WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid method fermentables

  1. Rapid ion-pair liquid chromatographic method for the determination of fenbendazole marker residue in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdouka, Venetia I; Papapanagiotou, Elias P; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Fletouris, Dimitrios J

    2017-04-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic method that allows for the quantitative determination of fenbendazole residues in fermented dairy products is described. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile-phosphoric acid and the extracts were defatted with hexane to be further partitioned into ethyl acetate. The organic layer was evaporated to dryness and the residue was reconstituted in mobile phase. Separation of fenbendazole and its sulphoxide, sulphone, and p-hydroxylated metabolites was carried out isocratically with a mobile phase containing both positively and negatively charged pairing ions. Overall recoveries ranged from 79.8 to 88.8%, while precision data, based on within and between days variations, suggested an overall relative standard deviation of 6.3-11.0%. The detection and quantification limits were lower than 9 and 21μg/kg, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate fenbendazole residues in Feta cheese and yoghurt made from spiked and incurred ovine milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid analytical extraction of volatile fermentation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, N B; Flickinger, M C; Tsao, G T

    1979-10-01

    With renewed interest in production of liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks from carbohydrates, numerous authors have utilized gas-liquid chromatography (GC) for quantification of volatile products. Poor separation and short column life will result if residual sugars present in the medium are not separated from the volatile compounds before injection. In our current investigation of 2,3-butanediol production from xylose, we have developed a rapid GC assay for 2,3-butanediol, acetyl methyl carbinol (acetoin), 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), and ethanol. This method extracts the fermentation products at high pH from residual xylose before injection into the GC. This routine is a modification of the method of Kolfenbach et al. and is more rapid than the method of separation of diacetyl and acetoin from carbohydrates by distillation reported by Gupta et al. Their erroneous reports of yields of 640 mg diacetyl + acetoin/g sugar are 30% higher than the theoretical maximum for Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 27613) and points out the need for a reliable, accurate assay for these products.

  3. A novel method to rapidly distinguish the geographical origin of traditional fermented-salted vegetables by mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, So-Ra; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Hae-Won; Ha, Ji-Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    The geographical origin of kimchi is of interest to consumers and producers because the prices of commercial kimchi products can vary significantly according to the geographical origin. Hence, social issues related to the geographical origin of kimchi in Korea have emerged as a major problem. In this study, the geographical origin of kimchi was determined by comparing the mass fingerprints obtained for Korean and Chinese kimchi samples by MALDI-TOF MS with multivariate analysis. The results obtained herein provide an accurate, powerful tool to clearly discriminate kimchi samples based on their geographical origin within a short time and to ensure food authenticity, which is of significance in the kimchi industry. Furthermore, our MALDI-TOF MS method could be applied to determining the geographical origin of other fermented-salted vegetables at a reduced cost in shorter times.

  4. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  5. Rapid and efficient galactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarterman, Josh; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Feng, Xueyang; Liu, Ian Y; Zhao, Huimin; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-07-10

    In the important industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, galactose metabolism requires energy production by respiration; therefore, this yeast cannot metabolize galactose under strict anaerobic conditions. While the respiratory dependence of galactose metabolism provides benefits in terms of cell growth and population stability, it is not advantageous for producing fuels and chemicals since a substantial fraction of consumed galactose is converted to carbon dioxide. In order to force S. cerevisiae to use galactose without respiration, a subunit (COX9) of a respiratory enzyme was deleted, but the resulting deletion mutant (Δcox9) was impaired in terms of galactose assimilation. Interestingly, after serial sub-cultures on galactose, the mutant evolved rapidly and was able to use galactose via fermentation only. The evolved strain (JQ-G1) produced ethanol from galactose with a 94% increase in yield and 6.9-fold improvement in specific productivity as compared to the wild-type strain. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis demonstrated a three-fold reduction in carbon flux through the TCA cycle of the evolved mutant with redirection of flux toward the fermentation pathway. Genome sequencing of the JQ-G1 strain revealed a loss of function mutation in a master negative regulator of the Leloir pathway (Gal80p). The mutation (Glu348*) in Gal80p was found to act synergistically with deletion of COX9 for efficient galactose fermentation, and thus the double deletion mutant Δcox9Δgal80 produced ethanol 2.4 times faster and with 35% higher yield than a single knockout mutant with deletion of GAL80 alone. When we introduced a functional COX9 cassette back into the JQ-G1 strain, the JQ-G1-COX9 strain showed a 33% reduction in specific galactose uptake rate and a 49% reduction in specific ethanol production rate as compared to JQ-G1. The wild-type strain was also subjected to serial sub-cultures on galactose but we failed to isolate a mutant capable of utilizing galactose without

  6. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  7. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  8. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  9. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  10. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  11. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  12. Rapid quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in meat and fermented sausages by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Belén; Jofré, Anna; Garriga, Margarita; Pla, Maria; Aymerich, Teresa

    2006-09-01

    A quick and simple method for quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in fermented sausages was successfully developed. It is based on Chelex-100-based DNA purification and real-time PCR enumeration using a TaqMan fluorescence probe. Primers and probes were designed in the L. sakei 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region, and the assay was evaluated using L. sakei genomic DNA and an artificially inoculated sausage model. The detection limit of this technique was approximately 3 cells per reaction mixture using both purified DNA and the inoculated sausage model. The quantification limit was established at 30 cells per reaction mixture in both models. The assay was then applied to enumerate L. sakei in real samples, and the results were compared to the MRS agar count method followed by confirmation of the percentage of L. sakei colonies. The results obtained by real-time PCR were not statistically significantly different than those obtained by plate count on MRS agar (P > 0.05), showing a satisfactory agreement between both methods. Therefore, the real-time PCR assay developed can be considered a promising rapid alternative method for the quantification of L. sakei and evaluation of the implantation of starter strains of L. sakei in fermented sausages.

  13. Effect of Fermentation Methods on the Nutrient Profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of fermentation method on the nutrient profile and organoleptic characteristics of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). Materials and Methods: Dry and mature African oil bean seeds were cleaned, boiled, dehulled, cooked, sliced/pulverized and fermented to ugba ...

  14. Effect of Fermentation Methods on Chemical and Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung flours were fermented using spontaneous and backslopping methods for 72 h and microbial analysis over a period of 72 h fermentation was carried out. The samples were subjected to biochemical test, anti-nutrient and selected mineral and vitamin contents evaluation using standard methods. There was a gradual ...

  15. Introduction of a cyclic-fermentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, C P

    1958-01-01

    Equipment is described, consisting of 8 kettles, which permits a cyclic fermentation process and continuous ethanol production; 100% yields of ethanol are obtained, based on the starch content in grain.

  16. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested ... fruits into plastic bag that was exposed in ambient air in the field; SFD, seeds ..... Concepts and technologies of selected.

  17. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  18. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in .... com) and prepared for microarray construction and analysis. .... a single time point of the late stage of VHG fermentation.

  19. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... high, suggesting that wet soil is necessary for an on farm reliable evaluation of seed fermentation method in the .... with tap water, and sundried in ambient air until attaining 6 to 7% moisture. ..... arabica in Brazil. Int. J. Food ...

  20. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid discrimination of strain-dependent fermentation characteristics among Lactobacillus strains by NMR-based metabolomics of fermented vegetable juice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Tomita

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics to discriminate strain-dependent fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are important microorganisms for fermented food production. To evaluate the discrimination capability, six type strains of Lactobacillus species and six additional L. brevis strains were used focusing on i the difference between homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species and ii strain-dependent characteristics within L. brevis. Based on the differences in the metabolite profiles of fermented vegetable juices, non-targeted principal component analysis (PCA clearly separated the samples into those inoculated with homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species. The separation was primarily explained by the different levels of dominant metabolites (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol. Orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis, based on a regions-of-interest (ROIs approach, revealed the contribution of low-abundance metabolites: acetoin, phenyllactic acid, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, glycerophosphocholine, and succinic acid for homolactic fermentation; and ornithine, tyramine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA for heterolactic fermentation. Furthermore, ROIs-based PCA of seven L. brevis strains separated their strain-dependent fermentation characteristics primarily based on their ability to utilize sucrose and citric acid, and convert glutamic acid and tyrosine into GABA and tyramine, respectively. In conclusion, NMR metabolomics successfully discriminated the fermentation characteristics of the tested strains and provided further information on metabolites responsible for these characteristics, which may impact the taste, aroma, and functional properties of fermented foods.

  2. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  3. Influence of Fermentation Methods on Neutral Detergent Fiber Degradation Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, D; Mertens, D R; Weisbjerg, M R

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 fermentation methods, in situ (IS) in 4 lactating cows (average pH of 5.8), in vitro (IVn) with media pH of 6.8, or in vitro (IVa) with media pH adjusted to 6.0 using citric acid, on fiber degradation parameters was studied using feeds ground to different particle sizes. Corn silage...

  4. Rapid monitoring of glycerol in fermentation growth media: Facilitating crude glycerol bioprocess development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Sergi; Pérez, Xavier; Planas, Antoni; Turon, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the need for crude glycerol valorisation from the biodiesel industry has generated many studies for practical and economic applications. Amongst them, fermentations based on glycerol media for the production of high value metabolites are prominent applications. This has generated a need to develop analytical techniques which allow fast and simple glycerol monitoring during fermentation. The methodology should be fast and inexpensive to be adopted in research, as well as in industrial applications. In this study three different methods were analysed and compared: two common methodologies based on liquid chromatography and enzymatic kits, and the new method based on a DotBlot assay coupled with image analysis. The new methodology is faster and cheaper than the other conventional methods, with comparable performance. Good linearity, precision and accuracy were achieved in the lower range (10 or 15 g/L to depletion), the most common range of glycerol concentrations to monitor fermentations in terms of growth kinetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  6. Potential of bacterial fermentation as a biosafe method of improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... the organic acid content of fermented feeds has been reported to improve ..... fatty acid and ethanol concentration resulting from the natural fermentation of ..... energy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets. Aquaculture 210:.

  7. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  8. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  9. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  10. Effect of pH fermentation on production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. R.; Natsir, H.; Rohani, H.; Karim, A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sourced from natural products containing carbohydrates through hydrolysis and fermentation process. Jackfruit seeds is one of the feedstock that contain high carbohydrate content but less utilized. The aims of this study to determine the effect of pH hydrolysis in the process of production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis (SHF) method. The hydrolysis process uses H2SO4 as a hydrolyzing agent. The fermentation process used Saccharomyces cereviceae as a fermentor with a variation of pH 2,3 4 and 5 for 70 hours. The results showed that glucose content of 75% and pH 3 was the optimum pH of fermentation with the content of bioethanol 57.94%. The fermentation stage has an important role in increasing the levels of glucose and bioethanol in linear. The content of glucose and bioethanol of jackfruit seeds showed a great potential for development as the feedstock in bioethanol production.

  11. Experimental study on rapid embankment construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hideaki; Egawa, Kikuji; Hyodo, Kazuya; Kannoto, Yasuo; Sekimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Kokichi.

    1982-01-01

    In the construction of a thermal or nuclear power plant in a coastal area, shorter embankment construction period has come to be called for recently. This tendency is remarkable where construction period is limited due to meteorological or sea conditions. To meet this requirement, the authors have been conducting basic experimental studies on two methods for the rapid execution of embankment construction, that is, Steel Plate Cellular Bulkhead Embedding Method and Ship Hull Caisson Method. This paper presents an outline of the results of the experimental study on these two methods. (author)

  12. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  13. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  14. Cyclic method for the fermentation of starch raw material in the Romadanovsk alcohol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, I I; Basharin, I I; Pol' gin, I V

    1958-01-01

    Fermentation vats (volume 32 cu.m.) were connected in 2 series of 4 vats communicating by flow pipes supplied with cut-off valves. The main wort conduit was supplied with a 3-way valve connected with a bent pipe joint, by means of which the 3-way valve could be turned to any of the vats. Fermentation took place alternately, each vat series being filled for 24 hours with wort after yeast had been added. Fermentation in the main vat continued for 38 hours and in the others for 20 hours. Draining the finished brew and the preparation of the vats for the next fermentation began from the 4th vat, which in the following cycle, became the main vat. Fermentation took place with satisfactory acidity-increase indexes (less than or equal to 0.20 D.), with wastes no greater than expected, and with an alcohol yield of 100.2 to 100.3% of that expected from 1 ton of starch. The advantages of the cyclic method are a decrease in the fermentation time and a more complete fermentation of sugar; the method can thus be recommended for fermentation plants which have an insufficient productivity as a method which does not require many repairs or much expense. A flow sheet of the process and the design of the distributing pipes are given.

  15. Survey of methods for rapid spin reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The need for rapid spin reversal technique in polarization experiments is discussed. The ground-state atomic-beam source equipped with two rf transitions for hydrogen can be reversed rapidly, and is now in use on several accelerators. It is the optimum choice provided the accelerator can accept H + ions. At present all rapid reversal experiments using H - ions are done with Lamb-shift sources; however, this is not a unique choice. Three methods for the reversal of the spin of the atomic beam within the Lamb-shift source are discussed in order of development. Coherent intensity and perhaps focus modulation seem to be the biggest problems in both types of sources. Methods for reducing these modulations in the Lamb-shift source are discussed. The same Lamb-shift apparatus is easily modified to provide information on the atomic physics of quenching of the 2S/sub 1/2/ states versus spin orientation, and this is also discussed. 2 figures

  16. AO–MW–PLS method applied to rapid quantification of teicoplanin with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teicoplanin (TCP is an important lipoglycopeptide antibiotic produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The change in TCP concentration is important to measure in the fermentation process. In this study, a reagent-free and rapid quantification method for TCP in the TCP–Tris–HCl mixture samples was developed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy by focusing our attention on the fermentation process for TCP. The absorbance optimization (AO partial least squares (PLS was proposed and integrated with the moving window (MW PLS, which is called AO–MW–PLS method, to select appropriate wavebands. A model set that includes various wavebands that were equivalent to the optimal AO–MW–PLS waveband was proposed based on statistical considerations. The public region of all equivalent wavebands was just one of the equivalent wavebands. The obtained public regions were 1540–1868nm for TCP and 1114–1310nm for Tris. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient for leave-one-out cross validation were 0.046mg mL−1 and 0.9998mg mL−1 for TCP, and 0.235mg mL−1 and 0.9986mg mL−1 for Tris, respectively. All the models achieved highly accurate prediction effects, and the selected wavebands provided valuable references for designing specialized spectrometers. This study provided a valuable reference for further application of the proposed methods to TCP fermentation broth and to other spectroscopic analysis fields.

  17. The Use of Titrimetric, Nelson Somogyi and Hplc Methods for the Analysis of Cashew Apple Juice Fermentation Broths

    OpenAIRE

    Kantasubrata, Julia; T. Karossi, A; S. Pramudi, A

    1993-01-01

    In cashew apple juice fermentation to produce wine and vinegar, analysis of organic acids and sugars in fermentation broths is very important, due to the fact that optimum conditions of fermentation could only be established from results obtained on monitoring the concentrations of those components during the fermentation process. Analysis of organic acids by tiirimetric method and analysis of sugars by Nelson-Somogyi method only give a total amount of acids and sugars. HPLC is one of the pro...

  18. A new rapid method for isolating nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou Fang; Lam, Yun Wah

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus was one of the first subcellular organelles to be isolated from the cell. The advent of modern proteomic techniques has resulted in the identification of thousands of proteins in this organelle, and live cell imaging technology has allowed the study of the dynamics of these proteins. However, the limitations of current nucleolar isolation methods hinder the further exploration of this structure. In particular, these methods require the use of a large number of cells and tedious procedures. In this chapter we describe a new and improved nucleolar isolation method for cultured adherent cells. In this method cells are snap-frozen before direct sonication and centrifugation onto a sucrose cushion. The nucleoli can be obtained within a time as short as 20 min, and the high yield allows the use of less starting material. As a result, this method can capture rapid biochemical changes in nucleoli by freezing the cells at a precise time, hence faithfully reflecting the protein composition of nucleoli at the specified time point. This protocol will be useful for proteomic studies of dynamic events in the nucleolus and for better understanding of the biology of mammalian cells.

  19. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  20. Method for ph-controlled fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of biomass processing and bioenergy production and facilitates efficient biomass processing and an increased production of renewable energy from processing and anaerobic fermentation of a wide variety of organic materials. In order to control the pH value...

  1. Rational and evolutionary engineering approaches uncover a small set of genetic changes efficient for rapid xylose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Rin Kim

    Full Text Available Economic bioconversion of plant cell wall hydrolysates into fuels and chemicals has been hampered mainly due to the inability of microorganisms to efficiently co-ferment pentose and hexose sugars, especially glucose and xylose, which are the most abundant sugars in cellulosic hydrolysates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot metabolize xylose due to a lack of xylose-metabolizing enzymes. We developed a rapid and efficient xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae through rational and inverse metabolic engineering strategies, comprising the optimization of a heterologous xylose-assimilating pathway and evolutionary engineering. Strong and balanced expression levels of the XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes constituting the xylose-assimilating pathway increased ethanol yields and the xylose consumption rates from a mixture of glucose and xylose with little xylitol accumulation. The engineered strain, however, still exhibited a long lag time when metabolizing xylose above 10 g/l as a sole carbon source, defined here as xylose toxicity. Through serial-subcultures on xylose, we isolated evolved strains which exhibited a shorter lag time and improved xylose-fermenting capabilities than the parental strain. Genome sequencing of the evolved strains revealed that mutations in PHO13 causing loss of the Pho13p function are associated with the improved phenotypes of the evolved strains. Crude extracts of a PHO13-overexpressing strain showed a higher phosphatase activity on xylulose-5-phosphate (X-5-P, suggesting that the dephosphorylation of X-5-P by Pho13p might generate a futile cycle with xylulokinase overexpression. While xylose consumption rates by the evolved strains improved substantially as compared to the parental strain, xylose metabolism was interrupted by accumulated acetate. Deletion of ALD6 coding for acetaldehyde dehydrogenase not only prevented acetate accumulation, but also enabled complete and efficient fermentation of xylose as well as a mixture of glucose and

  2. Computerized method for rapid optimization of immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, F.; Forest, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed an one step quantitative method for radioimmunoassay optimization. The method is rapid and necessitates only to perform a series of saturation curves with different titres of the antiserum. After calculating the saturation point at several antiserum titres using the Scatchard plot, the authors have produced a table that predicts the main characteristics of the standard curve (Bo/T, Bo and T) that will prevail for any combination of antiserum titre and percentage of sites saturation. The authors have developed a microcomputer program able to interpolate all the data needed to produce such a table from the results of the saturation curves. This computer program permits also to predict the sensitivity of the assay at any experimental conditions if the antibody does not discriminate between the labeled and the non labeled antigen. The authors have tested the accuracy of this optimization table with two in house RIA systems: 17-β-estradiol, and hLH. The results obtained experimentally, including sensitivity determinations, were concordant with those predicted from the optimization table. This method accerelates and improves greatly the process of optimization of radioimmunoassays [fr

  3. Quantitative measurement of vitamin K2 (menaquinones) in various fermented dairy products using a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoury, E; Jourdon, K; Boyaval, P; Fourcassié, P

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated menaquinone contents in a large set of 62 fermented dairy products samples by using a new liquid chromatography method for accurate quantification of lipo-soluble vitamin K(2), including distribution of individual menaquinones. The method used a simple and rapid purification step to remove matrix components in various fermented dairy products 3 times faster than a reference preparation step. Moreover, the chromatography elution time was significantly shortened and resolution and efficiency were optimized. We observed wide diversity of vitamin K(2) contents in the set of fermented dairy products, from undetectable to 1,100 ng/g of product, and a remarkable diversity of menaquinone forms among products. These observations relate to the main microorganism species currently in the different fermented product technologies. The major form in this large set of fermented dairy products was menaquinone (MK)-9, and contents of MK-9 and MK-8 forms were correlated, that of MK-9 being around 4 times that of MK-8, suggesting that microorganisms able to produce MK-9 also produce MK-8. This was not the case for the other menaquinones, which were produced independently of each other. Finally, no obvious link was established between MK-9 content and fat content or pH of the fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fed-batch hydrolysate addition and cell separation by settling in high cell density lignocellulosic ethanol fermentations on AFEX™ corn stover in the Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycling Technology process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarks, Cory; Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2017-09-01

    The Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycling Technology (RaBIT) process uses enzyme and yeast recycling to improve cellulosic ethanol production economics. The previous versions of the RaBIT process exhibited decreased xylose consumption using cell recycle for a variety of different micro-organisms. Process changes were tested in an attempt to eliminate the xylose consumption decrease. Three different RaBIT process changes were evaluated in this work including (1) shortening the fermentation time, (2) fed-batch hydrolysate addition, and (3) selective cell recycling using a settling method. Shorting the RaBIT fermentation process to 11 h and introducing fed-batch hydrolysate addition eliminated any xylose consumption decrease over ten fermentation cycles; otherwise, decreased xylose consumption was apparent by the third cell recycle event. However, partial removal of yeast cells during recycle was not economical when compared to recycling all yeast cells.

  5. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  6. Effects of different pretreatment methods on fermentation types and dominant bacteria for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Wan-Qian; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Xing-Zu; Ding, Jie; Chen, Zhao-Bo [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, Heilongjiang (China); Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng [Research Center of Life Science and Biotechnology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2008-08-15

    In order to enrich hydrogen producing bacteria and to establish high-efficient communities of the mixed microbial cultures, inoculum needs to be pretreated before the cultivation. Four pretreatment methods including heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment were performed on the seed sludge which was collected from a secondary settling tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. In contrast to the control test without any pretreatment, the heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment completely suppressed the methanogenic activity of the seed sludge, but the alkaline pretreatment did not. Employing different pretreatment methods resulted in the change in fermentation types as butyric-acid type fermentation was achieved by the heat-shock and alkaline pretreatments, mixed-acid type fermentation was achieved by acid pretreatment and the control, and ethanol-type fermentation was observed by repeated-aeration pretreatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that pretreatment method substantially affected the species composition of microbial communities. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.96 mol/mol-glucose was observed with the repeated-aeration pretreatment method, while the lowest was obtained as the seed sludge was acidified. It is concluded that the pretreatment methods led to the difference in the initial microbial communities which might be directly responsible for different fermentation types and hydrogen yields. (author)

  7. Rapid Quantification of Major Volatile Metabolites in Fermented Food and Beverages Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana R. Pinu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS library. We determined different analytical parameters of these metabolites including the limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantitation (LOQ and range of quantification. In order to validate the method, we also determined detailed analytical characteristics of five major fermentation end products including ethanol, acetic acid, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl-L-lactate and, acetoin. The method showed very low technical variability for the measurements of these metabolites in different matrices (<3% with an excellent accuracy (100% ± 5%, recovery (100% ± 10%, reproducibility and repeatability [Coefficient of variation (CV 1–10%]. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we analysed different fermented products including balsamic vinegars, sourdough, distilled (whisky and non-distilled beverages (wine and beer.

  8. Rapid Quantification of Major Volatile Metabolites in Fermented Food and Beverages Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2017-07-26

    Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS) library. We determined different analytical parameters of these metabolites including the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and range of quantification. In order to validate the method, we also determined detailed analytical characteristics of five major fermentation end products including ethanol, acetic acid, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl-L-lactate and, acetoin. The method showed very low technical variability for the measurements of these metabolites in different matrices (<3%) with an excellent accuracy (100% ± 5%), recovery (100% ± 10%), reproducibility and repeatability [Coefficient of variation (CV) 1-10%)]. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we analysed different fermented products including balsamic vinegars, sourdough, distilled (whisky) and non-distilled beverages (wine and beer).

  9. Effects of pretreatment methods for hazelnut shell hydrolysate fermentation with Pichia Stipitis to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yeşim; Eken-Saraçoğlu, Nurdan

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of hazelnut shell as a renewable and low cost lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production for the first time. High lignin content of hazelnut shell is an important obstacle for such a biotransformation. Biomass hydrolysis with acids yields reducing sugar with several inhibitors which limit the fermentability of sugars. The various conditioning methods for biomass and hydrolysate were performed to overcome the toxicity and their effects on the subsequent fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis were evaluated with shaking flasks experiments. Hazelnut shells hydrolysis with 0.7M H(2)SO(4) yielded 49 gl(-1) total reducing sugars and fermentation inhibitors in untreated hydrolysate. First, it was shown that several hydrolysate detoxification methods were solely inefficient in achieving cell growth and ethanol production in the fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysates derived from non-delignified biomass. Next, different pretreatments of hazelnut shells were considered for delignification and employed before hydrolysis in conjunction with hydrolysate detoxification to improve alcohol fermentation. Among six delignification methods, the most effective pretreatment regarding to ethanol concentration includes the treatment of shells with 3% (w/v) NaOH at room temperature, which was integrated with sequential hydrolysate detoxification by overliming and then treatment with charcoal twice at 60 degrees C. This treatment brought about a total reduction of 97% in furans and 88.4% in phenolics. Almost all trialed treatments caused significant sugar loss. Under the best assayed conditions, ethanol concentration of 16.79gl(-1) was reached from a hazelnut shell hyrolysate containing initial 50g total reducing sugar l(-1) after partial synthetic xylose supplementation. This value is equal to 91.25% of ethanol concentration that was obtained from synthetic d-xylose under same conditions. The present study

  10. Acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation of the cornstalk hydrolyzates prepared by the method of Riga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, N A; Shcheblykina, N A; Kalnina, V; Pelsis, D

    1960-01-01

    The possibility of use of waste instead of food products in the acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation was investigated. Crushed cornstalks hydrolyzed by the method of Riga were inverted at varying conditions. The hydrolyzate containing about 50% of reducing substances (RS), based on dry weight of cornstalks, was neutralized to pH 6.3-6.5, diluted with water to the final concentration 5.0-5.1% of RS filtered, and the filtrate sterilized. The resulting liquor (I) was mixed with the wheat meal mash containing 5% of sugar (starch calculated as glucose) and fermented. The utilization of I depended upon the regime of inversion; the optimal being 20 minutes at 115/sup 0/, hydrocoefficient 1:4. In this case the use of 40% of mash sugar in form of I did not impair the yield of fermentation. The use of corn instead of wheat meal decreased the yield of butanol and increased that of ethanol. The fermentation of the mixture of I (final concentration 3% RS) and corn gluten (final concentration 2%), mineral salts added, gave higher yields than did the fermentation of the wheat meal mash.

  11. BioLab: Using Yeast Fermentation as a Model for the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigage, Helen K.; Neilson, Milton C.; Greeder, Michele M.

    This document presents a science experiment demonstrating the scientific method. The experiment consists of testing the fermentation capabilities of yeasts under different circumstances. The experiment is supported with computer software called BioLab which demonstrates yeast's response to different environments. (YDS)

  12. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2018-04-10

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  13. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  14. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for rapid detection of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum in cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, Livia; Kauf, Peter; Fieseler, Lars; Gantenbein-Demarchi, Corinne; Miescher Schwenninger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    To monitor dominant species of lactic acid bacteria during cocoa bean fermentation, i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, a fast and reliable culture-independent qPCR assay was developed. A modified DNA isolation procedure using a commercial kit followed by two species-specific qPCR assays resulted in 100% sensitivity for L. plantarum and L. fermentum. Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc analyses of data obtained from experiments with cocoa beans that were artificially spiked with decimal concentrations of L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains allowed the calculation of a regression line suitable for the estimation of both species with a detection limit of 3 to 4 Log cells/g cocoa beans. This process was successfully tested for efficacy through the analyses of samples from laboratory-scale cocoa bean fermentations with both the qPCR assay and a culture-dependent method which resulted in comparable results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of the process of two staged anaerobic fermentation as a possible method for purifying sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Kouama, K; Matsuo, T

    1983-01-01

    Great attention has recently been given to the study of the processes of anaerobic fermentation, which may become alternatives to the existing methods for purifying waste waters which use aerobic microorganisms. A series of experimentswere conducted with the use of an artificially prepared liquid (fermented milk and starch) which imitates the waste to be purified, in order to explain the capabilities of the process of two staged anaerobic fermentation (DAS) as a method for purifying waste waters. The industrial system of the process includes: a fermentation vat for acetic fermentation with recirculation of the sediment, a primary settler, a fermentation tank for methane fermentation and a secondary settler. The process was conducted at a loading speed (based on Carbon) from 0.15 to 0.4 kilograms per cubic meter per day at a temperature of 38C. The degree of conversion of the fermented organic substances into volatile organic acids was not a function of the loading speed and was 54 to 57 percent in the acetic fermentation tank, where 95 to 97 percent of the organic material was broken down with the production of methane and carbon dioxide.

  16. Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob

    OpenAIRE

    Hamide GUBBUK; Esma GUNES; Tomas AYALA-SILVA; Sezai ERCISLI

    2011-01-01

    Most of fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygocity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and are among the most difficult to propagate fruit species. In the study, air-layering propagation method was investigated first time to compare wild and cultivated (�Sisam�) carob types. In the experiment, one year old carob limbs were air-layered on coco peat medium by wrapping with...

  17. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  18. Development of an In Vivo and In Vitro Ileal Fermentation Method in a Growing Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; de Haas, Edward S; Moughan, Paul J

    2018-02-01

    Substantial microbial fermentation may occur mainly in the lower small intestine (SI) of human adults, but there is no established methodology to determine this. The study aimed to develop a combined in vivo and in vitro methodology for ileal fermentation based on the pig as an animal model for digestion in human adults. Several aspects of a combined in vivo/in vitro ileal fermentation assay were evaluated. Male 9-wk-old pigs (n = 30; mean ± SD body weight: 23 ± 1.6 kg) were fed a human-type diet (143, 508, 45, 49, and 116 g/kg dry matter diet of crude protein, starch, total lipid, ash, and total dietary fiber) for 15 d. On day 15, pigs were killed, and the last third of the SI was collected to prepare an ileal digesta-based inoculum. Terminal jejunal digesta (last 50 cm of the second third of the SI) were collected as substrate for the assay to test the form of substrate (fresh or freeze-dried), origin (location in jejunum or SI) of the substrate, storage of the inoculum, incubation time (1.2-6.8 h), pH of the medium, and inoculum concentration (6-26 mg inoculum/100 mg substrate). The group of donor pigs used to prepare the inoculum, form of the substrate, origin of the substrate, origin of the inoculum (location in the SI), storage of the inoculum, incubation time, and inoculum concentration did not influence the in vitro ileal organic matter (OM) fermentability (P > 0.05). The in vitro ileal OM fermentability decreased when the pH of the medium increased from 5.5 to 7.5 (31% to 28%; P ≤ 0.05). Predicted (in vivo/in vitro) apparent ileal OM digestibility was similar to the value measured in vivo. Thirty-percent of the terminal jejunal digesta OM was fermented in the ileum. Fiber fermentation in the ileum can be studied using the optimized in vivo/in vitro ileal fermentation method.

  19. Rapid purification and plasticization of D-glutamate-containing poly-γ-glutamate from Japanese fermented soybean food natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiuchi, Makoto; Oike, Shota; Hakuba, Hirofumi; Shibatani, Shigeo; Oka, Nogiho; Wakamatsu, Taisuke

    2015-12-10

    Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA) is a major component of mucilage derived from natto, a Japanese fermented food made from soybeans, and PGAs obtained under laboratory's conditions contain numerous d-glutamyl residues. Natto foods are thus promising as a source for nutritionally safe d-amino acids present in intact and digested polymers, although there is little information on the stereochemistry of PGA isolated directly from natto. Here, we describe the development of a new process for rapid purification of PGA using alum and determined the D-glutamate content of natto PGA by chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Further, using hexadecylpyridinium cation (HDP(+)), which is a compound of toothpaste, we chemically transformed natto PGA into a new thermoplastic material, called DL-PGAIC. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and calorimetric measurements indicate that DL-PGAIC is a stoichiometric complex of natto PGA and HDP(+) with glass transition points of -16.8 °C and -3.1 °C. Then, DL-PGAIC began decomposing at 210°C, suggesting thermal stability suitable for use as a supramolecular soft plastic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  1. [A new method of fabricating photoelastic model by rapid prototyping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Huang, Qing-feng; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Xia, Yin-pei

    2011-10-01

    To explore a novel method of fabricating the photoelastic model using rapid prototyping technique. A mandible model was made by rapid prototyping with computerized three-dimensional reconstruction, then the photoelastic model with teeth was fabricated by traditional impression duplicating and mould casting. The photoelastic model of mandible with teeth, which was fabricated indirectly by rapid prototyping, was very similar to the prototype in geometry and physical parameters. The model was of high optical sensibility and met the experimental requirements. Photoelastic model of mandible with teeth indirectly fabricated by rapid prototyping meets the photoelastic experimental requirements well.

  2. Alcoholic fermentation of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, A S; Holland, J W

    1958-09-10

    The lactose of whey and other milk products is rapidly fermented to ethanol by means of Candida pseudotropicalis strain XI. The fermentation is complete in about 12 hours and yields about 45% ethanol based on the weight of lactose. Conditions favoring the fermentation and inhibiting lactic acid production include pH 4.5, 30/sup 0/, and continuous aeration.

  3. Method for saccharification and fermentation of mashes containing polysaccharides for alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beubler, A.; Giang, B.; Dempwolf, M.; Dickscheit, R.; Lietz, P.; Nielebock, C.; Peglow, K.; Sattelberg, K.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-five g comminuted grain are steeped in 200 ml water. At 5/sup 0/C, 0.02% (in terms of grain mass) ..cap alpha..-amylase preparation is added at 5/sup 0/C, and the mash then treated by conventional methods so that the starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and other polysaccharides are ready for enzymatic digestion. The mash is then brought to 65/sup 0/C and saccharified with 1% ..cap alpha..-amylase and 0.2% amyloglucosidase for 45 minutes. The saccharified mash is freed from its solids, fermentation is induced after sterilization by addition of yeast, and fermentation is completed in < 36 hours by discontinuous, continuous or agitated methods. A part of the enzyme preparation can be replaced by malt.

  4. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

  5. Comparison of methods for glycogen analysis of in vitro fermentation pellets produced with strained ruminal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth; Hatfield, Ronald D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial glycogen measurement is used to account for fates of carbohydrate substrates. It is commonly applied to washed cells or pure cultures which can be accurately subsampled, allowing the use of smaller sample sizes. However, the nonhomogeneous fermentation pellets produced with strained rumen inoculum cannot be accurately subsampled, requiring analysis of the entire pellet. In this study, two microbial glycogen methods were compared for analysis of such fermentation pellets: boiling samples for 3h in 30% KOH (KOH) or for 15min in 0.2M NaOH (NaOH), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with α-amylase and amyloglucosidase, and detection of released glucose. Total α-glucan was calculated as glucose×0.9. KOH and NaOH did not differ in the α-glucan detected in fermentation pellets (29.9 and 29.6mg, respectively; P=0.61). Recovery of different control α-glucans was also tested using KOH, NaOH, and a method employing 45min of bead beating (BB). For purified beef liver glycogen (water-soluble) recovery, BB (95.0%)>KOH (91.4%)>NaOH (87.4%; PBB (93.8%)>KOH (91.0%; Pglycogen (water-insoluble granules) did not differ among KOH (87.0%), NaOH (87.6%), and BB (86.0%; P=0.81), but recoveries for all were below 90%. Differences among substrates in the need for gelatinization and susceptibility to destruction by alkali likely affected the results. In conclusion, KOH and NaOH glycogen methods provided comparable determinations of fermentation pellet α-glucan. The tests on purified α-glucans indicated that assessment of recovery in glycogen methods can differ by the control α-glucan selected. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Response of microbial community of organic-matter-impoverished arable soil to long-term application of soil conditioner derived from dynamic rapid fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiaqi; Li, Mingxiao; Mao, Xuhui; Hao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Liu, Dongming; Xi, Beidou; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated. Results showed that the treatment increased soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and strawberry yield by 5.3 g/kg and 555.91 kg/ha, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes became the dominant phyla, occupying 65.95%-77.52% of the bacterial sequences. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the soil bacterial communities were largely influenced by the treatment. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes were significantly correlated with soil TC, TN, TP, NH4+-N, NO3--N, OM, and moisture. These communities were all distributed in the soil samples collected in the sixth year of application. Long-term treatment did not enhance the diversity of bacterial species but significantly altered the distribution of major functional bacterial communities in the soils. Application of DRF-derived soil conditioner could improve the soil quality and optimize the microbial community, ultimately enhancing fruit yields.

  7. Enhancement of fermentative hydrogen production from green algal biomass of Thermotoga neapolitana by various pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tam-Anh D.; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Sim, Sang Jun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Sun [Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donhue [Department of Biochemical Engineering, Dongyang Mirae College, Seoul 152-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Biomass of the green algae has been recently an attractive feedstock source for bio-fuel production because the algal carbohydrates can be derived from atmospheric CO{sub 2} and their harvesting methods are simple. We utilized the accumulated starch in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the sole substrate for fermentative hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production by the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga neapolitana. Because of possessing amylase activity, the bacterium could directly ferment H{sub 2} from algal starch with H{sub 2} yield of 1.8-2.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and the total accumulated H{sub 2} level from 43 to 49% (v/v) of the gas headspace in the closed culture bottle depending on various algal cell-wall disruption methods concluding sonication or methanol exposure. Attempting to enhance the H{sub 2} production, two pretreatment methods using the heat-HCl treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were applied on algal biomass before using it as substrate for H{sub 2} fermentation. Cultivation with starch pretreated by 1.5% HCl at 121 C for 20 min showed the total accumulative H{sub 2} yield of 58% (v/v). In other approach, enzymatic digestion of starch by thermostable {alpha}-amylase (Termamyl) applied in the SHF process significantly enhanced the H{sub 2} productivity of the bacterium to 64% (v/v) of total accumulated H{sub 2} level and a H{sub 2} yield of 2.5 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. Our results demonstrated that direct H{sub 2} fermentation from algal biomass is more desirably potential because one bacterial cultivation step was required that meets the cost-savings, environmental friendly and simplicity of H{sub 2} production. (author)

  8. CONTROL BASED ON NUMERICAL METHODS AND RECURSIVE BAYESIAN ESTIMATION IN A CONTINUOUS ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Quintero

    Full Text Available Biotechnological processes represent a challenge in the control field, due to their high nonlinearity. In particular, continuous alcoholic fermentation from Zymomonas mobilis (Z.m presents a significant challenge. This bioprocess has high ethanol performance, but it exhibits an oscillatory behavior in process variables due to the influence of inhibition dynamics (rate of ethanol concentration over biomass, substrate, and product concentrations. In this work a new solution for control of biotechnological variables in the fermentation process is proposed, based on numerical methods and linear algebra. In addition, an improvement to a previously reported state estimator, based on particle filtering techniques, is used in the control loop. The feasibility estimator and its performance are demonstrated in the proposed control loop. This methodology makes it possible to develop a controller design through the use of dynamic analysis with a tested biomass estimator in Z.m and without the use of complex calculations.

  9. Rapid and Quantitative Determination of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine in the Fermentation Process by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairui Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM in aqueous solution and fermentation liquids were quantitatively determined by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS and verified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. The Ag nanoparticle/silicon nanowire array substrate was fabricated and employed as an active SERS substrate to indirectly measure the SAM concentration. The linear relationship between the integrated intensity of peak centered at ~2920 cm−1 in SERS spectra and the SAM concentration was established, and the limit of detections of SAM concentrations was analyzed to be ~0.1 g/L. The concentration of SAM in real solution could be predicted by the linear relationship and verified by the HPLC detection method. The relative deviations (δ of the predicted SAM concentration are less than 13% and the correlation coefficient is 0.9998. Rolling-Circle Filter was utilized to subtract fluorescence background and the optimal results were obtained when the radius of the analyzing circle is 650 cm−1.

  10. A simple and rapid method to estimate radiocesium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, P.; Steger, F.

    1990-09-01

    A simple and rapid method for monitoring internal contamination of radiocesium in man was developed. This method is based on measurements of the γ-rays emitted from the muscular parts between the thights by a simple NaJ(Tl)-system. The experimental procedure, the calibration, the estimation of the body activity and results are explained and discussed. (Authors)

  11. Comparison of experimental methods for determination of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobajas, M.; Garcia-Calvo, E. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Alcala, Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Mass transfer in bioreactors has been examined. In the present work, dynamic methods are used for the determination of K{sub L}a values for water, model media and a fermentation broth (Candida utilis) in an airlift reactor. The conventional dynamic method is applied at the end of the microbial process in order to avoid an alteration in the metabolism of the microorganisms. New dynamic methods are used to determine K{sub L}a in an airlift reactor during the microbial growth of Candida utilis on glucose. One of the methods is based on the continuous measurement of carbon dioxide production while the other method is based on the relationship between the oxygen transfer and biomass growth rates. These methods of determining K{sub L}a does not interfere with the microorganisms action. A theoretical mass transfer model has been used for K{sub L}a estimation for the systems described above. Some differences between calculated and measured values are found for fermentation processes due to the model is developed for two-phase air-water systems. Nevertheless, the average deviation between the predicted values and those obtained from the relationship between oxygen transfer and biomass production rates are lower than 25% in any case. (orig.)

  12. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  13. Rapid spectrographic method for determining microcomponents in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, L.I.; Fadeeva, L.A.; Gordeeva, A.N.; Ermakova, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid spectrographic method foe determining microcomponents (Cd, V, Mo, Ni, rare earths and other elements) in industrial and natural solutions has been developed. The analyses were conducted in argon medium and in the air. Calibration charts for determining individual rare earths in solutions are presented. The accuracy of analysis (Sr) was detection limit was 10 -3 -10 -4 mg/ml, that for rare earths - 1.10 -2 mg/ml. The developed method enables to rapidly analyze solutions (sewages and industrialllwaters, wine products) for 20 elements including 6 rare earths, using strandard equipment

  14. A Rapid Aeroelasticity Optimization Method Based on the Stiffness characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhe; Huo, Shihui; Ren, Jianting

    2018-01-01

    A rapid aeroelasticity optimization method based on the stiffness characteristics was proposed in the present study. Large time expense in static aeroelasticity analysis based on traditional time domain aeroelasticity method is solved. Elastic axis location and torsional stiffness are discussed firstly. Both torsional stiffness and the distance between stiffness center and aerodynamic center have a direct impact on divergent velocity. The divergent velocity can be adjusted by changing the cor...

