Namaka (below). [Caltech/Keck/Mike Brown]Recent observations of Hiiaka, the largest satellite of the dwarf planet Haumea, reveal that the moon is spinning much more rapidly than expected. What could this tell us about how Haumea and its moons formed?A Distant DwarfThe dwarf planet Haumea orbits beyond Neptune and has a mass of roughly 1/3 that of Pluto. Like Pluto, Haumea also has companions: two satellites of roughly 0.5% and 0.05% of Haumeas mass, orbiting at rather large distances of 36 and 70 Haumea radii (roughly 26,000 and 50,000 km).In a recently published study, a team led by Danielle Hastings (UC Los Angeles and Florida Institute of Technology) explored Hubble and Magellan observations of Hiiaka Haumeas larger, outer satellite to determine the rate at which it rotates on its axis.Hiiakas light curve, phase-folded at its most likely rotation period of 9.8 hours. The double peak is due to the fact that Hiiaka is likely not a spherical body, so it shows two maxima in brightness in each full rotation. [Hastings et al. 2016]Rapid RotationNominally, wed expect Hiiaka to be rotating synchronously its rotation period should be the same as its orbital period of 49.5 days. We expect this because the amount of time needed for tidal forces to despin Hiiaka to synchronous rotation should be much shorter than the time needed for these forces to produce Hiiakas observed low eccentricity and large semimajor axis.Therefore it was quite the surprise when Hastings and collaborators analyzed Hiiakas light curve and found that the moon revolves on its axis once every 9.8 hours! Thats roughly 120 times faster than the expected synchronous rate.Formation TheoriesWhat does this discovery reveal about Hiiakas formation? Hastings and collaborators propose three possible scenarios. They then use analytic calculations and numerical simulations to try to constrain them based on

  12. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)


    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M., E-mail: [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)


    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (I{sub G} ) and Ca II K-line intensity (I{sub K} ) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28-326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 {+-} 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25-100 mHz ('UHF') range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis {kappa}, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of I{sub G} , I{sub K} , UHF power, and {kappa} reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low I{sub G} , I{sub K} , and UHF power and {kappa} Almost-Equal-To 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of the data, is characterized by high I{sub G} , I{sub K} , and UHF power and {kappa} Almost-Equal-To 3. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the UHF power peaks simultaneously with spatio-temporal I{sub G} maxima in either state. For State 1, I{sub K} shows 3.5 minute chromospheric oscillations with maxima occurring 21 s after I{sub G} maxima implying a 150-210 km effective height difference. However, for State 2 the I{sub K} and I{sub G} maxima are simultaneous; in this highly magnetized environment sites of G-band and K-line emission may be spatially close together.

  14. Rapid Fluctuations in the Lower Solar Atmosphere (United States)

    Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.


    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (IG ) and Ca II K-line intensity (IK ) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28-326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 ± 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25-100 mHz ("UHF") range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis κ, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of IG , IK , UHF power, and κ reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low IG , IK , and UHF power and κ ≈ 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of the data, is characterized by high IG , IK , and UHF power and κ ≈ 3. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the UHF power peaks simultaneously with spatio-temporal IG maxima in either state. For State 1, IK shows 3.5 minute chromospheric oscillations with maxima occurring 21 s after IG maxima implying a 150-210 km effective height difference. However, for State 2 the IK and IG maxima are simultaneous; in this highly magnetized environment sites of G-band and K-line emission may be spatially close together.

  15. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.


    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  16. Universal primers for rapid detection of hytrosaviruses. (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Salem, Tamer Z; Parker, Andrew G; Wang, Yongjie; Jehle, Johannes A; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boucias, Drion


    Hytrosaviridae is a proposed virus family encompassing viruses that cause salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome in infected insects and reduce the fertility in their dipteran insect hosts. They contain a large, double stranded DNA genome of 120-190 kbp. To date, these viruses have been detected only in adult Diptera. These include hytrosaviruses detected in various tsetse fly species (Glossina spp.), the narcissus bulb fly Merodon equestris and the house fly Musca domestica. The limited number of hytrosaviruses reported to date may be a reflection of the frequent absence of external symptoms in infected adult flies and the fact that the virus does not cause rapid mortality. Based on the complete genome sequence of Glossinia pallidipes (GpSGHV) and Musca domestica (MdSGHV) salivary gland hypertrophy viruses, a PCR based methodology was developed to detect the viruses in these species. To be able to detect hytrosaviruses in other Diptera, five degenerate primer pairs were designed and tested on GpSGHV and MdSGHV DNA using gradient PCR with annealing temperatures from 37 to 61°C. Two pairs of primers were selected from p74, two pairs from PIF-1 and one pair from ODV-e66 homologous proteins. Four primer pairs generated a virus specific PCR product on both MdSGHV and GpSGHV at all tested annealing temperatures, while the ODV-e66 based primers did not generate a virus specific product with annealing temperatures higher that 47°C. No non-specific PCR product was found when using genomic DNA of infected flies as template DNA. These results offer new sets of primers that could be used to detect hytrosaviruses in other insects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diffraction and rapidity gap measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bernat, P; The ATLAS collaboration


    These proceedings report of two measurements performed with the ATLAS detector. These measurements use the notion of 'rapidity gaps', although the definition of gap and the probed physics are quite different. The paper [1] presents the rapidity gap cross sections measured with the ATLAS detector using early 2010 pp collisions data. Gap translates the absence of particle produced in a rapidity region. Diffractive events are recorded using the Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators mounted in front of the end-cap calorimeters. The paper [2] presents the measurement of dijet production with a jet veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions recorded by ATLAS in 2010. Rapidity gaps are defined by the absence of jet in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet system, of transverse momentum above 20 GeV. There is therefore some QCD activity in these rapidity gaps. Dijet events are collected using calorimeters jets trigger.

  18. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder. (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence


    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process (United States)


    Rapid prototyping and the human factors • • engineering process David Beevis* and Gaetan St Denist *Senior Human Factors Engineer, Defence and...qr-..2. 9 Rapid prototyping or ’virtual prototyping ’ of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator ’in the loop...8217 without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with

  20. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ruipeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lannutti, John J., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 μm diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9 ± 0.12 s while the t{sub 95} for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79 ± 0.23 s and 2.29 ± 0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 μm would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50 °C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern–Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES–PCL core–shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. Highlights: • Nanofiber-based structures can self-report localized oxygen concentrations. • Ideal for tissue engineering as they allow close interaction of cells. • Nanofiber-incorporated oxygen-sensitive probes provide a perfectly linear response. • Photobleaching is largely eliminated by the use of PES–PCL core

  1. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.


