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Sample records for rapid molecular resource

  1. Recombinase polymerase amplification: Emergence as a critical molecular technology for rapid, low-resource diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ameh; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal molecular diagnostics are bridging the technology gap between traditional diagnostics and polymerase chain reaction-based methods. These new techniques enable timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where there is a lack of infrastructure to support polymerase chain reaction facilities. Despite this, there is a significant lack of uptake of these technologies in developing countries where they are highly needed. Among these novel isothermal technologies, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) holds particular potential for use in developing countries. This rapid nucleic acid amplification approach is fast, highly sensitive and specific, and amenable to countries with a high burden of infectious diseases. Implementation of RPA technology in developing countries is critically required to assess limitations and potentials of the diagnosis of infectious disease, and may help identify impediments that prevent adoption of new molecular technologies in low resource- and low skill settings. This review focuses on approaching diagnosis of infectious disease with RPA.

  2. Rapid molecular assays for the detection of yellow fever virus in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escadafal, Camille; Faye, Oumar; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Faye, Ousmane; Weidmann, Manfred; Strohmeier, Oliver; von Stetten, Felix; Drexler, Josef; Eberhard, Michael; Niedrig, Matthias; Patel, Pranav

    2014-03-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The causative agent, the yellow fever virus (YFV), is found in tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa. Although a vaccine is available since the 1930s, YF still causes thousands of deaths and several outbreaks have recently occurred in Africa. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods easy to perform in low-resources settings could have a major impact on early detection of outbreaks and implementation of appropriate response strategies such as vaccination and/or vector control. The aim of this study was to develop a YFV nucleic acid detection method applicable in outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in low-resource and field settings. The method should be simple, robust, rapid and reliable. Therefore, we adopted an isothermal approach and developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay which can be performed with a small portable instrument and easy-to-use lyophilized reagents. The assay was developed in three different formats (real-time with or without microfluidic semi-automated system and lateral-flow assay) to evaluate their application for different purposes. Analytical specificity and sensitivity were evaluated with a wide panel of viruses and serial dilutions of YFV RNA. Mosquito pools and spiked human plasma samples were also tested for assay validation. Finally, real-time RPA in portable format was tested under field conditions in Senegal. The assay was able to detect 20 different YFV strains and demonstrated no cross-reactions with closely related viruses. The RPA assay proved to be a robust, portable method with a low detection limit (<21 genome equivalent copies per reaction) and rapid processing time (<20 min). Results from real-time RPA field testing were comparable to results obtained in the laboratory, thus confirming our method is suitable for YFV detection in low-resource settings.

  3. Rapid molecular assays for the detection of yellow fever virus in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The causative agent, the yellow fever virus (YFV, is found in tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa. Although a vaccine is available since the 1930s, YF still causes thousands of deaths and several outbreaks have recently occurred in Africa. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods easy to perform in low-resources settings could have a major impact on early detection of outbreaks and implementation of appropriate response strategies such as vaccination and/or vector control. METHODOLOGY: The aim of this study was to develop a YFV nucleic acid detection method applicable in outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in low-resource and field settings. The method should be simple, robust, rapid and reliable. Therefore, we adopted an isothermal approach and developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay which can be performed with a small portable instrument and easy-to-use lyophilized reagents. The assay was developed in three different formats (real-time with or without microfluidic semi-automated system and lateral-flow assay to evaluate their application for different purposes. Analytical specificity and sensitivity were evaluated with a wide panel of viruses and serial dilutions of YFV RNA. Mosquito pools and spiked human plasma samples were also tested for assay validation. Finally, real-time RPA in portable format was tested under field conditions in Senegal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The assay was able to detect 20 different YFV strains and demonstrated no cross-reactions with closely related viruses. The RPA assay proved to be a robust, portable method with a low detection limit (<21 genome equivalent copies per reaction and rapid processing time (<20 min. Results from real-time RPA field testing were comparable to results obtained in the laboratory, thus confirming our method is suitable for

  4. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  5. Implementation of Rapid Molecular Infectious Disease Diagnostics: the Role of Diagnostic and Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messacar, Kevin; Parker, Sarah K; Todd, James K; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2017-03-01

    New rapid molecular diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases enable expedited accurate microbiological diagnoses. However, diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship are necessary to ensure that these technologies conserve, rather than consume, additional health care resources and optimally affect patient care. Diagnostic stewardship is needed to implement appropriate tests for the clinical setting and to direct testing toward appropriate patients. Antimicrobial stewardship is needed to ensure prompt appropriate clinical action to translate faster diagnostic test results in the laboratory into improved outcomes at the bedside. This minireview outlines the roles of diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship in the implementation of rapid molecular infectious disease diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Molecular diagnostics for low resource settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.

    2010-03-01

    As traditional high quality diagnostic laboratories are not widely available or affordable in developing country health care settings, microfluidics-based point-of-care diagnostics may be able to address the need to perform complex assays in under-resourced areas. Many instrument-based as well as non-instrumented microfluidic prototype diagnostics are currently being developed. In addition to various engineering challenges, the greatest remaining issue is the search for truly low-cost disposable manufacturing methods. Diagnostics for global health, and specifically microfluidics and molecular-based low resource diagnostics, have become a very active research area over the last five years, thanks in part to new funding that became available from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and other sources. This has led to a number of interesting prototype devices that are now in advanced development or clinical validation. These devices include disposables and instruments that perform multiplexed PCR-based lab-on-a-chips for enteric, febrile, and vaginal diseases, as well as immunoassays for diseases such as malaria, HIV, and various sexually transmitted diseases. More recently, instrument-free diagnostic disposables based on isothermal nucleic acid amplification have been developed as well. Regardless of platform, however, the search for truly low-cost manufacturing methods that would result in cost of goods per disposable of around US1/unit at volume remains a big challenge. This talk will give an overview over existing platform development efforts as well as present some original research in this area at PATH.

  7. Rapid Genetic Adaptation during the First Four Months of Survival under Resource Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrani, Sarit; Bolotin, Evgeni; Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Many bacteria, including the model bacterium Escherichia coli can survive for years within spent media, following resource exhaustion. We carried out evolutionary experiments, followed by whole genome sequencing of hundreds of evolved clones to study the dynamics by which E. coli adapts during the first 4 months of survival under resource exhaustion. Our results reveal that bacteria evolving under resource exhaustion are subject to intense selection, manifesting in rapid mutation accumulation, enrichment in functional mutation categories and extremely convergent adaptation. In the most striking example of convergent adaptation, we found that across five independent populations adaptation to conditions of resource exhaustion occurs through mutations to the three same specific positions of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. Mutations to these three sites are strongly antagonistically pleiotropic, in that they sharply reduce exponential growth rates in fresh media. Such antagonistically pleiotropic mutations, combined with the accumulation of additional mutations, severely reduce the ability of bacteria surviving under resource exhaustion to grow exponentially in fresh media. We further demonstrate that the three positions at which these resource exhaustion mutations occur are conserved for the ancestral E. coli allele, across bacterial phyla, with the exception of nonculturable bacteria that carry the resource exhaustion allele at one of these positions, at very high frequencies. Finally, our results demonstrate that adaptation to resource exhaustion is not limited by mutational input and that bacteria are able to rapidly adapt under resource exhaustion in a temporally precise manner through allele frequency fluctuations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. National uranium resource evaluation, Rapid City Quadrangle, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanna, R.F.; Milton, E.J.

    1982-04-01

    The Rapid City (1 0 x 2 0 ) Quadrangle, South Dakota, was evaluated for environments favorble for uranium deposits to a depth of 1500 m. Criteria used were those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Field reconnaissance involved the use of hand-held scintillometers to investigate uranium occurrences reported in the literature and anomalies in aerial radiometric surveys, and geochemical samples of stream sediments and well waters. Gamma-ray logs were used to define the favorable environments in the subsurface. Environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group, the Fox Hills Sandstone, and the Hell Creek Formation. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include all Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary rocks other than those identified as favorable

  9. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 – 31 May 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andree, K.; Axtner, J.; Bagley, M.J.; Govers, F.; Jacobsen, E.; Mendes, O.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus,

  10. Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

  11. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjit Thanchomnang

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

  12. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Low Resource Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wong

    Full Text Available Many modern molecular diagnostic assays targeting nucleic acids are typically confined to developed countries or to the national reference laboratories of developing-world countries. The ability to make technologies for the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a revolutionary step forward in global health. Many molecular assays are also developed based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR, which require thermal cyclers that are relatively heavy (>20 pounds and need continuous electrical power. The temperature ramping speed of most economical thermal cyclers are relatively slow (2 to 3 °C/s so a polymerase chain reaction can take 1 to 2 hours. Most of all, these thermal cyclers are still too expensive ($2k to $4k for low-resource setting uses.In this article, we demonstrate the development of a low-cost and rapid water bath based thermal cycler that does not require active temperature control or continuous power supply during PCR. This unit costs $130 to build using commercial off-the-shelf items. The use of two or three vacuum-insulated stainless-steel Thermos food jars containing heated water (for denaturation and annealing/extension steps and a layer of oil on top of the water allow for significantly stabilized temperatures for PCR to take place. Using an Arduino-based microcontroller, we automate the "archaic" method of hand-transferring PCR tubes between water baths.We demonstrate that this innovative unit can deliver high speed PCR (17 s per PCR cycle with the potential to go beyond the 1,522 bp long amplicons tested in this study and can amplify from templates down to at least 20 copies per reaction. The unit also accepts regular PCR tubes and glass capillary tubes. The PCR efficiency of our thermal cycler is not different from other commercial thermal cyclers. When combined with a rapid nucleic acid detection approach, the thermos thermal cycler (TTC can enable on-site molecular

  13. Rapid Isolation and Molecular Detection of Streptomycin-Producing Streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motovali-bashi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Streptomyces species are mycelial, aerobic gram-positive bacteria that are isolated from soil and produce a diverse range of antibiotics. Streptomyces griseus produces the antibiotic, streptomycin and forms spores even in a liquid culture. The gene cluster for the production of Streptomycin antibiotic contains strR gene that encodes StrR, a pathway-specific regulator. Then, this pathway-specific regulator induces transcription of other streptomycin production genes in the gene cluster. The overall aim of this work was rapid isolation and molecular detection of streptomycin-producing Streptomycetes, especially S. griseus, from Iranian soils in order to manipulate them for increased production of streptomycin. Methods: This research used new initiative half-specific medium for isolation of Streptomycetes from natural environments, called FZmsn. The fifty colonies of Streptomyces strains grown on the surface of FZmsn medium isolated from environmental samples were defined on the basis of their morphological characteristics and light microscope studies. A set of primers was designed to detect strR by OLIGO software. Results: In colony-PCR reactions followed by gel electrophoresis, 6 colonies from Streptomyces strains colonies were detected as S. griseus colonies. Conclusion: These native Streptomyces strains will be used for genetic manipulation of S. griseus in order to increase production levels of streptomycin.

  14. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  15. Rapid sampling of molecular motions with prior information constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Barak; Enosh, Angela; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Halperin, Dan

    2009-02-01

    Proteins are active, flexible machines that perform a range of different functions. Innovative experimental approaches may now provide limited partial information about conformational changes along motion pathways of proteins. There is therefore a need for computational approaches that can efficiently incorporate prior information into motion prediction schemes. In this paper, we present PathRover, a general setup designed for the integration of prior information into the motion planning algorithm of rapidly exploring random trees (RRT). Each suggested motion pathway comprises a sequence of low-energy clash-free conformations that satisfy an arbitrary number of prior information constraints. These constraints can be derived from experimental data or from expert intuition about the motion. The incorporation of prior information is very straightforward and significantly narrows down the vast search in the typically high-dimensional conformational space, leading to dramatic reduction in running time. To allow the use of state-of-the-art energy functions and conformational sampling, we have integrated this framework into Rosetta, an accurate protocol for diverse types of structural modeling. The suggested framework can serve as an effective complementary tool for molecular dynamics, Normal Mode Analysis, and other prevalent techniques for predicting motion in proteins. We applied our framework to three different model systems. We show that a limited set of experimentally motivated constraints may effectively bias the simulations toward diverse predicates in an outright fashion, from distance constraints to enforcement of loop closure. In particular, our analysis sheds light on mechanisms of protein domain swapping and on the role of different residues in the motion.

  16. Rapid sampling of molecular motions with prior information constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Raveh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are active, flexible machines that perform a range of different functions. Innovative experimental approaches may now provide limited partial information about conformational changes along motion pathways of proteins. There is therefore a need for computational approaches that can efficiently incorporate prior information into motion prediction schemes. In this paper, we present PathRover, a general setup designed for the integration of prior information into the motion planning algorithm of rapidly exploring random trees (RRT. Each suggested motion pathway comprises a sequence of low-energy clash-free conformations that satisfy an arbitrary number of prior information constraints. These constraints can be derived from experimental data or from expert intuition about the motion. The incorporation of prior information is very straightforward and significantly narrows down the vast search in the typically high-dimensional conformational space, leading to dramatic reduction in running time. To allow the use of state-of-the-art energy functions and conformational sampling, we have integrated this framework into Rosetta, an accurate protocol for diverse types of structural modeling. The suggested framework can serve as an effective complementary tool for molecular dynamics, Normal Mode Analysis, and other prevalent techniques for predicting motion in proteins. We applied our framework to three different model systems. We show that a limited set of experimentally motivated constraints may effectively bias the simulations toward diverse predicates in an outright fashion, from distance constraints to enforcement of loop closure. In particular, our analysis sheds light on mechanisms of protein domain swapping and on the role of different residues in the motion.

  17. Introducing molecular selectivity in rapid impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Yu, Paklam; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2014-01-01

    This research article reports a real-time and non-invasive detection technique for phthalates in liquids by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), incorporating molecular imprinting technique to introduce selectivity for the phthalate

  18. A simple and rapid molecular method for Leptospira species identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Ahmed; Anthony, Richard M.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2010-01-01

    Serological and DNA-based classification systems only have little correlation. Currently serological and molecular methods for characterizing Leptospira are complex and costly restricting their world-wide distribution and use. Ligation mediated amplification combined with microarray analysis

  19. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 june 2011–31 july 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, F. Keith; Bell, James J.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus......, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne · purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne · purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis...

  20. Using molecular techniques for rapid detection of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... A total of 152 samples of chicken and chicken products ... detection of Salmonella species in the collected field samples ... that 16 million new cases of typhoid fever occur each ... vative methods for the rapid identification of Salmonella ... saved for the PCR-Non Selective test (PCR-NS) and 1 ml of the.

  1. Using current molecular techniques for rapid differentiation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid fever is responsible for the deaths of many people annually. However, conventional and timeconsuming detection methods for Salmonella Typhi still dominate. By using a molecular based approach, it was possible to identify Salmonella Typhi by amplifying two specific genes (viaB and tyv) and by using RFLP ...

  2. Introducing molecular selectivity in rapid impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2014-05-01

    This research article reports a real-time and non-invasive detection technique for phthalates in liquids by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), incorporating molecular imprinting technique to introduce selectivity for the phthalate molecule in the detection system. A functional polymer with Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) template was immobilized on the sensing surface of the inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor with sputtered gold sensing electrodes fabricated over a native layer of silicon dioxide on a single crystal silicon substrate. Various concentrations (10 to 200 ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were exposed to the sensor surface functionalized with molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) in order to capture the analyte molecule, hence introducing molecular selectivity to the testing system. Impedance spectra were obtained using EIS in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the solution. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyzer algorithm was used to deduce equivalent circuit and equivalent component parameters from the experimentally obtained impedance spectra employing Randle\\'s cell model curve fitting technique. Experimental results confirmed that the immobilization of the functional polymer on sensing surface introduces selectivity for phthalates in the sensing system. The results were validated by testing the samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD). © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Rapid methods for the extraction and archiving of molecular grade fungal genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Palmer, Michael; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The rapid and inexpensive extraction of fungal genomic DNA that is of sufficient quality for molecular approaches is central to the molecular identification, epidemiological analysis, taxonomy, and strain typing of pathogenic fungi. Although many commercially available and in-house extraction procedures do eliminate the majority of contaminants that commonly inhibit molecular approaches, the inherent difficulties in breaking fungal cell walls lead to protocols that are labor intensive and that routinely take several hours to complete. Here we describe several methods that we have developed in our laboratory that allow the extremely rapid and inexpensive preparation of fungal genomic DNA.

  4. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    2013-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonç alves; Albaina, A.; Alpermann, Tilman J.; Apkenas, Vanessa E.; Bankhead-Dronnet, Sté phanie; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L.; Cho, Changhung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Auré lie; De Feraudy, D.; Estonba, Andone; Hankeln, Thomas M A; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsaiwen; Huang, Tsurngjuhn; Irigoien, Xabier; Iriondo, Mikel; Kay, Kathleen M.; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; Le Hé nanff, Maxime; Lieutier, Franç ois; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, Carmen; Martin, Carine; Morris, Veronica Ruth Franco; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Pardo, D.; Plieske, Jö rg; Pointeau, Sophie; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M.; Schwarcz, Kaiser D.; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L.; Solferini, Vera Nisaka; Stevens, Virginie M.; Veith, Michael W.; Wen, Meijuan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jenn M.; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Rapid molecular identification and characteristics of Lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, L H; Biedrzycka, E; Wasilewska, E; Bielecka, M

    2010-09-01

    Eleven type strains and 24 Lactobacillus isolates, preliminarily classified to the species due to phenotypic features, were investigated. Standard methods of identification with species-specific PCRs and typing with PFGE (with ApaI, NotI and SmaI restriction enzymes) allowed us to distinguish 16 unique strains belonging to 5 species (L. acidophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius). Alternative approach with 16S-23S rDNA ARDRA identification (with merely two restrictases, BsuRI and TaqI) and PCR-based typing (RAPD with two random- and rep-PCR with (GTG)(5) primers) showed to be more discriminative, i.e. 21 unique strains were classified in the same species as above. As a result, 7 out of 24 phenotypically species-assigned isolates were reclassified. The alternative procedure of rapid identification and typing of Lactobacillus isolates appeared to be equally effective and shortened from 1 week to 2-3 d (in comparison to the standard methods).

  8. Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Karau, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Suzannah M.; Gomez Urena, Eric O.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Lough, Lindsay E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Steckelberg, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure. PMID:23658273

  9. The rapid evolution of molecular genetic diagnostics in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Alexander E; Kubisch, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has revolutionized molecular genetic diagnostics in monogenic disorders. The present review gives a brief overview of different MPS-based approaches used in clinical diagnostics of neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) and highlights their advantages and limitations. MPS-based approaches like gene panel sequencing, (whole) exome sequencing, (whole) genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing have been used to identify the genetic cause in NMDs. Although gene panel sequencing has evolved as a standard test for heterogeneous diseases, it is still debated, mainly because of financial issues and unsolved problems of variant interpretation, whether genome sequencing (and to a lesser extent also exome sequencing) of single patients can already be regarded as routine diagnostics. However, it has been shown that the inclusion of parents and additional family members often leads to a substantial increase in the diagnostic yield in exome-wide/genome-wide MPS approaches. In addition, MPS-based RNA sequencing just enters the research and diagnostic scene. Next-generation sequencing increasingly enables the detection of the genetic cause in highly heterogeneous diseases like NMDs in an efficient and affordable way. Gene panel sequencing and family-based exome sequencing have been proven as potent and cost-efficient diagnostic tools. Although clinical validation and interpretation of genome sequencing is still challenging, diagnostic RNA sequencing represents a promising tool to bypass some hurdles of diagnostics using genomic DNA.

  10. Clinical librarian support for rapid review of clinical utility of cancer molecular biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yimin; Fowler, Clara S; Fulton, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The clinical librarian used a restricted literature searching and quality-filtering approach to provide relevant clinical evidence for the use of cancer molecular biomarkers by institutional policy makers and clinicians in the rapid review process. The librarian-provided evidence was compared with the cited references in the institutional molecular biomarker algorithm. The overall incorporation rate of the librarian-provided references into the algorithm was above 80%. This study suggests the usefulness of clinical librarian expertise for clinical practice. The searching and filtering methods for high-level evidence can be adopted by information professionals who are involved in the rapid literature review.

  11. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2011-31 January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Arnoux, E; Bell, James J; Bernadou, Abel; Bino, Giorgia; Blatrix, R; Bourguet, Denis; Carrea, Cecilia; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Cunha, Haydée A; d'Alençon, E; Ding, Yi; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; Dumas, P; Eraud, C; Faivre, B; Francisco, F O; Françoso, E; Garcia, M; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garnier, S; Gimenez, S; Gold, John R; Harris, D J; He, Guangcun; Hellemans, B; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Jing, Shengli; Kergoat, G J; Liu, Bingfang; McDowell, Jan R; McKey, D; Miller, Terrence L; Newton, Erica; Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Papetti, Chiara; Paterson, Ian; Peccoud, J; Peng, Xinxin; Piatscheck, F; Ponsard, Sergine; Reece, Kimberly S; Reisser, Céline M O; Renshaw, Mark A; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sauve, M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Solé-Cava, Antonio; Souche, E L; Van Houdt, J K J; Vasconcellos, Anderson; Volckaert, F A M; Wang, Shuzhen; Xiao, Jie; Yu, Hangjin; Zane, Lorenzo; Zannato, Barbara; Zemlak, Tyler S; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Lili

    2012-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. [Allocation of attentional resource and monitoring processes under rapid serial visual presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, K

    1998-08-01

    With the use of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the present study investigated the cause of target intrusion errors and functioning of monitoring processes. Eighteen students participated in Experiment 1, and 24 in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, different target intrusion errors were found depending on different kinds of letters --romaji, hiragana, and kanji. In Experiment 2, stimulus set size and context information were manipulated in an attempt to explore the cause of post-target intrusion errors. Results showed that as stimulus set size increased, the post-target intrusion errors also increased, but contextual information did not affect the errors. Results concerning mean report probability indicated that increased allocation of attentional resource to response-defining dimension was the cause of the errors. In addition, results concerning confidence rating showed that monitoring of temporal and contextual information was extremely accurate, but it was not so for stimulus information. These results suggest that attentional resource is different from monitoring resource.

  14. Rapid molecular diagnostics for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rajeswari; Muniyandi, M

    2018-03-01

    Rapid molecular diagnostic methods help in the detection of TB and Rifampicin resistance. These methods detect TB early, are accurate and play a crucial role in reducing the burden of drug resistant tuberculosis. Areas covered: This review analyses rapid molecular diagnostic tools used in the diagnosis of MDR-TB in India, such as the Line Probe Assay and GeneXpert. We have discussed the burden of MDR-TB and the impact of recent diagnostic tools on case detection and treatment outcomes. This review also discusses the costs involved in establishing these new techniques in India. Expert commentary: Molecular methods have considerable advantages for the programmatic management of drug resistant TB. These include speed, standardization of testing, potentially high throughput and reduced laboratory biosafety requirements. There is a desperate need for India to adopt modern, rapid, molecular tools with point-of-care tests being currently evaluated. New molecular diagnostic tests appear to be cost effective and also help in detecting missing cases. There is enough evidence to support the scaling up of these new tools in India.

  15. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  16. Highly sensitive and rapid bacteria detection using molecular beacon-Au nanoparticles hybrid nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Feng, Chao; Liu, Yan; Wang, Shouyu; Liu, Fei

    2014-07-15

    Since many diseases are caused by pathogenic bacterial infections, accurate and rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria is in urgent need to timely apply appropriate treatments and to reduce economic costs. To end this, we designed molecular beacon-Au nanoparticle hybrid nanoprobes to improve the bacterial detection efficiency and sensitivity. Here, we show that the designed molecular beacon modified Au nanoparticles could specifically recognize synthetic DNAs targets and can readily detect targets in clinical samples. Moreover, the hybrid nanoprobes can recognize Escherichia coli within an hour at a concentration of 10(2) cfu/ml, which is 1000-folds sensitive than using molecular beacon directly. Our results show that the molecular beacon-Au nanoparticle hybrid nanoprobes have great potential in medical and biological applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S

    2009-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Rivers rapid assessment protocols and insertion of society in monitoring of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water resources has been detected and changes both institutional and in the legislation have been demanded. The careless use of rivers has ecological changes as direct consequence, causing serious modifications in the landscape and fluvial regime, besides altering the availability of habitats and the trophic composition of the aquatic environment. Pressed by this scenario, scientists have been developing assessment methods that are efficient both for the evaluation itself and for supporting decision taking in the environmental management processes. In this perspective, the objective of this study is to present the Rapid River Assessment Protocols (RAPs and to emphasize how these protocols can promote the community participation in water resources monitoring. The RAPs can used to evaluate in an integrated form the characteristics of a river section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment and it is characterized by its economic viability and easy applicability. In regions with poor financial resources and serious problems of water quality, the RAPs can be used in environmental management programs. By using these protocols, the integration of the community in water resources monitoring generates data which represent the quality of fluvial ecosystems throughout time, without requesting high costs or specialized professionals. The RAPs in a simplified but not simplistic tool, which can be used in activities that aim at promoting a quick and reliable assessment of the “health” of a river.

  20. Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Helen; Hundt, P. Morten; van Reijzen, Maarten E.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D.

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.

  1. The NIH-NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center at the Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Cody

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research. The SRC makes available, free of charge (including international shipping costs, not only infected host organisms but also a wide array of molecular reagents derived from all life stages of each of the three main human schistosome parasites. As the field of schistosomiasis research rapidly advances, it is likely to become increasingly reliant on omics, transgenics, epigenetics, and microbiome-related research approaches. The SRC has and will continue to monitor and contribute to advances in the field in order to support these research efforts with an expanding array of molecular reagents. In addition to providing investigators with source materials, the SRC has expanded its educational mission by offering a molecular techniques training course and has recently organized an international schistosomiasis-focused meeting. This review provides an overview of the materials and services that are available at the SRC for schistosomiasis researchers, with a focus on updates that have occurred since the original overview in 2008.

  2. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arias, M. C.; Atteke, C.; Augusto, S. C.; Bailey, J.; Bazaga, P.; Beheregaray, L. B.; Benoit, L.; Blatrix, R.; Born, C.; Brito, R. M.; Chen, H.-K.; Covarrubias, S.; de Vega, C.; Djiéto-Lordon, C.; Dubois, M.-P.; Francisco, F. O.; García, C.; Concalves, P. H. P.; González, C.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, C.; Hammer, M. P.; Herrera, C. M.; Itoh, H.; Kamimura, S.; Karaoglu, H.; Kojima, S.; Li, S.-L.; Ling, H. J.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; McKey, D.; Mezui-M’Eko, J.; Ornelas, J. F.; Park, R. F.; Pozo, M. I.; Ramula, S.; Rigueiro, C.; Sandoval-Castillo, J.; Santiago, L. R.; Seino, M. M.; Song, C.-B.; Takeshima, H.; Vasemägi, A.; Wellings, C. R.; Yan, J.; Du, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.-R.; Zhang, T.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2013), s. 760-762 ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular ecology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-0998.12121/pdf

  3. Rapid Molecular detection of citrus brown spot disease using ACT gene in Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moghimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Using rapid detection methods is important for detection of plant pathogens and also prevention through spreading pests in agriculture. Citrus brown spot disease caused by pathogenic isolates of Alternaria alternata is a common disease in Iran. Materials and methods: In this study, for the first time a PCR based molecular method was used for rapid diagnosis of brown spot disease. Nine isolates of A. Alternata were isolated in PDA medium from different citrus gardens. The plant pathogenic activity was examined in tangerine leaves for isolates. Results showed that these isolates are the agents of brown spot disease. PCR amplification of specific ACT-toxin gene was performed for DNA extracted from A. alternata isolates, with 11 different fungal isolates as negative controls and 5 DNA samples extracted from soil. Results: Results showed that A. alternata, the causal agent of brown spot disease, can be carefully distinguished from other pathogenic agents by performing PCR amplification with specific primers for ACT toxin gene. Also, the results from Nested-PCR method confirmed the primary reaction and the specificity of A. alternata for brown spot disease. PCR results to control samples of the other standard fungal isolates, showed no amplification band. In addition, PCR with the DNA extracted from contaminated soils confirmed the presence of ACT toxin gene. Discussion and conclusion: Molecular procedure presented here can be used in rapid identification and prevention of brown spot infection in citrus gardens all over the country.

  4. Quantum Dot-Fullerene Based Molecular Beacon Nanosensors for Rapid, Highly Sensitive Nucleic Acid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Kannegulla, Akash; Wu, Bo; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2018-05-15

    Spherical fullerene (C 60 ) can quench the fluorescence of a quantum dot (QD) through energy transfer and charge transfer processes, with the quenching efficiency regulated by the number of proximate C 60 on each QD. With the quenching property and its small size compared with other nanoparticle-based quenchers, it is advantageous to group a QD reporter and multiple C 60 -labeled oligonucleotide probes to construct a molecular beacon (MB) probe for sensitive, robust nucleic acid detection. We demonstrated a rapid, high-sensitivity DNA detection method using the nanosensors composed of QD-C 60 based MBs carried by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The assay was accelerated by first dispersing the nanosensors in analytes for highly efficient DNA capture resulting from short-distance 3-dimensional diffusion of targets to the sensor surface and then concentrating the nanosensors to a substrate by magnetic force to amplify the fluorescence signal for target quantification. The enhanced mass transport enabled a rapid detection (< 10 min) with a small sample volume (1-10 µl). The high signal-to-noise ratio produced by the QD-C 60 pairs and magnetic concentration yielded a detection limit of 100 fM (~106 target DNA copies for a 10 µl analyte). The rapid, sensitive, label-free detection method will benefit the applications in point-of-care molecular diagnostic technologies.

  5. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2012 - 31 January 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Urbánková, Soňa; Vyskočilová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2013), s. 546-549 ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : genetic database * microsatellite marker loci Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013

  6. The SUCCESS model for laboratory performance and execution of rapid molecular diagnostics in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekmezian, Mhair; Beal, Stacy G; Damashek, Mary Jane; Benavides, Raul; Dhiman, Neelam

    2015-04-01

    Successful performance and execution of rapid diagnostics in a clinical laboratory hinges heavily on careful validation, accurate and timely communication of results, and real-time quality monitoring. Laboratories must develop strategies to integrate diagnostics with stewardship and evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. We present a collaborative SUCCESS model for execution and monitoring of rapid sepsis diagnostics to facilitate timely treatment. Six months after execution of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP) and the AdvanDx PNA-FISH assays, data were collected on 579 and 28 episodes of bacteremia and fungemia, respectively. Clinical testing was executed using a SUCCESS model comprising the following components: stewardship, utilization of resources, core strategies, concierge services, education, support, and surveillance. Stewardship needs were identified by evaluating the specialty services benefiting from new testing. Utilization of resources was optimized by reviewing current treatment strategies and antibiogram and formulary options. Core strategies consisted of input from infectious disease leadership, pharmacy, and laboratory staff. Concierge services included automated Micro-eUpdate and physician-friendly actionable reports. Education modules were user-specific, and support was provided through a dedicated 24/7 microbiology hotline. Surveillance was performed by daily audit by the director. Using the SUCCESS model, the turnaround time for the detailed report with actionable guidelines to the physician was ∼3 hours from the time of culture positivity. The overall correlation between rapid methods and culture was 94% (546/579). Discrepant results were predominantly contaminants such as a coagulase-negative staphylococci or viridans streptococci in mixed cultures. SUCCESS is a cost-effective and easily adaptable model for clinical laboratories with limited stewardship resources.

  7. The rapid distraction of attentional resources toward the source of incongruent stimulus input during multisensory conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Sarah E; Todisco, Alexandra E; Woldorff, Marty G

    2013-04-01

    Neuroimaging work on multisensory conflict suggests that the relevant modality receives enhanced processing in the face of incongruency. However, the degree of stimulus processing in the irrelevant modality and the temporal cascade of the attentional modulations in either the relevant or irrelevant modalities are unknown. Here, we employed an audiovisual conflict paradigm with a sensory probe in the task-irrelevant modality (vision) to gauge the attentional allocation to that modality. ERPs were recorded as participants attended to and discriminated spoken auditory letters while ignoring simultaneous bilateral visual letter stimuli that were either fully congruent, fully incongruent, or partially incongruent (one side incongruent, one congruent) with the auditory stimulation. Half of the audiovisual letter stimuli were followed 500-700 msec later by a bilateral visual probe stimulus. As expected, ERPs to the audiovisual stimuli showed an incongruency ERP effect (fully incongruent versus fully congruent) of an enhanced, centrally distributed, negative-polarity wave starting ∼250 msec. More critically here, the sensory ERP components to the visual probes were larger when they followed fully incongruent versus fully congruent multisensory stimuli, with these enhancements greatest on fully incongruent trials with the slowest RTs. In addition, on the slowest-response partially incongruent trials, the P2 sensory component to the visual probes was larger contralateral to the preceding incongruent visual stimulus. These data suggest that, in response to conflicting multisensory stimulus input, the initial cognitive effect is a capture of attention by the incongruent irrelevant-modality input, pulling neural processing resources toward that modality, resulting in rapid enhancement, rather than rapid suppression, of that input.

  8. Rapid and recent diversification patterns in Anseriformes birds: Inferred from molecular phylogeny and diversification analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglou Sun

    Full Text Available The Anseriformes is a well-known and widely distributed bird order, with more than 150 species in the world. This paper aims to revise the classification, determine the phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns in Anseriformes by exploring the Cyt b, ND2, COI genes and the complete mitochondrial genomes (mito-genomes. Molecular phylogeny and genetic distance analyses suggest that the Dendrocygna species should be considered as an independent family, Dendrocygnidae, rather than a member of Anatidae. Molecular timescale analyses suggests that the ancestral diversification occurred during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (58 ~ 50 Ma. Furthermore, diversification analyses showed that, after a long period of constant diversification, the median initial speciation rate was accelerated three times, and finally increased to approximately 0.3 sp/My. In the present study, both molecular phylogeny and diversification analyses results support that Anseriformes birds underwent rapid and recent diversification in their evolutionary history, especially in modern ducks, which show extreme diversification during the Plio-Pleistocene (~ 5.3 Ma. Therefore, our study support that the Plio-Pleistocene climate fluctuations are likely to have played a significant role in promoting the recent diversification for Anseriformes.