  15. An efficient fermentation method for the degradation of cyanogenic glycosides in flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-F; Xu, X-M; Huang, S-H; Deng, M-C; Feng, A-J; Peng, J; Yuan, J-P; Wang, J-H

    2012-01-01

    Recently, flaxseed has become increasingly popular in the health food market because it contains a considerable amount of specific beneficial nutrients such as lignans and omega-3 fatty acids. However, the presence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) in flaxseed severely limits the exploitation of its health benefits and nutritive value. We, therefore, developed an effective fermentation method, optimised by response surface methodology (RSM), for degrading CGs with an enzymatic preparation that includes 12.5% β-glucosidase and 8.9% cyanide hydratase. These optimised conditions resulted in a maximum CG degradation level of 99.3%, reducing the concentration of cyanide in the flaxseed power from 1.156 to 0.015 mg g(-1) after 48 h of fermentation. The avoidance of steam heat to evaporate hydrocyanic acid (HCN) results in lower energy consumption and no environmental pollution. In addition, the detoxified flaxseed retained the beneficial nutrients, lignans and fatty acids at the same level as untreated flaxseed, and this method could provide a new means of removing CGs from other edible plants, such as cassava, almond and sorghum by simultaneously expressing cyanide hydratase and β-glucosidase.

  16. Comparison of Methods for Bifenthrin Residues Determination in Fermented Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Đorđević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of three different sample preparation methods for GC/MS determinationof bifenthrin residues in wheat (Triticum spelta samples fermented by Lactobacillusplantarum was tested. The first method was based on a methanol:acetone=1:1 extractionfolowed by a purification on columns containing mixture of aluminium oxide and activatedcharcoal slurry-packed and eluted with dichlormethane, the second was based onmethanol:acetone=1:1 extraction folowed by the purification on florisil column and elutionby ethil acetate:acetone=4:1, while the third tested method was based on a combinationof the first two mentioned methods, thus methanol:acetone=1:1 extraction and clean-upthrought columns filled with a mixture of aluminum oxide and activated charcoal slurrypackedand eluted with ethil acetate:acetone=4:1. The second method was the most effectivefor obtaining satisfactory recoveries for bifenthrin in a range of 79-83% for four fortificationlevels, with good reproducibility i.e. RSD% in a range of 2.2-7.4%. The chosen methodwas further optimized by assessing the optimum volume of elution solvent used duringthe clean-up procedures. The highest recovery of 82.1% was obtained after elution with25 ml of solvent. Overall, two-step extraction with 25 ml of methanol:acetone=1:1 solventmix for 30 min, followed by clean-up procedure through a glass column with florisil coupledwith elution with 25 ml of ethyl acetate: acetone=4:1, allows simple, efficient and reliableGC/MS detection of bifenthrin residues from wheat grain fermented by L. plantarum.

  17. Proteomic profiling of an undefined microbial consortium cultured in fermented dairy manure: Methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea J; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Coats, Erik R

    2016-03-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA; bioplastics) from waste or surplus feedstocks using mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) is a growing field within mixed culture biotechnology. This study aimed to optimize a 2DE workflow to investigate the proteome dynamics of an MMC synthesizing PHA from fermented dairy manure. To mitigate the challenges posed to effective 2DE by this complex sample matrix, the bacterial biomass was purified using Accudenz gradient centrifugation (AGC) before protein extraction. The optimized 2DE method yielded high-quality gels suitable for quantitative comparative analysis and subsequent protein identification by LC-MS/MS. The optimized 2DE method could be adapted to other proteomic investigations involving MMC in complex organic or environmental matrices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Rapid Enzymatic Method for Pectin Methyl Esters Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Łękawska-Andrinopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectin is a natural polysaccharide used in food and pharma industries. Pectin degree of methylation is an important parameter having significant influence on pectin applications. A rapid, fully automated, kinetic flow method for determination of pectin methyl esters has been developed. The method is based on a lab-made analyzer using the reverse flow-injection/stopped flow principle. Methanol is released from pectin by pectin methylesterase in the first mixing coil. Enzyme working solution is injected further downstream and it is mixed with pectin/pectin methylesterase stream in the second mixing coil. Methanol is oxidized by alcohol oxidase releasing formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is coupled to horse radish peroxidase catalyzed reaction, which gives the colored product 4-N-(p-benzoquinoneimine-antipyrine. Reaction rate is proportional to methanol concentration and it is followed using Ocean Optics USB 2000+ spectrophotometer. The analyzer is fully regulated by a lab written LabVIEW program. The detection limit was 1.47 mM with an analysis rate of 7 samples h−1. A paired t-test with results from manual method showed that the automated method results are equivalent to the manual method at the 95% confidence interval. The developed method is rapid and sustainable and it is the first application of flow analysis in pectin analysis.

  19. Biodiversity and dynamics of meat fermentations: the contribution of molecular methods for a better comprehension of a complex ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    2011-11-01

    The ecology of fermented sausages is complex and includes different species and strains of bacteria, yeasts and molds. The developments in the field of molecular biology, allowed for new methods to become available, which could be applied to better understand dynamics and diversity of the microorganisms involved in the production of sausages. Methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), employed as a culture-independent approach, allow to define the microbial dynamics during the fermentation and ripening. Such approach has highlighted that two main species of lactic acid bacteria, namely Lactobacillus sakei and Lb. curvatus, are involved in the transformation process and that they are accompanied by Staphylococcus xylosus, as representative of the coagulase-negative cocci. These findings were repeatedly confirmed in different regions of the world, mainly in the Mediterranean countries where dry fermented sausages have a long tradition and history. The application of molecular methods for the identification and characterization of isolated strains from fermentations highlighted a high degree of diversity within the species mentioned above, underlining the need to better follow strain dynamics during the transformation process. While there is an important number of papers dealing with bacterial ecology by using molecular methods, studies on mycobiota of fermented sausages are just a few. This review reports on how the application of molecular methods made possible a better comprehension of the sausage fermentations, opening up new fields of research that in the near future will allow to unravel the connection between sensory properties and co-presence of multiple strains of the same species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A rapid, simple method for obtaining radiochemically pure hepatic heme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonkowski, H.L.; Bement, W.J.; Erny, R.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactively-labelled heme has usually been isolated from liver to which unlabelled carrier has been added by long, laborious techniques involving organic solvent extraction followed by crystallization. A simpler, rapid method is devised for obtaining radiochemically-pure heme synthesized in vivo in rat liver from delta-amino[4- 14 C]levulinate. This method, in which the heme is extracted into ethyl acetate/glacial acetic acid and in which porphyrins are removed from the heme-containing organic phase with HCl washes, does not require addition of carrier heme. The new method gives better heme recoveries than and heme specific activities identical to, those obtained using the crystallization method. In this new method heme must be synthesized from delta-amino[4- 14 C]levulinate; it is not satisfactory to use [2- 14 C]glycine substrate because non-heme counts are isolated in the heme fraction. (Auth.)

  1. Rapid methods for jugular bleeding of dogs requiring one technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, C S; Richardson, M R

    1979-06-01

    Two methods were used to collect blood from the jugular vein of dogs. In both techniques, only one technician was required. A rope with a slip knot was placed around the base of the neck to assist in restraint and act as a tourniquet for the vein. The technician used one hand to restrain the dog by the muzzle and position the head. The other hand was used for collecting the sample. One of the methods could be accomplished with the dog in its cage. The bleeding techniques were rapid, requiring approximately 1 minute per dog.

  2. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  3. A novel method for rapid in vitro radiobioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Evan Bogert

    Rapid and accurate analysis of internal human exposure to radionuclides is essential to the effective triage and treatment of citizens who have possibly been exposed to radioactive materials in the environment. The two most likely scenarios in which a large number of citizens would be exposed are the detonation of a radiation dispersal device (RDD, "dirty bomb") or the accidental release of an isotope from an industrial source such as a radioisotopic thermal generator (RTG). In the event of the release and dispersion of radioactive materials into the environment in a large city, the entire population of the city -- including all commuting workers and tourists -- would have to be rapidly tested, both to satisfy the psychological needs of the citizens who were exposed to the mental trauma of a possible radiation dose, and to satisfy the immediate medical needs of those who received the highest doses and greatest levels of internal contamination -- those who would best benefit from rapid, intensive medical care. In this research a prototype rapid screening method to screen urine samples for the presence of up to five isotopes, both individually and in a mixture, has been developed. The isotopes used to develop this method are Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, and Am-241. This method avoids time-intensive chemical separations via the preparation and counting of a single sample on multiple detectors, and analyzing the spectra for isotope-specific markers. A rapid liquid-liquid separation using an organic extractive scintillator can be used to help quantify the activity of the alpha-emitting isotopes. The method provides quantifiable results in less than five minutes for the activity of beta/gamma-emitting isotopes when present in the sample at the intervention level as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and quantifiable results for the activity levels of alpha-emitting isotopes present at their respective intervention levels in approximately 30

  4. Methods for the evaluation of antibiotic resistance in Lactobacillus isolated from fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Lethycia Wolupeck

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to assess the antibiotic resistance in 54 indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from artisanal fermented sausages. The confirmation of the strain species was performed by multiplex-PCR assay. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by disk diffusion (DD and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Of 54 L. plantarum, 44 strains were genotypically confirmed as L. plantarum and 3 as Lactobacillus pentosus. The highest resistance rates were to ampicillin and streptomycin. The highest susceptibility rates were shown to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin G. None of the strains showed multidrug resistance. Resistance rates by DD and MIC were not different (P>0.05 for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and penicillin G. Future research should assess the genetic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic resistance in Lactobacillus strains to screen the potential probiotic strains for the development of functional meat products.

  5. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  6. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  7. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  8. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  9. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with 14 C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques

  10. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  11. Method for sustaining microorganism culture in syngas fermentation process in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Stephen S.; Scott, Syrona; Ko, Ching-Whan

    2015-05-19

    The present invention relates to methods for sustaining microorganism culture in a syngas fermentation reactor in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates comprising: adding carbon dioxide and optionally alcohol; maintaining free acetic acid concentrations; and performing the above mentioned steps within specified time.

  12. Protein extraction method for the proteomic study of a Mexican traditional fermented starchy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, C; Barkla, B J; Wacher, C; Delgado-Olivares, L; Rodríguez-Sanoja, R

    2014-12-05

    Pozol is a traditional fermented maize dough prepared in southeastern Mexico. Wide varieties of microorganisms have already been isolated from this spontaneously fermented product; and include fungi, yeasts, and lactic- and non-lactic acid bacteria. Pozol presents physicochemical features different from that of other food fermentation products, such as a high starch content, in addition to a low protein content. It is these qualities that make it intractable for protein recovery and characterization. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to optimize the recovery of proteins from the pozol dough following fermentation, by reducing the complexity of the mixture prior to 2D-PAGE analysis and sequencing, to allow the characterization of the metaproteome of the dough. The proteome of 15day fermented maize dough was characterized; proteins were separated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Subsequent sequence homology database searching, identified numerous bacterial and fungi proteins; with a predominance of lactic acid bacterial proteins, mainly from the Lactobacillus genus. Fungi are mainly represented by Aspergillus. For dominant genera, the most prevalent proteins belong to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, which suggest that at 15days of fermentation not only fungi but also bacteria are metabolically active. Several methodologies have been employed to study pozol, with a specific focus toward the identification of the microbiota of this fermented maize dough, using both traditional cultivation techniques and culture independent molecular techniques. However to date, the dynamics of this complex fermentation is not well understood. With the purpose to gain further insight into the nature of the fermentation, we used proteomic technologies to identify the origin of proteins and enzymes that facilitate substrate utilization and ultimately the development of the microbiota and fermentation. In this paper we overcome the first general

  13. A method for rapid similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Na

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the rapid expansion of RNA structure databases in recent years, efficient methods for structure comparison are in demand for function prediction and evolutionary analysis. Usually, the similarity of RNA secondary structures is evaluated based on tree models and dynamic programming algorithms. We present here a new method for the similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures. Results Three sets of real data have been used as input for the example applications. Set I includes the structures from 5S rRNAs. Set II includes the secondary structures from RNase P and RNase MRP. Set III includes the structures from 16S rRNAs. Reasonable phylogenetic trees are derived for these three sets of data by using our method. Moreover, our program runs faster as compared to some existing ones. Conclusion The famous Lempel-Ziv algorithm can efficiently extract the information on repeated patterns encoded in RNA secondary structures and makes our method an alternative to analyze the similarity of RNA secondary structures. This method will also be useful to researchers who are interested in evolutionary analysis.

  14. Developing rapid methods for analyzing upland riparian functions and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Regulators protecting riparian areas need to understand the integrity, health, beneficial uses, functions, and values of this resource. Up to now most methods providing information about riparian areas are based on analyzing condition or integrity. These methods, however, provide little information about functions and values. Different methods are needed that specifically address this aspect of riparian areas. In addition to information on functions and values, regulators have very specific needs that include: an analysis at the site scale, low cost, usability, and inclusion of policy interpretations. To meet these needs a rapid method has been developed that uses a multi-criteria decision matrix to categorize riparian areas in Washington State, USA. Indicators are used to identify the potential of the site to provide a function, the potential of the landscape to support the function, and the value the function provides to society. To meet legal needs fixed boundaries for assessment units are established based on geomorphology, the distance from "Ordinary High Water Mark" and different categories of land uses. Assessment units are first classified based on ecoregions, geomorphic characteristics, and land uses. This simplifies the data that need to be collected at a site, but it requires developing and calibrating a separate model for each "class." The approach to developing methods is adaptable to other locations as its basic structure is not dependent on local conditions.

  15. A Rapid Method for the Determination of Fucoxanthin in Diatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin is a natural pigment found in microalgae, especially diatoms and Chrysophyta. Recently, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-obesityactivity in humans. Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a diatom with high economic potential due to its high content of fucoxanthin and eicosapentaenoic acid. In order to improve fucoxanthin production, physical and chemical mutagenesis could be applied to generate mutants. An accurate and rapid method to assess the fucoxanthin content is a prerequisite for a high-throughput screen of mutants. In this work, the content of fucoxanthin in P. tricornutum was determined using spectrophotometry instead of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. This spectrophotometric method is easier and faster than liquid chromatography and the standard error was less than 5% when compared to the HPLC results. Also, this method can be applied to other diatoms, with standard errors of 3–14.6%. It provides a high throughput screening method for microalgae strains producing fucoxanthin.

  16. A rapid method for titration of ascovirus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ningning; Chen, Zishu; Wan, Hu; Huang, Guohua; Li, Jianhong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2018-05-01

    Ascoviruses are a recently described family and the traditional plaque assay and end-point PCR assay have been used for their titration. However, these two methods are time-consuming and inaccurate to titrate ascoviruses. In the present study, a quick method for the determination of the titer of ascovirus stocks was developed based on ascovirus-induced apoptosis in infected insect cells. Briefly, cells infected with serial dilutions of virus (10 -2 -10 -10 ) for 24 h were stained with trypan blue. The stained cells were counted, and the percentage of nonviable cells was calculated. The stained cell rate was compared between virus-infected and control cells. The minimum-dilution group that had a significant difference compared with control and the maximum-dilution group that had no significant difference were selected and then compared each well of the two groups with the average stained cell rate of control. The well was marked as positive well if the stained cell rate was higher than the average stained cell rate of control wells; otherwise, the well was marked as negative wells. The percentage of positive wells were calculated according to the number of positive. Subsequently, the virus titer was calculated through the method of Reed and Muench. This novel method is rapid, simple, reproducible, accurate, and less material-consuming and eliminates the subjectivity of the other procedures for titrating ascoviruses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  18. Laboratory method for fermentation of meat and poultry sausages in fibrous casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Acton, J C

    1975-06-01

    The construction and operation of a relatively inexpensive cabinet for sausage fermentation studies is described. Temperature can be controlled to +/-1 C with a relative humidity of approximately 95%.

  19. Laboratory Method for Fermentation of Meat and Poultry Sausages in Fibrous Casings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael G.; Acton, James C.

    1975-01-01

    The construction and operation of a relatively inexpensive cabinet for sausage fermentation studies is described. Temperature can be controlled to ±1 C with a relative humidity of approximately 95%. PMID:16350019

  20. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  1. Unraveling microbial ecology of industrial-scale Kombucha fermentations by metabarcoding and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Monika; Pawtowski, Audrey; Taminiau, Bernard; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Deniel, Franck; Coulloumme-Labarthe, Laurent; Fall, Abdoulaye; Daube, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unraveled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, we compared microbial communities from industrial-scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches. Dominant bacterial species belonged to Acetobacteraceae and to a lesser extent Lactobacteriaceae, while the main identified yeasts corresponded to Dekkera, Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces during all fermentations. Species richness decreased over the 8-day fermentation. Among acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconobacter oxydans, G. saccharivorans and Acetobacter peroxydans emerged as dominant species. The main lactic acid bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, was strongly associated with green tea fermentations. Tea type did not influence yeast community, with Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Hanseniaspora valbyensis as most dominant. This study unraveled a distinctive core microbial community which is essential for fermentation control and could lead to Kombucha quality standardization. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Pretreatment and hydrolysis methods for recovery of fermentable sugars from de-oiled Jatropha waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2013-10-01

    The release of reducing sugars (RS) upon various pretreatments and hydrolysis methods from de-oiled Jatropha waste (DJW) was studied. The highest RS concentration of 12.9 g/L was observed at 10% enzyme hydrolysis. The next highest RS of 8.0 g/L and 7.8 g/L were obtained with 10% HCl and 2.5% H2SO4, respectively. The NaOH (2.5%), ultrasonication and heat (90°C for 60 min) treatments showed the RS concentration of 2.5 g/L, 1.1 g/L and 2.0 g/L, respectively. Autoclave treatment slightly enhanced the sugar release (0.9 g/L) compared to no treatment (0.7 g/L). Glucose release (11.4 g/L) peaked in enzyme hydrolysis. Enzyme treated acid unhydrolysed biomass showed 11.1 g/L RS. HCl and H2SO4 pretreatment gave maximal xylose (6.89 g/L and 6.16 g/L, respectively). Combined (acid and enzyme) hydrolysis employed was efficient and its subsequent batch hydrogen fermentation showed a production 3.1 L H2/L reactor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Salhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

  4. Electrochemical method for rapid synthesis of Zinc Pentacyanonitrosylferrate Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogaieh Bargeshadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a rapid and simple approach was developed for the preparation of zinc pentacyanonitrosylferrate nanotubes (ZnPCNF NTs within the cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template by electrochemical method. The AAO was fabricated in two steps anodizing from aluminum foil. The first anodization of aluminum foil was performed in 0.2 mol L-1 H2C2O4 followed by removal of the formed porous oxide film by a solution of 6 wt% of phosphoric acid. The second anodization step was then performed using the same conditions as the previous step. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD method were employed to characterize the resulting highly oriented uniform hollow tube array which its diameter was in the range of 25-75 nm depending on the applied voltage and the length of nanotubes was equal to the thickness of AAO which was about 2 m. The growth properties of the ZnPCNF NTs array film can be achieved by controlling the structure of the template and applied potential across the cell.

  5. Rapid and robust detection methods for poison and microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-06-27

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for the rapid quantification of a wide range of chemical and microbial contaminations using a simple instrument. Within the testing procedure, we used a multichannel, multisample, UV-vis spectrophotometer/fluorometer that employs two frequencies of light simultaneously to interrogate the sample. We present new enzyme- and dye-based methods to detect (di)ethylene glycol in consumables above 0.1 wt % without interference and alcohols above 1 ppb. Using DNA intercalating dyes, we can detect a range of pathogens ( E. coli , Salmonella , V. Cholera, and a model for Malaria) in water, foods, and blood without background signal. We achieved universal scaling independent of pathogen size above 10(4) CFU/mL by taking advantage of the simultaneous measurement at multiple wavelengths. We can detect contaminants directly, without separation, purification, concentration, or incubation. Our chemistry is stable to ± 1% for >3 weeks without refrigeration, and measurements require <5 min.

  6. A SIMPLE METHOD TO CONTROL THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE FERMENTING MEDIUM DURING LABORATORY-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. BORZANI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  7. Rapid simulation of spatial epidemics: a spectral method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Samuel P C; Tildesley, Michael J; Keeling, Matthew J

    2015-04-07

    Spatial structure and hence the spatial position of host populations plays a vital role in the spread of infection. In the majority of situations, it is only possible to predict the spatial spread of infection using simulation models, which can be computationally demanding especially for large population sizes. Here we develop an approximation method that vastly reduces this computational burden. We assume that the transmission rates between individuals or sub-populations are determined by a spatial transmission kernel. This kernel is assumed to be isotropic, such that the transmission rate is simply a function of the distance between susceptible and infectious individuals; as such this provides the ideal mechanism for modelling localised transmission in a spatial environment. We show that the spatial force of infection acting on all susceptibles can be represented as a spatial convolution between the transmission kernel and a spatially extended 'image' of the infection state. This representation allows the rapid calculation of stochastic rates of infection using fast-Fourier transform (FFT) routines, which greatly improves the computational efficiency of spatial simulations. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this fast spectral rate recalculation (FSR) method with two examples: an idealised scenario simulating an SIR-type epidemic outbreak amongst N habitats distributed across a two-dimensional plane; the spread of infection between US cattle farms, illustrating that the FSR method makes continental-scale outbreak forecasting feasible with desktop processing power. The latter model demonstrates which areas of the US are at consistently high risk for cattle-infections, although predictions of epidemic size are highly dependent on assumptions about the tail of the transmission kernel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on tube rupture strength evaluation method for rapid overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Ryuji; Wada, Yusaku

    1998-08-01

    A sodium-water reaction derived from the single tube break in steam generator might overheat neighbor tubes rapidly under internal pressure loadings. If the temperature of tube wall becomes too high, it has to be evaluated that the stress of tube does not exceed the material strength limit to prevent the propagation of tube rupture. In the present study this phenomenon was recognized as the fracture of cylindrical tube with the large deformation due to overheating, and the evaluation method was investigated based on both of experimental and analytical approaches. The results obtained are as follows. (1) As for the nominal stress estimation, it was clarified through the experimental data and the detailed FEM elasto-plastic large deformation analysis that the formula used in conventional designs can be applied. (2) Within the overheating temperature limits of tubes, the creep effect is dominant, even if the loading time is too short. So the strain rate on the basis of JIS elevated temperature tensile test method for steels and heat-resisting alloys is too late and almost of total strain is composed by creep one. As a result the time dependent effect cannot be evaluated under JIS strain rate condition. (3) Creep tests in shorter time condition than a few minutes and tensile tests in higher strain rate condition than 10%/min of JIS are carried out for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo(NT) steel, and the standard values for tube rupture strength evaluation are formulated. (4) The above evaluation method based on both of the stress estimation and the strength standard values application is justified by using the tube burst test data under internal pressure. (5) The strength standard values on Type 321 ss is formulated in accordance with the procedure applied for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo(NT) steel. (author)

  9. Rapid preparation method for technetium-99m bicisate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, J.C. [Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Chowdhury, S. [Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Redfern, M.G. [Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mahoney, D.W. [Section of Biostatistics, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    1997-06-10

    The method currently recommended for the preparation of technetium-99m bicisate ({sup 99m}Tc-bicisate) requires a lengthy 30-min incubation at room temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method to shorten the preparation time. {sup 99m}Tc-bicisate was prepared with 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) {sup 99m}Tc according to the manufacturer`s instructions, except for the final incubation step, which was replaced with the microwave heating procedure. A standard thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method (i.e., Baker-Flex silica gel IB-F TLC plate with ethyl acetate as mobile phase) was used for the determination of the radiochemical purity (RCP) of {sup 99m}Tc-bicisate. Our evaluation with different microwave heating processes (300 W with different heating times) demonstrated that as the microwave heating temperature was increased (i.e., 44 -71 C), an increased percentage of samples reached 95% within 5 min post preparation (n=58). The highest RCP value (i.e., 97.4%{+-}0.5%, n=10) could be obtained immediately after an 8-s microwave heating time at 300 W (microwave temperature at 69 C), and an average RCP value of 96.4%{+-}1.3% (n=90) was maintained throughout the 24-h evaluation period. However, the trend seemed to reverse at higher microwave temperatures (i.e., 76 -90 C), which reconfirmed our initial findings that overheating had no benefit for the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-bicisate. To ensure that temperature was the only determining factor, a hot water incubator set at 69 C was used (n=6). Similar RCP results were achieved. In conclusion, the use of a microwave oven at a low heat cycle provides a rapid and efficient way to prepare {sup 99m}Tc-bicisate. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    coli Hemophilus influenzae Bacillus anthracis Bacillus circulans Bacillus coagulans Bacillus cereus T Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans Legionel...reveree aide If neceeeary and Identify by block number) Lectins: Rapid Identification, Bacillus anthracisjCryptococcus " neoformans. Neisseria...field-type kit for the rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis. We have shown that certain lectins will selectively interact with B. anthracis

  11. Monitoring of radioiodine and methods for rapid measurement, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Milk is selected as an indicator or critical food in the environmental monitoring samples, and radioactive iodine as a specific critical radionuclide. Rapid determination of Iodine-131 in the milk has been developed as a standard procedure for the network of environmental radioactivity monitoring in a state of emergency. Outline of the procedure is gamma-ray spectrometry using a heavily shielded 3''diameter x 3'' sodium iodide (thallium-activated) crystal as a detector, 2 liter of Marinelli Beaker for a raw milk and a multi channel pulse height analyzer for quantitative analysis of gamma spectra through the utilization of simultaneous equations. The analysis is what we call ''Milk Matrix Method'' introducing calibration data from the standard samples of Iodine-131, Cesium-137 and Potassium-40. They were selected experimentally, and counting data from the sample were taken into the elements of matrix of set up three simultaneous equations. Most recently detected concentration of Iodine-131 in milk was 81 pCi per liter in 20 May 1978, originated from the nuclear explosion test carried out by the People's Republic of China in 15 May 1978. (author)

  12. A rapid method of evaluating fluoroscopic system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a method for the rapid evaluation and documentation of fluoroscopic image quality. All objects contained within a conventional contrast-detail test phantom (Leeds TO-10) are displayed in an array format according to their contrast and size. A copy of the display is used as the data collection form and a permanent record of system performance. A fluoroscope is evaluated by viewing the test phantom and marking the visible objects on the display. A line drawn through the objects with minimum visibility in each size group forms a contrast-detail curve for the system. This is compared with a standard or reference line, which is in the display.Deviations in curve position are useful indicators of specific image quality problems, such as excessive noise or blurring. The use of a special object-visibility array format display makes it possible to collect data, analyze the results, and create a record of fluoroscopic performance in less than 2 minutes for each viewing mode

  13. Rapid screening method for plutonium in mixed waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, W.; Culp, T.; Miller, R.

    1987-01-01

    A waste stream sampling program was undertaken to determine those waste streams which contained hazardous constituents, and would therefore be regulated as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The waste streams also had the potential of containing radioactive material, either plutonium, americium, or depleted uranium. Because of the potential for contamination with radioactive material, a method of rapidly screening the liquid samples for radioactive material was required. A counting technique was devised to count a small aliquot of a sample, determine plutonium concentration, and allow the sample to be shipped the same day they were collected. This technique utilized the low energy photons (x-rays) that accompany α decay. This direct, non-destructive x-ray analysis was applied to quantitatively determine Pu-239 concentrations in industrial samples. Samples contained a Pu-239, Am-241 mixture; the ratio and/or concentrations of these two radionuclides was not constant. A computer program was designed and implemented to calculate Pu-239 activity and concentration (g/ml) using the 59.5 keV Am-241 peak to determine Am-241's contribution to the 17 keV region. Am's contribution was subtracted, yielding net counts in the 17 keV region due to Pu. 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. A viable method and configuration for fermenting biomass sugars to ethanol using native Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dawei; Rao, Kripa; Varanasi, Sasidhar; Relue, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    A system that incorporates a packed bed reactor for isomerization of xylose and a hollow fiber membrane fermentor (HFMF) for sugar fermentation by yeast was developed for facile recovery of the xylose isomerase enzyme pellets and reuse of the cartridge loaded with yeast. Fermentation of pre-isomerized poplar hydrolysate produced using ionic liquid pretreatment in HFMF resulted in ethanol yields equivalent to that of model sugar mixtures of xylose and glucose. By recirculating model sugar mixtures containing partially isomerized xylose through the packed bed and the HFMF connected in series, 39 g/l ethanol was produced within 10h with 86.4% xylose utilization. The modular nature of this configuration has the potential for easy scale-up of the simultaneous isomerization and fermentation process without significant capital costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of methods and systems for preparing hydrolyzates for acetone-butanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, B M

    1967-01-01

    Optimal conditions for hydrolysis of vegetable waste material, e.g., maize stalks, sunflower parings, and hemp wastes, with concentrated or dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ were established. Hydrolyzates were neutralized with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to pH 5.5 to 6.0 and the supernatant was sterilized at 110 to 115/sup 0/ for 15 to 20 minutes and used for fermentation in mixtures with molasses or mash. The maximum amount of fermentation inhibitors which can be present in hydrolyzate is: 0.1% furfural, 0.03% HCO/sub 2/H and 0.001% As.

  16. Effective method of fermentation of Riga hydrolyzates of corn cobs and other vegetable waste products for butanol and acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, B M; Kameneva, L; Kalnina, V

    1963-01-01

    A simplified method is described for the production of butanol and acetone. The acid mixture (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, 10 to 20%; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 90 to 80%) used to hydrolyze corn cobs and other vegetable waste products served also to invert the sugar of molasses which was added in 3 parts to 1 part hydrolyzate on the basis of reducing sugar content. The mixture was then diluted and neutralized with NH/sub 4/OH to pH 6.3 to 6.8. In this way a suitable hydrolyzate medium containing the appropriate amounts of mineral salts as well as invert sugar was provided for fermentation by Clostridium butyricum Prazmowsky. Lignin which precipitated during hydrolysis served as a solid phase which helped to accelerate fermentation. Combined yields of butanol, acetone, and small amounts of ethanol amounted to 30 to 38% of the available sugar; approximately 67% consisted of butanol.

  17. Development of rapid urine analysis method for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, J.; Noguchi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    ICP-MS has begun to spread in the field of individual monitoring for internal exposure as a very effective machine for uranium analysis. Although the ICP-MS has very high sensitivity, it requires longer time than conventional analysis, such as fluorescence analysis, because it is necessary to remove matrix from a urine sample sufficiently. To shorten time required for the urine bioassay by ICP-MS, a rapid uranium analysis method using the ICP-MS connected with a flow injection system was developed. Since this method does not involve chemical separation steps, the time required is equivalent to the conventional analysis. A measurement test was carried out using 10 urine solutions prepared from a urine sample. Required volume of urine solution is 5 ml. Main chemical treatment is only the digestion with 5 ml of nitric acid using a microwave oven to decompose organic matter and to dissolve suspended or precipitated matter. The microwave oven can digest 10 samples at once within an hour. Volume of digested sample solution was adjusted to 10 ml. The prepared sample solutions were directly introduced to the ICP-MS without any chemical separation procedure. The ICP-MS was connected with a flow injection system and an auto sampler. The flow injection system can minimize the matrix effects caused from salt dissolved in high matrix solution, such as non chemical separated urine sample, because it can introduce micro volume of sample solution into the ICP-MS. The ICP-MS detected uranium within 2 min/sample using the auto sampler. The 10 solutions prepared from a urine sample showed an average of 7.5 ng/l of uranium concentration in urine with 10 % standard deviation. A detection limit is about 1 ng/l. The total time required was less than 4 hours for 10 sample analysis. In the series of measurement, any memory effect was not observed. The present analysis method using the ICP-MS equipped with the flow injection system demonstrated that the shortening of time required on high

  18. Development of rapid urine analysis method for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, J.; Noguchi, H.

    2000-01-01

    ICP-MS has begun to spread in the field of individual monitoring for internal exposure as a very effective machine for uranium analysis. Although the ICP-MS has very high sensitivity, it requires longer time than conventional analysis, such as fluorescence analysis, because it is necessary to remove matrix from a urine sample sufficiently. To shorten time required for the urine bioassay by ICP-MS, a rapid uranium analysis method using the ICP-MS connected with a flow injection system was developed. Since this method does not involve chemical separation steps, the time required is equivalent to the conventional analysis. A measurement test was carried out using 10 urine solutions prepared from a urine sample. Required volume of urine solution is 5 ml. Main chemical treatment is only the digestion with 5 ml of nitric acid using a microwave oven to decompose organic matter and to dissolve suspended or precipitated matter. The microwave oven can digest 10 samples at once within an hour. Volume of digested sample solution was adjusted to 10 ml. The prepared sample solutions were directly introduced to the ICP-MS without any chemical separation procedure. The ICP-MS was connected with a flow injection system and an auto sampler. The flow injection system can minimize the matrix effects caused from salt dissolved in high matrix solution, such as non chemical separated urine sample, because it can introduce micro volume of sample solution into the ICP-MS. The ICP-MS detected uranium within 2 min/sample using the auto sampler. The 10 solutions prepared from a urine sample showed an average of 7.5 ng/l of uranium concentration in urine with 10 % standard deviation. A detection limit is about 1 ng/l. The total time required was less than 4 hours for 10 sample analysis. In the series of measurement, any memory effect was not observed. The present analysis method using the ICP-MS equipped with the flow injection system demonstrated that the shortening of time required on high

  19. Benchmarking electrical methods for rapid estimation of root biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postic, François; Doussan, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To face climate change and subsequent rainfall instabilities, crop breeding strategies now include root traits phenotyping. Rapid estimation of root traits in controlled conditions can be achieved by using parallel electrical capacitance and its linear correlation with root dry mass. The aim of the present study was to improve robustness and efficiency of methods based on capacitance and other electrical variables, such as serial/parallel resistance, conductance, impedance or reactance. Using different electrode configurations and stem contact electrodes, we have measured the electrical impedance spectra of wheat plants grown in pots filled with three types of soil. For each configuration, parallel capacitance and other linearly independent electrical variables were computed and their quality as root dry mass estimator was evaluated by a 'sensitivity score' that we derived from Pearson's correlation coefficient r and linear regression parameters. The highest sensitivity score was obtained by parallel capacitance at an alternating current frequency of 116 Hz in three-terminal configuration. Using a clamp, instead of a needle, as a stem electrode did not significantly affect the capacitance measurements. Finally, in handheld LCR meter equivalent conditions, capacitance had the highest sensitivity score and determination coefficient (r (2) = 0.52) at 10 kHz frequency. Our benchmarking of linear correlations between different electrical variables and root dry mass enables to determine more coherent practices for ensuring a sensitive and robust root dry mass estimation, including in handheld LCR meter conditions. This would enhance the value of electrical capacitance as a tool for screening crops in relation with root systems in breeding programs.

  20. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    and distances at the base to block and slope features. The validation of the proposed approach was conducted by comparing predictions to experimental data collected in the field and gathered from the scientific literature. The method can be used for both natural and constructed slopes and easily extended to more complicated and articulated slope geometries. The study shows its great potential for a quick qualitative hazard assessment providing indication about impact energy and horizontal distance of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff. Nevertheless, its application cannot substitute a more detailed quantitative analysis required for site-specific design of mitigation measures. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP). References Dorren, L.K.A. (2003) A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches, Progress in Physical Geography 27(1), 69-87. Agliardi, F., Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. (2009) Integrating rockfall risk assessment and countermeasure design by 3D modelling techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9(4), 1059-1073. Ferrari, F., Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Lambert, C. (2016) A rapid approach to estimate the rockfall energies and distances at the base of rock cliffs. Georisk, DOI: 10.1080/17499518.2016.1139729.

  1. Yeast Population Dynamics in Spontaneous and Inoculated Alcoholic Fermentations of Zametovka Must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cus

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculated fermentations, which are more rapid and more reliable than spontaneous fermentations, and assure predictable wine quality, are nowadays prevalent in Slovenia’s large-scale wine production. However, spontaneous fermentation strengthens local characteristics of wine and offers opportunities for technological innovation. In the 1999 vintage, spontaneous and inoculated fermentations of Zametovka (Vitis vinifera grape must were studied. Zametovka is the main red variety in production of traditional Slovene red blend wine, Cvicek. The diversity of yeast species and strains in both of the investigated fermentations was determined by molecular and traditional identification methods. The outset of alcoholic fermentation, yeast growth kinetics, and yeast population dynamics presents the main differences between the examined fermentations. Yeast population diversity was higher in the spontaneous process. Dominant yeast isolates from spontaneous fermentation were identified as Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; whereas Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia membranifaciens and Torulaspora delbrueckiim were found less frequently. Dominant species in the inoculated fermentation was Saccharomyces cerevisiae; other species found in smaller numbers were Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii. Using PFGE, we were able to distinguish among 15 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and three different Saccharomyces bayanus strains isolated from spontaneous fermentation, whereas, in the case of inoculated fermentation, only two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were found. Their chromosomal patterns coincide with the chromosomal patterns of the starter culture strains.

  2. Screening of Ganoderma strains with high polysaccharides and ganoderic acid contents and optimization of the fermentation medium by statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-hua; Duan, Ying-yi; Qian, Yong-qing; Guo, Xiao-feng; Li, Yan-jun; Jin, Shi-he; Zhou, Zhong-Xin; Shan, Sheng-yan; Wang, Chun-ru; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Zheng, Yuguo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides and ganoderic acids (GAs) are the major bioactive constituents of Ganoderma species. However, the commercialization of their production was limited by low yield in the submerged culture of Ganoderma despite improvement made in recent years. In this work, twelve Ganoderma strains were screened to efficiently produce polysaccharides and GAs, and Ganoderma lucidum 5.26 (GL 5.26) that had been never reported in fermentation process was found to be most efficient among the tested stains. Then, the fermentation medium was optimized for GL 5.26 by statistical method. Firstly, glucose and yeast extract were found to be the optimum carbon source and nitrogen source according to the single-factor tests. Ferric sulfate was found to have significant effect on GL 5.26 biomass production according to the results of Plackett-Burman design. The concentrations of glucose, yeast extract and ferric sulfate were further optimized by response surface methodology. The optimum medium composition was 55 g/L of glucose, 14 g/L of yeast extract, 0.3 g/L of ferric acid, with other medium components unchanged. The optimized medium was testified in the 10-L bioreactor, and the production of biomass, IPS, total GAs and GA-T enhanced by 85, 27, 49 and 93 %, respectively, compared to the initial medium. The fermentation process was scaled up to 300-L bioreactor; it showed good IPS (3.6 g/L) and GAs (670 mg/L) production. The biomass was 23.9 g/L in 300-L bioreactor, which was the highest biomass production in pilot scale. According to this study, the strain GL 5.26 showed good fermentation property by optimizing the medium. It might be a candidate industrial strain by further process optimization and scale-up study.

  3. Rapid method for identification of transgenic fish zygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Alimuddin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of zygosity in transgenik fish is normally achieved by PCR analysis with genomic DNA template extracted from the tissue of progenies which are derived by mating the transgenic fish and wild-type counterpart.  This method needs relatively large amounts of fish material and is time- and labor-intensive. New approaches addressing this problem could be of great help for fish biotechnologists.  In this experiment, we applied a quantitative real-time PCR (qr-PCR method to analyze zygosity in a stable line of transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio carrying masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou D6-desaturase-like gene. The qr-PCR was performed using iQ SYBR Green Supermix in the iCycler iQ Real-time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA.  Data were analyzed using the comparative cycle threshold method.  The results demonstrated a clear-cut identification of all transgenic fish (n=20 classified as a homozygous or heterozygous.  Mating of those fish with wild-type had revealed transgene transmission to the offspring following expected Mendelian laws. Thus, we found that the qTR-PCR to be effective for a rapid and precise determination of zygosity in transgenic fish. This technique could be useful in the establishment of breeding programs for mass transgenic fish production and in experiments in which zygosity effect could have a functional impact. Keywords: quantitative real-time PCR; zygosity; transgenic fish; mass production   ABSTRAK Identifikasi sigositas ikan transgenik biasanya dilakukan menggunakan analisa PCR dengan cetakan DNA genomik yang diekstraksi dari jaringan ikan hasil persilangan antara ikan transgenik dan ikan normal.   Metode ini memerlukan ikan dalam jumlah yang banyak, dan juga waktu serta tenaga.  Pendekatan baru untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut akan memberikan manfaat besar kepada peneliti bioteknologi perikanan.  Pada penelitian ini, kami menggunakan metode PCR real-time kuantitatif (krt-PCR untuk

  4. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  5. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Rapid methods for measuring radionuclides in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of ICP/mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of environmental samples, the use of drum assayers for measuring radionuclides in food and a rapid procedure for the measurement of the transuranic elements and thorium, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are discussed

  7. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  8. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  9. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Florencio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc., glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in “Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis” C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016 [1]. Keywords: Tricoderma reesei, Aspergillus Niger, Enzyme Production, Secretome

  10. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately.