    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  2. Rapid temporal recalibration to visuo-tactile stimuli. (United States)

    Lange, Joachim; Kapala, Katharina; Krause, Holger; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons


    For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation. While rapid recalibration has been demonstrated for audio-visual stimuli, evidence for rapid recalibration of visuo-tactile stimuli is lacking. Here, we investigated rapid recalibration in the visuo-tactile domain. Subjects received visual and tactile stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) and were asked to report whether the visuo-tactile stimuli were presented simultaneously. Our results demonstrate visuo-tactile rapid recalibration by revealing that subjects' simultaneity reports were modulated by the temporal order of stimulation in the preceding trial. This rapid recalibration effect, however, was only significant if the SOA in the preceding trial was smaller than 100 ms, while rapid recalibration could not be demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms. Since rapid recalibration in the audio-visual domain has been demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms, we propose that visuo-tactile recalibration works at shorter SOAs, and thus faster time scales than audio-visual rapid recalibration.

  3. 3D Printing for the Rapid Prototyping of Structural Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Eric; Salas, Rudy; Espalin, David; Perez, Mireya; Aguilera, Efrain; Muse, Dan; Wicker, Ryan B


    .... The use of advanced 3D printing technology enhanced with component placement and electrical interconnect deposition can provide electronic prototypes that now can be rapidly fabricated in comparable...

  4. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning. (United States)

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine


    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  5. Rapid Prototyping of Simulated VIIRS Data in the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response System (United States)

    Easson, G.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Irwin, D.; Cherrington, E.


    A rapid prototyping capability experiment has been established involving the application of the SERVIR (Sistema Regional de Visualización y Monitoreo) decision support tool, which is NASA's and its partner agencies' tool to monitor groundcover and climatic conditions in Mesoamerica. As an information system, the SERVIR tool processes data products from multiple sources and the outcome is visualized through interactive digital maps, standard view map outputs or 3D real-time visualization. The focus of this research is one of the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response products known as the MODIS SERVIR Fire Extent Product, which was developed to meet the requirements of the Guatemalan Park Service. The credibility of SERVIR's monitoring tools currently depends upon NASA's MODIS data, which is nearing the end of its availability. This will make it necessary to transition to the planned replacement sensor, VIIRS. The impact of this transition on the performance of SERVIR's fire detection tools is the current focus of our investigation. A quantitative assessment of fire conditions in Guatemala is made using MODIS data and is compared to the anticipated performance using simulated data that would have been produced by a VIIRS-like sensor. Using a low-density geospatial database, the comparison is made for a number of dates from the 2003 Guatemalan fire season, where ground validation data is available. A comparative assessment is also made using the kappa statistic applied to the land classifications resulting from both the MODIS- and VIIRS- based fire detection algorithms.

  6. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system. (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin


    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark


    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  8. Rapid telemetry and earthquake early warning (United States)

    Allen, R.; Bose, M.; Brown, H.; Cua, G.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Heaton, T.; Hellweg, M.; Jordan, T.; Kireev, A.; Maechling, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Solanki, K.; Zeleznik, M.


    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is currently testing algorithms for earthquake early warning on the realtime seismic systems in the state. An earthquake warning system rapidly detects the initiation of earthquakes and assesses the associated hazard. The goal is to provide warning of potentially damaging ground motion in a target region prior to the arrival of seismic waves. The network-based approach to early warning requires station data to be gathered at a central site for joint processing. ElarmS, one network-based approach being tested, currently runs 15 sec behind realtime in order to gather ~90% of station data before processing. Even with this delay the recent Mw 5.4 Alum Rock earthquake near San Jose was detected and an accurate hazard assessment was available before ground shaking in San Francisco. The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method, another network-based approach, is a Bayesian method that incorporates information such as network topology, previously observed seismicity, and the Gutenberg-Richter relationship in magnitude and location estimation. The VS method is currently being transitioned from off-line to real-time testing and will soon be running 15 sec behind real-time, as in the case of ElarmS. We are also testing an on-site warning approach, which is based on single-station observations. On-site systems can deliver earthquake information faster than regional systems, and the warning could possibly reach potential users at much closer epicentral distances before the damaging shaking starts. By definition, on-site systems do not require a central processing facility or delivery of data from a distant seismic station, but they are less robust that networked-based systems and need a fast and reliable telemetry to deliver warnings to local users. The range of possible warning times is typically seconds to tens of seconds and every second of data latency translates into an equal reduction in the available warning time. Minimal latency

  9. Rapid spheroid clearing on a microfluidic chip. (United States)

    Silva Santisteban, Tomas; Rabajania, Omid; Kalinina, Iana; Robinson, Stephen; Meier, Matthias


    Spheroids are three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures that aim to bridge the gap between the use of whole animals and cellular monolayers. Microfluidics is regarded as an enabling technology to actively control the chemical environment of 3D cell cultures. Although a wide variety of platforms have been developed to handle spheroid cultures, the development of analytical systems for spheroids remains a major challenge. In this study, we engineered a microfluidic large-scale integration (mLSI) chip platform for tissue-clearing and imaging. To enable handling and culturing of spheroids on mLSI chips, with diameters within hundreds of microns, we first developed a general rapid prototyping procedure, which allows scaling up of the size of pneumatic membrane valves (PMV). The presented prototyping method makes use of milled poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) molds for obtaining semi-circular microchannels with heights up to 750 μm. Semi-circular channel profiles are required for the functioning of the commonly used PMVs in normally open configuration. Height limits to tens of microns for this channel profile on photolithographic molds have hampered the application of 3D tissue models on mLSI chips. The prototyping technique was applied to produce an mLSI chip for miniaturization, automation, and integration of the steps involved in the tissue clearing method CLARITY, including spheroid fixation, acrylamide hydrogel infiltration, temperature-initiated hydrogel polymerization, lipid extraction, and immuno-fluorescence staining of the mitochondrial protein COX-IV, and metabolic enzyme GAPDH. Precise fluidic control over the liquids in the spheroid culturing chambers allowed implementation of a local hydrogel polymerization reaction, exclusively within the spheroid tissue. Hydrogel-embedded spheroids undergo swelling and shrinkage depending on the pH of the surrounding buffer solution. A pH-jump from 8.5 to 5.5 shrinks the hydrogel-embedded spheroid volume by 108% with a rate

  10. Effect of phenolic compounds on the rapid direct enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 15, 2009 ... β-D-Galactosidase and β-D-glucuronidase are 2 marker enzymes used in the rapid detection of total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. A range of bioprobes and biosensors have recently been developed for the rapid, direct and in situ detection of these enzymes. Chromogenic substrates are often used to ...

  11. Particle Trapping and Banding in Rapid Colloidal Solidification

    KAUST Repository

    Elliott, J. A. W.


    We derive an expression for the nonequilibrium segregation coefficient of colloidal particles near a moving solid-liquid interface. The resulting kinetic phase diagram has applications for the rapid solidification of clay soils, gels, and related colloidal systems. We use it to explain the formation of bandlike defects in rapidly solidified alumina suspensions. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  12. Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common and fearful bacterial cause in pediatric acute pharyngitis due to its serious complications. Several generations of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have been developed to facilitate rapid detection of GAS pharyngitis. We assessed the value of using a ...