  9. Rapid and recent diversification patterns in Anseriformes birds: Inferred from molecular phylogeny and diversification analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonglou; Pan, Tao; Hu, Chaochao; Sun, Lu; Ding, Hengwu; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chenling; Jin, Hong; Chang, Qing; Kan, Xianzhao; Zhang, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    The Anseriformes is a well-known and widely distributed bird order, with more than 150 species in the world. This paper aims to revise the classification, determine the phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns in Anseriformes by exploring the Cyt b, ND2, COI genes and the complete mitochondrial genomes (mito-genomes). Molecular phylogeny and genetic distance analyses suggest that the Dendrocygna species should be considered as an independent family, Dendrocygnidae, rather than a member of Anatidae. Molecular timescale analyses suggests that the ancestral diversification occurred during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (58 ~ 50 Ma). Furthermore, diversification analyses showed that, after a long period of constant diversification, the median initial speciation rate was accelerated three times, and finally increased to approximately 0.3 sp/My. In the present study, both molecular phylogeny and diversification analyses results support that Anseriformes birds underwent rapid and recent diversification in their evolutionary history, especially in modern ducks, which show extreme diversification during the Plio-Pleistocene (~ 5.3 Ma). Therefore, our study support that the Plio-Pleistocene climate fluctuations are likely to have played a significant role in promoting the recent diversification for Anseriformes.

  10. Moving toward rapid and low-cost point-of-care molecular diagnostics with a repurposed 3D printer and RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kamfai; Wong, Pui-Yan; Parikh, Chaitanya; Wong, Season

    2018-03-15

    Traditionally, the majority of nucleic acid amplification-based molecular diagnostic tests are done in centralized settings. In recent years, point-of-care tests have been developed for use in low-resource settings away from central laboratories. While most experts agree that point-of-care molecular tests are greatly needed, their availability as cost-effective and easy-to-operate tests remains an unmet goal. In this article, we discuss our efforts to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification reaction-based test that will meet these criteria. First, we describe our efforts in repurposing a low-cost 3D printer as a platform that can carry out medium-throughput, rapid, and high-performing nucleic acid extraction. Next, we address how these purified templates can be rapidly amplified and analyzed using the 3D printer's heated bed or the deconstructed, low-cost thermal cycler we have developed. In both approaches, real-time isothermal amplification and detection of template DNA or RNA can be accomplished using a low-cost portable detector or smartphone camera. Last, we demonstrate the capability of our technologies using foodborne pathogens and the Zika virus. Our low-cost approach does not employ complicated and high-cost components, making it suitable for resource-limited settings. When integrated and commercialized, it will offer simple sample-to-answer molecular diagnostics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Near instrument-free, simple molecular device for rapid detection of herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Bertrand; Li, Ying; Kong, Huimin; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2012-06-01

    The first near instrument-free, inexpensive and simple molecular diagnostic device (IsoAmp HSV, BioHelix Corp., MA, USA) recently received US FDA clearance for use in the detection of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) in genital and oral lesion specimens. The IsoAmp HSV assay uses isothermal helicase-dependent amplification in combination with a disposable, hermetically-sealed, vertical-flow strip identification. The IsoAmp HSV assay has a total test-to-result time of less than 1.5 h by omitting the time-consuming nucleic acid extraction. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are comparable to PCR and are superior to culture-based methods. The near instrument-free, rapid and simple characteristics of the IsoAmp HSV assay make it potentially suitable for point-of-care testing.

  12. A rapid, one step molecular identification of Trichoderma citrinoviride and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Dina B; Dengeti, Shrinivas N; Aher, Supriya; Gupta, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Trichoderma species are widely used as production hosts for industrial enzymes. Identification of Trichoderma species requires a complex molecular biology based identification involving amplification and sequencing of multiple genes. Industrial laboratories are required to run identification tests repeatedly in cell banking procedures and also to prove absence of production host in the product. Such demands can be fulfilled by a brief method which enables confirmation of strain identity. This communication describes one step identification method for two common Trichoderma species; T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, based on identification of polymorphic region in the nucleotide sequence of translation elongation factor 1 alpha. A unique forward primer and common reverse primer resulted in 153 and 139 bp amplicon for T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, respectively. Simplification was further introduced by using mycelium as template for PCR amplification. Method described in this communication allows rapid, one step identification of two Trichoderma species.

  13. Fabrication of Polymerase Chain Reaction Plastic Lab-on-a-Chip Device for Rapid Molecular Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu The Loan Trinh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aim to fabricate a thermoplastic poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device to perform continuous- flow polymerase chain reactions (PCRs for rapid molecular detection of foodborne pathogen bacteria. Methods: A miniaturized plastic device was fabricated by utilizing PMMA substrates mediated by poly(dimethylsiloxane interfacial coating, enabling bonding under mild conditions, and thus avoiding the deformation or collapse of microchannels. Surface characterizations were carried out and bond strength was measured. The feasibility of the Lab-on-a-Chip device for performing on-chip PCR utilizing a lab-made, portable dual heater was evaluated. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercially available thermal cycler. Results: A PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device was designed and fabricated for conducting PCR using foodborne pathogens as sample targets. A robust bond was established between the PMMA substrates, which is essential for performing miniaturized PCR on plastic. The feasibility of on-chip PCR was evaluated using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Cronobacter condimenti, two worldwide foodborne pathogens, and the target amplicons were successfully amplified within 25 minutes. Conclusions: In this study, we present a novel design of a low-cost and high-throughput thermoplastic PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device for conducting microscale PCR, and we enable rapid molecular diagnoses of two important foodborne pathogens in minute resolution using this device. In this regard, the introduced highly portable system design has the potential to enable PCR investigations of many diseases quickly and accurately.

  14. Ancient low-molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Travis W; Wickland, Kimberly P; Spencer, Robert G M; McKnight, Diane M; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-11-10

    Northern permafrost soils store a vast reservoir of carbon, nearly twice that of the present atmosphere. Current and projected climate warming threatens widespread thaw of these frozen, organic carbon (OC)-rich soils. Upon thaw, mobilized permafrost OC in dissolved and particulate forms can enter streams and rivers, which are important processors of OC and conduits for carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from 35,800 y B.P. permafrost soils is rapidly mineralized to CO2. During 200-h experiments in a novel high-temporal-resolution bioreactor, DOC concentration decreased by an average of 53%, fueling a more than sevenfold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration. Eighty-seven percent of the DOC loss to microbial uptake was derived from the low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids acetate and butyrate. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly quantify high CO2 production rates from permafrost-derived LMW DOC mineralization. The observed DOC loss rates are among the highest reported for permafrost carbon and demonstrate the potential importance of LMW DOC in driving the rapid metabolism of Pleistocene-age permafrost carbon upon thaw and the outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere by soils and nearby inland waters.

  15. Ancient low–molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Travis W.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; McKnight, Diane M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Northern permafrost soils store a vast reservoir of carbon, nearly twice that of the present atmosphere. Current and projected climate warming threatens widespread thaw of these frozen, organic carbon (OC)-rich soils. Upon thaw, mobilized permafrost OC in dissolved and particulate forms can enter streams and rivers, which are important processors of OC and conduits for carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from 35,800 y B.P. permafrost soils is rapidly mineralized to CO2. During 200-h experiments in a novel high–temporal-resolution bioreactor, DOC concentration decreased by an average of 53%, fueling a more than sevenfold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration. Eighty-seven percent of the DOC loss to microbial uptake was derived from the low–molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids acetate and butyrate. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly quantify high CO2 production rates from permafrost-derived LMW DOC mineralization. The observed DOC loss rates are among the highest reported for permafrost carbon and demonstrate the potential importance of LMW DOC in driving the rapid metabolism of Pleistocene-age permafrost carbon upon thaw and the outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere by soils and nearby inland waters.

  16. Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.; Block, H.; Niu, Z.; Doiron, K.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat differs from corn in biodegradation kinetics and fermentation characteristics. Wheat exhibits a relatively high rate (23% h 01 ) and extent (78% DM) of biodegradation, which can lead to metabolic problems such as acidosis and bloat in ruminants. The objective of this study was to rapidly characterize the molecular chemistry of the internal structure of wheat (cv. AC Barrie) and reveal both its structural chemical make-up and nutrient component matrix by analyzing the intensity and spatial distribution of molecular functional groups within the intact seed using advanced synchrotron-powered Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the U2B station of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA. The wheat tissue was imaged systematically from the pericarp, seed coat, aleurone layer and endosperm under the peaks at ∼1732 (carbonyl C(double b ond)O ester), 1515 (aromatic compound of lignin), 1650 (amide I), 1025 (non-structural CHO), 1550 (amide II), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160, 1150, 1080, 930, 860 (all CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2928 (CH 2 stretching band) and 2885 cm -1 (CH 3 stretching band). Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to analyze the molecular FTIR spectra obtained from the different inherent structures within the intact wheat tissues. The results showed that, with synchrotron-powered FTIR microspectroscopy, images of the molecular chemistry of wheat could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of aromatic lignin, structural and non-structural carbohydrates, as well as nutrient make-up and interactions in the seeds, could be revealed. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis methods are conclusive in showing that they can discriminate and classify the different inherent structures within the seed tissue. The wheat exhibited distinguishable differences in the

  17. Comprehensive Transcriptome Study to Develop Molecular Resources of the Copepod Calanus sinicus for Their Potential Ecological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8 bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (T m)-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics. PMID:24982883

  18. Emerging technologies in point-of-care molecular diagnostics for resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W; McNerney, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    Emerging molecular technologies to diagnose infectious diseases at the point at which care is delivered have the potential to save many lives in developing countries where access to laboratories is poor. Molecular tests are needed to improve the specificity of syndromic management, monitor progress towards disease elimination and screen for asymptomatic infections with the goal of interrupting disease transmission and preventing long-term sequelae. In simplifying laboratory-based molecular assays for use at point-of-care, there are inevitable compromises between cost, ease of use and test performance. Despite significant technological advances, many challenges remain for the development of molecular diagnostics for resource-limited settings. There needs to be more advocacy for these technologies to be applied to infectious diseases, increased efforts to lower the barriers to market entry through streamlined and harmonized regulatory approaches, faster policy development for adoption of new technologies and novel financing mechanisms to enable countries to scale up implementation.

  19. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Rapid molecular evolution of human bocavirus revealed by Bayesian coalescent inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; De Maddalena, Chiara; Canuti, Marta; Zappa, Alessandra; Amendola, Antonella; Lai, Alessia; Galli, Massimo; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a linear single-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Parvoviridae family that has recently been isolated from the upper respiratory tract of children with acute respiratory infection. All of the strains observed so far segregate into two genotypes (1 and 2) with a low level of polymorphism. Given the recent description of the infection and the lack of epidemiological and molecular data, we estimated the virus's rates of molecular evolution and population dynamics. A dataset of forty-nine dated VP2 sequences, including also eight new isolates obtained from pharyngeal swabs of Italian patients with acute respiratory tract infections, was submitted to phylogenetic analysis. The model parameters, evolutionary rates and population dynamics were co-estimated using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, and site-specific positive and negative selection was also investigated. Recombination was investigated by seven different methods and one suspected recombinant strain was excluded from further analysis. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of HBoV was 8.6x10(-4)subs/site/year, and that of the 1st+2nd codon positions was more than 15 times less than that of the 3rd codon position. Viral population dynamics analysis revealed that the two known genotypes diverged recently (mean tMRCA: 24 years), and that the epidemic due to HBoV genotype 2 grew exponentially at a rate of 1.01year(-1). Selection analysis of the partial VP2 showed that 8.5% of sites were under significant negative pressure and the absence of positive selection. Our results show that, like other parvoviruses, HBoV is characterised by a rapid evolution. The low level of polymorphism is probably due to a relatively recent divergence between the circulating genotypes and strong purifying selection acting on viral antigens.

  1. Meteorite Impact-Induced Rapid NH3 Production on Early Earth: Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-12-01

    NH3 is an essential molecule as a nitrogen source for prebiotic amino acid syntheses such as the Strecker reaction. Previous shock experiments demonstrated that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have provided a considerable amount of NH3 from atmospheric N2 and oceanic H2O through reduction by meteoritic iron. However, specific production mechanisms remain unclear, and impact velocities employed in the experiments were substantially lower than typical impact velocities of meteorites on the early Earth. Here, to investigate the issues from the atomistic viewpoint, we performed multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The results revealed a rapid production of NH3 within several picoseconds after the shock, indicating that shocks with greater impact velocities would provide further increase in the yield of NH3. Meanwhile, the picosecond-order production makes one expect that the important nitrogen source precursors of amino acids were obtained immediately after the impact. It was also observed that the reduction of N2 proceeded according to an associative mechanism, rather than a dissociative mechanism as in the Haber-Bosch process.

  2. Rapid molecular diagnostics of severe primary immunodeficiency determined by using targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Zhang, Victor Wei; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Hanson, Imelda Celine; Forbes, Lisa R; de la Morena, M Teresa; Chinn, Ivan K; Gorman, Elizabeth; Mendelsohn, Nancy J; Pozos, Tamara; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Nicholas, Sarah K; Yates, Anne B; Moore, Lindsey E; Berge, Knut Erik; Sorte, Hanne; Bayer, Diana K; ALZahrani, Daifulah; Geha, Raif S; Feng, Yanming; Wang, Guoli; Orange, Jordan S; Lupski, James R; Wang, Jing; Wong, Lee-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are inherited disorders of the immune system. The most severe form, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), presents with profound deficiencies of T cells, B cells, or both at birth. If not treated promptly, affected patients usually do not live beyond infancy because of infections. Genetic heterogeneity of SCID frequently delays the diagnosis; a specific diagnosis is crucial for life-saving treatment and optimal management. We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multigene-targeted panel for SCID and other severe PIDDs requiring rapid therapeutic actions in a clinical laboratory setting. The target gene capture/NGS assay provides an average read depth of approximately 1000×. The deep coverage facilitates simultaneous detection of single nucleotide variants and exonic copy number variants in one comprehensive assessment. Exons with insufficient coverage (diagnostic yield of severe primary immunodeficiency. Establishing a molecular diagnosis enables early immune reconstitution through prompt therapeutic intervention and guides management for improved long-term quality of life. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid Evaporation of Water on Graphene/Graphene-Oxide: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qibin; Xiao, Yitian; Shi, Xiaoyang; Song, Shufeng

    2017-09-07

    To reveal the mechanism of energy storage in the water/graphene system and water/grapheme-oxide system, the processes of rapid evaporation of water molecules on the sheets of graphene and graphene-oxide are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that both the water/graphene and water/grapheme-oxide systems can store more energy than the pure water system during evaporation. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of graphene-oxide are able to reduce the attractive interactions between water molecules and the sheet of graphene-oxide. Also, the radial distribution function of the oxygen atom indicates that the hydroxyl groups affect the arrangement of water molecules at the water/graphene-oxide interface. Therefore, the capacity of thermal energy storage of the water/graphene-oxide system is lower than that of the water/graphene system, because of less desorption energy at the water/graphene-oxide interface. Also, the evaporation rate of water molecules on the graphene-oxide sheet is slower than that on the graphene sheet. The Leidenfrost phenomenon can be observed during the evaporation process in the water/grapheme-oxide system.

  4. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagmeester, Andra; Kutmon, Martina; Riutta, Anders; Miller, Ryan; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Pico, Alexander R

    2016-06-01

    The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs) to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web.

  5. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Waagmeester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web.

  6. Using the Semantic Web for Rapid Integration of WikiPathways with Other Biological Online Data Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagmeester, Andra; Pico, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of online resources storing biological data in different formats provides a challenge for bioinformaticians to integrate and analyse their biological data. The semantic web provides a standard to facilitate knowledge integration using statements built as triples describing a relation between two objects. WikiPathways, an online collaborative pathway resource, is now available in the semantic web through a SPARQL endpoint at http://sparql.wikipathways.org. Having biological pathways in the semantic web allows rapid integration with data from other resources that contain information about elements present in pathways using SPARQL queries. In order to convert WikiPathways content into meaningful triples we developed two new vocabularies that capture the graphical representation and the pathway logic, respectively. Each gene, protein, and metabolite in a given pathway is defined with a standard set of identifiers to support linking to several other biological resources in the semantic web. WikiPathways triples were loaded into the Open PHACTS discovery platform and are available through its Web API (https://dev.openphacts.org/docs) to be used in various tools for drug development. We combined various semantic web resources with the newly converted WikiPathways content using a variety of SPARQL query types and third-party resources, such as the Open PHACTS API. The ability to use pathway information to form new links across diverse biological data highlights the utility of integrating WikiPathways in the semantic web. PMID:27336457

  7. Building A NGS Genomic Resource: Towards Molecular Breeding In L. Perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruttink, Tom; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Asp, Torben

    To advance the application of molecular breeding in Lolium perenne, we have generated a sequence resource to facilitate gene discovery and SNP marker development. Illumina GAII transcriptome sequencing was performed on meristem-enriched samples of 14 Lolium genotypes. De novo assemblies for indiv......To advance the application of molecular breeding in Lolium perenne, we have generated a sequence resource to facilitate gene discovery and SNP marker development. Illumina GAII transcriptome sequencing was performed on meristem-enriched samples of 14 Lolium genotypes. De novo assemblies...... of SNP markers in selected candidate genes. In parallel, a germplasm collection of 602 Lolium genotypes was established and is being phenotyped for plant architecture, reproductive characteristics, flowering time, and forage quality traits. We will test through association genetics whether phenotypic...

  8. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: Rapid molecular detection with MTBDRplus® assay in clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Macedo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the greatest concern of tuberculosis control programmes is the appearance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Rapid determination of drug resistance in clinical samples, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC, is the prerequisite for initiating effective chemotherapy, ensuring successful treatment of the patient and preventing further spread of drugresistant isolates.The aim of our study was to determine the sensitivity of the new MTBDRplus® assay in comparison to culture, identification and classic DST, directly from smear-positive clinical specimens.A total of 68 smear-positive sputum specimens were processed by both the classical mycobacteriological methods and the molecular assay, MTBDRplus®.MTBDRplus® assay allowed an accurate identification of MTC species by detection of the specific band in all samples, from which we also isolated and identified MTC strains by culture methods. In the samples from which we isolated susceptible strains (63.2%, wild type patterns were found using MTBDRplus® assay. The samples from which we isolated resistant strains (36.8% showed specific mutations associated with the correspondent resistant phenotype.Our study indicated that this assay allows rapid detection of resistance, always in agreement with classic methods. Resumo: Uma das principais problematicas no controlo da tuberculose e o aparecimento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente (TB-MR e tuberculose extensivamente resistente (TB-XDR. A deteccao precoce da resistencia a farmacos, directamente a partir de amostras respiratorias, e essencial para que se assegure o tratamento atempado, adequado e eficaz da tuberculose, bem como para prevenir a disseminacao destes casos de especial gravidade.O nosso objectivo foi avaliar a sensibilidade e comparar os resultados obtidos com um metodo de genetica molecular disponivel comercialmente – MTBDRplus® – e o isolamento

  9. Rapid molecular evolution across amniotes of the IIS/TOR network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Suzanne E; Bronikowski, Anne M; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Reding, Dawn M; Addis, Elizabeth A; Flagel, Lex E; Janzen, Fredric J; Schwartz, Tonia S

    2015-06-02

    The insulin/insulin-like signaling and target of rapamycin (IIS/TOR) network regulates lifespan and reproduction, as well as metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. Despite its vital role in health, comparative analyses of IIS/TOR have been limited to invertebrates and mammals. We conducted an extensive evolutionary analysis of the IIS/TOR network across 66 amniotes with 18 newly generated transcriptomes from nonavian reptiles and additional available genomes/transcriptomes. We uncovered rapid and extensive molecular evolution between reptiles (including birds) and mammals: (i) the IIS/TOR network, including the critical nodes insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), exhibit divergent evolutionary rates between reptiles and mammals; (ii) compared with a proxy for the rest of the genome, genes of the IIS/TOR extracellular network exhibit exceptionally fast evolutionary rates; and (iii) signatures of positive selection and coevolution of the extracellular network suggest reptile- and mammal-specific interactions between members of the network. In reptiles, positively selected sites cluster on the binding surfaces of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), and insulin receptor (INSR); whereas in mammals, positively selected sites clustered on the IGF2 binding surface, suggesting that these hormone-receptor binding affinities are targets of positive selection. Further, contrary to reports that IGF2R binds IGF2 only in marsupial and placental mammals, we found positively selected sites clustered on the hormone binding surface of reptile IGF2R that suggest that IGF2R binds to IGF hormones in diverse taxa and may have evolved in reptiles. These data suggest that key IIS/TOR paralogs have sub- or neofunctionalized between mammals and reptiles and that this network may underlie fundamental life history and physiological differences between these amniote sister clades.

  10. Using rapid diagnostic tests as source of malaria parasite DNA for molecular analyses in the era of declining malaria prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishengoma, Deus S; Lwitiho, Sudi; Madebe, Rashid A

    2011-01-01

    was conducted to examine if sufficient DNA could be successfully extracted from malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used and collected as part of routine case management services in health facilities, and thus forming the basis for molecular analyses, surveillance and quality control (QC) testing of RDTs....... continued molecular surveillance of malaria parasites is important to early identify emerging anti-malarial drug resistance, it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain parasite samples from ongoing studies, such as routine drug efficacy trials. To explore other sources of parasite DNA, this study...

  11. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Its utility in resource poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojary A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS test performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with the conventional method i.e., the proportion method. Methods: One hundred clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF by the conventional proportion method and CONRAS in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium enriched with growth supplements (MB7H9S. Results: The performance of the CONRAS test was evaluated using proportion method as the gold standard. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility of the CONRAS test to INH was 93.75 and 98.52% and for RIF it was 96.10 and 100% respectively. The mean time for reporting was 6.3 days and the test showed excellent reproducibility. The kappa (k value for INH was 0.92 and for RIF was 0.99, indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. Conclusions: CONRAS test is a rapid and reliable method of drug susceptibility for M. tuberculosis.

  12. Design of two molecular methodologies for the rapid identification of Colombian community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Javier Antonio; Gómez, Ingrid Tatiana; Murillo, Martha Johanna; Castro, Betsy Esperanza; Chavarro, Bibiana; Márquez, Ricaurte Alejandro; Vanegas, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are found with increasing the frequency, both in healthy individuals in the community and in hospitalized patients. In Colombia and the Andean region, CA-MRSA isolates have a genetic background that is related to the pandemic USA300 clone. Objective. Two molecular methods are designed and standardized for the rapid differentiation of Colombian community-acquired and hospital-acquired methicillin-...

  13. The Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture Resource: Validated Cell Models Representing All Molecular Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most frequent and malignant form of primary brain tumor. GBM is essentially incurable and its resistance to therapy is attributed to a subpopulation of cells called glioma stem cells (GSCs. To meet the present shortage of relevant GBM cell (GC lines we developed a library of annotated and validated cell lines derived from surgical samples of GBM patients, maintained under conditions to preserve GSC characteristics. This collection, which we call the Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture (HGCC resource, consists of a biobank of 48 GC lines and an associated database containing high-resolution molecular data. We demonstrate that the HGCC lines are tumorigenic, harbor genomic lesions characteristic of GBMs, and represent all four transcriptional subtypes. The HGCC panel provides an open resource for in vitro and in vivo modeling of a large part of GBM diversity useful to both basic and translational GBM research.

  14. RAPID, MACHINE-LEARNED RESOURCE ALLOCATION: APPLICATION TO HIGH-REDSHIFT GAMMA-RAY BURST FOLLOW-UP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, A N; Richards, Joseph W; Butler, Nathaniel R; Bloom, Joshua S [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Long, James; Broderick, Tamara [Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3860 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    As the number of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) continues to grow, follow-up resources need to be used more efficiently in order to maximize science output from limited telescope time. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to rapidly identify bursts of interest as soon as possible after the event, before the afterglows fade beyond detectability. Studying the most distant (highest redshift) events, for instance, remains a primary goal for many in the field. Here, we present our Random Forest Automated Triage Estimator for GRB redshifts (RATE GRB-z ) for rapid identification of high-redshift candidates using early-time metrics from the three telescopes onboard Swift. While the basic RATE methodology is generalizable to a number of resource allocation problems, here we demonstrate its utility for telescope-constrained follow-up efforts with the primary goal to identify and study high-z GRBs. For each new GRB, RATE GRB-z provides a recommendation-based on the available telescope time-of whether the event warrants additional follow-up resources. We train RATE GRB-z using a set consisting of 135 Swift bursts with known redshifts, only 18 of which are z > 4. Cross-validated performance metrics on these training data suggest that {approx}56% of high-z bursts can be captured from following up the top 20% of the ranked candidates, and {approx}84% of high-z bursts are identified after following up the top {approx}40% of candidates. We further use the method to rank 200 + Swift bursts with unknown redshifts according to their likelihood of being high-z.

  15. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte

  16. Model-driven methodology for rapid deployment of smart spaces based on resource-oriented architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  17. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT and Web of Things (WoT are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA. This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  18. Chloroplast genome resources and molecular markers differentiate rubber dandelion species from weedy relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingxiao; Iaffaldano, Brian J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Cardina, John; Cornish, Katrina

    2017-02-02

    Rubber dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz, TK) is being developed as a domestic source of natural rubber to meet increasing global demand. However, the domestication of TK is complicated by its colocation with two weedy dandelion species, Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TB) and the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, TO). TB is often present as a seed contaminant within TK accessions, while TO is a pandemic weed, which may have the potential to hybridize with TK. To discriminate these species at the molecular level, and facilitate gene flow studies between the potential rubber crop, TK, and its weedy relatives, we generated genomic and marker resources for these three dandelion species. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of TK (151,338 bp), TO (151,299 bp), and TB (151,282 bp) were obtained using the Illumina GAII and MiSeq platforms. Chloroplast sequences were analyzed and annotated for all the three species. Phylogenetic analysis within Asteraceae showed that TK has a closer genetic distance to TB than to TO and Taraxacum species were most closely related to lettuce (Lactuca sativa). By sequencing multiple genotypes for each species and testing variants using gel-based methods, four chloroplast Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) variants were found to be fixed between TK and TO in large populations, and between TB and TO. Additionally, Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resources developed for TO and TK permitted the identification of five nuclear species-specific SNP markers. The availability of chloroplast genomes of these three dandelion species, as well as chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers, will provide a powerful genetic resource for germplasm differentiation and purification, and the study of potential gene flow among Taraxacum species.

  19. Rapid molecular sexing of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., based on large Y-chromosomal insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Theo C M; Giger, Thomas; Frommen, Joachim G; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable molecular sexing of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, the supermodel species for evolutionary biology. A DNA region at the 5' end of the sex-linked microsatellite Gac4202 was sequenced for the X chromosome of six females and the Y chromosome of five males from three populations. The Y chromosome contained two large insertions, which did not recombine with the phenotype of sex in a cross of 322 individuals. Genetic variation (SNPs and indels) within the insertions was smaller than on flanking DNA sequences. Three molecular PCR-based sex tests were developed, in which the first, the second or both insertions were covered. In five European populations (from DE, CH, NL, GB) of three-spined sticklebacks, tests with both insertions combined showed two clearly separated bands on agarose minigels in males and one band in females. The tests with the separate insertions gave similar results. Thus, the new molecular sexing method gave rapid and reliable results for sexing three-spined sticklebacks and is an improvement and/or alternative to existing methods.

  20. A rapid PCR-based approach for molecular identification of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Prior, Bernard A; Shi, Guiyang; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, a novel rapid and efficient DNA extraction method based on alkaline lysis, which can deal with a large number of filamentous fungal isolates in the same batch, was established. The filamentous fungal genomic DNA required only 20 min to prepare and can be directly used as a template for PCR amplification. The amplified internal transcribed spacer regions were easy to identify by analysis. The extracted DNA also can be used to amplify other protein-coding genes for fungal identification. This method can be used for rapid systematic identification of filamentous fungal isolates.

  1. UCLA's Molecular Screening Shared Resource: enhancing small molecule discovery with functional genomics and new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Molecular Screening Shared Resource (MSSR) offers a comprehensive range of leading-edge high throughput screening (HTS) services including drug discovery, chemical and functional genomics, and novel methods for nano and environmental toxicology. The MSSR is an open access environment with investigators from UCLA as well as from the entire globe. Industrial clients are equally welcome as are non-profit entities. The MSSR is a fee-for-service entity and does not retain intellectual property. In conjunction with the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, the MSSR is unique in its dedicated and ongoing efforts towards high throughput toxicity testing of nanomaterials. In addition, the MSSR engages in technology development eliminating bottlenecks from the HTS workflow and enabling novel assays and readouts currently not available.

  2. Helicase-dependent isothermal amplification: a novel tool in the development of molecular-based analytical systems for rapid pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda-García, Susana; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive testing of nucleic acids is essential to improve the detection of pathogens, which pose a major threat for public health worldwide. Currently available molecular assays, mainly based on PCR, have a limited utility in point-of-need control or resource-limited settings. Consequently, there is a strong interest in developing cost-effective, robust, and portable platforms for early detection of these harmful microorganisms. Since its description in 2004, isothermal helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) has been successfully applied in the development of novel molecular-based technologies for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of viruses and bacteria. In this review, we highlight relevant analytical systems using this simple nucleic acid amplification methodology that takes place at a constant temperature and that is readily compatible with microfluidic technologies. Different strategies for monitoring HDA amplification products are described. In addition, we present technological advances for integrating sample preparation, HDA amplification, and detection. Future perspectives and challenges toward point-of-need use not only for clinical diagnosis but also in food safety testing and environmental monitoring are also discussed. Graphical Abstract Expanding the analytical toolbox for the detection of DNA sequences specific of pathogens with isothermal helicase dependent amplification (HDA).

  3. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2015-05-01

    Reported research work presents real time non-invasive detection of phthalates in spiked aqueous samples by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique incorporating a novel interdigital capacitive sensor with multiple sensing thin film gold micro-electrodes fabricated on native silicon dioxide layer grown on semiconducting single crystal silicon wafer. The sensing surface was functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane (APTES) with embedded molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte. Frequency response analyzer (FRA) algorithm was used to obtain impedance spectra so as to determine sample conductance and capacitance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the sample solution. Spectrum analysis algorithm interpreted the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by applying complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting in order to obtain electrochemical equivalent circuit and corresponding circuit parameters describing the kinetics of the electrochemical cell. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the effects of surface immobilized molecular imprinted polymer layer on the evaluated circuit parameters and its electrical response. The results obtained by the testing system were validated using commercially available high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector system.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Pompilinae (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae): Evidence for rapid diversification and host shifts in spider wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juanita; Pitts, James P; Florez, Jaime A; Bond, Jason E; von Dohlen, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    Pompilinae is one of the largest subfamilies of spider wasps (Pompilidae). Most pompilines are generalist spider predators at the family level, but some taxa exhibit ecological specificity (i.e., to spider-host guild). Here we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pompilinae, toward the aim of evaluating the monophyly of tribes and genera. We further test whether changes in the rate of diversification are associated with host-guild shifts. Molecular data were collected from five nuclear loci (28S, EF1-F2, LWRh, Wg, Pol2) for 76 taxa in 39 genera. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic results were compared with previous hypotheses of subfamilial and tribal classification, as well as generic relationships in the subfamily. The classification of Pompilus and Agenioideus is also discussed. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analysis was used to examine divergence times. Diversification rate-shift tests accounted for taxon-sampling bias using ML and BI approaches. Ancestral host family and host guild were reconstructed using MP and ML methods. Ancestral host guild for all Pompilinae, for the ancestor at the node where a diversification rate-shift was detected, and two more nodes back in time was inferred using BI. In the resulting phylogenies, Aporini was the only previously proposed monophyletic tribe. Several genera (e.g., Pompilus, Microphadnus and Schistonyx) are also not monophyletic. Dating analyses produced a well-supported chronogram consistent with topologies from BI and ML results. The BI ancestral host-use reconstruction inferred the use of spiders belonging to the guild "other hunters" (frequenting the ground and vegetation) as the ancestral state for Pompilinae. This guild had the highest probability for the ML reconstruction and was equivocal for the MP reconstruction; various switching events to other guilds occurred throughout the evolution of the group. The diversification of

  5. Rapid and Accurate Molecular Identification of the Emerging Multidrug-Resistant Pathogen Candida auris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordalewska, Milena; Zhao, Yanan; Lockhart, Shawn R; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Berrio, Indira; Perlin, David S

    2017-08-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial and invasive infections associated with high mortality. C. auris is commonly misidentified as several different yeast species by commercially available phenotypic identification platforms. Thus, there is an urgent need for a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper, we present fast, robust, easy-to-perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays to identify C. auris and related species: Candida duobushaemulonii , Candida haemulonii , and Candida lusitaniae Targeting rDNA region nucleotide sequences, primers specific for C. auris only or C. auris and related species were designed. A panel of 140 clinical fungal isolates was used in both PCR and real-time PCR assays followed by electrophoresis or melting temperature analysis, respectively. The identification results from the assays were 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results. These molecular assays overcome the deficiencies of existing phenotypic tests to identify C. auris and related species. Copyright © 2017 Kordalewska et al.

  6. OpenMM 7: Rapid development of high performance algorithms for molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Eastman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OpenMM is a molecular dynamics simulation toolkit with a unique focus on extensibility. It allows users to easily add new features, including forces with novel functional forms, new integration algorithms, and new simulation protocols. Those features automatically work on all supported hardware types (including both CPUs and GPUs and perform well on all of them. In many cases they require minimal coding, just a mathematical description of the desired function. They also require no modification to OpenMM itself and can be distributed independently of OpenMM. This makes it an ideal tool for researchers developing new simulation methods, and also allows those new methods to be immediately available to the larger community.

