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Sample records for rapid naming skills

  1. Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Aro, Mikko; Liao, Chen-Huei; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to contrast the prominent theoretical explanations of the rapid automatized naming (RAN)-reading relationship across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Chinese, English, and Finnish) and (b) to examine whether the same accounts can explain the RAN-spelling relationship. In total, 304 Grade 4 children (102 Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 117 English-speaking Canadian children, and 85 Finnish-speaking children) were assessed on measures of RAN, speed of processing, phonological processing, orthographic processing, reading fluency, and spelling. The results of path analysis indicated that RAN had a strong direct effect on reading fluency that was of the same size across languages and that only in English was a small proportion of its predictive variance mediated by orthographic processing. In contrast, RAN did not exert a significant direct effect on spelling, and a substantial proportion of its predictive variance was mediated by phonological processing (in Chinese and Finnish) and orthographic processing (in English). Given that RAN predicted reading fluency equally well across languages and that phonological/orthographic processing had very little to do with this relationship, we argue that the reason why RAN is related to reading fluency should be sought in domain-general factors such as serial processing and articulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  3. Literacy acquisition influences children's rapid automatized naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Arnett, Anne B; Pennington, Bruce F; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K

    2017-08-15

    Previous research has established that learning to read improves children's performance on reading-related phonological tasks, including phoneme awareness (PA) and nonword repetition. Few studies have investigated whether literacy acquisition also promotes children's rapid automatized naming (RAN). We tested the hypothesis that literacy acquisition should influence RAN in an international, longitudinal population sample of twins. Cross-lagged path models evaluated the relationships among literacy, PA, and RAN across four time points from pre-kindergarten through grade 4. Consistent with previous research, literacy showed bidirectional relationships with reading-related oral language skills. We found novel evidence for an effect of earlier literacy on later RAN, which was most evident in children at early phases of literacy development. In contrast, the influence of earlier RAN on later literacy was predominant among older children. These findings imply that the association between these two related skills is moderated by development. Implications for models of reading development and for dyslexia research are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  5. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  6. Rapid automatized naming, phonology and dyslexia in Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowicz-Kupis, Grazyna; Borkowska, Aneta R; Pietras, Izabela

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have showed that children with reading difficulties have deficits in both rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological skills (PS). The double-deficit hypothesis suggests that phonological and naming-speed deficits are two separable causes of reading problems. The main goal of our study was to investigate naming speed in Polish fourth grade children with dyslexia. 33 dyslexic children (10 girls and 23 boys) and 30 good readers participated in the study. They were given the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC-R) and a battery of diagnostic tests for dyslexia for fourth-grade children, consisting of tests for single word reading, nonsense word reading, reading with word canceling, text comprehension, spelling on dictation, rapid automatic naming, phoneme elision, and phonological skills, as well as the Zetotest (a phonological memory test). The dyslexic children performed significantly more slowly than controls on the RAN tests, which suggests a generalized deficit in the speed of access to the mental lexicon. Significant correlations were found only between the RAN test and the text comprehension text. Among all the phonological measures applied in the study, slight but significant correlations were found only between phonological memory and speed naming. Dyslexic children with low speed naming abilities and high speed naming abilities showed no differences in phonological functions. Our results confirm the double-deficit hypothesis of dyslexia.

  7. Students' performance in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading, and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Lanza, Simone Cristina

    2010-01-01

    phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing in students with learning difficulties of a municipal public school. to characterize and compare the performance of students from public schools with and without learning difficulties in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing. participants were 60 students from the 2nd to the 4th grades of municipal public schools divided into 6 groups. Each group was composed by 10 students, being 3 groups of students without learning difficulties and 3 groups with students with learning difficulties. As testing procedure phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, oral reading and writing under dictation assessments were used. the results highlighted the better performance of students with no learning difficulties. Students with learning difficulties presented a higher ratios considering time/speed in rapid naming tasks and, consequently, lower production in activities of phonological awareness and reading and writing, when compared to students without learning difficulties. students with learning difficulties presented deficits when considering the relationship between naming and automatization skills, and among lexical access, visual discrimination, stimulus frequency use and competition in using less time for code naming, i.e. necessary for the phoneme-grapheme conversion process required in the reading and writing alphabetic system like the Portuguese language.

  8. Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children's emergent literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children's name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children's emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In study 1, a range of emergent literacy tasks was administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. The more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on all emergent literacy measures. Furthermore, children with longer names did not show superior performance compared to children with shorter names. In study 2, four measures of alphabet knowledge and spelling were administered to 104 preschool children. Once again, the more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on the alphabet knowledge and spelling measures. Results indicated that having longer names did not translate into an advantage on the alphabet knowledge and spelling tasks. Name writing proficiency, not length of name appears to be associated with preschool children's developing emergent literacy skills. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling.

  9. Rapid Naming by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that children with specific language impairment (SLI) name pictures more slowly than do chronological age-matched (CAM) peers. Rapid naming depends on 2 factors known to be problematic for children with SLI--lexical retrieval and nonlinguistic speed of processing. Although all studies implicate a…

  10. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  11. Why Does Rapid Naming Predict Chinese Word Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Kathy Kar-man; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2017-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) robustly predicts early reading abilities across languages, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study found that RAN associated significantly with processing speed but not with phonological awareness or orthographic knowledge in 89 Hong Kong Chinese second-graders. RAN overlaps more with processing…

  12. Rapid Automatized Naming in Children with Dyslexia: Is Inhibitory Control Involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexkens, Anika; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tijms, Jurgen

    2015-08-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely seen as an important indicator of dyslexia. The nature of the cognitive processes involved in rapid naming is however still a topic of controversy. We hypothesized that in addition to the involvement of phonological processes and processing speed, RAN is a function of inhibition processes, in particular of interference control. A total 86 children with dyslexia and 31 normal readers were recruited. Our results revealed that in addition to phonological processing and processing speed, interference control predicts rapid naming in dyslexia, but in contrast to these other two cognitive processes, inhibition is not significantly associated with their reading and spelling skills. After variance in reading and spelling associated with processing speed, interference control and phonological processing was partialled out, naming speed was no longer consistently associated with the reading and spelling skills of children with dyslexia. Finally, dyslexic children differed from normal readers on naming speed, literacy skills, phonological processing and processing speed, but not on inhibition processes. Both theoretical and clinical interpretations of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Why is rapid automatized naming related to reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral and silent reading fluency. The results of regression analyses indicated that RAN is related to reading because both involve serial processing and oral production of the names of the stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children’s emergent literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children’s name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children’s emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In study 1, a range of emergent literacy tasks was administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. The more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on all emergent literacy measures. Furthermore, children with longer names did not show superior performance compared to children with shorter names. In study 2, four measures of alphabet knowledge and spelling were administered to 104 preschool children. Once again, the more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on the alphabet knowledge and spelling measures. Results indicated that having longer names did not translate into an advantage on the alphabet knowledge and spelling tasks. Name writing proficiency, not length of name appears to be associated with preschool children’s developing emergent literacy skills. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. PMID:22523450

  15. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  16. A Study on Preschool Children's Name Writing and Writing Readiness Skills

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    Çetin, Özlem Simsek

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the name writing and writing readiness levels of preschoolers in terms of various variables and to identify the relationship between children's name writing skill and writing readiness levels. To that end, name-writing and writing-readiness skills of 204 preschoolers at the ages of 3, 4 and 5 were examined…

  17. The Effect of Orthographic Depth on Letter String Processing: The Case of Visual Attention Span and Rapid Automatized Naming

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    Antzaka, Alexia; Martin, Clara; Caffarra, Sendy; Schlöffel, Sophie; Carreiras, Manuel; Lallier, Marie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated whether orthographic depth can increase the bias towards multi-letter processing in two reading-related skills: visual attention span (VAS) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). VAS (i.e., the number of visual elements that can be processed at once in a multi-element array) was tested with a visual 1-back task and RAN…

  18. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children's letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children's emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge.

  19. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  20. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  1. Multiple mediation analysis of the relationship between rapid naming and reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    for the RAN-reading correlation. One hundred and sixty-nine preschool students were given measures of RAN and additional measures of phonological awareness, lexical search speed, letter knowledge, and paired associate learning. Their reading skills were tested a year later along with speed of processing......It is well established that rapid automatised naming (RAN) correlates with reading ability. Despite several attempts, no single component process (mediator) has been identified that fully accounts for the correlation. The present paper estimated the explanatory value of several mediators....... The influence of the mediators on the RAN-reading correlation was estimated as indirect effects in mediation analyses. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge significantly mediated the RAN-reading relationship, each accounted for a moderate part of the correlation between RAN and reading fluency. Thus...

  2. Rapid naming in Brazilian students with dyslexia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana eMendonça Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effective development of reading and writing skills requires the concerted action of several abilities, one of which is phonological processing. One of the foremost components of phonological processing is rapid automatized naming (RAN- the ability to identify and recognize a given item by the activation and concomitant articulation of its name. Objective: To assess the RAN performance of schoolchildren with dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD compared with their peers. Methods: In total, 70 schoolchildren aged between 8‒11 years participated in the study. Of these, 16 children had a multiprofessional diagnosis of ADHD while 14 had been diagnosed with dyslexia. Matched with these groups, 40 schoolchildren with no history of developmental impairments were also evaluated. The RAN test was administered to assess the length of time required to name a series of familiar visual stimuli. The statistical analysis was conducted using measures of descriptive statistics and the 2-sample t-test at the 5% significance level. Results: The performance of the group with dyslexia was inferior to that of the control group, in all tasks and the ADHD group had inferior performance for color and letters-naming tasks. The schoolchildren with dyslexia and those with ADHD showed very similar response times. Age has shown to be an important variable to be analyzed separately. Children with typical language development have faster answers as they aged on colors and digits tasks while children with dyslexia or ADHD do not show improvement with age. Conclusions: The schoolchildren with dyslexia took longer to complete all tasks and ADHD took longer to complete digits and objects tasks in comparison to their peers with typical development. This ability tends to improve with age, which is not the case, however, with schoolchildren who have ADHD or dyslexia.

  3. Examining the relationship between rapid automatized naming and arithmetic fluency in Chinese kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiaxin; Georgiou, George K; Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Yixun; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-02-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been found to predict mathematics. However, the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how RAN (numeric and non-numeric) predicts a subdomain of mathematics (arithmetic fluency) and (b) to examine what processing skills may account for the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. A total of 160 third-year kindergarten Chinese children (83 boys and 77 girls, mean age=5.11years) were assessed on RAN (colors, objects, digits, and dice), nonverbal IQ, visual-verbal paired associate learning, phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing, approximate number system acuity, and arithmetic fluency (addition and subtraction). The results indicated first that RAN was a significant correlate of arithmetic fluency and the correlations did not vary as a function of type of RAN or arithmetic fluency tasks. In addition, RAN continued to predict addition and subtraction fluency even after controlling for all other processing skills. Taken together, these findings challenge the existing theoretical accounts of the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship and suggest that, similar to reading fluency, multiple processes underlie the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) test: A new measure of rapid picture naming for concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Lucy; Hasanaj, Lisena; Amorapanth, Prin; Rizzo, John-Ross; Nolan, Rachel; Serrano, Liliana; Raynowska, Jenelle; Rucker, Janet C; Jordan, Barry D; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2017-01-15

    This study introduces a rapid picture naming test, the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES), as a novel, vision-based performance measure for concussion screening. The MULES is a visual-verbal task that includes 54 original photographs of fruits, objects and animals. We piloted MULES in a cohort of volunteers to determine feasibility, ranges of picture naming responses, and the relation of MULES time scores to those of King-Devick (K-D), a rapid number naming test. A convenience sample (n=20, age 34±10) underwent MULES and K-D (spiral bound, iPad versions). Administration order was randomized; MULES tests were audio-recorded to provide objective data on temporal variability and ranges of picture naming responses. Scores for the best of two trials for all tests were 40-50s; average times required to name each MULES picture (0.72±0.14s) was greater than those needed for each K-D number ((spiral: 0.33±0.05s, iPad: 0.36±0.06s, 120 numbers), psystems than more commonly used rapid number naming tasks. Rapid picture naming may require additional processing devoted to color perception, object identification, and categorization. Both tests rely on initiation and sequencing of saccadic eye movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  6. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  7. Semantic Abilities in Children With Pragmatic Language Impairment: The Case of Picture Naming Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  8. Phoneme Awareness, Visual-Verbal Paired-Associate Learning, and Rapid Automatized Naming as Predictors of Individual Differences in Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Meesha; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent relationships between phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading skills in 7- to 11-year-old children. Path analyses showed that visual-verbal paired-associate learning and RAN, but not phoneme awareness, were unique predictors of word recognition,…

  9. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with or without Reading Disabilities and/or ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Barry J.A.; van den Bos, Kees P.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Employing a large sample of children from Dutch regular elementary schools, this study assessed the contributing and discriminating values of reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to two types of phonological processing skills, phonemic awareness (PA) and rapid

  10. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, Mieke Pauline; Hermans, Suzanne Irene Alphonsus; Cuperus, Juliane; Jansonius, Kino; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-02-01

    The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically developing children completed receptive vocabulary, picture naming, and definition tasks. The PLI group scored lower on the receptive vocabulary and picture naming tasks. Word length and frequency affected naming accuracy in both groups. Children with PLI showed higher numbers of semantic errors, nonrelated errors, and omissions and circumlocutions. The error-type distribution differed between groups: PLI children showed disproportionate levels of nonrelated errors. In the definition task, PLI children showed lower information accuracy for accurately named pictures and comparable accuracy for incorrectly named pictures. Qualitative analysis suggested a high incidence of pragmatically inappropriate definitions for the PLI group. Naming accuracy for both groups improved equally after giving semantic cues. These findings suggest a deficit in object identification and/or naming selection. It might be premature to conclude that children with PLI show normal semantic abilities. The results are largely consistent with a general language delay; however, there is also some evidence of a qualitative difference between both groups.

  11. Beyond Phonology: Visual Processes Predict Alphanumeric and Nonalphanumeric Rapid Naming in Poor Early Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Luther Ruban, Cassia

    2018-01-01

    Visual processes in Grade 1 were examined for their predictive influences in nonalphanumeric and alphanumeric rapid naming (RAN) in 51 poor early and 69 typical readers. In a lagged design, children were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3 over 5 testing occasions. RAN outcomes in early Grade 2 were predicted by speeded and nonspeeded…

  12. Rapid Naming Speed Components and Reading Development in a Consistent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Fella, Argyro; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict word and text reading fluency in a consistent orthography (Greek). In total, 68 children were followed from Grade 2 to Grade 6 and were assessed three times on RAN (Digits and Objects), phonological awareness, orthographic processing, speed of…

  13. What's in a name: putting the skills of librarianship back into circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Anne; Grant, Maria J

    2014-09-01

    Anne Brice, recipient of the 2014 Cyril Barnard Memorial Prize, reflects on the themes of names and skills of the health library and information professions. She questions whether service users share the same concerns of librarians that this nomenclature is too narrow and too closely associated with the buildings that provide its name. She proposes that in mediation between the users and their required knowledge sits a unique opportunity to place the profession in the centre of knowledge translation. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  14. Rapid naming, phonological memory and reading fluency in Brazilian bilingual students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Fernanda Oppenheimer; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the performance of Brazilian students exposed to two languages in reading fluency, phonological memory, and rapid naming, according to grade level, and to investigate correlations between these variables. Sixty students took part in this study (50% female), enrolled in the third to the fifth grades of two elementary schools of the city of São Paulo. They constituted two groups - bilingual group: 30 Brazilian children whose mother tongue and language spoken at home was Brazilian Portuguese and who were daily exposed to English at school for a period not shorter than three years; monolingual group: 30 students, from a monolingual Brazilian elementary school, who were paired by gender, age, and grade level with the bilingual students. Foreign children, children with complaint or indication of speech and language disorder, or who had been retained were excluded. A rapid automatized naming, pseudoword repetition, and oral reading tests were administered. The bilingual children were assessed in both languages and their performances were compared among themselves and with the monolingual group, which was only assessed in Brazilian Portuguese. The bilingual group showed better performance in English, rapid naming, and pseudoword repetition tasks, whereas Brazilian Portuguese, in reading fluency. A higher number of correlations were found in Brazilian Portuguese. The results suggest that the acquisition of a second language may positively influence the abilities of rapid naming, reading rate, and accuracy. Brazilian bilingual students performed better in tasks of phonological memory in English and Brazilian Portuguese performed better in reading fluency. Different correlation patterns were found between the rapid naming, accuracy, and reading rate, in the bilingual group analysis, in both languages.

  15. Research applications for an Object and Action Naming Battery to assess naming skills in adult Spanish-English bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Lisa A; Donovan, Neila J

    2014-06-01

    Virtually no valid materials are available to evaluate confrontation naming in Spanish-English bilingual adults in the U.S. In a recent study, a large group of young Spanish-English bilingual adults were evaluated on An Object and Action Naming Battery (Edmonds & Donovan in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 55:359-381, 2012). Rasch analyses of the responses resulted in evidence for the content and construct validity of the retained items. However, the scope of that study did not allow for extensive examination of individual item characteristics, group analyses of participants, or the provision of testing and scoring materials or raw data, thereby limiting the ability of researchers to administer the test to Spanish-English bilinguals and to score the items with confidence. In this study, we present the in-depth information described above on the basis of further analyses, including (1) online searchable spreadsheets with extensive empirical (e.g., accuracy and name agreeability) and psycholinguistic item statistics; (2) answer sheets and instructions for scoring and interpreting the responses to the Rasch items; (3) tables of alternative correct responses for English and Spanish; (4) ability strata determined for all naming conditions (English and Spanish nouns and verbs); and (5) comparisons of accuracy across proficiency groups (i.e., Spanish dominant, English dominant, and balanced). These data indicate that the Rasch items from An Object and Action Naming Battery are valid and sensitive for the evaluation of naming in young Spanish-English bilingual adults. Additional information based on participant responses for all of the items on the battery can provide researchers with valuable information to aid in stimulus development and response interpretation for experimental studies in this population.

  16. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  17. Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Veronica; Niu, Zhendong; Kay, Paul; Zhou, Ke; Mo, Lei; Jin, Zhen; So, Kwok-Fai; Tan, Li Hai

    2011-04-19

    The human brain has been shown to exhibit changes in the volume and density of gray matter as a result of training over periods of several weeks or longer. We show that these changes can be induced much faster by using a training method that is claimed to simulate the rapid learning of word meanings by children. Using whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we show that learning newly defined and named subcategories of the universal categories green and blue in a period of 2 h increases the volume of gray matter in V2/3 of the left visual cortex, a region known to mediate color vision. This pattern of findings demonstrates that the anatomical structure of the adult human brain can change very quickly, specifically during the acquisition of new, named categories. Also, prior behavioral and neuroimaging research has shown that differences between languages in the boundaries of named color categories influence the categorical perception of color, as assessed by judgments of relative similarity, by response time in alternative forced-choice tasks, and by visual search. Moreover, further behavioral studies (visual search) and brain imaging studies have suggested strongly that the categorical effect of language on color processing is left-lateralized, i.e., mediated by activity in the left cerebral hemisphere in adults (hence "lateralized Whorfian" effects). The present results appear to provide a structural basis in the brain for the behavioral and neurophysiologically observed indices of these Whorfian effects on color processing.

  18. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation Between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and hierarchical regression methods to determine the connection among RAN, reading comprehension, and WM components. Results showed that WM played a significant mediating role in the RAN-reading relation and that auditory WM made stronger contributions than visual WM. Taking into account of the multi-component nature of WM and the specificity of Chinese reading processing, this study discussed the mediating powers of the WM components, particularly auditory WM, further clarifying the possible components involved in the RAN-reading relation and thus providing some insight into the complicated Chinese reading process.

  19. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) in children with ADHD: An ex-Gaussian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew; Jacobson, Lisa A; Hague, Cole; Bellows, Alison; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2017-07-01

    Children with ADHD demonstrate increased frequent "lapses" in performance on tasks in which the stimulus presentation rate is externally controlled, leading to increased variability in response times. It is less clear whether these lapses are also evident during performance on self-paced tasks, e.g., rapid automatized naming (RAN), or whether RAN inter-item pause time variability uniquely predicts reading performance. A total of 80 children aged 9 to 14 years-45 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 35 typically developing (TD) children-completed RAN and reading fluency measures. RAN responses were digitally recorded for analyses. Inter-stimulus pause time distributions (excluding between-row pauses) were analyzed using traditional (mean, standard deviation [SD], coefficient of variation [CV]) and ex-Gaussian (mu, sigma, tau) methods. Children with ADHD were found to be significantly slower than TD children (p reading fluency. RAN response time distributions were also significantly more variable (SD, tau) in children with ADHD. Hierarchical regression revealed that the exponential component (tau) of the letter-naming response time distribution uniquely predicted reading fluency in children with ADHD (p reading, ADHD symptom severity and age. The findings suggest that children with ADHD (without word-level reading difficulties) manifest slowed performance on tasks of reading fluency; however, this "slowing" may be due in part to lapses from ongoing performance that can be assessed directly using ex-Gaussian methods that capture excessively long response times.

  20. Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

  1. The contribution of discrete-trial naming and visual recognition to rapid automatized naming deficits of dyslexic children with and without a history of language delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo eGasperini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD are impaired in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN tasks, where subjects are asked to name arrays of high frequency items as quickly as possible. However the reasons why RAN speed discriminates DD from typical readers are not yet fully understood. Our study was aimed to identify some of the cognitive mechanisms underlying RAN-reading relationship by comparing one group of 32 children with DD with an age-matched control group of typical readers on a naming and a visual recognition task both using a discrete-trial methodology , in addition to a serial RAN task, all using the same stimuli (digits and colors. Results showed a significant slowness of DD children in both serial and discrete-trial naming tasks regardless of type of stimulus, but no difference between the two groups on the discrete-trial recognition task. Significant differences between DD and control participants in the RAN task disappeared when performance in the discrete-trial naming task was partialled out by covariance analysis for colors, but not for digits. The same pattern held in a subgroup of DD subjects with a history of early language delay (LD. By contrast, in a subsample of DD children without LD the RAN deficit was specific for digits and disappeared after slowness in discrete-trial naming was partialled out. Slowness in discrete-trial naming was more evident for LD than for noLD DD children. Overall, our results confirm previous evidence indicating a name-retrieval deficit as a cognitive impairment underlying RAN slowness in DD children. This deficit seems to be more marked in DD children with previous LD. Moreover, additional cognitive deficits specifically associated with serial RAN tasks have to be taken into account when explaining deficient RAN speed of these latter children. We suggest that partially different cognitive dysfunctions underpin superficially similar RAN impairments in different subgroups of DD subjects.

  2. Context and Linguistic Skills Factors Affecting the Pronunciation of Arabic Proper Names in Speakers of Bahdini Kurdish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilgash Mohammed Shareef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore the pronunciation of Arabic proper names by Bahdini Kurds living in Duhok and the districts around. Thirty-two respondents were selected to say fifty Arabic proper names commonly used by Kurdish today’s society. The variables identified are linguistic skills in Kurdish and Arabic, and the extent of the formality of the context. The study concluded that being a fluent speaker of Arabic gives a Bahdini Kurdish speaker the ability to pronounce the Arabic proper names in a native-like accent. Yet, those speakers have revealed a tendency towards the use of a Kurdish pronunciation of such names when the context was informal. Dissimilarly, the Kurdish pronunciation was regularly used by speakers skilled or unskilled in Kurdish language and linguistics in both formal and informal situations.

  3. Name that Word: Using Song Lyrics to Improve the Decoding Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescents, especially those with learning disabilities, lack basic word identification skills. Finding motivating instructional techniques to improve word-level reading skills is increasingly difficult as students move through the grades. One technique that holds promise in motivating adolescents involves using song lyrics from their…

  4. Alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric Rapid Automatized Naming in children with reading and/or spelling difficulties and mathematical difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, M.; Kroesbergen, E.; Slot, E.; Van Viersen, S.; De Bree, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is a risk factor for reading and/or spelling difficulties (RSD) as well as for mathematical difficulties (MD), many questions surround this relationship. The main objective of the present study was to obtain insight in the relationship between

  5. Alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid automatized naming in children with reading and/or spelling difficulties and mathematical difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, M.H.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Slot, E.M.; Viersen, S. van; Bree, E.H. de

    2016-01-01

    Although poor Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is a risk factor for reading and/or spelling difficulties (RSD) as well as for mathematical difficulties (MD), many questions surround this relationship. The main objective of the present study was to obtain insight in the relationship between

  6. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  7. Rapid naming and phonemic awareness in children with reading disabilities and/or specific language impairment : Differentiating processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J.A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). A composite word reading index and

  8. Language treatment prior to anterior temporal lobe surgery: Can naming skills be preserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Diane L; Minkina, Irene; Bislick, Lauren; Grabowski, Thomas J; Phatak, Vaishali; Silkes, JoAnn P; Ojemann, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy affects 1% of the general population and is highly prevalent among Veterans. The purpose of this phase I study was to investigate a presurgical linguistically distributed language treatment program that could potentially diminish effects of proper-name retrieval deficits following left anterior temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was employed for three individuals with late-onset chronic left temporal lobe epilepsy. Word retrieval treatment was administered prior to anterior temporal lobe resection. The primary outcome measure was confrontation naming of proper nouns. Immediately posttreatment (before surgery), there was a positive effect for all trained stimuli in the form of improved naming as compared with pretreatment. In addition, trained stimuli were found to be better after surgery than they were at pretreatment baseline, which would not be expected had language treatment not been provided. This series of case studies introduces two fundamentally novel concept: that commonly occurring deficits associated with left temporal lobe epilepsy can be treated despite the presence of damaged neural tissue and that providing this treatment prior to surgery can lead to better preservation of language function after surgery than would be expected if the treatment were not provided.

  9. Naming Speed in Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willburger, Edith; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Wood, Guilherme; Landerl, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In four carefully selected samples of 8- to 10-year old children with dyslexia (but age adequate arithmetic skills), dyscalculia (but age adequate reading skills), dyslexia/dyscalculia and controls a domain-general deficit in rapid automatized naming (RAN) was found for both dyslexia groups. Dyscalculic children exhibited a domain-specific deficit…

  10. Is rapid automatized naming related to reading and mathematics for the same reason(s)? A follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Tziraki, Niki; Manolitsis, George; Fella, Argyro

    2013-07-01

    We examined (a) what rapid automatized naming (RAN) components (articulation time and/or pause time) predict reading and mathematics ability and (b) what processing skills involved in RAN (speed of processing, response inhibition, working memory, and/or phonological awareness) may explain its relationship with reading and mathematics. A sample of 72 children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 and were assessed on measures of RAN, general cognitive ability, speed of processing, attention, working memory, phonological awareness, reading, and mathematics. The results indicated that pause time was the critical component in both the RAN-reading and RAN-mathematics relationships and that it shared most of its predictive variance in reading and mathematics with speed of processing and working memory. Our findings further suggested that, unlike the relationship between RAN and reading fluency in Grade 1, there is nothing in the RAN task that is uniquely related to math. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid Deterioration of Basic Life Support Skills in Dentists With Basic Life Support Healthcare Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office.

  12. Text Comprehension in Chinese Children: Relative Contribution of Verbal Working Memory, Pseudoword Reading, Rapid Automated Naming, and Onset-Rime Phonological Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…

  13. Study on Morphological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming through Word Reading and Comprehension in Normal and Disabled Reading Arabic-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the role and extent of the involvement of morphological awareness (MA) in contrast to rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading and comprehension of Arabic as a morphologically based orthography. We gave measures of word reading, reading comprehension, MA, and RAN in addition to a nonverbal mental ability test to 3 groups…

  14. Comparison of streamflow prediction skills from NOAH-MP/RAPID, VIC/RAPID and SWAT toward an ensemble flood forecasting framework over large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajib, M. A.; Tavakoly, A. A.; Du, L.; Merwade, V.; Lin, P.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the differences in how individual models represent physical processes for runoff generation and streamflow routing, use of ensemble output is desirable in an operational streamflow estimation and flood forecasting framework. To enable the use of ensemble streamflow, comparison of multiple hydrologic models at finer spatial resolution over a large domain is yet to be explored. The objective of this work is to compare streamflow prediction skills from three different land surface/hydrologic modeling frameworks: NOAH-MP/RAPID, VIC/RAPID and SWAT, over the Ohio River Basin with a drainage area of 491,000 km2. For a uniform comparison, all the three modeling frameworks share the same setup with common weather inputs, spatial resolution, and gauge stations being employed in the calibration procedure. The runoff output from NOAH-MP and VIC land surface models is routed through a vector-based river routing model named RAPID, that is set up on the high resolution NHDPlus reaches and catchments. SWAT model is used with its default tightly coupled surface-subsurface hydrology and channel routing components to obtain streamflow for each NHDPlus reach. Model simulations are performed in two modes, including: (i) hindcasting/calibration mode in which the models are calibrated against USGS daily streamflow observations at multiple locations, and (ii) validation mode in which the calibrated models are executed at 3-hourly time interval for historical flood events. In order to have a relative assessment on the model-specific nature of biases during storm events as well as dry periods, time-series of surface runoff and baseflow components at the specific USGS gauging locations are extracted from corresponding observed/simulated streamflow data using a recursive digital filter. The multi-model comparison presented here provides insights toward future model improvements and also serves as the first step in implementing an operational ensemble flood forecasting framework

  15. Associations among Name Writing and Alphabetic Skills in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children At Risk of School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; Baroody, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Associations among children's writing and alphabetic skills were examined in a sample of 502 prekindergarten children who were at risk of academic failure because they came from poor families, spoke a language other than English at home, or had an identified disability. In this sample of children at risk of school failure, 16% had an identified…

  16. Rapid application design of an electronic clinical skills portfolio for undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Tim; Lee, Catherine; Stopford, Adam; Hosie, Liam; Maredia, Neil; Rector, Alan

    2005-04-01

    The aim was to find how to use information and communication technology to present the clinical skills content of an undergraduate medical curriculum. Rapid application design was used to develop the product, and technical action research was used to evaluate the development process. A clinician-educator, two medical students, two computing science masters students, two other project workers, and a hospital education informatics lead, formed a design team. A sample of stakeholders took part in requirements planning workshops and continued to advise the team throughout the project. A university hospital had many features that favoured fast, inexpensive, and successful system development: a clearly defined and readily accessible user group; location of the development process close to end-users; fast, informal communication; leadership by highly motivated and senior end-users; devolved authority and lack of any rigidly imposed management structure; cooperation of clinicians because the project drew on their clinical expertise to achieve scholastic goals; a culture of learning and involvement of highly motivated students. A detailed specification was developed through storyboarding, use case diagramming, and evolutionary prototyping. A very usable working product was developed within weeks. "SkillsBase" is a database web application using Microsoft Active Server Pages, served from a Microsoft Windows 2000 Server operating system running Internet Information Server 5.0. Graphing functionality is provided by the KavaChart applet. It presents the skills curriculum, provides a password-protected portfolio function, and offers training materials. The curriculum can be presented in several different ways to help students reflect on their objectives and progress towards achieving them. The reflective portfolio function is entirely private to each student user and allows them to document their progress in attaining skills, as judged by self, peer and tutor assessment, and

  17. Providing rapid feedback to residents on their teaching skills: an educational strategy for contemporary trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Sidlow, Rachel J; Baer, Tamar G; Gershel, Jeffrey C

    2016-03-20

    The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of contemporary residents toward receiving rapid feedback on their teaching skills from their medical student learners. Participants consisted of 20 residents in their second post-graduate training year. These residents facilitated 44 teaching sessions with medical students within our Resident-as-Teacher program. Structured, written feedback from students was returned to the resident within 3 days following each session. Residents completed a short survey about the utility of the feedback, whether they would make a change to future teaching sessions based on the feedback, and what specifically they might change. The survey utilized a 4-point scale ("Not helpful/likely=1" to "Very helpful/likely=4"), and allowed for one free-text response. Free-text responses were hand-coded and underwent qualitative analysis to identify themes. There were 182 student feedback encounters resulting from 44 teaching sessions. The survey response rate was 73% (32/44). Ninety-four percent of residents rated the rapid feedback as "very helpful," and 91% would "very likely" make a change to subsequent sessions based on student feedback. Residents' proposed changes included modifications to session content and/or their personal teaching style. Residents found that rapid feedback received from medical student learners was highly valuable to them in their roles as teachers. A rapid feedback strategy may facilitate an optimal educational environment for contemporary trainees.

