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Sample records for rapid metabolic imaging

  1. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  2. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  3. Metabolic imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Junichi; Matsunari, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In normal condition, the heart obtains more than two-thirds of its energy from the oxidative metabolism of long chain fatty acids, although a wide variety of substrates such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies and amino acids are also utilised. In ischaemic myocardium, on the other hand, oxidative metabolism of free fatty acid is suppressed and anaerobic glucose metabolism plays a major role in residual oxidative metabolism. Therefore, metabolic imaging can be an important technique for the assessment of various cardiac diseases and conditions. In SPECT, several iodinated fatty acid traces have been introduced and studied. Of these, 123 I-labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been the most commonly used tracer in clinical studies, especially in some of the European countries and Japan. In this review article, several fatty acid tracers for SPECT are characterised, and the mechanism of uptake and clinical utility of BMIPP are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  4. Metabolic imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that myocardial metabolism plays a key role not only in ischaemic heart disease but also in a variety of diseases which involve myocardium globally, such as heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Understanding myocardial metabolism in such diseases helps to elucidate the pathophysiology and assists in making therapeutic decisions. As well as providing information on regional changes, PET can deliver quantitative information about both regional and global changes in metabolism. This capability of quantitative measurement is one of the major advantages of PET along with physiological positron tracers, especially relevant in evaluating diseases which involve the whole myocardium. This review discusses major PET tracers for metabolic imaging and their clinical applications and contributions to research regarding ischaemic heart disease and other diseases such as heart failure and diabetic heart disease. Future applications of positron metabolic tracers for the detection of vulnerable plaque are also highlighted briefly. (orig.)

  5. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  6. Imaging metabolic heterogeneity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Debanti; Pratx, Guillem

    2016-01-06

    As our knowledge of cancer metabolism has increased, it has become apparent that cancer metabolic processes are extremely heterogeneous. The reasons behind this heterogeneity include genetic diversity, the existence of multiple and redundant metabolic pathways, altered microenvironmental conditions, and so on. As a result, methods in the clinic and beyond have been developed in order to image and study tumor metabolism in the in vivo and in vitro regimes. Both regimes provide unique advantages and challenges, and may be used to provide a picture of tumor metabolic heterogeneity that is spatially and temporally comprehensive. Taken together, these methods may hold the key to appropriate cancer diagnoses and treatments in the future.

  7. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric imaging. Rapid fire questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattromani, F.; Lampe, R.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Airway, head, neck; allergy, immunology rheumatology; pediatric cardiac imaging; child abuse; chromosomal abnormalities; conscious sedation; contrast agents and radiation protection; pediatric gastrointestinal imaging; genetic disorders in infants and children; pediatric genitourinary imaging; pediatric hematology, oncology imaging; pediatric intenrventional radiology; metabolic and vitamin disorders; muscoskeletal disorders (osteoradiology); neonatology imaging; pediatric neuroimaging; imaging of the respiratory tract in infants and children; vascular anomalies

  9. Pediatric imaging. Rapid fire questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quattromani, F.; Lampe, R. (eds.) [Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX (United States); Handal, G.A. [Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Airway, head, neck; allergy, immunology rheumatology; pediatric cardiac imaging; child abuse; chromosomal abnormalities; conscious sedation; contrast agents and radiation protection; pediatric gastrointestinal imaging; genetic disorders in infants and children; pediatric genitourinary imaging; pediatric hematology, oncology imaging; pediatric intenrventional radiology; metabolic and vitamin disorders; muscoskeletal disorders (osteoradiology); neonatology imaging; pediatric neuroimaging; imaging of the respiratory tract in infants and children; vascular anomalies.