  11. Comparation of instrumental and sensory methods in fermented milk beverages texture quality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Hardi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The texture of the curd of fermented dairy products is one of the primary factors of their overall quality. The flow properties of fermented dairy products have characteristic of thixotropic (pseudoplastic type of liquids. At the same time, these products are viscoelastic systems, i.e. they are capable of texture renewal after applied deformation. Complex analysis of some of the properties is essentional for the system description . The aim of the present work was to completely describe the texture of fermented milk beverages . Three basic parameters were taken into consideration: structure, hardness (consistency and stability of the curd. The description model of these three parameters was applied on the basis of the experimental results obteined. Results obtained by present model were compared with the results of sensory analysis. Influence of milk fat content and skimmed milk powder addition on acidophilus milk texture quality was also examined using this model. It was shawn that, by using this model – on the basis of instrumental and sensory analyses, a complete and objective determination of texture quality of the fermented milk beverages can be obtained. High degree of correlation between instrumental and sensory results (r =0.8975 is obtained results of this work indicated that both factors (milk fat content and skimmed milk powder addition had an influence on texture quality. Samples with higher milk fat content had a better texture properties in comparsion with low fat content samples. Texture of all examined samples was improved by increasing skimmed milk powder content. Optimal amounts of skimmed milk powder addition with regard to milk fat content, in milk, is determined using the proposed model.

  12. A rapid method to estimate Westergren sedimentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2009-09-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a nonspecific but simple and inexpensive test that was introduced into medical practice in 1897. Although it is commonly utilized in the diagnosis and follow-up of various clinical conditions, ESR has several limitations including the required 60 min settling time for the test. Herein we introduce a novel use for a commercially available computerized tube viscometer that allows the accurate prediction of human Westergren ESR rates in as little as 4 min. Owing to an initial pressure gradient, blood moves between two vertical tubes through a horizontal small-bore tube and the top of the red blood cell (RBC) column in each vertical tube is monitored continuously with an accuracy of 0.083 mm. Using data from the final minute of a blood viscosity measurement, a sedimentation index (SI) was calculated and correlated with results from the conventional Westergren ESR test. To date, samples from 119 human subjects have been studied and our results indicate a strong correlation between SI and ESR values (R(2)=0.92). In addition, we found a close association between SI and RBC aggregation indices as determined by an automated RBC aggregometer (R(2)=0.71). Determining SI on human blood is rapid, requires no special training and has minimal biohazard risk, thus allowing physicians to rapidly screen for individuals with elevated ESR and to monitor therapeutic responses.

  13. Bioactivity of a Novel Glycolipid Produced by a Halophilic Buttiauxella sp. and Improving Submerged Fermentation Using a Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrazagh Marzban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An antimicrobial glycolipid biosurfactant (GBS, extracted and identified from a marine bacterium, was studied to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms. Production of the GBS was optimized using a statistical method, a response surface method (RSM with a central composite design (CCD for obtaining maximum yields on a cost-effective substrate, molasses. The GBS-producing bacterium was identified as Buttiauxella Species in terms of biochemical and molecular characteristics. This compound showed a desirable antimicrobial activity against some pathogens such as E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Aspergilus niger, Salmonella enterica. The rheological studies described the stability of the GBS at high values in a range of pH (7–8, temperature (20–60 and salinity (0%–3%. The statistical optimization of GBS fermentation was found to be pH 7, temperature 33 °C, Peptone 1%, NaCl 1% and molasses 1%. The potency of the GBS as an effective antimicrobial agent provides evidence for its use against food and human pathogens. Moreover, favorable production of the GBS in the presence of molasses as a cheap substrate and the feasibility of pilot scale fermentation using an RSM method could expand its uses in food, pharmaceutical products and oil industries.

  14. Simplified Method for Rapid Purification of Soluble Histones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ivić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional and structural studies of histone-chaperone complexes, nucleosome modifications, their interactions with remodelers and regulatory proteins rely on obtaining recombinant histones from bacteria. In the present study, we show that co-expression of Xenopus laevis histone pairs leads to production of soluble H2AH2B heterodimer and (H3H42 heterotetramer. The soluble histone complexes are purified by simple chromatographic techniques. Obtained H2AH2B dimer and H3H4 tetramer are proficient in histone chaperone binding and histone octamer and nucleosome formation. Our optimized protocol enables rapid purification of multiple soluble histone variants with a remarkable high yield and simplifies histone octamer preparation. We expect that this simple approach will contribute to the histone chaperone and chromatin research. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  15. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  16. Rapid and Reliable HPLC Method for the Determination of Vitamin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate an accurate, sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantitation of vitamin C in pharmaceutical samples. Method: The drug and the standard were eluted from Superspher RP-18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 10ìm particle size) at 20 0C.

  17. A rapid method for determining chlorobenzenes in dam water systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method using direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of 7 chlorinated benzenes in dam water. The main parameters affecting the DI-SPME process were optimised. The optimised method ...

  18. RESEARCH NOTE A Universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    success of the extracted gDNA to be submitted into post-PCR analysis. ... The application of the universal method for DNA extraction not restricted into routine ... On the other hand, the universal method has proven its feasibility to be utilized.

  19. An original method for producing acetaldehyde and diacetyl by yeast fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Rosca

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study a natural culture medium that mimics the synthetic yeast peptone glucose medium used for yeast fermentations was designed to screen and select yeasts capable of producing high levels of diacetyl and acetaldehyde. The presence of whey powder and sodium citrate in the medium along with manganese and magnesium sulfate enhanced both biomass and aroma development. A total of 52 yeasts strains were cultivated in two different culture media, namely, yeast peptone glucose medium and yeast acetaldehyde-diacetyl medium. The initial screening of the strains was based on the qualitative reaction of the acetaldehyde with Schiff's reagent (violet color and diacetyl with Brady's reagent (yellow precipitate. The fermented culture media of 10 yeast strains were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify the concentration of acetaldehyde and diacetyl synthesized. Total titratable acidity values indicated that a total titratable acidity of 5.5 °SH, implying culture medium at basic pH, was more favorable for the acetaldehyde biosynthesis using strain D15 (Candida lipolytica; 96.05 mg L-1 acetaldehyde while a total titratable acidity value of 7 °SH facilitated diacetyl flavor synthesis by strain D38 (Candida globosa; 3.58 mg L-1 diacetyl. Importantly, the results presented here suggest that this can be potentially used in the baking industry.

  20. Rapid separation method for {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L., E-mail: sherrod.maxwell@srs.go [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Culligan, Brian K.; Noyes, Gary W. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  1. A simple and rapid molecular method for Leptospira species identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Ahmed; Anthony, Richard M.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2010-01-01

    Serological and DNA-based classification systems only have little correlation. Currently serological and molecular methods for characterizing Leptospira are complex and costly restricting their world-wide distribution and use. Ligation mediated amplification combined with microarray analysis

  2. Rapid and inexpensive method for isolating plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljanabi, S. M.; Al-Awadi, S. J.; Al-Kazaz, A. A.; Baghdad Univ.

    1997-01-01

    A small-scale and economical method for isolating plasmid DNA from bacteria is described. The method provides DNA of suitable quality for most DNA manipulation techniques. This DNA can be used for restriction endonuclease digestion, southern blot hybridization, nick translation and end labeling of DNA probes, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) -based techniques, transformation, DNA cycle-sequencing, and Chain-termination method for DNA sequencing. The entire procedure is adapted to 1.5 ml microfuge tubes and takes approximately 30 mins. The DNA isolated by this method has the same purity produced by CTAB and cesium chloride precipitation and purification procedures respectively. The two previous methods require many hours to obtain the final product and require the use of very expensive equipment as ultracentrifuge. This method is well suited for the isolation of plasmid DNA from a large number of bacterial samples and in a very short time and low cost in laboratories where chemicals, expensive equipment and finance are limited factors in conducting molecular research. (authors). 11refs. 11refs

  3. MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD ECBC-TR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Method as a Rapid Screening Tool for Bacterial Contamination of Food 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the MSPM to correctly classify whether or not food samples were contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Newport in this blinded pilot study

  4. Rapid, cost-effective liquid chromatograghic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The method was validated and used for pharmacokinetic studies. Key words: Metronidazole ... by the intrinsic analytical properties of the drug molecule ... In addition, such factors as sample size ... account, since these affect the reliability of the quantitation. ... phase and ion-pair high–performance liquid.

  5. Rapid multi-residue method for the determination of pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to pesticides can represent a potential risk to humans. Agricultural workers are at risk of chronic toxicity. Hence, the evaluation of pesticide residues in their blood gives an indication about the extent of exposure and help in assessing adverse health effects. The aim of our study was to develop analytical method for ...

  6. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MOHAMMED BAQUR SAHIB A. AL-SHUHAIB

    gels, containing 7% glycerol, and 1×TBE buffer. The gels were run under 200 .... Inc. Germany, GeneaidTM DNA Isolation Kit, Geneaid. Biotech., New Taipei City, .... C. L. and Arsenos G. 2015 Comparison of eleven methods for genomic DNA ...

  7. Rapid prototyping methods for the manufacture of fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The potential for the application of this method for the manufacture of metallic bipolar plates (BPP for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs is presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the fabrication of light elements for the construction of PEMFC stacks designed for mobile applications such as aviation technology and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  8. The Most Probable Limit of Detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, G.P.H.T.; Willemse, M.J.; Hoefs, S.G.G.; Cremers, G.; Heuvel, E.R. van den

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on

  9. The most probable limit of detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, G.P.H.T.; Willemse, M.J.; Hoefs, S.G.G.; Cremers, G.; Heuvel, van den E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on

  10. Optimal control methods for rapidly time-varying Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzoi, F.; Merkel, S. T.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Gambetta, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we develop a numerical method to find optimal control pulses that accounts for the separation of timescales between the variation of the input control fields and the applied Hamiltonian. In traditional numerical optimization methods, these timescales are treated as being the same. While this approximation has had much success, in applications where the input controls are filtered substantially or mixed with a fast carrier, the resulting optimized pulses have little relation to the applied physical fields. Our technique remains numerically efficient in that the dimension of our search space is only dependent on the variation of the input control fields, while our simulation of the quantum evolution is accurate on the timescale of the fast variation in the applied Hamiltonian.

  11. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  12. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2010-07-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  13. Comparison of Pretreatment Methods on Vetiver Leaves for Efficient Processes of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Neurospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Dewi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material for bioethanol production. Neurospora sp. can be used to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol because of its ability to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, lignin content, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity of cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass can inhibit cellulosic-biomass digestion by Neurospora sp, so that a suitable pretreatment method of lignocellulosic biomass is needed. The focus of this research was to investigate the suitable pretreatment method for vetiver leaves (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used as a raw material producing bioethanol in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Neurospora sp.. Vetiver plants obtained from Garut are deliberately cultivated to produce essential oils extracted from the roots of this plant. Since the vetiver leaves do not contain oil, some of harvested leaves are usually used for crafts and cattle feed, and the rest are burned. This study intended to look at other potential of vetiver leaves as a source of renewable energy. Pretreatments of the vetiver leaves were conducted using hot water, dilute acid, alkaline & dilute acid, and alkaline peroxide, in which each method was accompanied by thermal treatment. The results showed that the alkaline peroxide treatment is a suitable for vetiver leaves as indicated by the increase of cellulose content up to 65.1%, while the contents of hot water soluble, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash are 8.7%, 18.3%, 6.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Using this pretreatment method, the vetiver leaves can be converted into bioethanol by SSF process using Neurospora sp. with a concentration of bioethanol of 6.7 g/L operated at room temperature.

  14. Study of a large rapid ashing apparatus and a rapid dry ashing method for biological samples and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Meisun; Wang Benli; Liu Wencang

    1988-04-01

    A large rapid-dry-ashing apparatus and a rapid ashing method for biological samples are described. The apparatus consists of specially made ashing furnace, gas supply system and temperature-programming control cabinet. The following adventages have been showed by ashing experiment with the above apparatus: (1) high speed of ashing and saving of electric energy; (2) The apparatus can ash a large amount of samples at a time; (3) The ashed sample is pure white (or spotless), loose and easily soluble with few content of residual char; (4) The fresh sample can also be ashed directly. The apparatus is suitable for ashing a large amount of the environmental samples containing low level radioactivity trace elements and the medical, food and agricultural research samples

  15. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  16. A multiplex PCR method for rapid identification of Brachionus rotifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiadou, Kalliopi; Papakostas, Spiros; Triantafyllidis, Alexander; Kappas, Ilias; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2009-01-01

    Cryptic species are increasingly being recognized in many organisms. In Brachionus rotifers, many morphologically similar yet genetically distinct species/biotypes have been described. A number of Brachionus cryptic species have been recognized among hatchery strains. In this study, we present a simple, one-step genetic method to detect the presence of those Brachionus sp. rotifers that have been found in hatcheries. With the proposed technique, each of the B. plicatilis sensu stricto, B. ibericus, Brachionus sp. Nevada, Brachionus sp. Austria, Brachionus sp. Manjavacas, and Brachionus sp. Cayman species and/or biotypes can be identified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Based on 233 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences, we reviewed all the available cryptic Brachionus sp. genetic polymorphisms, and we designed six nested primers. With these primers, a specific amplicon of distinct size is produced for every one of the involved species/biotypes. Two highly sensitive protocols were developed for using the primers. Many of the primers can be combined in the same PCR. The proposed method has been found to be an effective and practical tool to investigate the presence of the above six cryptic species/biotypes in both individual and communal (bulk) rotifer deoxyribonucleic acid extractions from hatcheries. With this technique, hatchery managers could easily determine their rotifer composition at the level of cryptic species and monitor their cultures more efficiently.

  17. The Use of Rapid Review Methods for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnode, Carrie D; Eder, Michelle L; Walsh, Emily S; Viswanathan, Meera; Lin, Jennifer S

    2018-01-01

    Rapid review products are intended to synthesize available evidence in a timely fashion while still meeting the needs of healthcare decision makers. Various methods and products have been applied for rapid evidence syntheses, but no single approach has been uniformly adopted. Methods to gain efficiency and compress the review time period include focusing on a narrow clinical topic and key questions; limiting the literature search; performing single (versus dual) screening of abstracts and full-text articles for relevance; and limiting the analysis and synthesis. In order to maintain the scientific integrity, including transparency, of rapid evidence syntheses, it is imperative that procedures used to streamline standard systematic review methods are prespecified, based on sound review principles and empiric evidence when possible, and provide the end user with an accurate and comprehensive synthesis. The collection of clinical preventive service recommendations maintained by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, along with its commitment to rigorous methods development, provide a unique opportunity to refine, implement, and evaluate rapid evidence synthesis methods and add to an emerging evidence base on rapid review methods. This paper summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's use of rapid review methodology, its criteria for selecting topics for rapid evidence syntheses, and proposed methods to streamline the review process. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  19. Response surface method optimization of ectoine fermentation medium with moderate halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. H02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T. T.; Qu, A.; Yuan, X. N.; Tan, F. X.; Li, X. W.; Wang, T.; Zhang, L. H.

    2017-07-01

    Moderate halophilic bacteria are of halophilic bacteria whose suitable growth of NaCl is 5-10%. When the moderate halophilic bacteria response to high osmotic stress, the intracellular will synthesize small organic molecule compatible solutes. Ectoine, which is the major synthetic osmotic compatible solutes for moderate halophilic bacteria, can help microbial enzymes, nucleic acids and the whole cell resist to hypertonic, high temperature, freezing and other inverse environment. In order to increase the Ectoine production of Moderate halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. H02, the Ectoine fermentation medium component was optimized by Plackett-Burman (PB) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on the principle of non-complete equilibrium The results of PB experiments showed that the three main influencing factors of Moderate halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. H02 synthesis Ectoine culture medium were C5H8NNaO4 concentration, NaCl concentration and initial pH. According to the center point of the steepest climbing experiment, the central combination design experiment was used to show that the model is consistent with the actual situation. The optimum combination of three influencing factors were C5H8NNaO4 41 g/L, NaCl 87.2 g/L and initial pH 5.9, and the predicted amount of Ectoine was 1835.8 mg/L, increased by 41.6%.

  20. Shifts in microbial populations in Rusitec fermenters as affected by the type of diet and impact of the method for estimating microbial growth (15N v. microbial DNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, I; Ranilla, M J; Saro, C; Carro, M D

    2017-11-01

    offered similar results for diets comparison, but both methods presented contrasting results for microbial growth in SOL and LIQ phases. The study showed that fermentation parameters remained fairly stable over the commonly used sampling period (days 8 to 14), but shifts in microbial populations were detected. Moreover, microbial populations differed markedly from those in the inocula, which indicates the difficulty of directly transposing results on microbial populations developed in Rusitec fermenters to in vivo conditions.

  1. Rapid Methods for the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens: Principles, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law eJodi Woan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  2. Effects of different fermentation methods on bacterial cellulose and acid production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus in Cantonese-style rice vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Chen, Siqian; Yi, Jiulong; Hou, Zongxia

    2014-07-01

    A strain of acidogenic bacterium was isolated from the fermentation liquid of Cantonese-style rice vinegar produced by traditional surface fermentation. 16S rDNA identification confirmed the bacterium as Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which synthesizes bacterial cellulose, and the acid productivity of the strain was investigated. In the study, the effects of the membrane integrity and the comparison of the air-liquid interface membrane with immerged membrane on total acidity, cellulose production, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and number of bacteria were investigated. The cellulose membrane and the bacteria were observed under SEM for discussing their relationship. The correlations between oxygen consumption and total acid production rate were compared in surface and shake flask fermentation. The results showed the average acid productivity of the strain was 0.02g/(100mL/h), and the integrity of cellulose membrane in surface fermentation had an important effect on total acidity and cellulose production. With a higher membrane integrity, the total acidity after 144 h of fermentation was 3.75 g/100 mL, and the cellulose production was 1.71 g/100 mL after 360 h of fermentation. However, when the membrane was crushed by mechanical force, the total acidity and the cellulose production were as low as 0.36 g/100 mL and 0.14 g/100 mL, respectively. When the cellulose membrane was forced under the surface of fermentation liquid, the total acid production rate was extremely low, but the activity of ADH in the cellulose membrane was basically the same with the one above the liquid surface. The bacteria were mainly distributed in the cellulose membrane during the fermentation. The bacterial counts in surface fermentation were more than in the shake flask fermentation and G. xylinus consumed the substrate faster, in surface fermentation than in shake flask fermentation. The oxygen consumption rate and total acid production rate of surface fermentation were respectively 26

  3. Methods and Magnitudes of Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Over Pre-Competition Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kons Rafael Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to analyse the methods and magnitudes of rapid weight loss (RWL in judo team members in distinct periods before the biggest state competition in Southern Brazil.

  4. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observ...

  5. Mobile Image Ratiometry: A New Method for Instantaneous Analysis of Rapid Test Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Cooper; Bryan Callahan; Phil Callahan; Lee Burnett

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe Mobile Image Ratiometry (MIR), a new method for the automated quantification of standardized rapid immunoassay strips using consumer-based mobile smartphone and tablet cameras. To demonstrate MIR we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE). We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three d...

  6. [Rapid methods for the genus Salmonella bacteria detection in food and raw materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, D M; Sokolov, M S

    2013-01-01

    The article considers sanitary and epidemiological aspects and the impact of Salmonella food poisoning in Russia and abroad. The main characteristics of the agent (Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteritidis) are summarized. The main sources of human Salmonella infection are products of poultry and livestock (poultry, eggs, dairy products, meat products, etc.). Standard methods of identifying the causative agent, rapid (alternative) methods of analysis of Salmonella using differential diagnostic medium (MSRV, Salmosyst, XLT4-agar, agar-Rambach et al.), rapid tests Singlepath-Salmonella and PCR (food proof Salmonella) in real time were stated. Rapid tests provide is a substantial (at 24-48 h) reducing the time to identify Salmonella.

  7. Rapid NMR method for the quantification of organic compounds in thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Shen, Jianheng; Jia, Yunhua; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin J T

    2011-10-12

    Thin stillage contains organic and inorganic compounds, some of which may be valuable fermentation coproducts. This study describes a thorough analysis of the major solutes present in thin stillage as revealed by NMR and HPLC. The concentration of charged and neutral organic compounds in thin stillage was determined by excitation sculpting NMR methods (double pulse field gradient spin echo). Compounds identified by NMR included isopropanol, ethanol, lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, acetic acid, succinic acid, glycerophosphorylcholine, betaine, glycerol, and 2-phenylethanol. The concentrations of lactic and acetic acid determined with NMR were comparable to those determined using HPLC. HPLC and NMR were complementary, as more compounds were identified using both methods. NMR analysis revealed that stillage contained the nitrogenous organic compounds betaine and glycerophosphorylcholine, which contributed as much as 24% of the nitrogen present in the stillage. These compounds were not observed by HPLC analysis.

  8. The determination of Sr-90 in environmental material using an improved rapid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, A.; Veselsky, J.C.; Zhu, S.; Mirna, A.; Schelenz, R.

    1989-01-01

    A short report on strontium 90, its occurrence in the biosphere and its rapid determination methods is given. Classification of determination methods suitable for various environmental and biological materials is established. Interference due to Y-91 and a method to eliminate the activity of Y-90 and Y-91 is discussed. Tabs

  9. Rapid identification of salmonella serotypes with stereo and hyperspectral microscope imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  10. Method for determining the concentration of adsorbed protein and cell biomass in cellulose fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, A R; Phillips, J A; Humphrey, A E

    1978-09-01

    The method presented is based on the determination of the total Lowry protein of the solids and the total Kjeldahl nitrogen of the solids. Experimental data proving the validity of the method are reported. (JSR)

  11. The scope of application of incremental rapid prototyping methods in foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stankiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the scope of application of selected incremental Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of manufacturing casting models, casting moulds and casts. The Rapid Prototyping methods (SL, SLA, FDM, 3DP, JS are predominantly used for the production of models and model sets for casting moulds. The Rapid Tooling methods, such as: ZCast-3DP, ProMetalRCT and VoxelJet, enable the fabrication of casting moulds in the incremental process. The application of the RP methods in cast production makes it possible to speed up the prototype preparation process. This is particularly vital to elements of complex shapes. The time required for the manufacture of the model, the mould and the cast proper may vary from a few to several dozen hours.

  12. Investigating the Variation of Volatile Compound Composition in Maotai-Flavoured Liquor During Its Multiple Fermentation Steps Using Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple fermentations is one of the most specific characteristics of Maotai-flavoured liquor production. In this research, the variation of volatile composition of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its multiple fermentations is investigated using statistical approaches. Cluster analysis shows that the obtained samples are grouped mainly according to the fermentation steps rather than the distillery they originate from, and the samples from the first two fermentation steps show the greatest difference, suggesting that multiple fermentation and distillation steps result in the end in similar volatile composition of the liquor. Back-propagation neural network (BNN models were developed that satisfactorily predict the number of fermentation steps and the organoleptic evaluation scores of liquor samples from their volatile compositions. Mean impact value (MIV analysis shows that ethyl lactate, furfural and some high-boiling-point acids play important roles, while pyrazine contributes much less to the improvement of the flavour and taste of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its production. This study contributes to further understanding of the mechanisms of Maotai-flavoured liquor production.

  13. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  15. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  16. A rapid method for monitoring the hydrodeoxygenation of coal-derived naphtha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnand, B.A.; Coulombe, S.; Smiley, G.T.; Fairbridge, C.

    1988-01-01

    A bonded polar poly(ethylene glycol) capillary column has been used for the identification and quantification of the phenolic components in synthetic crude naphthas. This provides a rapid and routine method for the determination of phenolic oxygen content with results comparable to combustion and neutron activation methods. The method is most useful in monitoring the removal of phenolic oxygen by hydroprocessing. 11 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab.

  17. Effects of forage offering method on performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and nutritional behaviour in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EbnAli, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Mahdavi, A H; Malekkhahi, M; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-10-01

    The potential effect of dietary forage supplementation on the performance and rumen development in dairy calves is well established. However, limited research has been directed to the comparative effects of forage offering methods on calf performance. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of forage provision methods (total mixed ration or free choice) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and nutritional behaviour in newborn calves. Forty-five Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age and 41 ± 2 kg of body weight) were assigned to the following three groups (n = 15): (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter supplemented with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) as a total mixed ration (AH-TMR) and (iii) starter and AH as a free-choice provision (AH-FC) for a period of 70 days. All the calves were offered 5 l of milk/day from day 3 to 50, and 2.5 l/day from day 50 until weaning on day 56. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater (p forage tended (p = 0.08) to increase crude protein digestibility and overall volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in the rumen. No differences were observed among the treatments at the time spent on standing, lying, eating and performing non-nutritive oral behaviours. Compared to CON calves, animals in the AH-TMR treatment spent more time (p forage supplementation in both forage offering methods increased total DMI, ruminal pH and ruminating time in dairy calves. Hence, there is no benefit in the free-choice provision of AH in dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Rapid analysis method for the determination of 14C specific activity in irradiated graphite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidmantas Remeikis

    Full Text Available 14C is one of the limiting radionuclides used in the categorization of radioactive graphite waste; this categorization is crucial in selecting the appropriate graphite treatment/disposal method. We propose a rapid analysis method for 14C specific activity determination in small graphite samples in the 1-100 μg range. The method applies an oxidation procedure to the sample, which extracts 14C from the different carbonaceous matrices in a controlled manner. Because this method enables fast online measurement and 14C specific activity evaluation, it can be especially useful for characterizing 14C in irradiated graphite when dismantling graphite moderator and reflector parts, or when sorting radioactive graphite waste from decommissioned nuclear power plants. The proposed rapid method is based on graphite combustion and the subsequent measurement of both CO2 and 14C, using a commercial elemental analyser and the semiconductor detector, respectively. The method was verified using the liquid scintillation counting (LSC technique. The uncertainty of this rapid method is within the acceptable range for radioactive waste characterization purposes. The 14C specific activity determination procedure proposed in this study takes approximately ten minutes, comparing favorably to the more complicated and time consuming LSC method. This method can be potentially used to radiologically characterize radioactive waste or used in biomedical applications when dealing with the specific activity determination of 14C in the sample.

  19. Rapid analysis method for the determination of 14C specific activity in irradiated graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeikis, Vidmantas; Lagzdina, Elena; Garbaras, Andrius; Gudelis, Arūnas; Garankin, Jevgenij; Plukienė, Rita; Juodis, Laurynas; Duškesas, Grigorijus; Lingis, Danielius; Abdulajev, Vladimir; Plukis, Artūras

    2018-01-01

    14C is one of the limiting radionuclides used in the categorization of radioactive graphite waste; this categorization is crucial in selecting the appropriate graphite treatment/disposal method. We propose a rapid analysis method for 14C specific activity determination in small graphite samples in the 1-100 μg range. The method applies an oxidation procedure to the sample, which extracts 14C from the different carbonaceous matrices in a controlled manner. Because this method enables fast online measurement and 14C specific activity evaluation, it can be especially useful for characterizing 14C in irradiated graphite when dismantling graphite moderator and reflector parts, or when sorting radioactive graphite waste from decommissioned nuclear power plants. The proposed rapid method is based on graphite combustion and the subsequent measurement of both CO2 and 14C, using a commercial elemental analyser and the semiconductor detector, respectively. The method was verified using the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. The uncertainty of this rapid method is within the acceptable range for radioactive waste characterization purposes. The 14C specific activity determination procedure proposed in this study takes approximately ten minutes, comparing favorably to the more complicated and time consuming LSC method. This method can be potentially used to radiologically characterize radioactive waste or used in biomedical applications when dealing with the specific activity determination of 14C in the sample.

  20. The Effect of Different Starch Liberation and Saccharification Methods on the Microbial Contaminations of Distillery Mashes, Fermentation Efficiency, and Spirits Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Balcerek, Maria; Nowak, Agnieszka; Wojtczak, Maciej; Czyżowska, Agata; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr

    2017-09-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different starch liberation and saccharification methods on microbiological contamination of distillery mashes. Moreover, the effect of hop α-acid preparation for protection against microbial infections was assessed. The quality of agricultural distillates was also evaluated. When applying the pressureless liberation of starch (PLS) and malt as a source of amylolytic enzymes, the lactic acid bacteria count in the mashes increased several times during fermentation. The mashes obtained using the pressure-thermal method and malt enzymes revealed a similar pattern. Samples prepared using cereal malt exhibited higher concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, as compared to mashes prepared using enzymes of microbial origin. The use of hop α-acids led to the reduction of bacterial contamination in all tested mashes. As a result, fermentation of both mashes prepared with microbial origin enzyme preparations and with barley malt resulted in satisfactory efficiency and distillates with low concentrations of aldehydes.

  1. Determination of organic acids evolution during apple cider fermentation using an improved HPLC analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, F.; Ji, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient method for analyzing ten organic acids in food, namely citric, pyruvic, malic, lactic, succinic, formic, acetic, adipic, propionic and butyric acids, using HPLC was developed. Boric acid was added into the mobile phase to separate lactic and succinic acids, and a post-column buffer

  2. A novel method of rapidly modeling optical properties of actual photonic crystal fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Wen, Wang; Shu-Qin, Lou; Wei-Guo, Chen; Hong-Lei, Li

    2010-01-01

    The flexible structure of photonic crystal fibre not only offers novel optical properties but also brings some difficulties in keeping the fibre structure in the fabrication process which inevitably cause the optical properties of the resulting fibre to deviate from the designed properties. Therefore, a method of evaluating the optical properties of the actual fibre is necessary for the purpose of application. Up to now, the methods employed to measure the properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre often require long fibre samples or complex expensive equipments. To our knowledge, there are few studies of modeling an actual photonic crystal fibre and evaluating its properties rapidly. In this paper, a novel method, based on the combination model of digital image processing and the finite element method, is proposed to rapidly model the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre. Two kinds of photonic crystal fibres made by Crystal Fiber A/S are modeled. It is confirmed from numerical results that the proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate for evaluating the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre without requiring complex equipment. (rapid communication)

  3. [Experimental rationale for the parameters of a rapid method for oxidase activity determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, N N

    2010-01-01

    Experimental rationale is provided for the parameters of a rapid (1-2-min) test to concurrently determine the oxidase activity of all bacteria grown on the membrane filter after water filtration. Oxidase reagents that are the aqueous solutions of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and demethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride have been first ascertained to exert no effect on the viability and enzymatic activity of bacteria after one-hour contact. An algorithm has been improved for the rapid oxidase activity test: the allowable time for bacteria to contact oxidase reagents and procedures for minimizing the effect on bacterial biochemical activity following the contact. An accelerated method based on lactose medium with tergitol 7 and Endo agar has been devised to determine coliform bacteria, by applying the rapid oxidase test: the time of a final response is 18-24 hours. The method has been included into GOST 52426-2005.

  4. A rapid method for screening arrayed plasmid cDNA library by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yingchun; Zhang Kaitai; Wu Dechang; Li Gang; Xiang Xiaoqiong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a PCR-based method for rapid and effective screening of arrayed plasmid cDNA library. Methods: The plasmid cDNA library was arrayed and screened by PCR with a particular set of primers. Results: Four positive clones were obtained through about one week. Conclusion: This method can be applied to screening not only normal cDNA clones, but also cDNA clones-containing small size fragments. This method offers significant advantages over traditional screening method in terms of sensitivity, specificity and efficiency

  5. Identification of solid state fermentation degree with FT-NIR spectroscopy: Comparison of wavelength variable selection methods of CARS and SCARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-10-01

    The use of wavelength variable selection before partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for qualitative identification of solid state fermentation degree by FT-NIR spectroscopy technique was investigated in this study. Two wavelength variable selection methods including competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) were employed to select the important wavelengths. PLS-DA was applied to calibrate identified model using selected wavelength variables by CARS and SCARS for identification of solid state fermentation degree. Experimental results showed that the number of selected wavelength variables by CARS and SCARS were 58 and 47, respectively, from the 1557 original wavelength variables. Compared with the results of full-spectrum PLS-DA, the two wavelength variable selection methods both could enhance the performance of identified models. Meanwhile, compared with CARS-PLS-DA model, the SCARS-PLS-DA model achieved better results with the identification rate of 91.43% in the validation process. The overall results sufficiently demonstrate the PLS-DA model constructed using selected wavelength variables by a proper wavelength variable method can be more accurate identification of solid state fermentation degree.

  6. Considerations for Task Analysis Methods and Rapid E-Learning Development Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ismail Ipek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide basic dimensions for rapid training development in e-learning courses in education and business. Principally, it starts with defining task analysis and how to select tasks for analysis and task analysis methods for instructional design. To do this, first, learning and instructional technologies as visions of the future were discussed. Second, the importance of task analysis methods in rapid e-learning was considered, with learning technologies as asynchronous and synchronous e-learning development. Finally, rapid instructional design concepts and e-learning design strategies were defined and clarified with examples, that is, all steps for effective task analysis and rapid training development techniques based on learning and instructional design approaches were discussed, such as m-learning and other delivery systems. As a result, the concept of task analysis, rapid e-learning development strategies and the essentials of online course design were discussed, alongside learner interface design features for learners and designers.

  7. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second

  8. Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti helicobacter ... Six to eight week-old mice pre-treated (7 days) with Amoxicillin/Metronidazole (25 ... These findings were used as a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection to ...

  9. Simple rapid methods for freezing hybridomas in 96-well microculture plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D E; Price, P J

    1983-04-15

    Macroscopic hybridoma colonies were frozen and recovered in a good state of viability in 96-well microculture plates using 2 freezing procedures. These methods offer convenient and rapid means of preserving hybridomas and will permit laboratories developing monoclonal antibodies to distribute workloads to more manageable levels without discarding possibly valuable hybridomas.

  10. A critical analysis of methods for rapid and nondestructive determination of wood density in standing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Michael C. Wiemann; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Lihai Wang

    2017-01-01

    Key message Field methods for rapid determination of wood density in trees have evolved from increment borer, torsiometer, Pilodyn, and nail withdrawal into sophisticated electronic tools of resistance drilling measurement. A partial resistance drilling approach coupled with knowledge of internal tree density distribution may...

  11. Data Pre-Processing Method to Remove Interference of Gas Bubbles and Cell Clusters During Anaerobic and Aerobic Yeast Fermentations in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, S.; Wenzel, U.; Miller, R.; Hessling, M.

    2014-11-01

    One aerobic and four anaerobic batch fermentations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in a stirred bioreactor and monitored inline by NIR spectroscopy and a transflectance dip probe. From the acquired NIR spectra, chemometric partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for predicting biomass, glucose and ethanol were constructed. The spectra were directly measured in the fermentation broth and successfully inspected for adulteration using our novel data pre-processing method. These adulterations manifested as strong fluctuations in the shape and offset of the absorption spectra. They resulted from cells, cell clusters, or gas bubbles intercepting the optical path of the dip probe. In the proposed data pre-processing method, adulterated signals are removed by passing the time-scanned non-averaged spectra through two filter algorithms with a 5% quantile cutoff. The filtered spectra containing meaningful data are then averaged. A second step checks whether the whole time scan is analyzable. If true, the average is calculated and used to prepare the PLSR models. This new method distinctly improved the prediction results. To dissociate possible correlations between analyte concentrations, such as glucose and ethanol, the feeding analytes were alternately supplied at different concentrations (spiking) at the end of the four anaerobic fermentations. This procedure yielded low-error (anaerobic) PLSR models for predicting analyte concentrations of 0.31 g/l for biomass, 3.41 g/l for glucose, and 2.17 g/l for ethanol. The maximum concentrations were 14 g/l biomass, 167 g/l glucose, and 80 g/l ethanol. Data from the aerobic fermentation, carried out under high agitation and high aeration, were incorporated to realize combined PLSR models, which have not been previously reported to our knowledge.

  12. A Rapid Method for Measuring Strontium-90 Activity in Crops in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lingjing Pan; Yu, Guobing; Wen, Deyun; Chen, Zhi; Sheng, Liusi; Liu, Chung-King; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    A rapid method for measuring Sr-90 activity in crop ashes is presented. Liquid scintillation counting, combined with ion exchange columns 4`, 4"(5")-di-t-butylcyclohexane-18-crown-6, is used to determine the activity of Sr-90 in crops. The yields of chemical procedure are quantified using gravimetric analysis. The conventional method that uses ion-exchange resin with HDEHP could not completely remove all the bismuth when comparatively large lead and bismuth exist in the samples. This is overcome by the rapid method. The chemical yield of this method is about 60% and the MDA for Sr-90 is found to be 2:32 Bq/kg. The whole procedure together with using spectrum analysis to determine the activity only takes about one day, which is really a large improvement compared with the conventional method. A modified conventional method is also described here to verify the value of the rapid one. These two methods can meet di_erent needs of daily monitoring and emergency situation.

  13. A rapid radiobioassay method for strontium estimation in nuclear/radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    During a nuclear/radiological emergency, workers as well as members of the public (MOP) may get internally contaminated with the radionuclides like Sr and Cs. In such situations, a truly rapid radiobioassay method is required to screen a large number of people in order to assess internal contamination and also to decide on subsequent medical intervention. The current precipitation method used at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is quite lengthy and laborious. Efforts are being made to optimize bioassay methods at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre using Solid Extraction Chromatography (SEC) technique for emergency response. The present work reports standardization of SEC technique for rapid estimation of Sr in urine samples. The method standardized using Sr spec is simpler, shorter, result in higher recoveries and reproducible results. It is most suitable for quick dose assessment of 90 Sr in bioassay samples in case of emergency

  14. Rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of tea catechins and folates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Farias, Monica; Gaudreau, Alain; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-05-14

    An effective and rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous separation of the eight most abundant tea catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine was developed. These compounds were rapidly separated within 9 min by a linear gradient elution using a Zorbax SB-C18 packed with sub 2 μm particles. This methodology did not require preparative and semipreparative HPLC steps. In fact, diluted tea samples can be easily analyzed using HPLC-MS as described in this study. The use of mass spectrometry detection for quantification of catechins ensured a higher specificity of the method. The percent relative standard deviation was generally lower than 4 and 7% for most of the compounds tested in tea drinks and tea extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the method provided excellent resolution for folate determination alone or in combination with catechins. To date, no HPLC method able to discriminate catechins and folates in a quick analysis has been reported in the literature.

  15. A rapid method for soil cement design : Louisiana slope value method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-03-01

    The current procedure used by the Louisiana Department of Highways for laboratory design of cement stabilized soil base and subbase courses is taken from standard AASHO test methods, patterned after Portland Cement Association criteria. These methods...

  16. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real...

  17. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  18. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, D; Snakenborg, D; Dufva, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observation. The interconnection block method is scalable, flexible and supports high interconnection density. The average pressure limit of the interconnection block was near 5.5 bar and all individual results were well above the 2 bar threshold considered applicable to most microfluidic applications

  19. Rapid qualitative research methods during complex health emergencies: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger A; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted both the successes and limitations of social science contributions to emergency response operations. An important limitation was the rapid and effective communication of study findings. A systematic review was carried out to explore how rapid qualitative methods have been used during global heath emergencies to understand which methods are commonly used, how they are applied, and the difficulties faced by social science researchers in the field. We also asses their value and benefit for health emergencies. The review findings are used to propose recommendations for qualitative research in this context. Peer-reviewed articles and grey literature were identified through six online databases. An initial search was carried out in July 2016 and updated in February 2017. The PRISMA checklist was used to guide the reporting of methods and findings. The articles were assessed for quality using the MMAT and AACODS checklist. From an initial search yielding 1444 articles, 22 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Thirteen of the articles were qualitative studies and nine used a mixed-methods design. The purpose of the rapid studies included: the identification of causes of the outbreak, and assessment of infrastructure, control strategies, health needs and health facility use. The studies varied in duration (from 4 days to 1 month). The main limitations identified by the authors were: the low quality of the collected data, small sample sizes, and little time for cross-checking facts with other data sources to reduce bias. Rapid qualitative methods were seen as beneficial in highlighting context-specific issues that need to be addressed locally, population-level behaviors influencing health service use, and organizational challenges in response planning and implementation. Recommendations for carrying out rapid qualitative research in this context included the early designation of community leaders as a point of

  20. Rapid methods for the extraction and archiving of molecular grade fungal genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Palmer, Michael; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The rapid and inexpensive extraction of fungal genomic DNA that is of sufficient quality for molecular approaches is central to the molecular identification, epidemiological analysis, taxonomy, and strain typing of pathogenic fungi. Although many commercially available and in-house extraction procedures do eliminate the majority of contaminants that commonly inhibit molecular approaches, the inherent difficulties in breaking fungal cell walls lead to protocols that are labor intensive and that routinely take several hours to complete. Here we describe several methods that we have developed in our laboratory that allow the extremely rapid and inexpensive preparation of fungal genomic DNA.

  1. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89 / 90 Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. This approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 h. (author)

  2. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionising radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacare and capybara), irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enabled a rapid identification of the radiation treatment

  3. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Adedeji Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the sixteen iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and Uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR. This further discriminated Bacillus subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality and improved shelf life.

  4. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Delincee, H.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionizing radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In fact, DNA fragmentation measured in single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis - DNA Comet Assay - has shown to offer great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs has been radiation processed. However, more work is needed to exploit the full potential of this promising technique. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacare and capybara), irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enable a rapid identification of the radiation treatment

  6. Effectiveness of Rapid Cooling as a Method of Euthanasia for Young Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea K; Bright, Lauren A; Marx, James O; Andersen, Robert P; Mullins, Mary C; Carty, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Despite increased use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research, consistent information regarding appropriate euthanasia methods, particularly for embryos, is sparse. Current literature indicates that rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for adult zebrafish, yet consistent guidelines regarding zebrafish younger than 6 mo are unavailable. This study was performed to distinguish the age at which rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for zebrafish and the exposure times necessary to reliably euthanize zebrafish using this method. Zebrafish at 3, 4, 7, 14, 16, 19, 21, 28, 60, and 90 d postfertilization (dpf) were placed into an ice water bath for 5, 10, 30, 45, or 60 min (n = 12 to 40 per group). In addition, zebrafish were placed in ice water for 12 h (age ≤14 dpf) or 30 s (age ≥14 dpf). After rapid cooling, fish were transferred to a recovery tank and the number of fish alive at 1, 4, and 12-24 h after removal from ice water was documented. Euthanasia was defined as a failure when evidence of recovery was observed at any point after removal from ice water. Results showed that younger fish required prolonged exposure to rapid cooling for effective euthanasia, with the required exposure time decreasing as fish age. Although younger fish required long exposure times, animals became immobilized immediately upon exposure to the cold water, and behavioral indicators of pain or distress rarely occurred. We conclude that zebrafish 14 dpf and younger require as long as 12 h, those 16 to 28 dpf of age require 5 min, and those older than 28 dpf require 30 s minimal exposure to rapid cooling for reliable euthanasia.