  18. Underlying Skills of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency in Chinese: Perspective of Visual Rapid Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K W; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These

  19. Rapid Responsiveness to Practice Predicts Longer-Term Retention of Upper Extremity Motor Skill in Non-Demented Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y; Duff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Skill acquisition is a form of motor learning that may provide key insights into the aging brain. Although previous work suggests that older adults learn novel motor tasks slower and to a lesser extent than younger adults, we have recently demonstrated no significant effect of chronological age on the rates and amounts of skill acquisition, nor on its long-term retention, in adults over the age of 65. To better understand predictors of skill acquisition in non-demented older adults, we now explore the relationship between early improvements in motor performance due to practice (i.e., rapid responsiveness) and longer-term retention of an upper extremity motor skill, and whether the extent of rapid responsiveness was associated with global cognitive status. Results showed significant improvements in motor performance within the first five (of 150) trials, and that this "rapid responsiveness" was predictive of skill retention 1 month later. Notably, the extent of rapid responsiveness was not dependent on global cognitive status, as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Thus, rapid responsiveness appears to be an important variable in longer-term neurorehabilitative efforts with older adults, regardless of their cognitive status.

  20. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Relations of Emergent Literacy Skill Development with Conventional Literacy Skill Development in Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated relative contributions of initial status and growth rates of emergent literacy skills (i.e., phonological awareness, letter-name knowledge, vocabulary, and rapid serial naming) to initial status and growth rates of conventional literacy skills (i.e., word reading, pseudoword reading, and spelling) for young Korean…

  2. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  3. Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

    2013-01-01

    Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

  4. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages. PMID:21359098

  5. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages.

  6. Monochromatic Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Marisa J.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a lesson for middle school students involving their names, with outlets for uniqueness and self-expression. Focusing on contrast, design elements, and a monochromatic color scheme, students created name designs that they loved. Tips for adaptation for special needs students are included. The lesson confirms basic design and…

  7. Are Phonological Processes Separate from the Processes Underlying Naming Speed in a Shallow Orthography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Escribano, Carmen; Katzir, Tami

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examined the contributions of phonological decoding skills and rapid naming to the prediction of reading skills in Spanish-speaking children with dyslexia. Method: Thirty-eight dyslexic readers with phonological decoding processing deficits (mean age 9;11) were assessed on reading speed, reading comprehension, word…

  8. The MetSkill Program — Rapidly Developing Effective Young Engineers in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Diana; Bianco, Nina

    MetSkill is a professional development program for metallurgical engineers that integrates with normal duties in their first one or two years of service. Graduates work together on a structured technical project, facilitated by specialists and supported by formal learning, and ultimately reported to their technical managers. The program enables graduates to "fill the gaps" in their undergraduate education, which is increasingly pertinent as engineering degrees become more general. Participants report that they enjoy the focus on more challenging (rewarding) aspects of their jobs and feel more confident about problem solving. Sponsor companies add that the relationships developed with external technical specialists enhances opportunities for innovation and development. MetSkill was delivered to two major resource companies in Australia in 2012. This paper provides an outline of the program and the reasons for its success, and demonstrates how the learning model could be applied to groups of graduates in other engineering disciplines.

  9. Development of Rapid Temporal Processing and Its Impact on Literacy Skills in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Zimmer, Karin; Lachmann, Thomas; Dirichs, Martin; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, auditory and visual temporal order thresholds (TOTs) were investigated in primary school children (N = 236; mean age at first data point = 6;7) at the beginning of Grade 1 and the end of Grade 2 to test whether rapid temporal processing abilities predict reading and spelling at the end of Grades 1 and 2. Auditory and…

  10. Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in Concussed and Non-Concussed Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Michael Dretsch, PhD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...imaging and salivary biomarkers. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? MAJ Dretsch and Ms. Fauth met

  11. A Functional Analysis of the Effects of the Induction of Naming and Observing Teacher-Modeling on Accelerated Learning of Academic Skills for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Alison

    2011-01-01

    I tested the effects of the absence and presence of Naming on rate of learning when teacher modeling was part of an instructional procedure. A time-lagged multiple probe design across matched pairs of participants was implemented. Eight elementary aged children with autism, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years old, were selected because they lacked…

  12. Does Naming Therapy Make Ordering in a Restaurant Easier? Dynamics of Co-Occurring Change in Cognitive-Linguistic and Functional Communication Skills in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey P.; Villard, Sarah; Kiran, Swathi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the static and dynamic relationships between impairment-level cognitive-linguistic abilities and activity-level functional communication skills in persons with aphasia (PWA). Method In Experiment 1, a battery of standardized assessments was administered to a group of PWA (N = 72) to examine associations between cognitive-linguistic ability and functional communication at a single time point. In Experiment 2, impairment-based treatment was administered to a subset of PWA from Experiment 1 (n = 39) in order to examine associations between change in cognitive-linguistic ability and change in function and associations at a single time point. Results In both experiments, numerous significant associations were found between scores on tests of cognitive-linguistic ability and a test of functional communication at a single time point. In Experiment 2, significant treatment-induced gains were seen on both types of measures in participants with more severe aphasia, yet cognitive-linguistic change scores were not significantly correlated with functional communication change scores. Conclusions At a single time point, cognitive-linguistic and functional communication abilities are associated in PWA. However, although changes on standardized assessments reflecting improvements in both types of skills can occur following an impairment-based therapy, these changes may not be significantly associated with each other. PMID:28196373

  13. Fracture eponyms: personal names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zolotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the origin of bone fracture eponyms. The authors compiled a list of 60 most established fracture names proposed by physicians in 16th-20th centuries who mainly were skilled, mature and outstanding experts from countries with advanced conventional medicine and often represented the recognized surgical schools. Eponym records are important for understanding the history and subject of the chosen profession as well as knowledge of eponymic fractures facilitates communication between physicians of allied disciplines.

  14. The pre-literacy skills of a girl with moderate speech and language disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Moškon, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Pre-literacy skills are cruical for literacy development, which is basic for gaining knowledge, looking informations … In those days, we are facing with reading and writing on every step. We could say, that literacy is a life important skill. Pre-literacy skills include various skills: phonological awareness, graphic awareness, concept of print, auditory memory, phonological memory, rapid automatized naming and other. Children develop these skills in preschool period and in first grade of pri...

  15. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  16. An Introduction to a Novel and Rapid nZEB Skill-Mapping and Qualification Framework Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cromwijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful design and construction processes aiming towards nearly zero energy building (nZEB standards are a challenge for the whole construction industry in Europe. Realizing nZEB buildings requires innovative design processes, and technologies based on an integrated design approach facilitated by multidisciplinary work teams. The collaboration between architects, engineers, technical experts and building managers, is essential. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the specific involvement of each profession in order to develop mutual understanding of each others’ disciplines. Additionally, it is vital to provide professionals with the skills needed to achieve optimal nZEB construction and retrofitting in terms of quality, energy efficiency and cost effectiveness. However, this approach is not yet common, as the building sector is still very fragmented. The EU-funded H2020 project PROF/TRAC aims to tackle this issue by developing an Open Training Platform and a methodology for fast and valid co-creation of interdisciplinary qualification schemes for task-based Continuous Professional Development (CPD for all professions involved. A common methodology for the mapping of skills and qualifications in the form of an Excel tool was developed as a basis, together with a guidance document. This paper presents the skill-mapping methodology, the use of its results to develop national roadmaps, and the BUILD UP Skills advisor app.

  17. Naming names: eponyms and biological history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Gayatri; Viswanathan, V K

    2012-01-01

    The constraints imposed by available experimental data, and the need for precision, typically limits the eloquence of researchers. Scientists, however, indulge in their literary and poetic selves in the names that they bestow on genes and proteins, on organisms and diseases. We briefly review some familiar names in the Inside Passage, and explore their historical antecedents.

  18. Enhancing Communication through Gesture and Naming Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caute, Anna; Pring, Tim; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Best, Wendy; Marshall, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether gesture, naming, and strategic treatment improved the communication skills of 14 people with severe aphasia. Method: All participants received 15 hr of gesture and naming treatment (reported in a companion article [Marshall et al., 2012]). Half the group received a further 15 hr of strategic…

  19. What's in a Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Albanese, Judith; Karp, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, some baby names have been more popular during a specific time span, whereas other names are considered timeless. The Internet article, "How to Tell Someone's Age When All You Know Is Her Name" (Silver and McCann 2014), describes the phenomenon of the rise and fall of name popularity, which served as a catalyst for the…

  20. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  1. Predicting the Growth of Early Spelling Skills: Are There Heterogeneous Developmental Trajectories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervag, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We examined the growth of spelling skills in a large sample of Norwegian children (N = 228) over the first 3 years in school. The roles of phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), visual-verbal paired-associate learning, and verbal short-term memory as predictors of later spelling skills were examined. Phoneme awareness…

  2. Context-dependent anticipation of different task dynamics: rapid recall of appropriate motor skills using visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouchev, Nedialko I; Kalaska, John F

    2003-02-01

    Recent studies have reported that human subjects show varying degrees of ability to use contextual cues to recall the motor skills required to compensate for different dynamic external force fields during arm movements. In particular, the subjects showed little or no ability to use color cues to adjust motor outputs in anticipation of the perturbing fields after limited periods of training that were sufficient to learn to compensate for the fields themselves. This is unexpected since humans and monkeys can use color cues to perform a wide range of visuomotor tasks. Here we show that a monkey with extensive practice compensating for viscous fields in an elbow-movement task can use associated color cues to adjust motor output in anticipation of an impending field before physically encountering it.

  3. Marine Place Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the geographic place names for features in the U.S territorial waters and outer continental shelf. These names can be used to find or define a...

  4. Cataloguing Urdu Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The major problem in cataloging Urdu names is in the identification of the personal name and the entry word. The author examines practices followed by various libraries, and then discusses the rules for entry. (28 references) (Author/SJ)

  5. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change....... Second, it offers practical support to organizations, private as well as public, who find themselves in a situation where changing the name of the organization could be a way to reach either communicative or organizational goals....

  6. What's in a name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Feature interaction may arise in many dierent ways, but one of the core topics is the issue of name binding: When two or more entities are composed, say A and B, and they provide more than one declaration of the same name, say n, should the composed entity contain one subentity under that name n...

  7. Spoken name pronunciation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepperman, Joseph; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    Recognition of spoken names is an important ASR task since many speech applications can be associated with it. However, the task is also among the most difficult ones due to the large number of names, their varying origins, and the multiple valid pronunciations of any given name, largely dependent upon the speaker's mother tongue and familiarity with the name. In order to explore the speaker- and language-dependent pronunciation variability issues present in name pronunciation, a spoken name database was collected from 101 speakers with varying native languages. Each speaker was asked to pronounce 80 polysyllabic names, uniformly chosen from ten language origins. In preliminary experiments, various prosodic features were used to train Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to identify misplaced syllabic emphasis within the name, at roughly 85% accuracy. Articulatory features (voicing, place, and manner of articulation) derived from MFCCs were also incorporated for that purpose. The combined prosodic and articulatory features were used to automatically grade the quality of name pronunciation. These scores can be used to provide meaningful feedback to foreign language learners. A detailed description of the name database and some preliminary results on the accuracy of detecting misplaced stress patterns will be reported.

  8. Origins of NASA names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. T.; Whiteley, S. H.; Karegeannes, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    Names are selected for NASA spaceflight projects and programs from various sources. Some have their foundations in mythology and astrology or legend and folklore. Some have historic connotations; others are based on a description of their mission, often resulting in an acronym. Included are names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. This study is limited to names of approved projects through 1974; it does not include names of numerous projects which have been or are being studied or projects that were canceled or postponed before reaching actual flight.

  9. What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    A study examined the preferences of British teenagers for names of higher education institutions, including the use of terms such as "academy, college, college of higher education, college of arts and sciences, institute, or school," and geographic, religious, royal, or personal names. (MSE)

  10. Directory of awardee names

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  11. Names and Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

  12. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  13. Syntactic and discourse skills in Chinese adolescent readers with dyslexia: a profiling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K H; Lo, Jason C M; Ho, Connie S-H; Xiao, Xiaoyun; Chan, David W

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of syntactic and discourse skills to morphological skills, rapid naming, and working memory in Chinese adolescent readers with dyslexia and to examine their cognitive-linguistic profiles. Fifty-two dyslexic readers (mean age, 13;42) from grade 7 to 9 in Hong Kong high schools were compared with 52 typically developing readers of the same chronological age (mean age, 13;30) in the measures of word reading, 1-min word reading, reading comprehension, morpheme discrimination, morpheme production, morphosyntactic knowledge, sentence order knowledge, digit rapid naming, letter rapid naming, backward digit span, and non-word repetition. Results showed that dyslexic readers performed significantly worse than their peers on all the cognitive-linguistic tasks. Analyses of individual performance also revealed that over half of the dyslexic readers exhibited deficits in syntactic and discourse skills. Moreover, syntactic skills, morphological skills, and rapid naming best distinguished dyslexic from non-dyslexic readers. Findings underscore the significance of syntactic and discourse skills for understanding reading impairment in Chinese adolescent readers.

  14. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  15. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  16. Brand-Name Charters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Julie

    2008-01-01

    KIPP (Knowledge Is Power Program) offers training for teachers designed to turn them into school principals with an entrepreneur's skill set. Teacher Jason Singer underwent KIPP training and now recruits 5th-grade students for the charter middle school he opened. KIPP, which was founded in 1994 by Teach For America alums Michael Feinberg and David…

  17. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  18. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, M.; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  19. Christian Names of Karelians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the forms of Christian names used in the past and in the present on the territory of the Karelian ethnic group’s settlement — in Finland, as well as in Russian Karelia, Tver and Leningrad regions. The main aim of the article is to sum up the findings of previous research and to provide an analysis of new anthroponymic data retrieved from the 16th–17th centuries historical documents or collected by the author and other researchers during field trips. After outlining the main stages of the development of the Orthodox religion on the Karelian lands, the author gives an insight into the history of the formation of the Karelian Orthodox anthroponymicon. The article shows that after the adoption of Orthodox religion in 1227 Karelians adopted a large number of Christian names which later were modified according to the phonetic and morphologic patterns of the Karelian language. In Karelian, canonical Christian names received numerous folk variants, part of which derived from the Russian language forms used on the neighboring Russian lands. The article focuses on the main ways of phonetic and morphological adaptation of Russian forms in the Karelian language. The author emphasizes that Karelian forms of Christian names feature a rather well-built phonetic and morphological system, which allows not only to explain the origin of obscure forms but to restore a number of forms which might have been used earlier in the Karelian language but were completely lost.

  20. Name Searching and Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, P; Thompson, Paul; Dozier, Christopher C.

    1997-01-01

    The main application of name searching has been name matching in a database of names. This paper discusses a different application: improving information retrieval through name recognition. It investigates name recognition accuracy, and the effect on retrieval performance of indexing and searching personal names differently from non-name terms in the context of ranked retrieval. The main conclusions are: that name recognition in text can be effective; that names occur frequently enough in a variety of domains, including those of legal documents and news databases, to make recognition worthwhile; and that retrieval performance can be improved using name searching.

  1. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. O conhecimento do nome das letras e o desenvolvimento da escrita: evidência de crianças falantes do português Letter name knowledge and the development of spelling skills: evidence from Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cardoso-Martins

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Crianças entre 4 e 5 anos de idade foram solicitadas a escrever pares de palavras começando com a mesma letra e o mesmo som consonantal. Para cada par, o nome ou parte do nome da primeira letra podia ser escutado na pronúncia de uma das palavras (Ex.: telefone; limão, mas não da outra (Ex.: tartaruga; laranja. As crianças escreveram a primeira letra corretamente mais freqüentemente para as palavras como telefone do que para as palavras como tartaruga, o que sugere que as crianças utilizam o seu conhecimento do nome das letras para conectar a escrita à fala. As implicações desses resultados para a nossa compreensão do desenvolvimento da escrita pela criança são discutidas. Em particular, o trabalho questiona a interpretação oferecida por Ferreiro para um tipo de escrita observada entre crianças falantes de línguas como o espanhol e o português - a escrita silábica.Four to 5-year-old children were asked to spell pairs of words beginning with the same letter and consonant sound. For each pair, the entire name or part of the name of the initial letter could be heard in the pronunciation of one of the words (e.g., telefone; limão, but not in the pronunciation of the other (e.g., tartaruga; laranja. The children spelled the first letter correctly more frequently for words such as telefone than for words such as tartaruga, suggesting that children use their knowledge of letter names to connect print to speech. The implications of these findings for our understanding of the development of children's invented spellings are discussed. In particular, we question Ferreiro's interpretation of a type of spelling that is observed among young speakers of Spanish and Portuguese - the so-called syllabic spelling.

  3. What's in a Name? Understanding Profile Name Reuse on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Mariconti, E.; Onaolapo, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nikiforou, N.(Nevis Laboratory, Columbia University, Irvington, NY, United States); Egele, M.; Nikiforakis, N.; Stringhini, G.

    2017-01-01

    Users on Twitter are commonly identified by their profile names. These names are used when directly addressing users on Twitter, are part of their profile page URLs, and can become a trademark for popular accounts, with people referring to celebrities by their real name and their profile name, interchangeably. Twitter, however, has chosen to not permanently link profile names to their corresponding user accounts. In fact, Twitter allows users to change their profile name, and afterwards makes...

  4. Auditory responsive naming versus visual confrontation naming in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly M; Finney, Glen R; Meador, Kimford J; Loring, David W

    2010-01-01

    Dysnomia is typically assessed during neuropsychological evaluation through visual confrontation naming. Responsive naming to description, however, has been shown to have a more distributed representation in both fMRI and cortical stimulation studies. While naming deficits are common in dementia, the relative sensitivity of visual confrontation versus auditory responsive naming has not been directly investigated. The current study compared visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming in a dementia sample of mixed etiologies to examine patterns of performance across these naming tasks. A total of 50 patients with dementia of various etiologies were administered visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming tasks using stimuli that were matched in overall word frequency. Patients performed significantly worse on auditory responsive naming than visual confrontation naming. Additionally, patients with mixed Alzheimer's disease/vascular dementia performed more poorly on auditory responsive naming than did patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, although no group differences were seen on the visual confrontation naming task. Auditory responsive naming correlated with a larger number of neuropsychological tests of executive function than did visual confrontation naming. Auditory responsive naming appears to be more sensitive to effects of increased of lesion burden compared to visual confrontation naming. We believe that this reflects more widespread topographical distribution of auditory naming sites within the temporal lobe, but may also reflect the contributions of working memory and cognitive flexibility to performance.

  5. What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Joseph; Just, Mike; Matthews, Greg

    We study the efficiency of statistical attacks on human authentication systems relying on personal knowledge questions. We adapt techniques from guessing theory to measure security against a trawling attacker attempting to compromise a large number of strangers' accounts. We then examine a diverse corpus of real-world statistical distributions for likely answer categories such as the names of people, pets, and places and find that personal knowledge questions are significantly less secure than graphical or textual passwords. We also demonstrate that statistics can be used to increase security by proactively shaping the answer distribution to lower the prevalence of common responses.

  6. Intermountain Range plant names and symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Perry Plummer; Stephen B. Monsen; Richard Stevens

    1977-01-01

    This revised alphabetical list of botanical and common names of vascular plants that primarily grow on wildlands of the Intermountain region and adjacent areas has been assembled for use in quickly recording occurrence of plants in the field and for rapid machine processing of field data. Included are plants found in Utah, Nevada, southern Idaho, and Wyoming, and most...

  7. Orthographic Characteristics Speed Hindi Word Naming but Slow Urdu Naming: Evidence from Hindi/Urdu Biliterates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chaitra; Vaid, Jyotsna; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Chen, Hsin-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Two primed naming experiments tested the orthographic depth hypothesis in skilled biliterate readers of Hindi and Urdu. These languages are very similar on the spoken level but differ greatly in script; Hindi is a highly transparent script, whereas Urdu is more opaque. It was accordingly hypothesized that form-based priming would be greater for…

  8. Branding a business name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization, international businesses, as well as competitive markets imposed the companies (large ones, as well as the others to position in the required market. Making profit, which is the basic aim of every company, in such market environment can only be achieved by demonstrating distinct characteristics of a company, the characteristics which distinguish it from others with the same or similar activities. Historical and analysis of the current market have shown that being recognizable in the multitude of similar companies is a huge challenge, but also one of the main preconditions for successful operations. The moment a company is registered it acquires a specific identity primarily owing to its business name, which distinguishes it from other companies during that first period. Practically at the same time, the company starts creating its image or goodwill by means of several distinctive ways. One of them is branding business name or corporate branding. However, apart from large benefits, companies may also have big difficulties and risks in the same process as well.

  9. Comparison of Name-Writing Rubrics: Is There a Gold Standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Schreiber, Samantha; Estabrook, Erin; O'Donnell, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare name writing using six different rubrics with the aim of ascertaining whether any were better for evaluating preschoolers' name-writing skills. In addition, we investigated the relation between name writing assessed using these six rubrics and children's emergent and conventional literacy skills.…

  10. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  11. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  12. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  13. Reading skill and structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Suzanne M; Lebel, Catherine; Katzir, Tami; Manis, Franklin R; Kan, Eric; Rodriguez, Genevieve G; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2014-03-26

    Reading is a learned skill that is likely influenced by both brain maturation and experience. Functional imaging studies have identified brain regions important for skilled reading, but the structural brain changes that co-occur with reading acquisition remain largely unknown. We investigated maturational volume changes in brain reading regions and their association with performance on reading measures. Sixteen typically developing children (5-15 years old, eight boys, mean age of sample=10.06 ± 3.29) received two MRI scans (mean interscan interval=2.19 years), and were administered a battery of cognitive measures. Volume changes between time points in five bilateral cortical regions of interest were measured, and assessed for relationships to three measures of reading. Better baseline performances on measures of word reading, fluency, and rapid naming, independent of age and total cortical gray matter volume change, were associated with volume decrease in the left inferior parietal cortex. Better baseline performance on a rapid naming measure was associated with volume decrease in the left inferior frontal region. These results suggest that children who are better readers, and who perhaps read more than less skilled readers, exhibit different development trajectories in brain reading regions. Understanding relationships between reading performance, reading experience, and brain maturation trajectories may help with the development and evaluation of targeted interventions.

  14. Name agreement in picture naming: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G

    2010-06-01

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded whilst 19 healthy, native English speakers silently named pictures which had either high or low name agreement. A series of ERP components was examined: P1 approximately 120ms from picture onset, N1 around 170ms, P2 around 220ms, N2 around 290ms, and P3 around 400ms. Additionally, a late time window from 800 to 900ms was considered. Name agreement had an early effect, starting at P1 and possibly resulting from uncertainty of picture identity, and continuing into N2, possibly resulting from alternative names for pictures. These results support the idea that name agreement affects two consecutive processes: first, object recognition, and second, lexical selection and/or phonological encoding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Does training novices to criteria and does rapid acquisition of skills on laparoscopic simulators have predictive validity or are we just playing video games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Nancy J; Widmann, Warren D; Ude, Aku O; Hardy, Mark A; Fowler, Dennis L

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether LapSim training (version 3.0; Surgical Science Ltd, Göteborg, Sweden) to criteria for novice PGY1 surgical residents had predictive validity for improvement in the performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In all, 21 PGY1 residents performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies in pigs after minimal training; their performance was evaluated by skilled laparoscopic surgeons using the validated tool GOALS (global operative assessment of laparoscopic operative skills: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, tissue handling, and overall competence). From the group, 10 residents trained to competency on the LapSim Basic Skills Programs (camera navigation, instrument navigation, coordination, grasping, lifting and grasping, cutting, and clip applying). All 21 PGY1 residents again performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies on pigs; their performance was again evaluated by skilled laparoscopic surgeons using GOALS. Additionally, we studied the rate of learning to determine whether the slow or fast learners on the LapSim performed equivalently when performing actual cholecystectomies in pigs. Finally, 6 categorical residents were tracked, and their clinical performance on all of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies in which they were "surgeon, junior" was prospectively evaluated using the GOALS criteria. We found a statistical improvement of depth perception in the operative performance of cholecystectomies in pigs in the group trained on the LapSim. In the other 4 domains, a trend toward improvement was observed. No correlation between being a fast learner and the ultimate skill was demonstrated in the clinical performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. We did find that the fast learners on LapSim all were past or current video game players ("gamers"); however, that background did not translate into better clinical performance. Using current criteria, we doubt that the time and effort spent training novice PGY1 Surgical Residents on the basic

  16. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis-Kruseman, van M.J.

    1955-01-01

    Families and higher taxa have been entered under their name. Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (tribes, e.g.).

  17. Desempenho de escolares com e sem dificuldades de aprendizagem de ensino particular em habilidade fonológica, nomeação rápida, leitura e escrita Performance of students with and without learning difficulties in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing from the private education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida Capellini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar e comparar o desempenho de escolares com e sem dificuldades de aprendizagem no ensino particular em habilidades fonológicas, nomeação rápida, leitura e escrita. MÉTODOS: participaram desse estudo 60 escolares de 2ª a 4ª séries de escola de ensino particular, distribuídos em 6 grupos, sendo cada grupo composto por 10 escolares, sendo 3 grupos de escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem e 3 grupos de escolares sem dificuldades de aprendizagem. Como procedimentos, foram realizadas a prova de nomeação automática rápida, a de consciência fonológica e a prova de leitura oral e escrita sob ditado. RESULTADOS: os resultados desse estudo evidenciaram desempenho superior dos escolares sem dificuldades de aprendizagem em relação àqueles com dificuldades. Os escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem apresentaram maior relação velocidade/tempo em tarefas de nomeação e, conseqüentemente, desempenho inferior em tarefas de consciência fonológica e leitura e escrita de palavras isoladas quando comparados aos sem dificuldades de aprendizagem. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem apresentaram comprometimento na relação entre as capacidades de nomeação e automatização dos estímulos apresentados com a capacidade de acesso lexical, discriminação visual, freqüência de uso dos estímulos e competição para a apresentação do menor tempo possível na nomeação dos códigos necessários para o estabelecimento do mecanismo de conversão fonema-grafema, exigido para a realização da leitura e escrita em um sistema alfabético como o português.PURPOSE: characterizing and comparing the performance of students with and without learning difficulties from the private education in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing. METHODS: sixty private students from 2nd to 4th grade participated, distributed into 6 groups - each one was composed of 10 students being 3 groups of

  18. Armenian Names of Sky Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The work is devoted to the correction and recovery of the Armenian names of the sky constellations, as they were forgotten or distorted during the Soviet years, mainly due to the translation from Russian. A total of 34 constellation names have been corrected. A brief overview of the history of the division of the sky into constellations and their naming is also given. At the end, the list of all 88 constellations is given with the names in Latin, English, Russian and Armenian.

  19. Uncovering trends in gene naming

    OpenAIRE

    Seringhaus, Michael R.; Cayting, Philip D; Gerstein, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    We take stock of current genetic nomenclature and attempt to organize strange and notable gene names. We categorize, for instance, those that involve a naming system transferred from another context (for example, Pavlov’s dogs). We hope this analysis provides clues to better steer gene naming in the future.

  20. Uncovering trends in gene naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seringhaus, Michael R; Cayting, Philip D; Gerstein, Mark B

    2008-01-31

    We take stock of current genetic nomenclature and attempt to organize strange and notable gene names. We categorize, for instance, those that involve a naming system transferred from another context (for example, Pavlov's dogs). We hope this analysis provides clues to better steer gene naming in the future.

  1. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN THE WORLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in New Zealand and in the. Cape Province, A cursory glance at any list of names will show how many places there are with the same name. Toponyms in any particular language are also used in other languages, and in other countries. So we speak of Am- sterdam, London, New York and Ot- tawa. Sometimes the names ...

  2. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  3. A family of names : rune-names and ogam-names and their relation to alphabet letter-names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names

  4. Speech perception among school-aged skilled and less skilled readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Ratree P; Eckhouse, Erin; Lombardino, Linda; Roberts, Rosalyn

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between speech perception, phonological processing and reading skills among school-aged children classified as 'skilled' and 'less skilled' readers based on their ability to read words, decode non-words, and comprehend short passages. Three speech perception tasks involving categorization of speech continua differing in voicing, place and manner of articulation were administered and compared to phonological processing skills in phonological awareness, speeded naming and verbal short-term memory. The results obtained suggested that (a) speech categorization among skilled readers differed from that of less skilled readers, (b) speech perception skills were associated with both reading and phonological processing skills among both skilled and less skilled readers, however, (c) a strong association between speeded naming and both word and passage reading skills found among skilled readers was absent among less skilled readers. These results suggested that phonological representations and/or activation may not be as well developed in less skilled readers.

  5. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can...... affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......-word brand names....

  6. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can......-word brand names....

  7. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  8. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  9. Armenian Names of the Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, Haik A.

    2007-08-01

    Striking similarities between the Armenian names of visible to the naked eye planets and their ancient Greek names used before 6 - 5 centuries BC are presented. Mercury, for instance, was called Stilbon in Greece which means “the Gleaming” and coincides with Armenian Paylatsou. One of the names of Venus was Phosphoros and in Armenia it is called Lusaber - both of these terms meaning the “Bringer of Light”. Ancient Greeks named the fourth planet Pyroeis meaning “fiery”. The Armenian name of this planet Hrat consists of the word “hur” meaning fire and a suffix “at”. Jupiter's and Saturn's ancient names are considered as well. Moreover, the term planet has its Armenian version being in the use more than 2500 years.

  10. Desempenho em consciência fonológica, nomeação rápida, leitura e escrita em escolares com dislexia secundária a retardo mental e com bom desempenho acadêmico Performance in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing in students with secondary dyslexia to mental retardation and with good academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Donadon Germano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar o desempenho em provas de consciência fonológica, de nomeação rápida e de leitura e escrita em escolares com dislexia secundária a retardo mental e com bom desempenho acadêmico. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo 20 escolares da 1ª a 4ª séries do ensino fundamental da rede pública municipal da cidade de Marília-SP, com faixa etária de 8 a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, divididos em GI (10 escolares com o diagnóstico interdisciplinar de dislexia secundária a retardo mental leve e GII (10 escolares com bom desempenho acadêmico, pareados segundo sexo e faixa etária com o GI. Os escolares foram submetidos à Prova de Consciência Fonológica, à Prova de Leitura e Escrita e à Prova de Nomeação Automatizada Rápida. RESULTADOS: houve diferença significante em relação ao desempenho dos escolares nas provas silábicas e fonêmicas, na prova de leitura e escrita e na prova de nomeção rápida; os escolares de GII apresentaram melhor desempenho que os escolares de GI. CONCLUSÃO: houve relação entre os achados de velocidade de nomeação, leitura oral e escrita sob ditado, sendo relacionados ao déficit fonológico, à característica cognitivo-linguística do GI e à interferência da falta de instrução direta da correspondência grafofonêmica em situação de atividades acadêmicas para ambos os grupos.PURPOSE: to characterize the performance in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing in students with developmental dyslexia secondary to mental retardation and good readers. METHOD: 20 students from first to fourth grade of a public school of Marília - SP, both genders, from to 8 to 12-year old took part in this study, divided into GI (10 students with interdisciplinary diagnosis of dyslexia, secondary to mild mental retardation and GII (10 studentswith good academic development according to gender, age and grade level. The students were submitted to the Phonological Awareness

  11. Evaluation of visual skills in sedentary and active work environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    motor skills. Visual-motor skills encompass three essential ocular motor skills, namely focusing, eye-hand coordination and tracking. The aspects of the visual perceptual process include visual memory and visualization. This study aims to ...