  7. Evaluation of PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry for rapid molecular diagnosis of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreten, Vincent; Endimiani, Andrea; Thomann, Andreas; Wipf, Juliette R K; Rossano, Alexandra; Bodmer, Michèle; Raemy, Andreas; Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A; Ecker, David J; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A; Washington, Cicely

    2013-06-01

    Bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, is one of the most costly diseases affecting the dairy industry. The treatment and prevention of this disease is linked heavily to the use of antibiotics in agriculture and early detection of the primary pathogen is essential to control the disease. Milk samples (n=67) from cows suffering from mastitis were analyzed for the presence of pathogens using PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and were compared with standard culture diagnostic methods. Concurrent identification of the primary mastitis pathogens was obtained for 64% of the tested milk samples, whereas divergent results were obtained for 27% of the samples. The PCR/ESI-MS failed to identify some of the primary pathogens in 18% of the samples, but identified other pathogens as well as microorganisms in samples that were negative by culture. The PCR/ESI-MS identified bacteria to the species level as well as yeasts and molds in samples that contained a mixed bacterial culture (9%). The sensitivity of the PCR/ESI-MS for the most common pathogens ranged from 57.1 to 100% and the specificity ranged from 69.8 to 100% using culture as gold standard. The PCR/ESI-MS also revealed the presence of the methicillin-resistant gene mecA in 16.2% of the milk samples, which correlated with the simultaneous detection of staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrated that PCR/ESI-MS, a more rapid diagnostic platform compared with bacterial culture, has the significant potential to serve as an important screening method in the diagnosis of bovine clinical mastitis and has the capacity to be used in infection control programs for both subclinical and clinical disease. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid molecular detection of rifampicin resistance facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philly O'Riordan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health concern since diagnosis is often delayed, increasing the risk of spread to the community and health care workers. Treatment is prolonged, and the total cost of treating a single case is high. Diagnosis has traditionally relied upon clinical suspicion, based on risk factors and culture with sensitivity testing, a process that can take weeks or months. Rapid diagnostic molecular techniques have the potential to shorten the time to commencing appropriate therapy, but have not been put to the test under field conditions.This retrospective case-control study aimed to identify risk factors for MDR-TB, and analyse the impact of testing for rifampicin resistance using RNA polymerase B (rpoB mutations as a surrogate for MDR-TB. Forty two MDR-TB cases and 84 fully sensitive TB controls were matched by date of diagnosis; and factors including demographics, clinical presentation, microbiology findings, management and outcome were analysed using their medical records. Conventionally recognised risk factors for MDR-TB were absent in almost half (43% of the cases, and 15% of cases were asymptomatic. A significant number of MDR-TB cases were identified in new entrants to the country. Using rpoB mutation testing, the time to diagnosis of MDR-TB was dramatically shortened by a median of 6 weeks, allowing patients to be commenced on appropriate therapy a median of 51days earlier than those diagnosed by conventional culture and sensitivity testing.MDR-TB is frequently an unexpected finding, may be asymptomatic, and is particularly prevalent among TB infected new entrants to the country. Molecular resistance testing of all acid fast bacilli positive specimens has the potential to rapidly identify MDR-TB patients and commence them on appropriate therapy significantly earlier than by conventional methods.

  9. Rapid, efficient and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by molecularly imprinted composite cartridge and HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çorman, Mehmet Emin, E-mail: mecorman@sinop.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Sinop University, Department of Bioengineering, Sinop (Turkey); Armutcu, Canan [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Lokman, E-mail: lokman@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-01-01

    In this study, cryogel-based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges were designed for the rapid, efficient, and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from water samples. First, a BaP-imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine) composite cartridge was synthesized under semi-frozen conditions and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and swelling tests. After the optimization of preconcentration parameters, i.e., pH and initial BaP concentration, the selectivity and preconcentration efficiency, and reusability of these cartridges were also evaluated. In selectivity experiments, BaP imprinted composite cartridge exhibited binding capacities 3.09, 9.52, 8.87, and 8.77-fold higher than that of the non-imprinted composite cartridge in the presence of competitors, such as benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP), and 1-naphthol, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL), relative standard deviation (RSD) and preconcentration efficiency (PE) of the synthesized composite cartridge were calculated as 24.86 μg/L, 1.60%, and 349.6%, respectively. - Highlights: • Cryogel based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges as solid-phase extraction sorbents • Combination unique structural features of cryogels with MIP • An excellent ability to recognize the BaP molecule even if single-run contact • Rapid, efficient, selective and cost-friendly PAH preconcentration • Hydrophobic interactions via N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine.

  10. The importance of brain banks for molecular neuropathological research: The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedova, Irina; Harding, Antony; Sheedy, Donna; Garrick, Therese; Sundqvist, Nina; Hunt, Clare; Gillies, Juliette; Harper, Clive G

    2009-01-01

    New developments in molecular neuropathology have evoked increased demands for postmortem human brain tissue. The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (TRC) at The University of Sydney has grown from a small tissue collection into one of the leading international brain banking facilities, which operates with best practice and quality control protocols. The focus of this tissue collection is on schizophrenia and allied disorders, alcohol use disorders and controls. This review highlights changes in TRC operational procedures dictated by modern neuroscience, and provides examples of applications of modern molecular techniques to study the neuropathogenesis of many different brain disorders.

  11. Impact of rapid molecular diagnostic tests on time to treatment initiation and outcomes in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Dina; Navneethapandian, Pooranaganga D; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Harries, Anthony D; Klinton, Joel S; Watson, Basilea; Sivaramakrishnan, Gomathi N; Reddy, Devarajulu S; Murali, Lakshmi; Natrajan, Mohan; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-09-01

    India is replacing culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) with rapid molecular tests for diagnosing MDR-TB. We assessed the impact of rapid tests on time to initiation of treatment and outcomes in patients with MDR-TB compared with CDST. A retrospective cohort study involving MDR-TB patients from six districts in Tamil Nadu state, who underwent CDST (2010-2011) and rapid tests (2012-2013). There were 135 patients in the CDST group and 389 in the rapid diagnostic test group. Median time from sputum receipt at the laboratory to initiation of MDR-TB treatment was 130 days (IQR 75-213) in the CDST group and 22 days (IQR 14-38) in the rapid diagnostic test group (p30% in both groups and missing data were higher in CDST (13%) compared with rapid tests (3%). There were significantly higher risks of unfavourable treatment outcomes in males (aRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5) and those with treatment initiation delays >30 days (aRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Rapid molecular diagnostic tests shortened the time to initiate treatment which was associated with reduced unfavourable outcomes in MDR-TB patients. This supports the policy to scale up these tests in India. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Removal of cyanotoxins from surface water resources using reusable molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Patel, Govind P; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Microcystins (MCs; cyclic heptapeptides) are produced by freshwater cyanobacteria and cause public health concern in potable water supplies. There are more than 60 types of MCs identified to date, of which MC-LR is the most common found worldwide. For MC-LR, the WHO has established a threshold value of 1 μg L(-1) for drinking water. The present MCs removal methods such as coagulation, flocculation, adsorption, and filtration showed low efficiency for removing dissolved MC fraction from surface waters to the stipulated limit prescribed by WHO based on MC health impacts. The search for cost-effective and efficient removal method is still warranted for remediation of dissolved MC-LR-contaminated water resources. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbent has been prepared using non-covalent imprinting approach. Using MC-LR as a template, itaconic acid as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linking monomer, a MIP has been synthesized. Computer simulations were used to design effective binding sites for MC-LR binding in aqueous solutions. Batch binding adsorption assay was followed to determine binding capacity of MIP under the influence of environmental parameters such as total dissolved solids and pH. The adsorptive removal of MC-LR from lake water has been investigated using MIPs. The MIP showed excellent adsorption potential toward MC-LR in aqueous solutions with a binding capacity of 3.64 μg mg(-1) which is about 60% and 70% more than the commercially used powdered activated carbon (PAC) and resin XAD, respectively. Environmental parameters such as total organic carbon (represented as chemical oxygen demand (COD)) and total dissolved solids (TDS) showed no significant interference up to 300 mg L(-1) for MC-LR removal from lake water samples. It was found that the binding sites on PAC and XAD have more affinity toward COD and TDS than the MC-LR. Further, the adsorption capacity of the MIP was evaluated rigorously by its repeated

  13. Molecular dynamics study of dynamic and structural properties of supercooled liquid and glassy iron in the rapid-cooling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qi-Long; Huang, Duo-Hui; Yang, Jun-Sheng; Wan, Min-Jie; Wang, Fan-Hou, E-mail: eatonch@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to study the dynamic and structural properties of supercooled liquid and glassy iron in the rapid-cooling processes. The mean-square displacement and the non-Gaussian parameter were used to describe the dynamic properties. The evolution of structural properties was investigated using the pair distribution functions and bond-angle distribution functions. Results for dynamic and structural relaxations indicate that the dynamic features are consistently correlated with the structure evolution, and there are three temperature regions as the temperature decreases: (1) at higher temperatures (1500 K, 1300 K, and 1100 K), the system remains in the liquid characteristics during the overall relaxation process. (2) At medial temperatures (1050 K, 900 K, and 700 K), a fast β-relaxation is followed by a much slower α-relaxation. There is a little change in the structural properties in the β-relaxation region, while major configuration rearrangements occurred in the α-relaxation range and the crystallization process was completed at the end of α-relaxation region. (3) At lower temperature (500 K), the system shows glassy characteristics during the overall relaxation process. In addition, the melting temperature, glass transition temperature and diffusion coefficients of supercooled liquid iron are also computed.

  14. Rapid molecular cytogenetic analysis of X-chromosomal microdeletions: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for complex glycerol kinase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, K.C.; Lindsay, E.A.; McCabe, E.R.B. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-17

    Diagnosis of X-chromosomal microdeletions has relied upon the traditional methods of Southern blotting and DNA amplification, with carrier identification requiring time-consuming and unreliable dosage calculations. In this report, we describe rapid molecular cytogenetic identification of deleted DNA in affected males with the Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome (complex glycerol kinase deficiency, CGKD) and female carriers for this disorder. CGKD deletions involve the genes for glycerol kinase, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and/or adrenal hypoplasia congenita. We report an improved method for diagnosis of deletions in individuals with CGKD and for identification of female carriers within their families using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cosmid marker (cosmid 35) within the glycerol kinase gene. When used in combination with an Xq control probe, affected males demonstrate a single signal from the control probe, while female carriers demonstrate a normal chromosome with two signals, as well as a deleted chromosome with a single signal from the control probe. FISH analysis for CGKD provides the advantages of speed and accuracy for evaluation of submicroscopic X-chromosome deletions, particularly in identification of female carriers. In addition to improving carrier evaluation, FISH will make prenatal diagnosis of CGKD more readily available. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Badger, Jake; Larsen, Soeren; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Hansen, Lars Boye; Stisen, Simon; Mariko, Adama; Togola, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorological mesoscale modeling. The paper presents first results from applying the methodology in Mali and discusses the appropriateness of the results obtained. It is shown that northern Mali has considerable wind energy potential, while average wind speeds in the southern part are too low to make wind power a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options. (author)

  16. MALDI-TOF MS enables the rapid identification of the major molecular types within the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex comprises two sibling species that are divided into eight major molecular types, C. neoformans VNI to VNIV and C. gattii VGI to VGIV. These genotypes differ in host range, epidemiology, virulence, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. The currently used phenotypic and molecular identification methods for the species/molecular types are time consuming and expensive. As Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS offers an effective alternative for the rapid identification of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to examine its potential for the identification of C. neoformans and C. gattii strains at the intra- and inter-species level. METHODOLOGY: Protein extracts obtained via the formic acid extraction method of 164 C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates, including four inter-species hybrids, were studied. RESULTS: The obtained mass spectra correctly identified 100% of all studied isolates, grouped each isolate according to the currently recognized species, C. neoformans and C. gattii, and detected potential hybrids. In addition, all isolates were clearly separated according to their major molecular type, generating greater spectral differences among the C. neoformans molecular types than the C. gattii molecular types, most likely reflecting a closer phylogenetic relationship between the latter. The number of colonies used and the incubation length did not affect the results. No spectra were obtained from intact yeast cells. An extended validated spectral library containing spectra of all eight major molecular types was established. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid identification tool for the correct recognition of the two currently recognized human pathogenic Cryptococcus species and offers a simple method for the separation of the eight major molecular types and the detection of hybrid strains within this

  17. A resource letter CSSMD-1: computer simulation studies by the method of molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, S.P.; Hockney, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive bibliography on computer simulation studies by the method of Molecular Dynamics is presented. The bibliography includes references to relevant literature published up to mid 1973, starting from the first paper of Alder and Wainwright, published in 1957. The procedure of the method of Molecular Dynamics, the main fields of study in which it has been used, its limitations and how these have been overcome in some cases are also discussed [pt

  18. Rapid Colorimetric Detection of Cartap Residues by AgNP Sensor with Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Microspheres as Recognition Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The overuse of cartap in tea tree leads to hazardous residues threatening human health. A colorimetric determination was established to detect cartap residues in tea beverages by silver nanoparticles (AgNP sensor with magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric microspheres (Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs as recognition elements. Using Fe3O4 as supporting core, mesoporous SiO2 as intermediate shell, methylacrylic acid as functional monomer, and cartap as template, Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs were prepared to selectively and magnetically separate cartap from tea solution before colorimetric determination by AgNP sensors. The core-shell Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs were also characterized by FT-IR, TEM, VSM, and experimental adsorption. The Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs could be rapidly separated by an external magnet in 10 s with good reusability (maintained 95.2% through 10 cycles. The adsorption process of cartap on Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs conformed to Langmuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 0.257 mmol/g and short equilibrium time of 30 min at 298 K. The AgNP colorimetric method semi-quantified cartap ≥5 mg/L by naked eye and quantified cartap 0.1–5 mg/L with LOD 0.01 mg/L by UV-vis spectroscopy. The AgNP colorimetric detection after pretreatment with Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs could be successfully utilized to recognize and detect cartap residues in tea beverages.

  19. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Saif U; Oyewale, Tajudeen O; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-03-01

    Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The specimens were subjected to rapid HIV tests using the national algorithm with A1 = Alere Determine (United States), A2 = Uni-Gold (Ireland), and A3 = First Response (India). The sensitivity and specificity of the test results, and the operational cost were compared with current serum-based testing. The sensitivities [95% of confidence interval (CI)] for A1, A2, and A3 tests using whole blood were 100% (CI: 99.1-100%), 100% (CI: 99.1-100%), and 97% (CI: 96.4-98.2%), respectively, and specificities of all test kits were 100% (CI: 99.1-100%). Significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the cost of establishing HTC centre and consumables by 94 and 61%, respectively, were observed. The cost of administration and external quality assurance reduced by 39 and 43%, respectively. Overall, there was a 36% cost reduction in total operational cost of rapid HIV testing with blood when compared with serum. Considering the similar sensitivity and specificity of the two specimens, and significant cost reduction, rapid HIV testing with whole blood is feasible. A review of the national HIV rapid testing algorithm with whole blood will contribute toward improving HTC coverage in Bangladesh.

  20. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorolo...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...... a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity...

  1. Mining online genomic resources in Anolis carolinensis facilitates rapid and inexpensive development of cross-species microsatellite markers for the Anolis lizard genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordley, Claire; Slate, Jon; Stapley, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Online sequence databases can provide valuable resources for the development of cross-species genetic markers. In particular, mining expressed tag sequences (EST) for microsatellites and developing conserved cross-species microsatellite markers can provide a rapid and relatively inexpensive method to develop new markers for a range of species. Here, we adopt this approach to develop cross-species microsatellite markers in Anolis lizards, which is a model genus in evolutionary biology and ecology. Using EST sequences from Anolis carolinensis, we identified 127 microsatellites that satisfied our criteria, and tested 49 of these in five species of Anolis (carolinensis, distichus, apletophallus, porcatus and sagrei). We identified between 8 and 25 new variable genetic markers for five Anolis species. These markers will be a valuable resource for studies of population genetics, comparative mapping, mating systems, behavioural ecology and adaptive radiations in this diverse lineage. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Rapid Determination of Six Low Molecular Carbonyl Compounds in Tobacco Smoke by the APCI-MS/MS Coupled to Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuduo Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method was established for the rapid determination of low molecular carbonyl compounds by the combination of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS and data mining. The ionization was carried out in positive mode, and six low molecular carbonyl compounds of acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butanone, and butyraldehyde were analyzed by both full scan mode and daughter scan mode. To overcome the quantitative difficulties from isomer of acetone/propionaldehyde and butanone/butyraldehyde, the quantitation procedure was performed with the characteristic ion of [CH3O]+ under CID energy of 5 and 15 eV. Subsequently, the established method was successfully applied to analysis of six low molecular carbonyl compounds in tobacco smoke with analytical period less than four minutes. The contents of acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butanone, and butyraldehyde for a cigarette were about 63±5.8, 325±82, 55±9.7, 11±1.4, 67±5.9, and 12±1.8 μg/cig, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the established method had the potential application in rapid determination of low molecular carbonyl compounds.

  3. HIV-TRACE (Transmission Cluster Engine): a tool for large scale molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and other rapidly evolving pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Weaver, Steven; Leigh Brown, Andrew J; Wertheim, Joel O

    2018-01-31

    In modern applications of molecular epidemiology, genetic sequence data are routinely used to identify clusters of transmission in rapidly evolving pathogens, most notably HIV-1. Traditional 'shoeleather' epidemiology infers transmission clusters by tracing chains of partners sharing epidemiological connections (e.g., sexual contact). Here, we present a computational tool for identifying a molecular transmission analog of such clusters: HIV-TRACE (TRAnsmission Cluster Engine). HIV-TRACE implements an approach inspired by traditional epidemiology, by identifying chains of partners whose viral genetic relatedness imply direct or indirect epidemiological connections. Molecular transmission clusters are constructed using codon-aware pairwise alignment to a reference sequence followed by pairwise genetic distance estimation among all sequences. This approach is computationally tractable and is capable of identifying HIV-1 transmission clusters in large surveillance databases comprising tens or hundreds of thousands of sequences in near real time, i.e., on the order of minutes to hours. HIV-TRACE is available at www.hivtrace.org and from github.com/veg/hivtrace, along with the accompanying result visualization module from github.com/veg/hivtrace-viz. Importantly, the approach underlying HIV-TRACE is not limited to the study of HIV-1 and can be applied to study outbreaks and epidemics of other rapidly evolving pathogens. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted dye-silica nanocomposites with high selectivity and sensitivity: Fluorescent imprinted sensor for rapid and efficient detection of τ-fluvalinate in vodka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunyun; Wang, Jixiang; Cheng, Rujia; Sun, Lin; Dai, Xiaohui; Yan, Yongsheng

    2018-04-01

    An imprinted fluorescent sensor was fabricated based on SiO 2 nanoparticles encapsulated with a molecularly imprinted polymer containing allyl fluorescein. High fluorine cypermethirin as template molecules, methyl methacrylate as functional monomer, and allyl fluorescein as optical materials synthesized a core-shell fluorescent molecular imprinted sensor, which showed a high and rapid sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of τ-fluvalinate. The sensor presented appreciable sensitivity with a limit of 13.251 nM, rapid detection that reached to equilibrium within 3 min, great linear relationship in the relevant concentration range from 0 to 150 nM, and excellent selectivity over structural analogues. In addition, the fluorescent sensor demonstrated desirable regeneration ability (eight cycling operations). The molecularly imprinted polymers ensured specificity, while the fluorescent dyes provided the stabile sensitivity. Finally, an effective application of the sensor was implemented by the detection of τ-fluvalinate in real samples from vodka. The molecularly imprinted fluorescent sensor showed a promising potential in environmental monitoring and food safety. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Hanley, Nick D; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Rabinovici, Sharyl J M; Kinzelman, Julie L; Fleming, Lora E; Porter, Jonathan; Shaikh, Sabina; Fish, Rob; Chilton, Sue; Hewitt, Julie; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; Glenk, Klaus; McPhail, Calum; McRory, Eric; McVittie, Alistair; Giles, Amanna; Roberts, Suzanne; Simpson, Katherine; Tinch, Dugald; Thairs, Ted; Avery, Lisa M; Vinten, Andy J A; Watts, Bill D; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-01

    The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2015-06-19

    The genus Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Diplostomidae) is a diverse group of freshwater parasites with complex life-cycles and global distribution. The larval stages are important pathogens causing eye fluke disease implicated in substantial impacts on natural fish populations and losses in aquaculture. However, the problematic species delimitation and difficulties in the identification of larval stages hamper the assessment of the distributional and host ranges of Diplostomum spp. and their transmission ecology. Total genomic DNA was isolated from adult worms and shotgun sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons were assembled using established bioinformatic tools and fully annotated. Mt protein-coding genes and nuclear rRNA genes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood and the resulting topologies compared. We characterised novel complete mt genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of two closely related species, Diplostomum spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum. Comparative mt genome assessment revealed that the cox1 gene and its 'barcode' region used for molecular identification are the most conserved regions; instead, nad4 and nad5 genes were identified as most promising molecular diagnostic markers. Using the novel data, we provide the first genome wide estimation of the phylogenetic relationships of the order Diplostomida, one of the two fundamental lineages of the Digenea. Analyses of the mitogenomic data invariably recovered the Diplostomidae as a sister lineage of the order Plagiorchiida rather than as a basal lineage of the Diplostomida as inferred in rDNA phylogenies; this was concordant with the mt gene order of Diplostomum spp. exhibiting closer match to the conserved gene order of the Plagiorchiida. Complete sequences of the mt genome and rRNA operon of two species of Diplostomum provide a valuable resource for novel genetic markers for species delineation and

  7. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacilli in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Mahmooda; Khan, Adnan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2013-06-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology diagnosis globally, resourcelimited countries still struggle to provide an acceptable diagnosis quality which helps in clinical disease management and improve their mortality and morbidity data. During this study an indigenous product, Quick Test Strip (QTS) NE, was developed for the rapid identification of biochemically slower group of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacilli that covers 19 different bacterial genera. Some of the members belonging to these groups are well-established human pathogens, e.g. various species of Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Aeromonas, Achromobacter and Stenotrophomonas. This study also evaluates the performance of QTS-NE by comparing with genotypic characterization methods. A total of 232 clinical and reference bacterial isolates were tested by three different methods. QTSNE provides 100 percent concordant results with other rapid identification and molecular characterization methods and confirms the potential to be used in clinical diagnosis.

  8. Resource management and operations in southwest South Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary January 20-21, 2016, Rapid City, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ray, Andrea; Miller, Brian; Cross, Molly; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the southwest South Dakota grasslands focal area, with an emphasis on Badlands National Park and Buffalo Gap National Grassland. The report explains scenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held January 20-21, 2016 in Rapid City, South Dakota, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  9. Rapid degradation of Congo red by molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO2 nanoparticles in dark at ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Shoutai; Hu, Xiaolei; Liu, Hualong; Wang, Qiang; He, Chiyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO 2 catalyst was prepared. • The catalyst degraded Congo red rapidly in dark at ambient conditions. • Degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis. • The catalyst can be easily recycled by a magnet. - Abstract: A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated magnetic TiO 2 nanocomposite was prepared, using methyl orange (MO) as the dummy template and pyrrole as functional monomer, for degradation of Congo red (CR). The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The imprinting efficiency of the imprinted nanoparticles was investigated by static binding test, and their degradation ability toward CR was also studied. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and oscillation rate on degradation rate of CR were investigated. Results showed that the imprinted nanocomposite had higher adsorption ability for MO compared with the non-imprinted one. Moreover, it could degrade CR rapidly in dark at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and could be recycled easily by a magnet with a good reusability. A degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis of degradation products of CR. The new imprinted nanoparticles showed high catalytic activity at ambient conditions without light illumination and additional chemicals, and therefore, it can be potentially applied to the rapid, “green” and low-cost degradation of CR in industrial printing and dyeing wastewater

  10. Rapid degradation of Congo red by molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in dark at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shoutai; Hu, Xiaolei; Liu, Hualong; Wang, Qiang; He, Chiyang, E-mail: chiyanghe@hotmail.com

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} catalyst was prepared. • The catalyst degraded Congo red rapidly in dark at ambient conditions. • Degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis. • The catalyst can be easily recycled by a magnet. - Abstract: A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was prepared, using methyl orange (MO) as the dummy template and pyrrole as functional monomer, for degradation of Congo red (CR). The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The imprinting efficiency of the imprinted nanoparticles was investigated by static binding test, and their degradation ability toward CR was also studied. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and oscillation rate on degradation rate of CR were investigated. Results showed that the imprinted nanocomposite had higher adsorption ability for MO compared with the non-imprinted one. Moreover, it could degrade CR rapidly in dark at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and could be recycled easily by a magnet with a good reusability. A degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis of degradation products of CR. The new imprinted nanoparticles showed high catalytic activity at ambient conditions without light illumination and additional chemicals, and therefore, it can be potentially applied to the rapid, “green” and low-cost degradation of CR in industrial printing and dyeing wastewater.

  11. Green Is the New Black: The Need for a New Currency That Values Water Resources in Rapidly Developing Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, I. F.; Webster, K. L.; Kreutzweiser, D. P.; Beall, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canada's boreal forest supports many aquatic ecosystem services (AES) due to the intimate linkage between aquatic systems and their surrounding terrestrial watersheds in forested landscapes. There is an increasing risk to AES because natural development activities (forest management, mining, energy) have resulted in disruptions that deteriorate aquatic ecosystems at local (10s of km2) to regional (100s of km2) scales. These activities are intensifying and expanding, placing at risk the healthy aquatic ecosystems that provide AES and may threaten the continued development of the energy, forest, and mining sectors. Remarkably, we know little about the consequences of these activities on AES. The idea that AES should be explicitly integrated into modern natural resource management regulations is gaining broad acceptance. A major need is the ability to measure cumulative effects and determine thresholds (the points where aquatic ecosystems and their services cannot recover to a desired state within a reasonable time frame) in these cumulative effects. However, there is no single conceptual approach to assessing cumulative effects that is widely accepted by both scientists and managers. We present an integrated science-policy framework that enables the integration of AES into forest management risk assessment and prevention/mitigation strategies. We use this framework to explore the risk of further deterioration of AES by (1) setting risk criteria; (2) using emerging technologies to map process-based indicators representing causes and consequences of risk events to the deterioration of AES; (3) assessing existing prevention and mitigation policies in place to avoid risk events; and (4) identifying priorities for policy change needed to reduce risk event. Ultimately, the success of this framework requires that higher value be placed on AES, and in turn to improve the science and management of the boreal forest.

  12. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  13. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Jafari

    Full Text Available Rapid and point-of-care (POC tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP specific reference standards.Five electronic databases (1980-2012 were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit.In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21, ii SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50, iii VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57, and iv Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100, ii Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29, iii SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53, and iv Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66. In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70, ii SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61, iii Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13, and iv VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96, ii VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98, iii SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33, and iv Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74.Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening

  14. Rapid Formation of Molecular Bromine from Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol in the Presence of Ozone and UV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of gas-phase bromine from aqueous sodium bromide aerosols is investigated through a combination of chamber experiments and chemical kinetics modeling. Experiments show that Br2(g) is produced rapidly from deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals prod...

  15. Antifungal activity of low molecular weight chitosan produced from non-traditional marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pires Avelelas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The four plants pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Cryphonectria parasitica and Heterobasidion annosum are responsible for several diseases affecting different plant species in Portugal, such as pines (H. annosum, chestnuts (P. cinnamomi and C. parasitica and eucalyptus (B. cinerea. These pathogens incurs in large economic losses, and ultimately causes the death of these plants. The use of biopolymers as antimicrobial agents, such as chitosan (derived from chitin, is increasing, in order to reduce the negative impact of conventional chemical treatments on the environment, avoiding health risks. Therefore, eco-friendly polymers were produced through (1 N-acetylation with addition of acetic anhydride and (2 hydrogen peroxide of chitosan samples, obtained from two different sources: shrimp (commercial chitosan and swimming crab bycatch specie Polybius henslowii. The chemical structure and molecular weight of the prepared chitosan derivatives, water soluble chitosan (WSC and chitooligosaccharides (COS, was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and their antifungal activity evaluated against Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Cryphonectria parasitica and Heterobasidion annosum. The concentration range varied from 0.0125 to 0.1 mg/mL and inhibition percentages were determined by differences in radial growth on the agar plates for all species. Although not all species tested exhibited equal vulnerability towards the concentrations range, antifungal activity of chitosan samples proved to be dependent, increasing the inhibitory capacity with lower concentrations. The results obtained support the use of chitosan fromPolybius henslowii when compared with commercial chitosan with shrimp towards antifungal approaches, suggesting that chitin producers can rely on this crab waste as a raw material for chitin extraction, adding value to this bycatch specie. Financial support was obtained

  16. Molecular characterization of Wilms tumor from a resource-constrained region of sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrew J.; Axt, Jason R.; de Caestecker, Christian; Pierce, Janene; Correa, Hernan; Seeley, Erin H.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Newton, Mark W.; de Caestecker, Mark P.; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African children have an increased incidence of Wilms tumor (WT) and experience alarmingly poor outcomes. Although these outcomes are largely due to inadequate therapy, we hypothesized that WT from this region exhibit features of biologic aggressiveness that may warrant broader implementation of high-risk therapeutic protocols. We evaluated 15 Kenyan WT (KWT) for features of aggressive disease (blastemal predominance, Ki67/cellular proliferation) and treatment resistance (anaplasia, p53 immunopositivity). To explore additional biologic features of KWT, we determined the mutational status of the CTNNB1/β-catenin and WT1 genes and performed immunostaining for markers of Wnt pathway activation (β-catenin) and nephronic progenitor cell self-renewal (WT1, CITED1, SIX2). We characterized the proteome of KWT using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Results were compared to histology and age-matched North American WT (NAWT) controls. For KWT patients, blastemal predominance was noted in 53.3% and anaplasia in 13%. We detected increased loss to follow up (p=0.028), disease relapse (p=0.044), mortality (p=0.001), and nuclear unrest (p=0.001) in KWT patients compared to controls. KWT and NAWT showed similar Ki67/cellular proliferation. We detected an increased proportion of epithelial nuclear β-catenin in KWT (p=0.013). All 15 KWT were found to harbor wild-type β-catenin, and 1 contained a WT1 nonsense mutation. WT1 was detected by immunostaining in 100% of KWT, CITED1 in 80%, and SIX2 in 80%. IMS revealed a molecular signature unique to KWT that was distinct from NAWT. African WTs appear to express markers of adverse clinical behavior and treatment resistance and may require alternative therapies or implementation of high-risk treatment protocols. PMID:22437966

  17. Rapid Analysis of Apolar Low Molecular Weight Constituents in Wood Using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, F.W.; Haar, van de C.; Beek, van T.A.; Dorado, J.; Martinez-Inigo, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2000-01-01

    A new high pressure liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of apolar, low molecular weight constituents in wood. The wood extractives were obtained by means of a 6 h Soxhlet extraction with acetone. The

  18. Molecular evidence of malaria and zoonotic diseases among rapid diagnostic test-negative febrile patients in low-transmission season, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Petersen, Pelle T; Bathily, Sidy N'd

    2017-01-01

    From November to December 2012 in Sélingué-Mali, blood samples from 88 febrile patients who tested negative by malaria Paracheck (®) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were used to assess the presence of sub-RDT Plasmodium falciparum as well as Borrelia, Coxiella burnetii, and Babesia applying molecular...... tools. Plasmodium sp. was present among 57 (60.2%) of the 88 malaria RDT-negative patients, whereas the prevalence of Borrelia, C. burnetii, and Babesia were 3.4% (N = 3), 1.1% (N = 1), and 0.0%, respectively. The additional diagnostic use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified a high proportion...

  19. Country-wide surveillance of molecular markers of antimalarial drug resistance in Senegal by use of positive Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Nag, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    of drug resistance. Therefore, surveillance of drug resistance in the malaria parasites is essential. The objective of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of routinely sampled malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at a national scale to assess the temporal changes in the molecular profiles...... of antimalarial drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Overall, 9,549 positive malaria RDTs were collected from 14 health facilities across the country. A limited random set of RDTs were analyzed regarding Pfcrt gene polymorphisms at codon 72-76. Overall, a high but varied prevalence (> 50...