  13. A Parent-Oriented Approach to Rapid Toilet Training (United States)

    Doan, Dai; Toussaint, Karen A.


    The current evaluation assessed the effectiveness of a rapid toilet training procedure for three young males with autism. The evaluation extended the research on rapid toilet training procedures by assessing parents' preference to include two common toilet training components, a urine alarm and positive practice. In addition, we assessed child…

  14. Rapid die manufacturing using direct laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the work undertaken at the CSIR on the issue of rapid die manufacturing through the application and evaluation of a rapid prototyping technique and coating technologies applied to die components of a high pressure casting die...

  15. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  16. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill (United States)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  17. Rapid heating of matter using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Woosuk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This slide presentation describes motivation (uniform and rapid heating of a target, opportunity to study warm dense matter, study of nuclear fusion reactions), rapid heating of matter with intense laser-driven ion beams, visualization of the expanding warm dense gold and diamond, and nuclear fusion experiments using high power lasers (direct heating of deuterium spheres (radius ~ 10nm) with an intense laser pulse.

  18. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim


    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which...

  19. Rapid climate change: lessons from the recent geological past (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Lowe, John; Wolff, Eric; Srokosz, Meric


    Rapid, or abrupt, climate change is regarded as a change in the climate system to a new state following the crossing of a threshold. It generally occurs at a rate exceeding that of the change in the underlying cause. Episodes of rapid climate change abound in the recent geological past (defined here as the interval between the last glacial maximum, dated to approximately 20,000 years ago, and the present). Rapid climate changes are known to have occurred over time periods equal to or even less than a human lifespan: moreover, their effects on the global system are sufficiently large to have had significant societal impacts. The potential for similar events to occur in the future provides an important impetus for investigating the nature and causes of rapid climate change. This paper provides a brief overview of rapid climate change and an introduction to this special issue, which presents results generated by the palaeoclimatic component of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's rapid climate change programme, called RAPID. The papers in the special issue employ palaeoclimatic proxy data-sets obtained from marine, ice core and terrestrial archives to reconstruct rapid climate change during the last glacial cycle, its subsequent termination and the ensuing Holocene interglacial; some papers also report new attempts to match the palaeoclimate data to hypothesised causes through numerical modelling. The results confirm the importance of freshwater forcing in triggering changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and the close links between MOC and rapid climate change. While advancing our understanding of these linkages, the RAPID research has highlighted the need for further research in order to elucidate more specific details of the mechanisms involved.

  20. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva


    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  1. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe


    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however......, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients...

  2. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien


    RapidIO ( technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  3. Rapid Clozapine Titration in Patients with Treatment Refractory Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Özdemir, Armağan; Sağlam, Nazife Gamze Usta; Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Tomruk, Nesrin; Duran, Alaattin


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in patients with schizophrenia in hospital settings. We conducted a retrospective two-center cohort study to compare the safety and effectiveness of clozapine with different titration rates in treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia. In the first center, clozapine was started at 25-50 mg followed by 50-100 mg as needed every 6 h on day 1, followed by increases of 50-100 mg/day. In the second center, titration was slower; clozapine initiated with 12.5-50 mg on day 1 followed by increases of 25-50 mg/day. The number of days between starting of clozapine until discharge was shorter in the rapid titration group (22.4 ± 8.72 vs 27.0 ± 10.5, p = 0.1). Number of days of total hospital stay were significantly shorter in the rapid titration group (29.6 ± 10.6 vs 41.2 ± 14.8, p = 0.002). Hypotension was more common in the rapid titration group and one patient had suspected myocarditis. Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective. The length of stay following initiation of clozapine was shorter in the rapid-titration group, although this was not statistically significant. However starting clozapine earlier together with rapid titration has significantly shortened the length of hospital stay in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia.

  4. Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs. (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Nicotra, Velia; Cordoni, Giada


    Emotional contagion is a basic form of empathy that makes individuals able to experience others' emotions. In human and non-human primates, emotional contagion can be linked to facial mimicry, an automatic and fast response (less than 1 s) in which individuals involuntary mimic others' expressions. Here, we tested whether body (play bow, PBOW) and facial (relaxed open-mouth, ROM) rapid mimicry is present in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) during dyadic intraspecific play. During their free playful interactions, dogs showed a stronger and rapid mimicry response (less than 1 s) after perceiving PBOW and ROM (two signals typical of play in dogs) than after perceiving JUMP and BITE (two play patterns resembling PBOW and ROM in motor performance). Playful sessions punctuated by rapid mimicry lasted longer that those sessions punctuated only by signals. Moreover, the distribution of rapid mimicry was strongly affected by the familiarity linking the subjects involved: the stronger the social bonding, the higher the level of rapid mimicry. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the presence of rapid mimicry in dogs, the involvement of mimicry in sharing playful motivation and the social modulation of the phenomenon. All these findings concur in supporting the idea that a possible linkage between rapid mimicry and emotional contagion (a building-block of empathy) exists in dogs.

  5. Testing techniques for mechanical characterization of rapidly solidified materials (United States)

    Koch, C. C.


    Mechanical property testing techniques are reviewed for rapidly solidified materials. Mechanical testing of rapidly solidified materials is complicated by the fact that in most cases at least one dimension of the material is very small (less than 100 microns). For some geometries, i.e., powder or thin surface layers, microhardness is the only feasible mechanical test. The ribbon geometry which is obtained by the melt-spinning method, however, has been used for a variety of mechanical property measurements including elastic properties, tensile properties, fracture toughness, creep, and fatigue. These techniques are described with emphasis placed on the precautions required by the restricted geometry of rapidly solidified specimens.

  6. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  7. Agile Science Planning: Rapid Response Re-planning Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop autonomous rapid response to science observations in missions targeting small bodies in fly-by mode where observing and reaction time is precious.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (United States)

    ... parkinsonism have been diagnosed with anxiety, social phobias, depression, and seizures. It is unclear whether these disorders are related to the genetic changes that cause rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism . Related ...

  9. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan


    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  10. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2007 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project will be purchased and applied and a Washington Service Corps AmeriCorps member...

  11. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashok, Navya; Varma, N K Sapna; Ajith, V V; Gopinath, Siby


    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB...

  12. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navya Ashok; N. K. Sapna Varma; V V Ajith; Siby Gopinath


    Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB...

  13. Humans copy rapidly increasing choices in a multiarmed bandit problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.