  12. ByOPHTEL: a Bavarian project for rapid telemedical exchange of knowledge, files and skills between practitioners and hospitals in eye care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, M

    1999-01-01

    ByOPHTEL, part of the Bavarian initiative Bayern Online, derived its name from the European project OPHTEL, to which it is closely linked and which, in Bavaria, is more or less worked out and performed by identical persons and institutions. It provides a group of 7 practitioners in and around the city of Munich with the possibility of exchanging general ophthalmologic knowledge as well as patient-related information with anyone in the group, or with the related ophthalmologic, internal, resp. scientific centers at the TU Munich and the GSF Neuherberg. Connections are routinely performed in the asynchronous or in the synchronous mode, and all partners participate in the scientific projects Knowledge Based Information System, Glaucoma Monitor, and Diabetic Retinopathy Monitor--as well as in the enhancement of a trustful patient-physician relationship ("second opinion") and a closer cooperation in out-patient and in-patient ophthalmical surgery and medical treatment.

  13. A name is a name is a name: some thoughts and personal opinions about molluscan scientific names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dance, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1758, with the publication of Systema Naturae by Linnaeus, thousands of scientific names have been proposed for molluscs. The derivation and uses of many of them are here examined from various viewpoints, beginning with names based on appearance, size, vertical distribution, and location.

  14. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN THE WORLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To further the standardization of geo- graphical names at both the national and international levels, the United Na- tions Group of Experts on. Geo- graphical Names (UNGEGN) was es- tablished in pursuance of Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) resolu- tions 715 A (XXVII) of 23 April 1959 and. 1314 (LXIV) of 31 May ...

  15. Translating African Names in Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Bariki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the sociocultural and ethnopragmatic significance of African names as used by the Yoruba and Izon of Nigeria and the Akan of Ghana. From the perspective of linguistic anthropology, we show the non-arbitrary nature of these names and demonstrate the need to translate them, particularly in fictional texts, so that their significance may be preserved.

  16. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1993-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.). Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceeded by the indication of their rank (subgenus,

  17. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1997-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.). Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subgenus,

  18. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2002-01-01

    Numbers refer to page numbers. Infrageneric epithets have been entered directly under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subg., sect., etc.). Infraspecific epithets have been entered under the specific name to which they belong, preceded by the

  19. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1996-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.)- Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subgenus,

  20. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis-Kruseman, van M.J.

    1948-01-01

    Suprageneric epiphels have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (tribes, e.g.). Supraspecific epithets have been entered under the generic name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (sections, series).

  1. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...

  2. Author Name Disambiguation in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Vetle I; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2009-07-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently described "Author-ity," a model for estimating the probability that two articles in MEDLINE, sharing the same author name, were written by the same individual. Features include shared title words, journal name, coauthors, medical subject headings, language, affiliations, and author name features (middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in MEDLINE). Here we test the hypothesis that the Author-ity model will suffice to disambiguate author names for the vast majority of articles in MEDLINE. METHODS: Enhancements include: (a) incorporating first names and their variants, email addresses, and correlations between specific last names and affiliation words; (b) new methods of generating large unbiased training sets; (c) new methods for estimating the prior probability; (d) a weighted least squares algorithm for correcting transitivity violations; and (e) a maximum likelihood based agglomerative algorithm for computing clusters of articles that represent inferred author-individuals. RESULTS: Pairwise comparisons were computed for all author names on all 15.3 million articles in MEDLINE (2006 baseline), that share last name and first initial, to create Author-ity 2006, a database that has each name on each article assigned to one of 6.7 million inferred author-individual clusters. Recall is estimated at ~98.8%. Lumping (putting two different individuals into the same cluster) affects ~0.5% of clusters, whereas splitting (assigning articles written by the same individual to >1 cluster) affects ~2% of articles. IMPACT: The Author-ity model can be applied generally to other bibliographic databases. Author name disambiguation allows information retrieval and data integration to become person-centered, not just document-centered, setting the stage for new data mining and social network tools that will facilitate the analysis of scholarly publishing and collaboration behavior. AVAILABILITY: The Author-ity 2006 database is available for nonprofit academic

  3. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  4. Predictors of picture naming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F Xavier; Ferrand, Ludovic; Laganaro, Marina; New, Boris; Frauenfelder, Uli H; Segui, Juan

    2004-02-01

    We report the results of a large-scale picture naming experiment in which we evaluated the potential contribution of nine theoretically relevant factors to naming latencies. The experiment included a large number of items and a large sample of participants. In order to make this experiment as similar as possible to classic picture naming experiments, participants were familiarized with the materials during a training session. Speeded naming latencies were determined by a software key on the basis of the digital recording of the responses. The effects of various variables on these latencies were assessed with multiple regression techniques, using a repeated measures design. The interpretation of the observed effects is discussed in relation to previous studies and current views on lexical access during speech production.

  5. Chadwick named college communications manager

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Heather Riley Chadwick of Blacksburg, Va., has been named communications manager for the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech. Previously, she served as the marketing and communications manager for Virginia Tech's Office of Student Programs.

  6. Place Names in Multicultural Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hylland Eriksen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is not unthinkable that in a not too distant future, citizens of Oslo will have the opportunity to meet for appointments at Salimi Square, to shop for vegetables in Kharian Street, to enjoy their picnics in Rubina Rana Park and to drive to the nearby town of Drammen on Mogadishu Road. Historical change may lead to politically motivated changes in place names, although often slow and uneven, and major upheavals such as revolutions tend to entail a total renovation of the names of streets, parks and other urban fixtures. The names of towns and villages tend to stick more stubbornly. This short essay looks at these three modes, drawing on exam- ples from Tehran, Trinidad and Toronto, eventually relating them ten- tatively to the emergent multiethnic reality in Oslo and the future prospects for place names in the city.

  7. Using a voice to put a name to a face: the psycholinguistics of proper name comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J; Jackson, Laura; Phillips, Isobel

    2014-02-01

    We propose that hearing a proper name (e.g., Kevin) in a particular voice serves as a compound memory cue that directly activates representations of a mutually known target person, often permitting reference resolution without any complex computation of shared knowledge. In a referential communication study, pairs of friends played a communication game, in which we monitored the eyes of one friend (the addressee) while he or she sought to identify the target person, in a set of four photos, on the basis of a name spoken aloud. When the name was spoken by a friend, addressees rapidly identified the target person, and this facilitation was independent of whether the friend was articulating a message he or she had designed versus one from a third party with whom the target person was not shared. Our findings suggest that the comprehension system takes advantage of regularities in the environment to minimize effortful computation about who knows what.

  8. Named Entity Recognition for IDEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qianzhou; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    This project explored how to apply Named Entity Recognition to large Twitter and web page datasets to extract useful entities such as people, organization, location, and date. In addition, this NER utility has been scaled to the MapReduce framework on the Hadoop cluster. A schema and software allow this to be integrated with IDEAL. The term “Named Entity”, which was first introduced by Grishman and Sundheim, is widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The researchers were focusing...

  9. Elemental Etymology: What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David W.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the origin of the names (or etymologies) of the chemical elements. Includes tables listing elements: (1) with names of obscure origin; (2) named for colors; (3) named after real or mythical people; (4) named after places; (5) named after heavenly bodies; and (6) having names of miscellaneous origin. (JN)

  10. Child and Home Predictors of Children's Name Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope K. Gerde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study used dominance analysis to investigate the relative importance of multiple factors on children's (ages 3–5; mean age of 47.3 months name writing skill when they enter preschool. Children ( were tested individually at the beginning of preschool on six factors thought to be important for name writing success: letter knowledge, decoding, motor skills, problem behaviors, self-regulation, and home literacy environment. Collectively, these variables explained 37.1% of the variation in children's name writing, but the importance of each factor differed widely. Children’s knowledge of capital letters (11.8% and their motor development (11.8% were the most important for children’s name writing whereas the home learning environment (2.3% and reported problem behaviors (1.5% were the least important factors. These findings suggest that researchers and teachers should focus on letter knowledge and motor development in understanding and promoting children’s name writing skills.

  11. Home literacy activities and their influence on early literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M A; Shaw, D; Bell, M

    2000-06-01

    The relationship between the home environments of 66 children and their language and literacy development was examined. After accounting for child age, parent education, and child ability as indexed by scores on a rapid automatized naming task and Block Design of the WPPSI-R, shared book reading at home made no contribution to the prediction of the literacy skills of letter name and letter sound knowledge in kindergarten. In contrast, home activities involving letters predicted modest and statistically significant amounts of variance. For the areas of receptive vocabulary and phonological sensitivity, neither shared book reading nor letter activities were predictive. Follow-up to mid-Grade 2 underscored the importance of letter name/sound knowledge and phonological sensitivity in kindergarten in accounting for individual differences in later achievement in reading comprehension, phonological spelling, and conventional spelling.

  12. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The quantity of numbered minor planets has now well exceeded a quarter million. The new sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, which is the IAU’s official reference work for the field, now covers more than 17,000 named minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names provides authoritative information on the basis of the rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to artists, from scientists to Nobel laureates, from historical or political figures to ordinary women and men, from mountains to buildings, as well as a variety of compound terms and curiosities. This sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names has grown by more than 7,000 entries compared to the fifth edition and by more than 2,000 compared to the fifth edition, including its two addenda published in 2006 and 2009. In addition, there are many  corrections, revisions and updates to the entries published in earlier editions....

  13. Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of the Longitudinal Relations between Pre-reading Skills and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the environmental and genetic etiologies of the longitudinal relations between pre-reading skills and reading and spelling. Twin pairs (n = 489) were assessed before kindergarten (M = 4.9 years), post-1st grade (M = 7.4 years), and post-4th grade (M = 10.4 years). Genetic influences on five pre-reading skills (print knowledge, rapid naming, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and verbal memory) were primarily responsible for relations with word reading and spelling. However, relations with post-4th-grade reading comprehension were due both to genetic and shared environmental influences. Genetic and shared environmental influences that were common among the pre-reading variables covaried with reading and spelling, as did genetic influences unique to verbal memory (only post-4th-grade comprehension), print knowledge, and rapid naming. PMID:25263167

  14. Naming Speed of Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Differences in Alphanumeric Versus Color/Object Naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Brittany D; Nelson, Jason M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of adolescents and young adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Reading Disorder (RD), and ADHD/RD on measures of alphanumeric and nonalphanumeric naming speed and the relationship between naming speed and academic achievement. The sample (N = 203) included students aged 17-28 years diagnosed with ADHD (n = 83), RD (n = 71), or ADHD/RD (n = 49). Individuals with ADHD performed significantly faster on measures of alphanumeric naming compared with RD and comorbid groups and, within group, demonstrated significantly quicker naming of letters/digits compared with colors/objects. Both alphanumeric rapid naming scores and processing speed scores variably predicted academic achievement scores across groups, whereas nonalphanumeric rapid naming only predicted reading comprehension scores within the ADHD group. Results support findings that older individuals with ADHD show relative weakness in rapid naming of objects and colors. Implications of these findings in regard to assessment of older individuals for ADHD are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Names of infamy: tainted eponyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, F J E; Davis, S M; Byrne, E

    2015-04-01

    The use of eponyms is controversial. A distinction must be made between those doctors and scientists after whom disorders and syndromes are named in honour of their discoveries, and those whose discoveries were made as a result of maltreatment of defenceless prisoners, utilizing specimens from victims of Nazi extermination policies, and euthanasia victims of racial policies. The second group of scientists should have their names expunged from the historical record, and their deeds brought to the attention of their colleagues. We are not however advocating the abolition of eponyms in general, only tainted ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of new linguistic competences in education space: naming examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remchukova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The naming examination is a new kind of linguistic examination. The article deals with linguistic aspects of teaching this course in higher school for the special training of experts. In order to form professional competence on naming examination in the process of teaching special attention is paid to studies of theory of nomination and onomastics, to examination of language units from the point of view of component analysis, semantic-stylistic analysis and others, as well as the formation of the skills of work with different lexicographic sources and digital resources and database. In the laboratory course “Applied and mathematical linguistics,” the skills of lexico-semantic, morphological, etymological, morphemic, word-formation, phonetic analysis of concrete names are practiced. We focus on the studies of artificial naming patterns, including advertising names, which bring out the creative potential of the Russian language. Creative trends dominate in this area of nomination. Naming examination as a new kind of forensic linguistic examination is taught within the course ”Forensic linguistic examination” which accomplishes technical education of students

  17. Cognitive skills and literacy performance of Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S. -H.; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia and to assess how these abilities were associated with Chinese word reading, word dictation, and reading comprehension. The cognitive skills of interest were morphological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, and verbal working memory. A total of 90 junior secondary school students, 30 dyslexic, 30 chronological age controls, and 30 reading level contr...

  18. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. Names of the Heavier Elements. Jitendra K Bera. General Article Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp 53-61. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/03/0053-0061. Author Affiliations.

  19. Nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, R V

    1980-01-01

    The availability or non-availability of a name is a question of historical fact. A name once made available under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature can be rendered unavailable only by use of the plenary powers of the Commission. The question whether a name is a nomen dubium or not is a matter of taxonomic judgement. The difficulty with the Sarcocystinae discussed by Frenkel et al. (1979) stems from the fact that, under the present provisions of the Code, it is not possible to designate for the species concerned types that will serve any useful function. The Commission is now considering changes to the Code proposed to remedy this defect in a general, legislative way. It will not, as a matter of general practice, entertain proposals for the suppression of names merely because they are considered to be nomina dubia. The application submitted by Professor Frenkel and his collegaues will nevertheless be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature so that the Commission can, if necessary, deliver a ruling on it before the new edition of the Code has appeared.

  20. Who named it in anaesthesia?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communicAtion. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2015; 21(1):12-14 ... http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Who named it in .... Oxygen comes from a Greek word meaning “becoming sharp” because he claimed that the sharp taste of acid, comes from.

  1. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  2. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...

  3. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  4. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  5. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  6. Skills and Vacancy Analysis with Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela A. Wowczko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Through recognizing the importance of a qualified workforce, skills research has become one of the focal points in economics, sociology, and education. Great effort is dedicated to analyzing labor demand and supply, and actions are taken at many levels to match one with the other. In this work we concentrate on skills needs, a dynamic variable dependent on many aspects such as geography, time, or the type of industry. Historically, skills in demand were easy to evaluate since transitions in that area were fairly slow, gradual, and easy to adjust to. In contrast, current changes are occurring rapidly and might take an unexpected turn. Therefore, we introduce a relatively simple yet effective method of monitoring skills needs straight from the source—as expressed by potential employers in their job advertisements. We employ open source tools such as RapidMiner and R as well as easily accessible online vacancy data. We demonstrate selected techniques, namely classification with k-NN and information extraction from a textual dataset, to determine effective ways of discovering knowledge from a given collection of vacancies.

  7. In the Name of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Muhr, Sara Louise

    Accepted Abstract: Most current Human Resource Management discourse stresses coaching, developing and empowering in order to do ‘good' and care for the ‘well-being' of the employees (Steyaert & Janssens, 1999). Legge (1999) symbolizes HRM discourse by the employee being a family member subordinated...... for mankind - in the name of care for the other", and Zizek (2003:23) in a similar matter when he points out that "the ultimate source of evil is compassion itself". Butler (2005) refers to ethical violence when she describes the rigid ethical standards set out to be what Kaulingfreks calls the ‘keeper...

  8. Understanding Reading and Reading Difficulties Through Naming Speed Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Z. Al Dahhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although reading is an important and generative skill, it remains controversial how reading skills and reading difficulties develop. Currently, the fields of neuroscience, cognition, and education each have complex models to describe reading and elucidate where in the reading process deficits occur. We suggest that integrating the neural, cognitive, and educational accounts of reading offers the promise of transformative change in understanding reading development and reading difficulties. As a starting point for bridging the gaps among these fields, we used naming speed tasks as the basis for this review because they provide a “microcosm” of the processes involved during reading. We use naming speed tasks to investigate how incorporating cognitive psychology with neuroimaging techniques, under the guidance of educational theories, can further the understanding of learning and instruction, and may lead to the identification of the neural signatures of reading difficulties that might be hidden from view earlier in development.

  9. Reading and lexicalization in opaque and transparent orthographies: Word naming and word learning in English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Rosa Kit Wan; Cuetos, Fernando; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Ellis, Andrew W

    2017-10-01

    Do skilled readers of opaque and transparent orthographies make differential use of lexical and sublexical processes when converting words from print to sound? Two experiments are reported, which address that question, using effects of letter length on naming latencies as an index of the involvement of sublexical letter-sound conversion. Adult native speakers of English (Experiment 1) and Spanish (Experiment 2) read aloud four- and seven-letter high-frequency words, low-frequency words, and nonwords in their native language. The stimuli were interleaved and presented 10 times in a first testing session and 10 more times in a second session 28 days later. Effects of lexicality were observed in both languages, indicating the deployment of lexical representations in word naming. Naming latencies to both words and nonwords reduced across repetitions on Day 1, with those savings being retained to Day 28. Length effects were, however, greater for Spanish than English word naming. Reaction times to long and short nonwords converged with repeated presentations in both languages, but less in Spanish than in English. The results support the hypothesis that reading in opaque orthographies favours the rapid creation and use of lexical representations, while reading in transparent orthographies makes more use of a combination of lexical and sublexical processing.

  10. Fossil quality and naming dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Michael J

    2008-12-23

    The intense interest in dinosaurs through the past 30 years might have led to an increase in poor practice in naming new species. A review of the data shows that the reverse is the case. For 130 years, from the 1820s to the 1950s, most new species of dinosaurs were based on scrappy and incomplete material. After 1960, the majority of new species have been based on complete skulls or skeletons, and sometimes on materials from several individuals. This switch in the quality of type specimens corresponds to the recent explosive renaissance of interest in dinosaurs, during which the number of new species named per year has risen, from three or four in the 1950s, to thirty or more today. The pattern of specimen quality varies by continent, with the highest proportion of new species based on good material in North America, then Asia, then South America, then Africa and finally Europe. This ranking reflects a complex pattern of perhaps overstudy in Europe, immensely rich reserves of new dinosaur materials in North America and Asia, and a relative paucity in South America and Africa.

  11. Interpersonal Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat NG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.

  12. Building Phonological Knowledge into a Connectionist Model of the Development of Word Naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Develops a psychologically plausible model of the development of word-naming skills in children in order to verify psychological evidence indicating the importance of children's underlying phonological skills as determinants of the ease with which they learn to read. This model is highly successful in learning the pronunciations of single-syllable…

  13. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  14. Name fashion dynamics and social class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07072024X; Schraagen, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315552204

    2011-01-01

    Modern parents in The Netherlands choose the first names they like for their children. In this decision most follow fashion and as a typical property of fashion, many popular names now have a life cycle of only one generation. Some names show a symmetry between rise and fall of the name, but most

  15. Rehabilitation of memory for people's names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.; Deelman, B.G.; Berg, I.J.

    In a training study, memory-impaired patients were taught strategies to improve the learning of new names and the retrieval of familiar people's names. To improve new name learning, the patients were encouraged to give more meaning to a person's name, without requiring an explicit association

  16. A Colossus Gets its Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Today, the first of the two ALMA antenna transporters was given its name at a ceremony on the compounds of the manufacturer, the heavy-vehicle specialist Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik GmbH, in Baden-Württemberg. The colossus, 10 metres wide, 20 metres long and 6 metres high, will be shipped to Chile by the end of the month. The second one will follow in a few weeks. ESO PR Photo 45a/07 ESO PR Photo 45a/07 The ALMA Antenna Transprorter The transporter was named 'Otto' in honour of Otto Rettenmaier, the owner of the Scheuerle company. "The rather unusual move to name a vehicle is a recognition of the remarkable achievement these unique machines represent," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Their sizes alone would justify using superlatives to describe them. But they are also outstanding as they will operate at 5000 metres altitude, where the air is rare, and they have to be able to place 115-ton antennas with a precision of a few millimetres," he added. "The ALMA antenna transporters are the proof of the excellence of our staff and of our ability to build heavy vehicles that are at the limits of the possible," said Otto Rettenmaier. "Never in the history of our company have we had to comply with such exceptional requirements on material and techniques as we had to do with these machines. We are proud as a company to have been able to contribute with such an exceptional piece of technology for astronomical research." The ALMA Project, in which ESO leads the construction and the operations on behalf of Europe, is a giant, international observatory currently in construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile, which will be composed initially of 66 high-precision telescopes, operating at wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. The ALMA antennas will be electronically combined and provide astronomical observations which are equivalent to a single large telescope of tremendous size and resolution. The 66 antennas of the array can be placed on 192

  17. Naming, word identification and reading comprehension: Why is there a correlation, and what can it be used for?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    that 1) what is being named (letters or pictures) is important for the correlation with different reading subskills (word identification or reading comprehension), 2) that naming is particularly useful in the prediction of reading speed, and 3) that naming is important for early identification of reading......There is a well-established correlation between students’ reading skills and how quickly they can name letters and pictures. Naming speed before formal instruction can even predict later reading skills. But the cause of the correlation is unclear. The talk will summarize a series of studies showing...

  18. The discrimination of object names and object sounds in children with autism: a procedure for teaching verbal comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeseth, Svein; Hayward, Diane W

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether 2 preschoolers with autism learned to discriminate between the sounds of musical instruments more rapidly than the spoken names of the instruments. After the children learned the sound-object relations more rapidly than the name-object relations, we then evaluated a prompt-delay procedure for transferring stimulus control from the sounds to the names of the instruments. The prompt-delay procedure facilitated the acquisition of name-object relations for both children.

  19. Medieval Karelian Calendar Names: A Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kyurshunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on calendar personal names recorded in the 15–17th centuries Russian and Swedish manuscripts written in Karelia. Revealing the cognitive potential of this historical stratum of names, the author analyzes the frequency of full (official and modified forms of calendar names, the regional peculiarities of their linguistic adaptation, their ethnolinguisitic and social status, as well as the functioning of calendar names in the regional onomastic system. The analysis shows that the calendar onomasticon holds the leading positions, which reflects important axiological and mental shifts in the people’s culture. The list of most frequent Christian names of the region generally coincides with the onomastic data related to other Russian territories of the same period. The conservation of the name nomenclature is due to family traditions, namely, to familial practices of naming. However, the adaptation and distribution of names display some regional features, particularly in the frequency of different groups of anthroponyms. The peripheral situation of the region and the presence of Balto-Fennic population which adapted the Russian calendar athroponymicon determined the “conservatism” of the calendar names nomenclature: for naming, they selected the names which were better adapted and more extensively used among Russians. The formation of modified names depended mostly on the morphemic structure of the Russian language, regional features being relatively insignificant. The frequency of modified forms of names correlates with the genre of the manuscript and the scribe’s arbitrariness.

  20. Adaptive skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  1. Phonological processing skills and its relevance to receptive vocabulary development in children with early cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmee; Yim, Dongsun; Sim, Hyunsub

    2012-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate phonological processing skills for children with cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison with children with normal hearing (NH), and to assess whether phonological processing skills can explain variance in receptive vocabulary scores in children with CIs. Twenty-five deaf children who received a CI before 2 years of age were included in this study, and they ranged from 4 years to 6 years 11 months. Twenty-five children with NH as a control group were matched to children with CIs on the basis of chronological age with 3 months. Phonological processing skills were measured by the phonological awareness (PA), nonword repetition (NWR), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks. Receptive vocabulary skills were also tested by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Korean version. Children with CIs performed significantly lower than children with NH on PA (p.05). Among phonological processing skills, PA contributed significant amount to receptive vocabulary skills in children with CIs (pvocabulary skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ICT and historical skills

    OpenAIRE

    De Keyser, Raphael; Rogiers, Kathleen; Truyen, Fred

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly changing present-day information society creates new needs and opportunities for the history teacher. He can help young people to develop the skills necessary for life-long learning. The heuristic methods and the critical analyses of texts (written texts but also images, moving pictures etc.) characteristic for the historical discipline are easy transferable to other domains of knowledge acquisition. The use of information and communication technology in history instruction can he...

  3. [Naming speed and phonological awareness in early reading learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Villagrán, Manuel; Navarro Guzmán, José I; Menacho Jiménez, Inmaculada; Alcale Cuevas, Concepción; Marchena Consejero, Esperanza; Ramiro Olivier, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The ability to read is a basic acquisition that conditions children's social integration and it is an important factor in school success. It is considered a complex activity in which different levels of cognitive processes are involved. The relationship between phonological awareness, naming speed and learning to read has been widely studied. Research on this topic has previously been carried out with different training procedures, or with children with reading and writing learning disabilities, or children with phonological awareness problems. The innovative aspect of this research is that it presents a longitudinal study of the influence of phonological awareness and naming speed on reading with no training procedure. 85 kindergarten children were assessed with Rapid Automatized Naming Test, The Phonological Knowledge Test (PECO) and the Reading Test (PROLEC-R) at two development points: at 5,6 and at 6.5 years old. A correlational comparison and a hierarchical regression analysis were calculated in order to determine the explicit variance for phonological awareness and naming speed in reading. Results showed that phonological awareness and naming speed differentially explain variance in reading. The discrepancies found are a consequence of the different measurement techniques for phonological awareness and naming speed used by the diverse authors.

  4. Name writing in Mandarin-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Treiman, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Name writing plays an important role in early literacy development. Most previous studies of name writing have examined learners of alphabetic writing systems. Analyzing data from two studies with young speakers of Mandarin Chinese, we found that 2-year-olds did not produce names that were recognizable as such. Although 3-year-olds never wrote their names correctly, Chinese adults performed significantly above the level of chance at judging the names as names as opposed to single-character words. Adults were also above chance at judging whether a production was that child's name as opposed to another child's name. Some 4-year-olds wrote their names correctly, producing more correct renditions of the characters in their names than of non-name characters. Whereas learners of alphabetic writing systems generally learn to write their names starting with the first letter, the Chinese children were more influenced by the visual properties of a character than by the character's position in their names. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  6. Strengths and weaknesses in reading skills of youth with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, Marie Moore; Loveall, Susan J; Conners, Frances A

    2013-02-01

    Reading-related skills of youth with intellectual disability (ID) were compared with those of typically developing (TD) children of similar verbal ability level. The group with ID scored lower than the TD group on word recognition and phonological decoding, but similarly on orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming (RAN). Further, phonological decoding significantly mediated the relation between group membership and word recognition, whereas neither orthographic processing nor RAN did so. The group with ID also underperformed the TD group on phonological awareness and phonological memory, both of which significantly mediated the relation between group membership and phonological decoding. These data suggest that poor word recognition in youth with ID may be due largely to poor phonological decoding, which in turn may be due largely to poor phonological awareness and poor phonological memory. More focus on phonological skills in the classroom may help students with ID to develop better word recognition skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergent name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; McGinty, Anita S

    2009-01-01

    The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of children with LI to those of their typical language (TL) peers. Fifty-nine preschool-age children with LI were administered a battery of emergent literacy and language assessments, including a task in which the children were asked to write their first names. A subset of these children (n=23) was then compared to a TL-matched sample to characterize performance differences. Results showed that the name-writing abilities of preschoolers with LI were associated with skills in alphabet knowledge and print concepts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that only alphabet knowledge uniquely contributed to the variance in concurrent name-writing abilities. In the matched comparison, the TL group demonstrated significantly more advanced name-writing representations than the LI group. Children with LI lag significantly behind their TL peers in name-writing abilities. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to address the print-related skills of children with LI within their clinical interventions.

  8. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    ) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus on cases where...... trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”)....

  9. Fine-grained Dutch named entity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Desmet, Bart; Hoste, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of a fine-grained named entity annotation scheme and corpus for Dutch, and experiments on automatic main type and subtype named entity recognition. We give an overview of existing named entity annotation schemes, and motivate our own, which describes six main types (persons, organizations, locations, products, events and miscellaneous named entities) and finer-grained information on subtypes and metonymic usage. This was applied to a one-million-word subset o...

  10. Ethnology and the Study of Proper Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Susan S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of uncovering the universal features of proper names and relating them to different naming systems. Suggests that this viewpoint may lead to an appreciation of proper names as a sociolinguistic universal and a cultural variable, beyond the particulars on which most of the literature has focused. (MES)

  11. SOCIOLINGUISTIC IMPORT OF NAME-CLIPPING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... about the semantic significance of African names, Bariki observed that: In many African languages, personal names have a strong, socio-cultural and ethnopragmatic bearing that go beyond mere identity or referentiality… What is obvious is that African names have strikingly semantic and semiotic load.

  12. An MEG study of picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.J.M.; Praamstra, P.; Meyer, A.S.; Helenius, P.I.; Salmelin, R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate a psycholinguistic processing model of picture naming to the dynamics of cortical activation during picture naming. The activation was recorded from eight Dutch subjects with a whole-head neuromagnetometer. The processing model, based on extensive naming

  13. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  14. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  15. Intuitive skills in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, L; Agor, W; Emery, M R; Harper, S C

    2000-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of nursing and management research findings on intuition and explains why intuition is particularly useful in crisis management. Drawing on applications from organizational psychology, it includes ways to enhance the nurse's ability to exercise and develop intuitive skills. The authors assert that the highly complex, rapidly changing, and often unpredictable circumstances that require crisis management in nursing are best met through applying the complementary cognitive skills of analytic reasoning and intuition.

  16. Cretan Hydronyms Derived from Settlement Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Kaczyńska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses 284 Cretan river names, presumably derived from settlement names. This group of hydronyms represents 6.1% among all the modern hydronyms of the island (4 666 names collected by the author from written sources and, at a lesser degree, during fieldwork, its biggest part being attested only from the 20th century. The names studied in this paper were formed either by metonymic transfer of settlement names to bodies of water (134 units or by morphological derivation (suffixation and, in some cases, regressive derivation (150 units. To establish the direction of derivation, the author analyses the semantic features of the names and the chronology of their attestation in written sources. As to the morphological structure of the analyzed river names, the author distinguishes 85 simple names (29.9%, 128 compound names (45.1% and 71 elliptical ones (25%. This enables a structural analysis of the differentiating elements in the compound names and in the elliptical names formed by omitting a hydrograhical term. The morphological structure of some hydronyms allows to retrieve valuable information on lost or decayed settlements of Crete. The author also shows that some items demonstrate the onomastic contuinity in the island from antiquity to the present day.

  17. Trade name and trademark versus domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Pokorná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet domains have become an integral part of our lives, so one can easily understand that during their use, conflicts can arise, whose participants will search for rules enabling resolution of conflicts. Since the domain name is a replacement of the computer IP address, in the technical sense of the word, this does not concern for domain names a commercial name or brand, because it primarily does not belong to a person in the legal sense of the word and does not serve for its individualization. The average user regularly affiliates domain names with a person offering goods or services on the relevant Website. Domain names used by entrepreneurs in their business activity are often chosen so that the second-level domain (SLD would use words that form the trade name of corporations formed of trading companies. This fact brings domain names close to such designations that serve the individualization of persons or products, especially the trademarks and the commercial name. Domains can come into conflict with the rights to designations, especially trademarks and commercial names. Court practice is resolving these conflicts using rules for unfair competition, or rules for protection of commercial names and trademarks, but it is not ruled out that in the future, special legal regulation of domain names could be established.