  7. A rapid reliability estimation method for directed acyclic lifeline networks with statistically dependent components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won-Hee; Kliese, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    Lifeline networks, such as transportation, water supply, sewers, telecommunications, and electrical and gas networks, are essential elements for the economic and societal functions of urban areas, but their components are highly susceptible to natural or man-made hazards. In this context, it is essential to provide effective pre-disaster hazard mitigation strategies and prompt post-disaster risk management efforts based on rapid system reliability assessment. This paper proposes a rapid reliability estimation method for node-pair connectivity analysis of lifeline networks especially when the network components are statistically correlated. Recursive procedures are proposed to compound all network nodes until they become a single super node representing the connectivity between the origin and destination nodes. The proposed method is applied to numerical network examples and benchmark interconnected power and water networks in Memphis, Shelby County. The connectivity analysis results show the proposed method's reasonable accuracy and remarkable efficiency as compared to the Monte Carlo simulations

  8. Wine yeast phenomics: A standardized fermentation method for assessing quantitative traits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in enological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Margaux; Trujillo, Marine; Prodhomme, Duyên; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Gibon, Yves; Marullo, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats. The vessel used also offers the possibility to assay 32 volatiles compounds using a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The vessel shaking applied strongly impacted most of the phenotypes investigated due to oxygen transfer occuring in the first hours of the alcoholic fermentation. The impact of grape must and micro-oxygenation was investigated illustrating some relevant genetic x environmental interactions. By phenotyping a wide panel of commercial wine starters in five grape juices, broad phenotypic correlations between kinetics and metabolic end products were evidentiated. Moreover, a multivariate analysis illustrates that some grape musts are more able than others to discriminate commercial strains since some are less robust to environmental changes. PMID:29351285

  9. Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Y.; Zheng, X.; Han, B.Z.; Han, J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Chen, J.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became

  10. Wine yeast phenomics: A standardized fermentation method for assessing quantitative traits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in enological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Emilien; Bernard, Margaux; Trujillo, Marine; Prodhomme, Duyên; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Gibon, Yves; Marullo, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats. The vessel used also offers the possibility to assay 32 volatiles compounds using a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The vessel shaking applied strongly impacted most of the phenotypes investigated due to oxygen transfer occuring in the first hours of the alcoholic fermentation. The impact of grape must and micro-oxygenation was investigated illustrating some relevant genetic x environmental interactions. By phenotyping a wide panel of commercial wine starters in five grape juices, broad phenotypic correlations between kinetics and metabolic end products were evidentiated. Moreover, a multivariate analysis illustrates that some grape musts are more able than others to discriminate commercial strains since some are less robust to environmental changes.

  11. In vitro batch fecal fermentation comparison of gas and short-chain fatty acid production using "slowly fermentable" dietary fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Rose, Devin J; Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Patterson, John A; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2011-01-01

    Sustained colonic fermentation supplies beneficial fermentative by-products to the distal colon, which is particularly prone to intestinal ailments. Blunted/delayed initial fermentation may also lead to less bloating. Previously, we reported that starch-entrapped alginate-based microspheres act as a slowly fermenting dietary fiber. This material was used in the present study to provide a benchmark to compare to other "slowly fermentable" fibers. Dietary fibers with previous reports of slow fermentation, namely, long-chain inulin, psyllium, alkali-soluble corn bran arabinoxylan, and long-chain β-glucan, as well as starch-entrapped microspheres were subjected to in vitro upper gastrointestinal digestion and human fecal fermentation and measured over 48 h for pH, gas, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch was used as another form of fermentable starch and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) served as a fast fermenting control. Corn bran arabinoxylan and long-chain β-glucan initially appeared slower fermenting with comparatively low gas and SCFA production, but later fermented rapidly with little remaining in the final half of the fermentation period. Long-chain inulin and psyllium had slow and moderate, but incomplete, fermentation. The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch fermented rapidly and appeared similar to FOS. In conclusion, compared to the benchmark slowly fermentable starch-entrapped microspheres, a number of the purported slowly fermentable fibers fermented fairly rapidly overall and, of this group, only the starch-entrapped microspheres appreciably fermented in the second half of the fermentation period. Consumption of dietary fibers, particularly commercial prebiotics, leads to uncomfortable feelings of bloating and flatulence due to their rapid degradation in our large intestine. This article employs claimed potential slowly fermenting fibers and compares their fermentation rates

  12. Fingerprint analysis and quality consistency evaluation of flavonoid compounds for fermented Guava leaf by combining high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Tian, Xiaofei; Wei, Wenhao; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-10-01

    Guava leaves are used in traditional herbal teas as antidiabetic therapies. Flavonoids are the main active of Guava leaves and have many physiological functions. However, the flavonoid compositions and activities of Guava leaves could change due to microbial fermentation. A high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was applied to identify the varieties of the flavonoids in Guava leaves before and after fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to quantitatively determine the changes in flavonoid compositions and evaluate the consistency and quality of Guava leaves. Monascus anka Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented Guava leaves contained 2.32- and 4.06-fold more total flavonoids and quercetin, respectively, than natural Guava leaves. The flavonoid compounds of the natural Guava leaves had similarities ranging from 0.837 to 0.927. The flavonoid compounds from the Monascus anka S. cerevisiae fermented Guava leaves had similarities higher than 0.993. This indicated that the quality consistency of the fermented Guava leaves was better than that of the natural Guava leaves. High-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting and chemometric analysis are promising methods for evaluating the degree of fermentation of Guava leaves based on quality consistency, which could be used in assessing flavonoid compounds for the production of fermented Guava leaves. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Visual and colorimetric methods for rapid determination of total tannins in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kalinkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of rapid colorimetric method for determining the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw materials. The sorption-based colorimetric test is determining sorption tannins polyurethane foam, impregnated of FeCl3, receiving on its surface painted in black and green color of the reaction products and the determination of their in sorbent matrix. Selectivity is achieved by determining the tannins specific interaction of polyphenols with iron ions (III. The conditions of sorption-colorimetric method: the concentration of ferric chloride (III, impregnated in the polyurethane foam; sorbent mass in the analytical cartridge; degree of loading his agent; the contact time of the phases. color scales have been developed for the visual determination of the amount of tannins in terms of gallic acid. Spend a digitized image obtained scales using computer program “Sorbfil TLC”, excluding a subjective assessment of the intensity of the color scale of the test. The results obtained determine the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw rapid method using tablets and analytical cartridges. The results of the test determination of tannins with visual and densitometric analytical signal registration are compared to known methods. Spend a metrological evaluation of the results of determining the amount of tannins sorption rapid colorimetric methods. Time visual and densitometric rapid determination of tannins, taking into account the sample preparation is 25–30 minutes, the relative error does not exceed 28 %. The developed test methods for quantifying the content of tannins allow to exclude the use of sophisticated analytical equipment, carry out the analysis in non-laboratory conditions do not require highly skilled personnel.

  14. 3D virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to satisfy the vast custom-made character demand of 3D virtual human and the rapid modeling in the field of 3D virtual reality, a new virtual human top-down rapid modeling method is put for-ward in this paper based on the systematic analysis of the current situation and shortage of the virtual hu-man modeling technology. After the top-level realization of virtual human hierarchical structure frame de-sign, modular expression of the virtual human and parameter design for each module is achieved gradu-al-level downwards. While the relationship of connectors and mapping restraints among different modules is established, the definition of the size and texture parameter is also completed. Standardized process is meanwhile produced to support and adapt the virtual human top-down rapid modeling practice operation. Finally, the modeling application, which takes a Chinese captain character as an example, is carried out to validate the virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism. The result demonstrates high modelling efficiency and provides one new concept for 3D virtual human geometric mod-eling and texture modeling.

  15. Rapid determination of tannins in tanning baths by adaptation of BSA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R; Buonomenna, M G; Cassano, A; Drioli, E

    2001-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible method for the determination of tannins in vegetable tanning baths is proposed as a modification of the BSA method for grain tannins existing in literature. The protein BSA was used instead of leather powder employed in the Filter Method, which is adopted in Italy and various others countries of Central Europe. In this rapid method the tannin contents is determined by means a spectrophotometric reading and not by means a gravimetric analysis of the Filter Method. The BSA method, which belongs to mixed methods (which use both precipitation and complexation of tannins), consists of selective precipitation of tannin from a solution containing also non tannins by BSA, the dissolution of precipitate and the quantification of free tannin amount by its complexation with Fe(III) in hydrochloric solutions. The absorbance values, read at 522 nm, have been expressed in terms of tannic acid concentration by using a calibration curve made with standard solutions of tannic acid; these have been correlated with the results obtained by using the Filter Method.

  16. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  17. The Effect of Fungicide Residues and Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen on Fermentation Kinetics and H2S Production during Cider Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau IV, Thomas Francis

    2016-01-01

    The Virginia cider industry has grown rapidly in the past decade, and demands research-based recommendations for cider fermentation. This study evaluated relationships between the unique chemistry of apples and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cider fermentations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and composition and residual fungicides influence H2S production by yeast during fermentation, but these factors have to date only been studied in wine grape fermentations. This ...

  18. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Perelle, Sylvie; Di Pasquale, Simona

    2011-01-01

    . Three newly developed methods, A, B and C, for virus concentration in bottled water were compared against the reference method D: (A) Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic chromatography; filtration of viruses followed by (B) direct lysis of viruses on membrane; (C) concentration of viruses......Enteric viruses, including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have emerged as a major cause of waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in water samples, an efficient and rapid virus concentration method is required for routine control...... by ultracentrifugation; and (D) concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration, for each methods' (A, B and C) efficacy to recover 10-fold dilutions of HAV and feline calicivirus (FCV) spiked in bottles of 1.5L of mineral water. Within the tested characteristics, all the new methods showed better performance than method D...

  19. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  20. Solvent extraction method for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingorani, S.B.; Sathe, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A solvent extraction method, using tributyl phosphate, for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and other food samples has been presented in this report in view of large number of samples recieved after Chernobyl accident for checking radioactive contamination. The earlier nitration method in use for the determination of 90 Sr through its daughter 90 Y takes over two weeks for analysis of a sample. While by this extraction method it takes only 4 to 5 hours for sample analysis. Complete estimation including initial counting can be done in a single day. The chemical recovery varies between 80-90% compared to nitration method which is 65-80%. The purity of the method has been established by following the decay of yttrium-90 separated. Some of the results obtained by adopting this chemical method for food analysis are included. The method is, thus, found to be rapid and convenient for accurate estimation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Quantitation & Case-Study-Driven Inquiry to Enhance Yeast Fermentation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a procedure for the assay of fermentation in yeast in microcentrifuge tubes that is simple and rapid, permitting assay replicates, descriptive statistics, and the preparation of line graphs that indicate reproducibility. Using regression and simple derivatives to determine initial velocities, we suggest methods to compare the effects of…

  2. New methods for rapid data acquisition of contaminated land cover after NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Cespirova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the research project is the analysis of the modem and rapid reliable data acquisition methods for agricultural countermeasures, feed-stuff restrictions and clean-up of large contaminated areas after NPP accident. Acquiring agricultural reliable data especially based on satellite technology and analysis of landscape contamination (based on computer code vs. in situ measurements, airborne and/or terrestrial mapping of contamination) are discussed. (authors)

  3. A rapid method for establishment of a reverse genetics system for canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongle; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Xi, Ji; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Weiquan

    2017-12-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important and highly prevalent pathogen of dogs that causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis disease. Here, we describe a rapid method for the construction and characterization of a full-length infectious clone (rCPV) of CPV. Feline kidney (F81) cells were transfected with rCPV incorporating an engineered EcoR I site that served as a genetic marker. The rescued virus was indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus in its biological properties.

  4. New methods for rapid data acquisition of contaminated land cover after NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Cespirova, I.

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the research project is the analysis of the modem and rapid reliable data acquisition methods for agricultural countermeasures, feed-stuff restrictions and clean-up of large contaminated areas after NPP accident. Acquiring agricultural reliable data especially based on satellite technology and analysis of landscape contamination (based on computer code vs. in situ measurements, airborne and/or terrestrial mapping of contamination) are discussed. (authors)

  5. A simple, rapid and inexpensive screening method for the identification of Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondolo, Juliana Simoni Moraes; Loreto, Erico Silva; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2013-04-01

    Growth of Pythium insidiosum mycelia around minocycline disks (30μg) did not occur within 7days of incubation at 35°C when the isolates were grown on Sabouraud, corn meal, Muller-Hinton or RPMI agar. This technique offers a simple and rapid method for the differentiation of P. insidiosum from true filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A rapid method for the determination of some antihypertensive and antipyretic drugs by thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, U M; Chand, F; Bhanger, M I; Memon, S A

    1986-02-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for the direct thermometric determination of milligram amounts of methyl dopa, propranolol hydrochloride, 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone (MPP) and 2,3-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one (phenazone) in the presence of excipients. The compounds are reacted with N'-bromosuccinimide and the heat of reaction is used to determine the end-point of the titration. The time required is approximately 2 min, and the accuracy is analytically acceptable.

  7. A novel sample preparation method using rapid nonheated saponification method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In-Seek; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Leem, Donggil; Yoon, Taehyung; Yoon, Changyong; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Rapid column extraction method for actinides and strontium in fish and other animal tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell III, S.L.; Faison, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of actinides and radiostrontium in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes and strontium with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid separation method has been developed that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin R , TRU Resin R and DGA Resin R cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alphaspectrometry. Strontium is collected on Sr Resin R from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and 89/90 Sr are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. Vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates is used to minimize sample preparation time. (author)

  9. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cheadle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently.Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or downregulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously.Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment.

  10. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-02

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Application of pulse spectro- zonal luminescent method for the rapid method of material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsin, V.M.; Oleshko, V.I.; Yakovlev, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The scope of luminescent methods of the analysis covers enough a big around of substances as the luminescence can be excited in overwhelming majority of nonmetals. Analytical opportunities of luminescent methods can be essentially expanded by use of pulse excitation and registration of spectra of a luminescence with the time resolved methods. The most perspective method is to use pulses of high-current electron beams with the nanosecond duration for excitation from the following reasons: excitation is carried out ionizing, deeply enough by a penetrating radiation; the pulse of radiation has high capacity, up to 10 8 W, but energy no more than 1 J; the pulse of radiation has the nanosecond duration. Electrons with energy in 300-400 keV will penetrate on depth into some tenth shares of mm, i.e. they create volumetric excitation of a sample. Therefore the luminescence raised by an electronic beam has the information about volumetric properties of substance. High density of excitation allow to find out and study the centers (defects) having a small yield of a luminescence, to analyze the weakly luminescent objects. Occurrence of the new effects is possible useful to analyze of materials. There is an opportunity of reception of the information from change of spectral structure of a luminescence during the time after the ending of a pulse of excitation and kinetic characteristics of attenuation of luminescence. The matter is the energy of radiation is absorbed mainly by a matrix, then electronic excitations one is transferred the centers of a luminescence (defects) of a lattice. Therefore during the time after creation electronic excitations the spectrum of a luminescence can repeatedly change, transferring the information on the centers (defects) which are the most effective radiators at present time. Hence, the study of change of spectra of radiation during the time allows providing an additional way of discrimination of the information on the centers of a

  12. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios

  13. Three rapid methods for determination 90Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N.; Afshar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Strontium radionuclide 90 Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of 90 Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, 90 Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  14. Fermentation Process Modeling with Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm and Runge-Kutta Method on Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The core of the Chinese rice wine making is a typical simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In order to control and optimize the SSF process of Chinese rice wine brewing, it is necessary to construct kinetic model and study the influence of temperature on the Chinese rice wine brewing process. An unstructured kinetic model containing 12 kinetics parameters was developed and used to describe the changing of kinetic parameters in Chinese rice wine fermentation at 22, 26, and 30°C. The effects of substrate and product inhibitions were included in the model, and four variable, including biomass, ethanol, sugar and substrate were considered. The R-square values for the model are all above 0.95 revealing that the model prediction values could match experimental data very well. Our model conceivably contributes significantly to the improvement of the industrial process for the production of Chinese rice wine.

  15. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  16. Identification of new biomarker of radiation exposure for establishing rapid, simplified biodosimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Daisuke; Kawai, Hidehiko; Kamiya, Kenji; Suzuki, Fumio; Izumi, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Until now, counting chromosome aberration is the most accurate method for evaluating radiation doses. However, this method is time consuming and requires skills for evaluating chromosome aberrations. It could be difficult to apply this method to majority of people who are expected to be exposed to ionizing radiation. In this viewpoint, establishment of rapid, simplified biodosimetric methods for triage will be anticipated. Due to the development of mass spectrometry method and the identification of new molecules such as microRNA (miRNA), it is conceivable that new molecular biomarker of radiation exposure using some newly developed mass spectrometry. In this review article, the part of our results including the changes of protein (including the changes of glycosylation), peptide, metabolite, miRNA after radiation exposure will be shown. (author)

  17. Rapid Determination of Isomeric Benzoylpaeoniflorin and Benzoylalbiflorin in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzoylpaeoniflorin (BP is a potential therapeutic agent against oxidative stress related Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a more rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine BP in rat plasma distinguishing with a monoterpene isomer, benzoylalbiflorin (BA. The method showed a linear response from 1 to 1000 ng/mL (r>0.9950. The precision of the interday and intraday ranged from 2.03 to 12.48% and the accuracy values ranged from −8.00 to 10.33%. Each running of the method could be finished in 4 minutes. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, and stability and was found to be acceptable for bioanalytical application. Finally, this fully validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats following oral administration.

  18. Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  19. Technology and economics of fermentation alcohol - an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    Fermentation alcohol is being widely studied as an alternative fuel, and production is increasing, especially in Brazil, where the goal is more than 10 billion litres per year by 1985. Fuel markets are hundreds of times greater than the traditional ethanol markets which the existing industry supplies. To make a material contribution to fuel supply, fermentation ethanol must be treated as a major chemical and produced in large-volume, highly efficient plants. Such plants must be assured of a continuous supply of low-cost raw materials for which suitable processes have been developed and commercially proven. Sugar cane in the tropics and grains in some temperate countries meet these requirements; cellulosics do not qualify at present, nor will they in the foreseeable future, without major breakthroughs. Using techniques borrowed from the starch sweetener industry, starchy materials may be economically hydrolysed to fermentable sugars; rapid acid hydrolysis may prove superior to enzymatic processes. Major projects are under way to replace traditional batch or cascade fermentations with rapid, single-vessel continuous units, but these have not yet been fully proven. Where suitable, yeast recycle is being used as a means of increasing alcohol yields, and energy-efficient distillation methods of the petrochemical industry are being adopted. The consequent large reduction in steam consumption greatly reduces the appeal of other methods which have been proposed to remove water. Opportunities for process improvements abound, especially in developing (1) the means to provide cellulosic raw materials in large quantities at acceptable costs, (2) economically effective methods of pretreating and hydrolysing cellulosics, (3) practical organisms for converting five-carbon sugars to ethanol and (4) higher fermentation yields and efficiencies using bacteria or immobilized yeast. (Refs. 21).

  20. Adjustment of a rapid method for quantification of Fusarium spp. spore suspensions in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore-Gei, Pablo F; Valdez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The use of a Neubauer chamber is a broadly employed method when cell suspensions need to be quantified. However, this technique may take a long time and needs trained personnel. Spectrophotometry has proved to be a rapid, simple and accurate method to estimate the concentration of spore suspensions of isolates of the genus Fusarium. In this work we present a linear formula to relate absorbance measurements at 530nm with the number of microconidia/ml in a suspension. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A simple and rapid method of purification of impure plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Rakshe, P.R.; Dharmpurikar, G.R.; Thite, B.S.; Lokhande, Manisha; Sinalkar, Nitin; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Impure plutonium oxides are conventionally purified by dissolution in HNO 3 in presence of HF followed by ion exchange separation and oxalate precipitation. The method is tedious and use of HF enhances corrosion of the plant equipment's. A simple and rapid method has been developed for the purification of the oxide by leaching with various reagents like DM water, NaOH and oxalic acid. A combination of DM water followed by hot leaching with 0.4 M oxalic acid could bring down the impurity levels in the oxide to the desired level required for fuel fabrication. (author)

  2. Rapid method for protein quantitation by Bradford assay after elimination of the interference of polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongfeng; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Bradford assay is one of the most common methods for measuring protein concentrations. However, some pharmaceutical excipients, such as detergents, interfere with Bradford assay even at low concentrations. Protein precipitation can be used to overcome sample incompatibility with protein quantitation. But the rate of protein recovery caused by acetone precipitation is only about 70%. In this study, we found that sucrose not only could increase the rate of protein recovery after 1 h acetone precipitation, but also did not interfere with Bradford assay. So we developed a method for rapid protein quantitation in protein drugs even if they contained interfering substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A rapid method of reprocessing for electronic microscopy of cut histological in paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Chavarri, F.; Vargas Montero, M.; Rivera, P.; Carranza, A.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for re-processing of light microscopy paraffin sections to observe they under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) The paraffin-embedded tissue is sectioned and deparaffinized in toluene; then exposed to osmium vapor under microwave irradiation using a domestic microwave oven. The tissues were embedded in epoxy resin, polymerized and ultrathin sectioned. The method requires a relatively short time (about 30 minutes for TEM and 15 for SEM), and produces a reasonable quality of the ultrastructure for diagnostic purposes. (Author) [es

  4. A rapid method for the computation of equilibrium chemical composition of air to 15000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid computational method has been developed to determine the chemical composition of equilibrium air to 15000 K. Eleven chemically reacting species, i.e., O2, N2, O, NO, N, NO+, e-, N+, O+, Ar, and Ar+ are included. The method involves combining algebraically seven nonlinear equilibrium equations and four linear elemental mass balance and charge neutrality equations. Computational speeds for determining the equilibrium chemical composition are significantly faster than the often used free energy minimization procedure. Data are also included from which the thermodynamic properties of air can be computed. A listing of the computer program together with a set of sample results are included.

  5. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  6. N-nitrosodimethylamine in drinking water using a rapid, solid-phase extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S W.D. [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Koester, C J [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Taguchi, V Y [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Wang, D T [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Palmentier, J P.F.P. [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Hong, K P [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch

    1995-12-01

    A simple, rapid method for the extraction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from drinking and surface waters was developed using Ambersorb 572. Development of an alternative method to classical liquid-liquid extraction techniques was necessary to handle the workload presented by implementation of a provincial guideline of 9 ppt for drinking water and a regulatory level of 200 ppt for effluents. A granular absorbent, Ambersorb 572, was used to extract the NDMA from the water in the sample bottle. The NDMA was extracted from the Ambersorb 572 with dichloromethane in the autosampler vial. Method characteristics include a precision of 4% for replicate analyses, and accuracy of 6% at 10 ppt and a detection limit of 1.0 ppt NDMA in water. Comparative data between the Ambersorb 572 method and liquid-liquid extraction showed excellent agreement (average difference of 12%). With the Ambersorb 572 method, dichloromethane use has been reduced by a factor of 1,000 and productivity has been increased by a factor of 3-4. Monitoring of a drinking water supply showed rapidly changing concentrations of NDMA from day to day. (orig.)

  7. An optimized rapid bisulfite conversion method with high recovery of cell-free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaohua; Long, Fei; Cheng, Juanbo; Huang, Daixin

    2017-12-19

    Methylation analysis of cell-free DNA is a encouraging tool for tumor diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. Sensitivity of methylation analysis is a very important matter due to the tiny amounts of cell-free DNA available in plasma. Most current methods of DNA methylation analysis are based on the difference of bisulfite-mediated deamination of cytosine between cytosine and 5-methylcytosine. However, the recovery of bisulfite-converted DNA based on current methods is very poor for the methylation analysis of cell-free DNA. We optimized a rapid method for the crucial steps of bisulfite conversion with high recovery of cell-free DNA. A rapid deamination step and alkaline desulfonation was combined with the purification of DNA on a silica column. The conversion efficiency and recovery of bisulfite-treated DNA was investigated by the droplet digital PCR. The optimization of the reaction results in complete cytosine conversion in 30 min at 70 °C and about 65% of recovery of bisulfite-treated cell-free DNA, which is higher than current methods. The method allows high recovery from low levels of bisulfite-treated cell-free DNA, enhancing the analysis sensitivity of methylation detection from cell-free DNA.

  8. A rapid Salmonella detection method involving thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification and a lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin-Jun; Zhou, Tian-Jiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that is widespread in the environment and can cause serious human and animal disease. Since conventional culture methods to detect Salmonella are time-consuming and laborious, rapid and accurate techniques to detect this pathogen are critically important for food safety and diagnosing foodborne illness. In this study, we developed a rapid, simple and portable Salmonella detection strategy that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a lateral flow assay to provide a detection result based on visual signals within 90 min. Performance analyses indicated that the method had detection limits for DNA and pure cultured bacteria of 73.4-80.7 fg and 35-40 CFU, respectively. Specificity analyses showed no cross reactions with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella and Campylobacter jejuni. The results for detection in real food samples showed that 1.3-1.9 CFU/g or 1.3-1.9 CFU/mL of Salmonella in contaminated chicken products and infant nutritional cereal could be detected after 2 h of enrichment. The same amount of Salmonella in contaminated milk could be detected after 4 h of enrichment. This tHDA-strip can be used for the rapid detection of Salmonella in food samples and is particularly suitable for use in areas with limited equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The performance studies of DKDP crystals grown by a rapid horizontal growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hu; Chen, Duanyang; Shao, Jianda

    2018-04-01

    A deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal with about 70% deuterium level was grown by a rapid horizontal growth method with independent design equipment, which includes a continuous filtration system. The cooling program during crystal growth was designed according to a self-developed software to catch the size of growing crystal in real time. The crystal structure, optical performance and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of this DKDP crystal were investigated in this paper. The deuterium concentration of the crystal was confirmed by the neutron diffraction technique, which was effective and available in determining a complete range of deuteration level. The dielectric property was measured to evaluate the perfection of the lattice. The transmittance and LIDT were carried out further to evaluate the optical and functional properties of this DKDP crystal grown in the rapid horizontal growth technique. All of the detailed characterization for DKDP figured out that the 70% deuterated KDP crystal grown in this way had relatively good qualities.

  10. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  11. A rapid and specific titrimetric method for the precise determination of plutonium using redox indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.T.; Dubey, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of plutonium in plutonium nitrate solution and its application to the purex process solutions is discussed. The method involves the oxidation of plutonium to Pu(VI) with the help of argentic oxide followed by the destruction of the excess argentic oxide by means of sulphamic acid. The determination of plutonium is completed by adding ferrous ammonium sulphate solution which reduces Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) and titrating the excess ferrous with standard potassium dichromate solution using sodium diphenylamine sulphonate as the internal indicator. The effect of the various reagents add during the oxidation and reduction of plutonium, on the final titration has been investigated. The method works satisfactorily for the analysis of plutonium in the range of 0.5 to 5 mg. The precision of the method is found to be within 0.1%. (author)

  12. New modelling method for fast reactor neutronic behaviours analysis; Nouvelles methodes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides de quatrieme Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.

    2011-05-23

    Due to safety rules running on fourth generation reactors' core development, neutronics simulation tools have to be as accurate as never before. First part of this report enumerates every step of fast reactor's neutronics simulation implemented in current reference code: ECCO. Considering the field of fast reactors that meet criteria of fourth generation, ability of models to describe self-shielding phenomenon, to simulate neutrons leakage in a lattice of fuel assemblies and to produce representative macroscopic sections is evaluated. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the simulation of fast reactors' core with steel reflector. These require the development of advanced methods of condensation and homogenization. Several methods are proposed and compared on a typical case: the ZONA2B core of MASURCA reactor. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete qui regissent le developpement de coeurs de reacteurs de quatrieme generation implique l'usage d'outils de calcul neutronique performants. Une premiere partie de la these reprend toutes les etapes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides actuellement d'usage dans le code de reference ECCO. La capacite des modeles a decrire le phenomene d'autoprotection, a representer les fuites neutroniques au niveau d'un reseau d'assemblages combustibles et a generer des sections macroscopiques representatives est appreciee sur le domaine des reacteurs rapides innovants respectant les criteres de quatrieme generation. La deuxieme partie de ce memoire se consacre a la modelisation des coeurs rapides avec reflecteur acier. Ces derniers necessitent le developpement de methodes avancees de condensation et d'homogenisation. Plusieurs methodes sont proposees et confrontees sur un probleme de modelisation typique: le coeur ZONA2B du reacteur maquette MASURCA

  13. Rapid identification of ascomycetous yeasts from clinical specimens by a molecular method based on flow cytometry and comparison with identifications from phenotypic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Brent T; Shields, Christine E; Merz, William G; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. Large-subunit rRNA domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identification. A panel of 88 clinical isolates was tested that included representatives of nine commonly encountered species and six infrequently encountered species. The PA included germ tube production, fermentation of seven carbohydrates, morphology on corn meal agar, urease and phenoloxidase activities, and carbohydrate assimilation tests when needed. The FC method (Luminex) employed species-specific oligonucleotides attached to polystyrene beads, which were hybridized with D1/D2 amplicons from the unidentified isolates. The PA identified 81 of 88 strains correctly but misidentified 4 of Candida dubliniensis, 1 of C. bovina, 1 of C. palmioleophila, and 1 of C. bracarensis. The FC method correctly identified 79 of 88 strains and did not misidentify any isolate but did not identify nine isolates because oligonucleotide probes were not available in the current library. The FC assay takes approximately 5 h, whereas the PA takes from 2 h to 5 days for identification. In conclusion, PA did well with the commonly encountered species, was not accurate for uncommon species, and takes significantly longer than the FC method. These data strongly support the potential of FC technology for rapid and accurate identification of medically important yeasts. With the introduction of new antifungals, rapid, accurate identification of pathogenic yeasts is more important than ever for guiding antifungal chemotherapy.

  14. Rapid-viability PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, Sonia E; Murphy, Gloria A; Alfaro, Teneile M; Avila, Julie R; Kane, Staci R; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M; Shah, Sanjiv R

    2011-09-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples.

  15. Integrated process development-a robust, rapid method for inclusion body harvesting and processing at the microscale level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Cornelia; Kellner, Martin; Berkemeyer, Matthias; Brocard, Cécile; Dürauer, Astrid

    2017-10-21

    Escherichia coli stores large amounts of highly pure product within inclusion bodies (IBs). To take advantage of this beneficial feature, after cell disintegration, the first step to optimal product recovery is efficient IB preparation. This step is also important in evaluating upstream optimization and process development, due to the potential impact of bioprocessing conditions on product quality and on the nanoscale properties of IBs. Proper IB preparation is often neglected, due to laboratory-scale methods requiring large amounts of materials and labor. Miniaturization and parallelization can accelerate analyses of individual processing steps and provide a deeper understanding of up- and downstream processing interdependencies. Consequently, reproducible, predictive microscale methods are in demand. In the present study, we complemented a recently established high-throughput cell disruption method with a microscale method for preparing purified IBs. This preparation provided results comparable to laboratory-scale IB processing, regarding impurity depletion, and product loss. Furthermore, with this method, we performed a "design of experiments" study to demonstrate the influence of fermentation conditions on the performance of subsequent downstream steps and product quality. We showed that this approach provided a 300-fold reduction in material consumption for each fermentation condition and a 24-fold reduction in processing time for 24 samples.

  16. A rapid colorimetric screening method for vanillic acid and vanillin-producing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzuri, N A; Abd-Aziz, S; Rahim, R A; Phang, L Y; Alitheen, N B; Maeda, T

    2014-04-01

    To isolate a bacterial strain capable of biotransforming ferulic acid, a major component of lignin, into vanillin and vanillic acid by a rapid colorimetric screening method. For the production of vanillin, a natural aroma compound, we attempted to isolate a potential strain using a simple screening method based on pH change resulting from the degradation of ferulic acid. The strain Pseudomonas sp. AZ10 UPM exhibited a significant result because of colour changes observed on the assay plate on day 1 with a high intensity of yellow colour. The biotransformation of ferulic acid into vanillic acid by the AZ10 strain provided the yield (Yp/s ) and productivity (Pr ) of 1·08 mg mg(-1) and 53·1 mg L(-1) h(-1) , respectively. In fact, new investigations regarding lignin degradation revealed that the strain was not able to produce vanillin and vanillic acid directly from lignin; however, partially digested lignin by mixed enzymatic treatment allowed the strain to produce 30·7 mg l(-1) and 1·94 mg l(-1) of vanillic acid and biovanillin, respectively. (i) The rapid colorimetric screening method allowed the isolation of a biovanillin producer using ferulic acid as the sole carbon source. (ii) Enzymatic treatment partially digested lignin, which could then be utilized by the strain to produce biovanillin and vanillic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the use of a rapid colorimetric screening method for bacterial strains producing vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. [Accuracy of three methods for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, X; Zhao, C; Yan, Z M; Hua, H

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To explore a simple, rapid and efficient method for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Methods: Totally 124 consecutive patients with suspected oral candidiasis were enrolled from Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China. Exfoliated cells of oral mucosa and saliva or concentrated oral rinse) obtained from all participants were tested by three rapid smear methods(10% KOH smear, gram-stained smear, Congo red stained smear). The diagnostic efficacy(sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, likelihood ratio, consistency, predictive value and area under curve(AUC) of each of the above mentioned three methods was assessed by comparing the results with the gold standard(combination of clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and expert opinion). Results: Gram-stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) demonstrated highest sensitivity(82.3%). Test of 10%KOH smear of exfoliated cells showed highest specificity(93.5%). Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) displayed highest diagnostic efficacy(79.0% sensitivity, 80.6% specificity, 0.60 Youden's index, 4.08 positive likelihood ratio, 0.26 negative likelihood ratio, 80% consistency, 80.3% positive predictive value, 79.4% negative predictive value and 0.80 AUC). Conclusions: Test of Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) could be used as a point-of-care tool for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-DDD-16008118.

  18. Comparing models of rapidly rotating relativistic stars constructed by two numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Friedman, John L.

    1995-05-01

    We present the first direct comparison of codes based on two different numerical methods for constructing rapidly rotating relativistic stars. A code based on the Komatsu-Eriguchi-Hachisu (KEH) method (Komatsu et al. 1989), written by Stergioulas, is compared to the Butterworth-Ipser code (BI), as modified by Friedman, Ipser, & Parker. We compare models obtained by each method and evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the two codes. The agreement is surprisingly good, and error bars in the published numbers for maximum frequencies based on BI are dominated not by the code inaccuracy but by the number of models used to approximate a continuous sequence of stars. The BI code is faster per iteration, and it converges more rapidly at low density, while KEH converges more rapidly at high density; KEH also converges in regions where BI does not, allowing one to compute some models unstable against collapse that are inaccessible to the BI code. A relatively large discrepancy recently reported (Eriguchi et al. 1994) for models based on Friedman-Pandharipande equation of state is found to arise from the use of two different versions of the equation of state. For two representative equations of state, the two-dimensional space of equilibrium configurations is displayed as a surface in a three-dimensional space of angular momentum, mass, and central density. We find, for a given equation of state, that equilibrium models with maximum values of mass, baryon mass, and angular momentum are (generically) either all unstable to collapse or are all stable. In the first case, the stable model with maximum angular velocity is also the model with maximum mass, baryon mass, and angular momentum. In the second case, the stable models with maximum values of these quantities are all distinct. Our implementation of the KEH method will be available as a public domain program for interested users.

  19. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorny, M.; Rebicek, J. [R& D Department, Contipro Biotech s.r.o., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Klemes, J. [R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Kotzianova, A. [R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Velebny, V. [R& D Department, Contipro Biotech s.r.o., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time.

  20. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, M.; Rebicek, J.; Klemes, J.; Kotzianova, A.; Velebny, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time

  1. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  2. A two-step method for rapid characterization of electroosmotic flows in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; He, Muyi; Yuan, Tao; Xu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of electroosmotic flow (EOF) is important in a capillary electrophoresis (CE) experiment in terms of performance optimization and stability improvement. Although several methods exist, there are demanding needs to accurately characterize ultra-low electroosmotic flow rates (EOF rates), such as in coated capillaries used in protein separations. In this work, a new method, called the two-step method, was developed to accurately and rapidly measure EOF rates in a capillary, especially for measuring the ultra-low EOF rates in coated capillaries. In this two-step method, the EOF rates were calculated by measuring the migration time difference of a neutral marker in two consecutive experiments, in which a pressure driven was introduced to accelerate the migration and the DC voltage was reversed to switch the EOF direction. Uncoated capillaries were first characterized by both this two-step method and a conventional method to confirm the validity of this new method. Then this new method was applied in the study of coated capillaries. Results show that this new method is not only fast in speed, but also better in accuracy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique

  4. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N., E-mail: rnlamb@unimelb.edu.au

    2015-08-31

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique.

  5. Pressure-jump induced rapid solidification of melt: a method of preparing amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuru; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Doudou; Yuan, Chaosheng; Shao, Chunguang; Hong, Shiming

    2018-04-01

    By using a self-designed pressure-jump apparatus, we investigated the melt solidification behavior in rapid compression process for several kinds of materials, such as elementary sulfur, polymer polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and poly-ethylene-terephthalate, alloy La68Al10Cu20Co2 and Nd60Cu20Ni10Al10. Experimental results clearly show that their melts could be solidified to be amorphous states through the rapid compression process. Bulk amorphous PEEK with 24 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height was prepared, which exceeds the size obtained by melt quenching method. The bulk amorphous sulfur thus obtained exhibited extraordinarily high thermal stability, and an abnormal exothermic transition to liquid sulfur was observed at around 396 K for the first time. Furthermore, it is suggested that the glass transition pressure and critical compression rate exist to form the amorphous phase. This approach of rapid compression is very attractive not only because it is a new technique of make bulk amorphous materials, but also because novel properties are expected in the amorphous materials solidified by the pressure-jump within milliseconds or microseconds.

  6. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  7. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  8. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Archival Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsina, A A; Sizova, T V; Zaika, M A; Speranskaya, A S; Sukhorukov, A P

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a rapid and cost-effective method for the extraction of total DNA from herbarium specimens up to 50-90-year-old. The method takes about 2 h, uses AMPure XP magnetic beads diluted by PEG-8000- containing buffer, and does not require use of traditional volatile components like chloroform, phenol, and liquid nitrogen. It yields up to 4 µg of total nucleic acid with high purity from about 30 mg of dry material. The quality of the extracted DNA was tested by PCR amplification of 5S rRNA and rbcL genes (nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers) and compared against the traditional chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. Our results demonstrate that the use of the magnetic beads is crucial for extraction of DNA suitable for subsequent PCR from herbarium samples due to the decreasing inhibitor concentrations, reducing short fragments of degraded DNA, and increasing median DNA fragment sizes.

  9. Validation and application of an improved method for the rapid determination of proline in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienth, Markus; Romieu, Charles; Gregan, Rebecca; Walsh, Caroline; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-04-16

    A rapid and sensitive method is presented for the determination of proline in grape berries. Following acidification with formic acid, proline is derivatized by heating at 100 °C for 15 min with 3% ninhydrin in dimethyl sulfoxide, and the absorbance, which is stable for at least 60 min, is read at 520 nm. The method was statistically validated in the concentration range from 2.5 to 15 mg/L, giving a repeatability and intermediate precision of generally amino acid analyzer. In terms of sample preparation, a simple dilution (5-20-fold) is required, and sugars, primary amino acids, and anthocyanins were demonstrated not to interfere, as the latter are bleached by ninhydrin under the experimental conditions. The method was applied to the study of proline accumulation in the fruits of microvines grown in phytotrons, and it was established that proline accumulation and concentrations closely resemble those of field-grown macrovines.

  10. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wenqian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Chen, Zhi, E-mail: zchen0@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhu, Yuxiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin (China); Qin, Laishun, E-mail: qinlaishun@yeah.net [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO{sub 3} could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO{sub 3} by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  11. Rapid bioassay method for estimation of 90Sr in urine samples by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Sawant, Pramilla D.