    Conformist social learning, the tendency to acquire the most common trait in a group, allows individuals to rapidly acquire established beneficial traits from a multitude of options. However, conformist strategies hinder acquisition of novel advantageous behavior patterns, because such innovations

  14. Jet-Like Correlations between Forward and Mid-Rapidity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F


    Mid-rapidity azimuthal correlations probe di-jets originating mainly from gluon-gluon hard-scattering. Measurements of such correlations have revealed significant (gluon-)jet modification in central Au+Au collisions. Azimuthal correlations at forward rapidity with a mid-rapidity high-pt hadron, on the other hand, are sensitive primarily to quark-gluon hard-scattering and may probe quark-jet modification in nuclear medium. They may be also sensitive to the Color Glass Condensate by separating d-side and Au-side in d+Au collisions. We present the first results on correlations of charged hadrons at forward rapidity in the STAR FTPCs (2.7 3 GeV/c). Preliminary results from pp, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV are compared. Implications of the results are discussed.

  15. Microfluidic Immunoassays as Rapid Saliva-Based Clinical Diagnostics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amy E. Herr; Anson V. Hatch; Daniel J. Throckmorton; Huu M. Tran; James S. Brennan; William V. Giannobile; Anup K. Singh


    .... Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument...

  16. Hydrothermal iron flux variability following rapid sea level changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middleton, Jennifer L; Langmuir, Charles H; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; McManus, Jerry F; Mitrovica, Jerry X


    .... Mir sediments reveal sixfold to eightfold increases in hydrothermal iron and copper deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by a rapid decline during the sea level rise associated with deglaciation...

  17. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis Using a Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jy Ben


    Conclusion: The microarray method provides a more accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for bacterial meningitis compared to traditional culture methods. Clinical application of this new technique may reduce the potential risk of delay in treatment.

  18. A review of rapid solidification studies of intermetallic compounds (United States)

    Koch, C. C.


    A review of rapid solidification studies of high-temperature ordered intermetallic compounds is presented. Emphasis is on the nickel - and iron- aluminides which are of potential interest as structural materials. The nickel-base aluminides which have been rapidly solidified exhibit changes in grain size, compositional segregation, and degree of long range order (as reflected in APB size and distribution) which markedly affect mechanical properties. Some experiments indicate the formation of a metastable L1(2) phase in rapidly solidified Fe-(Ni,Mn)-Al-C alloys, while other work observes only a metastable fcc phase in the same composition range. The metastable phases and/or microstructures in both nickel and iron aluminides are destroyed by annealing at temperatures above 750 K, with subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. Rapid solidification studies of several other intermetallic compounds are briefly noted.

  19. The reasons for the rapid development of human technologies


    Macfarlane, Alan


    While playing with a two-year-old girl in Australia, Alan Macfarlane explains one reason for the rapid development of humans, namely their curiosity and desire to experiment and to imagine and make new things.

  20. Adsorption of Chloroform by the Rapid Response System Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwacki, Christopher


    Adsorption equilibria and dynamic breakthrough data were measured to determine the adsorption capacity and effect of purge air on the desorption of chloroform from activated carbon simulating the Rapid Response System (RRS) filter...

  1. Rapid Detection of Cellular Response to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan R


    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  2. Rapid Detection of Cellular Responses to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan


    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting, at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  3. Rapid Detection of Cellular Responses to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan


    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting, at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  4. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  5. Rapid intermittent movement of axonal neurofilaments observed by fluorescence photobleaching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, L; Brown, A


    Observations on naturally occurring gaps in the axonal neurofilament array of cultured neurons have demonstrated that neurofilament polymers move along axons in a rapid, intermittent, and highly asynchronous manner...

  6. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2010 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide funds to...

  7. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2008 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide match for...

  8. Rapid pointwise stabilization of vibrating strings and beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Applying a general construction and using former results on the observability we prove, under rather general assumptions, a rapid pointwise stabilization of vibrating strings and beams.

  9. [Rapid identification system for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium]. (United States)

    Mao, Pengfei; Guo, Qiaosheng; Wang, Tao; Shao, Qingsong


    To achieve the rapid identification for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium, the discriminant equation was established and the software for rapid identification was designed. Leaf structure of medicinal Chrysanthemum of 12 cultivars was analyzed to establish the discriminant equation based on variance analysis and discriminant analysis. On this basis, the identification program and software (based on the python language) were designed. Through the analysis of variance and multiple comparisons for the 11 leaf parameter index data of 12 different cultivars, it was found that that the leaf parameters were significant different from each other and reached significant levels. The discriminant equation and the rapid identification software were set up based on the analysis of various indicators. The rapid identification system of seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum could be achieved through the establishment of discriminant equation combined with computer technology.

  10. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L


    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding...

  11. ETV Tech Brief: Rapid Fungi and Bacteria Detection Technologies (United States)

    Technical brief that summarizes the results for Mycometer, Inc. Mycometer®-test and Bactiquant®-test, which are rapid detection technologies for fungi and bacteria. The brief summarizes the results of the verification report and statement.

  12. In vitro rapid and mass multiplication of highly valuable medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro rapid and mass multiplication of highly valuable medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. Sudhir Sharma, Barkha Kamal, Neelima Rathi, Sudhir Chauhan, Vikas Jadon, Neha Vats, Ashok Gehlot, Sarita Arya ...

  13. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs (United States)


    UAVs , the DOD defines UAVs as “powered aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator; use aerodynamic forces to provide lift; can be autonomously...25 B. UAV ...25 1. UAV Background ...............................................................................25 2. Rapid Acquisition in UAV

  14. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  15. TCSP GOES 11 RAPID SCAN WINDS V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP GOES 11 Rapid Scan Winds dataset was generated from image triplets with 30 or 60 minute intervals, and occasionally 15 minute intervals. During...

  16. Lessons learned from Rapid Response Research on wildland fires (United States)

    Leigh Lentile; Penny Morgan; Colin Hardy; Andrew Hudak; Robert Means; Roger Ottmar; Peter Robichaud; Elaine Sutherland; Frederick Way; Sarah Lewis


    In recent years, more researchers are collecting data either on active wildfires or immediately after wildfire occurrence. Known as Rapid Response Research, this important undertaking provides real-time information, useful data, and improved tools for managers.

  17. [Rapidly developing vertebral eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of a case]. (United States)

    Laburthe-Tolra, Y; Boutillier, J B; Chome, J


    Radiographs taken at an interval of one week showed collapse of the twelfth dorsal vertebra, very suggestive of an eosinophilic granuloma. A biopsy performed during surgery, because of the rapid progression of the lesion, was able to confirm the diagnosis.

  18. Rapid folding of DNA into nanoscale shapes at constant temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobczak, Jean-Philippe J; Martin, Thomas G; Gerling, Thomas; Dietz, Hendrik


    .... Unfolding occurred in apparent equilibrium at higher temperatures than those for folding. Folding at optimized constant temperatures enabled the rapid production of three-dimensional DNA objects with yields that approached 100...

  19. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process


    Iorio Lorenzo; Strano Matteo; Monno Michele


    The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performe...