  20. Case report: lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis-from rapid screening to molecular confirmation of a masked sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Grilnberger, Evelyn; Huber, Florian; Leibl, Gabriele; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Gartner, Manfred; Huber, Monika; Chott, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2013-08-01

    Proctitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L2b can manifest with very mild, nonspecific symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic evaluation is crucial. The case report demonstrates that rapid screening test, detection of specific antibodies in serum, and direct pathogen identification by PCR performed on tissue sample or rectal swab allow successful diagnosis of the still emerging sexually transmitted disease among homosexual patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Development of rapid setting-drying device for herbarium specimens and its application in survey of Chinese materia medica resources in Anhui].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Chuan-Run; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Long; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Liu, He-Ling; Zhou, Jian-Li; Yang, Qing-Shan; Peng, Dai-Yin

    2016-07-01

    Herbarium specimens are the basis for the plant classification and indispensable media in teaching, scientific research and resources investigation. They have also played an important role in identifying and producing traditional Chinese medicine. High-quality herbarium specimens shall meet high requirements for integrity, smoothness, color and fabricating efficiency. Therefore, we designed a rapid setting and drying device for herbarium specimens, which could make the herbarium specimens smooth, colorful and not easy to mildew. In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional methods in making herbarium specimens, and introduced the structure and working principle of the device. Besides, we also discussed the effect of the device in setting and drying herbarium specimens and its application in the fourth national survey of the Chinese material medica resources (CMMR) in Anhui province. As a result, the device provides new ideas for producing herbarium specimens, with a reasonable design, good uniformity, high efficiency, safety and portability, and so is worthy of promotion and application in the national survey of CMMR. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Dilution testing using rapid diagnostic tests in a HIV diagnostic algorithm: a novel alternative for confirmation testing in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Abebe, Almaz; Piriou, Erwan; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Masiga, Johnson; Muluneh, Libsework; Wazome, Joseph; Ritmeijer, Koert; Klarkowski, Derryck

    2015-05-14

    Current WHO testing guidelines for resource limited settings diagnose HIV on the basis of screening tests without a confirmation test due to cost constraints. This leads to a potential risk of false positive HIV diagnosis. In this paper, we evaluate the dilution test, a novel method for confirmation testing, which is simple, rapid, and low cost. The principle of the dilution test is to alter the sensitivity of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) by dilution of the sample, in order to screen out the cross reacting antibodies responsible for falsely positive RDT results. Participants were recruited from two testing centres in Ethiopia where a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 different RDTs in series is used to diagnose HIV. All samples positive on the initial screening RDT and every 10th negative sample underwent testing with the gold standard and dilution test. Dilution testing was performed using Determine™ rapid diagnostic test at 6 different dilutions. Results were compared to the gold standard of Western Blot; where Western Blot was indeterminate, PCR testing determined the final result. 2895 samples were recruited to the study. 247 were positive for a prevalence of 8.5 % (247/2895). A total of 495 samples underwent dilution testing. The RDT diagnostic algorithm misclassified 18 samples as positive. Dilution at the level of 1/160 was able to correctly identify all these 18 false positives, but at a cost of a single false negative result (sensitivity 99.6 %, 95 % CI 97.8-100; specificity 100 %, 95 % CI: 98.5-100). Concordance between the gold standard and the 1/160 dilution strength was 99.8 %. This study provides proof of concept for a new, low cost method of confirming HIV diagnosis in resource-limited settings. It has potential for use as a supplementary test in a confirmatory algorithm, whereby double positive RDT results undergo dilution testing, with positive results confirming HIV infection. Negative results require nucleic acid testing to rule out false

  3. Improved laboratory resource utilization and patient care with the use of rapid on-site evaluation for endobronchial ultrasound fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian T; Chen, Alexander C; Wang, Jeff F; Bernadt, Cory T; Sanati, Souzan

    2013-10-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound guided (EBUS) fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has become widely used to evaluate patients with thoracic abnormalities. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) can provide the bronchoscopist with immediate evaluation findings during the procedure. This study examines EBUS FNA biopsy procedures with and without ROSE, and investigates the impact of ROSE service on the EBUS procedure and laboratory resource utilization. The cytopathology database at Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, was searched for EBUS FNA biopsy cases before and after introduction of ROSE service, and a matched cohort was collected. Reports were reviewed and pertinent data was collected, such as sites biopsied, ROSE performance, slide smears, cell blocks, and diagnostic categories. Statistical analysis of the results was performed. A matched case-controlled EBUS FNA cohort of 340 patients (680 total) for each category of non-ROSE and ROSE service were identified. There was a 33% reduction in the number of sites biopsied with ROSE. A total of 68% of patients with ROSE had just one biopsy site compared to only 36% of non-ROSE patients. There was a 30% decrease in total slides (mean, 5.27 slides) after the introduction of ROSE. All of these improvements were statistically significant. EBUS FNA biopsy ROSE service benefits patients by contributing to significantly fewer biopsies and improved utilization of health care resources. ROSE service results in substantially fewer total slides, which has a significant impact on the cytopathology laboratory work effort. The use of ROSE for EBUS FNA biopsy provides significant improvements in patient care and laboratory resource utilization. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  4. A national survey of the impact of rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy on health-care workers in Malawi: effects on human resources and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makombe, Simon D; Jahn, Andreas; Tweya, Hannock; Chuka, Stuart; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung; Hochgesang, Mindy; Aberle-Grasse, John; Pasulani, Olesi; Schouten, Erik J; Kamoto, Kelita; Harries, Anthony D

    2007-11-01

    To assess the human resources impact of Malawis rapidly growing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme and balance this against the survival benefit of health-care workers who have accessed ART themselves. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of the human resource allocation in all public-sector health facilities providing ART in mid-2006. We also undertook a survival analysis of health-care workers who had accessed ART in public and private facilities by 30 June 2006, using data from the national ART monitoring and evaluation system. By 30 June 2006, 59 581 patients had accessed ART from 95 public and 28 private facilities. The public sites provided ART services on 2.4 days per week on average, requiring 7% of the clinician workforce, 3% of the nursing workforce and 24% of the ward clerk workforce available at the facilities. We identified 1024 health-care workers in the national ART-patient cohort (2% of all ART patients). The probabilities for survival on ART at 6 months, 12 months and 18 months were 85%, 81% and 78%, respectively. An estimated 250 health-care workers lives were saved 12 months after ART initiation. Their combined work-time of more than 1000 staff-days per week was equivalent to the human resources required to provide ART at the national level. A large number of ART patients in Malawi are managed by a small proportion of the health-care workforce. Many health-care workers have accessed ART with good treatment outcomes. Currently, staffing required for ART balances against health-care workers lives saved through treatment, although this may change in the future.

  5. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huaan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM, and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA

  6. A novel molecularly imprinted material based on magnetic halloysite nanotubes for rapid enrichment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Shian; Zhou, Chengyun; Zhang, Xiaona; Zhou, Hui; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful preparation of a novel type of magnetic halloysite molecularly imprinted material. • Rapid enrichment for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water. • This material possesses high adsorption capacity and specific recognition to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. • Magnetic halloysite were synthesized by co-precipitation method. - Abstract: A new type of magnetic halloysite nanotubes molecularly imprinted polymer (MHNTs@MIP) based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with embedded magnetic nanoparticles was introduced in this study. MHNTs@MIP was prepared through surface imprinting technology, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a template, 4-vinylpyridine as the monomer, divinylbenzene as cross-linking agents, and 2,2-azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator. MHNTs@MIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. MHNTs@MIP exhibited rapid and reliable analysis with supermagnetic properties, as well as repeated use and template-specific recognition. The adsorption capacity of magnetic halloysite nanotubes non-imprinted polymer (MHNTs@NIP) and MHNTs@MIP was 10.3 mg/g and 35.2 mg/g, respectively. In the detailed discussion on specific selectivity, MHNTs@MIP can be applied as an adsorbent for sample pretreatment extraction and obtain high recoveries of about 85–94%. After extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect 2,4-D residue in water

  7. A novel molecularly imprinted material based on magnetic halloysite nanotubes for rapid enrichment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shian; Zhou, Chengyun; Zhang, Xiaona [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhou, Hui [Cancer Hospital of Xiangya Medical College, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiaohong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: yanwangcsu@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful preparation of a novel type of magnetic halloysite molecularly imprinted material. • Rapid enrichment for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water. • This material possesses high adsorption capacity and specific recognition to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. • Magnetic halloysite were synthesized by co-precipitation method. - Abstract: A new type of magnetic halloysite nanotubes molecularly imprinted polymer (MHNTs@MIP) based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with embedded magnetic nanoparticles was introduced in this study. MHNTs@MIP was prepared through surface imprinting technology, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a template, 4-vinylpyridine as the monomer, divinylbenzene as cross-linking agents, and 2,2-azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator. MHNTs@MIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. MHNTs@MIP exhibited rapid and reliable analysis with supermagnetic properties, as well as repeated use and template-specific recognition. The adsorption capacity of magnetic halloysite nanotubes non-imprinted polymer (MHNTs@NIP) and MHNTs@MIP was 10.3 mg/g and 35.2 mg/g, respectively. In the detailed discussion on specific selectivity, MHNTs@MIP can be applied as an adsorbent for sample pretreatment extraction and obtain high recoveries of about 85–94%. After extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect 2,4-D residue in water.

  8. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on InP1−xBix grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X Y; Wang, K; Pan, W W; Wang, P; Li, Y Y; Song, Y X; Gu, Y; Yue, L; Xu, H; Zhang, Z P; Cui, J; Gong, Q; Wang, S M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of InP 1−x Bi x thin films was investigated. InPBi shows good thermal stability up to 500 °C and a modest improvement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity with an unchanged PL spectral feature. Bismuth outdiffusion from InPBi and strain relaxation are observed at about 600 °C. The InPBi sample annealed at 800 °C shows an unexpected PL spectrum with different energy transitions. (paper)

  9. [Molecular beacon based PNA-FISH method combined with fluorescence scanning for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Shuai, Jiangbing; Li, Ke; Yu, Huizhen; Jin, Chenchen

    2016-07-04

    To simplify the PNA-FISH (Peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization) test, molecular beacon based PNA probe combined with fluorescence scanning detection technology was applied to replace the original microscope observation to detect Listeria monocytogenes The 5′ end and 3′ end of the L. monocytogenes specific PNA probes were labeled with the fluorescent group and the quenching group respectively, to form a molecular beacon based PNA probe. When PNA probe used for fluorescence scanning and N1 treatment as the control, the false positive rate was 11.4%, and the false negative rate was 0; when N2 treatment as the control, the false positive rate decreased to 4.3%, but the false negative rate rose to 18.6%. When beacon based PNA probe used for fluorescence scanning, taken N1 treatment as blank control, the false positive rate was 8.6%, and the false negative rate was 1.4%; taken N2 treatment as blank control, the false positive rate was 5.7%, and the false negative rate was 1.4%. Compared with PNA probe, molecular beacon based PNA probe can effectively reduce false positives and false negatives. The success rates of hybridization of the two PNA probes were 83.3% and 95.2% respectively; and the rates of the two beacon based PNA probes were 91.7% and 90.5% respectively, which indicated that labeling the both ends of the PNA probe dose not decrease the hybridization rate with the target bacteria. The combination of liquid phase PNA-FISH and fluorescence scanning method, can significantly improve the detection efficiency.

  10. Rapid determination of 239Pu in urine samples using molecular recognition technology product AnaLigRPu-02 gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia Dulanska; Boris Remenec; Jan Bilohuscin; Miroslav Labaska; Bianka Horvathova; Andrej Matel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of IBC's AnaLig R Pu-02 molecular recognition technology product to effectively and selectively pre-concentrate, separate and recover plutonium from urine samples. This method uses two-stage column separations consisting of two different commercial products, Eichrom's Pre-filter Material and AnaLig R Pu-02 resin from IBC Advanced Technologies. By eliminating the co-precipitation techniques and the ashing steps to remove residual organics, the analysis time was reduced significantly. The method was successfully tested by adding known activities of reference solutions of 242 Pu and 239 Pu to urine samples. (author)

  11. Rapid molecular detection of invasive species in ballast and harbor water by integrating environmental DNA and light transmission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Scott P; Grey, Erin; Olds, Brett; Feder, Jeffery L; Ruggiero, Steven T; Tanner, Carol E; Lodge, David M

    2015-04-07

    Invasive species introduced via the ballast water of commercial ships cause enormous environmental and economic damage worldwide. Accurate monitoring for these often microscopic and morphologically indistinguishable species is challenging but critical for mitigating damages. We apply eDNA sampling, which involves the filtering and subsequent DNA extraction of microscopic bits of tissue suspended in water, to ballast and harbor water sampled during a commercial ship's 1400 km voyage through the North American Great Lakes. Using a lab-based gel electrophoresis assay and a rapid, field-ready light transmission spectroscopy (LTS) assay, we test for the presence of two invasive species: quagga (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels. Furthermore, we spiked a set of uninfested ballast and harbor samples with zebra mussel tissue to further test each assay's detection capabilities. In unmanipulated samples, zebra mussel was not detected, while quagga mussel was detected in all samples at a rate of 85% for the gel assay and 100% for the LTS assay. In the spiked experimental samples, both assays detected zebra mussel in 94% of spiked samples and 0% of negative controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that eDNA sampling is effective for monitoring ballast-mediated invasions and that LTS has the potential for rapid, field-based detection.

  12. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a simple, rapid, and standardized tool for molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru.

  13. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a Simple, Rapid, and Standardized Tool for Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K.; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru. PMID:19553579

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer cartridges coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for simple and rapid analysis of dextromethorphan in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a novel method is described for automated determination of dextromethorphan in biological fluids using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) as a sample clean-up technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, chloroform as porogen and dextromethorphan as template molecule. These imprinted polymers were used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the extraction of dextromethorphan from human plasma samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the MIP cartridges were evaluated. The high selectivity of the sorbent coupled to the high performance liquid chromatographic system permitted a simple and rapid analysis of this drug in plasma samples with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.12 ng/mL and 0.35 ng/mL, respectively. The MIP selectivity was evaluated by analyzing of the dextromethorphan in presence of several substances with similar molecular structures and properties. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the recoveries of dextromethorphan using MIP cartridges from human plasma samples in the range of 1-50 ng/mL were higher than 87%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid and reliable high-throughput methods of DNA extraction for use in barcoding and molecular systematics of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Bryn T M; Margaritescu, Simona; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2010-07-01

    We present two methods for DNA extraction from fresh and dried mushrooms that are adaptable to high-throughput sequencing initiatives, such as DNA barcoding. Our results show that these protocols yield ∼85% sequencing success from recently collected materials. Tests with both recent (100 years) specimens reveal that older collections have low success rates and may be an inefficient resource for populating a barcode database. However, our method of extracting DNA from herbarium samples using small amount of tissue is reliable and could be used for important historical specimens. The application of these protocols greatly reduces time, and therefore cost, of generating DNA sequences from mushrooms and other fungi vs. traditional extraction methods. The efficiency of these methods illustrates that standardization and streamlining of sample processing should be shifted from the laboratory to the field. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Screening and rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis in prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission.We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR, and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF. Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31% and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%, and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69% and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%. Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics.In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies using self-referral or symptom screening alone

  17. Redundancy and molecular evolution: the rapid Induction of bone formation by the mammalian transforming growth factor-β3 isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation and postnatal bone tissue morphogenesis with translation into clinical contexts. The mammalian TGF-β3 isoform, a pleiotropic member of the family, controls a vast array of biological processes including the induction of bone formation. Recombinant hTGF-β3 induces substantial bone formation when implanted with either collagenous bone matrices or coral-derived macroporous bioreactors in the rectus abdominis muscle of the non-human primate Papio ursinus. In marked contrast, the three mammalian TGF-βs do not initiate the induction of bone formation in rodents and lagomorphs. The induction of bone by hTGF-β3/preloaded bioreactors is orchestrated by inducing fibrin-fibronectin rings that structurally organize tissue patterning and morphogenesis within the macroporous spaces. Induced advancing extracellular matrix rings provide the structural anchorage for hyper chromatic cells, interpreted as differentiating osteoblasts re-programmed by hTGF-β3 from invading myoblastic and/or pericytic differentiated cells. Runx2 and Osteocalcin expression are significantly up-regulated correlating to multiple invading cells differentiating into the osteoblastic phenotype. Bioreactors pre-loaded with recombinant human Noggin (hNoggin, a BMPs antagonist, show down-regulation of BMP-2 and other profiled osteogenic proteins’ genes resulting in minimal bone formation. Coral-derived macroporous constructs preloaded with binary applications of hTGF-β3 and hNoggin also show down-regulation of BMP-2 with the induction of limited bone formation. The induction of bone formation by hTGF-β3 is via the BMPs pathway and it is thus blocked by hNoggin. Our systematic studies in Papio ursinus with translational hTGF-β3 in large cranio-mandibulo-facial defects in humans are now requesting the re-evaluation of Bone

  18. Rapid detection of malachite green in fish based on CdTe quantum dots coated with molecularly imprinted silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Le; Lin, Zheng-Zhong; Zhong, Hui-Ping; Peng, Ai-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Yong

    2017-08-15

    A sensitive fluorescence sensor for the detection of malachite green (MG) was fabricated by grafting molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) onto the surface of CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The MIP-coated QDs were synthesized via a reverse microemulsion method using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The optimum molar ratio of MG, functional monomer and cross-linker was 1:3:10. The MIP-coated QDs exhibited uniform spheres with diameter around 49nm and excellent fluorescence emission at λ ex 370nm. A linear relationship with two segments between the relative fluorescence intensities and the MG concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 20μmol·L -1 could be obtained with a detection limit of 12μg·kg -1 . The fluorescent probe was successfully applied to the determination of MG in fish samples with the spiked recoveries ranging from 94.3% to 109.5% which were in accordance with those of the measurement by HPLC-UV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A molecular toolbox for rapid generation of viral vectors to up- or down-regulate in vivo neuronal gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D. White

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a molecular toolbox for manipulation of neuronal gene expression in vivo. The toolbox includes promoters, ion channels, optogenetic tools, fluorescent proteins and intronic artificial microRNAs. The components are easily assembled into adeno-associated virus (AAV or lentivirus vectors using recombination cloning. We demonstrate assembly of toolbox components into lentivirus and AAV vectors and use these vectors for in vivo expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir3.1 and Kir3.2 and an artificial microRNA targeted against the ion channel HCN1 (HCN1 miR. We show that AAV assembled to express HCN1 miR produces efficacious and specific in vivo knockdown of HCN1 channels. Comparison of in vivo viral transduction using HCN1 miR with mice containing a germ line deletion of HCN1 reveals similar physiological phenotypes in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The easy assembly and re-usability of the toolbox components, together with the ability to up- or down-regulate neuronal gene expression in vivo, may be useful for applications in many areas of neuroscience.

  20. Rapid diagnosis of pyrazinamide-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis using a molecular-based diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S O; van der Laan, T; Mulder, A; van Ingen, J; Rigouts, L; Dekhuijzen, P N R; Boeree, M J; van Soolingen, D

    2014-10-01

    There is an urgent need for rapid and accurate diagnosis of pyrazinamide-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). No diagnostic algorithm has been validated in this population. We hypothesized that pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis can accurately identify patients with pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB. We identified from the Dutch national database (2007-11) patients with a positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture containing a mutation in the rpoB gene. In these cases, we prospectively sequenced the pncA gene. Results from the rpoB and pncA mutation analysis (pncA added to rpoB) were compared with phenotypic susceptibility testing results to rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (reference standard) using the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube 960 system. We included 83 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates containing rpoB mutations in the primary analysis. Rifampicin resistance was seen in 72 isolates (87%), isoniazid resistance in 73 isolates (88%) and MDR-TB in 65 isolates (78%). Phenotypic reference testing identified pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB in 31 isolates (48%). Sensitivity of pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis for detecting pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB was 96.8%, the specificity was 94.2%, the positive predictive value was 90.9%, the negative predictive value was 98.0%, the positive likelihood was 16.8 and the negative likelihood was 0.03. In conclusion, pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB can be accurately detected using pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis. We propose to include pncA sequencing in every isolate with an rpoB mutation, allowing for stratification of MDR-TB treatment according to pyrazinamide susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Rapid visible color change and physical swelling during water exposure in triethanolamine-metalcone films formed by molecular layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Paul C.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of “metalcones,” including alucone, zincone, titanicone, and others, involves self-limiting half-reactions between organic and organometallic (or metal-halide) reactants. Studies have typically focused on metal precursors reacting with ethylene glycol or glycerol to form the films' polymeric O-M-O-(CH x ) y -O-M-O repeat units. The authors report new MLD materials that incorporate tertiary amine groups into the organic linkage. Specifically, reacting triethanolamine (TEA) with either trimethylaluminum or titanium tetrachloride produces TEA-alucone (Al-TEA) and TEA-titanicone (Ti-TEA), respectively, and the amine group leads to unique physical and optical properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the films have prominent C-H, C-N, and M-O-C peaks, consistent with the expected bond structure. When exposed to vapors, including water, alcohol, or ammonia, the Ti-TEA films changed their visible color within minutes and increased physical thickness by >35%. The Al-TEA showed significantly less response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FTIR suggest that HCl generated during MLD coordinates to the amine forming a quaternary ammonium salt that readily binds adsorbates via hydrogen bonding. The visible color change is reversible, and ellipsometry confirms that the color change results from vapor absorption. The unique absorptive and color-changing properties of the TEA-metalcone films point to new possible applications for MLD materials in filtration, chemical absorption, and multifunctional chemical separations/sensing device systems

  2. Rapid visible color change and physical swelling during water exposure in triethanolamine-metalcone films formed by molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Paul C.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N., E-mail: gnp@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of “metalcones,” including alucone, zincone, titanicone, and others, involves self-limiting half-reactions between organic and organometallic (or metal-halide) reactants. Studies have typically focused on metal precursors reacting with ethylene glycol or glycerol to form the films' polymeric O-M-O-(CH{sub x}){sub y}-O-M-O repeat units. The authors report new MLD materials that incorporate tertiary amine groups into the organic linkage. Specifically, reacting triethanolamine (TEA) with either trimethylaluminum or titanium tetrachloride produces TEA-alucone (Al-TEA) and TEA-titanicone (Ti-TEA), respectively, and the amine group leads to unique physical and optical properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the films have prominent C-H, C-N, and M-O-C peaks, consistent with the expected bond structure. When exposed to vapors, including water, alcohol, or ammonia, the Ti-TEA films changed their visible color within minutes and increased physical thickness by >35%. The Al-TEA showed significantly less response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FTIR suggest that HCl generated during MLD coordinates to the amine forming a quaternary ammonium salt that readily binds adsorbates via hydrogen bonding. The visible color change is reversible, and ellipsometry confirms that the color change results from vapor absorption. The unique absorptive and color-changing properties of the TEA-metalcone films point to new possible applications for MLD materials in filtration, chemical absorption, and multifunctional chemical separations/sensing device systems.

  3. The complete phylogeny of pangolins: scaling up resources for the molecular tracing of the most trafficked mammals on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubert, Philippe; Antunes, Agostinho; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Peigné, Stéphane; Justy, Fabienne; Njiokou, Flobert; Dufour, Sylvain; Danquah, Emmanuel; Alahakoon, Jayanthi; Verheyen, Erik; Stanley, William T; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2017-11-13

    Pangolins, considered the most-trafficked mammals on Earth, are rapidly heading to extinction. Eight extant species of these African and Asian scale-bodied anteaters are commonly recognized, but their evolutionary relationships remain largely unexplored. Here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic assessment of pangolins, based on genetic variation of complete mitogenomes and nine nuclear genes. We confirm deep divergence among Asian and African pangolins occurring not later than the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ca. 23 million-years-ago (Ma) (95% HPD=18.7-27.2), limited fossil evidence suggesting dispersals from Europe. We recognize three genera including Manis (Asian pangolins), Smutsia (large African pangolins) and Phataginus (small African pangolins), which first diversified in the Middle-Upper Miocene (9.8-13.3 Ma) through a period of gradual cooling coinciding with a worldwide taxonomic diversification among mammals. Based on large mitogenomic distances among the three genera (18.3-22.8%) and numerous (18) morphological traits unique to Phataginus, we propose the subfamily Phatagininae subfam. nov. to designate small African pangolins. In contrast with the morphological-based literature, our results establish that the thick-tailed pangolin (M.crassicaudata) is sister-species of the Sunda (M. javanica) and Palawan (M. culionensis) pangolins. Mitogenomic phylogenetic delineations supported additional pangolin species subdivisions (n=13), including six African common pangolin (P. tricuspis) lineages, but these patterns were not fully supported by our multi-locus approach. Finally, we identified over 5,000 informative mitogenomic sites and diagnostic variation from five nuclear genes among all species and lineages of pangolins, providing an important resource for further research and for effectively tracing the worldwide pangolin trade. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. An EST dataset for Metasequoia glyptostroboides buds: the first EST resource for molecular genomics studies in Metasequoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Thammannagowda, Shivegowda; Staton, Margaret; Tang, Sha; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun; Liang, Haiying

    2013-03-01

    The "living fossil" Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng, commonly known as dawn redwood or Chinese redwood, is the only living species in the genus and is valued for its essential oil and crude extracts that have great potential for anti-fungal activity. Despite its paleontological significance and economical value as a rare relict species, genomic resources of Metasequoia are very limited. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms behind the formation of reproductive buds and the transition from vegetative phase to reproductive phase in Metasequoia, we performed sequencing of expressed sequence tags from Metasequoia vegetative buds and female buds. By using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a total of 1,571,764 high-quality reads were generated, among which 733,128 were from vegetative buds and 775,636 were from female buds. These EST reads were clustered and assembled into 114,124 putative unique transcripts (PUTs) with an average length of 536 bp. The 97,565 PUTs that were at least 100 bp in length were functionally annotated by a similarity search against public databases and assigned with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A total of 59 known floral gene families and 190 isotigs involved in hormone regulation were captured in the dataset. Furthermore, a set of PUTs differentially expressed in vegetative and reproductive buds, as well as SSR motifs and high confidence SNPs, were identified. This is the first large-scale expressed sequence tags ever generated in Metasequoia and the first evidence for floral genes in this critically endangered deciduous conifer species.

  5. Comparative transcriptome resources of two Dysosma species (Berberidaceae) and molecular evolution of the CYP719A gene in Podophylloideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yunrui; Zhang, Yonghua; Xu, Chuan; Qiu, Yingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Dysosma species (Berberidaceae, Podophylloideae) are of great medicinal pharmacogenetic importance and used as model systems to study the drivers and mechanisms of species diversification of temperate plants in East Asia. Recently, we have sequenced the transcriptome of the low-elevation D. versipellis. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of the high-elevation D. aurantiocaulis and used comparative genomic approaches to investigate the transcriptome evolution of the two species. We retrieved 53,929 unigenes from D. aurantiocaulis by de novo transcriptome assemblies using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Comparing the transcriptomes of both species, we identified 4593 orthologs. Estimation of Ka/Ks ratios for 3126 orthologs revealed that none had a Ka/Ks significantly greater than 1, whereas 1273 (Ka/Ks < 0.5, P < 0.05) were inferred to be under purifying selection. A total of 51 primer pairs were successfully designed from 461 EST-SSRs contained in 4593 orthologs. Marker validation assay revealed that 26 (51%) and 41 (80.4%) produced clear fragments with the expected sizes in all Podophylloideae species. Specifically, 19 different sequences of CYP719A were identified from PCR-amplified genomic DNA of all 12 species of Podophylloideae using primers designed from the assembled transcripts. The data further indicated that CYP719A was likely subject to strong selective constraints maintaining only one copy per genome. In Dysosma, there was relaxed purifying selection or more positive selection for high-elevation species. Overall, this study has generated a wealth of molecular resources potentially useful for pharmacogenetic and evolutionary studies in Dysosma and allied taxa. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Testing mitochondrial sequences and anonymous nuclear markers for phylogeny reconstruction in a rapidly radiating group: molecular systematics of the Delphininae (Cetacea: Odontoceti: Delphinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingston Sarah E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many molecular phylogenetic analyses rely on DNA sequence data obtained from single or multiple loci, particularly mitochondrial DNA loci. However, phylogenies for taxa that have undergone recent, rapid radiation events often remain unresolved. Alternative methodologies for discerning evolutionary relationships under these conditions are desirable. The dolphin subfamily Delphininae is a group that has likely resulted from a recent and rapid radiation. Despite several efforts, the evolutionary relationships among the species in the subfamily remain unclear. Results Here, we compare a phylogeny estimated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequences to a multi-locus phylogeny inferred from 418 polymorphic genomic markers obtained from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis. The two sets of phylogenies are largely incongruent, primarily because the mtDNA tree provides very poor resolving power; very few species' nodes in the tree are supported by bootstrap resampling. The AFLP phylogeny is considerably better resolved and more congruent with relationships inferred from morphological data. Both phylogenies support paraphyly for the genera Stenella and Tursiops. The AFLP data indicate a close relationship between the two spotted dolphin species and recent ancestry between Stenella clymene and S. longirostris. The placement of the Lagenodelphis hosei lineage is ambiguous: phenetic analysis of the AFLP data is consistent with morphological expectations but the phylogenetic analysis is not. Conclusion For closely related, recently diverged taxa, a multi-locus genome-wide survey is likely the most comprehensive approach currently available for phylogenetic inference.

  7. Molecular-based rapid inventories of sympatric diversity: a comparison of DNA barcode clustering methods applied to geography-based vs clade-based sampling of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Andrea; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers offer a universal source of data for quantifying biodiversity. DNA barcoding uses a standardized genetic marker and a curated reference database to identify known species and to reveal cryptic diversity within wellsampled clades. Rapid biological inventories, e.g. rapid assessment programs (RAPs), unlike most barcoding campaigns, are focused on particular geographic localities rather than on clades. Because of the potentially sparse phylogenetic sampling, the addition of DNA barcoding to RAPs may present a greater challenge for the identification of named species or for revealing cryptic diversity. In this article we evaluate the use of DNA barcoding for quantifying lineage diversity within a single sampling site as compared to clade-based sampling, and present examples from amphibians. We compared algorithms for identifying DNA barcode clusters (e.g. species, cryptic species or Evolutionary Significant Units) using previously published DNA barcode data obtained from geography-based sampling at a site in Central Panama, and from clade-based sampling in Madagascar. We found that clustering algorithms based on genetic distance performed similarly on sympatric as well as clade-based barcode data, while a promising coalescent-based method performed poorly on sympatric data. The various clustering algorithms were also compared in terms of speed and software implementation. Although each method has its shortcomings in certain contexts, we recommend the use of the ABGD method, which not only performs fairly well under either sampling method, but does so in a few seconds and with a user-friendly Web interface.

  8. Informing Antibiotic Treatment Decisions: Evaluating Rapid Molecular Diagnostics To Identify Susceptibility and Resistance to Carbapenems against Acinetobacter spp. in PRIMERS III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Scott R; Hujer, Andrea M; Jiang, Hongyu; Hill, Carol B; Hujer, Kristine M; Mediavilla, Jose R; Manca, Claudia; Tran, Thuy Tien T; Domitrovic, T Nicholas; Higgins, Paul G; Seifert, Harald; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Patel, Robin; Jacobs, Michael R; Chen, Liang; Sampath, Rangarajan; Hall, Thomas; Marzan, Christine; Fowler, Vance G; Chambers, Henry F; Bonomo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has created significant therapeutic challenges. At present, rapid molecular diagnostics (RMDs) that can identify this phenotype are not commercially available. Two RMD platforms, PCR combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and molecular beacons (MB), for detecting genes conferring resistance/susceptibility to carbapenems in Acinetobacter spp. were evaluated. An archived collection of 200 clinical Acinetobacter sp. isolates was tested. Predictive values for susceptibility and resistance were estimated as a function of susceptibility prevalence and were based on the absence or presence of beta-lactamase (bla) NDM, VIM, IMP, KPC, and OXA carbapenemase genes (e.g., bla OXA-23 , bla OXA-24/40 , and bla OXA-58 found in this study) against the reference standard of MIC determinations. According to the interpretation of MICs, 49% (n = 98) of the isolates were carbapenem resistant (as defined by either resistance or intermediate resistance to imipenem). The susceptibility sensitivities (95% confidence interval [CI]) for imipenem were 82% (74%, 89%) and 92% (85%, 97%) for PCR/ESI-MS and MB, respectively. Resistance sensitivities (95% CI) for imipenem were 95% (88%, 98%) and 88% (80%, 94%) for PCR/ESI-MS and MB, respectively. PRIMERS III establishes that RMDs can discriminate between carbapenem resistance and susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp. In the context of a known prevalence of resistance, SPVs and RPVs can inform clinicians regarding the best choice for empiric antimicrobial therapy against this multidrug-resistant pathogen. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Recent advances in biochemical and molecular diagnostics for the rapid detection of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a focus on ß-lactam resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    The rapid detection of resistance is a challenge for clinical microbiologists who wish to prevent deleterious individual and collective consequences such as (i) delaying efficient antibiotic therapy, which worsens the survival rate of the most severely ill patients, or (ii) delaying the isolation of the carriers of multidrug-resistant bacteria and promoting outbreaks; this last consequence is of special concern, and there are an increasing number of approaches and market-based solutions in response. Areas covered: From simple, cheap biochemical tests to whole-genome sequencing, clinical microbiologists must select the most adequate phenotypic and genotypic tools to promptly detect and confirm β-lactam resistance from cultivated bacteria or from clinical specimens. Here, the authors review the published literature from the last 5 years about the primary technical approaches and commercial laboratory reagents for these purposes, including molecular, biochemical and immune assays. Furthermore, the authors discuss their intrinsic and relative performance, and we challenge their putative clinical impact. Expert commentary: Until the availability of fully automated wet and dry whole genome sequencing solutions, microbiologists should focus on inexpensive biochemical tests for cultured isolates or monomicrobial clinical specimen and on using the expensive molecular PCR-based strategies for the targeted screening of complex biological environments.

  10. High-risk Long QT Syndrome Mutations in the Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) Pore Disrupt the Molecular Basis for Rapid K+ Permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Don E.; Bartos, Daniel C.; Reloj, Allison R.; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Johnson, Jonathan N.; Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Fressart, Véronique; Denjoy, Isabelle; Guicheney, Pascale; Moss, Arthur J.; Ohno, Seiko; Horie, Minoru; Delisle, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1) syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1, which encodes the K+ channel (Kv7.1) that underlies the slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current in the heart. Intragenic risk stratification suggests LQT1 mutations that disrupt conserved amino acid residues in the pore are an independent risk factor for LQT1-related cardiac events. The purpose of this study is to determine possible molecular mechanisms that underlie the loss-of-function for these high-risk mutations. Extensive genotype-phenotype analyses of LQT1 patients showed that T322M-, T322A-, or G325R-Kv7.1 confer a high risk for LQT1-related cardiac events. Heterologous expression of these mutations with KCNE1 revealed they generated non-functional channels and caused dominant negative suppression of WT-Kv7.1 current. Molecular dynamic simulations (MDS) of analogous mutations in KcsA (T85M-, T85A-, and G88R-KcsA) demonstrated that they disrupted the symmetrical distribution of the carbonyl oxygen atoms in the selectivity filter, which upset the balance between the strong attractive and K+-K+ repulsive forces required for rapid K+ permeation. We conclude high-risk LQT1 mutations in the pore likely disrupt the architectural and physical properties of the K+ channel selectivity filter. PMID:23092362

  11. High-risk long QT syndrome mutations in the Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) pore disrupt the molecular basis for rapid K(+) permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Don E; Bartos, Daniel C; Reloj, Allison R; Campbell, Kenneth S; Johnson, Jonathan N; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J; Fressart, Véronique; Denjoy, Isabelle; Guicheney, Pascale; Moss, Arthur J; Ohno, Seiko; Horie, Minoru; Delisle, Brian P

    2012-11-13

    Type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1 gene, which encodes the K(+) channel (Kv7.1) that underlies the slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current in the heart. Intragenic risk stratification suggests LQT1 mutations that disrupt conserved amino acid residues in the pore are an independent risk factor for LQT1-related cardiac events. The purpose of this study is to determine possible molecular mechanisms that underlie the loss of function for these high-risk mutations. Extensive genotype-phenotype analyses of LQT1 patients showed that T322M-, T322A-, or G325R-Kv7.1 confers a high risk for LQT1-related cardiac events. Heterologous expression of these mutations with KCNE1 revealed they generated nonfunctional channels and caused dominant negative suppression of WT-Kv7.1 current. Molecular dynamics simulations of analogous mutations in KcsA (T85M-, T85A-, and G88R-KcsA) demonstrated that they disrupted the symmetrical distribution of the carbonyl oxygen atoms in the selectivity filter, which upset the balance between the strong attractive and K(+)-K(+) repulsive forces required for rapid K(+) permeation. We conclude high-risk LQT1 mutations in the pore likely disrupt the architectural and physical properties of the K(+) channel selectivity filter.

  12. Rabi oscillations and rapid-passage effects in the molecular-beam CO2-laser Stark spectroscopy of CH3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.G.; Gough, T.E.; Isenor, N.R.; Scoles, G.