    2018-01-01

    Radiostrontium (Sr) is a by-product of the nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors and is an important radionuclide in spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Rapid bioassay methods are required for estimating Sr in urine following internal contamination. Decision regarding medical intervention, if any can be based upon the results of urinalysis. The present method used at Bioassay Laboratory, Trombay is by Solid Extraction Chromatography (SEC) technique. The Sr separated from urine sample is precipitated as SrCO 3 and analyzed gravimetrically. However, gravimetric procedure is time consuming and therefore, in the present study, feasibility of Liquid Scintillation Counting for direct detection of radiostrontium in effluent was explored. The results obtained in the present study were compared with those obtained using gravimetric method

  12. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  13. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenqian; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng; Zhu, Yuxiang; Qin, Laishun; Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO_3 could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO_3 by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  14. Rapid determination method of radiocesium in sea water by cesium-selective resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, A.; Yokoyama, H.; Fukushima, M.; Takagi, S.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid and precise method of determining radiocesium corresponding to 5 mrem/y (the Japan AEC's guideline) was proposed. The development and practical performance of cesium-selective resin and the determination method are described in this paper. The resin was prepared by the formation of ammonium molybdophosphate in the structure of Amberlite XAD-7 resin. It took only 3 hours to carry out all the procedures the authors proposed. This value represents 1/10 to 1/2 of the time of the conventional method. The concentration of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in sea water was determined to be 0.13 to 0.16 pCi/l and less than 7.1x10 -2 pCi/l, respectively. (author)

  15. Rapid detection of human fecal Eubacterium species and related genera by nested PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, A; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rDNA gene sequence specific for seven Eubacterium spp. and Eggerthella lenta that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed, and used for direct detection of these species in seven human feces samples. Three species of Eggerthella lenta, Eubacterium rectale, and Eubacterium eligens were detected from seven fecal samples. Eubacterium biforme was detected from six samples. It was reported that E. rectale, E. eligens, and E. biforme were difficult to detect by traditional culture method, but the nested PCR method is available for the detection of these species. This result shows that the nested PCR method utilizing a universal primer pair, followed by amplification with species-specific primers, would allow rapid detection of Eubacterium species in human feces.

  16. A method to provide rapid in situ determination of tip radius in dynamic atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sergio; Guang Li; Souier, Tewfik; Gadelrab, Karim; Chiesa, Matteo; Thomson, Neil H.

    2012-01-01

    We provide a method to characterize the tip radius of an atomic force microscopy in situ by monitoring the dynamics of the cantilever in ambient conditions. The key concept is that the value of free amplitude for which transitions from the attractive to repulsive force regimes are observed, strongly depends on the curvature of the tip. In practice, the smaller the value of free amplitude required to observe a transition, the sharper the tip. This general behavior is remarkably independent of the properties of the sample and cantilever characteristics and shows the strong dependence of the transitions on the tip radius. The main advantage of this method is rapid in situ characterization. Rapid in situ characterization enables one to continuously monitor the tip size during experiments. Further, we show how to reproducibly shape the tip from a given initial size to any chosen larger size. This approach combined with the in situ tip size monitoring enables quantitative comparison of materials measurements between samples. These methods are set to allow quantitative data acquisition and make direct data comparison readily available in the community.

  17. An evaluation of rapid methods for monitoring vegetation characteristics of wetland bird habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernia, Brian G.; Lyons, James E.; Loges, Brian W.; Wilson, Andrew; Collazo, Jaime A.; Runge, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers benefit from monitoring data of sufficient precision and accuracy to assess wildlife habitat conditions and to evaluate and learn from past management decisions. For large-scale monitoring programs focused on waterbirds (waterfowl, wading birds, secretive marsh birds, and shorebirds), precision and accuracy of habitat measurements must be balanced with fiscal and logistic constraints. We evaluated a set of protocols for rapid, visual estimates of key waterbird habitat characteristics made from the wetland perimeter against estimates from (1) plots sampled within wetlands, and (2) cover maps made from aerial photographs. Estimated percent cover of annuals and perennials using a perimeter-based protocol fell within 10 percent of plot-based estimates, and percent cover estimates for seven vegetation height classes were within 20 % of plot-based estimates. Perimeter-based estimates of total emergent vegetation cover did not differ significantly from cover map estimates. Post-hoc analyses revealed evidence for observer effects in estimates of annual and perennial covers and vegetation height. Median time required to complete perimeter-based methods was less than 7 percent of the time needed for intensive plot-based methods. Our results show that rapid, perimeter-based assessments, which increase sample size and efficiency, provide vegetation estimates comparable to more intensive methods.

  18. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  19. A Method to Represent Heterogeneous Materials for Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuangyan; Frank, Matthew C; Anderson, Donald D; Brown, Thomas D

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones. Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are "stacked" inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone. The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing. This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate.

  20. A method for the rapid generation of nonsequential light-response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serôdio, João; Ezequiel, João; Frommlet, Jörg; Laviale, Martin; Lavaud, Johann

    2013-11-01

    Light-response curves (LCs) of chlorophyll fluorescence are widely used in plant physiology. Most commonly, LCs are generated sequentially, exposing the same sample to a sequence of distinct actinic light intensities. These measurements are not independent, as the response to each new light level is affected by the light exposure history experienced during previous steps of the LC, an issue particularly relevant in the case of the popular rapid light curves. In this work, we demonstrate the proof of concept of a new method for the rapid generation of LCs from nonsequential, temporally independent fluorescence measurements. The method is based on the combined use of sample illumination with digitally controlled, spatially separated beams of actinic light and a fluorescence imaging system. It allows the generation of a whole LC, including a large number of actinic light steps and adequate replication, within the time required for a single measurement (and therefore named "single-pulse light curve"). This method is illustrated for the generation of LCs of photosystem II quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, and nonphotochemical quenching on intact plant leaves exhibiting distinct light responses. This approach makes it also possible to easily characterize the integrated dynamic light response of a sample by combining the measurement of LCs (actinic light intensity is varied while measuring time is fixed) with induction/relaxation kinetics (actinic light intensity is fixed and the response is followed over time), describing both how the response to light varies with time and how the response kinetics varies with light intensity.

  1. A method of rapidly evaluating image quality of NED optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Qiu, Chuankai; Yang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, with the development of technology of micro-display, advanced optics and the software and hardware, near-to-eye display ( NED) optical system will have a wide range of potential applications in the fields of amusement and virtual reality. However, research on the evaluating image quality of this kind optical system is comparatively lagging behind. Although now there are some methods and equipment for evaluation, they can't be applied in commercial production because of their complex operation and inaccuracy. In this paper, an academic method is proposed and a Rapid Evaluation System (RES) is designed to evaluate the image of optical system rapidly and exactly. Firstly, a set of parameters that eyes are sensitive to and also express the quality of system should be extracted and quantized to be criterion, so the evaluation standards can be established. Then, some parameters can be detected by RES consisted of micro-display, CCD camera and computer and so on. By process of scaling, the measuring results of the RES are exact and creditable, relationship between object measurement, subjective evaluation and the RES will be established. After that, image quality of optical system can be evaluated just by detecting parameters of that. The RES is simple and the results of evaluation are exact and keeping with human vision. So the method can be used not only for optimizing design of optical system, but also for evaluation in commercial production.

  2. A rapid method for measuring soil water content in the field with a areometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calbo Adonai Gimenez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of a rapid method to evaluate the soil water content (U can be an important tool to determine the moment to irrigate. The soil areometer consists of an elongated hydrostatic balance with a weighing pan, a graduated neck, a float and a pynometric flask. In this work an areometer was adapted to rapidly measure soil water content without the need of drying the soil. The expression U = (M A - M AD/(M M -M A was used to calculate the soil water content. In this equation M M is the mass to level the areometer with the pycnometric flask filled with water, M A the mass to level the areometer with a mass M M of soil in the pycnometer, the volume being completed with water, and similarly M AD the mass added to the pan to level the areometer with a mass M M of dried soil in the pycnometric flask. The convenience of this method is that the values M M and M AD are known. Consequently, the decision on irrigation can be made after a measurement that takes, about, ten minutes. The procedure involves only stirring the soil with water for at least 2 minutes to remove the adhered air. The soil water content data obtained with the areometric method were similar to those obtained weighing the soil before and after drying to constant weight, in an oven at 105º C.

  3. A rapid method for the determination on fluoride in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, M.; Cook, E.B.T.; Dixon, K.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of a rapid procedure for the determination by use of the specific-ion electrode of fluoride in geological samples. The sample is fused with sodium hydroxide in a nickel crucible in a muffle furnace. The melt is leached with water, a buffer solution of ammonium citrate is added, and the fluoride activity is measured with a specific-ion electrode. All operations are carried out in the crucible, making possible approximately 100 determinations a day. The precision of the method is approximately 10 per cent at a fluoride concentration of 500 p.p.m., which is acceptable for geological-survey work [af

  4. Justification of the averaging method for parabolic equations containing rapidly oscillating terms with large amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenshtam, V B

    2006-01-01

    We justify the averaging method for abstract parabolic equations with stationary principal part that contain non-linearities (subordinate to the principal part) some of whose terms are rapidly oscillating in time with zero mean and are proportional to the square root of the frequency of oscillation. Our interest in the exponent 1/2 is motivated by the fact that terms proportional to lower powers of the frequency have no influence on the average. For linear equations of the same type, we justify an algorithm for the study of the stability of solutions in the case when the stationary averaged problem has eigenvalues on the imaginary axis (the critical case)

  5. Flow method for rapid production of Batio3 nanoparticles in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atashfaraz, M.; Shariati-Niassar, M.; Ohara, Satoshi; Takami, S.; Umetsu, M.; Naka, T.; Adschiri, T.

    2006-01-01

    Fine BaTiO 3 nanoparticles were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis under supercritical conditions with batch and flow type experimental methods. Mixture of barium hydroxide and titanium oxide starting solution was treated in the supercritical wafer at 400 d eg C and 30 MPa. The size of nanoparticles synthesized in the flow type experiment was smaller than that in the batch type. Rapid heating in a flow, reactor is effective to synthesize smaller size and narrower particle size distribution for the BaTiO 3 , nanoparticles. The mechanism for this result was discussed based on the solubility of titanium oxide

  6. Rapid and accurate processing method for amide proton exchange rate measurement in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskela, Harri; Heikkinen, Outi; Kilpelaeinen, Ilkka; Heikkinen, Sami

    2007-01-01

    Exchange between protein backbone amide hydrogen and water gives relevant information about solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure stability. NMR spectroscopy provides a convenient tool to study these dynamic processes with saturation transfer experiments. Processing of this type of NMR spectra has traditionally required peak integration followed by exponential fitting, which can be tedious with large data sets. We propose here a computer-aided method that applies inverse Laplace transform in the exchange rate measurement. With this approach, the determination of exchange rates can be automated, and reliable results can be acquired rapidly without a need for manual processing

  7. Three rapid methods for determination {sup 90}Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N. [Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Environmental Radiation Protection Div., National Radiation Protection Dept. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, N. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Strontium radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of {sup 90}Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, {sup 90}Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  8. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Gou, Jin-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Here we adapted Pro-Q ® Diamond (Pro-Q ® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain), a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q ® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1) on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  9. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze protein phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Results Here we adapted Pro-Q® Diamond (Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain, a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1 on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX, an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. Conclusion The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  10. a Method for Preview Vibration Control of Systems Having Forcing Inputs and Rapidly-Switched Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBeheiry, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    In a variety of applications, especially in large scale dynamic systems, the mechanization of different vibration control elements in different locations would be decided by limitations placed on the modal vibration of the system and the inherent dynamic coupling between its modes. Also, the quality of vibration control to the economy of producing the whole system would be another trade-off leading to a mix of passive, active and semi-active vibration control elements in one system. This termactiveis limited to externally powered vibration control inputs and the termsemi-activeis limited to rapidly switched dampers. In this article, an optimal preview control method is developed for application to dynamic systems having active and semi-active vibration control elements mechanized at different locations in one system. The system is then a piecewise (bilinear) controller in which two independent sets of control inputs appear additively and multiplicatively. Calculus of variations along with the Hamiltonian approach are employed for the derivation of this method. In essence, it requires the active elements to be ideal force generators and the switched dampers to have the property of on-line variation of the damping characteristics to pre-determined limits. As the dampers switch during operation the whole system's structure differs, and then values of the active forcing inputs are adapted to match these rapid changes. Strictly speaking, each rapidly switched damper has pre-known upper and lower damping levels and it can take on any in-between value. This in-between value is to be determined by the method as long as the damper tracks a pre-known fully active control demand. In every damping state of each semi-active damper the method provides the optimal matching values of the active forcing inputs. The method is shown to have the feature of solving simple standard matrix equations to obtain closed form solutions. A comprehensive 9-DOF tractor semi-trailer model is used

  11. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-10

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  12. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  13. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L W; Zhao, Y; Jiang, R; Song, Y; Feng, H; Feng, K; Niu, L P; Qi, C

    2011-01-01

    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  14. A rapid chemical method for lysing Arabidopsis cells for protein analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Tetsuo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein extraction is a frequent procedure in biological research. For preparation of plant cell extracts, plant materials usually have to be ground and homogenized to physically break the robust cell wall, but this step is laborious and time-consuming when a large number of samples are handled at once. Results We developed a chemical method for lysing Arabidopsis cells without grinding. In this method, plants are boiled for just 10 minutes in a solution containing a Ca2+ chelator and detergent. Cell extracts prepared by this method were suitable for SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis. This method was also applicable to genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis. Our method was applied to many other plant species, and worked well for some of them. Conclusions Our method is rapid and economical, and allows many samples to be prepared simultaneously for protein analysis. Our method is useful not only for Arabidopsis research but also research on certain other species.

  15. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation.

  16. Optimal estimation and scheduling in aquifer management using the rapid feedback control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanidehno, Hojat; Kokkinaki, Amalia; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Darve, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Management of water resources systems often involves a large number of parameters, as in the case of large, spatially heterogeneous aquifers, and a large number of "noisy" observations, as in the case of pressure observation in wells. Optimizing the operation of such systems requires both searching among many possible solutions and utilizing new information as it becomes available. However, the computational cost of this task increases rapidly with the size of the problem to the extent that textbook optimization methods are practically impossible to apply. In this paper, we present a new computationally efficient technique as a practical alternative for optimally operating large-scale dynamical systems. The proposed method, which we term Rapid Feedback Controller (RFC), provides a practical approach for combined monitoring, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and optimal control for linear and nonlinear systems with a quadratic cost function. For illustration, we consider the case of a weakly nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with a quadratic objective function, specifically a two-dimensional heterogeneous aquifer management problem. To validate our method, we compare our results with the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, which is the basic approach for feedback control. We show that the computational cost of the RFC scales only linearly with the number of unknowns, a great improvement compared to the basic LQG control with a computational cost that scales quadratically. We demonstrate that the RFC method can obtain the optimal control values at a greatly reduced computational cost compared to the conventional LQG algorithm with small and controllable losses in the accuracy of the state and parameter estimation.

  17. A rapid cleanup method for the isolation and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dean E; Porter, Andrew; O'Neill, Terry; Harris, Roger K; Rottinghaus, George E

    2004-01-01

    Preparations from comfrey (Symphytum officinale and S. x uplandicum) root and leaf contain varying levels of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Reference compounds for comfrey are not commercially available, and there is currently no rapid extraction or analytical method capable of determining low levels in raw materials or as adulterants in commercially available extracts. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using an Ergosil cleanup column that specifically binds the PAs. With this method, powdered comfrey root was extracted by sonication and shaking with basic chloroform. The extract was applied to the cleanup column under vacuum, washed with 2 mL acetone-chloroform (8 + 2, v/v) followed by 2 mL petroleum ether to remove excess chloroform. The column was dried under vacuum, and the PAs were eluted with 2 successive 1 mL aliquots methanol. Percent recoveries of the PAs following Ergosil SPE had an overall average of 96.8%, with RSD of 3.8% over a range of 1.0 to 25.0 g extracted in 100 mL. Average precision of the method (n = 3 over 4 extraction concentrations) gave an overall RSD of 6.0% for the 5 alkaloids, with a range of 0.8% (5 g in 100 mL) to 11.2% (25 g in 100 mL). Recovery optimization testing showed that 1.0 g comfrey root extracted in 100 mL yielded the greatest recovery (% dry weight) of the PAs, with an extraction efficiency and accuracy of 94.2%, and RSD of 1.7% (n = 9). The unique properties of the Ergosil cleanup column provide rapid sample cleanup, volume reduction, and concentration of PAs from comfrey extracts, and allow the eluant to be analyzed directly by traditional chromatographic methods.

  18. The Effect of Different Starch Liberation and Saccharification Methods on the Microbial Contaminations of Distillery Mashes, Fermentation Efficiency, and Spirits Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different starch liberation and saccharification methods on microbiological contamination of distillery mashes. Moreover, the effect of hop α-acid preparation for protection against microbial infections was assessed. The quality of agricultural distillates was also evaluated. When applying the pressureless liberation of starch (PLS and malt as a source of amylolytic enzymes, the lactic acid bacteria count in the mashes increased several times during fermentation. The mashes obtained using the pressure-thermal method and malt enzymes revealed a similar pattern. Samples prepared using cereal malt exhibited higher concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, as compared to mashes prepared using enzymes of microbial origin. The use of hop α-acids led to the reduction of bacterial contamination in all tested mashes. As a result, fermentation of both mashes prepared with microbial origin enzyme preparations and with barley malt resulted in satisfactory efficiency and distillates with low concentrations of aldehydes.

  19. Evaluation of PDA Technical Report No 33. Statistical Testing Recommendations for a Rapid Microbiological Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas; Schwedock, Julie; Nguyen, Kham; Mills, Anna; Jones, David

    2015-01-01

    New recommendations for the validation of rapid microbiological methods have been included in the revised Technical Report 33 release from the PDA. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This case study applies those statistical methods to accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological methods system being evaluated for water bioburden testing. Results presented demonstrate that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report 33 chapter can all be successfully applied to the rapid microbiological method data sets and gave the same interpretation for equivalence to the standard method. The rapid microbiological method was in general able to pass the requirements of PDA Technical Report 33, though the study shows that there can be occasional outlying results and that caution should be used when applying statistical methods to low average colony-forming unit values. Prior to use in a quality-controlled environment, any new method or technology has to be shown to work as designed by the manufacturer for the purpose required. For new rapid microbiological methods that detect and enumerate contaminating microorganisms, additional recommendations have been provided in the revised PDA Technical Report No. 33. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This paper applies those statistical methods to analyze accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological method system being validated for water bioburden testing. The case study demonstrates that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 chapter can be successfully applied to rapid microbiological method data sets and give the same comparability results for similarity or difference as the standard method. © PDA, Inc

  20. A rapid colorimetric method for predicting the storage stability of middle distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshman, S.J. [Defense Research Agency, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Present methods used to predict the storage stability of distillate fuels such as ASTM D2274, ASTM D4625, DEF STAN 05-50 Method 40 and in-house methods are very time consuming, taking a minimum of 16 hours. In addition, some of these methods under- or over-predict the storage stability of the test fuel. A rapid colorimetric test for identifying cracked, straight run or hydrofined fuels was reported at the previous Conference. Further work has shown that while a visual appraisal is acceptable for refinery-fresh fuels, colour development may be masked by other coloured compounds in older fuels. Use of a spectrometric finish to the method has extended the scope of the method to include older fuels. The test can be correlated with total sediment from ASTM D4625 (13 weeks at 43{degrees}C) over a sediment range of 0-60mg/L. A correlation of 0.94 was obtained for 40 fuels.

  1. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  2. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of two electrical methods for the rapid assessment of freezing resistance in Salix epichloro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarouhas, V.; Kenney, W.A.; Zsuffa, L. [University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Faculty of Forestry

    2000-09-01

    The importance of early selection of frost-resistant Salix clones makes it desirable to select a rapid and accurate screening method for assessing freezing resistance among several genotypes. Two electrical methods, stem electrical impedance to 1 and 10 khz alternating current, and electrolyte leakage of leaf tissue, were evaluated for detecting freezing resistance on three North America Salix epichloro Michx., clones after subjecting them to five different freezing temperatures (-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 deg C). Differences in the electrical impedance to 1 and 10 kHz, and the ratio of the impedance at the two frequencies (low/high) before and after the freezing treatment (DZ{sub low}, DZ{sub high}, and DZ{sub ratio}, respectively) were estimated. Electrolyte leakage was expressed as relative conductivity (RC{sub t}) and index of injury (IDX{sub t}). Results from the two methods, obtained two days after the freezing stress, showed that both electrical methods were able to detect freezing injury in S. eriocephala. However, the electrolyte leakage method detected injury in more levels of freezing stress (-3, -4, and -5 deg C) than the impedance (-4, and -5 deg C), it assessed clonal differences in S. eriocephala freezing resistance, and it was best suited to correlate electrical methods with the visual assessed freezing injury. No significant impedance or leakage changes were found after the -1 and -2 deg C freezing temperatures. (author)

  4. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. A rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using high volume centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Rao, D D; Dubla, Rupali; Yadav, J R

    2017-07-01

    The conventional radio-analytical technique used for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples involves anion exchange/TEVA column separation followed by alpha spectrometry. This sequence of analysis consumes nearly 3-4 days for completion. Many a times excreta analysis results are required urgently, particularly under repeat and incidental/emergency situations. Therefore, there is need to reduce the analysis time for the estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples. This paper gives the details of standardization of a rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using multi-purpose centrifuge, TEVA resin followed by alpha spectrometry. The rapid method involves oxidation of urine samples, co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate followed by sample preparation using high volume centrifuge and separation of Pu using TEVA resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using 236 Pu tracer recovery by alpha spectrometry. Ten routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 47-88% with a mean and standard deviation of 64.4% and 11.3% respectively. With this newly standardized technique, the whole analytical procedure is completed within 9h (one working day hour). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a qPCR method to rapidly assess the function of NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Silke; Tiper, Irina; Japp, Emily; Sun, Wenji; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Webb, Tonya J

    2014-05-01

    NKT cells comprise a rare, but important subset of T cells which account for ~0.2% of the total circulating T cell population. NKT cells are known to have anti-tumor functions and rapidly produce high levels of cytokines following activation. Several clinical trials have sought to exploit the effector functions of NKT cells. While some studies have shown promise, NKT cells are approximately 50% lower in cancer patients compared to healthy donors of the same age and gender, thus limiting their therapeutic efficacy. These studies indicate that baseline levels of activation should be assessed before initiating an NKT cell based immunotherapeutic strategy. The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive method to rapidly assess NKT cell function. We utilized artificial antigen presenting cells in combination with qPCR in order to determine NKT cell function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and breast cancer patients. We found that NKT cell activation can be detected by qPCR, but not by ELISA, in healthy donors as well as in breast cancer patients following four hour stimulation. This method utilizing CD1d-expressing aAPCs will enhance our knowledge of NKT cell biology and could potentially be used as a novel tool in adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High resolution melting analysis: a rapid and accurate method to detect CALR mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bilbao-Sieyro

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of CALR mutations in essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF patients without JAK2/MPL mutations has emerged as a relevant finding for the molecular diagnosis of these myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN. We tested the feasibility of high-resolution melting (HRM as a screening method for rapid detection of CALR mutations.CALR was studied in wild-type JAK2/MPL patients including 34 ET, 21 persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN and 98 suspected secondary thrombocytosis. CALR mutation analysis was performed through HRM and Sanger sequencing. We compared clinical features of CALR-mutated versus 45 JAK2/MPL-mutated subjects in ET.Nineteen samples showed distinct HRM patterns from wild-type. Of them, 18 were mutations and one a polymorphism as confirmed by direct sequencing. CALR mutations were present in 44% of ET (15/34, 14% of persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN (3/21 and none of the secondary thrombocytosis (0/98. Of the 18 mutants, 9 were 52 bp deletions, 8 were 5 bp insertions and other was a complex mutation with insertion/deletion. No mutations were found after sequencing analysis of 45 samples displaying wild-type HRM curves. HRM technique was reproducible, no false positive or negative were detected and the limit of detection was of 3%.This study establishes a sensitive, reliable and rapid HRM method to screen for the presence of CALR mutations.

  9. Rapid fabrication method of a microneedle mold with controllable needle height and width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, I-Chi; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Hsu, Ching-Hong; Chang, Kai-Ping; Gao, Shao-Syuan

    2016-10-01

    The main issue of transdermal drug delivery is that macromolecular drugs cannot diffuse through the stratum corneum of skin. Many studies have pursued micro-sized needles encapsulated with drugs to overcome this problem, as these needles can pierce the stratum corneum and allow drugs to enter the circulatory system of the human body. However, most microneedle fabrication processes are time-consuming and require expensive equipment. In this study, we demonstrate a rapid method for fabricating a microneedle mold using drawing lithography and a UV-cured resin. The mold was filled with a water-soluble material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was then demolded to produce a water-soluble microneedle array. The results of an in vitro skin insertion test using PVP microneedles and pig ear skin demonstrated the feasibility of the microneedle mold. In addition, by controlling the viscosity of the UV-cured resin through various heat treatments, microneedles with different heights and aspect ratios were produced. Compared with other methods, this technology significantly simplifies and accelerates the mold fabrication process. In addition, the required equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. Through this technology, we can rapidly fabricate microneedle molds with controllable dimensions for various applications.

  10. A rapid method for the preparation of 99Tcm hexametazime-labelled leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, K.K.; Mather, S.J.; Janabi, M.A.; Britton, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    99 Tc m (±)-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) ( 99 Tc m Hexametazime) has been recently reported as an alternative for labelling leucocytes. This technique has been modified to give a simpler routine in-house labelling technique. It has three advantages: only about 20 ml of blood is required, the labelling time is just under 1 h and high yields of labelled leucocytes are obtained (mean of 500 MBq per injection dose). The properties of labelled leucocytes using this modified method are; 80% granulocyte-bound radioactivity, a rapid lung transit and a blood granulocyte recovery of 40% at 30 min similar to those described previously. The viability of the labelled leucocytes was tested and confirmed in vitro using a migration technique and in vivo by showing no lung retention on early imaging and high splenic uptake. A rapid in-process chromatography assessment procedure for regulating the protocol has been developed. Successful abscess imaging by 4 h has been achieved in 21 patients with normal results in another 22 patients without abscesses. This simpler method should encourage a more widespread application of scintigraphy using radiolabelled granulocytes. (author)

  11. A rapid, ensemble and free energy based method for engineering protein stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Athi N

    2013-05-02

    Engineering the conformational stabilities of proteins through mutations has immense potential in biotechnological applications. It is, however, an inherently challenging problem given the weak noncovalent nature of the stabilizing interactions. In this regard, we present here a robust and fast strategy to engineer protein stabilities through mutations involving charged residues using a structure-based statistical mechanical model that accounts for the ensemble nature of folding. We validate the method by predicting the absolute changes in stability for 138 experimental mutations from 16 different proteins and enzymes with a correlation of 0.65 and importantly with a success rate of 81%. Multiple point mutants are predicted with a higher success rate (90%) that is validated further by comparing meosphile-thermophile protein pairs. In parallel, we devise a methodology to rapidly engineer mutations in silico which we benchmark against experimental mutations of ubiquitin (correlation of 0.95) and check for its feasibility on a larger therapeutic protein DNase I. We expect the method to be of importance as a first and rapid step to screen for protein mutants with specific stability in the biotechnology industry, in the construction of stability maps at the residue level (i.e., hot spots), and as a robust tool to probe for mutations that enhance the stability of protein-based drugs.

  12. Rapid and label-free bioanalytical method of alpha fetoprotein detection using LSPR chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Jinwoon; Kwak, Cheol Hwan; Heo, Nam Su; Oh, Seo Yeong; Lee, Hoomin; Lee, Go-Woon; Vilian, A. T. Ezhil; Han, Young-Kyu; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Gi-bum; Kwon, Soonjo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2017-07-01

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a cancer marker, particularly for hepatocellular carcinoma. Normal levels of AFP are less than 20 ng/mL; however, its levels can reach more than 400 ng/mL in patients with HCC. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been employed for clinical diagnosis of AFP; however, these methods are time consuming and labor intensive. In this study, we developed a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) based biosensor for simple and rapid detection of AFP. This biosensor consists of a UV-Vis spectrometer, a cuvette cell, and a biosensor chip nanopatterned with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In our LSPR biosensor, binding of AFP to the surface of the sensor chip led to an increasing magnitude of the LSPR signals, which was measured by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. Our LSPR biosensor showed sufficient detectability of AFP at concentrations of 1 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL. Moreover, the overall procedure for detection of AFP was completed within 20 min. This biosensor could also be utilized for a point of care test (POCT) by employing a portable UV-Vis spectrometer. Owing to the simplicity and rapidity of the detection process, our LSPR biosensor is expected to replace traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of diseases.

  13. Development of a novel and simple method to evaluate disintegration of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Yohei; Tozuka, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel and simple method for evaluating the disintegration time of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) in vitro, since the conventional disintegration test described in the pharmacopoeia produces poor results due to the difference of its environmental conditions from those of an actual oral cavity. Six RDTs prepared in our laboratory and 5 types of commercial RDTs were used as model formulations. Using our original apparatus, a good correlation was observed between in vivo and in vitro disintegration times by adjusting the height from which the solution was dropped to 8 cm and the weight of the load to 10 or 20 g. Properties of RDTs, such as the pattern of their disintegrating process, can be assessed by verifying the load. These findings confirmed that our proposed method for an in vitro disintegration test apparatus is an excellent one for estimating disintegration time and the disintegration profile of RDTs.

  14. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent...... of the 92 measurements obtained with the hypocount B were within +/- 20% of the laboratory glucose values. Using haemo-glucotest 1-44 strips, 74% of the readings were within +/- 20% of the reference laboratory values. For values below 5.5 mmol/l, there was a tendency for results to be too low, with 77......% of the readings below laboratory values -20%. All situations with severe hypoglycaemia were detected with both strips. The study also demonstrates the ineffectiveness of s.c. insulin regimens during surgery. Only 47% of the measured blood glucose values were within the range of 5.5-10 mmol/l and two of ten...

  15. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  16. A Rapid Generation Method of Character Doll with Rotatable Limbs Oriented to 3D Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; CHU Xiao-li; Nie Wen-chao

    2014-01-01

    Currently, 3D printing of the character dolls is a very practical application for the average person. But the model of doll which can be obtained is static so the posture of the doll is single. On the other hand, the modification of the model is very difficult to non-professions. This paper proposes an rapid generation method of character doll with rotatable limbs, which is through adding the sphere joint to the doll’s model automatically. After the model is segmented by drawing a line interactively, the sphere joint is created based on the segmentation boundary through entity modeling method. Lastly the two models of the doll and the joint are composited and printed. Some doll’s model are tested on the FDM(Fused Deposition Modeling) 3D printer using this process. The results are more interesting and the efficiency has been greatly improved compared with modifying the model manually.

  17. Rapid synthesis of nitrogen doped titania with mixed crystal lattice via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peilin; Liu Bin; Yin Shu; Wang Yuhua; Petrykin, Valery; Kakihana, Masato; Sato, Tsugio

    2009-01-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize nitrogen doped titania nanoparticles. Due to the high heating efficiency of microwave, rapid synthesis could be achieved in comparison with the conventional oven. Mixed crystal lattice was found existing in the obtained product, and the phase transformation behaviour under calcination was studied by XRD measurement together with Raman spectroscopy in details. The obtained nitrogen doped titania showed high specific surface area, about 300 m 2 g -1 . Photocatalytic activity in destructing NO x gas by the prepared sample exceeded that of commercial titania (P 25) or nitrogen doped titania synthesized by conventional hydrothermal method, under both visible-light and ultraviolet-light irradiation.

  18. Rapid analysis of fertilizers by the direct-reading thermometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, I; Sipos, B

    1972-05-01

    The authors have developed rapid methods for the determination of the main components of fertilizers, namely phosphate, potassium and nitrogen fixed in various forms. In the absence of magnesium ions phosphate is precipitated with magnesia mixture; in the presence of magnesium ions ammonium phosphomolybdate is precipitated and the excess of molybdate is reacted with hydrogen peroxide. Potassium is determined by precipitation with silico-fluoride. For nitrogen fixed as ammonium salts the ammonium ions are condensed in a basic solution with formalin to hexamethylenetetramine; for nitrogen fixed as carbamide the latter is decomposed with sodium nitrite; for nitrogen fixed as nitrate the latter is reduced with titanium(III). In each case the temperature change of the test solution is measured. Practically all essential components of fertilizers may be determined by direct-reading thermometry; with this method and special apparatus the time of analysis is reduced to at most about 15 min for any determination.

  19. The Effect of Different Methods of Fermentation on the Detection of Milk Protein Residues in Retail Cheese by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, Katherine O; Baumert, Joseph L; Hutkins, Robert L; Taylor, Steve L

    2017-11-01

    Milk and milk products are among the most important allergenic food ingredients, both in the United States and throughout the world; cheeses are among the most important of these milk products. Milk contains several major antigenic proteins, each with differing susceptibilities to proteolytic enzymes. The extent of proteolysis in cheese varies as a result of conditions during manufacture and ripening. Proteolysis has the potential to degrade antigenic and allergenic epitopes that are important for residue detection and elicitation of allergic reactions. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not currently validated for use in detecting residues in hydrolyzed or fermented food products. Eighteen retail cheeses produced using 5 different styles of fermentation were investigated for detectable milk protein residues with 4 commercial ELISA kits. Mozzarella, Swiss, Blue, Limburger, and Brie cheeses were assessed. The Neogen Veratox® Casein and Neogen Veratox® Total Milk kits were capable of detecting milk residues in most cheeses evaluated, including blue-veined cheeses that exhibit extensive proteolysis. The other 2 ELISA kits evaluated, r-Biopharm® Fast Casein and ELISA Systems™ Casein, can detect milk residues in cheeses other than blue-veined varieties. ELISA results cannot be quantitatively compared among kits. The quantitative reliability of ELISA results in detection of cheese residues is questionable, but some methods are sufficiently robust to use as a semi-quantitative indication of proper allergen control for the validation of cleaning programs in industry settings. Many commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not validated for detection of allergenic residues in fermented or hydrolyzed products. This research seeks to determine if commercial milk ELISAs can detect milk residues in varieties of cheese that have undergone different styles of fermentation and different degrees of proteolysis. Only certain

  20. Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2 = 0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2 = 0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases. PMID:23555650

  1. A rapid and highly selective method for the estimation of pyro-, tri- and orthophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, D R; Savant, V V; Sathyanarayana, D N

    1995-03-01

    A rapid, highly selective and simple method has been developed for the quantitative determination of pyro-, tri- and orthophosphates. The method is based on the formation of a solid complex of bis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) species with pyrophosphate at pH 4.2-4.3, with triphosphate at pH 2.0-2.1 and with orthophosphate at pH 8.2-8.6. The proposed method for pyro- and triphosphates differs from the available method, which is based on the formation of an adduct with tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) species. The complexes have the composition [Co(en)(2)HP(2)O(7)]4H(2)O and [Co(en)(2)H(2)P(3)O(10)]2H(2)O, respectively. The precipitation is instantaneous and quantitative under the recommended optimum conditions giving 99.5% gravimetric yield in both cases. There is no interferences from orthophosphate, trimetaphosphate and pyrophosphate species in the triphosphate estimation up to 5% of each component. The efficacy of the method has been established by determining pyrophosphate and triphosphate contents in various matrices. In the case of orthophosphate, the proposed method differs from the available methods such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, vanadophosphomolybdate and quinoline phosphomolybdate, which are based on the formation of a precipitate, followed by either titrimetry or gravimetry. The precipitation is instantaneous and the method is simple. Under the recommended pH and other reaction conditions, gravimetric yields of 99.6-100% are obtainable. The method is applicable to orthophosphoric acid and a variety of phosphate salts.

  2. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  3. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T 1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  4. [Research on rapid and quantitative detection method for organophosphorus pesticide residue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Xin; Chen, Bing-Tai; Yi, Sen; Sun, Ming

    2014-05-01

    The methods of physical-chemical inspection is adopted in the traditional pesticide residue detection, which require a lot of pretreatment processes, are time-consuming and complicated. In the present study, the authors take chlorpyrifos applied widely in the present agricultural field as the research object and propose a rapid and quantitative detection method for organophosphorus pesticide residues. At first, according to the chemical characteristics of chlorpyrifos and comprehensive chromogenic effect of several colorimetric reagents and secondary pollution, the pretreatment of the scheme of chromogenic reaction of chlorpyrifos with resorcin in a weak alkaline environment was determined. Secondly, by analyzing Uv-Vis spectrum data of chlorpyrifos samples whose content were between 0. 5 and 400 mg kg-1, it was confirmed that the characteristic information after the color reaction mainly was concentrated among 360 approximately 400 nm. Thirdly, the full spectrum forecasting model was established based on the partial least squares, whose correlation coefficient of calibration was 0. 999 6, correlation coefficient of prediction reached 0. 995 6, standard deviation of calibration (RMSEC) was 2. 814 7 mg kg-1, and standard deviation of verification (RMSEP) was 8. 012 4 mg kg-1. Fourthly, the wavelengths whose center wavelength is 400 nm was extracted as characteristic region to build a forecasting model, whose correlation coefficient of calibration was 0. 999 6, correlation coefficient of prediction reached 0. 999 3, standard deviation of calibration (RMSEC) was 2. 566 7 mg kg-1 , standard deviation of verification (RMSEP) was 4. 886 6 mg kg-1, respectively. At last, by analyzing the near infrared spectrum data of chlorpyrifos samples with contents between 0. 5 and 16 mg kg-1, the authors found that although the characteristics of the chromogenic functional group are not obvious, the change of absorption peaks of resorcin itself in the neighborhood of 5 200 cm

  5. Pyroprinting: a rapid and flexible genotypic fingerprinting method for typing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michael W; VanderKelen, Jennifer; Montana, Aldrin; Dekhtyar, Alexander; Neal, Emily; Goodman, Anya; Kitts, Christopher L

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial strain typing is commonly employed in studies involving epidemiology, population ecology, and microbial source tracking to identify sources of fecal contamination. Methods for differentiating strains generally use either a collection of phenotypic traits or rely on some interrogation of the bacterial genotype. This report introduces pyroprinting, a novel genotypic strain typing method that is rapid, inexpensive, and discriminating compared to the most sensitive methods already in use. Pyroprinting relies on the simultaneous pyrosequencing of polymorphic multicopy loci, such as the intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA operons in bacterial genomes. Data generated by sequencing combinations of variable templates are reproducible and intrinsically digitized. The theory and development of pyroprinting in Escherichia coli, including the selection of similarity thresholds to define matches between isolates, are presented. The pyroprint-based strain differentiation limits and phylogenetic relevance compared to other typing methods are also explored. Pyroprinting is unique in its simplicity and, paradoxically, in its intrinsic complexity. This new approach serves as an excellent alternative to more cumbersome or less phylogenetically relevant strain typing methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a micropulverized extraction method for rapid toxicological analysis of methamphetamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kakuta, Masaya; Iwata, Yuko T; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tazawa, Hidekatsu; Kimura, Hiroko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-07

    We developed a rapid sample preparation method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine (the major metabolite of methamphetamine) in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), to facilitate fast screening and quantitation. Two milligrams of hair were mechanically micropulverized for 5 min in a 2-ml plastic tube together with 100 microl of an aqueous solvent containing 10% acetonitrile, 100 mM trifluoroacetic acid and the corresponding deuterium analogues as internal standards. The pulverizing highly disintegrated the hair components, simultaneously allowing the extraction of any drugs present in the hair. After filtering the suspension with a membrane-filter unit, the clear filtrate was directly analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. No evaporation processes were required for sample preparation. Method optimization and validation study were carried out using real-case specimens and fortified samples in which the drugs had been artificially absorbed, respectively. Concentration ranges for quantitation were 0.040-125 and 0.040-25 ng/mg for methamphetamine and amphetamine, respectively. Real-case specimens were analyzed by the method presented here and by conventional ones to verify the applicability of our method to real-world analysis. Our method took less than 30 min for a set of chromatograms to be obtained from a washed hair sample.

  7. A Rapid and Efficient Screening Method for Antibacterial Compound-Producing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Sachithra; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kwon, Young-Kyung; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Moon, Song; Jo, Eunyoung; Kim, Taeho; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong

    2017-08-28

    Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species ( Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida, P. rubra , and Zunongwangia atlantica ) were tested for production of antibacterial compounds against four strains of test bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, Halomonas smyrnensis , and Vibrio alginolyticus ). Colony picking was used as the primary screening method. Clear zones were observed around colonies of P. flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra tested against B. cereus, B. subtilis , and H. smyrnensis . The efficiency of colony scraping and broth culture methods for antimicrobial compound extraction was also compared using a disk diffusion assay. P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra showed antagonistic activity against H. smyrnensis, B. cereus , and B. subtilis , respectively, only in the colony scraping method. Our results show that colony picking and colony scraping are effective, quick, and easy methods of screening for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.

  8. A rapid method for myoglobin radioimmunoanalysis as a diagnostic tool in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.A.; Matveev, L.E.; Pressman, E.K.; Roschke, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Stone et al. have elaborated a RIA-method for the determination of myoglobin, and found that increase of its concentration in serum is a reliable criterion for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. However, the test took 24-28 h. Subsequently, the time of the analysis has been reduced to 5-6 h. Recently, a rapid method for the determination of myoglobin has been proposed based upon the use of antiserum immobilized on a powdered carrier. This method takes a little more than 1 h. The procedure according to Roxin et al. is fast due to its non-equilibrium character; after the incubation (30 min) the reaction of the antigen with the immobilized antibody still remains far from equilibrium. It is generally believed that non-equilibrium RIA procedures are less convenient than equilibrium ones for practical clinical applications. According to the RIA procedure proposed here, the time saving compared with the established methods is achieved by using relatively-high concentrations of radioactive myoglobin of moderate specific radioactivity. Under these conditions, the kinetic plateau is reached in 15-20 min. Hence, the total time of the analysis to obtain a standard curve and results for five unknown sera is 55 min. Therefore, the method becomes more useful as a guide in the treatment of myocardial infarction. (Auth.)