  20. Rapid Hepatitis C Virus Divergence among Chronically Infected Individuals


    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Lozano, Daniela; Vergara-Castaneda, Arely; Rivera-Osorio, Pilar; Martinez-Guarneros, Armando; Chacon, Carlos A. Vazquez; Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Vaughan, Gilberto


    Here, we analyze the viral divergence among hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic cases infected with genotype 1. The intrahost viral evolution was assessed by deep sequencing using the 454 Genome Sequencer platform. The results showed a rapid nucleotide sequence divergence. This notorious short-term viral evolution is of the utmost importance for the study of HCV transmission, because direct links between related samples were virtually lost. Thus, rapid divergence of HCV significantly affects gene...

  1. What caused the rapid recovery of the Carrington storm? (United States)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kataoka, Ryuho


    The geomagnetic storm during the Carrington event, which occurred on 2 September 1859, displayed extremely rapid recovery. The geomagnetic field increased by approximately 650 nT/h at Bombay, India, and by >300 nT/h in 1-h averaged data. Although the rapid recovery is considered due to a sudden increase in the magnetopause current, a sudden decrease of the ring current, or/and a sudden enhancement of the ionospheric currents, this study focuses on the ring current decay. The Carrington rapid recovery had a time constant (approximately 1 h) comparable to the storm development (i.e., decrease in the geomagnetic field), indicating that energy loss from the ring current region is predominantly controlled by E × B convection transport which is responsible for energy input during the storm main phase. This feature has led us to a hypothesis that the flow-out of dense ring current ions and injections of tenuous plasma sheet ions caused the rapid decay of the ring current and in turn the storm rapid recovery. This study examines whether the Carrington rapid recovery can be explained by the flow-out effect. We extend the empirical Burton's model to a model that takes into consideration a sudden change in solar wind density which is correlated with plasma sheet density. We first apply the extended Burton's model to previously observed four intense magnetic storms (Dst minimum solar wind data are available. Using the best fit parameters found by forward modeling, the extended model estimates the recovery of the Carrington storm. The estimate indicates that a solar wind structure with a density bump by approximately 100 cm-3 (and southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) of 65 nT and solar wind speed of 1,500 km/s) can cause the rapid recovery under a continuous southward IMF condition. We conclude that the flow-out effect plays a significant role in producing the rapid recovery of the Carrington storm.

  2. MR sequences and rapid acquisition for MR guided interventions (United States)

    Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Lederman, Robert J; Hansen, Michael S


    Synopsis Interventional MR uses rapid imaging to guide diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. One of the attractions of MR-guidance is the abundance of inherent contrast mechanisms available. Dynamic procedural guidance with real-time imaging has pushed the limits of MR technology, demanding rapid acquisition and reconstruction paired with interactive control and device visualization. This article reviews the technical aspects of real-time MR sequences that enable MR-guided interventions. PMID:26499283

  3. Rapid HIV-1 testing during labor: a multicenter study. (United States)

    Bulterys, Marc; Jamieson, Denise J; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Cohen, Mardge H; Maupin, Robert; Nesheim, Steven; Webber, Mayris P; Van Dyke, Russell; Wiener, Jeffrey; Branson, Bernard M


    Timely testing of women in labor with undocumented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status could enable immediate provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis. To determine the feasibility and acceptance of rapid HIV testing among women in labor and to assess rapid HIV assay performance. The Mother-Infant Rapid Intervention At Delivery (MIRIAD) study implemented 24-hour counseling and voluntary rapid HIV testing for women in labor at 16 US hospitals from November 16, 2001, through November 15, 2003. A rapid HIV-1 antibody test for whole blood was used. Acceptance of HIV testing; sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the rapid test; time from blood collection to patient notification of results. There were 91,707 visits to the labor and delivery units in the study, 7381 of which were by eligible women without documentation of HIV testing. Of these, 5744 (78%) women were approached for rapid HIV testing and 4849 (84%) consented. HIV-1 test results were positive for 34 women (prevalence = 7/1000). Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 100% and 99.9%, respectively; positive predictive value was 90% compared with 76% for enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Factors independently associated with higher test acceptance included younger age, being black or Hispanic, gestational age less than 32 weeks, and having had no prenatal care. Lower acceptance was associated with being admitted between 4 pm and midnight, particularly on Friday nights, but this may be explained in part by fewer available personnel. Median time from blood collection to patient notification of result was 66 minutes (interquartile range, 45-120 minutes), compared with 28 hours for EIA (PHIV testing is feasible and delivers accurate and timely test results for women in labor. It provides HIV-positive women prompt access to intrapartum and neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis, proven to reduce perinatal HIV transmission, and may be particularly applicable to higher-risk populations.

  4. Neuromuscular Control of Rapid Linear Accelerations in Fish (United States)


    fish : Final Report Eric D. Tytell Department of Biology , Tufts University, Abstract In this project, we measured muscle... important aspects of how rapid movements are controlled, but will have to be done using a negative stimulus such as a object accelerating toward the fish ...sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Animals with flexible bodies, like fishes , face a tradeoff for rapid movements. To produce high forces, they must

  5. Reliable, rapid and simple voltammetric detection of urea nitrate explosive. (United States)

    Cagan, Avi; Lu, Donglai; Cizek, Karel; La Belle, Jeff; Wang, Joseph


    A highly selective and rapid electrochemical assay of the improvised explosive urea nitrate (UN) is reported. The method involves a short ( approximately 10 s) acid-catalyzed reaction of UN with 4-nitrotoluene (NT) followed by a rapid ( approximately 2 s) square-wave voltammetric (SWV) detection of the 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) product. The new protocol offers great promise for a reliable field detection of UN, with significant advantages of speed, sensitivity, portability, simplicity, and cost.

  6. Template preparation for rapid PCR in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. Gabriela


    Full Text Available Isolation of DNA for PCR is time-consuming and involves many reagents. The aim of this work was to optimise a rapid and easy PCR methodology without previous DNA isolation. Different strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were used. Protoplasts were generated using lytic enzymes under high incubation temperatures using different methodologies to obtain the template. A rapid (10 minute methodology was successful for smaller amplicons (<750 bp.

  7. The photon PDF in events with rapidity gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L.A. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V.A. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M.G. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We consider photon-initiated events with large rapidity gaps in proton-proton collisions, where one or both protons may break up. We formulate a modified photon PDF that accounts for the specific experimental rapidity gap veto, and demonstrate how the soft survival probability for these gaps may be implemented consistently. Finally, we present some phenomenological results for the two-photon induced production of lepton and W boson pairs. (orig.)

  8. La multiplication rapide du bananier et du plantain au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonte, E.


    Full Text Available Rapid Multiplication of Banana and Plantain Trees in Cameroon. To increase the rate of multiplication of banana and plantain trees, several technics are practiced. Less sophisticated than tissue culture which necessitates a laboratory, this note presents two types of rapid multiplication practices : 1 ° by removal of the apical dominance, that is decapitation, bending over and false decapitation. 2° by spliting of corms and buds.