    1985-01-01

    sub-Doppler molecular-beam laser Stark spectroscopy has been employed to produce high-contrast Rabi oscillations in the ν 3 band of CH 3 F. By varying the intensity of the cw CO 2 laser, up to five complete oscillations were observed before the phenomenon was washed out by rapid-passage effects and damping mechanisms. Besides being useful in clarifying key features of coherent ir molecular-beam spectroscopy, the observation of Rabi oscillations provides one of the most accurate means of directly measuring transition dipole moments. Analysis of the present data on three rovibrational transitions, Q(1,1) -1reverse arrow0, P(1,0) 0reverse arrow0, and R(1,1) 0reverse arrow1, has yielded a rotationless transition dipole moment of 0.21 +- 0.01 D for the ν 3 = 1reverse arrow0 vibration. This result is in agreement with values estimated from both band-intensity and absorption-coefficient data in the literature

  13. Rapid and selective screening of melamine in bovine milk using molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongyuan; Cheng, Xiaoling; Sun, Ning; Cai, Tianyu; Wu, Ruijun; Han, Kun

    2012-11-01

    A simple, convenient and high selective molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD) using water-compatible cyromazine-imprinted polymer as adsorbent was proposed for the rapid screening of melamine from bovine milk coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) synthesized by cyromazine as dummy template and reformative methanol-water system as reaction medium showed higher affinity and selectivity to melamine, and so they were applied as the specific dispersant of MSPD to extraction of melamine and simultaneously eliminate the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained in a range of 0.24-60.0μgg(-1) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The recoveries of melamine at three spiked levels were ranged from 86.0 to 96.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD)≤4.0%. This proposed MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD and MIPs, and could be used as an alternative tool for analyzing the residues of melamine in complex milk samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Two Lyophilized Molecular Assays to Rapidly Detect Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Directly from Clinical Samples in Field Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, E L A; Armson, B; Madi, M; Kasanga, C J; Kandusi, S; Sallu, R; Chepkwony, E; Siddle, A; Martin, P; Wood, J; Mioulet, V; King, D P; Lembo, T; Cleaveland, S; Fowler, V L

    2017-06-01

    Accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. However, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. These concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect cases of FMD. In this context, FMD virus (FMDV)-specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays, compatible with simple sample preparation methods and in situ visualization, have been developed which share equivalent analytical sensitivity with laboratory-based rRT-PCR. However, the lack of robust 'ready-to-use kits' that utilize stabilized reagents limits the deployment of these tests into field settings. To address this gap, this study describes the performance of lyophilized rRT-PCR and RT-LAMP assays to detect FMDV. Both of these assays are compatible with the use of fluorescence to monitor amplification in real-time, and for the RT-LAMP assays end point detection could also be achieved using molecular lateral flow devices. Lyophilization of reagents did not adversely affect the performance of the assays. Importantly, when these assays were deployed into challenging laboratory and field settings within East Africa they proved to be reliable in their ability to detect FMDV in a range of clinical samples from acutely infected as well as convalescent cattle. These data support the use of highly sensitive molecular assays into field settings for simple and rapid detection of FMDV. © 2015 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Automated Online Solid-Phase Derivatization for Sensitive Quantification of Endogenous S-Nitrosoglutathione and Rapid Capture of Other Low-Molecular-Mass S-Nitrosothiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Garcia, Carlos T; Gong, Guanyu; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2018-02-06

    S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) constitute a circulating endogenous reservoir of nitric oxide and have important biological activities. In this study, an online coupling of solid-phase derivatization (SPD) with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed and applied in the analysis of low-molecular-mass RSNOs. A derivatizing-reagent-modified polymer monolithic column was prepared and adapted for online SPD-LC-MS. Analytes from the LC autosampler flowed through the monolithic column for derivatization and then directly into the LC-MS for analysis. This integration of the online derivatization, LC separation, and MS detection facilitated system automation, allowing rapid, laborsaving, and sensitive detection of RSNOs. S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was quantified using this automated online method with good linearity (R 2 = 0.9994); the limit of detection was 0.015 nM. The online SPD-LC-MS method has been used to determine GSNO levels in mouse samples, 138 ± 13.2 nM of endogenous GSNO was detected in mouse plasma. Besides, the GSNO concentrations in liver (64.8 ± 11.3 pmol/mg protein), kidney (47.2 ± 6.1 pmol/mg protein), heart (8.9 ± 1.8 pmol/mg protein), muscle (1.9 ± 0.3 pmol/mg protein), hippocampus (5.3 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein), striatum (6.7 ± 0.6 pmol/mg protein), cerebellum (31.4 ± 6.5 pmol/mg protein), and cortex (47.9 ± 4.6 pmol/mg protein) were also successfully quantified. When the derivatization was performed within 8 min, followed by LC-MS detection, samples could be rapidly analyzed compared with the offline manual method. Other low-molecular-mass RSNOs, such as S-nitrosocysteine and S-nitrosocysteinylglycine, were captured by rapid precursor-ion scanning, showing that the proposed method is a potentially powerful tool for capture, identification, and quantification of RSNOs in biological samples.

  16. Rapid molecular screening of black carbon (biochar) thermosequences obtained from chestnut wood and rice straw: A pyrolysis-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Schneider, Maximilian P.W.; Schmidt, Michael W.I.

    2012-01-01

    for rapid assessment of molecular properties of black C. ► Most thermal rearrangements occur between 250 and 450 °C charring temperature. ► Compounds from polysaccharides, lignin, chlorophyll, etc. recognised up to 500 °C. ► Relevant to predict black C degradation/preservation in soil (stability concept).

  17. Rapid and simple detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: Evaluation of a cartridge-based molecular detection system for use in basic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, K V; Dill, V; Madi, M; Martin, P; Van der Stede, Y; Vandenberge, V; Haas, B; Van Borm, S; Koenen, F; Kasanga, C J; Ndusilo, N; Beer, M; Liu, L; Mioulet, V; Armson, B; King, D P; Fowler, V L

    2018-04-01

    Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden. Advances in molecular technologies allow implementation of modern and reliable techniques for quick and simple pathogen detection either in basic laboratories or even at the pen-side. Here, we report on a study to evaluate a fully automated cartridge-based real-time RT-PCR diagnostic system (Enigma MiniLab ® ) for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The modular system integrates both nucleic acid extraction and downstream real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The analytical sensitivity of this assay was determined using serially diluted culture grown FMDV, and the performance of the assay was evaluated using a selected range of FMDV positive and negative clinical samples of bovine, porcine and ovine origin. The robustness of the assay was evaluated in an international inter-laboratory proficiency test and by deployment into an African laboratory. It was demonstrated that the system is easy to use and can detect FMDV with high sensitivity and specificity, roughly on par with standard laboratory methods. This cartridge-based automated real-time RT-PCR system for the detection of FMDV represents a reliable and easy to use diagnostic tool for the early and rapid disease detection of acutely infected animals even in remote areas. This type of system could be easily deployed for routine surveillance within endemic regions such as Africa or could alternatively be used in the developed world. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

  18. Rapid identification of ascomycetous yeasts from clinical specimens by a molecular method based on flow cytometry and comparison with identifications from phenotypic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Brent T; Shields, Christine E; Merz, William G; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. Large-subunit rRNA domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identification. A panel of 88 clinical isolates was tested that included representatives of nine commonly encountered species and six infrequently encountered species. The PA included germ tube production, fermentation of seven carbohydrates, morphology on corn meal agar, urease and phenoloxidase activities, and carbohydrate assimilation tests when needed. The FC method (Luminex) employed species-specific oligonucleotides attached to polystyrene beads, which were hybridized with D1/D2 amplicons from the unidentified isolates. The PA identified 81 of 88 strains correctly but misidentified 4 of Candida dubliniensis, 1 of C. bovina, 1 of C. palmioleophila, and 1 of C. bracarensis. The FC method correctly identified 79 of 88 strains and did not misidentify any isolate but did not identify nine isolates because oligonucleotide probes were not available in the current library. The FC assay takes approximately 5 h, whereas the PA takes from 2 h to 5 days for identification. In conclusion, PA did well with the commonly encountered species, was not accurate for uncommon species, and takes significantly longer than the FC method. These data strongly support the potential of FC technology for rapid and accurate identification of medically important yeasts. With the introduction of new antifungals, rapid, accurate identification of pathogenic yeasts is more important than ever for guiding antifungal chemotherapy.

  19. A rapid NGS strategy for comprehensive molecular diagnosis of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Dehua; Zou, Wei; Ding, Yibing; Zhu, Chengchu; Min, Haiyan; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Baofu; Ye, Minhua; Cai, Minghui; Pan, Yanqing; Cao, Lei; Wan, Yueming; Jin, Yu; Gao, Qian; Yi, Long

    2016-05-27

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) or pulmonary cysts is one of the manifestations of Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (BHDS) that is caused by heterozygous mutations in FLCN gene. Most of the mutations are SNVs and small indels, and there are also approximately 10 % large intragenic deletions and duplications of the mutations. These molecular findings are generally obtained by disparate methods including Sanger sequencing and Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification in the clinical laboratory. In addition, as a genetically heterogeneous disorder, PSP may be caused by mutations in multiple genes include FBN1, COL3A1, CBS, SERPINA1 and TSC1/TSC2 genes. For differential diagnosis, these genes should also be screened which makes the diagnostic procedure more time-consuming and labor-intensive. Forty PSP patients were divided into 2 groups. Nineteen patients with different pathogenic mutations of FLCN previously identified by conventional Sanger sequencing and MLPA were included in test group, 21 random PSP patients without any genetic screening were included in blinded sample group. 7 PSP genes including FLCN, FBN1, COL3A1, CBS, SERPINA1 and TSC1/TSC2 were designed and enriched by Haloplex system, sequenced on a Miseq platform and analyzed in the 40 patients to evaluate the performance of the targeted-NGS method. We demonstrated that the full spectrum of genes associated with pneumothorax including FLCN gene mutations can be identified simultaneously in multiplexed sequence data. Noteworthy, by our in-house copy number analysis of the sequence data, we could not only detect intragenic deletions, but also determine approximate deletion junctions simultaneously. NGS based Haloplex target enrichment technology is proved to be a rapid and cost-effective screening strategy for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of BHDS in PSP patients, as it can replace Sanger sequencing and MLPA by simultaneously detecting exonic and intronic SNVs, small indels, large intragenic

  20. Molecular initiating events of the intersex phenotype: Low-dose exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol rapidly regulates molecular networks associated with gonad differentiation in the adult fathead minnow testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R.; Isaacs, Meghan A.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    testis, despite the fact that dmrt1 itself was not different in expression from control males. Transcriptional networks involving forkhead box L2 (foxl2) (transcript involved in ovarian follicle development) were increased in expression in the testis. Noteworthy was that a gene network associated to granulosa cell development was increased over 100%, suggesting that this transcriptome network may be important for monitoring estrogenic exposures. Other cell processes rapidly downregulated by EE2 at the transcript level included glucose homeostasis, response to heavy metal, amino acid catabolism, and the cyclooxygenase pathway. Conversely, lymphocyte chemotaxis, intermediate filament polymerization, glucocorticoid metabolism, carbohydrate utilization, and anterior/posterior axis specification were increased. These data provide new insight into the transcriptional responses that are perturbed prior to gonadal remodeling and intersex following exposure to estrogens. These data demonstrate that low concentrations of EE2 (1) rapidly suppresses male hormone production, (2) down-regulate molecular networks related to male sex differentiation, and (3) induce transcriptional networks related to granulosa cell development in the adult testis. These responses are hypothesized to be key molecular initiating events that occur prior to the development of the intersex phenotype following estrogenic exposures.

  1. Molecular initiating events of the intersex phenotype: Low-dose exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol rapidly regulates molecular networks associated with gonad differentiation in the adult fathead minnow testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R.; Isaacs, Meghan A.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyni@yahoo.ca

    2016-12-15

    testis, despite the fact that dmrt1 itself was not different in expression from control males. Transcriptional networks involving forkhead box L2 (foxl2) (transcript involved in ovarian follicle development) were increased in expression in the testis. Noteworthy was that a gene network associated to granulosa cell development was increased over 100%, suggesting that this transcriptome network may be important for monitoring estrogenic exposures. Other cell processes rapidly downregulated by EE2 at the transcript level included glucose homeostasis, response to heavy metal, amino acid catabolism, and the cyclooxygenase pathway. Conversely, lymphocyte chemotaxis, intermediate filament polymerization, glucocorticoid metabolism, carbohydrate utilization, and anterior/posterior axis specification were increased. These data provide new insight into the transcriptional responses that are perturbed prior to gonadal remodeling and intersex following exposure to estrogens. These data demonstrate that low concentrations of EE2 (1) rapidly suppresses male hormone production, (2) down-regulate molecular networks related to male sex differentiation, and (3) induce transcriptional networks related to granulosa cell development in the adult testis. These responses are hypothesized to be key molecular initiating events that occur prior to the development of the intersex phenotype following estrogenic exposures.

  2. Rapid Convergence of Energy and Free Energy Profiles with Quantum Mechanical Size in Quantum Mechanical-Molecular Mechanical Simulations of Proton Transfer in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susanta; Nam, Kwangho; Major, Dan Thomas

    2018-03-13

    In recent years, a number of quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) enzyme studies have investigated the dependence of reaction energetics on the size of the QM region using energy and free energy calculations. In this study, we revisit the question of QM region size dependence in QM/MM simulations within the context of energy and free energy calculations using a proton transfer in a DNA base pair as a test case. In the simulations, the QM region was treated with a dispersion-corrected AM1/d-PhoT Hamiltonian, which was developed to accurately describe phosphoryl and proton transfer reactions, in conjunction with an electrostatic embedding scheme using the particle-mesh Ewald summation method. With this rigorous QM/MM potential, we performed rather extensive QM/MM sampling, and found that the free energy reaction profiles converge rapidly with respect to the QM region size within ca. ±1 kcal/mol. This finding suggests that the strategy of QM/MM simulations with reasonably sized and selected QM regions, which has been employed for over four decades, is a valid approach for modeling complex biomolecular systems. We point to possible causes for the sensitivity of the energy and free energy calculations to the size of the QM region, and potential implications.

  3. A novel molecularly imprinted material based on magnetic halloysite nanotubes for rapid enrichment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shian; Zhou, Chengyun; Zhang, Xiaona; Zhou, Hui; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yan

    2014-07-15

    A new type of magnetic halloysite nanotubes molecularly imprinted polymer (MHNTs@MIP) based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with embedded magnetic nanoparticles was introduced in this study. MHNTs@MIP was prepared through surface imprinting technology, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a template, 4-vinylpyridine as the monomer, divinylbenzene as cross-linking agents, and 2,2-azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator. MHNTs@MIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. MHNTs@MIP exhibited rapid and reliable analysis with supermagnetic properties, as well as repeated use and template-specific recognition. The adsorption capacity of magnetic halloysite nanotubes non-imprinted polymer (MHNTs@NIP) and MHNTs@MIP was 10.3mg/g and 35.2mg/g, respectively. In the detailed discussion on specific selectivity, MHNTs@MIP can be applied as an adsorbent for sample pretreatment extraction and obtain high recoveries of about 85-94%. After extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect 2,4-D residue in water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid, High-Throughput, and Direct Molecular Beacon Delivery to Human Cancer Cells Using a Nanowire-Incorporated and Pneumatic Pressure-Driven Microdevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Jung; Choi, Jong Seob; Bae, Sunwoong; Kwon, Donguk; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-12-01

    Tracking and monitoring the intracellular behavior of mRNA is of paramount importance for understanding real-time gene expression in cell biology. To detect specific mRNA sequences, molecular beacons (MBs) have been widely employed as sensing probes. Although numerous strategies for MB delivery into the target cells have been reported, many issues such as the cytotoxicity of the carriers, dependence on the random probability of MB transfer, and critical cellular damage still need to be overcome. Herein, we have developed a nanowire-incorporated and pneumatic pressure-driven microdevice for rapid, high-throughput, and direct MB delivery to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to monitor survivin mRNA expression. The proposed microdevice is composed of three layers: a pump-associated glass manifold layer, a monolithic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, and a ZnO nanowire-patterned microchannel layer. The MB is immobilized on the ZnO nanowires by disulfide bonding, and the glass manifold and PDMS membrane serve as a microvalve, so that the cellular attachment and detachment on the MB-coated nanowire array can be manipulated. The combination of the nanowire-mediated MB delivery and the microvalve function enable the transfer of MB into the cells in a controllable way with high cell viability and to detect survivin mRNA expression quantitatively after docetaxel treatment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Novel molecular diagnostic tools for malaria elimination: a review of options from the point of view of high-throughput and applicability in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Sumudu; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James S

    2016-02-16

    As malaria transmission continues to decrease, an increasing number of countries will enter pre-elimination and elimination. To interrupt transmission, changes in control strategies are likely to require more accurate identification of all carriers of Plasmodium parasites, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, using diagnostic tools that are highly sensitive, high throughput and with fast turnaround times preferably performed in local health service settings. Currently available immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid diagnostic tests and field microscopy are unlikely to consistently detect infections at parasite densities less than 100 parasites/µL making them insufficiently sensitive for detecting all carriers. Molecular diagnostic platforms, such as PCR and LAMP, are currently available in reference laboratories, but at a cost both financially and in turnaround time. This review describes the recent progress in developing molecular diagnostic tools in terms of their capacity for high throughput and potential for performance in non-reference laboratories for malaria elimination.

  6. Indirect rapid prototyping of sol-gel hybrid glass scaffolds for bone regeneration - Effects of organic crosslinker valence, content and molecular weight on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Stephan; Kascholke, Christian; Flath, Tobias; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2016-04-15

    We present a series of organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel derived glasses, made from a tetraethoxysilane-derived silica sol (100% SiO2) and oligovalent organic crosslinkers functionalized with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane. The material was susceptible to heat sterilization. The hybrids were processed into pore-interconnected scaffolds by an indirect rapid prototyping method, described here for the first time for sol-gel glass materials. A large panel of polyethylene oxide-derived 2- to 4-armed crosslinkers of molecular weights ranging between 170 and 8000Da were incorporated and their effect on scaffold mechanical properties was investigated. By multiple linear regression, 'organic content' and the 'content of ethylene oxide units in the hybrid' were identified as the main factors that determined compressive strength and modulus, respectively. In general, 3- and 4-armed crosslinkers performed better than linear molecules. Compression tests and cell culture experiments with osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells showed that macroporous scaffolds can be produced with compressive strengths of up to 33±2MPa and with a pore structure that allows cells to grow deep into the scaffolds and form mineral deposits. Compressive moduli between 27±7MPa and 568±98MPa were obtained depending on the hybrid composition and problems associated with the inherent brittleness of sol-gel glass materials could be overcome. SaOS-2 cells showed cytocompatibility on hybrid glass scaffolds and mineral accumulation started as early as day 7. On day 14, we also found mineral accumulation on control hybrid glass scaffolds without cells, indicating a positive effect of the hybrid glass on mineral accumulation. We produced a hybrid sol-gel glass material with significantly improved mechanical properties towards an application in bone regeneration and processed the material into macroporous scaffolds of controlled architecture by indirect rapid prototyping. We were able to produce macroporous materials

  7. Molecular evolution of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae: Is there evidence of rapid evolution or reduced selective constraint in Domestic cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Alan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS per site (dN/dS should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest in closely related members of the Bovini tribe, because domestication has promoted rapid phenotypic divergence through strong artificial selection of some species while others remain undomesticated. We examined a number of genes that may be involved in milk production in Domestic cattle and a number of their wild relatives for evidence that domestication had affected molecular evolution. Elevated rates of dN/dS were further queried to determine if they were the result of positive selection, low effective population size (Ne or reduced selective constraint. Results We have found that the domestication process has contributed to higher dN/dS ratios in cattle, especially in the lineages leading to the Domestic cow (Bos taurus and Mithan (Bos frontalis and within some breeds of Domestic cow. However, the high rates of dN/dS polymorphism within B. taurus when compared to species divergence suggest that positive selection has not elevated evolutionary rates in these genes. Likewise, the low rate of dN/dS in Bison, which has undergone a recent population bottleneck, indicates a reduction in population size alone is not responsible for these observations. Conclusion The effect of selection depends on effective population size and the selection coefficient (Nes. Typically under domestication both selection pressure for traits important in fitness in the wild and Ne are reduced. Therefore, reduced selective constraint could be responsible for the observed elevated evolutionary ratios in domesticated species, especially in B. taurus and B. frontalis, which have the highest dN/dS in the

  8. Pathways to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation: a qualitative comparison of patients' experiences in the era of rapid molecular diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Pren; van Niekerk, Margaret; du Toit, Elizabeth; Beyers, Nulda; Leon, Natalie

    2015-10-28

    Although new molecular diagnostic tests such as GenoType MTBDRplus and Xpert® MTB/RIF have reduced multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment initiation times, patients' experiences of diagnosis and treatment initiation are not known. This study aimed to explore and compare MDR-TB patients' experiences of their diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway in GenoType MTBDRplus and Xpert® MTB/RIF-based diagnostic algorithms. The study was undertaken in Cape Town, South Africa where primary health-care services provided free TB diagnosis and treatment. A smear, culture and GenoType MTBDRplus diagnostic algorithm was used in 2010, with Xpert® MTB/RIF phased in from 2011-2013. Participants diagnosed in each algorithm at four facilities were purposively sampled, stratifying by age, gender and MDR-TB risk profiles. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Through constant comparative analysis we induced common and divergent themes related to symptom recognition, health-care access, testing for MDR-TB and treatment initiation within and between groups. Data were triangulated with clinical information and health visit data from a structured questionnaire. We identified both enablers and barriers to early MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment. Half the patients had previously been treated for TB; most recognised recurring symptoms and reported early health-seeking. Those who attributed symptoms to other causes delayed health-seeking. Perceptions of poor public sector services were prevalent and may have contributed both to deferred health-seeking and to patient's use of the private sector, contributing to delays. However, once on treatment, most patients expressed satisfaction with public sector care. Two patients in the Xpert® MTB/RIF-based algorithm exemplified its potential to reduce delays, commencing MDR-TB treatment within a week of their first health contact. However, most patients in both algorithms experienced

  9. Implementation of 3D spatial indexing and compression in a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation database for rapid atomic contact detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toofanny, Rudesh D; Simms, Andrew M; Beck, David A C; Daggett, Valerie

    2011-08-10

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer the ability to observe the dynamics and interactions of both whole macromolecules and individual atoms as a function of time. Taken in context with experimental data, atomic interactions from simulation provide insight into the mechanics of protein folding, dynamics, and function. The calculation of atomic interactions or contacts from an MD trajectory is computationally demanding and the work required grows exponentially with the size of the simulation system. We describe the implementation of a spatial indexing algorithm in our multi-terabyte MD simulation database that significantly reduces the run-time required for discovery of contacts. The approach is applied to the Dynameomics project data. Spatial indexing, also known as spatial hashing, is a method that divides the simulation space into regular sized bins and attributes an index to each bin. Since, the calculation of contacts is widely employed in the simulation field, we also use this as the basis for testing compression of data tables. We investigate the effects of compression of the trajectory coordinate tables with different options of data and index compression within MS SQL SERVER 2008. Our implementation of spatial indexing speeds up the calculation of contacts over a 1 nanosecond (ns) simulation window by between 14% and 90% (i.e., 1.2 and 10.3 times faster). For a 'full' simulation trajectory (51 ns) spatial indexing reduces the calculation run-time between 31 and 81% (between 1.4 and 5.3 times faster). Compression resulted in reduced table sizes but resulted in no significant difference in the total execution time for neighbour discovery. The greatest compression (~36%) was achieved using page level compression on both the data and indexes. The spatial indexing scheme significantly decreases the time taken to calculate atomic contacts and could be applied to other multidimensional neighbor discovery problems. The speed up enables on-the-fly calculation

  10. Implementation of 3D spatial indexing and compression in a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation database for rapid atomic contact detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toofanny Rudesh D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular dynamics (MD simulations offer the ability to observe the dynamics and interactions of both whole macromolecules and individual atoms as a function of time. Taken in context with experimental data, atomic interactions from simulation provide insight into the mechanics of protein folding, dynamics, and function. The calculation of atomic interactions or contacts from an MD trajectory is computationally demanding and the work required grows exponentially with the size of the simulation system. We describe the implementation of a spatial indexing algorithm in our multi-terabyte MD simulation database that significantly reduces the run-time required for discovery of contacts. The approach is applied to the Dynameomics project data. Spatial indexing, also known as spatial hashing, is a method that divides the simulation space into regular sized bins and attributes an index to each bin. Since, the calculation of contacts is widely employed in the simulation field, we also use this as the basis for testing compression of data tables. We investigate the effects of compression of the trajectory coordinate tables with different options of data and index compression within MS SQL SERVER 2008. Results Our implementation of spatial indexing speeds up the calculation of contacts over a 1 nanosecond (ns simulation window by between 14% and 90% (i.e., 1.2 and 10.3 times faster. For a 'full' simulation trajectory (51 ns spatial indexing reduces the calculation run-time between 31 and 81% (between 1.4 and 5.3 times faster. Compression resulted in reduced table sizes but resulted in no significant difference in the total execution time for neighbour discovery. The greatest compression (~36% was achieved using page level compression on both the data and indexes. Conclusions The spatial indexing scheme significantly decreases the time taken to calculate atomic contacts and could be applied to other multidimensional neighbor discovery

  11. An accurate and affordable test for the rapid diagnosis of sickle cell disease could revolutionize the outlook for affected children born in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas N

    2015-09-23

    Each year, at least 280,000 children are born with sickle cell disease (SCD) in resource-limited settings. For cost, logistic and political reasons, the availability of SCD testing is limited in such settings and consequently 50-90 % of affected children die undiagnosed before their fifth birthday. The recent development of a point of care method for the diagnosis of SCD - the Sickle SCAN™ device - could afford such children the prompt access to appropriate services that has transformed the outlook for affected children in resource-rich areas. In research published in BMC Medicine, Kanter and colleagues describe a small but carefully conducted study involving 208 children and adults, in which they found that by using Sickle SCAN™ it was possible to diagnose the common forms of SCD with 99 % sensitivity and 99 % specificity, in under 5 minutes. If repeatable both in newborn babies and under real-life conditions, and if marketed at an affordable price, Sickle SCAN™ could revolutionize the survival prospects for children born with SCD in resource-limited areas.Please see related article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0473-6.

  12. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  13. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarts, Daniel W. H.; Wolfe, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use, highly variable marker with inherent biological significance. PMID:25202637

  14. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology(1.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarts, Daniel W H; Wolfe, Andrea D

    2014-07-01

    In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use, highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  15. A resource of large-scale molecular markers for monitoring Agropyron cristatum chromatin introgression in wheat background based on transcriptome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Liu, Weihua; Lu, Yuqing; Liu, Qunxing; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2017-09-20

    Agropyron cristatum is a wild grass of the tribe Triticeae and serves as a gene donor for wheat improvement. However, very few markers can be used to monitor A. cristatum chromatin introgressions in wheat. Here, we reported a resource of large-scale molecular markers for tracking alien introgressions in wheat based on transcriptome sequences. By aligning A. cristatum unigenes with the Chinese Spring reference genome sequences, we designed 9602 A. cristatum expressed sequence tag-sequence-tagged site (EST-STS) markers for PCR amplification and experimental screening. As a result, 6063 polymorphic EST-STS markers were specific for the A. cristatum P genome in the single-receipt wheat background. A total of 4956 randomly selected polymorphic EST-STS markers were further tested in eight wheat variety backgrounds, and 3070 markers displaying stable and polymorphic amplification were validated. These markers covered more than 98% of the A. cristatum genome, and the marker distribution density was approximately 1.28 cM. An application case of all EST-STS markers was validated on the A. cristatum 6 P chromosome. These markers were successfully applied in the tracking of alien A. cristatum chromatin. Altogether, this study provided a universal method of large-scale molecular marker development to monitor wild relative chromatin in wheat.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Racine and Grand Rapids quadrangles, Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Racine and Grand Rapids quadrangles of southeastern Wisconsin, northeastern Illinois, and Michigan cover a land area of 8785 square miles, and an additional water surface area of 5215 square miles. In the northeast, thick Paleozoic deposits overlie a regional downwarp of the Precambrian basement called the Michigan Basin. These Paleozoic deposits shoal to only 500 feet in the southwest corner of the survey area. The entire region is covered by a mantle of Quaternary glacial material. A search of available literature revealed no economically feasible uranium deposits. A total of 83 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. All appear to have cultural, and/or locally unsaturated associations, and none appear to contain significant measured quantities of uranium. Magnetic data appear to be in general agreement with existing structural interpretations of the area. There are local exceptions which suggest some lithologic and/or structural complexities in the basement material

  18. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis bycolorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool

    OpenAIRE

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O.; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Guevara, Angel G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64 degrees C for 60 mm using a heatin...

  19. Resource utilization and cost-effectiveness of counselor- vs. provider-based rapid point-of-care HIV screening in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle P Walensky

    Full Text Available Routine HIV screening in emergency department (ED settings may require dedicated personnel. We evaluated the outcomes, costs and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening when offered by either a member of the ED staff or by an HIV counselor.We employed a mathematical model to extend data obtained from a randomized clinical trial of provider- vs. counselor-based HIV screening in the ED. We compared the downstream survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of three HIV screening modalities: 1 no screening program; 2 an ED provider-based program; and 3 an HIV counselor-based program. Trial arm-specific data were used for test offer and acceptance rates (provider offer 36%, acceptance 75%; counselor offer 80%, acceptance 71%. Undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4% and linkage to care rates (80% were assumed to be equal between the screening modalities. Personnel costs were derived from trial-based resource utilization data. We examined the generalizability of results by conducting sensitivity analyses on offer and acceptance rates, undetected HIV prevalence, and costs.Estimated HIV screening costs in the provider and counselor arms averaged $8.10 and $31.00 per result received. The Provider strategy (compared to no screening had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $58,700/quality-adjusted life year (QALY and the Counselor strategy (compared to the Provider strategy had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $64,500/QALY. Results were sensitive to the relative offer and acceptance rates by strategy and the capacity of providers to target-screen, but were robust to changes in undiagnosed HIV prevalence and programmatic costs.The cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV screening in an emergency department setting compares favorably to other US screening programs. Despite its additional cost, counselor-based screening delivers just as much return on investment as provider based-screening. Investment in dedicated HIV screening personnel is justified in

  20. Resource utilization and cost-effectiveness of counselor- vs. provider-based rapid point-of-care HIV screening in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Morris, Bethany L; Reichmann, William M; Paltiel, A David; Arbelaez, Christian; Donnell-Fink, Laurel; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Routine HIV screening in emergency department (ED) settings may require dedicated personnel. We evaluated the outcomes, costs and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening when offered by either a member of the ED staff or by an HIV counselor. We employed a mathematical model to extend data obtained from a randomized clinical trial of provider- vs. counselor-based HIV screening in the ED. We compared the downstream survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of three HIV screening modalities: 1) no screening program; 2) an ED provider-based program; and 3) an HIV counselor-based program. Trial arm-specific data were used for test offer and acceptance rates (provider offer 36%, acceptance 75%; counselor offer 80%, acceptance 71%). Undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4%) and linkage to care rates (80%) were assumed to be equal between the screening modalities. Personnel costs were derived from trial-based resource utilization data. We examined the generalizability of results by conducting sensitivity analyses on offer and acceptance rates, undetected HIV prevalence, and costs. Estimated HIV screening costs in the provider and counselor arms averaged $8.10 and $31.00 per result received. The Provider strategy (compared to no screening) had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $58,700/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and the Counselor strategy (compared to the Provider strategy) had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $64,500/QALY. Results were sensitive to the relative offer and acceptance rates by strategy and the capacity of providers to target-screen, but were robust to changes in undiagnosed HIV prevalence and programmatic costs. The cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV screening in an emergency department setting compares favorably to other US screening programs. Despite its additional cost, counselor-based screening delivers just as much return on investment as provider based-screening. Investment in dedicated HIV screening personnel is justified in situations

  1. A simple, inexpensive device for nucleic acid amplification without electricity-toward instrument-free molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul LaBarre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular assays targeted to nucleic acid (NA markers are becoming increasingly important to medical diagnostics. However, these are typically confined to wealthy, developed countries; or, to the national reference laboratories of developing-world countries. There are many infectious diseases that are endemic in low-resource settings (LRS where the lack of simple, instrument-free, NA diagnostic tests is a critical barrier to timely treatment. One of the primary barriers to the practicality and availability of NA assays in LRS has been the complexity and power requirements of polymerase chain reaction (PCR instrumentation (another is sample preparation.In this article, we investigate the hypothesis that an electricity-free heater based on exothermic chemical reactions and engineered phase change materials can successfully incubate isothermal NA amplification assays. We assess the heater's equivalence to commercially available PCR instruments through the characterization of the temperature profiles produced, and a minimal method comparison. Versions of the prototype for several different isothermal techniques are presented.We demonstrate that an electricity-free heater based on exothermic chemical reactions and engineered phase change materials can successfully incubate isothermal NA amplification assays, and that the results of those assays are not significantly different from ones incubated in parallel in commercially available PCR instruments. These results clearly suggest the potential of the non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification (NINA heater for molecular diagnostics in LRS. When combined with other innovations in development that eliminate power requirements for sample preparation, cold reagent storage, and readout, the NINA heater will comprise part of a kit that should enable electricity-free NA testing for many important analytes.

  2. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed-Ul Islam, S M; Jahan, Munira; Tabassum, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Virological monitoring is the best predictor for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Consequently, it is important to use the most efficient, rapid and cost-effective testing systems for HBV DNA quantification. The present study compared the performance characteristics of a one-step HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vs the two-step HBV PCR method for quantification of HBV DNA from clinical samples. A total of 100 samples consisting of 85 randomly selected samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 15 samples from apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Of the 85 CHB clinical samples tested, HBV DNA was detected from 81% samples by one-step PCR method with median HBV DNA viral load (VL) of 7.50 × 10 3 lU/ml. In contrast, 72% samples were detected by the two-step PCR system with median HBV DNA of 3.71 × 10 3 lU/ml. The one-step method showed strong linear correlation with two-step PCR method (r = 0.89; p Tabassum S. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):11-15.