  9. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, S.; Ballabio, D.; Giovanelli, G.; Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga; Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: → We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. → NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. → Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. → NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. → The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that

  10. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratti, S., E-mail: susanna.buratti@unimi.it [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ballabio, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, G. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia); Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: > We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. > NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. > Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. > NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. > The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that NIR and MIR

  11. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  12. A Method to Represent Heterogeneous Materials for Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuangyan; Frank, Matthew C.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones. Design/methodology/approach Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are “stacked” inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone. Findings The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing. Originality/Value This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate. PMID:26120277

  13. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; ter Meulen, Jan; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  14. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Govindarajan

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  15. Xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis by genome shuffling for improved ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Libin; Wang, Pin; Jiang, Li; Deng, Huiping

    2014-03-01

    Xylose fermentation is necessary for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol as fuel, but wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains cannot fully metabolize xylose. Several efforts have been made to obtain microbial strains with enhanced xylose fermentation. However, xylose fermentation remains a serious challenge because of the complexity of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Genome shuffling has been widely used for the rapid improvement of industrially important microbial strains. After two rounds of genome shuffling, a genetically stable, high-ethanol-producing strain was obtained. Designated as TJ2-3, this strain could ferment xylose and produce 1.5 times more ethanol than wild-type Pichia stipitis after fermentation for 96 h. The acridine orange and propidium iodide uptake assays showed that the maintenance of yeast cell membrane integrity is important for ethanol fermentation. This study highlights the importance of genome shuffling in P. stipitis as an effective method for enhancing the productivity of industrial strains. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  17. Rapid Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Annealing Methods on Seed Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Bo Shim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on a glass substrate using the rapid microwave heating process. The ZnO seed layers were produced by spinning the precursor solutions onto the substrate. Among coatings, the ZnO seed layers were annealed at 100°C for 5 minutes to ensure particle adhesion to the glass surface in air, nitrogen, and vacuum atmospheres. The annealing treatment of the ZnO seed layer was most important for achieving the high quality of ZnO nanowire arrays as ZnO seed nanoparticles of larger than 30 nm in diameter evolve into ZnO nanowire arrays. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a single-crystalline lattice of the ZnO nanowires. Because of their low power (140 W, low operating temperatures (90°C, easy fabrication (variable microwave sintering system, and low cost (90% cost reduction compared with gas condensation methods, high quality ZnO nanowires created with the rapid microwave heating process show great promise for use in flexible solar cells and flexible display devices.

  18. Comprehensive and Methodical: Diagnostic and Management Approaches to Rapidly Progressive Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Supriya; Appleby, Brian S

    2017-09-30

    Purpose of review The sudden emergence of a change in cognitive abilities or behavior is an important symptom that warrants medical evaluation and may represent the early stages of a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). To correctly ascertain the cause of RPD in a given patient, the clinician must be methodical and knowledgeable about the range of potential causes and must move forward with supportive treatment, and in some cases empiric treatment, based on clinical features alone. Recent findings Significant advances in prion disease biomarkers, the molecular features of rapidly progressive Alzheimer's disease, and new detection of autoimmune limbic encephalitis disease entities have caused a shift in the diagnostic and treatment framework of RPD. Additionally, in the past decade, emerging retrospective data have led to suggested treatments in autoimmune encephalitis that, if instituted early, can protect patients against residual deficits and disease relapse. Summary Here, we provide an integrative clinical and diagnostic treatment approach that is applicable to the various forms of RPD. We have highlighted the clinical features of selected types of RPD that have experienced advances in the last 10-15 years.

  19. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of a Micro-UAV lifting system built with the usage of rapid prototyping methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalewski, R T; Gumowski, K; Barczak, T; Godek, J

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results of the aerodynamic testing of a micro unmanned aerial vehicle rotor efficiency. The rotors were prepared as a set of two rotors in a counter-rotating ducted drive. Prototypes of the drives were made using two rapid prototyping techniques – FDM – fused deposition modelling method and SLS – selective laser sintering. Rotors were made then treated by introducing additional finishing cyanoacrylate coating and abrasive processing. Main differences between those models were observed in fan shape, porosity, surface roughness and mechanical properties – stiffness. An influence of these factors was observed on an aerodynamic efficiency. For the obtained prototypes both simulations and experimental testing were conducted with thrust, power, torque measurements, as well as the measurement of velocity and pressure distribution at the outlet of the duct. The results show the possibility of using rapid prototyping techniques to produce prototypes of drives operating in the low and medium Reynolds numbers (6000-60000), and the aerodynamic shape relevant factors affecting the preparation and performance of such drives. In addition, simulation studies were performed using the Fluent environment where experimental results were confronted with the results of simulation studies.

  1. A rapid method for infectivity titration of Andes hantavirus using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Galeno, Héctor; Ferrés, Marcela; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    The focus assay is currently the most commonly used technique for hantavirus titer determination. This method requires an incubation time of between 5 and 11 days to allow the appearance of foci after several rounds of viral infection. The following work presents a rapid Andes virus (ANDV) titration assay, based on viral nucleocapsid protein (N) detection in infected cells by flow cytometry. To this end, an anti-N monoclonal antibody was used that was developed and characterized previously. ANDV N could be detected as early as 6 h post-infection, while viral release was not observed until 24-48 h post-infection. Given that ANDV detection was performed during its first round of infection, a time reduction for titer determination was possible and provided results in only two days. The viral titer was calculated from the percentage of N positive cells and agreed with focus assay titers. Furthermore, the assay was applied to quantify the inhibition of ANDV cell entry by patient sera and by preventing endosome acidification. This novel hantavirus titration assay is a highly quantitative and sensitive tool that facilitates infectivity titration of virus stocks, rapid screening for antiviral drugs, and may be further used to detect and quantify infectious virus in human samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid and Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay Method for Procalcitonin (PCT Based on Time-Resolved Immunochromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Shao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA. The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%–7.7% and 5.7%–13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p < 0.0001 and consistency (Kappa = 0.875 were obtained when compared with the PCT kit from Roche Elecsys BRAHMS. Thus, the new quantitative method for detecting PCT has been successfully established. The results indicated that the newly-developed system based on TRFIA combined with LFIA was suitable for rapid and on-site detection for PCT, which might be a useful platform for other biomarkers in point-of-care tests.

  3. Rapid and simple colorimetric method for the quantification of AI-2 produced from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanavanitchakorn, Siriluck; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Thamyongkit, Patchanita

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Fe(III) ion reduction for the simple and rapid quantification of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) produced from bacteria using Salmonella Typhimurium as a model. Since the molecular structure of AI-2 is somewhat similar to ascorbic acid it was expected that AI-2 would also act as a reducing agent and reduce Fe(III) ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to form the colored [(o-phen)3 Fe(II)]SO4 ferroin complex that could be quantified colorimetrically. In support of this, colony rinses and cell free supernatants from cultures of all tested AI-2 producing strains, but not the AI-2 negative Sinorhizobium meliloti, formed a colored complex with a λmax of 510nm. The OD510 values of these culture supernatants or colony rinses were in broad agreement with the % activity observed in the same samples using the standard Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay for AI-2 detection, and with previously reported results. This methodology could potentially be developed as an alternative method for the simple and rapid quantification of AI-2 levels produced in bacterial cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  5. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of lipase enzyme production from agro-industry waste with solid state fermentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, I. M.; Arbianti, R.; Utami, T. S.; Suci, M.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Gozan, M.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Needs for this kind of catalyst derived from biological raw materials (biocatalysts) has increased along with development of products based on eco-friendly. To achieve the needs of biocatalyst (enzyme), large production is necessary. This study aimed to get the best conditions and design equipment to produce lipase enzyme based on solid state fermentation using SuperPro Designer v9.0. Several equipment such as Tray Bioreactor, Mixing Tank 1, Filter Press, centrifuge, Mixing Tank 2, and a dryer have been improved during the simulation. Economic analysis in the form of NPV, IRR, Payback Period, and the Benefit Cost Ratio was evaluated respectively. The result showed that production of 10 kg enzyme with NPV Rp112.796.147.423,00; IRR 54.20%; Payback Period 1.95 years; and Benefit Cost Ratio of 3.36 was more advantageous.

  7. Rapid method for measuring protease activity in milk using radiolabeled casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A rapid means to detect the presence of protease activity in raw milk could be useful in predicting keeping ability of products made from that milk. A 30-min assay has been developed and compared with three other methods of detecting protease. Casein, [methyl- 14 C]-methylated-alpha was purchased from a radioisotope supplier. Concentrations of substrate from 2 to 20 nCi gave counts per minute, which increased linearly when counted with the Charm analyzer. There was not a significant difference in counting times of 10, 20, or 30 min. A mixture of sodium acetate and acetic acid precipitated nonhydrolyzed substrate with an efficiency of 97%. Comparison of the [ 14 C] casein assay, a casein fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid procedure, and the Hull procedure using protease from psychrotrophic bacteria revealed that the [ 14 C] casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were roughly equivalent and that the radiometric procedure was 10 times more sensitive than the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay. The radiometric procedure was approximately 10(4) times more sensitive than the Hull procedure. The [ 14 C] casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were similar in time required, about 30 min, while the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay and Hull method required about 1 h plus reagent preparation time. The [ 14 C] casein procedure was most expensive per test; the other three were cheaper and similar to each other in cost

  8. Rapid and efficient method to extract metagenomic DNA from estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Kashif; Sharma, Jaya; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Metagenomic DNA from sediments of selective estuaries of Goa, India was extracted using a simple, fast, efficient and environment friendly method. The recovery of pure metagenomic DNA from our method was significantly high as compared to other well-known methods since the concentration of recovered metagenomic DNA ranged from 1185.1 to 4579.7 µg/g of sediment. The purity of metagenomic DNA was also considerably high as the ratio of absorbance at 260 and 280 nm ranged from 1.88 to 1.94. Therefore, the recovered metagenomic DNA was directly used to perform various molecular biology experiments viz. restriction digestion, PCR amplification, cloning and metagenomic library construction. This clearly proved that our protocol for metagenomic DNA extraction using silica gel efficiently removed the contaminants and prevented shearing of the metagenomic DNA. Thus, this modified method can be used to recover pure metagenomic DNA from various estuarine sediments in a rapid, efficient and eco-friendly manner.

  9. Gas evolution as a rapid screening method for detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.; Chambers, D.M.; Brailsford, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    A number of detection methods for irradiated foods are in advanced state of development. No single method is likely to be universally applicable but a battery of tests such as thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance and analysis of lipid radiolytic products may soon be available for most foods and technical uses of irradiation. Most of these proposed tests require relatively sophisticated equipment or technical skills and are often time consuming and costly. There would be value in relatively simple tests which could be used as a rapid screening system or confirmatory method. The literature on the use of radiolytic gases as a detection method is limited and this paper extends the above studies. In particular, it extends the work to frozen shellfish, for which irradiation has been used as a commercial decontaminant technique for many years, and considers the effect of storage temperature. Work on poultry is also reported as a cross-reference to earlier work and because irradiated poultry has recently been released into the US retail trade. (author)

  10. A rapid method combining Golgi and Nissl staining to study neuronal morphology and cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes.

  11. A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Melissococcus pluton in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, V A; Brözel, V; Allsopp, M H; Davison, S

    1998-05-01

    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed as originating from M. pluton by sequencing in both directions. Detection was highly specific, and the probes did not hybridize with DNA from other bacterial species tested. This method enabled the rapid and specific detection and identification of M. pluton from pure cultures and infected bee larvae.

  12. A rapid method to estimate uranium using ionic liquid as extracting agent from basic aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhath Ravi, K.; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Rao, D.D.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids, as their name suggests are salts with a low melting point typically less than 100 °C and exist as liquid at room temperature. The common cationic parts of ionic liquids are imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, quaternary ammonium, or phosphonium ions, and common anionic parts are chloride, bromide, boron tetrafluorate, phosphorous hexafluorate, triflimide etc. The physical properties of ionic liquids can be tuned by choosing appropriate cations with differing alkyl chain lengths and anions. Application of ionic liquids in organic synthesis, liquid-liquid extractions, electrochemistry, catalysis, speciation studies, nuclear reprocessing is being studied extensively in recent times. In this paper a rapid method to estimate the uranium content in aqueous media by extraction with room temperature ionic liquid tricaprylammoniumthiosalicylate ((A- 336)(TS)) followed by liquid scintillation analysis is described. Re-extraction of uranium from ionic liquid phase to aqueous phase was also studied

  13. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  14. A rapid method for whole mount preparations of mammalian oocytes and early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, R M; Masui, Y

    1994-05-01

    Whole mounts of mouse oocytes and embryos are useful for observing intracellular structures while preserving morphological integrity. This method is inconvenient for rapid processing of a large number of specimens because washing each specimen in a protein-free solution is required prior to transfer into the fixative. We have developed a new fixative which does not cause protein precipitation which can be added directly to the culture medium. Specimens can be preserved in culture dishes for at least one month, and processed for cytological observation at a convenient time. When stained with hematoxylin, details of cellular structures such as nuclei, nucleoli, chromosomes and spindle microtubules can be observed while maintaining the organization of the organelles.

  15. A robust and rapid method of producing soluble, stable, and functional G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Corin

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, are notoriously difficult to express. Using commercial E. coli cell-free systems with the detergent Brij-35, we could rapidly produce milligram quantities of 13 unique GPCRs. Immunoaffinity purification yielded receptors at >90% purity. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism indicated that the purified receptors were properly folded. Microscale thermophoresis, a novel label-free and surface-free detection technique that uses thermal gradients, showed that these receptors bound their ligands. The secondary structure and ligand-binding results from cell-free produced proteins were comparable to those expressed and purified from HEK293 cells. Our study demonstrates that cell-free protein production using commercially available kits and optimal detergents is a robust technology that can be used to produce sufficient GPCRs for biochemical, structural, and functional analyses. This robust and simple method may further stimulate others to study the structure and function of membrane proteins.

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, 19-22 May 1997: Rapid Method for Monitoring the Environment for Biological Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop met for the purpose of bringing to light rapid methods for monitoring the environment for biological hazards such as biological warfare agents, naturally occurring...

  17. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on 14 CO 2 evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of 14 CO 2 evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III

  18. Use of predictive models and rapid methods to nowcast bacteria levels at coastal beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.

    2009-01-01

    The need for rapid assessments of recreational water quality to better protect public health is well accepted throughout the research and regulatory communities. Rapid analytical methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis, are being tested but are not yet ready for widespread use.Another solution is the use of predictive models, wherein variable(s) that are easily and quickly measured are surrogates for concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria. Rainfall-based alerts, the simplest type of model, have been used by several communities for a number of years. Deterministic models use mathematical representations of the processes that affect bacteria concentrations; this type of model is being used for beach-closure decisions at one location in the USA. Multivariable statistical models are being developed and tested in many areas of the USA; however, they are only used in three areas of the Great Lakes to aid in notifications of beach advisories or closings. These “operational” statistical models can result in more accurate assessments of recreational water quality than use of the previous day's Escherichia coli (E. coli)concentration as determined by traditional culture methods. The Ohio Nowcast, at Huntington Beach, Bay Village, Ohio, is described in this paper as an example of an operational statistical model. Because predictive modeling is a dynamic process, water-resource managers continue to collect additional data to improve the predictive ability of the nowcast and expand the nowcast to other Ohio beaches and a recreational river. Although predictive models have been shown to work well at some beaches and are becoming more widely accepted, implementation in many areas is limited by funding, lack of coordinated technical leadership, and lack of supporting epidemiological data.

  19. Rapid, convenient method for screening imidazole-containing compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahakis, Jason Z; Rahman, Mona N; Roman, Gheorghe; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji; Szarek, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for measuring heme oxygenase activity have been based on the gas-chromatographic detection of carbon monoxide using elaborate, expensive equipment. The present study describes a rapid and convenient method for screening imidazole-containing candidates for inhibitory activity against heme oxygenase using a plate reader, based on the spectroscopic evaluation of heme degradation. A PowerWave XS plate reader was used to monitor the absorbance (as a function of time) of heme bound to purified truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in the individual wells of a standard 96-well plate (with or without the addition of a test compound). The degradation of heme by heme oxygenase-1 was initiated using l-ascorbic acid, and the collected relevant absorbance data were analyzed by three different methods to calculate the percent control activity occurring in wells containing test compounds relative to that occurring in control wells with no test compound present. In the cases of wells containing inhibitory compounds, significant shifts in λ(max) from 404 to near 412 nm were observed as well as a decrease in the rate of heme degradation relative to that of the control. Each of the three methods of data processing (overall percent drop in absorbance over 1.5h, initial rate of reaction determined over the first 5 min, and estimated pseudo first-order reaction rate constant determined over 1.5h) gave similar and reproducible results for percent control activity. The fastest and easiest method of data analysis was determined to be that using initial rates, involving data acquisition for only 5 min once reactions have been initiated using l-ascorbic acid. The results of the study demonstrate that this simple assay based on the spectroscopic detection of heme represents a rapid, convenient method to determine the relative inhibitory activity of candidate compounds, and is useful in quickly screening a series or library of compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition

  20. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  1. A rapid minor groove binder PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus 104M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Qin, Lide; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2018-01-24

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative Brucella bacteria. Immunisation with attenuated vaccine is an effective method of prevention, but it can interfere with diagnosis. Live, attenuated Brucella abortus strain 104M has been used for the prevention of human brucellosis in China since 1965. However, at present, no fast and reliable method exists that can distinguish this strain from field strains. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based assays offer a new approach for such discrimination. SNP-based minor groove binder (MGB) and Cycleave assays have been used for rapid identification of four Brucella vaccine strains (B. abortus strains S19, A19 and RB51, and B. melitensis Rev1). The main objective of this study was to develop a PCR assay for rapid and specific detection of strain 104M. We developed a SNP-based MGB PCR assay that could successfully distinguish strain 104M from 18 representative strains of Brucella (B. abortus biovars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, B. melitensis biovars 1, 2 and 3, B. suis biovars 1, 2, 3 and 4, B. canis, B. neotomae, and B. ovis), four Brucella vaccine strains (A19, S19, S2, M5), and 55 Brucella clinical field strains. The assay gave a negative reaction with four non-Brucella species (Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 220 fg for the 104M strain and 76 fg for the single non-104M Brucella strain tested (B. abortus A19). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation = 0.006-0.022 and 0.012-0.044, respectively). A SNP-based MGB PCR assay was developed that could straightforwardly and unambiguously distinguish B. abortus vaccine strain 104M from non-104M Brucella strains. Compared to the classical isolation and identification approaches of bacteriology, this real-time PCR assay has substantial advantages in terms of

  2. A Method for Rapid Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity on Mobile Touch-Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers are now pervasive, making them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Here we de- scribe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. A proto- type has been developed for Apple Computer's iPad/iPod/iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing, http://hsi.arc.nasa.gov/groups/scanpath/research.php). Preliminary data show good agreement with estimates obtained from traditional psychophysical methods as well as newer rapid estimation techniques. Issues relating to device calibration are also discussed.

  3. Aptamer-mediated colorimetric method for rapid and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Li; Xue, Feng; Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Baoguang; Chen, Wei

    2018-09-15

    We report an aptamer-mediated colorimetric method for sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP). The aptamer of CAP is immobilized by the hybridization with pre-immobilized capture probe in the microtiter plate. The horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is covalently attached to the aptamer by the biotin-streptavidin system for signal production. CAP will preferably bind with aptamer due to the high binding affinity, which attributes to the release of aptamer and HRP and thus, affects the optical signal intensity. Quantitative determination of CAP is successfully achieved in the wide range from 0.001 to 1000 ng/mL with detection limit of 0.0031 ng/mL, which is more sensitive than traditional immunoassays. This method is further validated by measuring the recovery of CAP spiked in two different food matrices (honey and fish). The aptamer-mediated colorimetric method can be a useful protocol for rapid and sensitive screening of CAP, and may be used as an alternative means for traditional immunoassays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural transformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A rapid method to create genetic deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalapati, Suneeta; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Servage, Kelly; De Nisco, Nicole J; Dalia, Ankur B; Orth, Kim

    2018-03-19

    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen and the leading cause of seafood borne acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, this bacterium was implicated as the etiologic agent of a severe shrimp disease with consequent devastating outcomes to shrimp farming. In both cases, acquisition of genetic material via horizontal transfer provided V. parahaemolyticus with new virulence tools to cause disease. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis often requires manipulating its genome. Classically, genetic deletions in V. parahaemolyticus are performed using a laborious, lengthy, multi-step process. Herein, we describe a fast and efficient method to edit this bacterium's genome based on V. parahaemolyticus natural competence. Although this method is similar to one previously described, V. parahaemolyticus requires counter selection for curing of acquired plasmids due to its recalcitrant nature of retaining extrachromosomal DNA. We believe this approach will be of use to the Vibrio community. Importance Spreading of Vibrios throughout the world correlates with increased global temperatures. As they spread, they find new niches to survive, proliferate and invade. Therefore, genetic manipulation of Vibrios is of utmost importance for studying these species. Herein, we have delineated and validated a rapid method to create genetic deletions in Vibrio parahaemolyticus This study provides insightful methodology for studies with other Vibrio species. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Novel rapid method for the characterisation of polymeric sugars from macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, S E; Adams, J M M; Thomas, D S; Gallagher, J A; Winters, Ana L

    2017-01-01

    Laminarins are storage polysaccharides found only in brown seaweeds, specifically Laminarialaes and Fucales. Laminarin has been shown to have anti-apoptotic and anti-tumoural activities and is considered as a nutraceutical component that can positively influence human health. The structure is species dependent, generally composed of linear ß(1-3) glucans with intrachain β(1-6) branching and varies according to harvest season and environmental factors. Current methods for analysis of molar mass and DP length are technically demanding and are not widely available. Here, we present a simple inexpensive method which enables rapid analysis of laminarins from macroalgal biomass using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) without the need for hydrolysis or further processing. This is based on the linear relationship observed between log 10 DP and retention time following separation of laminarins on a CarboPac PA-100 column (Dionex) using standard 1,3-β-d-gluco-oligosaccharides ranging in DP from 2 to 8. This method was applied to analyse laminarin oligomers in extracts from different species harvested from within the intertidal zone on Welsh rocky shores containing laminarin polymers with different ranges of DP. The degree of polymerisation and extrapolated molar mass agreed well with values estimated by LC-ESI/MS n analysis and those reported in the literature.

  6. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  7. A Simple PCR Method for Rapid Genotype Analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, Timothy; Davies, John K.; Jenkin, Grant A.; Portaels, Françoise; Ross, Bruce C.; OppEdIsano, Frances; Purcell, Maria; Hayman, John A.; Johnson, Paul D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Two high-copy-number insertion sequences, IS2404 and IS2606, were recently identified in Mycobacterium ulcerans and were shown by Southern hybridization to possess restriction fragment length polymorphism between strains from different geographic origins. We have designed a simple genotyping method that captures these differences by PCR amplification of the region between adjacent copies of IS2404 and IS2606. We have called this system 2426 PCR. The method is rapid, reproducible, sensitive, and specific for M. ulcerans, and it has confirmed previous studies suggesting a clonal population structure of M. ulcerans within a geographic region. M. ulcerans isolates from Australia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, Surinam, Mexico, Japan, China, and several countries in Africa were easily differentiated based on an array of 4 to 14 PCR products ranging in size from 200 to 900 bp. Numerical analysis of the banding patterns suggested a close evolutionary link between M. ulcerans isolates from Africa and southeast Asia. The application of 2426 PCR to total DNA, extracted directly from M. ulcerans-infected tissue specimens without culture, demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of this method and confirmed for the first time that both animal and human isolates from areas of endemicity in southeast Australia have the same genotype. PMID:10747130

  8. Development of a rapid HRM genotyping method for detection of dog-derived Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic flagellate protozoan in the intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To assess a threat of dog-derived G. lamblia to humans, the common dog-derived G. lamblia assemblages A, C, and D were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. According to β-giardin gene sequence, the qPCR-HRM primers BG5 and BG7 were designed. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the HRM method were also tested. Results showed that the primers BG5 and BG7 could distinguish among three assemblages A, C, and D, which Tm value differences were about 1 °C to each other. The melting curves of intra-assay reproducibility were almost coincided, and those of inter-assay reproducibility were much the same shape. The lowest detection concentration was about 5 × 10(-6)-ng/μL sample. The genotyping results from 21 G. lamblia samples by the HRM method were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the HRM genotyping method is rapid, stable, specific, highly sensitive, and suitable for clinical detection and molecular epidemiological survey of dog-derived G. lamblia.

  9. Rapid, Simple, and Sensitive Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Estimation of Ganciclovir in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Balwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate, and affordable spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the estimation of ganciclovir in bulk as well as in marketed formulations. The method was based on measuring the native fluorescence of ganciclovir in 0.2 M hydrochloric acid buffer of pH 1.2 at 374 nm after excitation at 257 nm. The calibration graph was found to be rectilinear in the concentration range of 0.25–2.00 μg mL−1. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were found to be 0.029 μg mL−1 and 0.010 μg mL−1, respectively. The method was fully validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2% and can be successfully applied for the determination of ganciclovir in its commercial capsules with average percentage recovery of 101.31 ± 0.90.

  10. Rapid maxillary expansion effects: An alternative assessment method by means of cone-beam tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aims to develop a method to assess the changes in palatal and lingual cross-sectional areas in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample comprised 31 Class I malocclusion individuals submitted to RME and divided into two groups treated with Haas (17 patients and Hyrax (14 patients expanders. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired at T0 (before expansion and T1 (six months after screw stabilization. Maxillary and mandibular cross-sectional areas were assessed at first permanent molars and first premolars regions and compared at T0 and T1. Mandibular occlusal area was also analyzed. RESULTS: Maxillary cross-sectional areas increased in 56.18 mm2 and 44.32 mm2 for the posterior and anterior regions. These values were smaller for the mandible, representing augmentation of 40.32 mm2 and 39.91 mm2 for posterior and anterior sections. No differences were found when comparing both expanders. Mandibular occlusal area increased 43.99mm2 and mandibular incisors proclined. Increments of 1.74 mm and 1.7 mm occurred in mandibular intermolar and interpremolar distances. These same distances presented increments of 5.5 mm and 5.57 mm for the maxillary arch. CONCLUSION: Occlusal and cross-sectional areas increased significantly after RME. The method described seems to be reliable and precise to assess intraoral area changes.

  11. Development of a new rapid HPLC method for the fractionation of histones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurley, L.R.; Valdez, J.G.; Prentice, D.A.; Spall, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    To study histone functions, it is necessary to fractionate the histones into their five classes (H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) and then to subfractionate these classes into variants having slightly different primary structures and into different phosphorylated and acetylated forms. With the advent of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was hoped that laborious and time-consuming conventional methods could be replaced by a simple, rapid, high-resolving HPLC method for fractionating histones. However, problems of irreversible adsorption of the histones to HPLC column packings discouraged this development. Our laboratory has now determined that the strong adsorption of histones to HPLC columns results from two different forces: (1) polar interactions between the histones and the silanol groups of silica-based HPLC column packing, and (2) hydrophobic interactions between the histones and the bound organic phase of the column packings. By minimizing these forces, we have succeeded in developing an HPLC method suitable for histone studies

  12. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  13. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  14. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, Francesco; Stewart, Barclay T; Palmer, Jennifer J; Grundy, Chris

    2013-01-23

    Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons' camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to "gold standard" reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2-5 working person-days. In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method's development.

  15. Improved Savitzky-Golay-method-based fluorescence subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we propose an improved subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra that can substantially reduce the computation time. This algorithm is based on an improved Savitzky-Golay (SG) iterative smoothing method, which involves two key novel approaches: (a) the use of the Gauss-Seidel method and (b) the introduction of a relaxation factor into the iterative procedure. By applying a novel successive relaxation (SG-SR) iterative method to the relaxation factor, additional improvement in the convergence speed over the standard Savitzky-Golay procedure is realized. The proposed improved algorithm (the RIA-SG-SR algorithm), which uses SG-SR-based iteration instead of Savitzky-Golay iteration, has been optimized and validated with a mathematically simulated Raman spectrum, as well as experimentally measured Raman spectra from non-biological and biological samples. The method results in a significant reduction in computing cost while yielding consistent rejection of fluorescence and noise for spectra with low signal-to-fluorescence ratios and varied baselines. In the simulation, RIA-SG-SR achieved 1 order of magnitude improvement in iteration number and 2 orders of magnitude improvement in computation time compared with the range-independent background-subtraction algorithm (RIA). Furthermore the computation time of the experimentally measured raw Raman spectrum processing from skin tissue decreased from 6.72 to 0.094 s. In general, the processing of the SG-SR method can be conducted within dozens of milliseconds, which can provide a real-time procedure in practical situations.

  16. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  17. Physiochemical Properties and Antinutrient Content of Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popcorn and groundnut composite flours were fermented using pure strains of Rhizopus nigricans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by solid substrate fermentation method. There was decrease in pH with increase in total titrable acidity in all the samples. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that there was an ...

  18. Rapid Methods to Distinguish Heterodera schachtii from Heterodera glycines Using PCR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Rai Ko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop rapid methods for distinguishing between Heterodera schachtii and H. glycines detected from chinese cabbage fields of highland in Gangwon, Korea. To do this, we performed PCR-RFLP and PCR with the primers set developed in this study for GC147, GC408 and PM001 population, H. schachtii, and YS224, DA142 and BC115 population, H. glycines. Eight restriction enzymes generated RFLP profiles of mtDNA COI region for populations of H. schachtii and H. glycines, repectively. As a result, treatment of two restriction enzymes, RsaI and HinfI, were allowed to distinguish H. schachtii from H. glycines based on the differences of DNA band patterns. The primer set, #JBS1, #JBG1 and #JB3R, amplified specific fragments with 277 and 339 bp of H. schachtii, 339 bp of H. glycines, respectively, while it did not amplify fragments from three root-knot nematodes and two root-lesion nematodes. Thus, the primer set developed in this study could be a good method, which is used to distinguish between H. schachtii and H. glycines.

  19. Rapid filtration separation-based sample preparation method for Bacillus spores in powdery and environmental matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Sandra; Boissinot, Maurice; Charlebois, Isabelle; Fauvel, Chantal M; Shi, Lu-E; Lévesque, Julie-Christine; Paquin, Amélie T; Bastien, Martine; Stewart, Gale; Leblanc, Eric; Sato, Sachiko; Bergeron, Michel G

    2012-03-01

    Authorities frequently need to analyze suspicious powders and other samples for biothreat agents in order to assess environmental safety. Numerous nucleic acid detection technologies have been developed to detect and identify biowarfare agents in a timely fashion. The extraction of microbial nucleic acids from a wide variety of powdery and environmental samples to obtain a quality level adequate for these technologies still remains a technical challenge. We aimed to develop a rapid and versatile method of separating bacteria from these samples and then extracting their microbial DNA. Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii was used as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. We studied the effects of a broad variety of powdery and environmental samples on PCR detection and the steps required to alleviate their interference. With a benchmark DNA extraction procedure, 17 of the 23 samples investigated interfered with bacterial lysis and/or PCR-based detection. Therefore, we developed the dual-filter method for applied recovery of microbial particles from environmental and powdery samples (DARE). The DARE procedure allows the separation of bacteria from contaminating matrices that interfere with PCR detection. This procedure required only 2 min, while the DNA extraction process lasted 7 min, for a total of sample preparation procedure allowed the recovery of cleaned bacterial spores and relieved detection interference caused by a wide variety of samples. Our procedure was easily completed in a laboratory facility and is amenable to field application and automation.

  20. Rapid processing method for solution deposited YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawley, J.T.; Clem, P.G.; Boyle, T.J.; Ottley, L.M.; Overmyer, D.L.; Siegal, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films, deposited on buffered metal substrates, are the primary candidate for second-generation superconducting (SC) wires, with applications including expanded power grid transmission capability, compact motors, and enhanced sensitivity magnetic resonance imaging. Feasibility of manufacturing such superconducting wires is dependent on high processing speed, often a limitation of vapor and solution-based YBCO deposition processes. In this work, YBCO films were fabricated via a new diethanolamine-modified trifluoroacetic film solution deposition method. Modifying the copper chemistry of the YBCO precursor solution with diethanolamine enables a hundredfold decrease in the organic pyrolysis time required for MA/cm 2 current density (J c ) YBCO films, from multiple hours to ∼20 s in atmospheric pressure air. High quality, ∼0.2 μm thick YBCO films with J c (77 K) values ≥2 MA/cm 2 at 77 K are routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films deposited on LaAlO 3 . This process has also enabled J c (77 K)=1.1 MA/cm 2 YBCO films via 90 m/h dip-coating on Oak Ridge National Laboratory RABiTS textured metal tape substrates. This new YBCO solution deposition method suggests a route toward inexpensive and commercializable ∼$10/kA m solution deposited YBCO coated conductor wires

  1. Comparing rapid and culture indicator bacteria methods at inland lake beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Kephart, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), for quantifying indicator bacteria in recreational waters is desirable for public health protection. We report that replacing current Escherichia coli standards with new US Environmental Protection Agency beach action values (BAVs) for enterococci by culture or qPCR may result in more advisories being posted at inland recreational lakes. In this study, concentrations of E. coli and enterococci by culture methods were compared to concentrations of Enterococcus spp. by qPCR at 3 inland lake beaches in Ohio. The E. coli and enterococci culture results were significantly related at all beaches; however, the relations between culture results and Enterococcus spp. qPCR results were not always significant and differed among beaches. All the qPCR results exceeded the new BAV for Enterococcus spp. by qPCR, whereas only 23.7% of culture results for E. coli and 79% of culture results for enterococci exceeded the current standard for E. coli or BAV for enterococci.

  2. Development of a Rapid and Simple Method to Remove Polyphenols from Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imali Ranatunge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVPP column and subjected to centrifugation. Supernatant was tested for the total phenol content. The presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine was screened by HPLC and measuring the absorbance at 280. The antioxidant capacity of standards and tea extracts was compared with the polyphenol removed fractions using DPPH scavenging assay. No polyphenols were found in polyphenolic standards or tea extracts after PVPP treatment. The method described in the present study to remove polyphenols is simple, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient and can be employed to investigate the contribution of polyphenols present in natural products to their biological activity.

  3. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDatukishvili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  4. A novel method for rapid comparative quantitative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Coates, David J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metric framework determined to compare nuclear fuel cycles. ► Fast and thermal reactors simulated using MATLAB models, including thorium. ► Modelling uses deterministic methods instead of Monte–Carlo for speed. ► Method rapidly identifies relative cycle strengths and weaknesses. ► Significant scope for use in project planning and cycle optimisation. - Abstract: One of the greatest obstacles facing the nuclear industry is that of sustainability, both in terms of the finite reserves of uranium ore and the production of highly radiotoxic spent fuel which presents proliferation and environmental hazards. Alternative nuclear technologies have been suggested as a means of delivering enhanced sustainability with proposals including fast reactors, the use of thorium fuel and tiered fuel cycles. The debate as to which is the most appropriate technology continues, with each fuel system and reactor type delivering specific advantages and disadvantages which can be difficult to compare fairly. This paper demonstrates a framework of performance metrics which, coupled with a first-order lumped reactor model to determine nuclide population balances, can be used to quantify the aforementioned pros and cons for a range of different fuel and reactor combinations. The framework includes metrics such as fuel efficiency, spent fuel toxicity and proliferation resistance, and relative cycle performance is analysed through parallel coordinate plots, yielding a quantitative comparison of disparate cycles.

  5. A rapid and quantitative method to determine the tritium content in DNA from small tissue sampes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasche, V.; Zoellner, R.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative two-step procedure to isolate double-strand DNA from small (10-100 mg) animal tissue samples is presented. The method is developed for investigations to evaluate the relative importance of organically bound tritium for the dose factors used to calculate dose commitments due to this nuclide. In the first step the proteins in the homogenized sample are hydrolysed, at a high pH (9.0) and ionic strength (1.5) to dissociate protein from DNA, using immobilized Proteinase K as a proteolytic enzyme. The DNA is then absorbed to hydroxylapatite and separated from impurities by step-wise elution with buffers of increasing ionic strength. More than 90% of the DNA in the samples could be isolated in double-strand form by this procedure. The method has been applied to determine pool-sizes and biological half-life times of tritium in DNA from various animal (mouse) tissues. It has also been shown to be suitable in other radiobiological studies where effects on DNA are investigated. (author)

  6. Method for rapid particle size analysis by hydrosizing and nuclear sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daellenbach, C.B.; Mahan, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus to practice the method for rapidly determining the size and mass distribution of a sample of randomly sized particles of a known total mass are described. A series of substantially identical hydrocyclones are connected by conduits to each other and to a temperature controlled water feed. By restricting the cross-sectional areas of these conduits to progressively smaller values, the slurry containing the sample particles is caused to increase its velocity as it moves from hydrocyclone to hydrocyclone. As described by the Stokesian theory which relates particle diameter and settling velocity, the largest sized particles are suspended in the closed apex of the first hydrocyclone with smaller sized particles, in given size ranges, being suspended in the next succeeding hydrocyclone's apexes. In this manner, the particles are separated into discrete fractional sizes with a residual slurry of the very smallest particles being discharged. Before the discrete fractions of particles are suspended in their hydrocyclone apexes, a combined photon source, like a gamma ray source, and detector are calibrated with the water temperature kept constant. When the suspension of particles takes place, an attenuation of the radiation from the source is observed at the detector. This attenuation can be related to the mass or weight of the discrete fractions of suspended particles. Electronic circuitry is used to indicate what this fractional mass or weight is as it relates to the total weight of the sample. 6 claims, 4 figs

  7. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  8. Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Jones, V.D.

    1998-07-01

    The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements

  9. A method of LED free-form tilted lens rapid modeling based on scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yidan

    2017-10-01

    According to nonimaging optical principle and traditional LED free-form surface lens, a new kind of LED free-form tilted lens was designed. And a method of rapid modeling based on Scheme language was proposed. The mesh division method was applied to obtain the corresponding surface configuration according to the character of the light source and the desired energy distribution on the illumination plane. Then 3D modeling software and the Scheme language programming are used to generate lens model respectively. With the help of optical simulation software, a light source with the size of 1mm*1mm*1mm in volume is used in experiment, and the lateral migration distance of illumination area is 0.5m, in which total one million rays are computed. We could acquire the simulated results of both models. The simulated output result shows that the Scheme language can prevent the model deformation problems caused by the process of the model transfer, and the degree of illumination uniformity is reached to 82%, and the offset angle is 26°. Also, the efficiency of modeling process is greatly increased by using Scheme language.

  10. Polymerase Chain Reaction/Rapid Methods Are Gaining a Foothold in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, Suzan Mohammed; Jimenez, Luis

    Detection of microbial contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products is a critical factor to guarantee their safety, stability, and potency. Rapid microbiological methods-such as polymerase chain reaction-have been widely applied to clinical and food quality control analysis. However, polymerase chain reaction applications to pharmaceutical quality control have been rather slow and sporadic. Successful implementation of these methods in pharmaceutical companies in developing countries requires important considerations to provide sensitive and robust assays that will comply with good manufacturing practices. In recent years several publications have encouraged the application of molecular techniques in the microbiological assessment of pharmaceuticals. One of these techniques is polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The successful application of PCR in the pharmaceutical industry in developing countries is governed by considerable factors and requirements. These factors include the setting up of a PCR laboratory and the choice of appropriate equipment and reagents. In addition, the presence of well-trained analysts and establishment of quality control and quality assurance programs are important requirements. The pharmaceutical firms should take into account these factors to allow better chances for regulatory acceptance and wide application of this technique. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  11. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHITE, T G; SHUMAN, R D

    1961-10-01

    White, Thomas G. (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa), and Richard D. Shuman. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. J. Bacteriol. 82:595-599. 1961.-A study was made to determine the effect of four different basal media, to which fermentable carbon compounds had been added, upon 22 selected strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (insidiosa). Acid production was measured by (i) chemical indicator, (ii) change in pH, and (iii) production of titrable acidity. At least two determinations, usually four, were made for each test on each strain. The fermentation pattern varied according to the medium, the indicator, and the method of measuring acid production. Andrade's base plus serum was the most dependable medium because it permitted the least variation in the total number of different patterns. Of the three methods used to measure acid production, the chemical indicator gave the most valid and reproducible results. The within-strain variation was not extreme and most strains persisted in a given fermentation pattern under like conditions of growth and acid production. Results of the study indicated that, regardless of the medium and indicator routinely used, one should be familiar with the fermentation pattern of known strains of the erysipelas organism.

  12. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  13. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production via Solid-State Fermentation: Effect of Pretreatment Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics of Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushal Brijwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics—crystallinity, bed porosity, and volumetric specific surface of soybean hulls and production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae cultures. Mild acid and alkali and steam pretreatments significantly increased crystallinity and bed porosity without significant change inholocellulosic composition of substrate. Crystalline and porous steam-pretreated soybean hulls inoculated with T. reesei culture had 4 filter paper units (FPU/g-ds, 0.6 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 45 IU/g-ds endocellulase, whereas untreated hulls had 0.75 FPU/g-ds, 0.06 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 7.29 IU/g-ds endocellulase enzyme activities. In A. oryzae steam-pretreated soybean hulls had 47.10 IU/g-ds endocellulase compared to 30.82 IU/g-ds in untreated soybean hulls. Generalized linear statistical model fitted to enzyme activity data showed that effects of physicochemical characteristics on enzymes production were both culture and enzyme specific. The paper shows a correlation between substrate physicochemical properties and enzyme production.

  14. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production via Solid-State Fermentation: Effect of Pretreatment Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics of Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijwani, Khushal; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics-crystallinity, bed porosity, and volumetric specific surface of soybean hulls and production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae cultures. Mild acid and alkali and steam pretreatments significantly increased crystallinity and bed porosity without significant change inholocellulosic composition of substrate. Crystalline and porous steam-pretreated soybean hulls inoculated with T. reesei culture had 4 filter paper units (FPU)/g-ds, 0.6 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 45 IU/g-ds endocellulase, whereas untreated hulls had 0.75 FPU/g-ds, 0.06 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 7.29 IU/g-ds endocellulase enzyme activities. In A. oryzae steam-pretreated soybean hulls had 47.10 IU/g-ds endocellulase compared to 30.82 IU/g-ds in untreated soybean hulls. Generalized linear statistical model fitted to enzyme activity data showed that effects of physicochemical characteristics on enzymes production were both culture and enzyme specific. The paper shows a correlation between substrate physicochemical properties and enzyme production.