  10. Metabolic Imaging in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne K; Teune, Laura K; de Jong, Bauke M; Dierckx, Rudi A; Leenders, Klaus L

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on recent human 18 F-FDG PET studies in Parkinson disease. First, an overview is given of the current analytic approaches to metabolic brain imaging data. Next, we discuss how 18 F-FDG PET studies have advanced understanding of the relation between distinct brain regions and associated symptoms in Parkinson disease, including cognitive decline. In addition, the value of 18 F-FDG PET studies in differential diagnosis, identifying prodromal patients, and the evaluation of treatment effects are reviewed. Finally, anticipated developments in the field are addressed. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  11. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D; Wright, Katherine L; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) "fingerprinting" technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that allows simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue

  12. Rapid Analysis and Exploration of Fluorescence Microscopy Images

    OpenAIRE

    Pavie, Benjamin; Rajaram, Satwik; Ouyang, Austin; Altschuler, Jason; Steininger, Robert J; Wu, Lani; Altschuler, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in high-throughput microscopy, quantitative image-based assays still pose significant challenges. While a variety of specialized image analysis tools are available, most traditional image-analysis-based workflows have steep learning curves (for fine tuning of analysis parameters) and result in long turnaround times between imaging and analysis. In particular, cell segmentation, the process of identifying individual cells in an image, is a major bottleneck in this regard.

  13. Biomedical Image Analysis: Rapid prototyping with Mathematica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Almsick, van M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Digital acquisition techniques have caused an explosion in the production of medical images, especially with the advent of multi-slice CT and volume MRI. One third of the financial investments in a modern hospital's equipment are dedicated to imaging. Emerging screening programs add to this flood of

  14. Cell-free protein synthesis enabled rapid prototyping for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Jiang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have facilitated the manufacturing of many valuable-added compounds and commodity chemicals using microbial cell factories in the past decade. However, due to complexity of cellular metabolism, the optimization of metabolic pathways for maximal production represents a grand challenge and an unavoidable barrier for metabolic engineering. Recently, cell-free protein synthesis system (CFPS has been emerging as an enabling alternative to address challenges in biomanufacturing. This review summarizes the recent progresses of CFPS in rapid prototyping of biosynthetic pathways and genetic circuits (biosensors to speed up design-build-test (DBT cycles of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Keywords: Cell-free protein synthesis, Metabolic pathway optimization, Genetic circuits, Metabolic engineering, Synthetic biology

  15. Rapid analysis and exploration of fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavie, Benjamin; Rajaram, Satwik; Ouyang, Austin; Altschuler, Jason M; Steininger, Robert J; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2014-03-19

    Despite rapid advances in high-throughput microscopy, quantitative image-based assays still pose significant challenges. While a variety of specialized image analysis tools are available, most traditional image-analysis-based workflows have steep learning curves (for fine tuning of analysis parameters) and result in long turnaround times between imaging and analysis. In particular, cell segmentation, the process of identifying individual cells in an image, is a major bottleneck in this regard. Here we present an alternate, cell-segmentation-free workflow based on PhenoRipper, an open-source software platform designed for the rapid analysis and exploration of microscopy images. The pipeline presented here is optimized for immunofluorescence microscopy images of cell cultures and requires minimal user intervention. Within half an hour, PhenoRipper can analyze data from a typical 96-well experiment and generate image profiles. Users can then visually explore their data, perform quality control on their experiment, ensure response to perturbations and check reproducibility of replicates. This facilitates a rapid feedback cycle between analysis and experiment, which is crucial during assay optimization. This protocol is useful not just as a first pass analysis for quality control, but also may be used as an end-to-end solution, especially for screening. The workflow described here scales to large data sets such as those generated by high-throughput screens, and has been shown to group experimental conditions by phenotype accurately over a wide range of biological systems. The PhenoBrowser interface provides an intuitive framework to explore the phenotypic space and relate image properties to biological annotations. Taken together, the protocol described here will lower the barriers to adopting quantitative analysis of image based screens.