  18. Official Naming in Hå, Klepp and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Særheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Toponyms localize, reflect and give information about historical traditions and various phenomena in an area. They form part of the local heritage and culture. The relationship between place names, heritage and identity is often underlined in guidelines regarding official naming of streets and roads. In what way is heritage and local identity reflected in the road names of the three municipalities Hå, Klepp and Time (Southwest-Norway, and how is the special character of this area expressed in the names? More than half of the official road names in the three municipalities are either identical with a local toponym, or they consist of a word for ‘road’ and a local toponym (or an appellative describing the location. This shows that there is a strong commitment to base the official naming on local tradition and thus contribute to identity. Quite a few elements from the dialect, e.g. special pronunciation, grammatical forms or local words, appear in the names, especially in the road names from Hå, reflecting that the names are part of the local culture, and due to the fact that the dialect is unique. Consistency is a challenge, however; the same word is sometimes spelled in different ways in different names. It appears that, with some exceptions, cultural heritage and local tradition have been preferred principles and guidelines with regard to naming of roads in the three municipalities, due to a consciousness that heritage and tradition create identity.

  19. Construction of geographical names knowledge base with ontology and production rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Du, Qingyun

    2009-10-01

    With the rapid development of the gazetteers, more and more geographical names databases has been established. Since the geographical names exit in form of records which provide little qualitative description other than quantitative information, geographical names are hardly shared and interoperable. In order to solve this problem, we urgently need to set up knowledge base for geographical names that shall provide qualitative knowledge to describe the essence of the elements. So, we use ontology and production rules to build geographical name knowledge base, where the geographical names ontology is regarded as the foundation for reuse and sharing of the geographical names information, and production rules are used to enhance the expressivity of the ontology. First of all, we analyzed the geographical names concepts and their semantics, the concepts of space and time and their relationships in geographical names to describe the knowledge structure for this field, used Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide formal descriptions to give them explicit semantics, and proposed a unified semantic framework for description. Secondly, we established the common-sense rules and spatial relations inference rules coded with Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) which laid the foundation for geographical names knowledge discovery and automatic reasoning. Finally, we established a geographical name knowledge base combining both the geographical names ontology and rules established above. Through the analysis of examples we showed that based on the geographical names knowledge base the geographical names information can be well shared and reused.

  20. Timed picture naming norms for Mandarin Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyi Liu

    Full Text Available The present study reports timed norms for 435 object pictures in Mandarin Chinese. These data include naming latency, name agreement, concept agreement, word length, and age of acquisition (AoA based on children's naming and adult ratings, and several other adult ratings of concept familiarity, subjective word frequency, image agreement, image variability, and visual complexity. Furthermore, we examined factors that influence the naming latencies of the pictures. The results show that concept familiarity, AoA, concept agreement, name agreement, and image agreement are significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas subjective word frequency is not a reliable determinant. These results are discussed in light of picture naming data in other languages. An item-based index for the norms is provided in the Table S1.

  1. Asymptotic properties of restricted naming games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Datta, Amitava; Manna, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Asymptotic properties of the symmetric and asymmetric naming games have been studied under some restrictions in a community of agents. In one version, the vocabulary sizes of the agents are restricted to finite capacities. In this case, compared to the original naming games, the dynamics takes much longer time for achieving the consensus. In the second version, the symmetric game starts with a limited number of distinct names distributed among the agents. Three different quantities are measured for a quantitative comparison, namely, the maximum value of the total number of names in the community, the time at which the community attains the maximal number of names, and the global convergence time. Using an extensive numerical study, the entire set of three power law exponents characterizing these quantities are estimated for both the versions which are observed to be distinctly different from their counter parts of the original naming games.

  2. Tips for remembering names and other important information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2008-01-01

    A good memory is a tremendous asset to any medical practice employee. Remembering details, names, steps, facts, and figures can improve one's productivity, efficiency, and relationships. The good news is that every employee can improve his or her memory simply by valuing a good memory and practicing effective mnemonic techniques. This article suggests that focusing more on material you will want to remember will improve your retention of that information. It offers five basic rules for improving your memory--concentrate, picture, repeat, associate, and verbalize. This article also offers practical tips for remembering patients' names and faces, a skill especially useful in a busy and/or large practice. This article also provides techniques for remembering a list in order and for recalling jokes to use in social and work situations. Finally, this article suggests the importance of remembering and using personal news about patients and describes a practical technique for keeping track of this information.

  3. [Relationship between magnocellular function and reading skills in children: a study using visual evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoka; Inagaki, Masumi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Kita, Yosuke; Kaga, Makiko; Oka, Akira

    2014-11-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. The magnocellular deficit theory is one of several hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of DD. In this study, we investigated magnocellular system dysfunction in Japanese dyslexic children. Subjects were 19 dyslexic children (DD group) and 19 aged-matched healthy children (TD group). They were aged between 7 and 16 years. Reversed patterns of black and white sinusoidal gratings generated at a low spatial frequency, high reversal frequency of 7.5 Hz, and low contrasts were used specifically to stimulate the magnocellular system. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) from the occipital area and examined their relationship with reading and naming tasks, such as the time to read hiragana characters, rapid automatized naming of pictured objects, and phonological manipulation. Compared to the TD group, the DD group showed a significantly lower peak amplitude of VEPs through the complex demodulation method. Structural equation modeling showed that VEP peak amplitudes were related to the rapid automatized naming of pictured objects, and better rapid automatized naming resulted in higher reading skills. There was no correlation between VEP findings and the capacity for phonological manipulation. VEPs in response to the magnocellular system are useful for understanding the pathophysiology of DD. Single phonological deficit may not be sufficient to cause DD.

  4. “Russian Field” in Advertising Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with commercial names having reference to the cultural space of Russia. Their connotative meaning includes a ‘Russian ethno-cultural marker’ (REM actualized in the advertising discourse by a multi-coded text constituted by an integrated complex of semantic, stylistic, and symbolic verbal and visual signs. The article analyzes the verbal means of expression of the REM in commercial naming: lexical, semantic, and stylistic features of the names; national precedent phenomena reflected by the words designating elements of Russian spiritual and material culture; notions of Russian history; ethnonyms; culture-specific vocabulary; archaic words; precedent personal names and toponyms; Russian colloquial expressions. The author also analyzes graphic elements and models of commercial names formation as supplementary REM actualizers. The article focuses on three major functions of REM-names: informational, phatic, and connotative functions, outlining their spheres of use in commercial discourse, particularly in the commercial naming of Russian state enterprises and brands and in labeling exported goods and services. The Russian ethnically marked names represent an open, dynamically developing system which can be represented as a field structure whose center is constituted by commercial names including ethnonyms, culture-specific vocabulary and words designating national precedent phenomena, and the periphery by all Russian names.

  5. UniTree Name Server internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, D.; Minton, J.

    1996-01-01

    The UniTree Name Server (UNS) is one of several servers which make up the UniTree storage system. The Name Server is responsible for mapping names to capabilities Names are generally human readable ASCII strings of any length. Capabilities are unique 256-bit identifiers that point to files, directories, or symbolic links. The Name Server implements a UNIX style hierarchical directory structure to facilitate name-to-capability mapping. The principal task of the Name Server is to manage the directories which make up the UniTree directory structure. The principle clients of the Name Server are the FTP Daemon, NFS and a few UniTree utility routines. However, the Name Server is a generalized server and will accept messages from any client. The purpose of this paper is to describe the internal workings of the UniTree Name Server. In cases where it seems appropriate, the motivation for a particular choice of algorithm as description of the algorithm itself will be given.

  6. Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mateos

    Full Text Available Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science

  7. Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new

  8. The Stability of Literacy-Related Cognitive Contributions to Chinese Character Naming and Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jin; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Li, Wenling; Tian, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental issue of cognitive factors that explain Chinese literacy. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, short-term memory, orthographic awareness and morphological awareness and two literacy tasks (character naming and reading fluency) were administered to 408 second-graders, 428 fourth-graders and…

  9. Separating the influences of prereading skills on early word and nonword reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Laura R; Carroll, Julia M; Solity, Jonathan E

    2013-10-01

    The essential first step for a beginning reader is to learn to match printed forms to phonological representations. For a new word, this is an effortful process where each grapheme must be translated individually (serial decoding). The role of phonological awareness in developing a decoding strategy is well known. We examined whether beginning readers recruit different skills depending on the nature of the words being read (familiar words vs. nonwords). Print knowledge, phoneme and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal reasoning, vocabulary, auditory skills, and visual attention were measured in 392 prereaders 4 and 5 years of age. Word and nonword reading were measured 9 months later. We used structural equation modeling to examine the skills-reading relationship and modeled correlations between our two reading outcomes and among all prereading skills. We found that a broad range of skills were associated with reading outcomes: early print knowledge, phonological STM, phoneme awareness and RAN. Whereas all of these skills were directly predictive of nonword reading, early print knowledge was the only direct predictor of word reading. Our findings suggest that beginning readers draw most heavily on their existing print knowledge to read familiar words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Personal Names and Identity in Literary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicta Windt-Val

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to show the close connection between a person's given name and their feeling of identity and self. This connection is very important - it has even been stated that the parents' choice of name for their child will have an influence on the development of the personality of the child. Moreover, personal names and place names are some of the most important tools of the author in the creation of credible characters placed in a literary universe that gives the impression of being authentic. Many authors from different countries have related their view of the significance of names and naming, not only as a source of information for the reader, but also as an important part of making the characters real to the authors themselves during the process of writing.

  11. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN SOFT SKILLS DAN HARD SKILLS UNTUK SISWA SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widarto Noto Widodo, Pardjono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Soft Skills dan Hard Skills untuk Siswa SMK. Era global menuntut sumber daya manusia yang memiliki daya saing, adaptif dan antisipatif, mampu belajar, terampil, mudah beradaptasi dengan teknologi baru. Profil tenaga kerja yang dibutuhkan pasar adalah yang kuat pada aspek soft skills dan hard skills. Ada tiga alternatif model pendidikan yang memadukan hard skills dan soft skills, yaitu (1 aspek soft skills dan hard skills dilaksanakan di sekolah; (2 aspek soft skills dilaksanakan di sekolah, sedang hard skills dilaksanakan bersamaan praktik kerja di DUDI; atau (3 aspek soft skills dilaksanakan di sekolah, sedang aspek hard skills ketika praktik kerja di teaching factory. Untuk itu, struktur kurikulum SMK disusun sesederhana mungkin dengan tetap mengacu Kurikulum Nasional yang digunakan dengan tekanan pada aspek soft skills dan mengintegrasikannya ke dalam silabus dan RPP. Karakteristik guru yang diperlukan adalah: (1 the adaptor; (2 the visionary; (3 the collaborator; (4 the risk taker; (5 the leaner; (6 the communicator; (7 the model; dan (8 the leader. Selain itu, diperlukan dukungan stake holders yakni dinas pendidikan setempat, masyarakat dan DUDI. Kata Kunci: model pembelajaran, pendidikan soft skills, hard skills, siswa SMK, tenaga kerja Abstract: Development of Soft Skills and Hard Skills Learning Model for Students of SMK. The global era demands human resources that are competitive, adaptive and anticipatory, able to learn, skillful, adaptable to new technology. Labors’ profile that market needs are someone who has a strong skill in the aspect of soft skills and hard skills. There are three alternative education modela that combines hard skills and soft skills, namely (1 aspects of soft skills and hard skills present in the school; (2 aspects of soft skills is implemented in schools, while the hard skills is being held during working practices in DUDI; (3 soft skills aspect is implemented in

  12. Gorlin-Goltz: what's in a name?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the clinical features of two very distinct syndromes with similar names: Gorlin-Goltz and Goltz-Gorlin Syndromes. A case report is presented that highlights the differences between these syndromes. To avoid errors in diagnosis because of the similarity in names, the authors caution that, based on additional information now available, the preferred names should be Focal Dermal Hypoplasia syndrome for Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma syndrome for Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  13. Neural Reranking for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Dong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    We propose a neural reranking system for named entity recognition (NER). The basic idea is to leverage recurrent neural network models to learn sentence-level patterns that involve named entity mentions. In particular, given an output sentence produced by a baseline NER model, we replace all entity mentions, such as \\textit{Barack Obama}, into their entity types, such as \\textit{PER}. The resulting sentence patterns contain direct output information, yet is less sparse without specific named ...

  14. Confusing brand names: Nightmare of medical profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Amit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: India has more than 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers. Consequently, there is a flood of brand names to choose from. We conducted this study to analyse and sort out the multitudinous brand names thronging the Indian market, and identified those that could create a possible confusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recent issues of drug formularies like Indian Drug Review, Drug Index, and Monthly Index of Medical Specialities-India were checked and all the brand names given were included. Some other brand names that are available with the pharmacists but are not included in these indexes were also included in the study for analysis. OBSERVATIONS: Potentially confusing brand names were sorted out and categorised according to the severity of damage they can cause if misinterpreted by the pharmacist or the patient. Subgroups were made according to the brand name, the generic name, and the manufacturers of the drug. CONCLUSION: Several brand names are strikingly identical, similar looking (orthographic, or similar sounding (phonological. Preventing this possible confusion is not the work of any one person involved. We describe the role of prescribing doctors, dispensing pharmacists, consumer patients, and the manufacturing companies to prevent "wrong prescribing" due to similarities in brand names.

  15. Confusing brand names: nightmare of medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataboli, P V; Garg, A

    2005-01-01

    India has more than 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers. Consequently, there is a flood of brand names to choose from. We conducted this study to analyse and sort out the multitudinous brand names thronging the Indian market, and identified those that could create a possible confusion. Recent issues of drug formularies like Indian Drug Review, Drug Index, and Monthly Index of Medical Specialities-India were checked and all the brand names given were included. Some other brand names that are available with the pharmacists but are not included in these indexes were also included in the study for analysis. Potentially confusing brand names were sorted out and categorised according to the severity of damage they can cause if misinterpreted by the pharmacist or the patient. Subgroups were made according to the brand name, the generic name, and the manufacturers of the drug. Several brand names are strikingly identical, similar looking (orthographic), or similar sounding (phonological). Preventing this possible confusion is not the work of any one person involved. We describe the role of prescribing doctors, dispensing pharmacists, consumer patients, and the manufacturing companies to prevent "wrong prescribing" due to similarities in brand names.

  16. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  17. Integration and reuse in cognitive skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Dario D

    2013-07-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to mechanisms that proceduralize knowledge into more efficient forms, skill acquisition requires tight integration of newly acquired knowledge and previously learned knowledge. Skill acquisition also benefits from reuse of existing knowledge across disparate task domains, relying on indexicals to reference and share necessary information across knowledge components. To demonstrate these ideas, the article proposes a computational model of skill acquisition from instructions focused on integration and reuse, and applies this model to account for behavior across seven task domains. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  19. Konsep Hard Skill, Soft Skill Dan Spiritual Skill Pustakawan Menghadapi Era Library 3.0

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Rotmianto

    2016-01-01

    In  this  present  time,  librarian  must  know  well  about information technology or  it also called have a  literacy of  information technology.  Because  they  (librarian)  will  face  the  “explosion  of information”, as well as a new  library user named “Net Generation” who wants all information to be presented more accurate, quicker and interactively, as the demands of Library 3.0. Mastery three skills: hard skill  (IQ)  and  soft  skill  (EQ   )  combined  with  spiritual  skill  (SQ)...

  20. Gene Name Thesaurus - Gene Name Thesaurus | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene names found in various databases and articles to show associations between them. Data file File name: dictionary....zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/lsdb_gene_thesaurus/LATEST/dictionary...ary. 5. Add non-detected words to the dictionary and repeat 4-5 using other literat...ribe gene names from MEDLINE abstracts and collect unregistered names. 4. Evaluate detection performance of gene names in the diction

  1. Skill Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Industry-based skill assessment and certification should (1) be independent of training providers; (2) use variety of instruments; (3) recognize multiple levels of mastery; (4) promote broad training and continuous learning; (5) be geared to high-performance work organizations; (6) be voluntary; and (7) be flexible to keep pace with technology.…

  2. Matatti’s generic names for fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The generic names for fungi used by Maratti in his ‘Flora romana’ must be accepted as validly published. Notes are given on the validly re-published names. Of these Agaricum and Coralloides may cause some difficulties. Conservation of Fomes (Fr.) Fr. against Agaricum [Mich.] Maratti is proposed. To

  3. Kindness Curbs Kids' Name-Calling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Rebekah

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the impact of name-calling towards the student's academic performance and emotions and cites some measures on how should teachers address this problem in order to facilitate effective learning among students. Psychologists recognize that name-calling and other forms of verbal bullying and harassment are more…

  4. The Sociolinguistic Basis of Yoruba Personal Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1980-01-01

    Suggests the outlines of a theory of how sociocultural and grammatical knowledge are integrated in the construction of personal names and how such knowledge can be retrieved from surface linguistic forms. Draws on anthropological and linguistic procedures to analyse the Yoruba personal naming system and the sociolinguistic principles that underly…

  5. MILITARY NAMES IN SOUTH AFRICA - QUO VADIS?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    postal delivery, communication and geographical identification. For the military anthropologist or eth- nologist there isvirtually no area of lo- cal culture, thinking, customs or expres- sions which is not already reflected somewhere in the place names given by a local population. Knowledge of these place names contributes to ...

  6. Marketing Message Components in Commercial Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Romanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the marketing potential of commercial names involved in the clientoriented communication and, more precisely, on the mechanisms of semantic derivation proper to the formation of commercial names. The author argues that the semantic shifts in the meaning of the original word result from its use as a part of a commercial message, i.e. for the transmission of specific marketing information. One of the current trends in contemporary Russian commercial naming is related to the actualization of the marketing content components (MCCs ‘big’ and ‘small’ which communicate complementary information about the named object. The marketing content component ‘big’ communicates the idea of respectability, economic might, wide choice of goods. This idea is most commonly transmitted by the foreign language prefixes mega-, super-, hyper-, grand-, maxi-, macro-, big-. In commercial naming their meanings overlap, making them stereotypic means of advertising. The marketing content component ‘small’ often appears in the names of cosy cafés and restaurants, cheap shops and child care institutions. This marketing content component can be communicated by foreign language prefixes, e.g. mini-, micro-, nano-, but it is most often actualized by Russian diminutive suffixes. The analised MCCs are also transmitted by means of direct, metaphoric, metonymic and symbolic names in which it is also possible to distinguish stereotypic patterns of commercial naming.

  7. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  8. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients.

  9. Naming and Defining in World Englishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seargeant, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a taxonomy of the names used within world Englishes studies to refer to the object of investigation at the heart of the discipline. With the emergence of English as a global language, and with the concomitant increase in scholarship that critically studies this emergence, there has been a proliferation of names used to refer to…

  10. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...... positive and the students felt more secure; the relations between the students and the teacher was improved; the students were encouraged to learn each others' names; and they found I was professional and committed. Im sum, learning the students' names matters....... on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first...

  11. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the UDRP (WIPO......) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus on cases where...... trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”)....

  12. HMM based Korean Named Entity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Gyu Hwang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a named entity recognition model for Korean Language. Named entity recognition is an essential and important process of Question Answering and Information Extraction system. This paper proposes a HMM based named entity recognition using compound word construction principles. In Korean, above 60% of NE (Named-Entity is a compound word. This compound word may be consisted of proper noun, common noun, or bound noun, etc. There is an intercontextual relationship among nouns which consists NE. NE and surrounding words of NE have a contextual relationship. For considering these relationships, we classified nouns into 4 word classes (Independent Entity, Constituent Entity, Adjacent Entity, Not an Entity. With this classification, our system gets contextual and lexical information by stochastic based machine leaning method from a NE labeled training data. Experimental result shows that this approach is better approach than rulebased in the Korean named-entity recognition.

  13. Renaud Named Chief in Northern California City

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2011-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES When she recounts the benefits of attending the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security, Cynthia Renaud cites leadership and critical thinking skills. She will have the opportunity...

  14. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S

    2013-01-01

    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  15. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  16. Domain learning naming game for color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Doujie; Fan, Zhongyan; Tang, Wallace K S

    2017-01-01

    Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form. Therefore, in this work, we extend the agent learning model and design a new game to incorporate domain learning, which is essential for more complicated form of knowledge. In particular, we demonstrate the evolution of color categorization and naming in a population of agents. We incorporate the human perceptive model into the agents and introduce two new concepts, namely subjective perception and subliminal stimulation, in domain learning. Simulation results show that, even without any supervision or pre-requisition, a consensus of a color naming system can be reached in a population solely via the interactions. Our work confirms the importance of society interactions in color categorization, which is a long debate topic in human cognition. Moreover, our work also demonstrates the possibility of cognitive system development in autonomous intelligent agents.

  17. Shape Up: An Eye-Tracking Study of Preschoolers' Shape Name Processing and Spatial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdine, Brian N.; Bunger, Ann; Athanasopoulou, Angeliki; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Learning the names of geometric shapes is at the intersection of early spatial, mathematical, and language skills, all important for school-readiness and predictors of later abilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether socioeconomic status (SES) influenced children's processing of shape names and…

  18. Author Name Disambiguation for PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kim, Sun; Comeau, Donald C; Kim, Won; Yeganova, Lana; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2014-04-01

    Log analysis shows that PubMed users frequently use author names in queries for retrieving scientific literature. However, author name ambiguity may lead to irrelevant retrieval results. To improve the PubMed user experience with author name queries, we designed an author name disambiguation system consisting of similarity estimation and agglomerative clustering. A machine-learning method was employed to score the features for disambiguating a pair of papers with ambiguous names. These features enable the computation of pairwise similarity scores to estimate the probability of a pair of papers belonging to the same author, which drives an agglomerative clustering algorithm regulated by 2 factors: name compatibility and probability level. With transitivity violation correction, high precision author clustering is achieved by focusing on minimizing false-positive pairing. Disambiguation performance is evaluated with manual verification of random samples of pairs from clustering results. When compared with a state-of-the-art system, our evaluation shows that among all the pairs the lumping error rate drops from 10.1% to 2.2% for our system, while the splitting error rises from 1.8% to 7.7%. This results in an overall error rate of 9.9%, compared with 11.9% for the state-of-the-art method. Other evaluations based on gold standard data also show the increase in accuracy of our clustering. We attribute the performance improvement to the machine-learning method driven by a large-scale training set and the clustering algorithm regulated by a name compatibility scheme preferring precision. With integration of the author name disambiguation system into the PubMed search engine, the overall click-through-rate of PubMed users on author name query results improved from 34.9% to 36.9%.

  19. What’s in a Name? – Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune

    2011-01-01

    The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names ...... etc. in our societies today, and asks the question of what the consequences of naming non-human animals are for us, for the beings named and for the power relations between our species and the non-human species and individuals we name.......The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names...... have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human), peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways...

  20. Changing the Family Name by Administrative Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Nicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman law, changing the name was possible except for the case in which this changewould have been fraudulent. This possibility was kept also in the Middle Age but with some restrictions:the handicraftsmen were not allowed to change their name when it served as a factory brand, the notarycould not change his name without having an authorization, and neither could he change his normalsignature. Gradually, the monarchy increased its control in this matter, tending to transform a socialinstitution into a police one.

  1. Hypothesis-Driven Treatment of Naming Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K M; Grossman, M

    1997-01-01

    This article proposes to use information processing models of cognition to guide behaviorally based treatments of language deficits, specifically, single-word object naming. Our approach is illustrated with a clinical case of a transcortical sensory aphasic. Clinical neuropsychological and functional imaging data demonstrate that the components comprising the information processing network that underpins naming can be mapped onto a cerebral neural network in the neurologically intact and that reorganization of function seen in transcortical sensory aphasia can demonstrate plasticity in this neural network. The observed balance of impaired and preserved clinical and physiological components in reorganizing neural networks such as this can be used to design treatment strategies to alleviate naming deficits.

  2. Origin names of gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap have thousands of years of history and have been called with pure Korean name words. It was only that they were recorded in the form of hanja during the time written Korean was undervalued where people insisted borrowing Chinese characters to write despite written Korean being available. Thus, gocho (苦椒, chimchae (沈菜, and koldonban (滑董飯 are not the origin names. The pure Korean names used even by the people back then are the actual ones: gochyo (고쵸, dimchae (딤, and bubuimbap (부뷤밥.

  3. Usages of people names as cohesive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sipavicius Seide

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on usages of people names (proper name, nickname and pseudonym as cohesive elements. In this brief study, some usages of people names which ocurred in journalistic texts are analysed from an onomastic point of view. Emphasis  is placed on cultural, social and historic values of such usages. Data presented are parcial results of a broader research whose objective is to analyse textually and rethorically lexical cohesion tools observed in a sample of journalistic texts published by three Brazilian magazines (Istoé, Época and Veja during the second semester of 2008.

  4. Forecasting Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    for the third and fourth day precipitation forecasts. A marked improvement was shown for the consensus 24 hour precipitation forecast, and small... Zuckerberg (1980) found a small long term skill increase in forecasts of heavy snow events for nine eastern cities. Other National Weather Service...and maximum temperature) are each awarded marks 2, 1, or 0 according to whether the forecast is correct, 8 - *- -**■*- ———"—- - -■ t0m 1 MM—IB I

  5. Motivation of women to cultivate thein self rescue swimming skills

    OpenAIRE

    Stralczynská, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Work name: Motivation of women to cultivate thein self rescue swimming skills. Aim of work: Defining a set of basic self rescue swimming skills, motivation survey of women aged 18-60 years to cultivate these skills. Detection of awareness of theimportance of swimming skills of the interviewed women. Method: Literature search, questionnaire design, survey implementation, analysis and evaluation of data, graphical presentation of results. Results: The interviewed women realize the importance an...

  6. Listing of awardee names: Active awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This catalog/directory presents DOE`s procurement and assistance data system, arranged according to awardee name, bin, completion date, description of work, division, vendor ID, city, state, congressional district, contract value, obligations to date, P/S.

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Names in Neo-Punic inscriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeling, Karel

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the names in neo-punic inscriptions. It tries to combine the studies from Benz and others, to give the reader a rather complete view of the Phoenician and Punic inscriptions. ... Zie: Introduction

  11. Resolving Person Names in Web People Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Krisztian; Azzopardi, Leif; de Rijke, Maarten

    Disambiguating person names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a key task for the presentation of results and the automatic profiling of experts. With largely unstructured documents and an unknown number of people with the same name the problem presents many difficulties and challenges. This chapter treats the task of person name disambiguation as a document clustering problem, where it is assumed that the documents represent particular people. This leads to the person cluster hypothesis, which states that similar documents tend to represent the same person. Single Pass Clustering, k-Means Clustering, Agglomerative Clustering and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis are employed and empirically evaluated in this context. On the SemEval 2007 Web People Search it is shown that the person cluster hypothesis holds reasonably well and that the Single Pass Clustering and Agglomerative Clustering methods provide the best performance.

  12. The change of religion and the names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kousgård Sørensen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available What actually happened at the time when Denmark was christianized? An important viewpoint to the topic is the nomenclature, both personal names and place-names. What happened to these in the missionary period? Can they be exploited as evidence about the change of religion? What happened to these and to the naming practices in connection with the introduction of Christianity? These questions are relevant, because several pre-Christian cultic words entered into the personal nomenclature which the Christian mission found in use on its arrival. The fate of the nomenclature in the period does suggest that the change in religion took place reasonably peacefully and gradually. There are, however, certain features about the place-names suggesting that there were local differences in the conduct of the mission.

  13. VT E911 road name geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road name geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode addresses...

  14. Director of Office for Equal Opportunity named

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Sally L.

    2005-01-01

    Kevin G. McDonald, of Baltimore, former associate director for Compliance and Conflict Resolution at The Johns Hopkins University, has been named director of Virginia Tech's Office for Equal Opportunity. He will begin work at Virginia Tech in July.

  15. Named Entity Resources - Overview and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Calzolari, Nicoletta; Choukri, Khalid; Declerck, Thierry; Grobelnik, Marko; Maegaard, Bente; Mariani, Joseph; Moreno, Asuncion; Odijk, Jan; Piperidis, Stelios; Ehrmann, Maud; Nouvel, Damien; Rosset, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of real-world entities is crucial for most NLP applications. Since its introduction some twenty years ago, named entity processing has undergone a significant evolution with, among others, the definition of new tasks (e.g. entity linking) and the emergence of new types of data (e.g. speech transcriptions, micro-blogging). These pose certainly new challenges which affect not only methods and algorithms but especially linguistic resources. Where do we stand with respect to named ent...

  16. Robust Named Entity Recognition in Idiosyncratic Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Sebastian; Gers, Felix A.; Kilias, Torsten; Löser, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Named entity recognition often fails in idiosyncratic domains. That causes a problem for depending tasks, such as entity linking and relation extraction. We propose a generic and robust approach for high-recall named entity recognition. Our approach is easy to train and offers strong generalization over diverse domain-specific language, such as news documents (e.g. Reuters) or biomedical text (e.g. Medline). Our approach is based on deep contextual sequence learning and utilizes stacked bidir...

  17. Skilled Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-06

    performance. We have seen an avmage subject who, with the help of a couple of hundred hours of practice, turned himself into a memory expert with the...assumed that when people generate a mental image of a cow kicking a bell (or comprehend the sentence), a set of procedures in semantic memory is...interactive images . 18. A good name for such a memory system is "working memory ," but this term has traditionally been used to describe the temporary

  18. Between Ethnic and English Names: Name Choice for Transnational Chinese Students in a US Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how transnational Chinese students negotiate identity options through name choice while studying in the US. Name choice can discursively index membership in various communities. Drawing on theories of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and community of practices (Lave and Wenger, 1991), this study examines how name choice becomes…

  19. The past is the present and future: Ambivalent names and naming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the past and the present are also connected through names and naming patterns that straddle the three Chimurengas with ambivalent meanings and political significance, shaped by spatio-temporal forces peculiar to the historical periods. Comprehending political meanings that such names and nicknames produce in ...

  20. Integrating various resources for gene name normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuncui; Li, Yanpeng; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Cheng, Liangxi

    2012-01-01

    The recognition and normalization of gene mentions in biomedical literature are crucial steps in biomedical text mining. We present a system for extracting gene names from biomedical literature and normalizing them to gene identifiers in databases. The system consists of four major components: gene name recognition, entity mapping, disambiguation and filtering. The first component is a gene name recognizer based on dictionary matching and semi-supervised learning, which utilizes the co-occurrence information of a large amount of unlabeled MEDLINE abstracts to enhance feature representation of gene named entities. In the stage of entity mapping, we combine the strategies of exact match and approximate match to establish linkage between gene names in the context and the EntrezGene database. For the gene names that map to more than one database identifiers, we develop a disambiguation method based on semantic similarity derived from the Gene Ontology and MEDLINE abstracts. To remove the noise produced in the previous steps, we design a filtering method based on the confidence scores in the dictionary used for NER. The system is able to adjust the trade-off between precision and recall based on the result of filtering. It achieves an F-measure of 83% (precision: 82.5% recall: 83.5%) on BioCreative II Gene Normalization (GN) dataset, which is comparable to the current state-of-the-art.

  1. Integrating various resources for gene name normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncui Hu

    Full Text Available The recognition and normalization of gene mentions in biomedical literature are crucial steps in biomedical text mining. We present a system for extracting gene names from biomedical literature and normalizing them to gene identifiers in databases. The system consists of four major components: gene name recognition, entity mapping, disambiguation and filtering. The first component is a gene name recognizer based on dictionary matching and semi-supervised learning, which utilizes the co-occurrence information of a large amount of unlabeled MEDLINE abstracts to enhance feature representation of gene named entities. In the stage of entity mapping, we combine the strategies of exact match and approximate match to establish linkage between gene names in the context and the EntrezGene database. For the gene names that map to more than one database identifiers, we develop a disambiguation method based on semantic similarity derived from the Gene Ontology and MEDLINE abstracts. To remove the noise produced in the previous steps, we design a filtering method based on the confidence scores in the dictionary used for NER. The system is able to adjust the trade-off between precision and recall based on the result of filtering. It achieves an F-measure of 83% (precision: 82.5% recall: 83.5% on BioCreative II Gene Normalization (GN dataset, which is comparable to the current state-of-the-art.