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymer cartridges coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) for simple and rapid analysis of fenthion in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Idriss; Ben Oujji, Najwa; Istamboulié, Georges; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Ait-Addi, Elhabib; Ait-Ichou, Ihya; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2014-07-01

    A combination of molecular modelling and a screening of the library of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) was used to identify acrylamide as a functional monomer with high affinity towards fenthion, organophosphate insecticide, which is frequently used in the treatment of olives. A good correlation was found between the screening tests and modelling of monomer-template interactions performed using a computational approach. Acrylamide-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were thermally synthesised in dimethyl formamide (porogen) using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and 1,1-azo-bis (isobutyronitrile) as an initiator. The chemical and physical properties of the prepared polymers were characterised. The binding of fenthion by the polymers was studied using solvents with different polarities. The developed MIP showed a high selectivity towards fenthion, compared to other organophosphates (dimethoate, methidathion malalthion), and allowed extraction of fenthion from olive oil samples with a recovery rate of about 96%. The extraction of fenthion using MIPs was much more effective than traditional C18 reverse-phase solid phase extraction and allowed to achieve a low detection limit (LOD) (5 µg L(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Linear Block Copolymers: Rapid Access by Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization and Self- Assembly into Large Domain Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapas, Jose Kenneth D.; Thomay, Tim; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Ilavsky, Jan; Rzayev, Javid

    2016-05-05

    Block copolymer (BCP) derived periodic nanostructures with domain sizes larger than 150 nm present a versatile platform for the fabrication of photonic materials. So far, the access to such materials has been limited to highly synthetically involved protocols. Herein, we report a simple, “user-friendly” method for the preparation of ultrahigh molecular weight linear poly(solketal methacrylate-b-styrene) block copolymers by a combination of Cu-wire-mediated ATRP and RAFT polymerizations. The synthesized copolymers with molecular weights up to 1.6 million g/mol and moderate dispersities readily assemble into highly ordered cylindrical or lamella microstructures with domain sizes as large as 292 nm, as determined by ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Solvent cast films of the synthesized block copolymers exhibit stop bands in the visible spectrum correlated to their domain spacings. The described method opens new avenues for facilitated fabrication and the advancement of fundamental understanding of BCP-derived photonic nanomaterials for a variety of applications.

  6. Development of a One-Step Probe Based Molecular Assay for Rapid Immunodiagnosis of Infection with M. tuberculosis Using Dried Blood Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Heyckendorf, Jan; Graff Jensen, Sidse

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is the most promising alternative marker to IFN-γ for infection with M. tuberculosis. Compared to Interferon-γ release assays (IGRA), IP-10 is released in high levels enabling novel approaches such as field friendly dried blood spots (DBS) and molecular...... was validated and applied for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in DBS samples from 43 patients with confirmed TB, 13 patients with latent TB and 96 presumed uninfected controls. In parallel, IP-10 and INF-γ levels were measured in Quantiferon (QFT-TB) plasma supernatants. RESULTS: IP-10 m......RNA upregulation was detectable at 4 hours after stimulation (6 fold upregulation) peaking at 8 hours (108 fold upregulation). IFN-γ expression occurred in concert but levels were lower (peak 6.7 fold upregulation). IP-10 gene expression level was significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis (median 31...

  7. The transcriptome of the developing grain: a resource for understanding seed development and the molecular control of the functional and nutritional properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2017-10-11

    Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.

  8. Discussion on the structural origins of the fracture toughness and hardness changes in rapidly quenched borosilicate glasses: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, L.H.; Kilymis, D.; Delaye, J.M.; Peuget, S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding radiation effects in nuclear glasses is important in order to assess their long term behaviour in a geological repository. In this paper, the results obtained by classical molecular dynamics about the mechanical properties of a simplified SiO 2 - B 2 O 3 - Na 2 O glass with the same molar proportions as in the real French nuclear glass were reviewed. A pristine and a disordered structure, representative of the irradiated one, were prepared in order to address the question of the radiation effects on the fracture toughness and hardness. In a first step, fracture simulations were performed to compare the atomistic mechanisms in the pristine and disordered glasses. In a second step, nano indentation was simulated using a diamond tip and again the pristine and disordered glass behaviors were compared. The depolymerisation associated to the glass disordering, in particular the increase of the tri-coordinated boron concentration relative to the tetra-coordinated boron concentration improves the fracture resistance by favouring the plastic flows. On the contrary, the swelling of the disordered glass limits the fracture resistance by facilitating the cavity formation. The first effect is dominant in the case of the glass investigated here because, experimentally, the fracture toughness increases after irradiation. Concerning the hardness, both the decrease of the boron coordination in parallel with non-bridging oxygen formation and free volume accumulation lead to a hardness decrease because the more disordered and open structure facilitates the tip penetration. (authors)

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Diagnostic Method for Rapid Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the Causative Agent of Epizootic Lymphangitis, in Equine Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, C E; Pinchbeck, G L; Loughnane, P; Aklilu, N; Ashine, T; Stringer, A P; Gordon, L; Marshall, M; Christley, R M; McCarthy, A J

    2016-12-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL from different climatic regions of Ethiopia were clinically examined. Blood samples and aspirates of pus from cutaneous nodules were taken, along with blood from a further 20 horses with no cutaneous EZL lesions. Among the 29 horses with suspected cases of EZL, H. capsulatum var. farciminosum was confirmed by extraction of DNA from pus and blood samples from 25 and 17 horses, respectively. Positive PCR results were also obtained with heat-inactivated pus (24 horses) and blood (23 horses) spotted onto Whatman FTA cards. Two positive results were obtained among blood samples from 20 horses that did not exhibit clinical signs of EZL. These are the first reports of the direct detection of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum in equine blood and at high frequency among horses exhibiting cutaneous lesions. The nested PCR outperformed conventional microscopic diagnosis, as characteristic yeast cells could be observed only in 14 pus samples. The presence of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum DNA was confirmed by sequencing the cloned PCR products, and while alignment of the ITS amplicons showed very little sequence variation, there was preliminary single nucleotide polymorphism-based evidence for the existence of two subgroups of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum This molecular diagnostic method now permits investigation of the epidemiology of EZL. Copyright © 2016 Scantlebury et al.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Diagnostic Method for Rapid Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the Causative Agent of Epizootic Lymphangitis, in Equine Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchbeck, G. L.; Loughnane, P.; Aklilu, N.; Ashine, T.; Stringer, A. P.; Gordon, L.; Marshall, M.; Christley, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL from different climatic regions of Ethiopia were clinically examined. Blood samples and aspirates of pus from cutaneous nodules were taken, along with blood from a further 20 horses with no cutaneous EZL lesions. Among the 29 horses with suspected cases of EZL, H. capsulatum var. farciminosum was confirmed by extraction of DNA from pus and blood samples from 25 and 17 horses, respectively. Positive PCR results were also obtained with heat-inactivated pus (24 horses) and blood (23 horses) spotted onto Whatman FTA cards. Two positive results were obtained among blood samples from 20 horses that did not exhibit clinical signs of EZL. These are the first reports of the direct detection of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum in equine blood and at high frequency among horses exhibiting cutaneous lesions. The nested PCR outperformed conventional microscopic diagnosis, as characteristic yeast cells could be observed only in 14 pus samples. The presence of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum DNA was confirmed by sequencing the cloned PCR products, and while alignment of the ITS amplicons showed very little sequence variation, there was preliminary single nucleotide polymorphism-based evidence for the existence of two subgroups of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum. This molecular diagnostic method now permits investigation of the epidemiology of EZL. PMID:27707938

  11. Dasatinib rapidly induces deep molecular response in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients who achieved major molecular response with detectable levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts by imatinib therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiseki, Masayuki; Yoshida, Chikashi; Takezako, Naoki; Ohwada, Akira; Kumagai, Takashi; Nishiwaki, Kaichi; Horikoshi, Akira; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Takano, Hina; Kouzai, Yasuji; Tanaka, Junji; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2017-10-01

    With the introduction of imatinib, a first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to inhibit BCR-ABL1 kinase, the outcome of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) has improved dramatically. However, only a small proportion of CP-CML patients subsequently achieve a deep molecular response (DMR) with imatinib. Dasatinib, a second-generation TKI, is more potent than imatinib in the inhibition of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase in vitro and more effective in CP-CML patients who do not achieve an optimal response with imatinib treatment. In the present study, we attempted to investigate whether switching the treatment from imatinib to dasatinib can induce DMR in 16 CP-CML patients treated with imatinib for at least two years who achieved a major molecular response (MMR) with detectable levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts. The rates of achievement of DMR at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after switching to dasatinib treatment in the 16 patients were 44% (7/16), 56% (9/16), 63% (10/16) and 75% (12/16), respectively. The cumulative rate of achieving DMR at 12 months from initiation of dasatinib therapy was 93.8% (15/16). The proportion of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells in peripheral lymphocytes increased after switching to dasatinib. In contrast, the proportion of regulatory T cells decreased during treatment. The safety profile of dasatinib was consistent with previous studies. Switching to dasatinib would be a therapeutic option for CP-CML patients who achieved MMR but not DMR by imatinib, especially for patients who wish to discontinue TKI therapy.

  12. Integration of novel low-cost colorimetric, laser photometric, and visual fluorescent techniques for rapid identification of falsified medicines in resource-poor areas: application to artemether-lumefantrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Hostetler, Dana M; Nettey, Henry; Swamidoss, Isabel; Ranieri, Nicola; Newton, Paul N

    2015-06-01

    The availability of falsified antimalarial drugs can be reduced with effective drug regulatory agencies and proper enforcement. Fundamental to these agencies taking action, rapid identification must be made as soon as they appear in the market place. Since falsified antimalarials occur mostly in developing countries, performing drug analysis presents itself with unique challenges. A fundamental factor in choosing a useful technique is affordability and simplicity. Therefore, we suggest a three-tiered drug evaluation strategy for identifying a falsified drug in resource-poor areas. Tier I is a simple comparison of a tablet's weight and dimensions with official specifications. Tier II uses inexpensive photometric devices (laser and fluorescence) to evaluate a tablet. Suspicious samples from Tier I and II assessments are then subjected to a colorimetric assay for active ingredients identification and quantification. In this article, we evaluate a novel colorimetric assay for the simultaneous assessment of both lumefantrine and artemether in co-formulated Coartem™ tablets, and integrate the method with two novel, low-cost, fluorescence and laser photometric devices. Image analysis software is used for the assessments. Although artemether-lumefantrine is used as an example, the strategy may be adapted to other medicines. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on silica modified by deep eutectic solvents for the rapid simultaneous magnetic-based solid-phase extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge, Glycine max (Linn.) Merr and green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2018-04-01

    Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) with multiple-template based on silica were modified by four types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for the rapid simultaneous magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge; glycitein, genistein, and daidzein from Glycine max (Linn.) Merr; and epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate from green tea, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Single factor experiments were to explore the relationship between the extraction efficiency and four factors (the sample solution pH, amount of DESs for modification, amount of adsorbent, and extraction time). It was showed that the DES4-MMIPs have better extraction ability than the MMIPs without DESs and the other three DESs-modified MMIPs. The best extraction recoveries with DES4-MMIP were tanshinone Ⅰ (85.57%), tanshinone ⅡA (80.58%), cryptotanshinone (92.12%), glycitein (81.65%), genistein (87.72%), daidzein (92.24%), epicatechin (86.43%), epigallocatechin gallate (80.92%), and epicatechin gallate (93.64%), respectively. The novel multiple-template MMIPs materials modified by DES for the rapid simultaneous MSPE of active compounds were proved to reduce the experimental steps than single-template technique, and increase the extraction efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  15. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  16. Health Care Resource Utilization and Costs in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Better Adherence to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Increased Molecular Monitoring Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latremouille-Viau, Dominick; Guerin, Annie; Gagnon-Sanschagrin, Patrick; Dea, Katherine; Cohen, Benjamin G; Joseph, George J

    2017-02-01

    Frequent molecular monitoring (qPCR tests), as recommended by evidence-based monitoring guidelines, is associated with higher adherence to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); both factors have been associated with better clinical and economic outcomes. To (a) estimate the effect of more frequent qPCR tests on health care resource utilization (HRU) and associated costs, including direct (effect of qPCR test frequency on HRU) and indirect (through TKI adherence) effects, and (b) develop an economic model applicable to multiple clinical practice scenarios. Adult patients newly diagnosed with CML who started TKI firstline therapy were identified from U.S. administrative claims data (2010-2015). TKI adherence (medication possession ratio [MPR]), number of inpatient days, emergency room (ER) visits, outpatient service days, and mean costs per HRU event were measured during the first year of CML treatment. Direct and indirect effects of qPCR test frequency were estimated using multivariate regression models. Subsequently, an economic model was developed to assess the overall effect of varying qPCR test frequency on HRU and associated costs during the first year of CML treatment under different clinical practice scenarios; the scenario reported is the increase from 1 to 2 qPCR tests. Of the 1,431 patients included, 36% had no qPCR tests, the average qPCR test frequency was 1.6, and the average MPR was 0.86 during the first year of CML treatment. The direct effect of increasing qPCR test frequency by 1 was associated with 13.0% fewer inpatient days (adjusted incidence rate ratio [adjusted IRR] = 0.87; P = 0.010); 8.3% fewer ER visits (adjusted IRR = 0.92; P = 0.043); and 3.0% more outpatient service days (adjusted IRR = 1.03; P = 0.002). Each increase of 1 test was associated with an increase in TKI adherence by 2.2 percentage points (adjusted MPR difference = 0.022; P better adherence to TKIs were associated with lower HRU

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  18. Rapid molecular biosensing for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge in today’s societies is that life expectancy and the prevalence of chronic conditions are increasing. This puts pressure on the healthcare system and raises a demand for easy to use and cost-effective medical technologies in order to manage chronic conditions outside large

  19. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  20. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe3O4/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhen Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES based on choline chloride (ChCl and ionic liquids (ILs based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs, and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE. The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80% as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc (8:2 as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g−1 and 5.07 mg•g−1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  1. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe₃O₄/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-06-25

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g-1 and 5.07 mg•g-1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  2. Informed decision-making before changing to RDT: a comparison of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and identification of malaria parasites in Kassala, eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mamoun M M; Nour, Bakri Y M; Sedig, Mohamed F; De Bes, Laura; Babikir, Adil M; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Mens, Petra F

    2010-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are promoted for the diagnosis of malaria in many countries. The question arises whether laboratories where the current method of diagnosis is microscopy should also switch to RDT. This problem was studied in Kassala, Sudan where the issue of switching to RDT is under discussion. Two hundred and three blood samples were collected from febrile patients suspected of having malaria. These were subsequently analysed with microscopy, RDT (SD Bioline P.f/P.v) and PCR for the detection and identification of Plasmodium parasites. Malaria parasites were detected in 36 blood samples when examined microscopically, 54 (26.6%) samples were found positive for malaria parasites by RDT, and 44 samples were positive by PCR. Further analysis showed that the RDT used in our study resulted in a relatively high number of false positive samples. When microscopy was compared with PCR, an agreement of 96.1% and k = 0.88 (sensitivity 85.7% and specificity 100%) was found. However, when RDT was compared with PCR, an agreement of only 81.2 and k = 0.48 (sensitivity 69% and specificity 84%) was found. PCR has proven to be one of the most specific and sensitive diagnostic methods, particularly for malaria cases with low parasitaemia. However, this technique has limitations in its routine use under resource-limited conditions, such as our study location. At present, based on these results, microscopy remains the best option for routine diagnosis of malaria in Kassala, eastern Sudan. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Using next-generation sequencing to develop molecular diagnostics for Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the cucurbit downy mildew pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) allow for rapid development of genomics resources needed to generate molecular diagnostics assays for infectious agents. NGS approaches are particularly helpful for organisms that cannot be cultured, such as the downy mildew pathogens, a group of biotrop...

  4. Principles of molecular oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bronchud, Miguel H

    2008-01-01

    ...-threatening diseases. Many new molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics described in this text, developed based on the rapid growth in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer, already substantially improve survival of patients with previously lethal malignancies, and also improve quality of life because of fewer toxicities. Clearly re...

  5. Principles of molecular oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bronchud, Miguel H; Thomas, E. Donnall; Weatherall, D. J; Crowther, D. G

    2004-01-01

    ...-threatening diseases. Many new molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics described in this text, developed based on the rapid growth in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer, already substantially improve survival of patients with previously lethal malignancies, and also improve quality of life because of fewer toxicities. Clearly re...

  6. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  7. Molecular nanomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gatteschi, Dante; Villain, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Nanomagnetism is a rapidly expanding area of research which appears to be able to provide novel applications. Magnetic molecules are at the very bottom of the possible size of nanomagnets and they provide a unique opportunity to observe the coexistence of classical and quantum properties. The discovery in the early 90's that a cluster comprising twelve manganese ions shows hysteresis of molecular origin, and later proved evidence of quantum effects, opened a new research area whichis still flourishing through the collaboration of chemists and physicists. This book is the first attempt to cover

  8. Optimising molecular diagnostic capacity for effective control of tuberculosis in high-burden settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiiti, W; Mtafya, B; Kuchaka, D; Azam, K; Viegas, S; Mdolo, A; Farmer, E C W; Khonga, M; Evangelopoulos, D; Honeyborne, I; Rachow, A; Heinrich, N; Ntinginya, N E; Bhatt, N; Davies, G R; Jani, I V; McHugh, T D; Kibiki, G; Hoelscher, M; Gillespie, S H

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization's 2035 vision is to reduce tuberculosis (TB) associated mortality by 95%. While low-burden, well-equipped industrialised economies can expect to see this goal achieved, it is challenging in the low- and middle-income countries that bear the highest burden of TB. Inadequate diagnosis leads to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. The roll-out of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay has demonstrated that molecular diagnostics can produce rapid diagnosis and treatment initiation. Strong molecular services are still limited to regional or national centres. The delay in implementation is due partly to resources, and partly to the suggestion that such techniques are too challenging for widespread implementation. We have successfully implemented a molecular tool for rapid monitoring of patient treatment response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in three high TB burden countries in Africa. We discuss here the challenges facing TB diagnosis and treatment monitoring, and draw from our experience in establishing molecular treatment monitoring platforms to provide practical insights into successful optimisation of molecular diagnostic capacity in resource-constrained, high TB burden settings. We recommend a holistic health system-wide approach for molecular diagnostic capacity development, addressing human resource training, institutional capacity development, streamlined procurement systems, and engagement with the public, policy makers and implementers of TB control programmes.

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  11. resources 1..1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/90/e34.pdf. Morinha F., Carvalho M., Ferro A., Guedes-Pinto H., Rodrigues R. and Bastos E. 2011 Molecular sexing and analysis of CHD1-Z and. CHD1-W sequence variations in wild common quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica).

  12. Current status of the plant phosphorylation site database PhosPhAt and its use as a resource for molecular plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsova, Borjana; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2012-01-01

    As the most studied post-translational modification, protein phosphorylation is analyzed in a growing number of proteomic experiments. These high-throughput approaches generate large datasets, from which specific spectrum-based information can be hard to find. In 2007, the PhosPhAt database was launched to collect and present Arabidopsis phosphorylation sites identified by mass spectrometry from and for the scientific community. At present, PhosPhAt 3.0 consolidates phosphoproteomics data from 19 published proteomic studies. Out of 5460 listed unique phosphoproteins, about 25% have been identified in at least two independent experimental setups. This is especially important when considering issues of false positive and false negative identification rates and data quality (Durek etal., 2010). This valuable data set encompasses over 13205 unique phosphopeptides, with unambiguous mapping to serine (77%), threonine (17%), and tyrosine (6%). Sorting the functional annotations of experimentally found phosphorylated proteins in PhosPhAt using Gene Ontology terms shows an over-representation of proteins in regulatory pathways and signaling processes. A similar distribution is found when the PhosPhAt predictor, trained on experimentally obtained plant phosphorylation sites, is used to predict phosphorylation sites for the Arabidopsis genome. Finally, the possibility to insert a protein sequence into the PhosPhAt predictor allows species independent use of the prediction resource. In practice, PhosPhAt also allows easy exploitation of proteomic data for design of further targeted experiments.

  13. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  14. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  15. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  16. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  17. Molecular sensors and molecular logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, N.; Bojinov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The rapid grow of nanotechnology field extended the concept of a macroscopic device to the molecular level. Because of this reason the design and synthesis of (supra)-molecular species capable of mimicking the functions of macroscopic devices are currently of great interest. Molecular devices operate via electronic and/or nuclear rearrangements and, like macroscopic devices, need energy to operate and communicate between their elements. The energy needed to make a device work can be supplied as chemical energy, electrical energy, or light. Luminescence is one of the most useful techniques to monitor the operation of molecular-level devices. This fact determinates the synthesis of novel fluorescence compounds as a considerable and inseparable part of nanoscience development. Further miniaturization of semiconductors in electronic field reaches their limit. Therefore the design and construction of molecular systems capable of performing complex logic functions is of great scientific interest now. In semiconductor devices the logic gates work using binary logic, where the signals are encoded as 0 and 1 (low and high current). This process is executable on molecular level by several ways, but the most common are based on the optical properties of the molecule switches encoding the low and high concentrations of the input guest molecules and the output fluorescent intensities with binary 0 and 1 respectively. The first proposal to execute logic operations at the molecular level was made in 1988, but the field developed only five years later when the analogy between molecular switches and logic gates was experimentally demonstrated by de Silva. There are seven basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XNOR and all of them were achieved by molecules, the fluorescence switching as well. key words: fluorescence, molecular sensors, molecular logic gates

  18. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  19. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  20. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  1. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  2. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  3. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  4. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  5. Uso da bioinformática na diferenciação molecular da Entamoeba histolytica e Entamoeba díspar - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i2.2375 Molecular discrimination of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by bioinformatics resources - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i2.2375

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Sommer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amebíase invasiva, causada por Entamoeba histolytica, é microscopicamente indistinguível da espécie não-patogênica Entamoeba dispar. Com auxílio de ferramentas de bioinformática, objetivou-se diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica e Entamoeba dispar por técnicas moleculares. A análise foi realizada a partir do banco de dados da National Center for Biotechnology Information; pela pesquisa de similaridade de sequências, elegeu-se o gene da cisteína sintase. Um par de primer foi desenhado (programa Web Primer e foi selecionada a enzima de restrição TaqI (programa Web Cutter. Após a atuação da enzima, o fragmento foi dividido em dois, um com 255 pb e outro com 554 pb, padrão característico da E. histolytica. Na ausência de corte, o fragmento apresentou o tamanho de 809 pb, referente à E. dispar.Under microscopic conditions, the invasive Entamoeba histolytica is indistinguishable from the non-pathogenic species Entamoeba dispar. In this way, the present study was carried out to determine a molecular strategy for discriminating both species by the mechanisms of bioinformatics. The gene cysteine synthetase was considered for such a purpose by using the resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information data bank in the search for similarities in the gene sequence. In this way, a primer pair was designed by the Web Primer program and the restriction enzyme TaqI was selected by the Web Cutter software program. The DNA fragment had a size of 809 bp before cutting, which is consistent with E. dispar. The gene fragment was partitioned in a first fragment with 255 bp and a second one with 554 bp, which is similar to the genetic characteristics of E. histolytica.

  6. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  7. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor employing growth interruption and in situ rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihn, Soo-Ghang; Jo, Seong June; Song, Jong-In

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of high temperature (∼700 deg. C) in situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) carried out during growth interruption between spacer and δ-doping layers of an In 0.52 Al 0.48 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) grown on a compositionally graded InGaAlAs buffer layer. The in situ RTA improved optical and structural properties of the MHEMT without degradation of transport property, while postgrowth RTA improved the structural property of the MHEMT but significantly degraded mobility due to the defect-assisted Si diffusion. The results indicate the potential of the in situ RTA for use in the growth of high-quality metamorphic epitaxial layers for optoelectronic applications requiring improved optical and electrical properties

  9. Structural Molecular Biology 2017 | SSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highlights Training Workshops & Summer Schools Summer Students Structural Molecular Biology Illuminating experimental driver for structural biology research, serving the needs of a large number of academic and — Our Mission The SSRL Structural Molecular Biology program operates as an integrated resource and has

  10. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  11. A recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Bonney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity. The assay was shown to tolerate the presence of inhibitors in crude preparations of mock field samples, indicating that this assay may be suitable for use in the field with minimal sample preparation. The CCHFV RPA was successfully used to screen and detect CCHFV positives from a panel of clinical samples from Tajikistan.The assay is a rapid, isothermal, simple-to-perform molecular diagnostic, which can be performed on a light, portable real-time detection device. It is ideally placed therefore for use as a field-diagnostic or in-low resource laboratories, for monitoring of CCHF outbreaks at the point-of-need, such as in remote rural regions in affected countries.

  12. Global Social Media Directory: A Resource Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F.; Piatt, Andrew W.

    2014-10-23

    The Global Social Media Directory is a resource guide providing information on social networking services around the globe. This information changes rapidly, therefore, this document will be updated on a regular basis and as funding permits.

  13. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  14. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  15. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  16. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  17. Development of a potential lignocellulolytic resource for rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... Key words: Rice straw, lignocellulose, microbial degradation, Bacillus pumilis. ... chlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated ..... enzymatic activities of wheat soil in response to phosphorus enriched organic and ...

  18. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  19. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  20. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing ... has been extensively used to understand various system- .... states. This understanding supports the previous inter- ..... Financial support from the Ministry of Human Resource.

  1. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  3. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  4. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  5. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  7. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  8. Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2002-01-01

    The Southern Forest Resource Assessment was initiated in 1999 as a result of concerns raised by natural resource managers, the science community, and the public regarding the status and likely future of forests in the South. These included changes to the region’s forests brought about by rapid urbanization, increasing timber demand, increasing numbers of...

  9. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  10. Informatics for RNA Sequencing: A Web Resource for Analysis on the Cloud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malachi Griffith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-seq has rapidly become the assay of choice for interrogating RNA transcript abundance and diversity. This article provides a detailed introduction to fundamental RNA-seq molecular biology and informatics concepts. We make available open-access RNA-seq tutorials that cover cloud computing, tool installation, relevant file formats, reference genomes, transcriptome annotations, quality-control strategies, expression, differential expression, and alternative splicing analysis methods. These tutorials and additional training resources are accompanied by complete analysis pipelines and test datasets made available without encumbrance at www.rnaseq.wiki.

  11. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  12. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  13. Molecular malaria diagnostics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Johanna M; Korevaar, Daniël A; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Mens, Pètra F

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for identification and subsequent treatment of the disease. Currently, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the most commonly used diagnostics, next to treatment based on clinical signs only. These tests are easy to deploy, but have a relatively high detection limit. With declining prevalence in many areas, there is an increasing need for more sensitive diagnostics. Molecular tools may be a suitable alternative, although costs and technical requirements currently hamper their implementation in resource limited settings. A range of (near) point-of-care diagnostics is therefore under development, including simplifications in sample preparation, amplification and/or read-out of the test. Accuracy data, in combination with technical characteristics, are essential in determining which molecular test, if any, would be the most promising to be deployed. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation, and systematically evaluates their published accuracy. No important difference in accuracy was found between the most commonly used PCR-based assays (conventional, nested and real-time PCR), with most of them having high sensitivity and specificity, implying that there are no reasons other than practical ones to choose one technique over the other. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification and other (novel) diagnostics appear to be highly accurate as well, with some offering potential to be used in resource-limited settings.

  14. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  15. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  16. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  18. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  20. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  1. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  2. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  3. Molecular MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleige, G.; Hamm, B.

    2000-01-01

    Basic medicobiological research in recent years has made rapid advances in the functional understanding of normal and pathological processes down to the molecular level. At the same time, various imaging modalities have developed from the depiction of organs to approaching the depiction of the cellular level and are about to make the visualization of molecular processes an established procedure. Besides other modalities like PET and near-infrared fluorescence, MR imaging offers some promising options for molecular imaging as well as some applications that have already been tested such as the visualization of enzyme activity, the depiction of the expression of certain genes, the visualization of surface receptors, or the specific demonstration of cells involved in the body's immune response. A major advantage of molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) over other more sensitive modalities is its high spatial resolution. However, the establishment of mMRI crucially relies on further improvements in resolution and the development of molecular markers for improving its sensitivity and specificity. The state of the art of mMRI is presented by giving a survey of the literature on experimental studies and reporting the results our study group obtained during investigation on gliomas. (orig.) [de

  4. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  5. Learning Resources and MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer

    MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have become a serious player within the field of education and learning in the past few years. MOOC research is thus a new field but within the last 2-3 years, it has developed rapidly (Liyanagunawardena et al., 2013, Bayne & Ross, 2014). Much of this research...... has had an emphasis on learners and outcome as well as suitable business models. And even though the internet merely flows over with lists of MOOCs to attend (such as the list from “Top 5 onlinecolleges” which features a list of 99 MOOC environments) not much emphasis has been brought on the actual...... construction of learning resources within all these MOOCs – and what demands they lay on teachers competences and teachers skills....

  6. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  7. Light and Redox Switchable Molecular Components for Molecular Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular and organic electronics has seen rapid progress in recent years, developing from concept and design to actual demonstration devices in which both single molecules and self-assembled monolayers are employed as light-responsive components. Research in this field has seen

  8. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  9. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANAND

    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  11. Molecular-based rapid inventories of sympatric diversity: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary table 1. GenBank accession numbers for the sequence from both the Panama and Malagasy datasets. Species. GenBank Accession Number COI. GenBank Accession Number 16S. Mantidactylus brevipalmatus. Mantidactylus asper. Boophis microtутрапит. Boophis goudotii. Ptychadena mascareniensis.

  12. Light and redox switchable molecular components for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular and organic electronics has seen rapid progress in recent years, developing from concept and design to actual demonstration devices in which both single molecules and self-assembled monolayers are employed as light-responsive components. Research in this field has seen numerous unexpected challenges that have slowed progress and the initial promise of complex molecular-based computers has not yet been realised. Primarily this has been due to the realisation at an early stage that molecular-based nano-electronics brings with it the interface between the hard (semiconductor) and soft (molecular) worlds and the challenges which accompany working in such an environment. Issues such as addressability, cross-talk, molecular stability and perturbation of molecular properties (e.g., inhibition of photochemistry) have nevertheless driven development in molecular design and synthesis as well as our ability to interface molecular components with bulk metal contacts to a very high level of sophistication. Numerous groups have played key roles in progressing this field not least teams such as those led by Whitesides, Aviram, Ratner, Stoddart and Heath. In this short review we will however focus on the contributions from our own group and those of our collaborators, in employing diarylethene based molecular components.

  13. Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Graham J; Figueirido, Borja; Louis, Leeann; Yang, Paul; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2010-11-05

    The polar bear is the only living ursid with a fully carnivorous diet. Despite a number of well-documented craniodental adaptations for a diet of seal flesh and blubber, molecular and paleontological data indicate that this morphologically distinct species evolved less than a million years ago from the omnivorous brown bear. To better understand the evolution of this dietary specialization, we used phylogenetic tests to estimate the rate of morphological specialization in polar bears. We then used finite element analysis (FEA) to compare the limits of feeding performance in the polar bear skull to that of the phylogenetically and geographically close brown bear. Results indicate that extremely rapid evolution of semi-aquatic adaptations and dietary specialization in the polar bear lineage produced a cranial morphology that is weaker than that of brown bears and less suited to processing tough omnivorous or herbivorous diets. Our results suggest that continuation of current climate trends could affect polar bears by not only eliminating their primary food source, but also through competition with northward advancing, generalized brown populations for resources that they are ill-equipped to utilize.

  14. Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J Slater

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The polar bear is the only living ursid with a fully carnivorous diet. Despite a number of well-documented craniodental adaptations for a diet of seal flesh and blubber, molecular and paleontological data indicate that this morphologically distinct species evolved less than a million years ago from the omnivorous brown bear. To better understand the evolution of this dietary specialization, we used phylogenetic tests to estimate the rate of morphological specialization in polar bears. We then used finite element analysis (FEA to compare the limits of feeding performance in the polar bear skull to that of the phylogenetically and geographically close brown bear. Results indicate that extremely rapid evolution of semi-aquatic adaptations and dietary specialization in the polar bear lineage produced a cranial morphology that is weaker than that of brown bears and less suited to processing tough omnivorous or herbivorous diets. Our results suggest that continuation of current climate trends could affect polar bears by not only eliminating their primary food source, but also through competition with northward advancing, generalized brown populations for resources that they are ill-equipped to utilize.

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  16. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  17. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  18. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  19. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  20. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  1. Microwave regeneration of molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.

    1984-05-01

    Molecular sieve driers have been included in the design of tritium handling systems for fusion reactors. In these systems there is a need to maintain extremely low exit dew points from the driers as well as a capability to rapidly reduce tritium concentrations following an accident. The required capacity of the driers is very high. The conventional method of regenerating these sieves after a water adsorption cycle is with hot air. However, because water is rapidly heated by microwave energy, this technology may be suitable for decreasing the bed regeneration time and hence may allow reduced capital and operating costs associated with a smaller bed. The present study was conducted to obtain preliminary information on the technical feasibility of regenerating molecular sieves with microwave energy. The study concentrated on Type 4A molecular sieve with a few tests on Type 13X sieve and also a silica gel adsorbent

  2. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001); and molecular methods such as amplified fragment length polymorphism ... to the maintenance and rational use of germplasm resources in the improvement of ... study of diversity of ScMATE1 gene in different species of. Secale genus.

  3. The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1992-03-01

    MOLECULAR DYNAMICS has been generalized in order to simulate a variety of NONEQUILIBRIUM systems. This generalization has been achieved by adopting microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress. Some of the problems already treated include rapid plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, strong shockwaves simulation, and far-from-equilibrium phase transformations. Continuing advances in technique and in the modeling of interatomic forces, coupled with qualitative improvements in computer hardware, are enabling such simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments

  4. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  5. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  11. Sustainable Steel Carburization by Using Snack Packaging Plastic Waste as Carbon Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyan Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research regarding waste conversion to resources technology has attracted growing attention with the continued increase of waste accumulation issues and rapid depletion of natural resources. However, the study, with respect to utilizing plastics waste as carbon resources in the metals industry, is still limited. In this work, an environmentally friendly approach to utilize snack packaging plastic waste as a valuable carbon resources for steel carburization is investigated. At high temperature, plastic waste could be subject to pyrolytic gasification and decompose into small molecular hydrocarbon gaseous products which have the potential to be used as carburization agents for steel. When heating some snack packaging plastic waste and a steel sample together at the carburization temperature, a considerable amount of carbon-rich reducing gases, like methane, could be liberated from the plastic waste and absorbed by the steel sample as a carbon precursor for carburization. The resulting carburization effect on steel was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer techniques. These investigation results all showed that snack packaging plastic waste could work effectively as a valuable carbon resource for steel carburization leading to a significant increase of surface carbon content and the corresponding microstructure evolution in steel.