  16. Rapid, low-cost, image analysis through video processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.A.; Marrs, R.W.; Grantham, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Remote Sensing now provides the data necessary to solve many resource problems. However, many of the complex image processing and analysis functions used in analysis of remotely-sensed data are accomplished using sophisticated image analysis equipment. High cost of this equipment places many of these techniques beyond the means of most users. A new, more economical, video system capable of performing complex image analysis has now been developed. This report describes the functions, components, and operation of that system. Processing capability of the new video image analysis system includes many of the tasks previously accomplished with optical projectors and digital computers. Video capabilities include: color separation, color addition/subtraction, contrast stretch, dark level adjustment, density analysis, edge enhancement, scale matching, image mixing (addition and subtraction), image ratioing, and construction of false-color composite images. Rapid input of non-digital image data, instantaneous processing and display, relatively low initial cost, and low operating cost gives the video system a competitive advantage over digital equipment. Complex pre-processing, pattern recognition, and statistical analyses must still be handled through digital computer systems. The video system at the University of Wyoming has undergone extensive testing, comparison to other systems, and has been used successfully in practical applications ranging from analysis of x-rays and thin sections to production of color composite ratios of multispectral imagery. Potential applications are discussed including uranium exploration, petroleum exploration, tectonic studies, geologic mapping, hydrology sedimentology and petrography, anthropology, and studies on vegetation and wildlife habitat

  17. Frontiers in optical imaging of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, Anna; Sakadžić, Sava; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Nizar, Krystal; Saisan, Payam A; Tian, Peifang; Dale, Anders M; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David A

    2012-07-01

    In vivo optical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism did not exist 50 years ago. While point optical fluorescence and absorption measurements of cellular metabolism and hemoglobin concentrations had already been introduced by then, point blood flow measurements appeared only 40 years ago. The advent of digital cameras has significantly advanced two-dimensional optical imaging of neuronal, metabolic, vascular, and hemodynamic signals. More recently, advanced laser sources have enabled a variety of novel three-dimensional high-spatial-resolution imaging approaches. Combined, as we discuss here, these methods are permitting a multifaceted investigation of the local regulation of CBF and metabolism with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Through multimodal combination of these optical techniques with genetic methods of encoding optical reporter and actuator proteins, the future is bright for solving the mysteries of neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling and translating them to clinical utility.

  18. Cancer Metabolism and Tumor Heterogeneity: Imaging Perspectives Using MR Imaging and Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Gigin; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Park, Jae Mo

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain viability via genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations, expressing overall dynamic heterogeneity. The complex relaxation mechanisms of nuclear spins provide unique and convertible tissue contrasts, making magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) pertinent imaging tools in both clinics and research. In this review, we summarized MR methods that visualize tumor characteristics and its metabolic phenotypes ...

  19. Myofiber metabolic type determination by mass spectrometry imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Théron, Laetitia; Vénien, Annie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Astruc, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    In muscle imaging, myofiber type determination is of great importance to better understand biological mechanisms related to skeletal muscle changes associated with pathologies. However, reference methods (histo-enzymology and immunohistochemistry) require serial-cross sections, and several days from the sampling to the results of image analysis. In this work, a strategy based on MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging was developed as an alternative to the classical methods for myofiber metabolic typ...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of tumor oxygenation and metabolic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishna, Murali C.; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is distinct from normal tissue as a result of abnormal vascular network characterized by hypoxia, low pH, high interstitial fluid pressure and elevated glycolytic activity. This poses a barrier to treatments including radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Imaging methods...... spectroscopic imaging. Imaging pO2 in tumors is now a robust pre-clinical imaging modality with potential for implementation clinically. Pre-clinical studies and an initial clinical study with hyperpolarized metabolic MR have been successful and suggest that the method may be part of image-guided radiotherapy...