  2. Confrontation naming errors in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Chen, Ting-Bin; Lin, Ker-Neng; Yeh, Yen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ta; Wang, Kuo-Shu; Wang, Pei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in visual interpretation, semantic conception, or word retrieval may contribute to the naming errors identified in the Boston Naming Test (BNT). We investigated the possible cognitive mechanism of the naming difficulty in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by analyzing the error patterns presented in the BNT. The Chinese version of the 30-item BNT (BNT-30) was performed on 115 normal control (NC) subjects and 104 mild-to-moderate AD patients. Accurate rates after semantic and phonemic cues were analyzed. The frequencies of 7 types of error patterns in the AD patients and the NC subjects were compared. The accurate rate after semantic cues was significantly lower in the AD than in the NC groups, but phonemic cues were more helpful than semantic cues to achieve accurate naming in both groups. The AD patients made more errors in all error patterns. Particularly, the frequency of nonresponse errors (n = 806) in the AD group significantly exceeded that in the NC group (n = 382). However, the distribution of the error patterns did not differ between the two groups. Naming difficulties in AD might be attributed to progressive semantic knowledge degradation. The AD and the NC groups differ quantitatively but not qualitatively in the error patterns in confrontation naming. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  4. Named entity recognition in Slovene text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Štajner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach and an implementation of a named entity extractor for Slovene language, based on a machine learning approach. It is designed as a supervised algorithm based on Conditional Random Fields and is trained on the ssj500k annotated corpus of Slovene. The corpus, which is available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA licence, is annotated with morphosyntactic tags, as well as named entities for people, locations, organisations, and miscellaneous names. The paper discusses the influence of morphosyntactic tags, lexicons and conjunctions of features of neighbouring words. An important contribution of this investigation is that morphosyntactic tags benefit named entity extraction. Using all the best-performing features the recognizer reaches a precision of 74% and a recall of 72%, having stronger performance on personal and geographical named entities, followed by organizations, but performs poorly on the miscellaneous entities, since this class is very diverse and consequently difficult to predict. A major contribution of the paper is also showing the benefits of splitting the class of miscellaneous entities into organizations and other entities, which in turn improves performance even on personal and organizational names. The software, developed in this research is freely available under the Apache 2.0 licence at http://ailab.ijs.si/~tadej/slner.zip, while development versions are available at https://github.com/tadejs/slner.

  5. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  6. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  7. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years.

  8. Differences in functional MR imaging activation patterns associated with confrontation naming and responsive naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewki Farias, Sarah; Harrington, Gregory; Broomand, Catherine; Seyal, Maysud

    2005-01-01

    Direct cortical stimulation studies suggest that responsive naming is more widely distributed within the temporal lobe than confrontation naming and involves anterior temporal regions typically resected in a standard temporal lobectomy. The aim of the current study was to further demonstrate the anatomic dissociation between confrontation and responsive naming by using functional MR imaging (fMRI). Twenty participants underwent fMRI while performing either a confrontation or responsive naming task. Regions of interest were identified within the anterior and posterior temporal lobe. Responsive naming produced more activation than confrontation naming within the dominant temporal lobe, with activation extending into the temporal pole. Activation in the dominant temporal lobe associated with responsive naming was observed in the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri but was limited to the middle temporal gyrus for confrontation naming. Although both naming tasks produced activation within the posterior temporal region of interest in all participants, responsive and confrontation naming produced activation within the anterior temporal region of interest in 90% versus 60% of the sample, respectively. Areas of the dominant hemisphere activated by both tasks included parts of the middle occipital and middle temporal gyri, inferior frontal lobe, and hippocampus, among others. Findings are consistent with cortical stimulation studies and suggest that responsive naming produces more widespread activation within the temporal lobe compared with confrontation naming. The activation more often included anterior temporal regions during responsive naming as compared with confrontation naming. In clinical cases where the functional assessment of the temporal lobe-particularly the anterior regions-is important, the current results suggest responsive naming should be a useful fMRI paradigm and may ultimately help predict the risk of postsurgical language changes.

  9. Dyslexia and music: measuring musical timing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, Katie; Nicolson, Roderick I; Fawcett, Angela J; Clarke, Eric F

    2003-02-01

    Over the last few decades, a growing amount of research has suggested that dyslexics have particular difficulties with skills involving accurate or rapid timing, including musical timing skills. It has been hypothesised that music training may be able to remediate such timing difficulties, and have a positive effect on fundamental perceptual skills that are important in the development of language and literacy skills (Overy, 2000). In order to explore this hypothesis further, the nature and extent of dyslexics' musical difficulties need to be examined in more detail. In the present study, a collection of musical aptitude tests (MATs) were designed specifically for dyslexic children, in order to distinguish between a variety of musical skills and sub-skills. 15 dyslexic children (age 7-11, mean age 9.0) and 11 control children (age 7-10, mean age 8.9) were tested on the MATs, and their scores were compared. Results showed that the dyslexic group scored higher than the control group on 3 tests of pitch skills (possibly attributable to slightly greater musical experience), but lower than the control group on 7 out of 9 tests of timing skills. Particular difficulties were noted on one of the tests involving rapid temporal processing, in which a subgroup of 5 of the dyslexic children (33%) (mean age 8.4) was found to account for all the significant error. Also, an interesting correlation was found between spelling ability and the skill of tapping out the rhythm of a song, which both involve the skill of syllable segmentation. These results support suggestions that timing is a difficulty area for dyslexic children, and suggest that rhythm skills and rapid skills may need particular attention in any form of musical training with dyslexics.

  10. Conscious intention to speak proactively facilitates lexical access during overt object naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijkers, Kristof; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored when and how the top-down intention to speak influences the language production process. We did so by comparing the brain’s electrical response for a variable known to affect lexical access, namely word frequency, during overt object naming and non-verbal object categorization. We found that during naming, the event-related brain potentials elicited for objects with low frequency names started to diverge from those with high frequency names as early as 152 ms after stimulus onset, while during non-verbal categorization the same frequency comparison appeared 200 ms later eliciting a qualitatively different brain response. Thus, only when participants had the conscious intention to name an object the brain rapidly engaged in lexical access. The data offer evidence that top-down intention to speak proactively facilitates the activation of words related to perceived objects. PMID:24039339

  11. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  12. International Assistance in Naming Craters on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J.; Hallau, K.; Hirshon, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hamel, J.; Hamel, S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's robotic MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft made history in March 2011 by becoming the first to orbit Mercury. During the mission, MESSENGER acquired more than 250,000 images and made many other kinds of measurements. Names are often given to surface features that are of special scientific interest, such as craters. To draw international attention to the achievements of the spacecraft and engineers and scientists who made the MESSENGER mission a success, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team initiated a Name a Crater on Mercury Competition.Five craters of particular geological interest were chosen by the science team. In accordance with International Astronomical Union (IAU) rules for Mercury, impact craters are named in honor of those who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to the arts and humanities. He or she must have been recognized as a historically significant figure in the arts for at least 50 years and deceased for the last three years. We were particularly interested in entries honoring people from nations and cultural groups underrepresented in the current list of crater names. From more than 3600 entries received from around the world, the EPO team was able to reduce the number of entries to about 1200 names of 583 different artists who met the contest eligibility criteria. Next, the proposed individuals were divided into five artistic field groups and distributed to experts in that respective field. Each expert reviewed approximately100 artists with their biographical information. They narrowed down their list to a top ten, then to a top five by applying a rubric. The final selection was based on the reviewer lists and scores, with at least three finalist names selected from each artistic field. Of the 17 finalists provided to the IAU, the following names were selected: Carolan crater, Enheduanna crater, Karsh crater, Kulthum crater, and Rivera crater. For more

  13. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  14. Soft Skills in Online Job Advertisements: An Analysis of British Online Job Ads for Project Managers and System Engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Grandjean, Noémie

    2017-01-01

    In the working world, soft skills are nowadays considered as important as hard skills. Whereas hard skills are technical skills, soft skills are personal attributes that enable someone to work better. Job advertisements are one medium by which employers communicate which skills they expect from candidates. This thesis aims at identifying and analysing soft skills in 120 online job-advertisements. It focuses on one country, the United Kingdom, and four positions, namely non-senior / senior Pro...

  15. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  16. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the ...... to be published in ”User Generated Law. Reconstructing Intellectual Property Law in a Knowledge Society” edited by Thomas Riis (forthcoming on Edward Elgar)....... on cases where trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”). The article is part of a research project on “User Generated Law” and uses the methodologies developed as part of this. It is scheduled....... the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  17. SNAD: sequence name annotation-based designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbalenya Alexander E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing diversity of biological data is tagged with unique identifiers (UIDs associated with polynucleotides and proteins to ensure efficient computer-mediated data storage, maintenance, and processing. These identifiers, which are not informative for most people, are often substituted by biologically meaningful names in various presentations to facilitate utilization and dissemination of sequence-based knowledge. This substitution is commonly done manually that may be a tedious exercise prone to mistakes and omissions. Results Here we introduce SNAD (Sequence Name Annotation-based Designer that mediates automatic conversion of sequence UIDs (associated with multiple alignment or phylogenetic tree, or supplied as plain text list into biologically meaningful names and acronyms. This conversion is directed by precompiled or user-defined templates that exploit wealth of annotation available in cognate entries of external databases. Using examples, we demonstrate how this tool can be used to generate names for practical purposes, particularly in virology. Conclusion A tool for controllable annotation-based conversion of sequence UIDs into biologically meaningful names and acronyms has been developed and placed into service, fostering links between quality of sequence annotation, and efficiency of communication and knowledge dissemination among researchers.

  18. Color naming across languages reflects color use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Futrell, Richard; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Mahowald, Kyle; Bergen, Leon; Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Gibson, Mitchell; Piantadosi, Steven T; Conway, Bevil R

    2017-09-18

    What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about. We show that potential methodological issues with the WCS do not corrupt information-theoretic analyses, by collecting original data using two extreme versions of the color-naming task, in three groups: the Tsimane', a remote Amazonian hunter-gatherer isolate; Bolivian-Spanish speakers; and English speakers. These data also enabled us to test another prediction of the color-usefulness hypothesis: that differences in color categorization between languages are caused by differences in overall usefulness of color to a culture. In support, we found that color naming among Tsimane' had relatively low communicative efficiency, and the Tsimane' were less likely to use color terms when describing familiar objects. Color-naming among Tsimane' was boosted when naming artificially colored objects compared with natural objects, suggesting that industrialization promotes color usefulness.

  19. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  20. Getting Skills Right: Skills for Jobs Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the construction of the database of skill needs indicators, i.e. the OECD Skills for Jobs Database, and presents initial results and analysis. It identifies the existing knowledge gaps concerning skills imbalances, providing the rationale for the development of the new skill needs and mismatch indicators. Moreover, it…

  1. Dynamic reorganization of functional brain networks during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Benquet, Pascal; Biraben, Arnaud; Berrou, Claude; Dufor, Olivier; Wendling, Fabrice

    2015-12-01

    For efficient information processing during cognitive activity, functional brain networks have to rapidly and dynamically reorganize on a sub-second time scale. Tracking the spatiotemporal dynamics of large scale networks over this short time duration is a very challenging issue. Here, we tackle this problem by using dense electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a picture naming task. We found that (i) the picture naming task can be divided into six brain network states (BNSs) characterized by significantly high synchronization of gamma (30-45 Hz) oscillations, (ii) fast transitions occur between these BNSs that last from 30 msec to 160 msec, (iii) based on the state of the art of the picture naming task, we consider that the spatial location of their nodes and edges, as well as the timing of transitions, indicate that each network can be associated with one or several specific function (from visual processing to articulation) and (iv) the comparison with previously-used approach aimed at localizing the sources showed that the network-based approach reveals networks that are more specific to the performed task. We speculate that the persistence of several brain regions in successive BNSs participates to fast and efficient information processing in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Name Collision in Multiple Classification Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Jørgen Lindskov

    Supporting multiple classification in object-oriented programming languages is the topic of discussion in this paper. Supporting multiple classification gives rise to one important question - namely the question of inheritance of attributes with identical names from multiple paths in the classification hierarchy. The problem is to decide how these multiple classification paths are reflected in the class being defined. One of the conclusions in this paper is, that by choosing strict and simple inheritance rules, one is excluding some particular usages of multiple classification. This leads to the notion of attribute-resolution at class definition, which means that the programmer in some cases is forced or allowed to resolve the potential ambiguity of the inherited names. The concept of attribute-resolution is managed through the identification of two conceptually different utilizations of specialization (unification and intersection), and two different attribute properties (plural and singleton) to guide the attribute-resolution.

  3. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  4. The taxonomic name resolution service: an online tool for automated standardization of plant names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Brad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digitization of biodiversity data is leading to the widespread application of taxon names that are superfluous, ambiguous or incorrect, resulting in mismatched records and inflated species numbers. The ultimate consequences of misspelled names and bad taxonomy are erroneous scientific conclusions and faulty policy decisions. The lack of tools for correcting this ‘names problem’ has become a fundamental obstacle to integrating disparate data sources and advancing the progress of biodiversity science. Results The TNRS, or Taxonomic Name Resolution Service, is an online application for automated and user-supervised standardization of plant scientific names. The TNRS builds upon and extends existing open-source applications for name parsing and fuzzy matching. Names are standardized against multiple reference taxonomies, including the Missouri Botanical Garden's Tropicos database. Capable of processing thousands of names in a single operation, the TNRS parses and corrects misspelled names and authorities, standardizes variant spellings, and converts nomenclatural synonyms to accepted names. Family names can be included to increase match accuracy and resolve many types of homonyms. Partial matching of higher taxa combined with extraction of annotations, accession numbers and morphospecies allows the TNRS to standardize taxonomy across a broad range of active and legacy datasets. Conclusions We show how the TNRS can resolve many forms of taxonomic semantic heterogeneity, correct spelling errors and eliminate spurious names. As a result, the TNRS can aid the integration of disparate biological datasets. Although the TNRS was developed to aid in standardizing plant names, its underlying algorithms and design can be extended to all organisms and nomenclatural codes. The TNRS is accessible via a web interface at http://tnrs.iplantcollaborative.org/ and as a RESTful web service and application programming interface. Source code

  5. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  6. Optimal skill distribution under convex skill costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Cheuk Leung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies optimal distribution of skills in an optimal income tax framework with convex skill constraints. The problem is cast as a social planning problem where a redistributive planner chooses how to distribute a given amount of aggregate skills across people. We find that optimal skill distribution is either perfectly equal or perfectly unequal, but an interior level of skill inequality is never optimal.

  7. Gene name ambiguity of eukaryotic nomenclatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifeng; Liu, Hongfang; Friedman, Carol

    2005-01-15

    With more and more scientific literature published online, the effective management and reuse of this knowledge has become problematic. Natural language processing (NLP) may be a potential solution by extracting, structuring and organizing biomedical information in online literature in a timely manner. One essential task is to recognize and identify genomic entities in text. 'Recognition' can be accomplished using pattern matching and machine learning. But for 'identification' these techniques are not adequate. In order to identify genomic entities, NLP needs a comprehensive resource that specifies and classifies genomic entities as they occur in text and that associates them with normalized terms and also unique identifiers so that the extracted entities are well defined. Online organism databases are an excellent resource to create such a lexical resource. However, gene name ambiguity is a serious problem because it affects the appropriate identification of gene entities. In this paper, we explore the extent of the problem and suggest ways to address it. We obtained gene information from 21 organisms and quantified naming ambiguities within species, across species, with English words and with medical terms. When the case (of letters) was retained, official symbols displayed negligible intra-species ambiguity (0.02%) and modest ambiguities with general English words (0.57%) and medical terms (1.01%). In contrast, the across-species ambiguity was high (14.20%). The inclusion of gene synonyms increased intra-species ambiguity substantially and full names contributed greatly to gene-medical-term ambiguity. A comprehensive lexical resource that covers gene information for the 21 organisms was then created and used to identify gene names by using a straightforward string matching program to process 45,000 abstracts associated with the mouse model organism while ignoring case and gene names that were also English words. We found that 85.1% of correctly retrieved mouse

  8. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  9. On identifying name equivalences in digital libraries. Name equivalence, Surname matching, Author identification, Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror G. Feitelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.

  10. Arithmetical calculation and related neuropsychological skills in subjects with isolated oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Jon W; Conrad, Amy L; Ansley, Timothy; Nopoulos, Peg

    2017-10-01

    The current study examined whether the arithmetical calculation skills of children, adolescents, and young adults with isolated cleft of the lip and/or palate (iCL/P) differ significantly from unaffected control participants. Comparisons of potential neuropsychological predictors of arithmetical calculation were also conducted to determine whether these variables differ significantly for participants with iCL/P. Participants (N = 176; 93 iCL/P and 83 Control) ranged in age from 7 to 26 years old. A standardized battery of achievement and neuropsychological skills was administered. Between group differences on math achievement was assessed through a univariate analysis of covariance. Relationships between neuropsychological measures and math achievement were analyzed separately for participants with iCL/P and controls through hierarchical linear regressions. Arithmetical calculation was significantly lower for the iCL/P group. Rapid naming, sustained attention, and visual-spatial organization were significant predictors for the iCL/P group; rapid naming was the lone variable that was significantly more predictive of arithmetical calculation for the iCL/P group than for control participants. These results suggest that inefficient verbal label retrieval related to short-term memory (STM) deficits underlie the calculation difficulties of individuals with iCL/P. These findings have implications for approaches to remediation, as well as future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 7. Spelling the names of plant varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyse the practice of transliteration of the Ukrainian cultivar names and rendering foreign names by means of the Ukrainian language, as well as special aspects of cultivar names spelling in special literature. Results. Cultivar names as a special category require preservation of primary graphics or sound type in the other language. This can be achieved by direct inclusion of the original name to the Ukrainian text or by practical transcribing, but not by transliteration or translation. Otherwise, Ukrainian names should be transliterated for inclusion to the texts in Latin characters. Transcription/transliteration in both directions is performed from the source language, though, as practice shows, in some Ukrainian publications the Russian is wrongly used as an intermediary language. Some national scientific publications ignore the recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that is not conducive to the success of scientific communication in the globalized world. Conclusions. The foreign names of plant varieties should be entered into the Ukrainian text keeping the original spelling or by means of practical transcription. The loan of foreign names is performed by transcribing directly from the source language; if the language doesn’t have the Latin alphabet, Latinized name transcription is acceptable. Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that concern graphic highlighting of the cultivar names in the text enclosing them in single quotation marks and writing each word of a cultivar name with a capital letter should necessarily be applied in the foreign-language publications and extended to the Ukrainian special literature, at least, in terms of the use of single quotation marks. Ukrainian names should be transliterated only in accordance with the regulations.

  12. Considering the issue of aligning Ukrainian plant names. Communication 3. Names for Ribes L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature and the system of genus Ribes s.l., application of indigenous and introduced plant names, from which such commercial small fruit crops as gooseberry, black and red currant have been formed, is considered. Scientifi c names based on Ukrainian generic name Porichky are streamlined. Ukrainian names for 64 taxa at the rank of species and variety were given. For hybrids nothotaxa ×Ribelaria Mezhenskyj, nothosubg. nov. (= subg. Ribes × subg. Grossularia and ×Сalocalyx Mezhenskyj, nothosect. nov. (= sect. Calobotrya × sect. Symplocalyx were defi ned.

  13. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  14. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  15. Generic drug names and social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Félix; Feldman, Roger

    2013-06-01

    This article studies how well International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), the "generic" names for pharmaceuticals, address the problems of imperfect information. Left in private hands, the identification of medicines leads to confusion and errors. Developed in the 1950s by the World Health Organization, INNs are a common, global, scientific nomenclature designed to overcome this failure. Taking stock after sixty years, we argue that the contribution of INNs to social welfare is paramount. They enhance public health by reducing errors and improving patient safety. They also contribute to economic efficiency by creating transparency as the foundation of competitive generic drug markets, reducing transaction costs, and favoring trade. The law in most countries requires manufacturers to designate pharmaceuticals with INNs in labeling and advertising. Generic substitution is also permitted or mandatory in many countries. But not all the benefits of INNs are fully realized because prescribers may not use them. We advocate strong incentives or even legally binding provisions to extend the use of INNs by prescribing physicians and dispensing pharmacists, but we do not recommend replacing brand names entirely with INNs. Instead, we propose dual use of brand names and INNs in prescribing, as in drug labeling.

  16. The names of physics: plasma, fission, photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-09-01

    The study of the origin and dissemination of names used in science is a useful but largely uncultivated historiographical method. What I call the etymological approach to the history of science is here illustrated by an examination of three important terms that originated in the 1920s and 1930s and are today as popular as ever. The names "plasma" and "fission" were introduced in physics in 1928 and 1939, respectively, in both cases by borrowing a name that was already firmly established in the biological sciences. The etymology of "photon" is different and more complex. Although it was quickly understood as just a synonym for Einstein's light quantum going back to 1905, when it was originally introduced it was with a different meaning. It can be traced back to 1916, when it was proposed as a unit for the illumination of the retina, and ten years later the name was revived in still another non-Einsteinian context. Apart from examining how the three words first entered physics, I also look at how the physics community initially responded to them.

  17. Hurricane names: A bunch of hot air?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that female-named hurricanes are deadlier because people do not take them seriously. However, this conclusion is based on a questionable statistical analysis of a narrowly defined data set. The reported relationship is not robust in that it is not confirmed by a straightforward analysis of more inclusive data or different data.

  18. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    evolutionary change, and the name sources of the Navy’s ships have not been immune to this change.”9 The July 2012 Navy report to Congress states that...Legion of Honor, and the Croix de Guerre with Gilt Star and 2 palms; Whereas during World War II, Clifton B. Cates led Marines at Guadalcanal, and

  19. 32 CFR 635.6 - Name checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.6 Name checks. (a) Information contained in... special duty assignments, and security clearance procedures. Any information released must be restricted... agencies for counterintelligence purposes. (d) COPS MPRS is a database, which will contain all military...

  20. The IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonieczny, Stanislaw

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to naming polyfunctional organic compounds is presented. Latest IUPAC rules are incorporated and the table of order of precedence for the major functional groups is assembled. The scope of nomenclature is limited to common functional groups that are covered by undergraduate courses in colleges and universities. (Contains 1…

  1. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  2. Graph Convolutional Networks for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Cetoli, A.; Bragaglia, S.; O'Harney, A. D.; Sloan, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the role of the dependency tree in a named entity recognizer upon using a set of GCN. We perform a comparison among different NER architectures and show that the grammar of a sentence positively influences the results. Experiments on the ontonotes dataset demonstrate consistent performance improvements, without requiring heavy feature engineering nor additional language-specific knowledge.

  3. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  4. An Improved Measure of Reading Skill: The Cognitive Structure Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorrells, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the construct validity and the predictive validity of a new test, called the Cognitive Structure Test, to multiple-choice tests of reading skill, namely the Armed Forces Vocational...

  5. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology - the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage - will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume.

  6. Semantic interference in picture naming during dual-task performance does not vary with reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Roete, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Previous dual-task studies examining the locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming have obtained diverging results. In these studies, participants manually responded to tones and named pictures while ignoring distractor words (picture-word interference, PWI) with varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between tone and PWI stimulus. Whereas some studies observed no semantic interference at short SOAs, other studies observed effects of similar magnitude at short and long SOAs. The absence of semantic interference in some studies may perhaps be due to better reading skill of participants in these than in the other studies. According to such a reading-ability account, participants' reading skill should be predictive of the magnitude of their interference effect at short SOAs. To test this account, we conducted a dual-task study with tone discrimination and PWI tasks and measured participants' reading ability. The semantic interference effect was of similar magnitude at both short and long SOAs. Participants' reading ability was predictive of their naming speed but not of their semantic interference effect, contrary to the reading ability account. We conclude that the magnitude of semantic interference in picture naming during dual-task performance does not depend on reading skill.

  7. Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Modeling of Sequential Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0320 Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Modeling of Sequential Skill Learning David Schnyer UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN...2015-30/06/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Modeling of Sequential Skill Learning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The University of Texas at Austin 108 E Dean Keeton Stop A8000 Austin, TX

  8. Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes–2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardene, Nalin N.; Crous, Pedro W.; Kirk, Paul M.; Hawksworth, David L.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Braun, Uwe; Dai, Dong-Qin; D’souza, Melvina J.; Diederich, Paul; Dissanayake, Asha; Doilom, Mingkhuan; Hongsanan, Singang; Jones, E. B.Gareth; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Lawrey, James D.; Liu, Jian-Kui; Lücking, Robert; Madrid, Hugo; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S.; Muggia, Lucia; Nelsen, Matthew P.; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Suetrong, Satinee; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Thambugala, Kasun M.; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Wikee, Saowanee; Zhang, Ying; Aptroot, André; Ariyawansa, H. A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Bhat, D. Jayarama; Gueidan, Cécile; Chomnunti, Putarak; De Hoog, G. Sybren; Knudsen, Kerry; Li, Wen-Jing; McKenzie, Eric H. C.; Miller, Andrew N.; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Piątek, Marcin; Raja, Huzefa A.; Shivas, Roger S.; Slippers, Bernad; Taylor, Joanne E.; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yong; Woudenberg, Joyce H. C.; Cai, Lei; Jaklitsch, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and nonpleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data. PMID:27284275

  9. Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes-2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardene, Nalin N; Crous, Pedro W; Kirk, Paul M; Hawksworth, David L; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Braun, Uwe; Dai, Dong-Qin; D'souza, Melvina J; Diederich, Paul; Dissanayake, Asha; Doilom, Mingkhuan; Hongsanan, Singang; Jones, E B Gareth; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Lawrey, James D; Liu, Jian-Kui; Lücking, Robert; Madrid, Hugo; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S; Muggia, Lucia; Nelsen, Matthew P; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Suetrong, Satinee; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Thambugala, Kasun M; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Wikee, Saowanee; Zhang, Ying; Aptroot, André; Ariyawansa, H A; Bahkali, Ali H; Bhat, D Jayarama; Gueidan, Cécile; Chomnunti, Putarak; De Hoog, G Sybren; Knudsen, Kerry; Li, Wen-Jing; McKenzie, Eric H C; Miller, Andrew N; Phillips, Alan J L; Piątek, Marcin; Raja, Huzefa A; Shivas, Roger S; Slippers, Bernad; Taylor, Joanne E; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yong; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; Cai, Lei; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Hyde, Kevin D

    2014-11-01

    Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and nonpleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data.

  10. Action naming in anomic aphasic speakers : Effects of instrumentality and name relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a

  11. Purposeful naming: The case of beer halls named during both the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the reasons behind names given to beer halls from their inception in colonial Rhodesia to present day Zimbabwe. To achieve this goal, it analyses names of beer halls, beer outlets built in the former townships of colonial Rhodesia (now called high-density suburbs), and those built at growth points, ...

  12. Colour-Name versus Shape-Name Learning in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study designed to compare color-name with shape-name learning by three-year-old children in an experimentally controlled format. Results show that children learned color-label associates significantly more slowly than matched shape-label associates, and they committed more errors with colors than with shapes during learning. Provides a…

  13. Identifying and naming plant-pathogenic fungi: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Hawksworth, David L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Scientific names are crucial in communicating knowledge about fungi. In plant pathology, they link information regarding the biology, host range, distribution, and potential risk. Our understanding of fungal biodiversity and fungal systematics has undergone an exponential leap, incorporating genomics, web-based systems, and DNA data for rapid identification to link species to metadata. The impact of our ability to recognize hitherto unknown organisms on plant pathology and trade is enormous and continues to grow. Major challenges for phytomycology are intertwined with the Genera of Fungi project, which adds DNA barcodes to known biodiversity and corrects the application of old, established names via epi- or neotypification. Implementing the one fungus-one name system and linking names to validated type specimens, cultures, and reference sequences will provide the foundation on which the future of plant pathology and the communication of names of plant pathogens will rest.

  14. Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2011-01-01

    A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene bla(NDM-1) after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all

  15. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  16. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  17. Clinical Psychopharmacology Update: What's in a Name? Confusion Prompts Change for Vortioxetine's Brand Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas J; Tobin, Mary L

    2016-09-01

    Similar names between two unrelated drugs have led the FDA to issue warnings about and now approve a name change for vortioxetine, which was branded as Brintellix® until recently. While the trade name had been screened prior to the product's launch, the FDA received numerous reports of prescribing and dispensing errors, specifically with regard to the anti-coagulant drug Brilinta® (ticagrelor). Starting 1 June 2016, vortioxetine will be marketed under the name Trintellix™ in an effort to reduce confusion. Clinicians are advised that while the name and National Drug Code number with this product will change, it will retain the same formulation, indication, and dosage information. To the extent possible, clinicians can and should take actions to identify and reduce potential medication errors in prescriptions, especially when using electronic records and e-prescription systems.

  18. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 5. Species names for pome fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyse the modern classification and nomenclature of species of pome fruit crops which varieties are listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine, and improve terminological system of the Ukrainian names of both species and garden crops. Results. Fruit cultivars and most apple clonal rootstocks belong to Malus pumila, and ornamental cultivars belong to Malus gloriosa. The most common scientific name of the cultivated apple, especially among horticulturists, is Malus domestica, although according to the principle of priority the name Malus pumila should have the advantage. As far as Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants has rejected the proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica, Malus pumila is correct name for the cultivated apple. The use of synonymic name Malus domestica should be avoided in both scientific and scientific-popular papers for stability of nomenclature. Pear cultivars listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine are presented by Pyrus communis, and pear rootstocks – by Cydonia oblonga. Fruit cultivars of the latter belong to separate fruit crop named quince. An apple-quince hybrid was registered as universal clonal rootstock for pome fruit crops. The State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine also contains nonconventional fruit crops such as Chaenomeles and hawthorn that consist of some species and nothospecies. Conclusions. In scientific publications one should stop the use of synonymic name Malus domestica in favour of the correct name for cultivated apple Malus pumila. Apple, pears and Chaenomeles cultivars listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine have a complex multispecies origin whereas quince, hawthorn and pear roostock cultivars systematically are monospecies. A universal roootstock of pome fruit crops is Cydolus, or apple-quince, that resulted

  19. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  20. Their Name is Half-Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of the Soviet architecture of the late 1950s – 60s. The name of the article is “Their name is halfway”. It expresses the sense of all the processes occurring both in society and architecture during the Khrushchev Thaw. Developing the socalled Stalin’s Empire in the 1930-1950s, the masters of architecture had travelled only half the way. If the power had not abruptly stopped this movement, we would probably have a unique modern architecture dissimilar to the “international style”. The collapse of the Soviet Union stopped the evolution of architecture again: the unique features of the Soviet architecture of the 1960s ceased to develop. Architects were carried away with ironic games of postmodernism, which led them to deadlock.

  1. Semantic effects in single-word naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, E; Patterson, K; Seidenberg, M S

    1995-09-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that, for lower frequency words, reading aloud is affected not only by spelling-sound typicality but also by a semantic variable, imageability. Participants were slower and more error prone when naming exception words with abstract meanings (e.g., scarce) than when naming either abstract regular words (e.g., scribe) or imageable exception words (e.g., soot). It is proposed that semantic representations of words have the largest impact on translating orthography to phonology when this translation process is slow or noisy (i.e., for low-frequency exceptions) and that words with rich semantic representations (i.e., high-imageability words) are most likely to benefit from this interaction.

  2. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    in conventional temporally-annotated corpora – for example Michaelmas or Vasant Panchami. UsingWikipedia and linked data, we automatically construct a resource of English named temporal expressions, and use it to extract training examples from a large corpus. These examples are then used to train and evaluate......This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...