  12. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  13. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  14. Molecular fountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  15. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers for Plantago ovata Forsk.: Using Next Generation Sequencing and Their Cross-Species Transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir Singh Fougat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk. is an important medicinal plant having high pharmacological activity in its seed husk, which is substantially used in the food, beverages and packaging industries. Nevertheless, isabgol lags behind in research, particularly for genomic resources, like molecular markers, genetic maps, etc. Presently, molecular markers can be easily developed through next generation sequencing technologies, more efficiently, cost effectively and in less time than ever before. This study was framed keeping in view the need to develop molecular markers for this economically important crop by employing a microsatellite enrichment protocol using a next generation sequencing platform (ion torrent PGM™ to obtain simple sequence repeats (SSRs for Plantago ovata for the very first time. A total of 3447 contigs were assembled, which contained 249 SSRs. Thirty seven loci were randomly selected for primer development; of which, 30 loci were successfully amplified. The developed microsatellite markers showed the amplification of the expected size and cross-amplification in another six species of Plantago. The SSR markers were unable to show polymorphism within P. ovata, suggesting that low variability exists within genotypes of P. ovata. This study suggests that PGM™ sequencing is a rapid and cost-effective tool for developing SSR markers for non-model species, and the markers so-observed could be useful in the molecular breeding of P. ovata.

  16. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Infectious Disease Diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available The ability to make rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a great step forward in global health. Many molecular diagnostic assays are developed based on using thermal cyclers to carry out polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcription PCR for DNA and RNA amplification and detection, respectively. Unfortunately, most commercial thermal cyclers are expensive and need continuous electrical power supply, so they are not suitable for uses in low-resource settings. We have previously reported a low-cost and simple approach to amplify DNA using vacuum insulated stainless steel thermoses food cans, which we have named it thermos thermal cycler or TTC. Here, we describe the use of an improved set up to enable the detection of viral RNA targets by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR, thus expanding the TTC's ability to identify highly infectious, RNA virus-based diseases in low resource settings. The TTC was successful in demonstrating high-speed and sensitive detection of DNA or RNA targets of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and dengue fever. Our innovative TTC costs less than $200 to build and has a capacity of at least eight tubes. In terms of speed, the TTC's performance exceeded that of commercial thermal cyclers tested. When coupled with low-cost endpoint detection technologies such as nucleic acid lateral-flow assay or a cell-phone-based fluorescence detector, the TTC will increase the availability of on-site molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings.

  17. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  19. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  20. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  1. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  2. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  3. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  6. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  10. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  13. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  14. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Online resources. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) stocks in India. Ashoktaru Barat Prabhati K. Sahoo Rohit Kumar Javaid I. Mir Shahnawaz Ali Rabindar S. Patiyal Atul K. Singh. Volume 94 Online resources 2015 pp e13- ...

  15. World resources: engineering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The proceedings include 10 papers that contribute to population environment; fossil fuel resources and energy conservation; nuclear and solar power; production of ores and manufacture and use of metallic resources; resources of manufactured and natural nonmetallic materials; water as a reusable resource; and timber as a replaceable resource.

  16. Transport properties of molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the physical mechanisms that control electron transport and the characteristics of metal-molecule-metal (MMM) junctions is presented. As far as possible, methods and formalisms presented elsewhere to analyze electron transport through molecules are avoided. This title introduces basic concepts—a description of the electron transport through molecular junctions—and briefly describes relevant experimental methods. Theoretical methods commonly used to analyze the electron transport through molecules are presented. Various effects that manifest in the electron transport through MMMs, as well as the basics of density-functional theory and its applications to electronic structure calculations in molecules are presented. Nanoelectronic applications of molecular junctions and similar systems are discussed as well. Molecular electronics is a diverse and rapidly growing field. Transport Properties of Molecular Junctions presents an up-to-date survey of the field suitable for researchers ...

  17. Molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Garrett M; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita

    2008-01-01

    Molecular docking is a key tool in structural molecular biology and computer-assisted drug design. The goal of ligand-protein docking is to predict the predominant binding mode(s) of a ligand with a protein of known three-dimensional structure. Successful docking methods search high-dimensional spaces effectively and use a scoring function that correctly ranks candidate dockings. Docking can be used to perform virtual screening on large libraries of compounds, rank the results, and propose structural hypotheses of how the ligands inhibit the target, which is invaluable in lead optimization. The setting up of the input structures for the docking is just as important as the docking itself, and analyzing the results of stochastic search methods can sometimes be unclear. This chapter discusses the background and theory of molecular docking software, and covers the usage of some of the most-cited docking software.

  18. 4. Rapidly industrializing countries: Forging new models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: the experience of newly industrializing countries (NIC); human development; broadening economic development; conserving natural resources (agriculture, forests, air quality); energy consumption; using more efficient technology; new markets and new products. Governments in rapidly industrializing countries can do a great deal to steer development in a sustainable direction by adopting appropriate policies - many of which are discussed in this and preceding chapters. Governments in industrialized countries also have an important role to play by offering the necessary technical and financial assistance to support this kind of development. The chapter uses as examples Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand

  19. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects, we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.

  20. General perspectives for molecular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides a visualization of normal as well as abnormal cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level rather than at an anatomical level. Conventional medical imaging methods utilize the imaging signals produced by nonspecific physico-chemical interaction. However, molecular imaging methods utilize the imaging signals derived from specific cellular or molecular events. Because molecular and genetic changes precede anatomical change in the course of disease development, molecular imaging can detect early events in disease progression. In the near future, through molecular imaging we can understand basic mechanisms of disease, and diagnose earlier and, subsequently, treat earlier intractable disease such as cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, and immunologic disorders. In beginning period, nuclear medicine started as a molecular imaging, and has had a leading role in the field of molecular imaging. But recently molecular imaging has been rapidly developed. Besides nuclear imaging, molecular imaging methods such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging are emerging. Each imaging modalities have their advantages and weaknesses. The opportunities from molecular imaging look bright. We should try nuclear medicine continues to have a leading role in molecular imaging

  1. Grid computing in large pharmaceutical molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Brian L; Johnson, Stephen R

    2008-07-01

    Most major pharmaceutical companies have employed grid computing to expand their compute resources with the intention of minimizing additional financial expenditure. Historically, one of the issues restricting widespread utilization of the grid resources in molecular modeling is the limited set of suitable applications amenable to coarse-grained parallelization. Recent advances in grid infrastructure technology coupled with advances in application research and redesign will enable fine-grained parallel problems, such as quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics, which were previously inaccessible to the grid environment. This will enable new science as well as increase resource flexibility to load balance and schedule existing workloads.

  2. Molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, Eh.; Zonntag, B.

    1981-01-01

    The latest investigation results on molecular spectroscopy with application of synchrotron radiation in the region of vacuum ultraviolet are generalized. Some results on investigation of excited, superexcited and ionized molecule states with the use of adsorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, by fluorescent and mass-spectrometric methods are considered [ru

  3. Molecular Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    . New Study Indicates Greater Capacity for Carbon Storage in the Earth's Subsurface A team of Foundry minerals which make up the dominant clays in the Earth's deep subsurface. Doubling Down on Energy Storage identify molecular components within small volumes of biological samples, such as blood or urine. Industry

  4. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the

  5. Molecular gastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, cooks have been applying recipes without looking for the mechanisms of the culinary transformations. A scientific discipline that explores these changes from raw ingredients to eating the final dish, is developing into its own field, termed molecular gastronomy. Here, one of the founders of the discipline discusses its aims and importance.

  6. Molecular Star

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In molecular self-assembly, molecules put themselves together in a predefined way ... work has been already published in Chemistry- A European Jour- nal in the September ... prevalent in matter ranging from atoms to molecules to biomolecules; it is also ... erate chemical forces are reversible and dynamic in nature mean-.

  7. Molecular ferromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This past year has been one of substantial advancement in both the physics and chemistry of molecular and polymeric ferromagnets. The specific heat studies of (DMeFc)(TCNE) have revealed a cusp at the three-dimensional ferromagnetic transition temperature with a crossover to primarily 1-D behavior at higher temperatures. This paper discusses these studies

  8. A BIOINFORMATIC STRATEGY TO RAPIDLY CHARACTERIZE CDNA LIBRARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Bioinformatic Strategy to Rapidly Characterize cDNA LibrariesG. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2 and Stephen A. Krawetz1.1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wayne State Univer...

  9. Rapidity correlations in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jowzaee, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Vértési, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 967, č. 11 (2017), s. 792-795 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * rapidity correlations * forward-backward asymmetry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  10. Energy Resource Planning. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclescu, T.; Domschke, W.; Bazacliu, G.; Dumbrava, V.

    1996-01-01

    For a thermal power plants system, the primary energy resources cost constitutes a significant percentage of the total system operational cost. Therefore a small percentage saving in primary energy resource allocation cost for a long term, often turns out to be a significant monetary value. In recent years, with a rapidly changing fuel supply situation, including the impact of energy policies changing, this area has become extremely sensitive. Natural gas availability has been restricted in many areas, coal production and transportation cost have risen while productivity has decreased, oil imports have increased and refinery capacity failed to meet demand. The paper presents a mathematical model and a practical procedure to solve the primary energy resource allocation. The objectives is to minimise the total energy cost over the planning period subject to constraints with regards to primary energy resource, transportation and energy consumption. Various aspects of the proposed approach are discussed, and its application to a power system is illustrated.(author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  11. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  12. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. Molecular science for drug development and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Zhu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-11-04

    With the avalanche of biological sequences generated in the postgenomic age, molecular science is facing an unprecedented challenge, i.e., how to timely utilize the huge amount of data to benefit human beings. Stimulated by such a challenge, a rapid development has taken place in molecular science, particularly in the areas associated with drug development and biomedicine, both experimental and theoretical. The current thematic issue was launched with the focus on the topic of "Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine", in hopes to further stimulate more useful techniques and findings from various approaches of molecular science for drug development and biomedicine.[...].

  16. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  17. Resource utilization during software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  18. Army Transformation and Digitization - Training and Resource Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... A changing world order, diminishing resources and rapid and continuous advances in technology are the driving forces behind the Army's transformation campaign and the redesign of the force to the Force XXI concept...

  19. Introducing change in organization: implication for human resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing change in organization: implication for human resource ... that one of the most obvious and urgent problems at management level in organizations is ... to change their attitude and behavior as rapidly as their organization requires.

  20. China urges rapid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong

  1. RapidRMSD: Rapid determination of RMSDs corresponding to motions of flexible molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Emilie; Popov, Petr; Hoffmann, Alexandre; Migliosi, Angelo; Besseron, Xavier; Danoy, Grégoire; Bouvry, Pascal; Grudinin, Sergei

    2018-03-15

    The root mean square deviation (RMSD) is one of the most used similarity criteria in structural biology and bioinformatics. Standard computation of the RMSD has a linear complexity with respect to the number of atoms in a molecule, making RMSD calculations time-consuming for the large-scale modeling applications, such as assessment of molecular docking predictions or clustering of spatially proximate molecular conformations. Previously we introduced the RigidRMSD algorithm to compute the RMSD corresponding to the rigid-body motion of a molecule. In this study we go beyond the limits of the rigid-body approximation by taking into account conformational flexibility of the molecule. We model the flexibility with a reduced set of collective motions computed with e.g. normal modes or principal component analysis. The initialization of our algorithm is linear in the number of atoms and all the subsequent evaluations of RMSD values between flexible molecular conformations depend only on the number of collective motions that are selected to model the flexibility. Therefore, our algorithm is much faster compared to the standard RMSD computation for large-scale modeling applications. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method on several clustering examples, including clustering of flexible docking results and molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories. We also demonstrate how to use the presented formalism to generate pseudo-random constant-RMSD structural molecular ensembles and how to use these in cross-docking. We provide the algorithm written in C ++ as the open-source RapidRMSD library governed by the BSD-compatible license, which is available at http://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/RapidRMSD/. The constant-RMSD structural ensemble application and clustering of MD trajectories is available at http://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/nolb-normal-modes/. sergei.grudinin@inria.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics.

  2. Immune epitope database analysis resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yohan; Ponomarenko, Julia; Zhu, Zhanyang

    2012-01-01

    The immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR: http://tools.iedb.org) is a collection of tools for prediction and analysis of molecular targets of T- and B-cell immune responses (i.e. epitopes). Since its last publication in the NAR webserver issue in 2008, a new generation of peptide......, and the homology mapping tool was updated to enable mapping of discontinuous epitopes onto 3D structures. Furthermore, to serve a wider range of users, the number of ways in which IEDB-AR can be accessed has been expanded. Specifically, the predictive tools can be programmatically accessed using a web interface...

  3. Vegetable Genetic Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping WANG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China is recognized as an important region for plant biodiversity based on its vast and historical collection of vegetable germplasm. The aim of this review is to describe the exploration status of vegetable genetic resources in China, including their collection, preservation, evaluation, and utilization. China has established a number of national-level vegetable genetic resources preservation units, including the National Mid-term Genebank for Vegetable Germplasm Resources, the National Germplasm Repository for Vegetatively-Propagated Vegetables, and the National Germplasm Repository for Aquatic Vegetables. In 2015, at least 36 000 accessions were collected and preserved in these units. In the past decade, 44 descriptors and data standards for different species have been published, and most accessions have been evaluated for screening the germplasms for specific important traits such as morphological characteristics, disease resistance, pest resistance, and stress tolerance. Moreover, the genetic diversity and evolution of some vegetable germplasms have been evaluated at the molecular level. Recently, more than 1 000 accessions were distributed to researchers and breeders each year by various means for vegetable research and production. However, additional wild-relative and abroad germplasms from other regions need to be collected and preserved in the units to expand genetic diversity. Furthermore, there is a need to utilize advanced techniques to better understand the background and genetic diversity of a wide range of vegetable genetic resources. This review will provide agricultural scientists’ insights into the genetic diversity in China and provide information on the distribution and potential utilization of these valuable genetic resources. Keywords: vegetable, genetic resource, preservation, evaluation, utilization

  4. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular markers in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kirsten; Kornblum, Harley I

    2017-09-01

    Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient. Such research highlights the importance of identifying and validating molecular markers in glioma. This review, intended as a practical resource for both clinical and basic investigators, summarizes some of the more well-known molecular markers (MGMT, 1p/19q, IDH, EGFR, p53, PI3K, Rb, and RAF), discusses how they are identified, and what, if any, clinical relevance they may have, in addition to discussing some of the specific biology for these markers. Additionally, we discuss identification methods for studying putative GSC's (CD133, CD15, A2B5, nestin, ALDH1, proteasome activity, ABC transporters, and label-retention). While much research has been done on these markers, there is still a significant amount that we do not yet understand, which may account for some conflicting reports in the literature. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the investigator will be able to utilize one single marker to prospectively identify and isolate GSC from all, or possibly, any gliomas.

  6. Network resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The invention provides real time dynamic resource management to improve end-to-end QoS by mobile devices regularly updating a resource availability server (RAS) with resource update information. Examples of resource update information are device battery status, available memory, session bandwidth,

  7. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  8. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  9. Molecular scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Childers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript demonstrates the molecular scale cure rate dependence of di-functional epoxide based thermoset polymers cured with amines. A series of cure heating ramp rates were used to determine the influence of ramp rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg and sub-Tg transitions and the average free volume hole size in these systems. The networks were comprised of 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (33DDS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF and were cured at ramp rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 °C/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and NIR spectroscopy were used to explore the cure ramp rate dependence of the polymer network growth, whereas broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and free volume hole size measurements were used to interrogate networks’ molecular level structural variations upon curing at variable heating ramp rates. It was found that although the Tg of the polymer matrices was similar, the NIR and DSC measurements revealed a strong correlation for how these networks grow in relation to the cure heating ramp rate. The free volume analysis and BDS results for the cured samples suggest differences in the molecular architecture of the matrix polymers due to cure heating rate dependence.

  10. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  11. Fully 3D printed integrated reactor array for point-of-care molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadimisetty, Karteek; Song, Jinzhao; Doto, Aoife M; Hwang, Young; Peng, Jing; Mauk, Michael G; Bushman, Frederic D; Gross, Robert; Jarvis, Joseph N; Liu, Changchun

    2018-06-30

    Molecular diagnostics that involve nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are crucial for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we developed a simple, inexpensive, disposable, fully 3D printed microfluidic reactor array that is capable of carrying out extraction, concentration and isothermal amplification of nucleic acids in variety of body fluids. The method allows rapid molecular diagnostic tests for infectious diseases at point of care. A simple leak-proof polymerization strategy was developed to integrate flow-through nucleic acid isolation membranes into microfluidic devices, yielding a multifunctional diagnostic platform. Static coating technology was adopted to improve the biocompatibility of our 3D printed device. We demonstrated the suitability of our device for both end-point colorimetric qualitative detection and real-time fluorescence quantitative detection. We applied our diagnostic device to detection of Plasmodium falciparum in plasma samples and Neisseria meningitides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples by loop-mediated, isothermal amplification (LAMP) within 50 min. The detection limits were 100 fg for P. falciparum and 50 colony-forming unit (CFU) for N. meningitidis per reaction, which are comparable to that of benchtop instruments. This rapid and inexpensive 3D printed device has great potential for point-of-care molecular diagnosis of infectious disease in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Smartphone-Based Mobile Detection Platform for Molecular Diagnostics and Spatiotemporal Disease Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinzhao; Pandian, Vikram; Mauk, Michael G; Bau, Haim H; Cherry, Sara; Tisi, Laurence C; Liu, Changchun

    2018-04-03

    Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, relatively sophisticated instruments, and trained personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected, and quantitative molecular diagnostics. Our platform combines bioluminescent assay in real-time and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (BART-LAMP) technology with smartphone-based detection, eliminating the need for an excitation source and optical filters that are essential in fluorescent-based detection. The incubation heating for the isothermal amplification is provided, electricity-free, with an exothermic chemical reaction, and incubation temperature is regulated with a phase change material. A custom Android App was developed for bioluminescent signal monitoring and analysis, target quantification, data sharing, and spatiotemporal mapping of disease. SCC's utility is demonstrated by quantitative detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in urine and saliva and HIV in blood within 45 min. We demonstrate SCC's connectivity for disease spatiotemporal mapping with a custom-designed website. Such a smart- and connected-diagnostic system does not require any lab facilities and is suitable for use at home, in the field, in the clinic, and particularly in resource-limited settings in the context of Internet of Medical Things (IoMT).

  13. Chemical Probes of Rapid Estrogen Signaling in Breast Cancer Treatment and Chemoprevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weatherman, Rose V

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design new chemical tools to selectively probe the molecular mechanisms of action of rapid estrogen receptor action and their relevance to breast cancer drugs like tamoxifen...

  14. Spintronics: The molecular way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, Andrea; Seneor, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Molecular spintronics is an interdisciplinary field at the interface between organic spintronics, molecular magnetism, molecular electronics and quantum computing, which is advancing fast and promises large technological payoffs.

  15. Information engineering for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, J. M.; Ritondo, M.; Canfield, K.

    1994-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are beginning to apply the recent advances in molecular biology to the testing of patient samples. The emerging field of Molecular Diagnostics will require a new Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory Information System which handles the data types, samples and test methods found in this field. The system must be very flexible in regards to supporting ad-hoc queries. The requirements which are shaping the developments in this field are reviewed and a data model developed. Several queries which demonstrate the data models ability to support the information needs of this area have been developed and run. These results demonstrate the ability of the purposed data model to meet the current and projected needs of this rapidly expanding field. PMID:7949937

  16. Molecular plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a novel approach, this book provides a unique ""molecular perspective"" on plasmonics, concisely presenting the fundamentals and applications in a way suitable for beginners entering this hot field as well as for experienced researchers and practitioners. It begins by introducing readers to the optical effects that occur at the nanoscale and particularly their modification in the presence of biomolecules, followed by a concise yet thorough overview of the different methods for the actual fabrication of nanooptical materials. Further chapters address the relevant nanooptics, as well as

  17. Establishing Medical Schools in Limited Resource Settings | Girma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishing Medical Schools in Limited Resource Settings. ... These countries face challenges related to the rapid scale up which is mostly done without proper strategic planning, without the basic elements of infrastructure development, educational as well as academic and administrative human resources. Medical ...

  18. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  19. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  20. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  1. World resources 1992-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The World Resources series is intended to meet the critical need for accessible, accurate information on some of the most pressing issues of our time. Wise management of natural resources and protection of the global environment are essential to achieve sustainable economic development and hence to alleviate poverty, improve the human condition, and preserve the biological systems on which all life depends. This volume has a special focus on sustainable development, in support of the upcoming 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Part 1 consists of four special chapters on sustainable development: an overview chapter and three case studies of what sustainable development might mean in industrial countries, low-income countries, and rapidly industrializing countries. Additional material pertinent to this topic is found throughout the volume. Part 2 continues the tradition of examining in each volume a particular region in more detail - in this case, an overview of the severe environmental and resource problems faced by Central Europe as that region makes a difficult transition to more democratic governments and more market-oriented economies. Part 3 reports on basic conditions and trends, key issues, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in each of the major resource categories, from population and human development to energy to atmosphere and climate. Where data exist, the chapters give a 20-year perspective on trends in the physical environment - spanning the time between the first United Nations Conference on the Environment and UNCED. Supporting data, as well as the core data tables from the World Resources Data Base, are found in Part 4. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  2. Nanotechnology, resources, and pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Stephen L.

    1996-09-01

    The separation of different kinds of atoms or molecules from each other is a fundamental technological problem. Current techniques of resource extraction, which use the ancient paradigm of the differential partitioning of elements into coexisting phases, are simple but extremely wasteful and require feedstocks (`ores') that are already anomalously enriched. This is impractical for pollution control and desalination, which require extraction of low concentrations; instead, atomistic separation, typically by differential motion through semipermeable membranes, is used. The present application of such membranes is seriously limited, however, mostly because of limitations in their fabrication by conventional bulk techniques. The capabilities of biological systems, such as vertebrate kidneys, are vastly better, largely because they are intrinsically structured at a molecular scale. Nanofabrication of semipermeable membranes promises capabilities on the order of those of biological systems, and this in turn could provide much financial incentive for the development of molecular assemblers, as well established markets exist already. Continued incentives would exist, moreover, as markets expanded with decreasing costs, leading to such further applications as remediation of polluted sites, cheap desalination, and resource extraction from very low-grade sources.

  3. Molecular imaging II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, Wolfhard; Schwaiger, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this textbook of molecular imaging is to provide an up to date review of this rapidly growing field and to discuss basic methodological aspects necessary for the interpretation of experimental and clinical results. Emphasis is placed on the interplay of imaging technology and probe development, since the physical properties of the imaging approach need to be closely linked with the biologic application of the probe (i.e. nanoparticles and microbubbles). Various chemical strategies are discussed and related to the biologic applications. Reporter-gene imaging is being addressed not only in experimental protocols, but also first clinical applications are discussed. Finally, strategies of imaging to characterize apoptosis and angiogenesis are described and discussed in the context of possible clinical translation. (orig.)

  4. Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    José Santander, María, E-mail: maria.jose.noemi@gmail.com [Recursos Educativos Quántica, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Roldán-Molina, A. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Troncoso, Roberto E., E-mail: r.troncoso.c@gmail.com [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation.

  5. Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    José Santander, María; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Roldán-Molina, A.; Troncoso, Roberto E.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation

  6. Molecular Science Computing: 2010 Greenbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Cowley, David E.; Dunning, Thom H.; Vorpagel, Erich R.

    2010-04-02

    This 2010 Greenbook outlines the science drivers for performing integrated computational environmental molecular research at EMSL and defines the next-generation HPC capabilities that must be developed at the MSC to address this critical research. The EMSL MSC Science Panel used EMSL’s vision and science focus and white papers from current and potential future EMSL scientific user communities to define the scientific direction and resulting HPC resource requirements presented in this 2010 Greenbook.

  7. When resources get sparse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....

  8. CerealsDB 3.0: expansion of resources and data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul A; Winfield, Mark O; Barker, Gary L A; Tyrrell, Simon; Bian, Xingdong; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda; Coghill, Jane A; Waterfall, Christy; Caccamo, Mario; Davey, Robert P; Edwards, Keith J

    2016-06-24

    The increase in human populations around the world has put pressure on resources, and as a consequence food security has become an important challenge for the 21st century. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crops in human and livestock diets, and the development of wheat varieties that produce higher yields, combined with increased resistance to pests and resilience to changes in climate, has meant that wheat breeding has become an important focus of scientific research. In an attempt to facilitate these improvements in wheat, plant breeders have employed molecular tools to help them identify genes for important agronomic traits that can be bred into new varieties. Modern molecular techniques have ensured that the rapid and inexpensive characterisation of SNP markers and their validation with modern genotyping methods has produced a valuable resource that can be used in marker assisted selection. CerealsDB was created as a means of quickly disseminating this information to breeders and researchers around the globe. CerealsDB version 3.0 is an online resource that contains a wide range of genomic datasets for wheat that will assist plant breeders and scientists to select the most appropriate markers for use in marker assisted selection. CerealsDB includes a database which currently contains in excess of a million putative varietal SNPs, of which several hundreds of thousands have been experimentally validated. In addition, CerealsDB also contains new data on functional SNPs predicted to have a major effect on protein function and we have constructed a web service to encourage data integration and high-throughput programmatic access. CerealsDB is an open access website that hosts information on SNPs that are considered useful for both plant breeders and research scientists. The recent inclusion of web services designed to federate genomic data resources allows the information on CerealsDB to be more fully integrated with the WheatIS network and

  9. Molecular catalysts structure and functional design

    CERN Document Server

    Gade, Lutz H

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting the key aspects and latest advances in the rapidly developing field of molecular catalysis, this book covers new strategies to investigate reaction mechanisms, the enhancement of the catalysts' selectivity and efficiency, as well as the rational design of well-defined molecular catalysts. The interdisciplinary author team with an excellent reputation within the community discusses experimental and theoretical studies, along with examples of improved catalysts, and their application in organic synthesis, biocatalysis, and supported organometallic catalysis. As a result, readers wil

  10. The patterns of interaction between professional translators and online resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the recent developments in translation technology, the way translators carry out their translation-oriented research has changed dramatically. Resources used by translators to conduct such research have diversified and largely moved from paper to online. However, whilst the number and the variety of online resources available to translators is growing exponentially, little is known about the interactions between translators and these resources. The pr...

  11. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  12. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  13. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  14. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  15. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  16. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  17. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  18. Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CR cultural resource CRM cultural resource management CRPM Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling DoD Department of Defense ESTCP Environmental...resource management ( CRM ) legal obligations under NEPA and the NHPA, military installations need to demonstrate that CRM decisions are based on objective...maxim “one size does not fit all,” and demonstrate that DoD installations have many different CRM needs that can and should be met through a variety

  19. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  20. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  1. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  2. Ohio Water Resources Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio.gov State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources

  3. Application of keyword extraction on MOOC resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoxuan Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of massive open online courses (MOOCs. With more and more courses being produced by instructors and being participated by learners all over the world, unprecedented massive educational resources are aggregated. The educational resources include videos, subtitles, lecture notes, quizzes, etc., on the teaching side, and forum contents, Wiki, log of learning behavior, log of homework, etc., on the learning side. However, the data are both unstructured and diverse. To facilitate knowledge management and mining on MOOCs, extracting keywords from the resources is important. This paper aims to adapt the state-of-the-art techniques to MOOC settings and evaluate the effectiveness on real data. In terms of practice, this paper also tries to answer the questions for the first time that to what extend can the MOOC resources support keyword extraction models, and how many human efforts are required to make the models work well. Design/methodology/approach – Based on which side generates the data, i.e instructors or learners, the data are classified to teaching resources and learning resources, respectively. The approach used on teaching resources is based on machine learning models with labels, while the approach used on learning resources is based on graph model without labels. Findings – From the teaching resources, the methods used by the authors can accurately extract keywords with only 10 per cent labeled data. The authors find a characteristic of the data that the resources of various forms, e.g. subtitles and PPTs, should be separately considered because they have the different model ability. From the learning resources, the keywords extracted from MOOC forums are not as domain-specific as those extracted from teaching resources, but they can reflect the topics which are lively discussed in forums. Then instructors can get feedback from the indication. The authors implement two

  4. The merger of electrochemistry and molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Richard L

    2012-02-01

    Molecular Electronics has the potential to greatly enhance existing silicon-based microelectronics to realize new functions, higher device density, lower power consumption, and lower cost. Although the investigation of electron transport through single molecules and molecular monolayers in "molecular junctions" is a recent development, many of the relevant concepts and phenomena are derived from electrochemistry, as practiced for the past several decades. The past 10+ years have seen an explosion of research activity directed toward how the structure of molecules affects electron transport in molecular junctions, with the ultimate objective of "rational design" of molecular components with new electronic functions, such as chemical sensing, interactions with light, and low-cost, low-power consumer electronics. In order to achieve these scientifically and commercially important objectives, the factors controlling charge transport in molecules "connected" to conducting contacts must be understood, and methods for massively parallel manufacturing of molecular circuits must be developed. This Personal Account describes the development of reproducible and robust molecular electronic devices, starting with modified electrodes used in electrochemistry and progressing to manufacturable molecular junctions. Although the field faced some early difficulties in reliability and characterization, the pieces are now in place for rapid advances in understanding charge transport at the molecular level. Inherent in the field of Molecular Electronics are many electrochemical concepts, including tunneling, redox exchange, activated electron transfer, and electron coupling between molecules and conducting contacts. Copyright © 2012 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity in some durum wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of genetic diversity in some durum wheat ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Thus, RAPD offer a potentially simple, rapid and reliable method to evaluate genetic variation and relatedness among ten wheat ...

  6. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.

  7. Progress on molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Zhang Yongxue

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a new era of medical imaging,which can non-invasively monitor biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo, including molecular imaging of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance molecular imaging, ultrasound molecular imaging,optical molecular imaging and molecular imaging with X-ray. Recently, with the development of multi-subjects amalgamation, multimodal molecular imaging technology has been applied in clinical imaging, such as PET-CT and PET-MRI. We believe that with development of molecular probe and multi-modal imaging, more and more molecular imaging techniques will be applied in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  8. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  9. Rapid Continuous Multimaterial Extrusion Bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wanjun; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Heinrich, Marcel A.; De Ferrari, F; Jang, HL; Bakht, SM; Alvarez, MM; Yang, J; Li, YC; Trujillo-de Stantiago, G; Miri, AK; Zhu, K; Khoshakhlagh, P; Prakash, G; Cheng, H; Guan, X; Zhong, Z; Ju, J; Zhu, GH; Jin, X; Ryon Shin, Su; Dokmeci, M.R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    The development of a multimaterial extrusion bioprinting platform is reported. This platform is capable of depositing multiple coded bioinks in a continuous manner with fast and smooth switching among different reservoirs for rapid fabrication of complex constructs, through digitally controlled

  10. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  11. Rapid freezing of water under dynamic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Philip C.; Belof, Jonathan L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the behavior of materials at extreme pressures is a central issue in fields like aerodynamics, astronomy, and geology, as well as for advancing technological grand challenges such as inertial confinement fusion. Dynamic compression experiments to probe high-pressure states often encounter rapid phase transitions that may cause the materials to behave in unexpected ways, and understanding the kinetics of these phase transitions remains an area of great interest. In this review, we examine experimental and theoretical/computational efforts to study the freezing kinetics of water to a high-pressure solid phase known as ice VII. We first present a detailed analysis of dynamic compression experiments in which water has been observed to freeze on sub-microsecond time scales to ice VII. This is followed by a discussion of the limitations of currently available molecular and continuum simulation methods in modeling these experiments. We then describe how our phase transition kinetics models, which are based on classical nucleation theory, provide a more physics-based framework that overcomes some of these limitations. Finally, we give suggestions on future experimental and modeling work on the liquid–ice VII transition, including an outline of the development of a predictive multiscale model in which molecular and continuum simulations are intimately coupled.

  12. Self managing experiment resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagni, F; Ubeda, M; Charpentier, P; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Romanovskiy, V; Roiser, S; Graciani, R

    2014-01-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  13. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M. A.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Oliveira, E. G. de

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in pAu and pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio R pA considering transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities when compared with the already known forward ones, since it is related with the large x kinematical region that is being probed. The rapidity dependence of the nuclear modification ratio in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken x behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio R F 2 =F 2 A /F 2 p . The R pA transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large x nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio R pA is reduced as p T increases, presenting an opposite behavior when compared with the forward one. It implies that the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry information of the nuclear effects at large Bjorken x, as well as that it is useful to investigate the p T dependence of the observables in this kinematical regime

  14. Resource Structuring and Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yucheng; Li, Peter Ping

    -shaped effect on organizational ambidexterity in new ventures. Further, because of the traditional culture and economic transition characteristics, new ventures actively leverage managerial ties as key social relations to obtain special resources or nurture business transactions. We propose that ties with other......Focusing on how resource structuring mechanisms and managerial ties influence organizational ambidexterity of new ventures in emerging economy, this study explores the effects of resource structuring mechanisms (i.e., resource acquiring and resource accumulating) on organizational ambidexterity....... It further examines the moderating effects of managerial ties, (i.e., ties with other firms and ties with the government) on the above relationships. Survey data from China¡¯s 202 new ventures demonstrates that the resource acquiring has an inverted U-shaped effect whereas the resource accumulating has a U...