  9. Microstructures in rapidly solidified Ni-Mo alloys (United States)

    Jayaraman, N.; Tewari, S. N.; Hemker, K. J.; Glasgow, T. K.


    Ni-Mo alloys of compositions ranging from pure Ni to Ni-40 at. percent Mo were rapidly solidified by Chill Block Melt Spinning in vacuum and were examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Rapid solidification resulted in an extension of molybdenum solubility in nickel from 28 to 37.5 at. percent. A number of different phases and microstructures were seen at different depths (solidification conditions) from the quenched surface of the melt spun ribbons.

  10. Rapid method for detection of salmonella in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours.......The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours....

  11. La multiplication rapide du bananier et du plantain au Cameroun


    Bonte, E.; Verdonck, R.; Grégoire, L.


    Rapid Multiplication of Banana and Plantain Trees in Cameroon. To increase the rate of multiplication of banana and plantain trees, several technics are practiced. Less sophisticated than tissue culture which necessitates a laboratory, this note presents two types of rapid multiplication practices : 1 ° by removal of the apical dominance, that is decapitation, bending over and false decapitation. 2° by spliting of corms and buds.

  12. Rapid Motion Planning and Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Vehicles (United States)


    SUBTITLE Rapid Motion Planning and Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Vehicles 6. AUTHOR(S) Laird-Philip Ryan Lewis 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited RAPID MOTION PLANNING AND AUTONOMOUS OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE FOR UNMANNED...of Robot Motion; Theory, Algorithms, and Implementation, The MIT Press, 2005. 7. Zefran, M., Continuous Methods for Motion Planning , Doctoral

  13. Review, Selection and Installation of a Rapid Prototype Machine (United States)

    McEndree, Caryl


    The objective of this paper is to impress upon the reader the benefits and advantages of investing in rapid prototyping (additive manufacturing) technology thru the procurement of one or two new rapid prototyping machines and the creation of a new Prototype and Model Lab at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This new resource will be available to all of United Space Alliance, LLC (USA), enabling engineers from around the company to pursue a more effective means of communication and design with our co-workers, and our customer, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Rapid Protoyping/3D printing industry mirrors the transition the CAD industry made several years ago, when companies were trying to justify the expenditure of converting to a 3D based system from a 2D based system. The advantages of using a 3D system seemed to be outweighed by the cost it would take to convert not only legacy 2D drawings into 3D models but the training of personnel to use the 3D CAD software. But the reality was that when a 3D CAD system is employed, it gives engineers a much greater ability to conceive new designs and the ability to engineer new tools and products much more effectively. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is the name given to a host of related technologies that are used to fabricate physical objects directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) data sources. These methods are generally similar to each other in that they add and bond materials in a layer wise-fashion to form objects, instead of machining away material. The machines used in Rapid Prototyping are also sometimes referred to as Rapid Manufacturing machines due to the fact that some of the parts fabricated in a RP machine can be used as the finished product. The name "Rapid Prototyping" is really a misnomer. It is much more than prototypes and it is not always rapid.

  14. PHENIX Results on Heavy-Flavor Yields at Forward Rapidity (United States)

    Brooks, M.


    The PHENIX collaboration is actively pursuing a physics program to make precision open and closed heavy flavor measurements over a large rapidity range (- 2.2 production at all rapidities and are expanding our measurements of inclusive open heavy flavor to separated charm and beauty measurements carried out via single lepton measurements and through the separation of prompt and B → J / ψ + X production. We present the current status of these measurements.

  15. RRT*-SMART: A Rapid Convergence Implementation of RRT*


    Nasir, Jauwairia; Islam, Fahad; Malik, Usman; Ayaz, Yasar; Hasan, Osman; Khan, Mushtaq; Muhammad, Mannan Saeed


    Many sampling based algorithms have been introduced recently. Among them Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) is one of the quickest and the most efficient obstacle free path finding algorithm. Although it ensures probabilistic completeness, it cannot guarantee finding the most optimal path. Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star (RRT*), a recently proposed extension of RRT, claims to achieve convergence towards the optimal solution thus ensuring asymptotic optimality along with probabilistic comp...

  16. Optimal Schedules of Light Exposure for Rapidly Correcting Circadian Misalignment


    Kirill Serkh; Forger, Daniel B.


    Jet lag arises from a misalignment of circadian biological timing with the timing of human activity, and is caused by rapid transmeridian travel. Jet lag's symptoms, such as depressed cognitive alertness, also arise from work and social schedules misaligned with the timing of the circadian clock. Using experimentally validated mathematical models, we develop a new methodology to find mathematically optimal schedules of light exposure and avoidance for rapidly re-entraining the human circadian...

  17. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier


    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript “Predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events”, which investigates potential predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016 [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s2. All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  18. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy. (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe


    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Response Teams: Is it Time to Reframe the Questions of Rapid Response Team Measurement? (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Bindler, Ruth C; Daratha, Kenn B


    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness. Subsequent studies used mortality and cardiac arrest rates to measure whether or not RRTs "work." Few studies have thoroughly examined the effect of RRTs on nurses and on nursing practice. An extensive literature review provided the background. Suppositions and four critical, unanswered questions arising from the literature are suggested. The results of RRT effectiveness, which have focused on patient-oriented outcomes, have been ambiguous, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. Additionally, they have not taken into account the multiple ways in which these teams have impacted nurses and nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. What happens in terms of RRT process and utilization is likely to have a major impact on nurses and nursing care on general medical and surgical wards. What that impact will be depends on what we can learn from measuring with an expanded yardstick, in order to answer the question, "Do RRTs work?" Evidence for the benefits of RRTs depends on proper framing of questions relating to their effectiveness, including the multiple ways RRTs contribute to nursing efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Aflatossine e Ocratossina A negli alimenti di origine vegetale e negli alimenti ad uso zootecnico: valutazione dei rischi e metodi analitici per la determinazione


    Capozzo, Daniela


    Il controllo dei livelli di contaminazione da micotossine nei prodotti alimentari destinati al consumo umano ed animale viene ritenuto un’esigenza sanitaria visto l’esistenza del rischio che queste tossine possono rappresentare in alcune tipologie di alimenti. Le micotossine rappresentano un gruppo eterogeneo di sostanze chimiche prodotte naturalmente da alcune specie di funghi che appartengono per la maggior parte a tre generi molto diffusi ( Aspergillus, Penicillium e Fusarium). No...

  1. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Noel

    Full Text Available Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations.