  3. Vehicular Inter-Networking via Named Data

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Giulio; Pesavento, Davide; Wang, Lucas; Pau, Giovanni; Vuyyuru, Rama; Wakikawa, Ryuji; Zhang, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the Named Data Networking, a newly proposed Internet architecture, to networking vehicles on the run. Our initial design, dubbed V-NDN, illustrates NDN's promising potential in providing a unifying architecture that enables networking among all computing devices independent from whether they are connected through wired infrastructure, ad hoc, or intermittent DTN. This paper describes the prototype implementation of V-NDN and its preliminary performance assessment.

  4. The Simmel effect and babies’ names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Dydejczyk, A.; Kułakowski, K.

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of the Simmel effect are performed for agents in a scale-free social network. The social hierarchy of an agent is determined by the degree of his/her node. Particular features, once selected by a highly connected agent, become common in lower classes but soon fall out of fashion and become extinct. Numerical results reflect the dynamics of frequency of American babies’ names in 1880-2011.

  5. [Choosing the name in international adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Effenterre, Aude; Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sandra; Taïeb, Olivier; Moro, Marie Rose

    2014-01-01

    In the context of international adoption, the question is raised of the links which the adoptive parents may or may not maintain with the culture of the child's birth country. The name which the adoptive parents choose reflects this questioning. A study was carried out into this subject with parents and children in order to gain a better understanding of the feelings of belonging, filiation and affiliation in these situations.

  6. Biomedical Named Entity Recognition: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Basel Alshaikhdeeb; Kamsuriah Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER) is the task of identifying biomedical instances such as chemical compounds, genes, proteins, viruses, disorders, DNAs and RNAs. The key challenge behind BNER lies on the methods that would be used for extracting such entities. Most of the methods used for BNER were relying on Supervised Machine Learning (SML) techniques. In SML techniques, the features play an essential role in terms of improving the effectiveness of the recognition process. Features...

  7. Deep Active Learning for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yanyao; Yun, Hyokun; Lipton, Zachary C.; Kronrod, Yakov; Anandkumar, Animashree

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has yielded state-of-the-art performance on many natural language processing tasks including named entity recognition (NER). However, this typically requires large amounts of labeled data. In this work, we demonstrate that the amount of labeled training data can be drastically reduced when deep learning is combined with active learning. While active learning is sample-efficient, it can be computationally expensive since it requires iterative retraining. To speed this up, we intr...

  8. CAp 2017 challenge: Twitter Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Cédric; Partalas, Ioannis; Balikas, Georgios; Derbas, Nadia; Martin, Amélie; Reutenauer, Coralie; Segond, Frédérique; Amini, Massih-Reza

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the CAp 2017 challenge. The challenge concerns the problem of Named Entity Recognition (NER) for tweets written in French. We first present the data preparation steps we followed for constructing the dataset released in the framework of the challenge. We begin by demonstrating why NER for tweets is a challenging problem especially when the number of entities increases. We detail the annotation process and the necessary decisions we made. We provide statistics on the inter-...

  9. Phonology matters: a comprehensive investigation of reading and spelling skills of school-age children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J; Ritter, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The investigators measured 7 literacy skills in a group of 21 school-age children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), and compared the scores to those of 2 age-matched groups: children with dyslexia (DYS group) and, as a control, typically developing hearing children (CA group). The MSNH group performed consistently below the CA group but better than the DYS group, an indication that differences in the groups' phonological processing profiles might be an important discriminating feature. Interestingly, the MSNH group showed a selective impairment in word reading accuracy only, whereas their reading rate was relatively unaffected. Children with MSNH who show weak phonological awareness skills seem to compensate by relying on orthographic recognition associated with rapid naming ability. To determine which children with MSNH are at high risk for depressed reading achievement, testing across a widerange of literacy skills should be considered.

  10. Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses.

  11. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil; Schenk, Ryan; Norton, Catherine N

    2008-05-13

    Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs) and societal importance (e.g., world wars). The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  12. Gender congruency effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F-X; Matos, Rafael E; Segui, Juan

    2004-10-01

    The analysis of speech error corpora in various gender-marked languages has shown that noun substitutions tend to preserve grammatical gender. This result has been taken as an indication that grammatical gender could play a constraining role during the process of lexical selection. To gain insights on the status of grammatical gender in the speech production system, we discuss this hypothesis and we report three picture naming experiments. We attempted to observe gender-marked context effects in the course of error-free speech production. Participants named pictures shortly after processing a prime that was or was not gender marked and that was or was not congruent with the name of the picture. A clear congruency effect was observed, involving both facilitation in the gender congruent conditions and inhibition in gender incongruent conditions. Different interpretations of this effect and of previously reported gender context effects are discussed in the context of current models of speech production. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  14. Entrepreneurial skill development: Participatory action research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BlignautAS

    ship and empowerment on the micro, interface and macro levels. PAR has become a common approach to social .... The course included a theory section on business skills and a practical baking section with the ... PAR theory, namely the concepts of action, reflection and participation, was used to monitor and document.

  15. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... UOAA). The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo ...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy ...

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Student Core Curriculum ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education ... Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed ...

  20. The Mystery of the River Name Mezen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Kabinina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the name Mezen that refers to a large river in the north of the European part of Russia. The author critically reviews the earlier etymologies, in which the hydronym has been interpreted on the basis of the Ugric and Balto-Fennic-Sami data, and hypothesizes for Proto-Permic or Finno-Permic origins of the name as an alternative. According to this hypothesis, the name Mezen originates from an old lexical item related to the obsolete Komi-Zyrian mös and Udmurtian -mes (Permic *mεs with the general meaning of ‘source, spring, brook,’ which in toponymy stands for ‘river’ or ‘stream’. In evidence of the former toponymic productivity of this Permic word, the author provides multiple examples of hydronyms with the determinant -mVs to be found on the territory of the Republic of Komi and adjacent regions — the Russian North and the Perm Region (Vaimos, Kochmas, Madmas, Chermos, etc.. The author suggests that the lexical unit correlating with the Komi-Zyrian mös, Udmurtian -mes, and Common Permic *mεs was once part of a more complex term represented not only in the name Mezen, but also in its North Russian “counterparts,” Mezen’ga and Mezenda, as well as in substrate toponymy of the Komi Republic (Mozyn / Mozym = Russian Mezen; Mozimdіn, Mozimlyva, Mozimözin and in some substrate hydronyms of the modern Ob-Ugric areas (Khanty dialectal Mǒśaŋ = Russian Mozym, and Mоsəm = Nazym. Recognizing that ethnolinguistic attribution of the original lexical unit for these names seems problematic, the author is inclined to think that this is an old compound in which the final component, reconstructed as Common Permic *-εŋ, had the meaning of ‘river, stream’. Summing up all phonetic, morphological, semantic, and geographical evidence, the author concludes that the presently multilingual hydronyms of the MVsVn / MVsVm type most likely date back to the dialects of ancient “Permians,” still

  1. Modeling individual variation in early literacy skills in kindergarten children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Arjan; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated (i) to what extent the early literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word decoding) along with cognitive (nonverbal reasoning, attention, phonological short-term memory, sequential memory, executive functioning) and linguistic (auditory discrimination, rapid naming, articulation, vocabulary) precursor measures of 53 six-year old children with intellectual disabilities (ID) differ from a group of 74 peers with normal language acquisition (NLA) and (ii) whether the individual variation of early literacy skills in the two groups to the same extent can be explained from the precursor measures. Results showed that children with ID scored below the NLA group on all literacy and precursor measures. Structural equation modeling evidenced that in the children with NLA early literacy was directly predicted by phonological awareness, PSTM and vocabulary, with nonverbal reasoning and auditory discrimination also predicting phonological awareness. In children with ID however, the variation in word decoding was predicted by letter knowledge and nonverbal reasoning, whereas letter knowledge was predicted by rapid naming, which on its turn was predicted by attentional skills. It can be concluded phonological awareness plays a differential role in the early literacy skills of children with and without ID. As a consequence, the arrears in phonological awareness in children with ID might put them on hold in gaining proper access to literacy acquisition. This paper adds to the theoretical knowledge base on literacy acquisition in a special population, namely children with intellectual disabilities (ID). It addresses factors that influence early literacy learning, which have not been investigated thoroughly in this special and specific group. Furthermore, the children are not tested solely on literacy, but also on cognitive measures that may influence literacy acquisition. Whereas most research in ID focuses on groups with

  2. Development of First-Graders' Word Reading Skills: For Whom Can Dynamic Assessment Tell Us More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunsoo; Compton, Donald L; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Steacy, Laura M; Collins, Alyson A; Lindström, Esther R

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic assessment (DA) of word reading measures learning potential for early reading development by documenting the amount of assistance needed to learn how to read words with unfamiliar orthography. We examined the additive value of DA for predicting first-grade decoding and word recognition development while controlling for autoregressive effects. Additionally, we examined whether predictive validity of DA would be higher for students who have poor phonological awareness skills. First-grade students (n = 105) were assessed on measures of word reading, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and DA in the fall and again assessed on word reading measures in the spring. A series of planned, moderated multiple regression analyses indicated that DA made a significant and unique contribution in predicting word recognition development above and beyond the autoregressor, particularly for students with poor phonological awareness skills. For these students, DA explained 3.5% of the unique variance in end-of-first-grade word recognition that was not attributable to autoregressive effect. Results suggest that DA provides an important source of individual differences in the development of word recognition skills that cannot be fully captured by merely assessing the present level of reading skills through traditional static assessment, particularly for students at risk for developing reading disabilities. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2015.

  3. The Beat to Read: A Cross-lingual Link between Rhythmic Regularity Perception and Reading Skill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annike Bekius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a ‘roughly’ regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN as a measure of language skill (Spearman’s rho, -0.47, p <0.01. This correlation remains significant after accounting for differences in non-verbal IQ (rho, -0.37, p <0.05, and musical expertise in addition (rho, -0.31, p <0.05. There was no such robust relationship for the ‘mirror image’ task of irregularity detection, i.e. the ability to detect ongoing small deviations from a regular beat. This dissociation in correlation was confirmed after accounting for shared variance between the two rhythm tasks. Whilst being consistent with the ‘shared resources model’ in terms of rhythm as a common basis of language and music, evolutionarily as well as in individual development, the results also document how two related rhythm processing abilities relate differentially to language skill. Specifically, the results support a universal relationship between rhythmic regularity detection and reading skill that is robust to accounting for differences in fluid intelligence and musical expertise, and transcends language-specific differences in speech rhythm.

  4. NameClarifier: A Visual Analytics System for Author Name Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiaomu; Wu, Tongshuang; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Yanhong; Qu, Huamin; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visual analytics system called NameClarifier to interactively disambiguate author names in publications by keeping humans in the loop. Specifically, NameClarifier quantifies and visualizes the similarities between ambiguous names and those that have been confirmed in digital libraries. The similarities are calculated using three key factors, namely, co-authorships, publication venues, and temporal information. Our system estimates all possible allocations, and then provides visual cues to users to help them validate every ambiguous case. By looping users in the disambiguation process, our system can achieve more reliable results than general data mining models for highly ambiguous cases. In addition, once an ambiguous case is resolved, the result is instantly added back to our system and serves as additional cues for all the remaining unidentified names. In this way, we open up the black box in traditional disambiguation processes, and help intuitively and comprehensively explain why the corresponding classifications should hold. We conducted two use cases and an expert review to demonstrate the effectiveness of NameClarifier.

  5. The effect of perceptual reasoning abilities on confrontation naming performance: An examination of three naming tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Marceaux, Janice C; Galindo, Juliette; Sordahl, Jeffrey A; Highsmith, Jonathan M; O'Rourke, Justin J F; González, David Andrés; Critchfield, Edan A; McCoy, Karin J M

    2016-01-01

    Confrontation naming tests are a common neuropsychological method of assessing language and a critical diagnostic tool in identifying certain neurodegenerative diseases; however, there is limited literature examining the visual-perceptual demands of these tasks. This study investigated the effect of perceptual reasoning abilities on three confrontation naming tests, the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test, and Visual Naming Test (VNT) to elucidate the diverse cognitive functions underlying these tasks to assist with test selection procedures and increase diagnostic accuracy. A mixed clinical sample of 121 veterans were administered the BNT, NAB, VNT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-4th Edition (WAIS-IV) Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Multiple regression indicated that PRI accounted for 23%, 13%, and 15% of the variance in BNT, VNT, and NAB scores, respectively, but dropped out as a significant predictor once VCI was added. Follow-up bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that PRI had a significant indirect effect on naming performance after controlling education, primary language, and severity of cognitive impairment, as well as the mediating effect of general verbal abilities for the BNT (B = 0.13; 95% confidence interval, CI [.07, .20]), VNT (B = 0.01; 95% CI [.002, .03]), and NAB (B = 0.03; 95% CI [.01, .06]). Findings revealed a complex relationship between perceptual reasoning abilities and confrontation naming that is mediated by general verbal abilities. However, when verbal abilities were statistically controlled, perceptual reasoning abilities were found to have a significant indirect effect on performance across all three confrontation naming measures with the largest effect noted with the BNT relative to the VNT and NAB Naming Test.

  6. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Slot, Esther M; de Bree, Elise H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  7. A Sociolinguistic Study of Deviant Orthographic Representation of Graduating Students' Names in a Nigerian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladunjoye J. Faleye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is habitual for graduating students of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, to roll out the drums the very day they finish writing their final examination. Characteristic of such a ritualistic exercise, among other things, are the brand names the students coin for themselves from their original names. This study focuses on the creative rewriting of the names on such an occasion and examines the linguistic habits exhibited therein. It analyses the phonological/graphematic features that mark the rewritng of the names and discusses the sociolinguistic implications for the phenomena of social identity construction and language contact situation. Data for the study was sourced mainly through participant-observation technique with a supplemment of an oral interview conducted for some of the subjects between year 2007 and 2009. The data was selected through a purposive random sampling technique which yielded fifty names that were considered representative of the respelling conventions. The paper employs mainly Hempenstall's (2003 Phonological Sensitivity Skills to analyse the linguistic practices in the reconfigured names and then applies Tajfel's and Turner's (1979 Social Identity Theory to explain how it is that people develop a sense of membership and belonging in particular groups. The article reveals that the deviant orthographic conventions are a major fallout of youth culture with great influence from computer-mediated communication. It also shows that their linguistic experimentation foray in the discourse greatly undermines the orthographic system of the indigenous language (Yoruba and the cultural values embedded in the original names.

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs ... The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn ...

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and Emergency Preparedness Rural ...

  10. Learning to Read in Spanish: Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Coding, and Rapid Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Amanda; Christo, Catherine; Shriberg, David

    2013-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, many respective reading processes have been delineated, and much is now known about reading acquisition in children. Most of this research has been completed using English-dominant subjects. As such, the literature focuses on an opaque orthography and aspects of learning to read in this context. In this study, predictors…

  11. Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltyeb, Safaa; Salim, Naomie

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to "text mine" these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug development. One of the most important challenges in chemical text mining is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in the texts. In this review, the authors briefly introduce the fundamental concepts of chemical literature mining, the textual contents of chemical documents, and the methods of naming chemicals in documents. We sketch out dictionary-based, rule-based and machine learning, as well as hybrid chemical named entity recognition approaches with their applied solutions. We end with an outlook on the pros and cons of these approaches and the types of chemical entities extracted.

  12. Star names their lore and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Richard H

    1963-01-01

    Here is an unusual book for anyone who appreciates the beauty and wonder of the stars. Solidly based upon years of thorough research into astronomical writings and observations of the ancient Chinese, Arabic, Euphrates, Hellenic, and Roman civilizations, it is an informative, non-technical excursion into the vast heritage of folklore and history associated with the heavenly bodies. From his studies of the writings of scores of ancient astronomers, the author has come up with a fascinating history of the names various cultures have given the constellations, the literary and folkloristic uses

  13. ISO Abbreviations for Names of Polymeric Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jarm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of abbreviations for the names of polymers is practical and economic in written and spoken language. Taking into consideration the several hundreds of polymers appearing in literature annually, some of them having complicated structures, it is almost impossible to derive a systematic and unique abbreviation to polymer structures. Therefore, IUPAC has taken over the well-established ISO list of abbreviated terms (about 120 items mainly selected on the basis of the scale of production. The presented ISO nomenclature is not necessarily in accord with IUPAC recommendations.

  14. Named data networking-based smart home

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Hassan Ahmed; Dongkyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Named data networking (NDN) treats content/data as a “first class citizen” of the network by giving it a “name”. This content “name” is used to retrieve any information, unlike in device-centric networks (i.e., the current Internet), which depend on physical IP addresses. Meanwhile, the smart home concept has been gaining attention in academia and industries; various low-cost embedded devices are considered that can sense, process, store, and communicate data autonomously. In this paper, we s...

  15. Pattern Mining for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvel, Damien; Antoine, Jean-Yves; Friburger, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Many evaluation campaigns have shown that knowledge-based and data-driven approaches remain equally competitive for Named Entity Recognition. Our re-search team has developed CasEN, a symbolic system based on finite state tran-ducers, which achieved promising results during the Ester2 French-speaking eval-uation campaign. Despite these encouraging results, manually extending the cov-erage of such a hand-crafted system is a difficult task. In this paper, we present a no...

  16. Neural Architectures for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lample, Guillaume; Ballesteros, Miguel; Subramanian, Sandeep; Kawakami, Kazuya; Dyer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art named entity recognition systems/nrely heavily on hand-crafted features and/ndomain-specific knowledge in order to learn/neffectively from the small, supervised training/ncorpora that are available. In this paper, we/nintroduce two new neural architectures—one/nbased on bidirectional LSTMs and conditional/nrandom fields, and the other that constructs/nand labels segments using a transition-based/napproach inspired by shift-reduce parsers./nOur models rely on two sources of in...

  17. Specific relations between alphanumeric-naming speed and reading speeds of monosyllabic and multisyllabic words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Zijlstra, B.J H; van den Broeck, W

    The goals of this study are to investigate, at three elementary school grade levels, how word reading speed is related to rapidly naming series of numbers, letters, colors, and pictures, and to general processing speed (measured by nonnaming or visual matching tasks), and also to determine how these

  18. Training Letter and Orthographic Pattern Recognition in Children with Slow Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research has established that performance on a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task is related to reading, the nature of this relationship is unclear. Bowers (2001) proposed that processes underlying performance on the RAN task and orthographic knowledge make independent and additive contributions to reading performance. We examined the…

  19. What's in a Name? Sound Symbolism and Gender in First Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sidhu

    Full Text Available Although the arbitrariness of language has been considered one of its defining features, studies have demonstrated that certain phonemes tend to be associated with certain kinds of meaning. A well-known example is the Bouba/Kiki effect, in which nonwords like bouba are associated with round shapes while nonwords like kiki are associated with sharp shapes. These sound symbolic associations have thus far been limited to nonwords. Here we tested whether or not the Bouba/Kiki effect extends to existing lexical stimuli; in particular, real first names. We found that the roundness/sharpness of the phonemes in first names impacted whether the names were associated with round or sharp shapes in the form of character silhouettes (Experiments 1a and 1b. We also observed an association between femaleness and round shapes, and maleness and sharp shapes. We next investigated whether this association would extend to the features of language and found the proportion of round-sounding phonemes was related to name gender (Analysis of Category Norms. Finally, we investigated whether sound symbolic associations for first names would be observed for other abstract properties; in particular, personality traits (Experiment 2. We found that adjectives previously judged to be either descriptive of a figuratively 'round' or a 'sharp' personality were associated with names containing either round- or sharp-sounding phonemes, respectively. These results demonstrate that sound symbolic associations extend to existing lexical stimuli, providing a new example of non-arbitrary mappings between form and meaning.

  20. Undersea Feature Place Names as of June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are approximately 5100 undersea features with names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) currently in the Geographic Names Data Base...

  1. Konsep Hard Skill, Soft Skill Dan Spiritual Skill Pustakawan Menghadapi Era Library 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rotmianto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In  this  present  time,  librarian  must  know  well  about information technology or  it also called have a  literacy of  information technology.  Because  they  (librarian  will  face  the  “explosion  of information”, as well as a new  library user named “Net Generation” who wants all information to be presented more accurate, quicker and interactively, as the demands of Library 3.0. Mastery three skills: hard skill  (IQ  and  soft  skill  (EQ     combined  with  spiritual  skill  (SQ  is required  to  succeed  to be a Librarian 3.0,  so not only qualifed  in  the feld of technology, but more than that librarians also have a humanism side that is based on religious principles.

  2. EPONYMY BASED ON NAMES OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kovács

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As is generally defined, eponymy, one of the word-formation processes refers to the derivation of a name of a city, country, era, institution, or other place or thing from that of a person such as sandwich, wellington, mackintosh or cardigan. Eponymy can be classified in several ways, some refer to foods (Pizza Margaritha, diseases (Alzheimer disease, places (Washington, scientific laws (Archimedes’s principle and sport terms (Axel jump, whereas others indicate trademarks, brand names (aspirin, prizes, awards (Nobel Prize, inventions (Rubic’s Cube, ideologies (Darwinism, colleges, universities (Stanford University and companies (Ford. The present paper discusses eponyms which denote companies based on the name of their founder(s (e.g. Porsche, Siemens, Gucci, Campari, Cadbury, McDonald’s and Walt Disney, etc. by revealing what kind of a metonymic relationship is manifested in them. Cognitive linguists, such as Lakoff and Johnson (1980, Radden and Kövecses (1999 and Kövecses (2002 state that metonymy is essentially a conceptual phenomenon, in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model. In fact, metonymy is part of our everyday way of thinking, and is grounded in experience. Common metonymies include PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT (Pass me the Shakespeare on the top shelf., PLACE FOR EVENT (Iraq nearly cost Tony Blair the premiership, PLACE FOR INSTITUTION (Downing Street refused comment., PART FOR THE WHOLE (She’s not just a pretty face., WHOLE FOR THE PART (England beat Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final. and EFFECT FOR CAUSE (He has a long face.. Following the cognitive approach to metonyms, I tentatively suggest that the metonymy PRODUCER FOR THE PRODUCT can be observed in the case of car makes, products of famous fashion houses, cosmetics and drinks as is illustrated by examples like He’s bought a Ferrari. I ate a McDonald or

  3. Writing to dictation and handwriting performance among Chinese children with dyslexia: relationships with orthographic knowledge and perceptual-motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Lai, Alice; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Chan, Alan H L; Lo, Amy G W

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between writing to dictation, handwriting, orthographic, and perceptual-motor skills among Chinese children with dyslexia. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 45 third graders with dyslexia were assessed. Results of stepwise multiple regression models showed that Chinese character naming was the only predictor associated with word dictation (β=.32); handwriting speed was related to deficits in rapid automatic naming (β=-.36) and saccadic efficiency (β=-.29), and visual-motor integration predicted both of the number of characters exceeded grid (β=-.41) and variability of character size (β=-.38). The findings provided support to a multi-stage working memory model of writing for explaining the possible underlying mechanism of writing to dictation and handwriting difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computer Security: in the name of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    This summer, the American/Canadian dating website Ashley Madison was successfully compromised by a group of hackers (see here) who subsequently published tons of confidential information: addresses, dates of birth, e-mail addresses, ethnicities, genders, names, passwords, payment histories, phone numbers, security questions, sexual preferences, usernames and website activity.   Initially, these attackers blackmailed Ashley Madison and requested that the service be shut down. Later, however, they just made their stolen data public on the Internet. More than 30 million unique e-mail addresses – a hallelujah for miscreants. What can they do with this data? One possibility is blackmailing the people whose e-mail addresses were exposed by threatening to tell their spouses (“Pay me X bitcoins or I will tell your spouse that you are looking for a date!”). Another is targeting those people who have registered with their company e-...

  5. Forgotten names: herpetologist Boris Vladimirovich Pestinskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlin Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Boris Pestinskiy was the herpetologist whose name, unfortunately, is lost in history. We decided to restore justice, and in this article we describe the life of this remarkable person. He was really engaged both in painting and in herpetology. After graduating from the Academy of Arts in Leningrad he wrote mainly the portraits of his contemporaries, illustrated magazines, taught children to draw. Some of his paintings were placed in the Russian Museum. He also studied reptiles. He was devoted to Middle Asia and spent the main part of his life in Tashkent. In Tashkent’s zoo he organized the department of reptiles and on the base of it the first in Middle Asia serpentarium. There poison was regularly taken from venomous snakes. Boris studied snakes’ biology, methods of their capture, conditions of their keeping in captivity, organization of the work of the serpentarium. His students were the young men who later became prominent Russian biologists.

  6. The Chartherm process, what's in the name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, L

    2009-05-01

    Earlier research has identified the Chartherm process (Thermya, France) as a candidate for the best available technology to treat chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wood waste. This paper presents the working principle, the characteristics and the current state-of-knowledge related to the process, illustrating clearly the differences with pyrolysis and carbonisation processes. To emphasise the specific nature of the process, it has been given its own name 'chartherisation'. The avoidance of tar and dioxin release, the role of the solid matrix in the metal behaviour and the separation process are described. Furthermore, the possible benefits of working at elevated pressure are discussed, based on the experience with charcoal production from coal and biomass. This paper shows that more fundamental research is needed to understand and model all mechanisms contributing to the characteristic nature of chartherisation, in order to control the dynamic behaviour and tune the operating conditions in the reactor on the quality of the products requested.

  7. A no-name tuberculosis tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa; Garrity, Kelli; Hathcock, A Leroy; Crowder, David; Jackson, Robert; Taylor, Zachary

    2003-10-01

    Foreign-born persons from countries where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic make up a significant percentage of poultry industry workers in Delaware, a leading poultry-producing state. Many of these workers enter the United States without documentation and assume multiple identities, making it difficult for public health staff to investigate TB contacts who work in the poultry plants. The Sussex County Health Unit of the Delaware Division of Public Health developed a no-name TB tracking system to facilitate identification and treatment of poultry plant workers with TB infection and disease in a high-risk population whose members assume one or more aliases. Completion rates for treatment of latent TB infection in this group increased from 48% to 64% 2 years after the program's implementation.

  8. Named data networking-based smart home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Named data networking (NDN treats content/data as a “first class citizen” of the network by giving it a “name”. This content “name” is used to retrieve any information, unlike in device-centric networks (i.e., the current Internet, which depend on physical IP addresses. Meanwhile, the smart home concept has been gaining attention in academia and industries; various low-cost embedded devices are considered that can sense, process, store, and communicate data autonomously. In this paper, we study NDN in the context of smart-home communications, discuss the preliminary evaluations, and describe the future challenges of applying NDN in smart-home applications.

  9. Paired Associate Learning Tasks and their Contribution to Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgues, Catalina; Tan, Mei; Hein, Sascha; Ojanen, Emma; Reich, Jodi; Lyytinen, Heikki; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    Associative learning has been identified as one of several non-linguistic processes involved in reading acquisition. However, it has not been established whether it is an independent process that contributes to reading performance on its own or whether it is a process that is embedded in other linguistic skills (e.g., phonological awareness or phonological memory) and, therefore, contributing to reading performance indirectly. Research has shown that performance on tasks assessing associative learning, e.g., paired-associate learning (PAL) tasks, is lower in children with specific reading difficulties compared to typical readers. We explored the differential associations of two distinct verbal-visual PAL tasks (the Bala Bbala Graphogame, BBG, and a Foreign Language Learning Task, FLLT) with reading skills (word reading and pseudo-word decoding), controlling for phonological awareness, rapid naming, and letter and digit span in children at risk for reading disabilities and their typically developing peers. Our study sample consisted of 110 children living in rural Zambia, ranging in age from 7 to 18 years old (48.1% female). Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to explore the group differences in reading performance. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine children's learning across the PAL tasks. The differential relationships between both PAL tasks and reading performance were explored via structural equation modeling. The main result was that the children at risk for reading difficulties had lower performance on both PAL tasks. The BBG was a significant predictor for both word reading and pseudo-word decoding, whereas the FLLT-only for word reading. Performance on the FLLT partially mediated the association between phonological awareness and word reading. These results illustrate the partial independence of associative learning from other reading-related skills; the specifics of this relationship vary based on the type of PAL task administered.

  10. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Guest

    Full Text Available Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink, yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  11. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake...

  12. What's in a name? Group fitness class names and women's reasons for exercising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theresa C; Miller, Bridget M; Adams, Bailey M

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of intrinsic exercise motivation are well recognized, yet extrinsically focused group-fitness class names/descriptions dominate the fitness industry. To explore the impact of how fitness classes are marketed, women (N = 389) were asked to indicate their preference for either intrinsically or extrinsically focused fitness classes based on title/description. Participants who favored intrinsic class names/descriptions were more likely to report greater interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and greater effort and report exercising for health/fitness-related reasons. Those favoring extrinsic class names/descriptions were more likely to experience tension/pressure when exercising and report exercising for appearance/weight-related reasons. The results demonstrate the importance of wording when marketing fitness classes.

  13. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, M

    2001-03-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion.

  14. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  15. Measuring soccer skill performance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A

    2011-04-01

    The ability to execute skilled movement patterns efficiently and effectively is the most important aspect of soccer performance and players must apply cognitive, perceptual and motor skills to rapidly changing situations. There have been attempts to measure these parameters for talent identification (or development) purposes and skill acquisition and intervention research; the aim of this review is to examine the strengths and limitations of these tests. High levels of perceptual and cognitive skill are characteristics of those players who are able look in the right places for information and process this information efficiently before deciding on a suitable course of action. The motor skills required to successfully control, pass, dribble and shoot the ball at goal are fundamental skills of the soccer player and a variety of methods have been used to measure these aspects. The tests mentioned in this review vary in their complexity and the type of skill(s) they purport to measure. The assessment of choice must come down to a number of factors including cost, available time and space, number of athletes in the cohort and experience of researchers. Furthermore, consideration must be given to the aim(s) of the research/assessment and issues relating to validity and reliability. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. 19 CFR 145.55 - Trademarks, trade names, and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trademarks, trade names, and copyrights. 145.55... Trademarks, trade names, and copyrights. Merchandise bearing a trademark or trade name entitled to protection against imports, merchandise bearing a mark or name that copies or simulates such a trademark or trade...

  17. Is visual attention automatically attracted to one's own name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, C; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Houmann, K J

    1997-01-01

    Subjects were presented with briefly exposed visual displays of words that were common first names with a length of four to six letters. In the main experiment, each display consisted of four words: two names shown in red and two shown in white. The subject's task was to report the red names (tar......, visual attention was not automatically attracted by the subject's own name....

  18. Morphology and semantics of proper names in Northern Sotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this article is to present the identifying features of the Northern Sotho proper name as a subcategory of the broader word category N (noun). The article analyses the identifying morphological features and semantic interpretations of two types of the proper name, namely, personal and place names in ...

  19. Changes to the scientific and common names of southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additions and changes to the scientific and common names of southern African freshwater fishes made since 1993, are recorded and explained. Nineteen new scientific names are listed including five new species, three genus-name changes, three species-name changes and four new records from the area.

  20. Parents' Perspectives on Adopting English Names in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Yen; Ke, I-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of English names in Taiwan through questionnaires and interviews with parents of junior high school students. In total, 564 parents filled out a questionnaire regarding their adoption of an English name, reasons for needing an English name, and their perspectives about their child's English name. We interviewed…

  1. Gender and meaning in Igbo romantic pet names | Anyanwu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meaning in names is a cultural matter. Igbo names are mostly symbolic or metaphoric in meaning. Romantic pet names, by their nature, have a gender bias in most cultures of the world, as also in the Igbo language and culture, depending on the situation of usage. Igbo names have gender markers and this, to some extent, ...