  15. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer

    OpenAIRE

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D.; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations i...

  16. Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring: A Rapid, Reliable, and Cost-Effective Method Following Total Joint Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J Ryan; Camp, Christopher L; Stitz, Amber; Young, Ernest Y; Abdel, Matthew P; Taunton, Michael J; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-03-02

    Noninvasive hemoglobin (nHgb) monitoring was initially introduced in the intensive care setting as a means of rapidly assessing Hgb values without performing a blood draw. We conducted a prospective analysis to compare reliability, cost, and patient preference between nHgb monitoring and invasive Hgb (iHgb) monitoring performed via a traditional blood draw. We enrolled 100 consecutive patients undergoing primary or revision total hip or total knee arthroplasty. On postoperative day 1, nHgb and iHgb values were obtained within thirty minutes of one another. iHgb and nHgb values, cost, patient satisfaction, and the duration of time required to obtain each reading were recorded. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was utilized to evaluate the agreement of the two Hgb measurement methods. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were utilized to compare mean Hgb values, time, and pain for all readings. The mean Hgb values did not differ significantly between the two measurement methods: the mean iHgb value (and standard deviation) was 11.3 ± 1.4 g/dL (range, 8.2 to 14.3 g/dL), and the mean nHgb value was 11.5 ± 1.8 g/dL (range, 7.0 to 16.0 g/dL) (p = 0.11). The CCC between the two Hgb methods was 0.69. One hundred percent of the patients with an nHgb value of ≥ 10.5 g/dL had an iHgb value of >8.0 g/dL. The mean time to obtain an Hgb value was 0.9 minute for the nHgb method and 51.1 minutes for the iHgb method (p measurement, resulting in a savings of $26 per Hgb assessment when the noninvasive method is used. Noninvasive Hgb monitoring was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and preferred by patients compared with iHgb monitoring. Providers could consider screening total joint arthroplasty patients with nHgb monitoring and only order iHgb measurement if the nHgb value is protocol had been applied to the first blood draw in our 100 patients, approximately $2000 would have been saved. Extrapolated to the U.S. total joint arthroplasty practice

  17. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  18. A new rapid method to measure human platelet cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagroop, I Anita; Persaud, Jahm Want; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Platelet cholesterol (PC) could be used to assess "tissue" cholesterol of patients with vascular disease. However, the methods available so far to measure PC involve a complex extraction process. We developed a rapid method to measure PC and assessed its correlation with serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides (TG), and non-HDL-C. We assessed repeatability (20 times, 3 participants) and reproducibility (8 times, 2 participants). A group of 47 healthy participants was studied. Blood was collected to analyze serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. Citrated blood was used to prepare a platelet pellet. A "clear soup" was produced (by disrupting this pellet using freeze-thaw and sonication cycles) and used to measure PC. Repeatability of PC showed a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.8%. The reproducibility of PC over a period of 2 months was CV 7.5% and 8.1% (8 measurements for 2 participants). The PC of participants with serum LDL-C >2.6 mmol/L (treatment goal recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) was 377 ± 120 μmol/10(12) platelets (n = 25). There was a significant correlation (Spearman, correlation coefficient) of PC (n = 25) with serum LDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), LDL-C/HDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), TG (r(s) = 0.43, P = .03), and non-HDL-C (r(s) = 0.53, P = .007). This technique of measuring PC has the advantage of being reproducible, fast, and simpler than previous methods. Thus, it may be useful for multiple sampling when investigating changes in PC in hypercholesterolemic patients. More extensive evaluation is necessary.

  19. Development of a rapid method for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol using Quenchbody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ryoji; Kaigome, Rena [Biomedical Division, Ushio Inc., 1-12 Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855 (Japan); Ohkawa, Hideo [Research Center for Environmental Genomics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko, E-mail: y-konishi@azabu-u.ac.jp [Department of Food and Life Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan)

    2015-08-12

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the antigen-dependent removal of a quenching effect on a fluorophore attached to antibody domains. In order to develop a method using Q-body for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, anti-DON Q-body was synthesized from the sequence information of a monoclonal antibody specific to DON. When the purified anti-DON Q-body was mixed with DON, a dose-dependent increase in the fluorescence intensity was observed and the detection range was between 0.0003 and 3 mg L{sup −1}. The coefficients of variation were 7.9% at 0.003 mg L{sup −1}, 5.0% at 0.03 mg L{sup −1} and 13.7% at 0.3 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.006 mg L{sup −1} for DON in wheat. The Q-body showed an antigen-dependent fluorescence enhancement even in the presence of wheat extracts. To validate the analytical method using Q-body, a spike-and-recovery experiment was performed using four spiked wheat samples. The recoveries were in the range of 94.9–100.2%. The concentrations of DON in twenty-one naturally contaminated wheat samples were quantitated by the Q-body method, LC-MS/MS and an immunochromatographic assay kit. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the levels of DON contamination in the samples were between 0.001 and 2.68 mg kg{sup −1}. The concentrations of DON quantitated by LC-MS/MS were more strongly correlated with those using the Q-body method (R{sup 2} = 0.9760) than the immunochromatographic assay kit (R{sup 2} = 0.8824). These data indicate that the Q-body system for the determination of DON in wheat samples was successfully developed and Q-body is expected to have a range of applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • A rapid method for quantitation of DON using Q-body has been developed. • A recovery test using the anti-DON Q-body was performed. • The concentrations of DON in wheat

  20. A new quantitative method for the rapid evaluation of buildings against earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Amir; Mazaheri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    At the present time there exist numerous weak buildings which are not able to withstand earthquakes. At the same time, both private and public developers are trying to use scientific methods to prioritize and allocate budget in order to reinforce the above mentioned structures. This is because of the limited financial resources and time. In the recent years the procedure of seismic assessment before rehabilitation of vulnerable buildings has been implemented in many countries. Now, it seems logical to reinforce the existing procedures with the mass of available data about the effects caused by earthquakes on buildings. The main idea is driven from FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) in quality management where the main procedure is to recognize the failure, the causes, and the priority of each cause and failure. Specifying the causes and effects which lead to a certain shortcoming in structural behavior during earthquakes, an inventory is developed and each building is rated through a yes-or-no procedure. In this way, the rating of the structure is based on some standard forms which along with relative weights are developed in this study. The resulted criteria by rapid assessment will indicate whether the structure is to be demolished, has a high, medium or low vulnerability or is invulnerable

  1. A METHOD OF RAPID CULTIVATION OF RADISH SEED PLANTS IN PLASTIC POTS OF SMALL-VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cheap and rapid breeding methods to breed  the lines used for  hybrid  F1  production  is a very actual task. The study was carried out with a use of radish varieties originated at VNIISSOK and breeding lines obtained by crossing components of different origin with male  sterility  in  winter  glass  greenhouse.  The  mother plants were grown  on the trays Plantec 64, while seedplants were grown in plastic pots of 1 liter capacity. The some morphobiological features such as the small habitus of see-plant; smaller number of secondary branching and absence of following branches; and consequently, the low yield of seeds were revealed in seed-plants of radish being grown in plastic pots. The period of ontogenesis in radish at first winter-spring rotation with this cultivation approach was reduced to 92 days. At the second summer-autumn rotation with additional lighting the duration of period of ontogenesis was essentially shorter than in the first rotation.  The utilization of  small-volume capacities in winter glass greenhouse to grow the radish seed-plants has permitted to produce two generations a year.

  2. A Novel Rapid MALDI-TOF-MS-Based Method for Measuring Urinary Globotriaosylceramide in Fabry Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Fahad J.; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Hughes, Derralynn A.; Ward, Douglas G.

    2016-04-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-galactosidase A, resulting in the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in various organs. Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and its isoforms and analogues have been identified and quantified as biomarkers of disease severity and treatment efficacy. The current study aimed to establish rapid methods for urinary Gb3 extraction and quantitation. Urine samples from 15 Fabry patients and 21 healthy control subjects were processed to extract Gb3 by mixing equal volumes of urine, methanol containing an internal standard, and chloroform followed by sonication and centrifugation. Thereafter, the lower phase was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the relative peak areas of the internal standard and four major species of Gb3 determined. The results showed high reproducibility with intra- and inter-assay coefficients variation of 9.9% and 13.7%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/μL and the limit of quantitation was 0.30 ng/μL. Total urinary Gb3 levels in both genders of classic Fabry patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Gb3 levels in Fabry males were higher than in Fabry females (p = 0.08). We have established a novel assay for urinary total Gb3 that takes less than 15 min from start to finish.

  3. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan Krinsky

    Full Text Available Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3 and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa. This system was able to produce 40-150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins.

  4. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduri, Maya; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Goldfeder, Mor; Ivanir, Eran; Benhar, Itai; Shoham, Yuval; Schroeder, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa). This system was able to produce 40–150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins. PMID:27768741

  5. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  6. Method for rapid detection and identification of chaetomium and evaluation of resistance to peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Hosoya, Kouichi; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Tsugukuni, Takashi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Imanishi, Yumi; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    In the beverage industry, peracetic acid has been increasingly used as a disinfectant for the filling machinery and environment due to merits of leaving no residue, it is safe for humans, and its antiseptic effect against fungi and endospores of bacteria. Recently, Chaetomium globosum and Chaetomium funicola were reported resistant to peracetic acid; however, little is known concerning the detail of peracetic acid resistance. Therefore, we assessed the peracetic acid resistance of the species of Chaetomium and related genera under identical conditions and made a thorough observation of the microstructure of their ascospores by transmission electron microscopy. The results of analyses revealed that C. globosum and C. funicola showed the high resistance to peracetic acid (a 1-D antiseptic effect after 900 s and 3-D antiseptic effect after 900 s) and had thick cell walls of ascospores that can impede the action mechanism of peracetic acid. We also developed specific primers to detect the C. globosum clade and identify C. funicola by using PCR to amplify the β-tubulin gene. PCR with the primer sets designed for C. globosum (Chae 4F/4R) and C. funicola (Cfu 2F/2R) amplified PCR products specific for the C. globosum clade and C. funicola, respectively. PCR with these two primer sets did not detect other fungi involved in food spoilage and environmental contamination. This detection and identification method is rapid and simple, with extremely high specificity.

  7. New method and installation for rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Gulabyants, Loren; Livshits, Mihail; Kovler, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical apparatus and the experimental installation for the rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials are developed. The single test lasts not longer than 18 h and allows testing numerous materials, such as gaseous and liquid media, as well as soil, concrete and radon-proof membranes, in which diffusion coefficient of radon may vary in an extremely wide range, from 1·10 −12 to 5·10 −5 m 2 /s. The uncertainty of radon diffusion coefficient estimation depends on the permeability of the sample and varies from about 5% (for the most permeable materials) to 40% (for less permeable materials, such as radon-proof membranes). - Highlights: • The new method and installation for determination of radon diffusion coefficient D are developed. • The measured D-values vary in an extremely wide range, from 5×10 -5 to 1×10 -12 m 2 /s. • The materials include water, air, soil, building materials and radon-proof membranes. • The duration of the single test does not exceed 18 hours. • The measurement uncertainty varies from 5% (in permeable materials) to 40% (in radon gas barriers)

  8. Rapid estimation of compost enzymatic activity by spectral analysis method combined with machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Das, Bhabani S; Ali, Md Nasim; Li, Bin; Sarathjith, M C; Majumdar, K; Ray, D P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using visible near-infrared (VisNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) as an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method to predict compost enzymatic activity, which traditionally measured by fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA-HR) assay. Compost samples representative of five different compost facilities were scanned by DRS, and the raw reflectance spectra were preprocessed using seven spectral transformations for predicting compost FDA-HR with six multivariate algorithms. Although principal component analysis for all spectral pretreatments satisfactorily identified the clusters by compost types, it could not separate different FDA contents. Furthermore, the artificial neural network multilayer perceptron (residual prediction deviation=3.2, validation r(2)=0.91 and RMSE=13.38 μg g(-1) h(-1)) outperformed other multivariate models to capture the highly non-linear relationships between compost enzymatic activity and VisNIR reflectance spectra after Savitzky-Golay first derivative pretreatment. This work demonstrates the efficiency of VisNIR DRS for predicting compost enzymatic as well as microbial activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lock-in thermography as a rapid and reproducible thermal characterization method for magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemal, Philipp; Geers, Christoph; Monnier, Christophe A.; Crippa, Federica; Daum, Leopold; Urban, Dominic A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Bonmarin, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.bonmarin@zhaw.ch [Institute of Computational Physics, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Technikumstrasse 9, 8400 Winterthur (Switzerland); Petri-Fink, Alke, E-mail: alke.fink@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Museé 9, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Moore, Thomas L., E-mail: thomaslee.moore@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    Lock-in thermography (LIT) is a sensitive imaging technique generally used in engineering and materials science (e.g. detecting defects in composite materials). However, it has recently been expanded for investigating the heating power of nanomaterials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Here we implement LIT as a rapid and reproducible method that can evaluate the heating potential of various sizes of SPIONs under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), as well as the limits of detection for each particle size. SPIONs were synthesized via thermal decomposition and stabilized in water via a ligand transfer process. Thermographic measurements of SPIONs were made by stimulating particles of varying sizes and increasing concentrations under an AMF. Furthermore, a commercially available SPION sample was included as an external reference. While the size dependent heating efficiency of SPIONs has been previously described, our objective was to probe the sensitivity limits of LIT. For certain size regimes it was possible to detect signals at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg Fe/mL. Measuring at different concentrations enabled a linear regression analysis and extrapolation of the limit of detection for different size nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A multi-sample screening assessment of magnetic nanoparticle thermal characteristics is shown via lock-in thermography. • Lower concentration limit of nanoparticle detection based on particle size is proposed. • A commercially available reference sample indicates the stability and reproducibility of LIT.

  10. Method and apparatus for rapid adjustment of process gas inventory in gaseous diffusion cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.H.; Fowler, A.H.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved method and system for making relatively large and rapid adjustments in the process gas inventory of an electrically powered gaseous diffusion cascade in order to accommodate scheduled changes in the electrical power available for cascade operation. In the preferred form of the invention, the cascade is readied for a decrease in electrical input by simultaneously withdrawing substreams of the cascade B stream into respective process-gas-freezing and storage zones while decreasing the datum-pressure inputs to the positioning systems for the cascade control valves in proportion to the weight of process gas so removed. Consequently, the control valve positions are substantially unchanged by the reduction in invention, and there is minimal disturbance of the cascade isotopic gradient. The cascade is readied for restoration of the power cut by simultaneously evaporating the solids in the freezing zones to regenerate the process gas substreams and introducing them to the cascade A stream while increasing the aforementioned datum pressure inputs in proportion to the weight of process gas so returned. In the preferred form of the system for accomplishing these operations, heat exchangers are provided for freezing, storing, and evaporating the various substreams. Preferably, the heat exchangers are connected to use existing cascade auxiliary systems as a heat sink. A common control is employed to adjust and coordinate the necessary process gas transfers and datum pressure adjustments

  11. HPLC method for rapidly following biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction progress using a core-shell column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Samuel J; Ott, Lisa S

    2012-07-01

    There are a wide and growing variety of feedstocks for biodiesel fuel. Most commonly, these feedstocks contain triglycerides which are transesterified into the fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) which comprise biodiesel fuel. While the tranesterification reaction itself is simple, monitoring the reaction progress and reaction products is not. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is useful for assessing the FAAE products, but does not directly address either the tri-, di-, or monoglycerides present from incomplete transesterification or the free fatty acids which may also be present. Analysis of the biodiesel reaction mixture is complicated by the solubility and physical property differences among the components of the tranesterification reaction mixture. In this contribution, we present a simple, rapid HPLC method which allows for monitoring all of the main components in a biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction, with specific emphasis on the ability to monitor the reaction as a function of time. The utilization of a relatively new, core-shell stationary phase for the HPLC column allows for efficient separation of peaks with short elution times, saving both time and solvent.

  12. Arbitrarily primed PCR- A rapid and simple method for typing of leptospiral serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadass P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR for typing of leptospiral serovars. METHODS: AP-PCR was adopted for identification of laboratory strains of leptospires and leptospiral cultures at serovar level. A primer of 12 bp was used for amplifying DNA of 13 laboratory strains of leptospires as well as culture pellets of leptospires. RESULTS: Each serovar produced distinct DNA fingerprint which was characteristic for each serovar. These patterns were used for typing of 81 serum culture samples obtained from human leptospiral cases. Of these samples, 39 could be typed based on AP-PCR fingerprints belonging to serovars autumnalis, pomona, canicola, javanica, icterohaemorrhagiae, patoc and pyrogenes. These results were confirmed by RAPD fingerprinting of the DNA samples of the respective leptospiral serovars after culturing -FNx01them in EMJH media. One of the important findings of this work was that straight culture sample could be used for AP-PCR assay, without purification of DNA. By having more number of AP-PCR reference fingerprints, more serovars could be typed. CONCLUSIONS: AP-PCR technique provides great potential for simple and rapid identification of leptospires at serovar level, which could be useful in molecular epidemiological studies of leptospirosis.

  13. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  14. Improvements in fast-neutron spectroscopy methods (1961); Amelioration des methodes de spectrometrie des neutrons rapides (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambou, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    This research aimed at improving fast-neutron electronic detectors based on n-p elastic scattering. The first part concerns proportional counters; careful constructional methods have made it possible to plot mono-energetic neutron spectra in the range 700 keV - 3 MeV with a resolution of 7 per cent. The second part concerns scintillation counters: an organic scintillator and an inorganic scintillator covered with a thin layer of a scattering agent. An exact study of the types of scintillation has made it possible to develop efficient discriminator circuits. Different neutron spectra plotted in the presence of a strong gamma background are presented. The last part deals with the development of form discrimination methods for the study, in the actual beam, of the elastic scattering of 14.58 MeV electrons. With hydrogen, the distribution f ({phi}) of the recoil protons is f({phi}) = 1 + 0.034 cos {phi} + 0.042 cos{sup 2} {phi}. With tritium the scattering is strongly anisotropic; the curve representing the variation of the differential cross-section for the elastic scattering in the centre of mass system is obtained with a target containing 1 cm{sup 3} of tritium. (author) [French] Le travail a porte sur l'amelioration des detecteurs electroniques de neutrons rapides bases sur la diffusion elastique n-p. La premiere partie est relative aux compteurs proportionnels; des methodes soignees de fabrication ont permis des traces de spectres de neutrons monoenergetiques dans le domaine 700 keV - 3 MeV avec une resolution de 7 pour cent. La deuxieme partie est relative au compteur a scintillations; scintillateur organique et scintillateur mineral recouvert d'un diffuseur mince. Une etude precise des formes de scintillations a permis la mise au point de circuits discriminateurs efficaces. Differents spectres de neutrons traces en presence d'un fond gamma intense sont presentes. La derniere partie est relative a la mise en oeuvre des methodes de discrimination de forme pour l

  15. Applying polarity rapid assessment method and ultrafiltration to characterize NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Leavey, Shannon; Krasner, Stuart W; Mel Suffet, I H

    2014-06-15

    Certain nitrosamines in water are disinfection byproducts that are probable human carcinogens. Nitrosamines have diverse and complex precursors that include effluent organic matter, some anthropogenic chemicals, and natural (likely non-humic) substances. An easy and selective tool was first developed to characterize nitrosamine precursors in treated wastewaters, including different process effluents. This tool takes advantages of the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and ultrafiltration (UF) (molecular weight distribution) to locate the fractions with the strongest contributions to the nitrosamine precursor pool in the effluent organic matter. Strong cation exchange (SCX) and C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for their high selectivity for nitrosamine precursors. The details of PRAM operation, such as cartridge clean-up, capacity, pH influence, and quality control were included in this paper, as well as the main parameters of UF operation. Preliminary testing of the PRAM/UF method with effluents from one wastewater treatment plant gave very informative results. SCX retained 45-90% of the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (FP)-a measure of the precursors-in secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents. These results are consistent with NDMA precursors likely having a positively charged amine group. C18 adsorbed 30-45% of the NDMAFP, which indicates that a substantial portion of these precursors were non-polar. The small molecular weight (MW) (10 kDa) fractions obtained from UF were the primary contributors to NDMAFP. The combination of PRAM and UF brings important information on the characteristics of nitrosamine precursors in water with easy operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers.

  17. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu R; Patil, Yogesh; Singh, Dipty

    2016-01-01

    in this study. The embryonic zebrafish model is recommended as a well-established method for rapidly assessing the toxicity of homeopathic drugs. PMID:28127503

  18. Rapid screening method for male DNA by using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Kubo, Seiji; Tanaka, Jin; Adachi, Tatsushi

    2017-08-12

    Screening for male-derived biological material from collected samples plays an important role in criminal investigations, especially those involving sexual assaults. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting multi-repeat sequences of the Y chromosome for detecting male DNA. Successful amplification occurred with 0.5 ng of male DNA under isothermal conditions of 61 to 67 °C, but no amplification occurred with up to 10 ng of female DNA. Under the optimized conditions, the LAMP reaction initiated amplification within 10 min and amplified for 20 min. The LAMP reaction was sensitive at levels as low as 1-pg male DNA, and a quantitative LAMP assay could be developed because of the strong correlation between the reaction time and the amount of template DNA in the range of 10 pg to 10 ng. Furthermore, to apply the LAMP assay to on-site screening for male-derived samples, we evaluated a protocol using a simple DNA extraction method and a colorimetric intercalating dye that allows detection of the LAMP reaction by evaluating the change in color of the solution. Using this protocol, samples of male-derived blood and saliva stains were processed in approximately 30 min from DNA extraction to detection. Because our protocol does not require much hands-on time or special equipment, this LAMP assay promises to become a rapid and simple screening method for male-derived samples in forensic investigations.

  19. Novel Sample Preparation Method for Safe and Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Powders and Nasal Swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra; Davis, Carisa; Rycerz, Tony; Ewert, Matthew; Cannons, Andrew; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores have been used as a biological weapon in the United States. We wanted to develop a safe, rapid method of sample preparation that provided safe DNA for the detection of spores in environmental and clinical specimens. Our method reproducibly detects B. anthracis in samples containing

  20. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in western Oregon vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from previous studies to provide growers and IPM consultants with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor for rust mites in vineyards. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from collected plant parts (sh...

  1. Development of rapid hemocyte-based extraction methods for detection of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus in contaminated oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human enteric pathogens, hepatitis A virus and human norovirus, have been shown to contaminate molluscan shellfish and cause foodborne disease in consumers. Rapid viral extraction methods are needed to replace current time consuming methods, which use whole oysters or dissected tissues. In our ...

  2. Fermentation performance of engineered and evolved xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, M.; Jeppsson, M.; Larsson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Lignocellulose hydrolysate is an abundant substrate for bioethanol production. The ideal microorganism for such a fermentation process should combine rapid and efficient conversion of the available carbon sources to ethanol with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components in the hydrol......Lignocellulose hydrolysate is an abundant substrate for bioethanol production. The ideal microorganism for such a fermentation process should combine rapid and efficient conversion of the available carbon sources to ethanol with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components...... in the hydrolysate. A particular biological problem are the pentoses, which are not naturally metabolized by the main industrial ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several recombinant, mutated, and evolved xylose fermenting S. cerevisiae strains have been developed recently. We compare here the fermentation...

  3. ADVANTAGES OF RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING SCALE MASS AND DECARBURIZED LAYER OF ROLLED COIL STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Parusov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the universal empirical relationships that allow for operational calculation of scale mass and decarbonized layer depth based on the parameters of the technological process for rolled coil steel production. Methodology. The research is carried out on the industrial batches of the rolled steel of SAE 1006 and SAE 1065 grades. Scale removability was determined in accordance with the procedure of «Bekaert» company by the specifi-cations: GA-03-16, GA-03-18, GS-03-02, GS-06-01. The depth of decarbonized layer was identified in accordance with GOST 1763-68 (M method. Findings. Analysis of experimental data allowed us to determine the rational temperature of coil formation of the investigated steel grades, which provide the best possible removal of scale from the metal surface, a minimal amount of scale, as well as compliance of the metal surface color with the require-ments of European consumers. Originality. The work allowed establishing correlation of the basic quality indicators of the rolled coil high carbon steel (scale mass, depth of decarbonized layer and inter-laminar distance in pearlite with one of the main parameters (coil formation temperature of the deformation and heat treatment mode. The re-sulting regression equations, without metallographic analysis, can be used to determine, with a minimum error, the quantitative values of the total scale mass, depth of decarbonized layer and the average inter-lamellar distance in pearlite of the rolled coil high carbon steel. Practical value. Based on the specifications of «Bekaert» company (GA-03-16, GA-03-18, GS-03-02 and GS-06-01 the method of testing descaling by mechanical means from the surface of the rolled coil steel of low- and high-carbon steel grades was developed and approved in the environment of PJSC «ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih». The work resulted in development of the rapid method for determination of total and remaining scale mass on the rolled coil steel

  4. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  5. Cherenkov imaging method for rapid optimization of clinical treatment geometry in total skin electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org; Glaser, Adam K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Gladstone, David J.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Jarvis, Lesley A., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: A method was developed utilizing Cherenkov imaging for rapid and thorough determination of the two gantry angles that produce the most uniform treatment plane during dual-field total skin electron beam therapy (TSET). Methods: Cherenkov imaging was implemented to gather 2D measurements of relative surface dose from 6 MeV electron beams on a white polyethylene sheet. An intensified charge-coupled device camera time-gated to the Linac was used for Cherenkov emission imaging at sixty-two different gantry angles (1° increments, from 239.5° to 300.5°). Following a modified Stanford TSET technique, which uses two fields per patient position for full body coverage, composite images were created as the sum of two beam images on the sheet; each angle pair was evaluated for minimum variation across the patient region of interest. Cherenkov versus dose correlation was verified with ionization chamber measurements. The process was repeated at source to surface distance (SSD) = 441, 370.5, and 300 cm to determine optimal angle spread for varying room geometries. In addition, three patients receiving TSET using a modified Stanford six-dual field technique with 6 MeV electron beams at SSD = 441 cm were imaged during treatment. Results: As in previous studies, Cherenkov intensity was shown to directly correlate with dose for homogenous flat phantoms (R{sup 2} = 0.93), making Cherenkov imaging an appropriate candidate to assess and optimize TSET setup geometry. This method provided dense 2D images allowing 1891 possible treatment geometries to be comprehensively analyzed from one data set of 62 single images. Gantry angles historically used for TSET at their institution were 255.5° and 284.5° at SSD = 441 cm; however, the angles optimized for maximum homogeneity were found to be 252.5° and 287.5° (+6° increase in angle spread). Ionization chamber measurements confirmed improvement in dose homogeneity across the treatment field from a range of 24.4% at the initial

  6. Development of Novel Method for Rapid Extract of Radionuclides from Solution Using Polymer Ligand Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jung H.

    Accurate and fast determination of the activity of radionuclides in a sample is critical for nuclear forensics and emergency response. Radioanalytical techniques are well established for radionuclides measurement, however, they are slow and labor intensive, requiring extensive radiochemical separations and purification prior to analysis. With these limitations of current methods, there is great interest for a new technique to rapidly process samples. This dissertation describes a new analyte extraction medium called Polymer Ligand Film (PLF) developed to rapidly extract radionuclides. Polymer Ligand Film is a polymer medium with ligands incorporated in its matrix that selectively and rapidly extract analytes from a solution. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure necessary to chemically isolate radionuclides for determination by alpha spectrometry or beta counting. Five different ligands were tested for plutonium extraction: bis(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP]), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), trialkyl methylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), 4,4'(5')-di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), and 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (HEH[EHP]). The ligands that were effective for plutonium extraction further studied for uranium extraction. The plutonium recovery by PLFs has shown dependency on nitric acid concentration and ligand to total mass ratio. H2DEH[MDP] PLFs performed best with 1:10 and 1:20 ratio PLFs. 50.44% and 47.61% of plutonium were extracted on the surface of PLFs with 1M nitric acid for 1:10 and 1:20 PLF, respectively. HDEHP PLF provided the best combination of alpha spectroscopy resolution and plutonium recovery with 1:5 PLF when used with 0.1M nitric acid. The overall analyte recovery was lower than electrodeposited samples, which typically has recovery above 80%. However, PLF is designed to be a rapid field deployable screening technique and consistency is more important

  7. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Babu Imandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus, the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  8. A rapid detection method using flow cytometry to monitor the risk of Legionella in bath water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguri, Toshitsugu; Oda, Yasunori; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishikawa, Toru; Endo, Takuro; Izumiyama, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Kura, Fumiaki

    2011-07-01

    Legionella species are the causative agents of human legionellosis, and bathing facilities have been identified as the sources of infection in several outbreaks in Japan. Researchers in Japan have recently reported evidence of significant associations between bacterial counts and the occurrence of Legionella in bathing facilities and in a hot tub model. A convenient and quantitative bacterial enumeration method is therefore required as an indicator of Legionella contamination or disinfection to replace existing methods such as time-consuming Legionella culture and expensive Legionella-DNA amplification. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method (RDM) to monitor the risk of Legionella using an automated microbial analyzing device based on flow cytometry techniques to measure the total number of bacteria in water samples within two minutes, by detecting typical patterns of scattered light and fluorescence. We first compared the results of our RDM with plate counting results for five filtered hot spring water samples spiked with three species of bacteria, including Legionella. Inactivation of these samples by chlorine was also assessed by the RDM, a live/dead bacterial fluorescence assay and plate counting. Using the RDM, the lower limit of quantitative bacterial counts in the spiked samples was determined as 3.0×10(3)(3.48log)counts mL(-1). We then used a laboratory model of a hot tub and found that the RDM could monitor the growth curve of naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria with 1 and 2 days' delayed growth of amoeba and Legionella, respectively, and could also determine the killing curve of these bacteria by chlorination. Finally, samples with ≥3.48 or bacterial counts mL(-1) were tested using the RDM from 149 different hot tubs, and were found to be significantly associated with the positive or negative detection of Legionella with 95% sensitivity and 84% specificity. These findings indicated that the RDM can be used for Legionella control at

  9. A rapid mini-prep DNA extraction method in rice (Oryza sativa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... homogenizer with a plastic tip is incomplete, since the leaves of these plants .... mortar and pestle with liquid nitrogen and transferred to a tube. ... rapid DNA extraction protocols for gymnosperms for application in population ...

  10. A rapid and simple separation method of Tc-99 in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) is one of the important elements on safety evaluation of reprocessing plant and waste disposal plant, because it is a long half-life nuclide and large fission yield (about 6%) from 235 U and 239 Pu. We studied in this work a rapid and simple separation method of 99 Tc in water samples by ICP-MS. Tc in 2 litre of inland water or 1.5 litre of sea water sample solutions was condensed and separated by mini-column resin (TEVA·Spec resin) (Eichrom Co., Ltd.). The experimental results showed the best conditions as followed that 1) after controlling 0.1M nitric acid sample solution, passed it through the column, 2) then the inhibitory elements such as Ru are removed by 40 ml of 2M nitric acid solution, and 3) Tc was recovered by 4 ml of 8M nitric acid solution. 95% or more recovery of Tc was obtained. 100% Ru, an inhibited element of ICP-MS, was removed. The elute obtained from 4 ml of 8M nitric acid solution was diluted ten times with pure water and 99 Tc was measured by ICP-MS. The limit of detection of 2 litre inland water and 1.5 litre sea water were 3 mBql -1 and 4 mBql -1 , respectively. The organic compounds were not removed before running to column, because the concentration of organic compounds was not so large. When large amounts of them are contained, they should be removed. If suspended materials absorb Tc, Tc should be changed to TcO 4 - . (S.Y.)

  11. Rapid and simple method for quantitative evaluation of neurocytotoxic effects of radiation on developing medaka brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takako; Maeda, Keiko; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Maruyama, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Yoshimoto, Masami

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel method for rapid and quantitative evaluation of the degree of radiation-induced apoptosis in the developing brain of medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryos at stage 28 were irradiated with 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 Gy x-ray. Living embryos were stained with a vital dye, acridine orange (AO), for 1-2 h, and whole-mount brains were examined under an epifluorescence microscope. From 7 to 10 h after irradiation with 5 Gy x-ray, we found two morphologically different types of AO-stained structures, namely, small single nuclei and rosette-shaped nuclear clusters. Electron microscopy revealed that these two distinct types of structures were single apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei and aggregates of apoptotic cells, respectively. From 10 to 30 h after irradiation, a similar AO-staining pattern was observed. The numbers of AO-stained rosette-shaped nuclear clusters and AO-stained single nuclei increased in a dose-dependent manner in the optic tectum. We used the number of AO-stained rosette-shaped nuclear clusters/optic tectum as an index of the degree of radiation-induced brain cell death at 20-24 h after irradiation. The results showed that the number of rosette-shaped nuclear clusters/optic tectum in irradiated embryos exposed to 2 Gy or higher doses was highly significant compared to the number in nonirradiated control embryos, whereas no difference was detected at 1 Gy. Thus, the threshold dose for brain cell death in medaka embryos was taken as being between 1-2 Gy, which may not be so extraordinarily large compared to those for rodents and humans. The results show that medaka embryos are useful for quantitative evaluation of developmental neurocytotoxic effects of radiation. (author)

  12. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Rapid radiological characterization method based on the use of dose coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Toma, Al.; Dobrin, R.; Valeca, M.

    2010-01-01

    Intervention actions in case of radiological emergencies and exploratory radiological surveys require rapid methods for the evaluation of the range and extent of contamination. When simple and homogeneous radionuclide composition characterize the radioactive contamination, surrogate measurements can be used to reduce the costs implied by laboratory analyses and to speed-up the process of decision support. A dose-rate measurement-based methodology can be used in conjunction with adequate dose coefficients to assess radionuclide inventories and to calculate dose projections for various intervention scenarios. The paper presents the results obtained for dose coefficients in some particular exposure geometries and the methodology used for deriving dose rate guidelines from activity concentration upper levels specified as contamination limits. All calculations were performed by using the commercial software MicroShield from Grove Software Inc. A test case was selected as to meet the conditions from EPA Federal Guidance Report no. 12 (FGR12) concerning the evaluation of dose coefficients for external exposure from contaminated soil and the obtained results were compared to values given in the referred document. The geometries considered as test cases are: contaminated ground surface; - infinite extended homogeneous surface contamination and soil contaminated to a depth of 15 cm. As shown by the results, the values agree within 50% relative difference for most of the cases. The greatest discrepancies were observed for depth contamination simulation and in the case of radionuclides with complicated gamma emission and this is due to the different approach from MicroShield and FGR12. A case study is presented for validation of the methodology, where both dose rate measurements and laboratory analyses were performed on an extended quasi-homogeneous NORM contamination. The dose rate estimations obtained by applying the dose coefficients to the radionuclide concentrations

  14. Detection - NIR, Luminescence and Other Rapid Methods-Pit Falls and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of rapid, on-site biological detectors over the last 15 years has caused confusion within the user community and in some cases a diversion of resources. There remains no panacea; all systems have issues and no system provides the total answer. In 1995, with much enthusiasm, members of a US National Lab presented a mock-up of a hand held Biological Detector. This system, compared to a 'Tricorder' from science fiction, was envisioned to be available within 5 years. It would be able to scan a substance and within minutes provide an answer. Clearly that remains the goal of detector programs, but unfortunately science is the limiting factor. There are technologies, such as fluorescence and luminescence that provide minimally acceptable results when utilizing a defined bio-air sample. Many of these systems are also expensive, limiting their utility. But when these FLAPS, BARTS, BAWS, BioLerts and other are challenged with dirty or non-aerosol samples, they begin to have problems. With the relatively high cost of test kits, the significant number of potential hoax or negative samples; the issue of usefulness versus performance versus cost has further complicated the environment. Consequently, the utilization of cost effective, simple screening systems is needed for on site use. The current trend is to determine cost effective approaches to triage samples prior to in depth analysis. Therefore, a pH test, protein strip and Bioluminescence screen can indicate threat/non-threat prior to in-depth analysis. Experiences from 2001/2002 indicate over 90% of the first responder events are hoax related. Adapting the paradigm, screening out negatives become a priority. Near Infra Red (NIR) has been utilized in chemical agent detection and has been recently utilized to identify powders, salts, sugars and numerous potential hoax samples. The system is a non-destructive screening method that can be integrated with other technologies as a front end triage system

  15. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form.

  16. DNA comet assay as a rapid detection method of irradiated bovine meat by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, Nelida Simona; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The presence in food of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Salmonella species, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes or Yersinia enterolitica, is a problem of growing concern to public health authorities all over the world. Thus, irradiation of certain prepackaged meat products such as ground beef, minced meat, and hamburgers may help in controlling meatborne pathogens and parasites. Pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in meat products, which are commonly consumed raw, are of particular importance, Up to now, only electron-beam accelerators and gamma-ray cells have been used for commercial applications. At the international conference on 'The Acceptance, Control of, and Trade in Irradiated Food', it was recommended that governments should encourage research into detection methods (Anon, 1989), Already five international standards are available to food control agencies. A number of physical, chemical, and biological techniques of detection of irradiated foods have been discussed in the literature. A rapid and inexpensive screening test employing DNA Comet Assay to identify radiation treatment of food has been described by Cerda et al. (1997). This method is restricted to foods that have not been subjected to heat or other treatments, which also induce DNA fragmentation. Advantages are its simplicity, low cost and speed of measurement. This method was proposed to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) as a screening protocol (presumptive) and not as a proof (definitive). The DNA comet assay have been yielded good results with chicken, pork, fish meat, exotic meat, hamburgers, fruits and cereals. In this work we studied a DNA fragmentation of bovine meat irradiated by electron beam. Experimental: Bovine meat was purchased in local shops in Sao Paulo. Irradiation was performed with electron beam of accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA). The irradiation doses were 3,5; 4,5, 5,5, and 7

  17. Rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Shukla, V.K.; Singh, A.N.; Nair, C.K.G.; Hingorani, S.B.; Dey, N.N.; Jha, S.K.; Rao, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    surface barrier detector, in close agreement. Presently the liquid scintillation counter is used with discriminator settling adjusted to count Pu alpha pulses and also the output from the liquid scintillator is connected to a 2K MCA to see the alpha spectrum. The unit at present does not have the Pulse Shape Analyser (PSA) unit which is being planned to be incorporated in the system to improve the resolution. The work is in progress for direct extraction to a liquid scintillation cocktail containing extracting reagents like high mol. amine (TIOA) and Di2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid and then count by liquid scintillation counting. Solvent extraction using specific reagent and then direct liquid scintillation counting is being investigated as a general rapid method for beta and alpha emitters in environmental samples

  18. Continuous fermentation of carbohydrate-containing liquids to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldenhauer, O; Lechner, R

    1955-08-25

    Rate of alcohol fermentation depends mostly on the biological state of the yeast. The process described avoids retardation during the final fermentation phase by increasing the concentration of yeast as the fermentation proceeds. The method is especially suitable for dilute carbohydrate solutions. Thus, to a solution containing 4% carbohydrates, 66 g pressed yeast was added. This mash was passed continuously through several fermentation vessels. The temperature was adjusted to 29 to 35 degrees according to the type of yeast. Before entering the next vessel, another portion of pressed yeast (66 g/1 of mash) is added. The yeast is recovered from the fermented mash by means of a yeast separator.

  19. Continuous fermentation of carbohydrate-containing liquids to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldenhauer, O; Lechner, R

    1955-08-29

    Rate of alcohol fermentation depends mostly on the biological state of the yeast. The process described avoids retardation during the final fermentation phase by increasing the concentration of yeast as the fermentation proceeds. The method is especially suitable for dilute carbohydrate solutions. Thus, to a solution containing 4% carbohydrates, 66 g pressed yeast was added. This mash was passed continuously through several fermentation vessels. The temperature was adjusted to 29 to 35/sup 0/ according to the type of yeast. Before entering the next vessel, another portion of pressed yeast (66 g/l of mash) is added. The yeast is recovered from the fermented mash by means of a yeast separator.

  20. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CONVENTIONAL VERSUS RAPID METHODS FOR AMPLIFIABLE GENOMIC DNA ISOLATION OF CULTURED Azospirillum sp. JG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalis Norma Ethica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an initial attempt to reveal genetic information of Azospirillum sp. JG3 strain, which is still absence despite of the strains' ability in producing valued enzymes, two groups of conventional methods: lysis-enzyme and column-kit; and two rapid methods: thermal disruption and intact colony were evaluated. The aim is to determine the most practical method for obtaining high-grade PCR product using degenerate primers as part of routine-basis protocols for studying the molecular genetics of the Azospirillal bacteria. The evaluation includes the assessment of electrophoresis gel visualization, pellet appearance, preparation time, and PCR result of extracted genomic DNA from each method. Our results confirmed that the conventional methods were more superior to the rapid methods in generating genomic DNA isolates visible on electrophoresis gel. However, modification made in the previously developed DNA isolation protocol giving the simplest and most rapid method of all methods used in this study for extracting PCR-amplifiable DNA of Azospirillum sp. JG3. Intact bacterial cells (intact colony loaded on electrophoresis gel could present genomic DNA band, but could not be completely amplified by PCR without thermal treatment. It can also be inferred from our result that the 3 to 5-min heating in dH2O step is critical for the pre-treatment of colony PCR of Azospirillal cells.