  2. Rapid Health and Needs assessments after disasters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzermans CJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publichealth care providers, stakeholders and policy makers request a rapid insight into health status and needs of the affected population after disasters. To our knowledge, there is no standardized rapid assessment tool for European countries. The aim of this article is to describe existing tools used internationally and analyze them for the development of a workable rapid assessment. Methods A review was conducted, including original studies concerning a rapid health and/or needs assessment. The studies used were published between 1980 and 2009. The electronic databasesof Medline, Embase, SciSearch and Psychinfo were used. Results Thirty-three studies were included for this review. The majority of the studies was of US origin and in most cases related to natural disasters, especially concerning the weather. In eighteen studies an assessment was conducted using a structured questionnaire, eleven studies used registries and four used both methods. Questionnaires were primarily used to asses the health needs, while data records were used to assess the health status of disaster victims. Conclusions Methods most commonly used were face to face interviews and data extracted from existing registries. Ideally, a rapid assessment tool is needed which does not add to the burden of disaster victims. In this perspective, the use of existing medical registries in combination with a brief questionnaire in the aftermath of disasters is the most promising. Since there is an increasing need for such a tool this approach needs further examination.

  3. Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.; Levine, A.


    The Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit combines the former Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Database, and other resources into a Web-based tool that gives the regulatory and utility-scale geothermal developer communities rapid and easy access to permitting information. RAPID currently comprises five tools - Permitting Atlas, Regulatory Roadmap, Resource Library, NEPA Database, and Best Practices. A beta release of an additional tool, the Permitting Wizard, is scheduled for late 2014. Because of the huge amount of information involved, RAPID was developed in a wiki platform to allow industry and regulatory agencies to maintain the content in the future so that it continues to provide relevant and accurate information to users. In 2014, the content was expanded to include regulatory requirements for utility-scale solar and bulk transmission development projects. Going forward, development of the RAPID Toolkit will focus on expanding the capabilities of current tools, developing additional tools, including additional technologies, and continuing to increase stakeholder involvement.

  4. Rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yue-Long


    Full Text Available Transverse-momentum dependent (TMD hadronic wave functions develop light-cone divergences under QCD corrections, which are commonly regularized by the rapidity ζ of gauge vector defining the non-light-like Wilson lines. The yielding rapidity logarithms from infrared enhancement need to be resummed for both hadronic wave functions and short-distance functions, to achieve scheme-independent calculations of physical quantities. We briefly review the recent progress on the rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions which are the key ingredients of TMD factorization formulae for radiative-leptonic, semi-leptonic and non-leptonic B-meson decays. The crucial observation is that rapidity resummation induces a strong suppression of B-meson wave functions at small light-quark momentum, strengthening the applicability of TMD factorization in exclusive B-meson decays. The phenomenological consequence of rapidity-resummation improved B-meson wave functions is further discussed in the context of B → π transition form factors at large hadronic recoil.

  5. Do mainframe à nuvem: inovações, estrutura industrial e modelos de negócios nas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação Innovación, estructura industrial y modelos de negocios en las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación: de los mainframes a la nube From mainframes to the cloud: innovation, industrial structure, and business models in the information and communication technology industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bastos Tigre


    Full Text Available Inovações radicais nas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação (TIC abrem oportunidades para o desenvolvimento de novos modelos de negócios que, quando bem-sucedidos, acabam por alterar a própria estrutura da indústria global. A partir da revisão de mudanças estruturais ocorridas nas TIC nas últimas cinco décadas, neste artigo analisam-se a relação entre novas tecnologias, o surgimento de empresas consideradas paradigmas e seus respectivos modelos de negócios visando contribuir para o processo de formulação de estratégias empresariais e políticas públicas. O caso da empresa Google, responsável pela última onda de inovações radicais no setor, é analisado com base na recente literatura sobre a economia da informação visando exemplificar o impacto das mudanças tecnológicas no padrão de competição da indústria.Innovaciones en las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC crean oportunidades para el desarrollo de nuevos modelos de negocios que, cuando exitosos, tienen impactos significativos en la propia estructura de la industria global. A partir de la revisión de los cambios estructurales que ocurrieron en la tecnología de la información y de la comunicación en las últimas cinco décadas, se analiza en este artículo la relación entre nuevas tecnologías, el surgimiento de empresas consideradas paradigmas y sus respectivos modelos de negocios, para contribuir al proceso de formulación de estrategias empresariales y políticas públicas. Se examina el caso de la empresa Google, responsable de las últimas grandes innovaciones en el sector, con apoyo en la literatura reciente sobre la economía de la información, para ilustrar el impacto de los cambios tecnológicos en el modelo de competencia de la industria.Radical innovations in information technology are opening windows of opportunities for developing new business models which will affect the structure of global industry. By reviewing

  6. Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder model. (United States)

    Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Oudiette, Delphine; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle


    Rapid eye movements and complex visual dreams are salient features of human rapid eye movement sleep. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the eyes scan dream images, despite studies that have retrospectively compared the direction of rapid eye movements to the dream recall recorded after having awakened the sleeper. We used the model of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (when patients enact their dreams by persistence of muscle tone) to determine directly whether the eyes move in the same directions as the head and limbs. In 56 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 17 healthy matched controls, the eye movements were monitored by electrooculography in four (right, left, up and down) directions, calibrated with a target and synchronized with video and sleep monitoring. The rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-associated behaviours occurred 2.1 times more frequently during rapid eye movement sleep with than without rapid eye movements, and more often during or after rapid eye movements than before. Rapid eye movement density, index and complexity were similar in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and controls. When rapid eye movements accompanied goal-oriented motor behaviour during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (e.g. grabbing a fictive object, hand greetings, climbing a ladder), which happened in 19 sequences, 82% were directed towards the action of the patient (same plane and direction). When restricted to the determinant rapid eye movements, the concordance increased to 90%. Rapid eye movements were absent in 38-42% of behaviours. This directional coherence between limbs, head and eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder suggests that, when present, rapid eye movements imitate the scanning of the dream scene. Since the rapid eye movements are similar in subjects with and without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, this concordance can be extended

  7. Rapid Statistical Learning Supporting Word Extraction From Continuous Speech. (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J


    The identification of words in continuous speech, known as speech segmentation, is a critical early step in language acquisition. This process is partially supported by statistical learning, the ability to extract patterns from the environment. Given that speech segmentation represents a potential bottleneck for language acquisition, patterns in speech may be extracted very rapidly, without extensive exposure. This hypothesis was examined by exposing participants to continuous speech streams composed of novel repeating nonsense words. Learning was measured on-line using a reaction time task. After merely one exposure to an embedded novel word, learners demonstrated significant learning effects, as revealed by faster responses to predictable than to unpredictable syllables. These results demonstrate that learners gained sensitivity to the statistical structure of unfamiliar speech on a very rapid timescale. This ability may play an essential role in early stages of language acquisition, allowing learners to rapidly identify word candidates and "break in" to an unfamiliar language.