  2. An Exploratory Study Of The Meaning And Perception Of Names ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, personal names particularly indigenous names are not arbitrarily given, they bear significant connotative meanings, reflecting the circumstance surrounding the birth of the bearer and the belief and philosophy of the name giver. The significance placed on names gives it immense psychological undertones.

  3. Revisiting the Judicially Changed Personal Names in Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents some sociolinguistic observations on the impact of changing political, economic and sociocultural factors on names and naming practices in different administrative regions of Ethiopia. The approach is contrastive by which we compare judicially-changed personal names during three periods, namely ...

  4. Early phonological skills as a predictor of reading acquisition: a follow-up study from kindergarten to the middle of grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprugevica, Ieva; Høien, Torleiv

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the power of early measures of phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rapid naming, short-term memory) in predicting later reading skills at various points of time. About 70 children were followed from the end of kindergarten to the middle of grade 2. Correlation analyses were performed as well as a linear growth curve analyses. In the traditional regression analysis, phonemic awareness in kindergarten explained about 27% of the variance in word reading six months later and about 9.5% of the variance at the end of grade 1. Even when prior level of reading skill was included in the predictive equation, a significant amount of variance was still explained by phonemic awareness. The other predictor variables did not explain any variance in word reading, and phonemic awareness did not predict any variance in reading skills in grade 2. When using sentence reading as the dependent variable, phonemic awareness explained about 16% of unique variance after six months, and about 13% of the variance in the middle of grade 2. Similarly, when employing growth curve analysis, phonemic awareness was the only phonological factor that accounted for significant variance in the word reading slope, explaining about 25% of its variance, whereas naming and short-term memory did not explain any unique variance. The lack of predictive power of phonemic awareness on the sentence b-slope is assumed to be caused by unreliable sentence scores in kindergarten.

  5. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  6. Age-related deficits in auditory confrontation naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Choi, Hyun

    2010-09-01

    The naming of manipulable objects in older and younger adults was evaluated across auditory, visual, and multisensory conditions. Older adults were less accurate and slower in naming across conditions, and all subjects were more impaired and slower to name action sounds than pictures or audiovisual combinations. Moreover, there was a sensory by age group interaction, revealing lower accuracy and increased latencies in auditory naming for older adults unrelated to hearing insensitivity but modest improvement to multisensory cues. These findings support age-related deficits in object action naming and suggest that auditory confrontation naming may be more sensitive than visual naming. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. LINGUOCREATIVITY IN THE ASPECT OF THE NAMING EXAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana P. Sokolova

    2016-01-01

    The article features the results of the linguocreative activity on coining trademarks and service marks, company names, trade names as well as urbanonyms in the aspect of the naming examination — a new type of the linguistic examination which is only taking shape at the interface between onomastics, linguistics and jurisprudence. The analysis of the trade marks’ data in the Federal Institute of Industrial Property shows that the names originality is achieved due to creative naming units based...

  8. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials.

  9. Contramine - Reciting names (Reciting the names of the victims of history)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runia, E

    2006-01-01

    Because it ostentatiously refrains from giving meaning and yet somehow is satisfactory, the recent commemorative strategy of reciting the names of the victims of history does not square well with the (meaning-oriented, representationalist) paradigm of modern historiography. In this essay my thesis

  10. Re-naming D Double Prime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    "Knowledge about the dynamics of the D double prime region is a key to unlock some fundamental mysteries of the Earth heat engine which governs a wide range of global geophysical processes from tectonics to geodynamo." This benign sentence makes complete sense to many geophysicists. But for many others, it makes sense all except the odd nomenclature "D double prime". One knows about the crust, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core, but where is the D double prime region? What meaning does it try to convey? Where is D prime region, or D, or A, B, C regions for that matter, and are there higher-order primes? How does such an odd name come about anyway? D double prime, or more "simply" D", is a generic designation given to the thin shell, about 200 km thick, of the lowermost mantle just above the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth. Incidentally, whether D" is "simpler" than "D double prime" depends on whether you are pronouncing it or writing/typing it; and D" can be confusing to readers in distinguishing quotation marks (such as in the above sentences) and second derivatives, and to word processors in spelling check and indexing.

  11. Paediatrics: the etymology of a name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2011-08-01

    Within the history of paediatrics is the history of the name used to describe it. The etymology of the word 'paediatrics' dates from its first written use, recorded as 'pädiatrik' in the German literature and as 'paediatric', later 'pediatric' in the USA, both first in 1850. Professor Robley Dunglison (1788-1869), the British and American medical lexicographer, first defined 'paediatria' as 'the treatment of the diseases of children' in 1855. 'Pediatric medicine' was promoted as a specialty in the USA in 1880. The oldest monumental inscription defining the specialty of 'paediatrics' in the UK is to be found on a plaque added (in 1950) to the memorial to Dr George Armstrong (1719-1789), a founder of the specialty of paediatrics, in Castleton Cemetery, Scottish Borders, Roxburghshire. 'Paediatrics' and 'child health', with subtle semantic distinctions, had become well established in the English-speaking world by the middle of the 20th century. This paper presents an interpretative chronology of the etymology of the descriptors of the specialty that enjoins all who care for children.

  12. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  13. Sarcocystinae: nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, J K; Heydorn, A O; Mehlhorn, H; Rommel, M

    1979-02-28

    Examination of the original descriptions of the species of Sarcocystis in cattle, sheep, and swine, and of isosporid oocysts shed sporulated by dogs, cats, man, and other carnivores, has shown that it is not possible in most instances to identify unambiguously recently recognized taxa. The original descriptions are insufficient, and because no type specimens exist, could apply to two or more of the presently recognized taxa. We consider the following nomina dubia: Sarcocystis hirsuta S. miescheriana S. tenella S. cruzi S. bertrami Isospora bigemina (S. bigemina) I. hominis (S. hominis) I. buteonis (Frenkelia buteonis) Because the former type species, Sarcocystis miescheriana, is an indeterminate nomen dubium, we are proposing S. muris as the new type species. Historically, it was the first species described clearly and unambiguously even in the light of present knowledge, and the stages of its life cycle are probably completely known; it was the second species to be named. Old and recent descriptions are reviewed, and definitions are proposed for the following taxa: S. bovifelis S. bovicanis S. bovihominis S. ovifelis S. ovicanis S. muris (type species) S. suihominis S. suicanis S. equicanis Frenkelia microti F. glareoli for which neotypes will be prepared and deposited with designated institutions and curators. A new subfamily, Cystoisosporinae, is created.

  14. Semantic and associative priming in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F X; Segui, J; Ferrand, L

    2000-08-01

    We report four picture-naming experiments in which the pictures were preceded by visually presented word primes. The primes could either be semantically related to the picture (e.g., "boat"--TRAIN: co-ordinate pairs) or associatively related (e.g., "nest"--BIRD: associated pairs). Performance under these conditions was always compared to performance under unrelated conditions (e.g., "flower"--CAT). In order to distinguish clearly the first two kinds of prime, we chose our materials so that (a) the words in the co-ordinate pairs were not verbally associated, and (b) the associate pairs were not co-ordinates. Results show that the two related conditions behaved in different ways depending on the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) separating word and picture appearance, but not on how long the primes were presented. When presented with a brief SOA (114 ms, Experiment 1), the co-ordinate primes produced an interference effect, but the associated primes did not differ significantly from the unrelated primes. Conversely, with a longer SOA (234 ms, Experiment 2) the co-ordinate primes produced no effect, whereas a significant facilitation effect was observed for associated primes, independent of the duration of presentation of the primes. This difference is interpreted in the context of current models of speech production as an argument for the existence, at an automatic processing level, of two distinguishable kinds of meaning relatedness.

  15. Reactive arthritis--the appropriate name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynan, Yoav; Rimar, Doron

    2008-04-01

    Reiter's syndrome is an eponym used to denote the triad of arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. This syndrome is named after Hans Conrad Julius Reiter, who was involved in the activities of the Nazi Racial Hygiene Program related to involuntary sterilization, euthanasia and criminal research projects. Reiter defamed the entire medical profession and it was therefore suggested that the term Reiter's syndrome be changed to reactive arthritis. We undertook to investigate the use of the eponym Reiter syndrome in medical literature, medical schools in Israel and medical textbooks, compared to the term reactive arthritis, by searching Medline between the years 2003 and 2007, 14 current medical textbooks, curricula of the four medical schools in Israel, and computerized patient file systems in Israel. We found a decline in the use of the eponym in articles published between 2003 (18%) and 2007 (9%); however, most textbooks (13/14) still use it. Two of the four medical schools in Israel continue to use the eponym. The eponym appears in the computerized patient files of all four healthcare providers in Israel. We hold that the continued use of the eponym Reiter syndrome in medical textbooks, medical schools and computerized patients files in Israel is honoring an abomination and is inconsistent with medical principles. Awareness is still lacking and we suggest deleting the Reiter syndrome eponym from use, and replacing it with the more appropriate term--reactive arthritis.

  16. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  17. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  18. Visual perception skills testing: preliminary results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Adrew C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Smith_d4_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7318 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Smith_d4_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Visual Perception Skills Testing...: Preliminary Results Andrew Cyrus Smith CSIR Meraka Institute PO Box 395 Pretoria, 0001, South Africa +27 12 841 4626 acsmith @ csir.co.za ABSTRACT Good visual perception skills are important in the effective manipulation of Tangible User...

  19. Temporal Features of the Differentiation between Self-Name and Religious Leader Name among Christians: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing neuroimaging studies have shown that religion, as a subjective culture, can influence self-referential processing. However, the time course of this impact remains unclear. The present study examined how Christians process their own names, the name of their religious leader (i.e., Jesus, and a famous person’s name (i.e., Yao Ming. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed a name-color judgment task for these three names. The behavioral data showed no significant differences in reaction time or accuracy among the names. However, the ERP data showed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes elicited by the self-name and religious leader name were larger than those elicited by the famous name. Furthermore, the self-name also elicited a larger P300 amplitude than the religious leader name did. These results suggested that both the self-name and the religious leader name were processed preferentially due to their important social value for the self as compared to a generally famous name. Importantly, the dissociation between the self-name and the religious leader name was observed at a high-order cognitive stage, which might be attributed to their different roles in one’s self-concept.

  20. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  1. Psychosocial Skills Intervention for Substance Use amongst Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    psychoactive drug use among street children in a rapid assessment done in Lusaka (45%).4 It ... the law enforcement agencies on account of the information given to us. The clusters of street children in three wards ..... a prevention program, which taught drug refusal skills, anti-drug norms, personal self- management skills ...

  2. Developing Professional Skills in Undergraduate Engineering Students through Cocurricular Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dara R.; Bagiati, Aikaterini; Sarma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    As nations have sought to keep pace with rapid technological innovation, governments have renewed their focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, with emphasis on developing both technical and non-technical skills in STEM students. This article examines which engineering-relevant skills may be developed by…

  3. A comparison of clinical communication skills between two groups of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Training in communication skills is prominent in many undergraduate medical programmes. In South Africa, training in this highly complex skill is developing rapidly, especially against the backdrop of a multilingual and multicultural society. Little work has been done locally to evaluate which training works best ...

  4. Developing Soft Skills in Millennial Students: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough-Billups, Mary Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed the deficiency in soft skills of millennial workers in the United States. The weakness or absence of soft skills of millennial workers is problematic because Millennials are rapidly increasing in the workplace as large numbers of baby boomers are retiring. The purpose of this study was to obtain the expert opinions of a sample…

  5. The reasons for the rapid development of human technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    While playing with a two-year-old girl in Australia, Alan Macfarlane explains one reason for the rapid development of humans, namely their curiosity and desire to experiment and to imagine and make new things.

  6. A Quick Win: Teaching Basic Skills in Context for Better Outcomes an Examination of Success Factors, with a Special Focus on the Potential for the Rapid Building of Self-Efficacy in Emerging Initiatives for "At Risk" Students at California Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Deborah Duggin

    2011-01-01

    A small but growing body of evidence in reports, journal articles and conference papers indicates that if basic skills are embedded within specific career training programs, under-prepared students can acquire life enhancing basic skills at a higher rate than when those skills are taught in the traditional, unconnected way (Baker et al., 2009; Kuh…

  7. Ubiquitous place names Standardization and study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F. Lauder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Place names play a vital role in human society. Names exist in all languages and place names are an indispensible part of international communication. This has been acknowledged by the establishment of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN. One of UNGEGN’s tasks is to coordinate international efforts on the proper use of place names. Indonesia supports this effort and through its National Geospatial Agency (BIG. Place names are also of interest as an object of study in themselves. Academic studies into place names are found in linguistics, onomastics, philosophy and a number of other academic disciplines. This article looks at these two dimensions of place names, standardization efforts under the auspices of international and national bodies, and academic studies of names, with particular reference to the situation in Indonesia.

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Skills Resources Educational Resources Educational Resources E-Learning Evidence-Based Decisions in Surgery Medical Student Resources ... supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed for optimal postoperative ...

  10. What Is Skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attewell, Paul

    1990-01-01

    This theoretical analysis of sociological conceptions of skill contrasts four approaches: positivist, ethnomethodological, Weberian, and Marxist. It is argued that impasses in industrial sociology stem from the fact that these approaches use very different notions of skill. (58 references) (SK)

  11. PENGEMBANGAN SOFT SKILL GURU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenuri Jaenuri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft skill is a skill of person that build relationships with others and self-organizing skills. Teachers as a determinant of the potential development of students is not enough can only teach (transfer of knowledge. Moreover, the teacher as a model for the student must have a good personality and social. So teachers are required to develop continuously the ability of personality (intra personal skills and social skills (inter personal skills. The development of intra personal skills includes: developing the power of consciousness, goals, beliefs, love, concentration, and decisions. The development of interpersonal skills includes: many smiles, appreciative, active listener, active cooperate, mediator, communication ability, humor, empathy, and not easy to complain.

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... System (PQRS) Value-Based Payment Modifier Accountable Care Organizations Regulatory Burden Reduction Stark Law and Anti-Kickback ... Order Today Ostomy Home Skills Kit (login or create account first) Skills Kits Broadcast Rights for Hospitals ...

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals Trauma ... Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for ...

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... login or create account first) Skills Kits Broadcast Rights for Hospitals Ostomy Home Skills Hospital Quality Improvement ... American College of Surgeons, Chicago, IL 60611-3211 | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find a Treatment Center Patient Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery ... Trauma CME Nora Institute Nora Institute for Surgical Patient Safety Nora Institute for Surgical Patient Safety Advanced Skills ...

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills ...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Participate in Improvement Activities How to Participate in Cost Steps for Avoiding a Penalty Quality Payment Program ... Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed for ...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

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    Full Text Available ... at ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...

  19. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Subscribe ACS Case Reviews Login CME Test Login Author Instructions Sample Article Chapter Competition Contact Resources in ... login or create account first) Skills Kits Broadcast Rights for Hospitals Ostomy Home Skills Hospital Quality Improvement ...

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Specific Registry Surgeon Specific Registry News and Updates Account Setup Resources and FAQs Features of the SSR ... Today Ostomy Home Skills Kit (login or create account first) Skills Kits Broadcast Rights for Hospitals Ostomy ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ... create account first) Skills Kits Broadcast Rights for Hospitals Ostomy Home Skills Hospital Quality Improvement Package The ...

  2. The Longitudinal Contribution of Early Morphological Awareness Skills to Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Manolitsis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of three morphological awareness (MA skills (inflection, derivation, and compounding in word reading fluency and reading comprehension in a relatively transparent orthography (Greek. Two hundred and fifteen (104 girls; Mage = 67.40 months, at kindergarten Greek children were followed from kindergarten (K to grade 2 (G2. In K and grade 1 (G1, they were tested on measures of MA (two inflectional, two derivational, and three compounding, letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN, and general cognitive ability (vocabulary and non-verbal IQ. At the end of G1 and G2, they were also tested on word reading fluency and reading comprehension. The results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that the inflectional and derivational aspects of MA in K as well as all aspects of MA in G1 accounted for 2–5% of unique variance in reading comprehension. None of the MA skills predicted word reading fluency, after controlling for the effects of vocabulary and RAN. These findings suggest that the MA skills, even when assessed as early as in kindergarten, play a significant role in reading comprehension development.

  3. Recall of briefly presented chess positions and its relation to chess skill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Gong

    Full Text Available Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players. The study not only tested chess players with increasing chess expertise, but also tested non-chess players who should not have previously acquired any chess related chunks in memory. For recall of game positions significant differences between players and non-players were found in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled. Size of the largest chunks also correlates with chess skill within the group of rated chess players. Further research will help us understand how these memory encodings can explain large differences in chess skill.

  4. The Longitudinal Contribution of Early Morphological Awareness Skills to Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolitsis, George; Grigorakis, Ioannis; Georgiou, George K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of three morphological awareness (MA) skills (inflection, derivation, and compounding) in word reading fluency and reading comprehension in a relatively transparent orthography (Greek). Two hundred and fifteen (104 girls; Mage = 67.40 months, at kindergarten) Greek children were followed from kindergarten (K) to grade 2 (G2). In K and grade 1 (G1), they were tested on measures of MA (two inflectional, two derivational, and three compounding), letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and general cognitive ability (vocabulary and non-verbal IQ). At the end of G1 and G2, they were also tested on word reading fluency and reading comprehension. The results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that the inflectional and derivational aspects of MA in K as well as all aspects of MA in G1 accounted for 2–5% of unique variance in reading comprehension. None of the MA skills predicted word reading fluency, after controlling for the effects of vocabulary and RAN. These findings suggest that the MA skills, even when assessed as early as in kindergarten, play a significant role in reading comprehension development. PMID:29081759

  5. Copying skills in relation to word reading and writing in Chinese children with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K H; Tong, Xiuhong

    2011-11-01

    Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given tasks of copying unfamiliar print in Vietnamese, Korean, and Hebrew as well as tests of word reading and writing, morphological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. All three copying tasks distinguished dyslexic children from nondyslexic children with moderate effect sizes (.67-.80). Zero-order correlations of the three copying tasks with dictation and reading ranged from .37 to .58. With age, Raven's, group status, RAN, morphological awareness, and orthographic measures statistically controlled, the copying tasks uniquely explained 6% and 3% variance in word reading and dictation, respectively. Results suggest that copying skill itself may be useful in understanding the development and impairment of literacy skills in Chinese. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics Maria Flatau Naval...quantitative skill metrics to assess the advancements in the Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC). This work will also implement automated...indicates the lack of skilled forecasts beyond 10 days. Lin et al. (2005, 2009) indicates that the skill of polar mode forecasts depends on MJO amplitude

  7. Picture naming in typically developing and language-impaired children: the role of sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Roelofs, Ardi; Scheper, Annette R; Meyer, Antje S

    2017-05-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems not only with language performance but also with sustained attention, which is the ability to maintain alertness over an extended period of time. Although there is consensus that this ability is impaired with respect to processing stimuli in the auditory perceptual modality, conflicting evidence exists concerning the visual modality. To address the outstanding issue whether the impairment in sustained attention is limited to the auditory domain, or if it is domain-general. Furthermore, to test whether children's sustained attention ability relates to their word-production skills. Groups of 7-9 year olds with SLI (N = 28) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 22) performed a picture-naming task and two sustained attention tasks, namely auditory and visual continuous performance tasks (CPTs). Children with SLI performed worse than TD children on picture naming and on both the auditory and visual CPTs. Moreover, performance on both the CPTs correlated with picture-naming latencies across developmental groups. These results provide evidence for a deficit in both auditory and visual sustained attention in children with SLI. Moreover, the study indicates there is a relationship between domain-general sustained attention and picture-naming performance in both TD and language-impaired children. Future studies should establish whether this relationship is causal. If attention influences language, training of sustained attention may improve language production in children from both developmental groups. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  8. Third Way Parenting and the Creation of the “Named Person” in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Waiton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article has been developed through the experience of working with the various organizations and individuals who have been part of the No to Named Person campaign. The aim of the article is to understand the emergence of the Named Person in Scotland and to explain the significant distance between legislators and policy makers and those who have opposed the Named Person initiative. We propose that the key to understanding these divergent views is predicated upon profoundly different views of the family, the collapse of the ideal of family autonomy, and its replacement with what can be described as “third way parenting.” Here, the meaning of the “Named Person” as laid out in the Children and Young People (Scotland Act 2014, and the opposing views that have been made against this act are explained. The “Named Person” provision in the legislation, it is argued, has developed with the rise of micro-managerial politics, the construction of the “at risk” child and the anxiety expressed about the early years of children, seen most clearly in the significance of early intervention policies. Within this context, parenting has become problematized and increasingly understood as a skills activity requiring training, support, and surveillance.

  9. A German colony in Jutland: the evidence of Christian names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    ’ descendants still use Christian names that are different from the national Danish pattern. But in 1880 many of the descendants bear a particularly Danish development of a Nordic name, a name from the saints’ calendar, or a name from the Bible. The increase in these names took place in the 1850s just after...... Denmark lost the war in 1848-50 against the German States, and Danish nationalism had arisen throughout the country. For this reason the descendants of the German immigrants had a need culturally or politically to show their Danish identity through the names about 20 years before the language...

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit ...

  12. Entry Skills for BSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Mary K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Continuing Education for Consensus on Entry Skills project, designed to bring the expectations of nursing service and nursing education closer on entry-level competencies of new baccalaureate graduates. Discusses teaching and collaboration skills, planning and evaluation of patient care skills, interpersonal relations/communication…

  13. School Leadership Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  14. Leader skills research

    OpenAIRE

    Davidová, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the basic characteristics of leading and approaches to leading people. The aim is to find out, which skills predestinate a person to become a leader. To detect, if there are any differences between leading people and university students in their leading skills and abilities. To stress the importance of developing these skills.

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stay Up to Date with ACS Association Management Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills ...

  16. Thinking (Higher Order) Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses thinking skills as they relate to library information skills, especially information inquiry, information literacy, and information use. Topics include ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) standards of student performance and bibliographic instruction; college level critical thinking skills; and authentic tasks for…

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn ... skills needed for optimal postoperative recovery. The kit supports the entire surgical ... on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, ...

  18. Name and sign: First name as a symbol of ethnic identity of Vojvodina Germans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krel Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the choice of and use of first names among Vojvodina Germans at the beginning of the 21st century. Anthroponomy, the practice of choosing and using first names among the members of the German minority in Vojvodina will be viewed in the context of their striving to draw the symbolic borders of their ethnic community as opposed to others in their surroundings. This tendency among Vojvodina Germans is especially evident in the final decade of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century, when due to the political and social changes members of this community chose to forego their ethnic mimicry, and abandon the strategy of conscious temporary and/or permanent rejection of germanhood, in favor of a strategy of free manifestation of the symbols of their ethnic identity. In this context, the choice and use of personal names, aside from the public use of the German language, makes one of the two key symbols of ethnic identity of Vojvodina Germans and the renewal of germanhood which was present in the field at the time the research this paper is based on was done. We view anthroponomy as a form of social practice which is strongly determined by numerous social and cultural factors and the results displayed in this article suggest that this practice is more influenced by macro factors such as social and cultural values than micro factors such as family heritage.

  19. Development of a rational nomenclature for naming peptide and protein toxins from sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira; King, Glenn F

    2012-09-15

    Sea anemone toxins are predominantly peptide and proteins that act mainly on sodium and potassium channels, as well as in a variety of target cells causing lysis. Over recent years, the number of sea anemone peptide toxins as well as cytolytic pore-forming proteins and phospholipase A(2) sequences submitted to databases has been rapidly increasing due to the developments in DNA sequencing technology and proteomic approaches. However, the lack of a systematic nomenclature has resulted in multiple names being assigned to the same toxins, toxins from unrelated species being designated by the same name, and ambiguous name designations. Therefore, in this work we propose a systematic nomenclature in which we adopted specific criteria, based on order of discovery and phylogenetic analysis, in order to avoid redundant sea anemone toxin names. Implementation of the nomenclature proposed here not only allowed us to rename the already published 191 anemone toxins without ambiguities, but it can be used to unambiguously name newly discovered toxins whether or not they are related to previously published sea anemone sequences. In the new nomenclature each toxin name contains information about the toxin's biological activity, origin and relationship to known isoforms. Ongoing increases in the speed of DNA sequencing will raise significantly the number of sea anemone toxin sequences in the literature. This will represent a constant challenge in their clear identification and logical classification, which could be solved using the proposed nomenclature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The application of health sciences library skills in other settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, M F

    1995-10-01

    Medical librarians have been urged to assume personal responsibility for seeking lifelong education and professional development opportunities, but it is not always clear which opportunities should be sought or which skills will be needed in the rapidly changing health sciences environment. To shed some light on these issues, the author interviewed former medical librarians from southern California and Arizona who are now employed in other settings, to determine the skills that aided their transition from the medical library arena to new jobs. In interviews, respondents highlighted the importance of presentation, training, management, reference, computer, and interpersonal skills. Although both technical and interpersonal skills aided successful transitions, strong interpersonal skills augmented technical abilities and may be essential to successful career change. In sum, medical librarians possess skills that transfer well to other settings. Individuals with clear career goals who are able to present themselves and their skills well can take advantage of career opportunities, in both new settings and in medical libraries.

  1. Nature in the System of Lithuanian Personal Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloyzas Gudavičius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some tendencies in development of Lithuanian personal names. With reference to the Data base of personal names of Lithuanian citizens (1898–2010, the register of names of newborn citizens of Šiauliai in 1999–2011, and various dictionaries, the author analyzes the place of names derived from words designating natural phenomena (“natural” names in the system of Lithuanian personal names. The period before the third decade of the 20th century was almost entirely dominated by traditional Christian names. After the reestablishment of Lithuanian independence (1918, old names of Lithuanian and Baltic origin came into use alongside with new Lithuanian names, including “natural” ones. During the last decades of the 20th century foreign names of Christian origin or their variants began to appear, resulting in decreasing of traditional Lithuanian names of Christian origin. However, this tendency, surely due to the globalization processes, had only an insignificant impact on the popularity of old (Baltic and new Lithuanian names. “Natural” names becoming slightly less popular, it is obvious that as of today the natural component still occupies an important place in the Lithuanian anthroponymic system.

  2. Hue-specific colour memory impairment in an individual with intact colour perception and colour naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Pearson, P M; Robertson, B

    2008-01-15

    Cases of hue-selective dyschomatopsias, together with the results of recent optical imaging studies [Xiao, Y., Casti, A. R. R., Xiao, J., & Kaplan, E. (2006). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque primary visual cortex. Perception, 35, ECVP Abstract Supplement; Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., & Felleman, D. J. (2003). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature, 421, 535-539], have provided support for the idea that different colours are processed in spatially distinct regions of extrastriate cortex. In the present report, we provide evidence suggesting that a similar, but distinct, map may exist for representations of colour in memory. This evidence comes from observations of a young woman (QP) who demonstrates an isolated deficit in colour memory secondary to a concussive episode. Despite having normal colour perception and colour naming skills, and above-average memory skills in other domains, QP's ability to recall visually encoded colour information over short retention intervals is dramatically impaired. Her long-term memory for colour and her colour imagery skills are also abnormal. Surprisingly, however, these impairments are not seen with all hues; specifically, her ability to remember or imagine blue shades is spared. This interesting case contributes to the literature suggesting that colour perception, naming, and memory can be clinically dissociated, and provides insights into the organization of colour information in memory.

  3. Memory for proper names in old age: a disproportionate impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Peter G; Castel, Alan D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2005-01-01

    A common complaint of older adults is that they have trouble remembering names, even the names of people they know well. Two experiments examining this problem are reported in the present article. Experiment I tested episodic memory for surnames and occupations; older adults and younger adults under divided attention performed less well than did full attention younger adults, but showed no disproportionate loss of name information. Experiment 2 examined the ability to name photographs of public figures and of uncommon objects; this experiment therefore tested retrieval from semantic memory. In this case adults in their 70s did show an impairment in recall of names of known people, but not of known objects. Further analyses revealed systematic relations between naming, recognition, and rated familiarity of the categories used. Familiarity largely determined the proportions of recognizable items that were named in a prior phase. Overall, little evidence was found for a disproportionate age-related impairment in naming in either episodic or semantic memory.

  4. Improving Named Entity Disambiguation by Iteratively Enhancing Certainty of Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This paper addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost

  5. Named Entity Extraction and Disambiguation from an Uncertainty Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This work addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost no

  6. A Semantic and Pragmatic Analyses of Igbo Names

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    child born on any of these days has the name of the market day as his/her natural or general name whether he/she ... Nwigwe (2001 Pg. 75) discloses that the names of the four market days in Igbo. (Afor, Nkwo̩, Eke ..... To stop by giving the kind of name to their new born babies and it hears because the 'ume'. Most often ...

  7. Study on brand names by use of lexical recognition tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Römer, Klaas Erik

    2016-01-01

    A primed lexical decision task was conducted to test different theories about the nature of brand names. Some linguists and philosophers state, that they are a subclass of proper names and that they are directly referential, whereas others state that proper names, just like common nouns, are referring indirectly through their semantic content. Based on these diverging theories, the two research hypotheses AH1: Priming effect size is different for brand names and common nouns' and AH2: React...

  8. Developmental links of very early phonological and language skills to second grade reading outcomes: strong to accuracy but only minor to fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined second grade reading accuracy and fluency and their associations via letter knowledge to phonological and language predictors assessed at 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 years in children in the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. Structural equation modeling showed that a developmentally highly stable factor (early phonological and language processing [EPLP]) behind key dyslexia predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, short-term memory, rapid naming, vocabulary, and pseudoword repetition) could already be identified at 3.5 years. EPLP was significantly associated with reading and spelling accuracy and by age with letter knowledge. However, EPLP had only a minor link with reading fluency, which was additionally explained by early letter knowledge. The results show that reading accuracy is well predicted by early phonological and language skills. Variation in fluent reading skills is not well explained by early skills, suggesting factors other than phonological core skills. Future research is suggested to explore the factors behind the development of fast and accurate decoding skills.

  9. Indigenous wildlife reflected in the road names at Esikhaleni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By means of a survey of schools, associated with the king by their names and studying isiZulu, Tourism and Geography, the study examined the township's road names, which refer to indigenous animals, birds and vegetation and reflect the natural diversity that once characterized this area. More than 50 roads have names ...

  10. Acts of naming: The detective plot in Masondo's fiction | Mhlambi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Masondo's acts of naming as a literary device are peculiar and unconventional. Similar names for characters migrate across all his detective narratives, representing varying personalities, psychologies and emotional states. He achieves this by using familiar names, not to create stereotypes and archetypes, but to ...

  11. Morphophonological Analysis of Akan Female Family-Name ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the morphophonological processes in the derivation of some female family-names in Akan, a Niger-Congo (Kwa) language through the addition of a male source name and the female morpheme /-baa/. About three main kinds of family-names can be identified in Akan: (i) those usually given to females ...

  12. Taxonomic Significance of Some Vernacular names of Okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the folk criteria used by farmers to name their local okra varieties and also to assess the taxonomic significance of vernacular names in the identification and classification of these okra varieties in Ghana. Forty two okra accessions and their vernacu-lar names were obtained from PGRRI, ...

  13. Identity of Hitherto doubtful specific names in European Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Johansson, R.

    1987-01-01

    The identity of hitherto doubtful specific names in Nepticulidae has been established on the basis of type material where possible, or after a critical reexamination of the original descriptions. In addition a few previously synonymized names have been reevaluated. The identity of 17 names could be

  14. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with

  15. Who named it in anaesthesia? | Abraham | Southern African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For about one month the new born branch of medicine was without a name. The word anaesthesia as we know of now as a science and art was suggested by Oliver Holmes Wendell in November 1846. New discoveries and inventions followed. Most of them needed new names or terminologies. Some of them were named ...