  1. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  2. Comparing rapid methods for detecting Listeria in seafood and environmental samples using the most probably number (MPN) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristina D; Win, Jessicah K; Chantarachoti, Jiraporn; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Fletcher, Graham C

    2012-02-15

    The standard Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) protocol for detecting Listeria in food and on environmental surfaces takes about 96 h. Some studies indicate that rapid methods, which produce results within 48 h, may be as sensitive and accurate as the culture protocol. As they only give presence/absence results, it can be difficult to compare the accuracy of results generated. We used the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique to evaluate the performance and detection limits of six rapid kits for detecting Listeria in seafood and on an environmental surface compared with the standard protocol. Three seafood products and an environmental surface were inoculated with similar known cell concentrations of Listeria and analyzed according to the manufacturers' instructions. The MPN was estimated using the MPN-BAM spreadsheet. For the seafood products no differences were observed among the rapid kits and efficiency was similar to the BAM method. On the environmental surface the BAM protocol had a higher recovery rate (sensitivity) than any of the rapid kits tested. Clearview™, Reveal®, TECRA® and VIDAS® LDUO detected the cells but only at high concentrations (>10(2) CFU/10 cm(2)). Two kits (VIP™ and Petrifilm™) failed to detect 10(4) CFU/10 cm(2). The MPN method was a useful tool for comparing the results generated by these presence/absence test kits. There remains a need to develop a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Listeria in environmental samples that performs as well as the BAM protocol, since none of the rapid tests used in this study achieved a satisfactory result. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The method of rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a methodology for the rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports. This methodology includes an analysis of the possibilities of using blocks from the park pontoon PP-64 as a support for the floating folding DMS-65 bridge, built as a tem-porary crossing for civilian application. The analysis was carried out for the bridge loaded with a moving vehicle. The results of this analysis have been developed in the form of nomograms that enable rapid development of crossings in different structural systems.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, folding bridges, floating supports

  4. The method of rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Marszałek; Mieczysław Piechota

    2016-01-01

    The article includes a methodology for the rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports. This methodology includes an analysis of the possibilities of using blocks from the park pontoon PP-64 as a support for the floating folding DMS-65 bridge, built as a tem-porary crossing for civilian application. The analysis was carried out for the bridge loaded with a moving vehicle. The results of this analysis have been developed in the form of nomograms that enable rapid development ...

  5. Direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation of the possibilities of direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in the commercial and kombucha-based fermented milk products by flame photometry. Two procedures were used for sample preparation: simple dilution with water (direct method and extraction with mineral acid. Calcium, sodium and potassium levels determined after mentioned sample preparation methods were compared. The results showed that the differences between the values obtained for the different sample treatment were within the experimental error at the 95% confidence level. Compared to the method based on extraction with mineral acid, the direct method is efficient, faster, simpler, cheaper, and operates according to the principles of Green Chemistry. Consequently, the proposed method for the direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium could be applied for the rapid routine analysis of the mineral content in the fermented dairy products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  6. New method for the rapid extraction of natural products: efficient isolation of shikimic acid from star anise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Jeremy; Deans, Bianca J; Olivier, Wesley J; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-05-15

    A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives.

  7. Direct PCR - A rapid method for multiplexed detection of different serotypes of Salmonella in enriched pork meat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Wai Hoe; Sun, Yi; Høgberg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    , in this study, we developed a multiplex Direct PCR method for rapid detection of different Salmonella serotypes directly from pork meat samples without any DNA purification steps. An inhibitor-resistant Phusion Pfu DNA polymerase was used to overcome PCR inhibition. Four pairs of primers including a pair...

  8. A simple Pichia pastoris fermentation and downstream processing strategy for making recombinant pandemic Swine Origin Influenza a virus Hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaram, T N; Singh, Anil Kumar; Saraswat, Shweta; Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Princi; Kameswara Rao, M; Gopalan, N; Rao, P V L

    2013-02-01

    The present Influenza vaccine manufacturing process has posed a clear impediment to initiation of rapid mass vaccination against spreading pandemic influenza. New vaccine strategies are therefore needed that can accelerate the vaccine production. Pichia offers several advantages for rapid and economical bulk production of recombinant proteins and, hence, can be attractive alternative for producing an effective influenza HA based subunit vaccine. The recombinant Pichia harboring the transgene was subjected to fed-batch fermentation at 10 L scale. A simple fermentation and downstream processing strategy is developed for high-yield secretory expression of the recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A virus using Pichia pastoris via fed-batch fermentation. Expression and purification were optimized and the expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and MALDI-TOF analysis. In this paper, we describe a fed-batch fermentation protocol for the secreted production of Swine Influenza A Hemagglutinin protein in the P. pastoris GS115 strain. We have shown that there is a clear relationship between product yield and specific growth rate. The fed-batch fermentation and downstream processing methods optimized in the present study have immense practical application for high-level production of the recombinant H1N1 HA protein in a cost effective way using P. pastoris.

  9. Controlling alchohol fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leedham, P A; Tubb, R S

    1983-09-21

    In the initial stages of a fermentation of carbohydrate to EtOH, the growth of the yeast is controlled by monitoring the pH of a fermenting liquid or wort and controlling the supply of O/sub 2/ in accordance with the pH. The temperature of the fermenting liquid is also controlled in dependence upon the pH. The control of the fermentation process is carried out automatically by an apparatus including a fermentation vessel, a pH sensor arranged to provide an output signal representative of the pH of the liquid in the vessel, memory means to store information on the required pH with regard to the fermentation time, means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid and control means to compare the output signal of the pH sensor at a particular time with that of the required pH at that time, and in the event of the pH of the fermenting liquid lagging behind that required, actuate the means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid to increase the O/sub 2/ content of the fermenting liquid.

  10. RAPD-PCR characterization of lactobacilli isolated from artisanal meat plants and traditional fermented sausages of Veneto region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, C; Zampese, L; Lombardi, A

    2001-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) as a method for the identification of lactobacilli isolated from meat products. RAPD-PCR with primers M13 and D8635 was applied to the identification and intraspecific differentiation of 53 lactobacilli isolates originating from traditional fermented sausages and artisanal meat plants of the Veneto region (Italy). Most of the isolates were assigned to the species Lactobacillus sakei and Lact. curvatus; differentiation of groups of strains within the species was also possible. RAPD-PCR could be applied to the identification of lactobacilli species most commonly found in meat products. The method, which is easy and rapid to perform, could be useful for the study of the lactobacilli populations present in fermented sausages, and could help in the selection of candidate strains to use as starter cultures in meat fermentation.

  11. The Application of State-of-the-Art Analytic Tools (Biosensors and Spectroscopy in Beverage and Food Fermentation Process Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaneel Chandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of several agricultural products and foods are linked with fermentation. Traditional methods used to control and monitor the quality of the products and processes are based on the use of simple chemical analysis. However, these methods are time-consuming and do not provide sufficient relevant information to guarantee the chemical changes during the process. Commonly used methods applied in the agriculture and food industries to monitor fermentation are those based on simple or single-point sensors, where only one parameter is measured (e.g., temperature or density. These sensors are used several times per day and are often the only source of data available from which the conditions and rate of fermentation are monitored. In the modern food industry, an ideal method to control and monitor the fermentation process should enable a direct, rapid, precise, and accurate determination of several target compounds, with minimal to no sample preparation or reagent consumption. Here, state-of-the-art advancements in both the application of sensors and analytical tools to monitor beverage and food fermentation processes will be discussed.

  12. Comparing different methods for fast screening of microbiological quality of beach sand aimed at rapid-response remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Renan C; Almeida, Tito C M; Polette, Marcus; Branco, Joaquim O; Fischer, Larissa L; Niero, Guilherme; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Silva, Valéria C; Somensi, Cleder A; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Corrêa, Rogério; Rörig, Leonardo R; Itokazu, Ana Gabriela; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-05-15

    There is scientific evidence that beach sands are a significant contributor to the pathogen load to which visitors are exposed. To develop beach quality guidelines all beach zones must be included in microbiological evaluations, but monitoring methods for beach sand quality are relatively longstanding, expensive, laborious and require moderate laboratory infrastructure. This paper aimed to evaluate the microorganism activity in different beach zones applying and comparing a classical method of membrane filtration (MF) with two colorimetric screening methods based on fluorescein (FDA) and tetrazolium (TTC) salt biotransformation to evaluate a new rapid and low-cost method for beach sand microbiological contamination assessments. The colorimetric results can help beach managers to evaluate rapidly and at low cost the microbiological quality of different beach zones in order to decide whether remedial actions need to be adopted to prevent exposure of the public to microbes due to beach sand and/or water contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-medicated transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plan...

  14. 1 H-NMR metabolomics: Profiling method for a rapid and efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal component analysis was used to separate groups of samples and to relate known and unknown metabolites to transgenic events. The screening of 100 samples, from extraction to data mining, took 36 h. Thus, this procedure allows the rapid selection of metabolic phenotypes of interest among about 30 transgenic ...

  15. Rapid prototyping tools and methods for all-Topas (R) cyclic olefin copolymer fluidic microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Frederik; Perozziello, Gerardo; Geschke, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    , good machinability, and good optical properties. A number of different processes for rapid and low-cost prototyping of all-Topas microfluidic systems, made with desktop machinery, are presented. Among the processes are micromilling of fluidic structures with a width down to 25 p,m and sealing...

  16. A rapid method for the separation and estimation of uranium in geological materials using ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Satya; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Ion Chromatography is an elegant analytical technique which was primarily developed for the analysis of anionic species and over the years it has been used successfully to analyse various elements in different matrices. In this work the potential of Ion Chromatography has been used for the rapid separation and estimation of uranium in hydrogeochemical and other geological materials

  17. A novel method for perceptual assessment of small room acoustics using rapid sensory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    presented with auralized sound over a loudspeaker array and followed a rapid sensory analysis protocol. The elicited attributes and ratings are analyzed and possible links to the acoustical properties of these spaces are discussed. [This study is a part of Marie Curie Network on Dereverberation...

  18. Rapid Methods to Estimate Potential Exposure to Semivolatile Organic Compounds in the Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, John C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2012-01-01

    A systematic and efficient strategy is needed to assess and manage potential risks to human health that arise from the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. Among available tools for rapid assessment of large numbers of chemicals, significant gaps are associated with the capability...

  19. A rapid and direct real time PCR-based method for identification of Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, D.; Hernández, Marta; Esteve, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the validation of a rapid, real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan((R)) technology for the unequivocal identification of Salmonella spp. to be used directly on an agar-grown colony. A real-time PCR system targeting at the Salmonella spp. invA gene was optimized and validated ...

  20. A rapid method of detecting motor blocks in patients with Parkinson's disease during volitional hand movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana B.

    2002-01-01

    -5%; 56% had MBT% 5-10%; 22% had MBT% 10-15%; 5.5% had MBT% 15-20°% and 2% had MBT% 20-25%. No block lasted more than 25% from the whole movement duration. Table 2 is the summary of mean variability for kinematic indicators of motor block (N, mbt%, t% and for the movement duration T during a 7 day-testing of patients #3. The analysis of calculated data for eight tested PD patients revealed a significant difference (p < 0.01 between healthy controls and three PD patients; data on five PD patients were not significantly different (ns. This method clustered 3 PD patients in the group that experience motor blocks, while the rest were in the group without their significant occurrence. DISCUSSION This algorithm is an additional instrument in classical evaluation of PD patients during their clinical evaluation and treatment. It provides to clinician a rapid feedback on the changes of voluntary hand movements in everyday progress of illness. Furthermore, this method could be of assistance for developing strategies to overcome motor blocks in arm movements at their beginning, as well as for the feedback of the success of drug therapy.

  1. Production of enzymes by a newly isolated Bacillus sp. TMF-1 in solid state fermentation on agricultural by-products: The evaluation of substrate pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Abdalla Ali; Grbavčić, Sanja; Šekuljica, Nataša; Stefanović, Andrea; Jakovetić Tanasković, Sonja; Luković, Nevena; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica

    2017-03-01

    Study on potential of different agro-industrial waste residues for supporting the growth of newly isolated Bacillus sp. TMF-1 strain under solid-state fermentation (SSF) was conducted aiming to produce several industrially valuable enzymes. Since the feasibility of the initial study was confirmed, further objectives included evaluation of several pretreatments of the studied agricultural by-products (soybean meal, sunflower meal, maize bran, maize pericarp, olive oil cake and wheat bran) on the microbial productivity as means of enhancing the yields of produced proteases, α-amylases, cellulases and pectinases. Among acid/alkaline treatment, ultrasound and microwave assisted methods, chemical treatments superiorly affected most of the studied substrates. Highest yields of produced proteases (50.5IUg -1 ) and α-amylases (50.75IUg -1 ) were achieved on alkaline treated corn pericarp. Alkaline treatment also promoted the secretion of cellulases on maize bran (1.19IUg -1 ). Highest yield of pectinases was obtained on untreated soybean meal (64.90IUg -1 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequential Optimization Methods for Augmentation of Marine Enzymes Production in Solid-State Fermentation: l-Glutaminase Production a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, T; Uppuluri, K B; Veera Bramha Chari, P; Kezia, D

    There is an increased l-glutaminase market worldwide due to its relevant industrial applications. Salt tolerance l-glutaminases play a vital role in the increase of flavor of different types of foods like soya sauce and tofu. This chapter is presenting the economically viable l-glutaminases production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 9972 as a case study. The enzyme production was improved following a three step optimization process. Initially mixture design (MD) (augmented simplex lattice design) was employed to optimize the solid substrate mixture. Such solid substrate mixture consisted of 59:41 of wheat bran and Bengal gram husk has given higher amounts of l-glutaminase. Glucose and l-glutamine were screened as a finest additional carbon and nitrogen sources for l-glutaminase production with help of Plackett-Burman Design (PBD). l-Glutamine also acting as a nitrogen source as well as inducer for secretion of l-glutaminase from A. flavus MTCC 9972. In the final step of optimization various environmental and nutritive parameters such as pH, temperature, moisture content, inoculum concentration, glucose, and l-glutamine levels were optimized through the use of hybrid feed forward neural networks (FFNNs) and genetic algorithm (GA). Through sequential optimization methods MD-PBD-FFNN-GA, the l-glutaminase production in SSF could be improved by 2.7-fold (453-1690U/g). © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods. Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets. In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  4. Study on application of green's function method in thermal stress rapid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guihe; Duan Yuangang; Xu Xiao; Chen Rong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a quick and accuracy thermal stress calculation method, the Green's Function Method, which is a combination of finite element method and numerical algorithm method. Thermal stress calculation of Safe Injection Nozzle of Reactor Coolant Line of PWR plant is performed with Green's function method for heatup and cooldown thermal transients as a demonstration example, and the result is compared with finite element method to verify the rationality and accuracy of this method. The advantage and disadvantage of the Green's function method and the finite element method are also compared. (authors)

  5. Modelling of the process yields of a whey fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakebrough, N; Moresi, M

    1981-09-01

    The biomass yields (y) and COD reduction efficiencies (eta) of a whey fermentation by Kluyveromyces fragilis were studied in a 100-l fermenter at various stirrer speeds and lactose concentrations, and compared to those obtained in 10-l and 15-l fermenters at constant values of the oxygen transfer coefficient (ksub(L)a) and air velocity. The empirical models previously constructed by using the 15-l fermenter data could be used to predict the yields on the other scales by calculating for each run the 15-l fermenter which would provide the same oxygen transfer coefficient measured by the sulphite method on each fermenter under study. To make this model independent of stirrer speeds used in each generic fermenter, the effect of aeration and mixing was incorporated into an overall parameter (ksub(L)a) and the values of y and eta were correlated only with temperature, lactose level and ksub(L)a since these variables were approximately orthogonal.

  6. Rapid assessment of health needs in mass emergencies: review of current concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, D

    1991-01-01

    The increase in the number of natural disasters and their impact on population is of growing concern to countries at risk and agencies involved in health and humanitarian action. The numbers of persons killed or disabled as a result of earthquakes, cyclones, floods and famines have reached record levels in the last decade. Population density, rampant urbanization and climatic changes have brought about risk patterns that are exposing larger and larger sections of populations in developing countries to life-threatening natural disasters. Despite substantial spending on emergency relief, the approaches to relief remain largely ad hoc and amateurish, resulting generally in inappropriate and/or delayed action. In recent years, mass emergencies of the kind experienced in Bangladesh or the Sahelian countries have highlighted the importance of rapid assessment of health needs for better allocation of resources and relief management. As a result, the development of techniques for rapid assessment of health needs has been identified as a priority for effective emergency action. This article sketches the health context of disasters in terms of mortality and morbidity patterns; it describes initial assessment techniques currently used and their methodological biases and constraints; it also discusses assessment needs which vary between different types of disasters and the time frame within which assessments are undertaken. Earthquakes, cyclones, famines, epidemics or refugees all have specific risk profiles and emergency conditions which differ for each situation. Vulnerability to mortality changes according to age and occupation, for earthquakes and famines. These risk factors then have significant implications for the design of rapid assessment protocols and checklists. Experiences from the field in rapid survey techniques and estimation of death rates are discussed, with emphasis on the need for a reliable denominator even for the roughest assessment. Finally, the

  7. Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): a New Rapid and Greener Method for Extracting Two Steviol Glycosides (Stevioside and Rebaudioside A) from Stevia Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Vitulano, Manuela; Andolfi, Anna; DellaGreca, Marina; Conte, Esterina; Ciaravolo, Martina; Naviglio, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the main diterpene glycosides present in the leaves of the Stevia rebaudiana plant, which is used in the production of foods and low-calorie beverages. The difficulties associated with their extraction and purification are currently a problem for the food processing industries. The objective of this study was to develop an effective and economically viable method to obtain a high-quality product while trying to overcome the disadvantages derived from the conventional transformation processes. For this reason, extractions were carried out using a conventional maceration (CM) and a cyclically pressurized extraction known as rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE) by the Naviglio extractor (NE). After only 20 min of extraction using the NE, a quantity of rebaudioside A and stevioside equal to 1197.8 and 413.6 mg/L was obtained, respectively, while for the CM, the optimum time was 90 min. From the results, it can be stated that the extraction process by NE and its subsequent purification developed in this study is a simple, economical, environmentally friendly method for producing steviol glycosides. Therefore, this method constitutes a valid alternative to conventional extraction by reducing the extraction time and the consumption of toxic solvents and favouring the use of the extracted metabolites as food additives and/or nutraceuticals. As an added value and of local interest, the experiment was carried out on stevia leaves from the Benevento area (Italy), where a high content of rebaudioside A was observed, which exhibits a sweet taste compared to stevioside, which has a significant bitter aftertaste.

  8. Ultrahigh performance composting of sludge from food industry-comparative study of fermentation in sawdust and paper mixing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.; Masanori, M.; Mizuho, M.; Hiroe, K.; Shahjahan, M.M.; Tohru, H.; Hori, H.

    2005-01-01

    We succeeded to develop an ultra high performance composting system for food industrial sludge by employing paper mixing method. Sludge was mixed with cut pieces (3 x 12 mm) of waste paper, like newspapers, in the range of 10-20 % (w/w) in an electric mixer to enhance the porosity and reduce water content of the mass. We followed conventional way of sawdust mixing as control. The mixture was subjected to aeration at room temperature with an electric blower at 86 L/min/m/sup 2/ bottom area of bio-reactor. The composting process completed in 10 days, in contrast to the conventional cases where it takes 60 to 90 days to complete composting, thereby reducing the time course 6 to 9 fold. Chemical analyses of the compost showed concentration nitrogen (N) 5.0%, phosphorus (P) 4.9% and potassium (K) 0.6% while all heavy metal contents were below the standard required level. The compost showed pH 7.1, EC 5.6 and C/N ratio 8. We analyzed for nitrogen release into the soil and efficacy on the germination and growth of Brassica Tapa L. the compost showed markedly good effect on the growth of the plantlets. The present study demonstrated that the paper-mixed composting method is highly efficient and energy saving. In addition, this method can lead to design a reactor which is compact but with very high capacity to convert municipal organic waste to compost. (author)

  9. A facile and rapid method for the black pepper leaf mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is widely accepted due to the less toxicity in comparison with chemical methods. But there are certain drawbacks like slow formation of nanoparticles, difficulty to control particle size and shape make them less convenient. Here we report a novel cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Piper nigrum. Our results suggest that this method can be used for obtaining silver nanoparticles with controllable size within a few minutes. The fabricated nanoparticles possessed excellent antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Fermentation temperature and wort composition influence on diacetyl and 2, 3-pentanedione contents in beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are important constituents of beer sensory properties. A new GC/MS method for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione content determination was developed. This method was applied for the determination of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione contents during beer fermentation (primary fermentation and maturation. Primary fermentations were carried out at different temperatures (8°C and 14°C. Primary fermentation temperature had a great influence on diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione formation and reduction. Formation and reduction rates increased with the primary fermentation temperature increasment. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione contents also increased with the corn grits increasment. Fermentations were carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae pure culture, specially prepared for each fermentation. This GC/MS method for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione determination was valuable for analysing the influence of wort composition or fermentation conditions such as primary fermentation temperature on their formation and reduction.

  11. A Perspective on PSE in Fermentation Process Development and Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the chemical industry, the use of PSE methods and tools is not as widespread in industrial fermentation processes. This paper gives an overview of some of the main engineering challenges in industrial fermentation processes. Furthermore, a number of mathematical models are highlighted...... as examples of PSE methods and tools that are used in the context of industrial fermentation technology. Finally, it is discussed what could be done to increase the future use of PSE methods and tools within the industrial fermentation technology area....

  12. A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method for screening levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don E; Sica, Domenic; Hindle, Michael; Edinboro, Les; Xi, Lei; Gehr, Todd W B; Gehr, Lynne; Farthing, Christine A; Larus, Terri L; Fakhry, Itaf; Karnes, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method was developed for detection of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. The method utilized a microplate luminometer with direct injectors to automatically dispense reagents during sample analysis. Enzymatic conversions of inosine to hypoxanthine, followed by hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, generated superoxide anion radicals as a useful metabolic by-product. The free radicals react with Pholasin(®) , a sensitive photoprotein used for chemiluminescence detection, to produce measurable blue-green light. The use of Pholasin(®) and a chemiluminescence signal enhancer, Adjuvant-K™, eliminated the need for plasma clean-up steps prior to analysis. The method used 20 μL of heparinized plasma, with complete analysis of total hypoxanthine levels (inosine is metabolized to hypoxanthine using purine nucleoside phosphorylase) in approximately 3.7 min. The rapid chemiluminescence method demonstrated the capability of differentiating total hypoxanthine levels between healthy individuals, and patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain and potential acute cardiac ischemia. The results support the potential use of chemiluminescence methodology as a diagnostic tool to rapidly screen for elevated levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma, potential biomarkers of acute cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    IZBAIM , DRIS; FAIZ , BOUAZZA; MOUDDEN , ALI; MALAININE , MOHAMED; ABOUDAOUD , Idriss

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this work is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should be cleaned and calibrated for each measurement and, therefore, this method is not practical. In this regard, ultrasonic techniques are fast, non-invasive and inexpensive. The measurement of ultrasonic parameters such as amplit...

  14. A simple and rapid visual method for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in environmental waters using thymol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Fujinaga, K.; Seike, Y.; Honda, S. [Dept. of Material Science, Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Simple visual and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in water are proposed, based on the color development of indothymol blue formed between ammonia and thymol. The color development was accelerated by nitroprusside to complete in 3 min. This color development is remarkably rapid compared with that of the other conventional methods with indothymol blue and indophenol blue. The concentration range of ammonia nitrogen spectrophotometrically determined was 0.04-1.2 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N. The absorbance per 1 {mu}g NH{sub 4}-N was 0.0215 (molar absorptivity = 1.51 x 10{sup 4}) at 690 nm. The visual method not using any instrument as an in situ method in field works was developed based on the optimum conditions for the established spectrophotometric method. This visual method was successfully applied to the determination of ammonia nitrogen in environmental waters. (orig.)

  15. The evidence of the rugoscopy effectiveness as a human identification method in patients submitted to rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Ana A; Scoralick, Raquel A; Naressi, Suely C M; Moraes, Mari E L; Daruge, Eduardo; Daruge, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of rugoscopy as a human identification method, even when the patient is submitted to rapid palatal expansion, which in theory would introduce doubt. With this intent, the Rugoscopic Identity was obtained for each subject using the classification formula proposed by Santos based on the intra-oral casts made before and after treatment from patients who were subjected to palatal expansion. The casts were labeled with the patients' initials and randomly arranged for studying. The palatine rugae kept the same patterns in every case studied. The technical error of the intra-evaluator measurement provided a confidence interval of 95%, making rugoscopy a reliable identification method for patients who were submitted to rapid palatal expansion, because even in the presence of intra-oral changes owing to the use of palatal expanders, the palatine rugae retained the biological and technical requirements for the human identification process. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. MacroEvoLution: A New Method for the Rapid Generation of Novel Scaffold-Diverse Macrocyclic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, Jörn; Kunz, Oliver; Haustedt, Lars Ole; Jakupovic, Sven; Mang, Christian

    2017-09-04

    Macrocycles are a structural class bearing great promise for future challenges in medicinal chemistry. Nevertheless, there are few flexible approaches for the rapid generation of structurally diverse macrocyclic compound collections. Here, an efficient method for the generation of novel macrocyclic peptide-based scaffolds is reported. The process, named here as "MacroEvoLution", is based on a cyclization screening approach that gives reliable access to novel macrocyclic architectures. Classification of building blocks into specific pools ensures that scaffolds with orthogonally addressable functionalities are generated, which can easily be used for the generation of structurally diverse compound libraries. The method grants rapid access to novel scaffolds with scalable synthesis (multi gram scale) and the introduction of further diversity at a late stage. Despite being developed for peptidic systems, the approach can easily be extended for the synthesis of systems with a decreased peptidic character. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. [F-18] halofluorination: A rapid and efficient method for the incorporation of radiofluorine into organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, D.Y.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Welch, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The addition of halogen fluoride to olefins (Hal-F, halofluorination, where Hal is Br or I) is a more favorable reaction for labeling with tracer levels of F-18 than is addition of hydrogen fluoride (H-F, hydrofluorination), because of the more productive soft acid-soft base interaction between the Hal and the olefin. The authors have found that simple olefins (allylbenzene, 1-hexene, 1-propene) undergo rapid bromofluorination when treated with 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH), giving a 7:1 mixture of Markownikow (M) and anti-Markownikow (AM) adducts. In chlorinated solvents, the reaction is rapid and efficient, giving yields of 50-90% based on fluoride as limiting reagent. The products can be reduced to the fluorocarbon by debromination (R/sub 3/SnH or LiAlH/sub 4/), or they can be used to alkylate amines. Reasonable radiochemical yields can be obtained using F-18 produced in a water target [/sup 18/O(p,n)/sup 18/F], in either carrier-added (20-50%) or no-carrier-added (ca. 10-20%) modes. This reaction is being used to prepare F-18 labeled radiopharmaceuticals

  18. A rapid screening-level method to optimize location of infiltration ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennemore, G G; Davis, A; Goss, L; Warrick, A W

    2001-01-01

    A rapid-screening technique was developed to identify lithologies that best disperse artificial recharge via surface infiltration and minimize effects on ground water chemistry. The technique prospectively evaluates basin infiltration rates and water chemistry influences by integrating geotechnical, hydraulic, and water quality data with column test data and numerical modeling. The technique was validated using field data collected from surface infiltration basins designed to recharge ground water pumped from the Pipeline pit gold mine in Nevada. Observed recharge rates at these infiltration sites correlated most significantly with depth to groundwater, with basins in coarse-grained lithologies performing better (0.45 to 0.85 m/day) than those with fine-grained layers ( 2000 mg/L) than coarse-grained soils (infiltration basins for a variety of lithologies. Sites for infiltration basins can be rapidly screened to include areas with greatest depth to groundwater and in coarsest alluvial sediments, and impact to ground water chemistry can be reliably predicted using computer modeling and column test results.

  19. A rapid method for determining the relative solubility of plutonium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglio, J.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Brooks, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    An in vitro system for rapidly determining the relative solubilities of plutonium-containing aerosols produced at various temperatures has been developed. Aerosols were prepared by nebulizing a solution of Pu IV in 1 M HCl and by subsequent heating at 50, 325, 600, 900, 1150 and 1300 degrees C. These aerosols were then evaluated as to relative solubility and the results compared with in vivo data from beagle dogs and Chinese hamsters. Aerosol samples from animal inhalation exposures were collected on filters and a section was sandwiched between 100 nm membranes held in a two-piece, cylindrical polyethylene holder. The holder and filter were placed in a container of solvent and stirred gently, after which the filter and solvent were separately analyzed for Pu. The effects of solvent composition, volume and temperature as well as immersion time were investigated. The results showed that using a solvent of 0.1 N HCl at 23 degrees C and an immersion time of 2 hr dissolved a sufficient amount of plutonium as to be easily assayed with a liquid scintillation counter and will provide a rapid estimate of the solubility rate of the aerosol. The in vivo and in vitro results were in relative agreement; as the production temperature of the aerosol increased, the solubility decreased. (author)

  20. A rapid and low-cost DNA extraction method for isolating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The price of commercial DNA extraction methods makes the routine use of polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) based methods rather costly for scientists in developing countries. A guanidium thiocayante-based DNA extraction method was investigated in this study for the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) DNA ...

  1. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly from clinical samples: methods, effectiveness and cost considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stürenburg, Enno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolates is a serious public health problem whose ever-increasing rate is commensurate with the pressure it is exerting on the healthcare system. At present, more than 20% of clinical S. aureus isolates in German hospitals are methicillin resistant. Strategies from low-prevalence countries show that this development is not necessarily inevitable. In the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, thanks to a rigorous prevention programme, MRSA prevalence has been kept at an acceptably low level (<1–3%. Central to these ‘search and destroy’ control strategies is an admission screening using several MRSA swabs taken from mucocutaneous colonisation sites of high-risk patients (‘MRSA surveillance’. It has also been reported that the speed with which MRSA carriage is detected has an important role to play, as it is a key component of any effective strategy to prevent the pathogen from spreading. Since MRSA culturing involves a 2–3 day delay before the final results are available, rapid detection techniques (commonly referred to as ‘MRSA rapid tests’ using PCR methods and, most recently, rapid culturing methods have been developed. The implementation of rapid tests reduces the time of detection of MRSA carriers from 48–72 to 2–5 h. Clinical evaluation data have shown that MRSA can thus be detected with very high sensitivity. Specificity however is sometimes impaired due to false-positive PCR signals occurring in mixed flora specimens. In order to rule out any false-positive PCR results, a culture screen must always be carried out simultaneously.The data provide preliminary evidence that a PCR assay can reduce nosocomial MRSA transmission in high-risk patients or high-risk areas, whereas an approach that screens all patients admitted to the hospital is probably not effective. Information concerning the cost-effectiveness of rapid MRSA tests is still sparse and thus the issue remains

  2. Use of PCR-Based Methods for Rapid Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Torriani, Sandra; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Dellaglio, Franco

    1999-01-01

    Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy pr...

  3. DNA immunoprecipitation semiconductor sequencing (DIP-SC-seq) as a rapid method to generate genome wide epigenetic signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John P.; Fawkes, Angie; Ottaviano, Raffaele; Hunter, Jennifer M.; Shukla, Ruchi; Mjoseng, Heidi K.; Clark, Richard; Coutts, Audrey; Murphy, Lee; Meehan, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Modification of DNA resulting in 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has been shown to influence the local chromatin environment and affect transcription. Although recent advances in next generation sequencing technology allow researchers to map epigenetic modifications across the genome, such experiments are often time-consuming and cost prohibitive. Here we present a rapid and cost effective method of generating genome wide DNA modification maps utilising commercially ...

  4. Studies on continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K

    1958-01-01

    Continuous fermentation of molasses with a combined system of agitated vessel and flow pipe is studied. A new apparatus was designed. The rate of the fermentation was faster with this apparatus than with the former apparatus which was composed of two vessels.

  5. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  6. Research in fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A K

    1966-01-01

    The following aspects of the biochemistry of fermentation were discussed: carbohydrate, amino acid, S, and phosphate metabolisms in the yeast cell; pantothenic acid and biotin as the essential growth factors in yeast metabolisms; effects of different aeration conditions on yeast growth, mitochondria development, and lipid contents. Gas chromatographic studies of fermentation products are also discussed.

  7. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  9. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  10. Processing Methods Affect the Nutritive Value and in vitro Rumen Fermentation of Distilled Grain%不同加工方法对白酒糟营养价值和体外瘤胃发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 王之盛; 薛白; 邹华围; 余群莲

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在研究不同加工方法对白酒糟营养价值和体外瘤胃发酵特性的影响.以未处理白酒糟作为对照(CK组),按白酒糟的加工方式不同设4个试验组:黄孢原毛平革菌发酵白酒糟(发酵,F组)、黄孢原毛平革菌发酵粉碎白酒糟(粉碎+发酵,CF组)、黄孢原毛平革菌发酵氨化白酒糟(氨化+发酵,AF组)、黄孢原毛平革菌发酵粉碎、氨化白酒糟(粉碎+氨化+发酵,CAF组).测定各组白酒糟常规营养成分及体外瘤胃发酵指标.结果表明:1)黄孢原毛平革菌发酵能极显著降低白酒糟酸性洗涤木质素(ADL)含量、极显著提高粗蛋白质(CP)含量(P<0.01),粉碎+氨化+发酵3种加工方式联合处理效果最好.2)与CK组相比,CF组、AF组和CAF组理论最大产气量和产气速率极显著提高、产气延滞时间极显著降低(P<0.01);CAF组产气量、理论最大产气量和产气速率极显著高于其他各试验组(P<0.01).3)CAF组菌体蛋白(MCP)含量显著高于其他各组(P<0.05);AF组和CAF组氨态氮(NH3 -N)浓度(P<0.05)、总挥发性脂肪酸(TVFA)浓度(P<0.05)、丙酸比例(P<0.01)显著或极显著高于其他各组,乙酸/丙酸极显著低于其他各组(P<0.01).结果提示:对白酒糟进行粉碎、氨化处理,可促进黄孢原毛平革菌对白酒糟木质素的降解,进而提高其营养价值、改善瘤胃发酵,粉碎、氨化、发酵复合加工效果最好.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different processing methods on nutritive value and in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of distilled grain ( DG). The unprocessed DG was used as the control (CK group) , and 4 experimental groups were set by the different processing methods, which were DG fermented with P. Chrysosporium (ferment, F group), crushed DG fermented with P. Chrysosporium (crush + ferment, CF group) , ammoniated DG fermented with P. Chrysosporium (ammoniate + ferment, AF group), as well as crushed

  11. A method for differentiating between vinegar produced by fermentation and vinegar made from synthetic acetic acid based on determination of 13C/12C-isotope ratio by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, E.R.; Fogy, I.

    1978-01-01

    The 13 C/ 12 C-isotope ratio is characteristic for vinegar of fermentation and synthetic origin respectively and used for their differentiation. The acetic acid was isolated from the vinegar as calcium acetate, the calcium acetate was pyrolysed to CaCO 3 and the CO 2 was released from the CaCO 3 with H 3 PO 4 . The CO 2 was measured in a mass spectrometer with double collector. The difference in the 13 C- content between the two varieties of vinegar is 5 0 / 00 ; the accuracy of the measurement is between 0,5 0 / 00 and 1 0 / 00 . Therefore, addition of synthetic acetic acid in excess of 15-20% to fermentation vinegar can be detected by this method. (orig.) [de

  12. Method for differentiating between vinegar produced by fermentation and vinegar made from synthetic acetic acid based on determination of the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C-isotope ratio by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, E R; Fogy, I [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie; Schwartz, P [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1978-02-01

    The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C-isotope ratio is characteristic for vinegar of fermentation and synthetic origin respectively and used for their differentiation. The acetic acid was isolated from the vinegar as calcium acetate, the calcium acetate was pyrolysed to CaCO/sub 3/ and the CO/sub 2/ was released from the CaCO/sub 3/ with H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. The CO/sub 2/ was measured in a mass spectrometer with double collector. The difference in the /sup 13/C- content between the two varieties of vinegar is 5/sup 0///sub 00/; the accuracy of the measurement is between 0,5/sup 0///sub 00/ and 1/sup 0///sub 00/. Therefore, addition of synthetic acetic acid in excess of 15 to 20% to fermentation vinegar can be detected by this method.

  13. Relationships between functional genes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolates and phenotypic characteristics associated with fermentation time and flavor production in yogurt elucidated using multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Song, Yuqin; Wang, Xueni; Wang, Hongmei; Wuren, Tuoya; Zha, Musu; Menghe, Bilige; Heping, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is well known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. Flavor production and acid producing are considered as the most important characteristics for starter culture screening. To our knowledge this is the first study applying functional gene sequence multilocus sequence typing technology to predict the fermentation and flavor-producing characteristics of yogurt-producing bacteria. In the present study, phenotypic characteristics of 35 L. bulgaricus strains were quantified during the fermentation of milk to yogurt and during its subsequent storage; these included fermentation time, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, and flavor characteristics (acetaldehyde concentration). Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing analysis of 7 functional genes associated with fermentation time, acid production, and flavor formation was done to elucidate the phylogeny and genetic evolution of the same L. bulgaricus isolates. The results showed that strains significantly differed in fermentation time, acidification rate, and acetaldehyde production. Combining functional gene sequence analysis with phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that groups of strains established using genotype data were consistent with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. This study has established an efficient and rapid molecular genotyping method to identify strains with good fermentation traits; this has the potential to replace time-consuming conventional methods based on direct measurement of phenotypic traits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-22

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  15. A method for the rapid on-site assessment of handleability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.; Atkin, B.P. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The handleability monitor has been specifically designed to provide a simple, rapid and on-site assessment of the whole or part consignment of a coal blend in its 'as-prepared' or 'as-received' condition. Evaluation has been carried out at a number of user's coal-handling plants, on both metallurgical and power station coals from a variety of sources world-wide (Australia, South Africa, United Kingdom and USA). The results are used to predict which coals could routinely pass through handling plant at line capacity, without causing blockage or decay, and have also been correlated with the operator's perception of the coal's handling characteristics and problems caused (blockages in chutes, hoppers, etc.) on the coal handling plant. Monitors were located at a coal fired power station and at a coal handling plant at an iron and steel works. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact

  17. Methods of rapid diagnosis for the etiology of meningitis in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nathan C; Boulware, David R

    2014-01-01

    Infectious meningitis may be due to bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal or viral agents. Diagnosis of meningitis must take into account numerous items of patient history and symptomatology along with regional epidemiology and basic cerebrospinal fluid testing (protein, etc.) to allow the clinician to stratify the likelihood of etiology possibilities and rationally select additional diagnostic tests. Culture is the mainstay for diagnosis in many cases, but technology is evolving to provide more rapid, reliable diagnosis. The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (Immuno-Mycologics) has revolutionized diagnosis of cryptococcosis and automated nucleic acid amplification assays hold promise for improving diagnosis of bacterial and mycobacterial meningitis. This review will focus on a holistic approach to diagnosis of meningitis as well as recent technological advances. PMID:25402579

  18. New method and installation for rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Gulabyants, Loren; Livshits, Mihail; Kovler, Konstantin

    2014-04-01

    The mathematical apparatus and the experimental installation for the rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials are developed. The single test lasts not longer than 18 h and allows testing numerous materials, such as gaseous and liquid media, as well as soil, concrete and radon-proof membranes, in which diffusion coefficient of radon may vary in an extremely wide range, from 1·10(-12) to 5·10(-5) m(2)/s. The uncertainty of radon diffusion coefficient estimation depends on the permeability of the sample and varies from about 5% (for the most permeable materials) to 40% (for less permeable materials, such as radon-proof membranes). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A Simple and Rapid Method to Evaluate Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen in Sewage Sludge Amended Calcareous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Lotfi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN can be usually considered as labile nitrogen. Measurement of PMN is expensive and time consuming; therefore, a simpler and more rapid alternative may facilitate routine laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between PMN and biological index of nitrogen availability (BINA. The studied soil was previously treated with 0, 25, and 100 tons ha-1 of sewage sludge with 0, 1, 2 and 3 consecutive years of application. Soil samples were taken 6 months after the latest application. PMN was measured according to Stanford and Smith procedure (20 weeks of aerobic incubation with 2 weeks leaching intervals and BINA measured as described by Bundy and Meisinger (7 days of anaerobic incubation at 40˚ C followed by extraction of NH4+. Results showed that PMN was significantly correlated with BINA (r = 0.938, P

  20. Rapid assessment of insect fauna based on local knowledge: comparing ecological and ethnobiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniele Cristina de Oliveira; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; da Silva, Henrique Costa Hermenegildo; Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assessment of biodiversity making use of surveys of local knowledge has been successful for different biological taxa. However, there are no reports on the testing of such tools for sampling insect fauna. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different ethnobiological techniques for rapid sampling of insect fauna. Field research for the conventional survey of insect fauna was conducted on a private farm (9 ° 43'38.95 "S, 37 ° 45'11.97" W) , where there was intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)). The survey of local entomological knowledge was conducted among all the producers of okra living in the rural villages Pereira, Santa Luzia, and Nassau de Souza, within the Jacaré Curituba irrigated settlement scheme. The combined use of the techniques "free list" and projective interviews was analyzed, using two types of visual stimuli: stock photos and an entomological box. During the conventional survey of insect fauna, the species Bemisia tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi and Lagria villosa were the primary pests found in the okra crop. Regarding the survey of insect pests, the results were convergent  in both techniques (conventional sampling and free list). Comparing the interview with visual stimuli (pictures) and specimen witnesses (entomological box) revealed that the latter was more effective. Techniques based on the recording and analysis of local knowledge about insects are effective for quick sampling of pest insects, but ineffective in sampling predator insects. The utilization of collected insects, infested branches, or photos of the symptoms of damage caused by pests in projective interviews is recommended.