  15. Resource Areas in the New Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Kryukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that today the dynamics of development and production of mineral resources in resource specializing regions may differ significantly from the canonical scheme - i.e. there is no gradual and steady depletion of natural resources within mentioned territories. The combination of several factors may again move resource regions that used to be «hopeless» to the stage of growing production. These factors are: a modern knowledge economy, an adequate resource mode (norms, rules and procedures that «master» the process of development of natural resources and developed and available infrastructure of mineral resources extraction. As an example the author considers the USA oil-producing states (Texas, Louisiana and North Dakota which showed rapid growth in production of natural gas and oil in the last few years. The author sees the accumulation of a «critical level» of economic activity (infrastructure, the number and diversity of companies in the oil and gas sector and the availability and quality of human capital as the main cause for the development of shale hydrocarbons in these states. These considerations are very important for Russia: the development of heavy oil deposits in Tatarstan, bringing into development the deposits of the Bazhenov formation in Tyumen Oblast and the future oil extraction from bituminous minerals in Yakutia will occur under the same laws (with some Russian specificity, however

  16. Modeling Resource Hotspots: Critical Linkages and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, B.; Mohtar, R.; Pistikopoulos, E.; McCarl, B. A.; Yang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Growing demands for interconnected resources emerge in the form of hotspots of varying characteristics. The business as usual allocation model cannot address the current, let alone anticipated, complex and highly interconnected resource challenges we face. A new paradigm for resource allocation must be adopted: one that identifies cross-sectoral synergies and, that moves away from silos to recognition of the nexus and integration of it. Doing so will result in new opportunities for business growth, economic development, and improved social well-being. Solutions and interventions must be multi-faceted; opportunities should be identified with holistic trade-offs in mind. No single solution fits all: different hotspots will require distinct interventions. Hotspots have varying resource constraints, stakeholders, goals and targets. The San Antonio region represents a complex resource hotspot with promising potential: its rapidly growing population, the Eagle Ford shale play, and the major agricultural activity there makes it a hotspot with many competing demands. Stakeholders need tools to allow them to knowledgeably address impending resource challenges. This study will identify contemporary WEF nexus questions and critical system interlinkages that will inform the modeling of the tightly interconnected resource systems and stresses using the San Antonio Region as a base; it will conceptualize a WEF nexus modeling framework, and develop assessment criteria to inform integrative planning and decision making.

  17. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS OF YERSINIA RUCKERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Rud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNA gene of virulent strains of Yersinia ruckeri and to develop the method of molecular diagnostic of enteric redmouth disease. Methodology. By the method of CLUSTALW algorithm in MEGA software version 6.0 the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNA gene of virulent strains of Yersinia ruckeri were analysed. For development of molecular diagnostic of Y. ruckeri the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used. Primer selection was carried out in software VectorNTI11 and on-line-service BLAST. The PCR products were investigated by the methods of sequencing and nucleotide analysis. Findings. Based on PCR assay the method of molecular diagnostic of enteric redmouth disease agent, bacterium Y. ruckeri was developed. It was shown that specific oligonucleotide primers generated PCR products in size of 600 base pairs. PCR products were investigated by the sequencing that showed right targeting of primers in reaction. Originality. Among high-conservative gene of 16S rDNA of Y. ruckeri the fragment of DNA was determined to which the specific primers for rapid diagnostic of virulent strains were selected. Practical Value. Rapid diagnostic of yersiniosis will allow to identify an agent of this infectious disease, bacterium Y. ruckeri, and to provide the prophylactic or medical measures in the fish farming of Ukraine.

  18. Research advance in rapid detection of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Xihong Zhao; Caijiao Wei; Junliang Zhong; Shiwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, coccus-shaped facultative anaerobe and a member of the Staphylococcaceae family. In recent years, alimentary toxicosis caused by S. aureus is a very serious problem worldwide, which constitutes a great threat to public health. In this review, we tried to summarize the conventional methods and newly developed rapid detection techniques of S. aureus (traditional detection method, biochemical detection, immunology method, molecular biology, and biosensor...

  19. Effects of Gas Dynamics on Rapidly Collapsing Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Spenser; Fomitchev-Zamilov, Max

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of rapidly collapsing bubbles are of great interest due to the high degree of energy focusing that occurs withing the bubble. Molecular dynamics provides a way to model the interior of the bubble and couple the gas dynamics with the equations governing the bubble wall. While much theoretical work has been done to understand how a bubble will respond to an external force, the internal dynamics of the gas system are usually simplified greatly in such treatments. This paper shows ho...

  20. Molecular Plant Pathology: Develop tools and resources for crop protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, rice blast disease and sheath blight disease are the two major destructive fungal diseases worldwide. Both diseases are controlled by precise deployment of major and minor genes integrated with effective cultural practices worldwide. Continued evolution and adaptation of the pathogen hav...

  1. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics.

  2. Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla M. Wassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of Aedes caspius mosquitoes are incriminated to be a potential reservoir of “Rift Valley Fever Virus” (RVF during interepizootic periods in Egypt. Ae. caspius contains two distinct forms which are morphologically indistinguishable but differ in physiology and behavior; Ae. caspius form (a requires a blood meal for each egg batch(anautogeny, is unable to mate in confined spaces(eurygamous. The second form (b lays egg batch without blood meal (autogenous and can mate in confined spaces (stenogamous. In this work, we collected the autogenous and anautogenous forms of Ae. caspius from two different breeding habitats in the Qalyubia Governorate. Analysis of the Drosophila ace-Orthologous acetylecholinesterase gene revealed that a single polymorphic region characterized each species. Based on this region, specific primers were used to amplify the entire section of intron II, sections of Exon 2 and Exon 3 of ace-2 gene for differentiating the complex species of mosquitoes. The amplicons of anautogenous form sized 441 pb and increase 116 bp than autogenous form of Ae. caspius. High rates of point mutations were addressed; deletion/insertion events are 120 bases. The transversion mutations were 44 bases and were relatively close to the transtion mutations 43 base. The genetic distance was 0.01 between the two forms.

  3. Dynamic Resource Management and Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Oriana; Kristensen, Mads Darø; Porras, Jari

    2009-01-01

    Mobile devices such as PDAs and moblie phones are rapidly advancing to become full-fledged personal computing devices. In particular, besides supporting phone calls, moblie phones nowadays provide storage, computing, communication, and multimedia capabilities thus to be considered the primary...... inhibit mobile devices from fully supporting increasingly demaniding mobile applications. Furthermore, althougt processing capabilities have followed Moore's law for the last 30 years, the more critical resource on mobile devices is battery energy density, which has shown the slowest trend in mobile...

  4. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Safety National Program Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Weather.gov > Safety > Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Lightning Resources Lightning strikes ...

  5. Resource price turbulence and macroeconomic adjustment for a resource exporter. A conceptual framework for policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Grant M.; Harvie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Increased global demand for energy and other resources, particularly from the rapidly developing economies of China and India and the opening up of global resource markets to global investors and speculative activity, has resulted in considerable recent turbulence in resource prices. The recent magnitude of change in resource prices, both positive and negative, and their macroeconomic implications is of considerable contemporary importance to both resource importing and exporting economies. For a resource exporting economy, such as that of Australia, the recent resource price boom has resulted in: increased government taxation revenue, increased employment and wages in the resource and resource related sectors, increased spending in the domestic economy that contributed to buoyant economic growth, increased resource exports to the booming economies of China and India and contributed to a stronger domestic currency with beneficial effects upon inflation. On the other hand these developments have had adverse effects on the non-resource sector by: subjecting it to more intense competition for limited resources, contributing to a loss of international competitiveness and reduced exports arising from a stronger exchange rate, reducing employment in the relatively more labour intensive non-resource sector, and contributing to an eventual slow down in the overall economy. These positive and negative effects, and the overall impact of a resource price boom, require a fundamentally closer analysis of the structure of the economy under scrutiny. In this context the policy response by government is likely to be pivotal in determining the overall macroeconomic outcomes from a resource price boom. The aim of this paper is to develop a generic analytical framework to appraise economic outcomes in the wake of a resource price boom for a resource producing and exporting economy. To this end a dynamic long run macroeconomic model is developed, emphasising the important role and

  6. Use of rich-media resources by engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillie, Martin; Dahli, Ranim; Saunders, Fiona C.; Gibson, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The ability to develop and distribute digital teaching resources in higher education has developed rapidly over the last decade but research into how students use such resources has received limited attention. This study uses questionnaire results, Internet analytic data and semi-structured interviews to examine the use of three types of rich-media teaching resources - lecture podcasts, key-concept videos and tutorial solution videos - by engineering undergraduates. It is found that students value all three types of resource, especially for revision and as a supplement to lectures. Students find short, focused resources more useful than longer ones. Non-native English speakers and those with disabilities derive particular benefits from the resources. The effect of rich-media resources on lecture attendance is found to be small, and two-way.

  7. Molecular Electronic Terms and Molecular Orbital Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the molecular electronic terms which can arise from a given electronic configuration. Considered are simple cases, molecular states, direct products, closed shells, and open shells. Two examples are provided. (CW)

  8. Molecular integrals for slater type orbitals using coulomb sturmians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales

    2014-01-01

    The use of Slater type orbitals in molecular calculations is hindered by the slowness of integral evaluation. In the present paper, we introduce a method for overcoming this problem by expanding STO's in terms of Coulomb Sturmians, for which the problem of evaluating molecular integrals rapidly has...

  9. European Consensus Conference for external quality assessment in molecular pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, J. H.; Siebers, A. G.; Normanno, N.; Timens, Wim

    Molecular testing of tumor samples to guide treatment decisions is of increasing importance. Several drugs have been approved for treatment of molecularly defined subgroups of patients, and the number of agents requiring companion diagnostics for their prescription is expected to rapidly increase.

  10. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  11. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  12. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  13. Sharing network resources

    CERN Document Server

    Parekh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications. We start from the fun

  14. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  15. An Integrated Molecular Database on Indian Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Gracy, Gandhi; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Rangheswaran, Rajagopal; Antony, Jomin Cruz; Rai, Anil

    2018-01-01

    MOlecular Database on Indian Insects (MODII) is an online database linking several databases like Insect Pest Info, Insect Barcode Information System (IBIn), Insect Whole Genome sequence, Other Genomic Resources of National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Whole Genome sequencing of Honey bee viruses, Insecticide resistance gene database and Genomic tools. This database was developed with a holistic approach for collecting information about phenomic and genomic information of agriculturally important insects. This insect resource database is available online for free at http://cib.res.in. http://cib.res.in/.

  16. On the rapid melt quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usatyuk, I.I.; Novokhatskij, I.A.; Kaverin, Yu.F.

    1994-01-01

    Specific features of instrumentation of traditionally employed method of melt spinning (rapid quenching), its disadvantages being discussed, were analyzed. The necessity of the method upgrading as applied to the problems of studying fine structure of molten metals and glasses was substantiated. The principle flowsheet of experimental facility for extremely rapid quenching of the melts of metals is described, specificity of its original functional units being considered. The sequence and character of all the principal stages of the method developed were discussed. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  17. An ab initio molecular

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanisms of two molecular crystals: An ab initio molecular dynamics ... for Computation in Molecular and Materials Science and Department of Chemistry, School of ..... NSAF Foundation of National Natural Science Foun- ... Matter 14 2717.

  18. Molecular imaging by cardiovascular MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Tillmann; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2007-01-01

    Do molecularly-targeted contrast agents have what it takes to usher in a paradigm shift as to how we will image cardiovascular disease in the near future? Moreover, are non-invasive vulnerable plaque detection and preemptive treatments with these novel nanoparticulate agents within reach for clinical applications? In this article, we attempt to make a compelling case for how the advent of molecularly-targeted nanoparticle technology may change the way we detect atherosclerotic lesions, determine their clinical significance and even provide non-invasive treatments. Focusing on imaging with cardiovascular MR, an overview of the latest developments in this rapidly evolving field of so-called "intelligent" contrast agents that are able to interrogate the vascular wall and various complementary advanced imaging technologies are presented.

  19. The research progress of nuclear medicine on cardiovascular molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaohua; Zhang Yongxue

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving discipline and its clinical application is promising. Nuclear medicine is playing a leading role in this field with its special superiority of noninvasive, quantifiability, high sensitivity and specificity. It provides broad opportunities for exploring the pathophysiologic process of cardiovascular diseases and monitoring its gene therapy in the molecular level. In this review, we mainly discuss some basic knowledge on cardiovascular molecular imaging, and then focus on the applied research prospect of nuclear medicine radionuclide imaging. (authors)

  20. Framework of Resource Management for Intercloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aazam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a very rapid increase in digital media content, due to which media cloud is gaining importance. Cloud computing paradigm provides management of resources and helps create extended portfolio of services. Through cloud computing, not only are services managed more efficiently, but also service discovery is made possible. To handle rapid increase in the content, media cloud plays a very vital role. But it is not possible for standalone clouds to handle everything with the increasing user demands. For scalability and better service provisioning, at times, clouds have to communicate with other clouds and share their resources. This scenario is called Intercloud computing or cloud federation. The study on Intercloud computing is still in its start. Resource management is one of the key concerns to be addressed in Intercloud computing. Already done studies discuss this issue only in a trivial and simplistic way. In this study, we present a resource management model, keeping in view different types of services, different customer types, customer characteristic, pricing, and refunding. The presented framework was implemented using Java and NetBeans 8.0 and evaluated using CloudSim 3.0.3 toolkit. Presented results and their discussion validate our model and its efficiency.

  1. Molecular prey identification in Central European piscivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Mayr, Hannes; Obwexer, Armin; Zeisler, Christiane; Traugott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diet analysis is an important aspect when investigating the ecology of fish-eating animals and essential for assessing their functional role in food webs across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The identification of fish remains in dietary samples, however, can be time-consuming and unsatisfying using conventional morphological analysis of prey remains. Here, we present a two-step multiplex PCR system, comprised of six assays, allowing for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of fish DNA in dietary samples. This approach encompasses 78 fish and lamprey species native to Central European freshwaters and enables the identification of 31 species, six genera, two families, two orders and two fish family clusters. All targeted taxa were successfully amplified from 25 template molecules, and each assay was specific when tested against a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting aquatic environments. The applicability of the multiplex PCR system was evaluated in a feeding trial, wherein it outperformed morphological prey analysis regarding species-specific prey identification in faeces of Eurasian otters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of fish species was detected in field-collected faecal samples and regurgitated pellets of Common Kingfishers and Great Cormorants, demonstrating the broad applicability of the approach. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR system provides an efficient, easy to use and cost-effective tool for assessing the trophic ecology of piscivores in Central Europe. Furthermore, the multiplex PCRs and the primers described therein will be applicable wherever DNA of the targeted fish species needs to be detected at high sensitivity and specificity. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  3. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  4. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  5. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  6. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  7. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  8. Resources for blueberry growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local extension agents and USDA-ARS research scientists are excellent resources for various aspects of blueberry production, but several print and web-based resources are also available to help commercial blueberry growers. Growers are encouraged to consider the source for all web-based information....

  9. Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2017-01-01

    While digital products have made significant inroads into the educational resources market, textbooks and other print materials still command about 60 percent of sales. But whether print or digital, all of these commercial offerings now face threats from a burgeoning effort to promote "open" resources for education--that is, materials…

  10. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  11. Resources in Technology 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This volume of Resources in Technology contains the following eight instructional modules: (1) "Processing Technology"; (2) "Water--A Magic Resource"; (3) "Hazardous Waste Disposal--The NIMBY (Not in My Backyard) Syndrome"; (4) "Processing Fibers and Fabrics"; (5) "Robotics--An Emerging…

  12. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company...

  13. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  14. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  15. Rapid general microdetermination of fluorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, H.C.E. van; Rotscheid, G.J.; Buis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid micromethod for the determination of fluorine in a wide variety of materials has been developed. The method is based on the liberation of the fluorine (as HF) from the sample by means of pyrohydrolysis with steam at 1120?? C, The amount of fluoride in the condensate is subsequently measured

  16. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  17. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  18. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. - Highlights: •First assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia •Rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections •Assessment of 28S 'C-Region' for demosponge barcoding •Data for a future comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea

  19. Survivorship patterns of histopathological variants and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the relationship of histopathological characteristics, molecular subtypes of breast cancer and survival in a low resource setting. Design: Tumours from prospectively ascertained patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were analyzed. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections were constructed ...

  20. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Under the combined effect of various factors, such as interrogations related to facing the climatic changes, the increasing prices of oil versus announced decrease of its resources, the major geopolitical evolution and the remarkable development of Asia, we live nowadays a revival of nuclear power in the very front of stage. In tis context, the following question is posed: could the nuclear fission be a sustainable source of energy when taking into consideration the availability of uranium resources? The article aims at pinpointing the knowledge we have about the world uranium resources, their limits of uncertainty and the relation between knowledge resources and market evolution. To conclude, some susceptible tracks are proposed to improve the using process of uranium resources particularly in softening the impact of high prices

  1. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  2. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  3. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The controversy about the extend of the uranium resources worldwide is still important, this article sheds some light on this topic. Every 2 years IAEA and NEA (nuclear energy agency) edit an inventory of uranium resources as reported by contributing countries. It appears that about 4.6 millions tons of uranium are available at a recovery cost less than 130 dollars per kg of uranium and a total of 14 millions tons of uranium can be assessed when including all existing or supposed resources. In fact there is enough uranium to sustain a moderate growth of the park of nuclear reactors during next decades and it is highly likely that the volume of uranium resources can allow a more aggressive development of nuclear energy. It is recalled that a broad use of the validated breeder technology can stretch the durability of uranium resources by a factor 50. (A.C.)

  4. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  5. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High resolution melting curve analysis, a rapid and affordable method for mutation analysis in childhood acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin eLiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular genetic alterations with prognostic significance have been described in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML. The aim of this study was to establish cost-effective techniques to detect mutations of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, and a partial tandem duplication within the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL-PTD genes in childhood AML. Procedure: Ninety-nine children with newly diagnosed AML were included in this study. We developed a fluoresent dye SYTO-82 based high resolution melting curve (HRM anaylsis to detect FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD, FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD and NPM1 mutations. MLL-PTD was screened by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: The HRM methodology correlated well with gold standard Sanger sequencing with less cost. Among the 99 patients studied, the FLT3-ITD mutation was associated with significantly worse event free survival (EFS. Patients with the NPM1 mutation had significantly better EFS and overall survival. However, HRM was not sensitive enough for minimal residual disease monitoring. Conclusions: HRM was a rapid and efficient method for screening of FLT3 and NPM1 gene mutations. It was both affordable and accurate, especially in resource underprivileged regions. Our results indicated that HRM could be a useful clinical tool for rapid and cost effective screening of the FLT3 and NPM1 mutations in AML patients.

  7. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.H.; Heiss, W.D.; Li, H.; Knoess, C.; Schaller, B.; Kracht, L.; Monfared, P.; Vollmar, S.; Bauer, B.; Wagner, R.; Graf, R.; Wienhard, K.; Winkeler, A.; Rueger, A.; Klein, M.; Hilker, R.; Galldiks, N.; Herholz, K.; Sobesky, J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and ''phenotyping'' of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Molecular, cellular, and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering. Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering, the fourth volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in molecular biology, transport phenomena, physiological modeling, tissue engineering, stem cells, drug delivery systems, artificial organs, and personalized medicine. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including DNA vaccines, biomimetic systems, cardiovascular dynamics, biomaterial scaffolds, cell mechanobiology, synthetic biomaterials, pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, nanobiomaterials for tissue engineering, biomedical imaging of engineered tissues, gene therapy, noninvasive targeted protein and peptide drug deliver...

  9. Space and Planetary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  10. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  11. A DNA 'barcode blitz': rapid digitization and sequencing of a natural history collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul D N; Dewaard, Jeremy R; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Prosser, Sean W J; Sones, Jayme E; McKeown, Jaclyn T A; Mantle, Beth; La Salle, John

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcoding protocols require the linkage of each sequence record to a voucher specimen that has, whenever possible, been authoritatively identified. Natural history collections would seem an ideal resource for barcode library construction, but they have never seen large-scale analysis because of concerns linked to DNA degradation. The present study examines the strength of this barrier, carrying out a comprehensive analysis of moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera) species in the Australian National Insect Collection. Protocols were developed that enabled tissue samples, specimen data, and images to be assembled rapidly. Using these methods, a five-person team processed 41,650 specimens representing 12,699 species in 14 weeks. Subsequent molecular analysis took about six months, reflecting the need for multiple rounds of PCR as sequence recovery was impacted by age, body size, and collection protocols. Despite these variables and the fact that specimens averaged 30.4 years old, barcode records were obtained from 86% of the species. In fact, one or more barcode compliant sequences (>487 bp) were recovered from virtually all species represented by five or more individuals, even when the youngest was 50 years old. By assembling specimen images, distributional data, and DNA barcode sequences on a web-accessible informatics platform, this study has greatly advanced accessibility to information on thousands of species. Moreover, much of the specimen data became publically accessible within days of its acquisition, while most sequence results saw release within three months. As such, this study reveals the speed with which DNA barcode workflows can mobilize biodiversity data, often providing the first web-accessible information for a species. These results further suggest that existing collections can enable the rapid development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the most diverse compartment of terrestrial biodiversity - insects.

  12. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  13. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  14. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  15. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bü ttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schä tzle, Simone; Wö rheide, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  17. Molecular pathology of bone tumours: diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela J; Mangham, D Chas

    2014-03-01

    Alongside histomorphology and immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology is now established as one of the cornerstones in the tissue diagnosis of bone tumours. We describe the principal molecular pathological techniques employed, and each of the bone tumour entities where their identified characteristic molecular pathological changes can be detected to support and confirm the suspected histological diagnosis. Tumours discussed include fibrous dysplasia, classical and subtype osteosarcomas, central and surface cartilaginous tumours, Ewing's sarcoma, vascular tumours, aneurysmal bone cyst, chordoma, myoepithelioma, and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. This is a rapidly evolving field with discoveries occurring every few months, and some of the newer entities (the Ewing's-like sarcomas), which are principally identified by their molecular pathology characteristics, are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Progress in molecular precursors for electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhro, W.E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Molecular-precursor chemistry provides an essential underpinning to all electronic-materials technologies, including photovoltaics and related areas of direct interest to the DOE. Materials synthesis and processing is a rapidly developing field in which advances in molecular precursors are playing a major role. This article surveys selected recent research examples that define the exciting current directions in molecular-precursor science. These directions include growth of increasingly complex structures and stoichiometries, surface-selective growth, kinetic growth of metastable materials, growth of size-controlled quantum dots and quantum-dot arrays, and growth at progressively lower temperatures. Continued progress in molecular-precursor chemistry will afford precise control over the crystal structures, nanostructures, and microstructures of electronic materials.

  19. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  20. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  1. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  2. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  3. Rapidity correlations test stochastic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, C; Gavin, S; Moschelli, G

    2017-01-01

    We show that measurements of the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum correlations can be used to determine the characteristic time τ π that dictates the rate of isotropization of the stress energy tensor, as well as the shear viscosity ν = η/sT . We formulate methods for computing these correlations using second order dissipative hydrodynamics with noise. Current data are consistent with τ π /ν ∼ 10 but targeted measurements can improve this precision. (paper)

  4. Rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A size 12 French radiopaque catheter, 135 cm long, suitable for rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation, is described. Its size and flexibility enable it to be passed with ease through the nose, stomach and duodenum. A guide wire is used to act as a stiffener as the catheter is passed through the stomach. The catheter is suitable for infusing barium directly into the small intestine and for performing hypotonic duodenography. The technique for duodenal and jejunal intubation is discussed. (author)

  5. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  6. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  7. A field-deployable mobile molecular diagnostic system for malaria at the point of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gihoon; Song, Daniel; Shrestha, Sony; Miao, Jun; Cui, Liwang; Guan, Weihua

    2016-11-01

    In response to the urgent need of a field-deployable and highly sensitive malaria diagnosis, we developed a standalone, "sample-in-answer-out" molecular diagnostic system (AnyMDx) to enable quantitative molecular analysis of blood-borne malaria in low resource areas. The system consists of a durable battery-powered analyzer and a disposable microfluidic compact disc loaded with reagents ready for use. A low power thermal module and a novel fluorescence-sensing module are integrated into the analyzer for real-time monitoring of loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification (LAMP) of target parasite DNA. With 10 μL of raw blood sample, the AnyMDx system automates the nucleic acid sample preparation and subsequent LAMP and real-time detection. Under laboratory conditions with whole-blood samples spiked with cultured Plasmodium falciparum, we achieved a detection limit of ∼0.6 parasite per μL, much lower than those for the conventional microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (∼50-100 parasites per μL). The turnaround time from sample to answer is less than 40 minutes. The AnyMDx is user-friendly requiring minimal technological training. The analyzer and the disposable reagent compact discs are cost-effective, making AnyMDx a potential tool for malaria molecular diagnosis under field settings for malaria elimination.

  8. Molecular HIV screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlet, Thomas; Memmi, Meriam; Saoudin, Henia; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear acid testing is more and more used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. This paper focuses on the use of molecular tools for HIV screening. The term 'screening' will be used under the meaning of first-line HIV molecular techniques performed on a routine basis, which excludes HIV molecular tests designed to confirm or infirm a newly discovered HIV-seropositive patient or other molecular tests performed for the follow-up of HIV-infected patients. The following items are developed successively: i) presentation of the variety of molecular tools used for molecular HIV screening, ii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of blood products, iii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of organs and tissue from human origin, iv) use of HIV molecular tools in medically assisted procreation and v) use of HIV molecular tools in neonates from HIV-infected mothers.

  9. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, K.C.; Moslehi, M.M.; Grossman, D.D.; Wood, S.; Wright, P.; Booth, L.

    1989-01-01

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  10. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  11. Reciprocal Relationships between Job Resources, Personal Resources, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we hypothesized that job resources, personal resources, and work engagement are reciprocal over time. The study was conducted among 163 employees, who were followed-up over a period of 18…

  12. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  13. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  14. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  15. Other Resources for Researchers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The AfricaPortal is an online resource of policy research on African issues. ... Over 3000 Open Access books, journals and digital documents relating to African ... guides. http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/harvard.html Harvard Style.

  16. Semiotic resources for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Brian Lystgaard; Lange, Simon Bierring

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes two typical semiotic resources blind people use when navigating in urban areas. Everyone makes use of a variety of interpretive semiotic resources and senses when navigating. For sighted individuals, this especially involves sight. Blind people, however, must rely on everything...... else than sight, thereby substituting sight with other modalities and distributing the navigational work to other semiotic resources. Based on a large corpus of fieldwork among blind people in Denmark, undertaking observations, interviews, and video recordings of their naturally occurring practices...... of walking and navigating, this paper shows how two prototypical types of semiotic resources function as helpful cognitive extensions: the guide dog and the white cane. This paper takes its theoretical and methodological perspective from EMCA multimodal interaction analysis....

  17. Bridge resource program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The mission of Rutgers Universitys Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) Bridge Resource Program (BRP) is to provide bridge engineering support to the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)s Bridge Engineering an...

  18. Uranium resources and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.; Wright, W.J.

    1975-08-01

    Australia has about 19% of the reasonably assured resources of uranium in the Western World recoverable at costs of less than $A20 per kilogram, or about 9% of the resources (reasonably assured and estimated additional) recoverable at costs of less than $A30 per kilogram. Australia's potential for further discoveries of uranium is good. Nevertheless, if Australia did not export any of these resources it would probably have only a marginal effect on the development of nuclear power; other resources would be exploited earlier and prices would rise, but not sufficiently to make the costs of nuclear power unattractive. On the other hand, this policy could deny to Australia real benefits in foreign currency earnings, employment and national development. (author)

  19. OAS :: Accountability :: Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's staffing, vacant posts, and a list of procurement notices for formal bids, links to the performance contract and travel control Plan Human Resources Organizational Structure Functions of each organizational unit Vacant Posts

  20. Rangeland and water resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Session B3 Management for sustainable use — Rangeland and water resources. ... The theme of optimsing integrated catchment management will be treated ... land system, catchment, basin), with a focus on law, policy and implementation.

  1. BEI Resource Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BEI Resources provides reagents, tools and information for studying Category A, B, and C priority pathogens, emerging infectious disease agents, non-pathogenic...

  2. People Are a Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Clarence

    1979-01-01

    This is a description of a model for demonstrating an approach to improving slums in Indonesia and the Philippines. The strategy of using people rather than financial capital as a resource is discussed. (SA)

  3. Myasthenia gravis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - myasthenia gravis ... The following organizations provide information on myasthenia gravis : Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America -- www.myasthenia.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient- ...

  4. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  5. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  6. - Oklahoma Water Resources Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Ag Business Community & Rural Development Crops Family & Consumer Sciences Gardening Family & Consumer Sciences Food & Ag Products Center Horticulture & Landscape Architecture & Landscape Architecture Natural Resource Ecology & Management Plant & Soil Sciences

  7. Understanding molecular structure from molecular mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinger, Norman L

    2011-04-01

    Molecular mechanics gives us a well known model of molecular structure. It is less widely recognized that valence bond theory gives us structures which offer a direct interpretation of molecular mechanics formulations and parameters. The electronic effects well-known in physical organic chemistry can be directly interpreted in terms of valence bond structures, and hence quantitatively calculated and understood. The basic theory is outlined in this paper, and examples of the effects, and their interpretation in illustrative examples is presented.

  8. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  9. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  10. Timber resources of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal P. Kingsley; Carl E. Mayer

    1970-01-01

    Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. A resurvey of the timber resources of Ohio was made in 1966 and 1967 by...

  11. Uranium resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine what is generally known about uranium resources, what is subject to conjecture, how well do the explorers themselves understand the occurrence of uranium, and who are the various participants in the exploration process. From this we hope to reach a better understanding of the quality of uranium resource estimates as well as the nature of the exploration process. The underlying questions will remain unanswered. But given an inability to estimate precisely our uranium resources, how much do we really need to know. To answer this latter question, the various Department of Energy needs for uranium resource estimates are examined. This allows consideration of whether or not given the absence of more complete long-term supply data and the associated problems of uranium deliverability for the electric utility industry, we are now threatened with nuclear power plants eventually standing idle due to an unanticipated lack of fuel for their reactors. Obviously this is of some consequence to the government and energy consuming public. The report is organized into four parts. Section I evaluates the uranium resource data base and the various methodologies of resource assessment. Part II describes the manner in which a private company goes about exploring for uranium and the nature of its internal need for resource information. Part III examines the structure of the industry for the purpose of determining the character of the industry with respect to resource development. Part IV arrives at conclusions about the emerging pattern of industrial behavior with respect to uranium supply and the implications this has for coping with national energy issues

  12. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  14. An interactive computer approach to performing resource analysis for a multi-resource/multi-project problem. [Spacelab inventory procurement planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    New planning techniques and supporting computer tools are needed for the optimization of resources and costs for space transportation and payload systems. Heavy emphasis on cost effective utilization of resources has caused NASA program planners to look at the impact of various independent variables that affect procurement buying. A description is presented of a category of resource planning which deals with Spacelab inventory procurement analysis. Spacelab is a joint payload project between NASA and the European Space Agency and will be flown aboard the Space Shuttle starting in 1980. In order to respond rapidly to the various procurement planning exercises, a system was built that could perform resource analysis in a quick and efficient manner. This system is known as the Interactive Resource Utilization Program (IRUP). Attention is given to aspects of problem definition, an IRUP system description, questions of data base entry, the approach used for project scheduling, and problems of resource allocation.

  15. Text mining resources for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyła, Piotr; Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable-those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Text mining resources for the life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable—those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. PMID:27888231

  17. Rapid multiple immunoenzyme assay of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, Alexandr E; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Petrakova, Alina V; Sadykhov, Elchin G; Koroleva, Olga V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-01-27

    Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and quantification of three mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, in the kinetic regime. The main requirement for the proposed kinetic protocol was to provide a rapid method that combined sensitivity and accuracy. The use of biotin with an extended spacer together with a streptavidin-polyperoxidase conjugate provided high signal levels, despite these interactions occurring under non-equilibrium conditions. Duration of the individual mycotoxin assays was 20 min, whereas the analysis of all three mycotoxins in parallel reached a maximum duration of 25 min. Recovery of at least 95% mycotoxins in water-organic extracts was shown. The developed assays were successfully validated using poultry processing products and corn samples spiked with known quantities of mycotoxins. The detection limits for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in these substances were 0.24, 1.2 and 3 ng/g, respectively.

  18. Rapid Multiple Immunoenzyme Assay of Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr E. Urusov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and quantification of three mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, in the kinetic regime. The main requirement for the proposed kinetic protocol was to provide a rapid method that combined sensitivity and accuracy. The use of biotin with an extended spacer together with a streptavidin–polyperoxidase conjugate provided high signal levels, despite these interactions occurring under non-equilibrium conditions. Duration of the individual mycotoxin assays was 20 min, whereas the analysis of all three mycotoxins in parallel reached a maximum duration of 25 min. Recovery of at least 95% mycotoxins in water-organic extracts was shown. The developed assays were successfully validated using poultry processing products and corn samples spiked with known quantities of mycotoxins. The detection limits for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in these substances were 0.24, 1.2 and 3 ng/g, respectively.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Low Temperature Molecular Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular spectroscopy has achieved rapid and significant progress in recent years, the low temperature techniques in particular having proved very useful for the study of reactive species, phase transitions, molecular clusters and crystals, superconductors and semiconductors, biochemical systems, astrophysical problems, etc. The widening range of applications has been accompanied by significant improvements in experimental methods, and low temperature molecular spectroscopy has been revealed as the best technique, in many cases, to establish the connection between experiment and theoretical calculations. This, in turn, has led to a rapidly increasing ability to predict molecular spectroscopic properties. The combination of an advanced tutorial standpoint with an emphasis on recent advances and new perspectives in both experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy contained in this book offers the reader insight into a wide range of techniques, particular emphasis being given to supersonic jet and matri...

  20. Establishing Medical Schools in Limited Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinuel, Girma; Tsedeke, Asaminew; Matthias, Siebeck; Fischer, Martin R; Jacobs, Fabian; Sebsibe, Desalegn; Yoseph, Mamo; Abraham, Haileamlak

    2016-05-01

    One urgent goal of countries in sub-Saharan Africa is to dynamically scale up the education and work force of medical doctors in the training institutions and health facilities, respectively. These countries face challenges related to the rapid scale up which is mostly done without proper strategic planning, without the basic elements of infrastructure development, educational as well as academic and administrative human resources. Medical education done in the context of limited resources is thus compromising the quality of graduates. In the future, a collaborative and need-based approach involving major stakeholders such as medical educators concerned, ministries, planners and policy makers is needed. This article identifies the challenges of establishing medical schools and sustaining the quality of education through rapid scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa in the settings of limited resources. It also outlines the minimum requirements for establishing medical schools. A consensus building workshop was conducted in Bishoftu, Ethiopia, from Nov 8-12, 2013. Participants were professionals from 13 Ethiopian medical schools, and representatives of medical schools from South Sudan, Somaliland, Somalia, and Mozambique. Participants are listed in Appendix 1. The governments and stakeholders should jointly develop strategic plans and a roadmaps for opening or expanding medical schools to scale up educational resources. It is advisable that medical schools have autonomy regarding the number of student-intake, student selection, curriculum ownership, resource allocation including for infrastructure and staff development. Health science and medical curricula should be integrated within and harmonized nationally. An educational evaluation framework needs to be embedded in the curricula, and all medical schools should have Health Science Education Development Centers.