  16. Beyond categories, proper names, types and norms toward a fragile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... disastrous method of capitalising cultural-political names, moving beyond such capitalisation of 'proper' names toward ...... referents, then theopoetics will have to refer to strategies of human signification in the .... will ever grasp (Begreifen) the Other in the same of proper names and thus it is playful dance in.

  17. How Does Using Object Names Influence Visual Recognition Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Two recent lines of research suggest that explicitly naming objects at study influences subsequent memory for those objects at test. Lupyan (2008) suggested that naming "impairs" memory by a representational shift of stored representations of named objects toward the prototype (labeling effect). MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko (2010)…

  18. Sociolinguistic import of name-clipping among Omambala cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the perceived but obvious manifestation of name-clipping among Omambala cultural zone of Anambra State. This situation has given rise to distortion of names and most often, to either mis-interpretation or complete loss of the original and full meanings of the names. This situation of misinterpretation is ...

  19. 21 CFR 299.4 - Established names for drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... USAN adopted name listed in USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names. The Food and Drug Administration... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Established names for drugs. 299.4 Section 299.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS...

  20. A Semantic and Pragmatic Analyses of Igbo Names | Onumajuru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated the semantic and pragmatic contents of personal names and naming in the Igbo language and culture. The objective of the paper was to examine the structure of Igbo names and analyse their semantic and pragmatic contents. The data were sourced from Igbo language speakers in the South Eastern ...

  1. A new name and a new synonym in Miconia (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Goldenberg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The name Miconia densiflora Cogniaux is a later homonym of M. densiflora (Gardner Naudin, but since we propose it as a taxonomic synoym of M. caudata (Bonpl. DC., we do not provide a new name. The name Miconia longicuspis Herzog is a later homonym of M. longicuspis Cogn. and we here propose its replacement by M. longicuspidata Renner & R.Goldenb.

  2. The CDM Applied: Handling of Names, Taxa and Concepts in a Conservation Context

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsohn, Walter; Müller, Andreas; Kohlbecker,Andreas; Güntsch, Anton; Luther, Katja; Plitzner,Patrick

    2017-01-01

    One of the major design features of the Common Data Model (CDM) is the ability to store and handle taxonomic concepts (a.k.a. "potential taxa" -Berendsohn 1995 , "taxonyme" - Koperski et al. 2000, "Assertions" - Pyle 2004, "taxonomic entities" -Kennedy et al. 2005 "taxon circumscriptions", etc.). A major driver of the critical appreciation of the concept problem in databases has been the conservation community. Progress in taxonomy may rapidly erode the validity of taxon-name based speci...

  3. Developing Communication Skills of EFL Teacher Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Dilek Akpınar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education Council of Turkey has added a one term course named as “Effective Communication Skills” to the curriculum since 2006 in Foreign Language Education Departments because of the crucial importance of communication in the information society. In order to test the effectiveness of this course, a research project was developed by looking at the pre-and post course interviews conducted with first year teacher trainees about communication skills compared with the fourth year students’ ideas who did not take the course. This paper describes both the significance of effective communication skills and the benefits of the course for developing teacher trainees’ effective communication skills. The implementations and suggestions for teacher education has also been discussed.

  4. To name or not to name: Criteria to promote economy of change in Linnaean classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Guayasamin, Juan M; Miralles, Aurélien; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The Linnaean classification system provides the universal reference system for communicating about the diversity of life and its hierarchic history. Several limitations that challenge the stability of this system have been identified and, as a result, alternative systems have been proposed since its early inception. The revolution caused by molecular phylogenetics has, more than ever, exemplified that Linnaean classification schemes are subject to a degree of instability that may hamper their significance and communication power. Our analysis of recent changes in the classification of several groups of organisms, with a focus on amphibians and reptiles, reveals two main sources of instability: (i) revisionary, objective (empirical) changes based on the discovery of unambiguous instances of non-monophyly and on progress in the Globe’s species inventory, and (ii) subjective changes based on author preferences or on a poor analysis of the advantages and limitations of new classification schemes. To avoid subjective taxonomic instability, we review and elaborate proposals for the assignment of Linnaean rank to clades, and thereby for the naming of these clades as Linnaean taxa (Taxon Naming Criteria: TNCs). These are drafted from the perspective of practicing taxonomists and can help choosing among alternative monophyly-based classifications under a premise of economy of change. We provide a rationale for each TNC along with real and theoretical examples to illustrate their practical advantages and disadvantages. We conclude that not all TNCs lead to equally informative and stable taxonomies. Therefore, we order the various TNCs by the generality of their implications and provide a workflow scheme to guide the procedure of taxonomic decisions concerning the creation or modification of supraspecific classifications. The following criteria are considered primary when naming taxa: (i) Mono phyly of the taxon in an inferred species tree; (ii) Clade Stability, i.e., the

  5. Soft skills and dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N.H.; Naimie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discus...

  6. Elments constintute teachers’ teaching skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hoa, H.; Lам, P.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers’ pedagogical activities are constituted by many skills such as teaching skills, education skills, and skills of performing varied pedagogical ac- tivities. Each skill is formed from a variety of specifi c skills. Approaching teachers’ teaching skills based on pedagogical operation base can help us establish methods and develop skills for teachers. By doing so, we can assist teachers to enhance their teaching competence contributing to teaching quality improvement in schools

  7. Naming speed as a predictive diagnostic measure in reading and attentional problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma; Alvarez-García, David; Rodríguez, Celestino

    2017-10-20

    This study aimed to describe and compare naming speed abilities in children diagnosed with either Reading Learning Difficulties (RLD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or comorbidity for both (ADHD+RLD). To examine the explanatory power of naming speed and ADHD symptomatology in predicting group associations (while controlling for gender and age), the "Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests" (RAN/RAS) were utilized. A sample of 101 children (age range = 5-16 years) was divided into four groups: RLD (n = 14), ADHD (n = 28), comorbid (n = 19), and control (n = 40). There were statistically significant differences in RAN/RAS results among the diagnostic groups. Moreover, discriminant analysis revealed that naming speed tasks significantly predicted reading and attentional problems, especially at earlier ages. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of RAN/RAS in the diagnosis of reading and attentional problems, particularly if the children are aged from 5 to 9.

  8. Distributed Name Servers: Naming and Caching in Large Distributed Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    34 »’■ IP O- o o Contract No. N00039-84-C-0089 Arpa Order No. 4871 ’UNK is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories Tb is c’vvr ici p.-bli- Ü1 ,iilDw Vi...entities should govern the placement and protection of their objects; autonomous organizations cooperatively participating in the distributed commu...that prevent them from unregistering themselves with the name service; if registered jV as temporary, the information associated with these programs i

  9. Cognitive Skill in Medicine: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Fokie; Lanzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognition encompasses all processes from perception to action including attention and memory, reasoning, and decision making. Therefore, all skills (perceptual skills, motor skills, diagnosing skill, medical skills) are cognitive skills. Cognitive skills are supported by two types of knowledge:

  10. Generic Skills from Qur'anic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Generic skills are defined as a set of skills that are directly related and needed for the working environment. Employers prefer to recruit officials who are competent in interpersonal communication, leadership skill, team work, oral and written skills. They are reluctant to employ graduates lacking certain necessary skills. This reveals the fact that there is a serious gap between the skills that are required by the employers and the skills that the graduates possess. Therefore, this research is focused on five aspects of generic skills namely; communication, team work, problem solving, lifelong learning and self-esteem. From Qur’anic perspective, the same terms have been used except minor differences in using various terms. The thematic approach is used when discussing these aspects from the Qur’an. The findings showed that the ways of effective communication are represented by terms of qawl sadid, qawl ma`ruf, qawl baligh, qawl maysur, qawl karim and qawl layyin. For collective work, ta`aruf and tafahum, as the pre-requisites, should be practiced via ta`awun and takaful. For problem solving, four methods are adapted from the Qur’an such as reflection of the past, observation, demonstration and asking questions. For lifelong learning, the establishment of learning institutions and the self-motivation of learners are two pre-requisites that should be undertaken for its accomplishment. They could be practiced through open learning system, consultation and hands-on learning. Last but not least, for personality development could be built up through physical training, spiritual training and mental training.

  11. Extended Approximate String Matching Algorithms To Detect Name Aliases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Muniba; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    that measure the similarities between two strings (i.e., the name and alias). ASM algorithms work well to detect various type of orthographic variations but still there is a need to develop techniques to detect correct aliases of Arabic names that occur due to the translation of Arabic names into English......This paper focuses on the problem of alias detection based on orthographic variations of Arabic names. Alias detection is the process to identify different variants of the same name. To detect aliases based on orthographic variations, the approximate string matching (ASM) algorithms are widely used...

  12. Name Stanislaus (Stanisław in Slavic Onomastic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Sowa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available St. Stanislaus, bishop and martyr, is one of the few saints of the Church bearing a traditional Slavic name. It belongs to an Indo-European Anthroponomastic system as a compound name whose components represent a pattern inherited from the period of the Indo-European community. This is a fortune-telling name (a nomen-omen given to a child on a wish of the parents, who wanted him to be famous (Polish ‘slawa’ means ‘fame’- Today, in our Christian culture, in choosing a name for the child we consider the following: 1 the child ‘brought’ his/her name (i.e. is given the name of the day’s patron; this is the gist of our ‘nameday’, 2 a family tradition, 3 respect for the grandfather or father (grandmother, mother, 4 fashion. Today’s anthroponomastic system in Slavic languages (except Bulgarian has grown cold leaving us unable to acquire precise understanding of the meaning of the name. Besides, nowadays names only denote, they do not mean anything. Compound Slavic names refer in their structure to names from other groups of the Indo-European community and are closely linked with a nation’s spiritual culture and appropriate ultimate and instrumental values. In Indo-European languages a different number of lexical components is used in names as their first or second part: in Old Indian - 865; in Old Persian and Median - 43; in Greek - 1015; in the Celtic group - 336; the German one - 1800 and in the Slavic group - 220. The most numerous in Old Polish anthroponomastics were names with the component slaw. As the first component - slaw appears in 4 names, and as the second, in 100. This component has appeared from times immemorial in Indian, Avestan, Greek and Illyrian names. Name Stanislaus is known in all Slavic countries, while its feminine form only in Polish, Bulgarian, Serb and Croatian. In Poland it has been in use since very old times up to now. Numerous surnames and names of places derive from it. The popularity of the name

  13. Skills and Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasios Orinos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study aimed to investigate the requirements of the business sector in light of the skills and competencies students should have in order to be recruited. In this fashion, the study intended to measure the importance of the skills and competencies sought by the business world, revealing ways through which students can develop such skills. This project portrayed that, some of the required classes will certainly give students a strong theoretical background but they will neither completely prepare this student with all possible skills or competencies nor provide the student with any practical experience that will enable him/her to be more competitive when entering the business market. In some classes, however, like Public Speaking, which is designed to teach presentation skills, successful students are able to build good communication and interpersonal skills. Additionally, an English writing class will certainly attempt to provide them with strong writing skills, and a business class will possibly demand reading skills. Moreover, a calculus and a statistics class will provide basic arithmetic/mathematical skills. However, through this project it is proven that all of these classes will neglect the indoctrination of creative thinking in students, or make students believe in their own self-worth (self-esteem skills; the courses will also fail to develop the sense of urgency, drive and determination that students should possess not just to compete but also to survive in a business world.

  14. Norms for name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability for 348 object names in Tunisian Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadi, Mariem; Zouaidi, Cirine; Wilson, Maximiliano A

    2016-06-01

    Normative databases for pictorial stimuli are widely used in research on language processing in order to control for a number of psycholinguistic variables in the selected stimuli. Such resources are lacking for Arabic and its dialectal varieties. In the present study, we aimed to provide Tunisian Arabic (TA) normative data for 348 line drawings taken from Cycowicz, Friedman, Rothstein, and Snodgrass (1997), which include Snodgrass and Vanderwart's (1980) 260 pictures. Norms were collected for the following psycholinguistic variables: name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability. Word length data (in numbers of phonemes and syllables) are also listed in the database. We investigated the effects of these variables on word reading in TA. We found that word length and frequency were the best predictors of word-reading latencies in TA. Name agreement was also a significant predictor of word-reading latencies. A particularly interesting finding was that the semantic variables, imageability and familiarity, affected word-reading latencies in TA. Thus, it would seem that TA readers rely on semantics even when reading individual Arabic words that are transparent in terms of orthography-to-phonology mappings. This database represents a precious and much-needed psycholinguistic resource for researchers investigating language processing in Arabic-speaking populations.

  15. Corrigendum to "Why does picture naming take longer than word naming? The contribution of articulatory processes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riès, Stéphanie; Legou, Thierry; Burle, Borís; Alario, F-Xavier; Malfait, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    In a previous article, (Riès, Legou, Burle, Alario, & Malfait, 2012), we reported that articulatory processes contribute to the well-established finding that response latencies are longer for picture naming than for word reading. We based this conclusion on the observation that picture naming, as compared with word reading, lengthened not only the interval between stimulus onset and the initiation of lip muscle activation (premotor time), but also the interval between lip muscle activation and vocal response onset (motor time). However, on the basis of our subsequent work in this area, we believe that our original definition of premotor time (and, consequently, of motor time) was suboptimal. On a sizable number of trials, this led to the detection of lip muscle activation (as inferred from surface EMG) that was apparently unrelated to the articulation of the vocal response. Therefore, we believe it is preferable to operationalize premotor time as the interval between stimulus onset and the muscle activation that occurred closest in time to vocal response onset. After reestimating premotor times according to this new definition, we no longer found an effect of our task contrast on the motor time interval. The present article explains the caveats regarding our previous analysis.

  16. Development of a confrontation naming test for Spanish-speakers: the Cordoba Naming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alberto Luis

    2013-01-01

    To date, a psychometrically sound standardized Spanish-language test of confrontation naming has not been developed for clinical use. Because of the shortcomings of adapting tests developed in other cultures, it was decided to develop a confrontation naming test suitable for Spanish-speakers. For the validity study the performance on the test of 26 control subjects between 70 and 87 years old and 23 subjects with a mild to moderate degree of dementia of the Alzheimer type was compared. Stability of the test was assessed with a test-retest design (n = 80). Norms were developed using a regression-based method. Four hundred and fifty-six Spanish-speaking subjects of both sexes were recruited for the normative sample. Subjects were between 14 and 94 years old, and three educational levels were represented. Mean differences between the control and dementia groups were significant, yielding a large effect size (η(2) = .25). The test-retest correlation coefficient was r = .90. Education, age, and gender significantly influenced test scores. The validity study confirmed that the test discriminates between individuals with and without anomia. The magnitude of the reliability coefficient of this test can be considered as "very high". Norms were developed considering the influence of three demographic variables: gender, age, and education.

  17. Robust hybrid name disambiguation framework for large databases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2013-10-26

    In many databases, science bibliography database for example, name attribute is the most commonly chosen identifier to identify entities. However, names are often ambiguous and not always unique which cause problems in many fields. Name disambiguation is a non-trivial task in data management that aims to properly distinguish different entities which share the same name, particularly for large databases like digital libraries, as only limited information can be used to identify authors\\' name. In digital libraries, ambiguous author names occur due to the existence of multiple authors with the same name or different name variations for the same person. Also known as name disambiguation, most of the previous works to solve this issue often employ hierarchical clustering approaches based on information inside the citation records, e.g. co-authors and publication titles. In this paper, we focus on proposing a robust hybrid name disambiguation framework that is not only applicable for digital libraries but also can be easily extended to other application based on different data sources. We propose a web pages genre identification component to identify the genre of a web page, e.g. whether the page is a personal homepage. In addition, we propose a re-clustering model based on multidimensional scaling that can further improve the performance of name disambiguation. We evaluated our approach on known corpora, and the favorable experiment results indicated that our proposed framework is feasible. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  18. Improving the Quality of Published Chemical Names with Nomenclature Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot A. Eller

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of organic systematic nomenclature in scientific literature, its quality, and computerized methods for its improvement. Criteria for classification of systematic names in terms of quality/correctness are discussed and applied to a sample set of several hundred names extracted from the literature. The same structures are named with three popular state-of-the-art nomenclature programs – AutoNom 2000, ChemDraw 10.0, and ACD/Name 9.0. When comparing the results, all nomenclature tools show a significantly better performance than 'average chemists'. One program allows the generation not only of IUPAC names but also of CAS-like index names that are compared with the officially registered names. The scope and limitations of nomenclature software are discussed and a comparison of the programs' actual capabilities is given.

  19. The Study of Graininess for Tibetan Named Entity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fei-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan named entity recognition (NER, which is a fundamental part in Tibetan natural language processing, is the important subtask of Information extraction. In this paper, we surveyed the methods, effect and problems of Tibetan NER. And we discussed which kind of tokens that should be taken as the graininess for Tibetan NER task. The paper used two kinds of different graininess in a comparative experiment for Tibetan person names, location names and organization names, based on syllables, or based on words. From the result, we know that the person names based on syllable have better result than that based on words. Location names have small difference while species differ. But the organization names are more suitable based on words.

  20. Facilitating Intellectual and Personal Skills Development in Engineering Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    Engineering graduates are under increasing pressure to demonstrate high levels of personal skills. The accreditation criteria of professional bodies such as the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in the US, Engineers Ireland and Engineers Australia, to name but a few, now include the development of a broad range of personal skills (ABET, 2008; Engineers Australia, 2011; Engineers Ireland, 2007). Evidence of a ‘strong contribution’, a term used by Engineers Ireland, to t...

  1. Correlates of early reading comprehension skills: A componential analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Babayigit, S.; Stainthorp, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listeningcomprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory(VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences\\ud in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills, namely vocabulary, grammar and VSTM explained the relationship between kindergarten listening comprehension and early reading comprehension levels. Thi...

  2. Improving Students' Writing Skills Through Writing Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Iftanti, Erna

    2016-01-01

    In Indonesian context, writing is considered as painful activity indicating that oral culture is much better than writing one. The students’ works are sufficiently kept in the libraries, although to publish those is much more worthy. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the students’ writing skills through a meaningful way namely writing journal article. This review article is therefore intended to discuss ways of improving students’ writing skills through writing journal article. The result...

  3. Effects of navigated TMS on object and action naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Hernandez-Pavon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to induce speech disturbances and to affect speech performance during different naming tasks. Lately, repetitive navigated TMS (nTMS has been used for non-invasive mapping of cortical speech-related areas. Different naming tasks may give different information that can be useful for presurgical evaluation. We studied the sensitivity of object and action naming tasks to nTMS and compared the distributions of cortical sites where nTMS produced naming errors. Eight healthy subjects named pictures of objects and actions during repetitive nTMS delivered to semi-random left-hemispheric sites. Subject-validated image stacks were obtained in the baseline naming of all pictures before nTMS. Thereafter, nTMS pulse trains were delivered while the subjects were naming the images of objects or actions. The sessions were video-recorded for offline analysis. Naming during nTMS was compared with the baseline performance. The nTMS-induced naming errors were categorized by error type and location. nTMS produced no-response errors, phonological paraphasias, and semantic paraphasias. In seven out of eight subjects, nTMS produced more errors during object than action naming. Both intrasubject and intersubject analysis showed that object naming was significantly more sensitive to nTMS. When the number of errors was compared according to a given area, nTMS to postcentral gyrus induced more errors during object than action naming. Object naming is apparently more easily disrupted by TMS than action naming. Different stimulus types can be useful for locating different aspects of speech functions. This provides new possibilities in both basic and clinical research of cortical speech representations.

  4. Linguistic and cognitive skills in readers and nonreaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, Renata; Correa, Jane

    2009-01-01

    investigation of linguistic and cognitive skills in readers and nonreaders. to evaluate the performance of readers and nonreaders in tasks related to several linguistic and cognitive skills and to determine the implication of the results to the clinical practice and to eduaction. participants of the study were 35 children in the process of alphabetization. The children were given tasks designed to assess their cognitive and linguistic abilities. The group of nonreaders was composed by 20 children who did not read any of the words presented on a list of 24 items. The group of readers included 15 children who read nearly every word presented on the same list. the group of readers presented a better performance on the following tasks: language development assessment; alphanumeric rapid automatized naming and working memory. There was a great variability in the performance of readers and nonreaders in the phonological awareness tasks. For the group of readers, syllabic judgment and segmentation tasks were considered easy or very easy; syllabic transposition and phonemic subtraction presented medium difficulty and phoneme identification was considered a difficult task. For the group of nonreaders, syllabic segmentation was considered an easy task; syllabic judgment presented medium difficulty, and syllabic transposition, phonemic subtraction and phoneme identification were considered very difficult. the experience with reading influences the performance of children in linguistic and cognitive tasks. The performance of readers and nonreaders in the phonological awareness assessments indicates the importance of taking into account not only the required level of linguistic segmentation but also the cognitive level required by the nature of the task.

  5. Cognitive compensations for blindness in children: an investigation using odour naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan J

    2004-01-01

    Historically, blindness has been associated with compensation for the loss of vision by the other senses. However, research to date has focused on perceptual compensations, largely ignoring possible cognitive compensations. We explored the notion that cognitive skills of blind children may facilitate performance in apparently perceptual tasks, by investigating the cognitive factors related to naming a familiar odour. Eighty-three children participated in olfactory and cognitive tasks (thirty-two early-blind, five late-blind, fourteen low-vision, and thirty-two sighted). In the olfactory tasks, the early-blind children performed significantly better than the sighted children on the odour-naming task but not on the odour-sensitivity task. From the cognitive tasks, scores on a nonvisualisable word-pairs task and a sound-word-pairs task were significantly higher for early-blind children and were highly correlated with odour-naming score. The early-blind children outperformed the sighted controls on a task of directed attention. The groups did not differ on memory for a story or for visualisable word pairs. The results suggest that blind children enjoy an advantage in tasks that assess nonvisual memory for paired associates and directed attention, and that superiority on these tasks facilitates performance in the odour-naming task. Other data suggest that sighted children rely on visualisation as a strategy to aid their performance on the cognitive tasks, and are disadvantaged when these strategies cannot be utilised.

  6. A scalable machine-learning approach to recognize chemical names within large text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren Jonathan D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation The use or study of chemical compounds permeates almost every scientific field and in each of them, the amount of textual information is growing rapidly. There is a need to accurately identify chemical names within text for a number of informatics efforts such as database curation, report summarization, tagging of named entities and keywords, or the development/curation of reference databases. Results A first-order Markov Model (MM was evaluated for its ability to distinguish chemical names from words, yielding ~93% recall in recognizing chemical terms and ~99% precision in rejecting non-chemical terms on smaller test sets. However, because total false-positive events increase with the number of words analyzed, the scalability of name recognition was measured by processing 13.1 million MEDLINE records. The method yielded precision ranges from 54.7% to 100%, depending upon the cutoff score used, averaging 82.7% for approximately 1.05 million putative chemical terms extracted. Extracted chemical terms were analyzed to estimate the number of spelling variants per term, which correlated with the total number of times the chemical name appeared in MEDLINE. This variability in term construction was found to affect both information retrieval and term mapping when using PubMed and Ovid.

  7. PENGATURAN PASSING OFF DALAM PENGGUNAAN DOMAIN NAME TERKAIT DENGAN MEREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Yunita Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cyber world we often hear about domain name’s term. Domain name is a unique name to identify the server computer’s name like a web server or email server on a computer network or Internet. Passing off also make causes confusion in using merk from a famous brand or merk on the goods and services. Selected domain name in the internet media often creates the similar domain name with the other parties. This similar domain name are often used by people who are not responsible to take advantages of the domain name for themself. This can be caused by the presence of competition from Internet media business. This things called passing off. This research is a normative juridical research with a qualitative analysis. The legal materials include primary legal, secondary law and tertiary legal materials. Collection technique applied is literary study. Legal materials were analyzed to see the argument implementation of the definition of merk, the definition of domain name, definition of passing off, passing off in use related by merk and domain name and the rules of law in Indonesia related by merk, domain name and passing off. Big wishes in the future it can assist as a basic reference and legal considerations which are useful in Indonesian law practice. There are two passing off related to the merk and domain name, called Crybersquatting and Tiposquatting. Domain name rules are not regulated clearly in merk regulation named Act No. 15 of 2001. It regulated in PP 24 Year 1993 about The Class List of Goods or Services In Merk, Telecommunications are included in the goods or services in merk. Domain name are regulated in UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy with competent institutions called ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Dalam dunia maya (cyber world, kita sering mendengar istilah domain name. Domain name adalah nama unik yang diberikan untuk mengidentifikasi nama server komputer seperti web server atau email server di

  8. Semantic Web Compatible Names and Descriptions for Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Wilson, N.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Modern scientific names are critical for understanding the biological literature and provide a valuable way to understand evolutionary relationships. To validly publish a name, a description is required to separate the described group of organisms from those described by other names at the same level of the taxonomic hierarchy. The frequent revision of descriptions due to new evolutionary evidence has lead to situations where a single given scientific name may over time have multiple descriptions associated with it and a given published description may apply to multiple scientific names. Because of these many-to-many relationships between scientific names and descriptions, the usage of scientific names as a proxy for descriptions is inevitably ambiguous. Another issue lies in the fact that the precise application of scientific names often requires careful microscopic work, or increasingly, genetic sequencing, as scientific names are focused on the evolutionary relatedness between and within named groups such as species, genera, families, etc. This is problematic to many audiences, especially field biologists, who often do not have access to the instruments and tools required to make identifications on a microscopic or genetic basis. To better connect scientific names to descriptions and find a more convenient way to support computer assisted identification, we proposed the Semantic Vernacular System, a novel naming system that creates named, machine-interpretable descriptions for groups of organisms, and is compatible with the Semantic Web. Unlike the evolutionary relationship based scientific naming system, it emphasizes the observable features of organisms. By independently naming the descriptions composed of sets of observational features, as well as maintaining connections to scientific names, it preserves the observational data used to identify organisms. The system is designed to support a peer-review mechanism for creating new names, and uses a controlled

  9. Project management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perce, K H

    1998-08-01

    1. Project management skills are important to develop because occupational and environmental health nurses are increasingly asked to implement and manage health related projects and programs. 2. Project management is the process of planning and managing project tasks and resources, and communicating the progress and results. This requires the coordination of time, tasks, equipment, people, and budget. 3. Three main critical skill areas are needed to be an effective project manager: behavioral skills such as negotiation, conflict resolution, and interpersonal problem solving; use of project management tools to manage project tasks and resources; and effective communication skills.

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgeon Specific Registry Trauma Education Trauma Education Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Trauma Systems Conference Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CME Accreditation CME Joint Providership Program Verification of Knowledge and Skills ... Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education ...

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find ...

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education Cancer Education Cancer Programs Conference: Creating a Culture of Quality CoC Events Quality Education Quality Education ...

  14. Is the Boston Naming Test still fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Alexandra; Crowe, Simon F

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test (BNT) (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1983) is the most commonly used test of confrontation naming in neuropsychology (Rabin, Barr, & Burton, 2005). However, there are significant criticisms of the BNT which suggest that it might not be the assessment measure of choice. These criticisms are that the BNT has poor psychometric properties, is not adequately standardized, and has inadequate norms. It is further suggested that when considered in the context of contemporary conceptualizations of the neuropsychology of naming, the BNT does not adequately capture the processes known to be required for successful naming, and does not sample widely enough from the content domain of "naming". These criticisms suggest that the BNT is flawed as a measure of naming, and are discussed in detail in this review. Other stand-alone visual confrontation naming tasks are reviewed to evaluate whether any might be viable substitutes for the BNT in clinical neuropsychology. The Naming Test from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (Stern & White, 2009) was identified as a possible alternative to the BNT, however, neither of these tests was designed with reference to models of the neuropsychology of naming, and development of a new test of naming is indicated.

  15. The Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Alphabet Knowledge, and Letter Writing to Name Writing in Children With Specific Language Impairment and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Stacey L; Lieberman, R Jane; Schwartz, Jamie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie

    2018-01-19

    Name writing is one aspect of emergent writing that has been used to understand emergent literacy development. Name-writing skills and the relationship of name writing to other emergent literacy skills have not been studied extensively in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Children with SLI consistently demonstrate delays in phonological awareness (PA), alphabet knowledge (AK), print awareness, and emergent writing. The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of PA, AK, and letter writing to name writing in children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children. Participants were 65 children (22 SLI, 43 TD) with an average age of 53 months. Participants completed the Assessment of Literacy and Language (Lombardino, Lieberman, & Brown, 2005), a letter-writing task, and a name-writing task. Data were analyzed using correlation and mediation modeling. Mediation modeling, a more sophisticated analysis, revealed that PA, AK, and letter writing, in serial, were mediating variables for language status on name writing. Phonemic awareness, AK, and letter writing help to explain the relationship between language status and name writing. These skills should be integrated during treatment, using a horizontal approach with developmentally appropriate activities, particularly for children with SLI.

  16. Early difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia: deficits in oral language, phonological processing skills, and print-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness), and Chinese word reading and spelling over a 3-year period. The parents were also given a behaviour checklist for identifying child at-risk behaviours. Results showed that the High Risk (Poor Reading) group performed significantly worse than the Low Risk and the High Risk (Good Reading) group on most of the measures and domains. More children in the High Risk (Poor Reading) group displayed at-risk behaviours than in the other two groups. These results suggest that Chinese at-risk children with early difficulties in reading and spelling do show a wide range of language-, phonology-, and print-related deficits, similar to their alphabetic counterparts. An understanding of these early difficulties may help prevent dyslexia from developing in at-risk children. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  18. Skills Development: A Review with Reference to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Parry

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a context of rapid economic growth, skills development systems have become increasingly important to countries in Southeast Asia in response to skills gaps generated by changing labour-market conditions. Countries in the region have no alternative but to invest in the development and maintenance of these systems. This paper asserts that in doing so they should recognise the importance of adopting a definition of skills that encompasses cognitive and soft skills as well as technical skills, they should regard as being essential to the development of effective labour market information systems, and they should adopt and institutional frameworks that are adequate to the task of managing complex and effective national skills development systems.

  19. Category-specific difficulty naming with verbs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K M; Grossman, M; White-Devine, T; D'Esposito, M

    1996-07-01

    We studied 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) on a picture-naming task consisting of frequency-matched pairs of nouns and verbs that were homophonic and homographic (e.g., paint). Intragroup comparisons revealed that verb naming is significantly more difficult for patients with AD than noun naming. An error analysis demonstrated that patients with AD produce significantly more semantic and descriptive errors for verbs than nouns. We correlated verb naming and noun naming with measures of grammatical comprehension, lexical retrieval, and visuoperceptual processing, but there were no selective effects for verbs compared with nouns. Differences in the mental representation of concepts underlying verbs and nouns may account, in part, for the relative difficulty naming with verbs in AD.

  20. A new face of sleep: The impact of post-learning sleep on recognition memory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Leonie; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Elliott, Kieran; Czeisler, Charles A; Ronda, Joseph M; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2015-12-01

    Sleep has been demonstrated to improve consolidation of many types of new memories. However, few prior studies have examined how sleep impacts learning of face-name associations. The recognition of a new face along with the associated name is an important human cognitive skill. Here we investigated whether post-presentation sleep impacts recognition memory of new face-name associations in healthy adults. Fourteen participants were tested twice. Each time, they were presented 20 photos of faces with a corresponding name. Twelve hours later, they were shown each face twice, once with the correct and once with an incorrect name, and asked if each face-name combination was correct and to rate their confidence. In one condition the 12-h interval between presentation and recall included an 8-h nighttime sleep opportunity ("Sleep"), while in the other condition they remained awake ("Wake"). There were more correct and highly confident correct responses when the interval between presentation and recall included a sleep opportunity, although improvement between the "Wake" and "Sleep" conditions was not related to duration of sleep or any sleep stage. These data suggest that a nighttime sleep opportunity improves the ability to correctly recognize face-name associations. Further studies investigating the mechanism of this improvement are important, as this finding has implications for individuals with sleep disturbances and/or memory impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.