  8. Nanomaterial-enabled Rapid Detection of Water Contaminants. (United States)

    Mao, Shun; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong


    Water contaminants, e.g., inorganic chemicals and microorganisms, are critical metrics for water quality monitoring and have significant impacts on human health and plants/organisms living in water. The scope and focus of this review is nanomaterial-based optical, electronic, and electrochemical sensors for rapid detection of water contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, anions, and bacteria. These contaminants are commonly found in different water systems. The importance of water quality monitoring and control demands significant advancement in the detection of contaminants in water because current sensing technologies for water contaminants have limitations. The advantages of nanomaterial-based sensing technologies are highlighted and recent progress on nanomaterial-based sensors for rapid water contaminant detection is discussed. An outlook for future research into this rapidly growing field is also provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Rapid detection of EBOLA VP40 in microchip immunofiltration assay (United States)

    Miethe, Peter; Gary, Dominik; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Gad, Anne-Marie


    In the spring of 2014, the Ebola virus (EBOV) strain Zaire caused a dramatic outbreak in several regions of West Africa. The RT-PCR and antigen capture diagnostic proved to be effective for detecting EBOV in blood and serum. In this paper, we present data of a rapid antigen capture test for the detection of VP40. The test was performed in a microfluidic chip for immunofiltration analysis. The chip integrates all necessary assay components. The analytical sensitivity of the rapid test was 8 ng/ml for recombinant VP40. In serum and whole blood samples spiked with virus culture material, the detection limit was 2.2 x 102 PFU/ml. The performance data of the rapid test (15 min) are comparable to that of the VP40 laboratory ELISA.

  10. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija


    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has expanded the ways of new genetic variability creation. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs are organisms which total genome is altered in a way that could not happen in nature. GM crops recorded a steady increase in its share in agricultural production. However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus. In order to monitor cultivation and trade of GMOs, tests of different precision are used, qualitatively and/or quantitatively determining the presence of genetic modification. Tests for the rapid determination of the presence of GM are suitable, since they can be implemented quickly and accurately, in terms of declared sensitivity, outside or in the laboratory. The example of the use of rapid tests demonstrates their value in use for rapid and efficient monitoring.

  11. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley


    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  12. Rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-rare earth alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.F.; Das, S.K.; Raybould, D.


    Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material except for beryllium, and yet magnesium alloys have not seen extensive use because of their poor strength and corrosion resistance. Rapid solidification technology offers a possible solution to these problems. A number of Mg-Al-Zn alloys containing rare earth (RE) elements (e.g. Ce, Pr, Y, and Nd) have been investigated using rapid solidification processing for possible structural applications. The processing consists of planar flow or jet casting into ribbons, pulverization of ribbon to powder, and consolidation of powder into bulk shapes. The mechanical properties of some of these alloys show attractive combinations of strength, ductility and corrosion resistance. The microstructures of these alloys are correlated with their mechanical properties. The rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-RE alloys show great potential for applications in automotive and aerospace industries. 7 references.

  13. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage. (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick


    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound.

  14. Trichomonas spp. in pigeons: detection by OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test. (United States)

    Valek, Petr; Kunca, Tomas; Langrova, Iva; Hartlova, Helena; Brozova, Adela; Jankovska, Ivana; Kudrnacova, Marie; Sloup, Vladislav


    The efficacy of the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (developed for rapid diagnosis of human Trichomonas vaginalis) in detection of Trichomonas spp. in pigeons (Columba livia) was investigated. Two oral cavity swabs were taken from 50 farm pigeons. Cultivation in Diamond Trichomonas medium was used as a reference method. According to a morphological determination, Trichomonas gallinae was the only protozoan found; however, no further molecular analysis was conducted. The OSOM Trichomonas test was positive in 39 oral swabs. In comparison with the cultivation method three samples were identified as false negative and one as false positive. Test specificity and sensitivity were established as 93% and 90%, respectively. Using Cohen's Kappa, the concordance between the two testing methods was found to be strong (kappa = 0.7506, 95% CI = 0.5162-0.9850). The OSOM Trichomonas test is not able to distinguish between Trichomonas species; however, results suggest that the test is suitable for the rapid detection of Trichomonas spp. infection in pigeons.

  15. Determine quality of rice seed using rapid techniques (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Zheng, Siyuan; Ying, Yibin


    This paper is aimed at investigating the possibility of sorting rice seeds by rapid techniques. Machine vision and dielectric separation were involved to determine external and internal quality of rice seeds. A conceptual rapid seed sorter is proposed. Two varieties of rice seeds planted and harvested in different years were involved in the experiments. Using morphological and color features gave a highly acceptable classification of normal and defective seeds. Dielectric parameters can be used to classify rice seeds into high vigor and low vigor. Combination of appearance characteristics and dielectric properties provide comprehensive response of seed quality. A highly acceptable defects classification and vigor improvement were achieved when the principle prototype was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability. The good adaptability of machine vision and dielectric separation indicate the potential to determine quality of rice seeds rapidly. This paper presents the significant elements of the conceptual prototype and emphasizes the important aspects of the image processing and dielectric separation techniques.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.


    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  17. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A [Albuquerque, NM; Davis, Donald W [Albuquerque, NM; Chavez, Bart D [Albuquerque, NM; Gallegos, Phillip L [Albuquerque, NM; Wicker, Ryan B [El Paso, TX; Medina, Francisco R [El Paso, TX


    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  18. Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    This report describes work on Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System under US Department of Energy Contract DE-FC36-06GO16010. The project lead was the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). Partners included Owens Corning and Johns Manville. Cost share for this project was provided by NYSERDA (the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority), Owens Corning, Johns Manville, Owens Illinois, and the US natural gas industry through GTI’s SMP and UTD programs. The overreaching focus of this project was to study and develop rapid refining approaches for segmented glass manufacturing processes using high-intensity melters such as the submerged combustion melter. The objectives of this project were to 1) test and evaluate the most promising approaches to rapidly condition the homogeneous glass produced from the submerged combustion melter, and 2) to design a pilot-scale NGMS system for fiberglass recycle.

  19. Rapid electrochemiluminescence assays of polymerase chain reaction products. (United States)

    Kenten, J H; Casadei, J; Link, J; Lupold, S; Willey, J; Powell, M; Rees, A; Massey, R


    We demonstrate the first use of an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) label, [4-(N-succimidyloxycarbonylpropyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'- bipyridine]ruthenium(II) dihexafluorophosphate (Origen label; IGEN Inc.), in DNA probe assays. This label allows rapid (less than 25 min) quantification and detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products from oncogenes, viruses, and cloned genes. For the PCR, we used labeled oligonucleotide primers complementary to human papiloma virus and the Ha-ras oncogene. These samples were followed by ECL analysis or hybridization with specific, Origen-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These studies demonstrate the speed, specificity, and effectiveness of the new ECL labels, compared with 32P, for nucleic acid probe applications. We describe formats involving conventional methodologies and a new format that requires no wash step, allowing simple and rapid sample analysis. These rapid assays also reduce PCR contamination, by requiring less sample handling. Improvements in ECL detectability are currently under investigation for use in DNA probe assays without amplification.

  20. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivak Seth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait. The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.