  1. Imaging findings and referral outcomes of rapid assessment stroke clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, E.; Manuel, D.; Hodgson, T.J.; Connolly, D.J.A.; Coley, S.C.; Romanowski, C.A.J.; Gaines, P.; Cleveland, T.; Thomas, S.; Griffiths, P.D.; Doyle, C.; Venables, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: A rapid assessment stroke clinic (RASC) was established to provide a rapid diagnostic service to individuals with suspected transient cerebral or ocular ischaemia or recovered non-hospitalized strokes. In this report we review imaging findings and clinical outcomes of patients proceeding to the carotid surgery programme. METHODS: Between October 2000 and December 2002, 1339 people attended the RASC. The findings of head CT and carotid Doppler ultrasound of the 1320 patients who underwent brain and carotid imaging were reviewed, and the number subsequently proceeding to carotid angiography and intervention was reported. RESULTS: CT head scans were normal in 57% of cases; 38% demonstrated ischaemia or infarction; and 3% yielded incidental or other significant findings not related to ischaemia. On screening with carotid Doppler ultrasound, 7.5% showed greater than 50% stenosis on the symptomatic side. A total of 83 patients (6.2%) proceeded to cerebral angiography and 65 (4.8%) underwent carotid endarterectomy or endovascular repair. CONCLUSION: Rapid-access neurovascular clinics are efficient in selecting patients for carotid intervention, but this is at a cost and the number of potential strokes prevented is small. Alternative management pathways based on immediate medical treatment need to be evaluated

  2. Metabolic imaging of patients with cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geltman, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The cardiomyopathies comprise a diverse group of illnesses that can be characterized functionally by several techniques. However, the delineation of derangements of regional perfusion and metabolism have been accomplished only relatively recently with positron emission tomography (PET). Regional myocardial accumulation and clearance of 11C-palmitate, the primary myocardial substrate under most conditions, demonstrate marked spatial heterogeneity when studied under fasting conditions or with glucose loading. PET with 11C-palmitate permits the noninvasive differentiation of patients with nonischemic from ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, since patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy demonstrate large zones of intensely depressed accumulation of 11C-palmitate, probably reflecting prior infarction. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy demonstrate relatively unique patterns of myocardial abnormalities of perfusion and metabolism. The availability of new tracers and techniques for the evaluation of myocardial metabolism (11C-acetate), perfusion (H2(15)O), and autonomic tone (11-C-hydroxyephedrine) should facilitate further understanding of the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathies

  3. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-12-01

    The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements-including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth-were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light-tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance.

  4. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements—including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth—were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light–tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance. PMID:26662064

  5. A Cellular Perspective on Brain Energy Metabolism and Functional Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy demands of the brain are high: they account for at least 20% of the body\\'s energy consumption. Evolutionary studies indicate that the emergence of higher cognitive functions in humans is associated with an increased glucose utilization and expression of energy metabolism genes. Functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET, which are widely used in human neuroscience studies, detect signals that monitor energy delivery and use in register with neuronal activity. Recent technological advances in metabolic studies with cellular resolution have afforded decisive insights into the understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of the coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism and pointat a key role of neuron-astrocyte metabolic interactions. This article reviews some of the most salient features emerging from recent studies and aims at providing an integration of brain energy metabolism across resolution scales. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Prostate resonance imaging: morphology and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocantos, Jorge A.; Pietrani, Marcelo A.; Paganini, Lisandro

    2007-01-01

    The cancer of prostate is the most frequent neoplasms and the third cause of death in men, although the average of survival of patients it improved, the cancer of prostate is an important problem in health. The majority of these tumors are of slow growth and the early detection allows high probabilities of definitive treatment. The neoplasms of prostate detected at present are smaller than the detected ones 20 years ago behind, nevertheless exist big differences in the aggressiveness of these tumors. The images are very important in the management of prostate cancer, and the magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate is a new tool in the evaluation of prostate cancer [es

  7. Rapid hyperspectral image classification to enable autonomous search systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bridgelal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of lightweight full-frame hyperspectral cameras is destined to enable autonomous search vehicles in the air, on the ground and in water. Self-contained and long-endurance systems will yield important new applications, for example, in emergency response and the timely identification of environmental hazards. One missing capability is rapid classification of hyperspectral scenes so that search vehicles can immediately take actions to verify potential targets. Onsite verifications minimise false positives and preclude the expense of repeat missions. Verifications will require enhanced image quality, which is achievable by either moving closer to the potential target or by adjusting the optical system. Such a solution, however, is currently impractical for small mobile platforms with finite energy sources. Rapid classifications with current methods demand large computing capacity that will quickly deplete the on-board battery or fuel. To develop the missing capability, the authors propose a low-complexity hyperspectral image classifier that approaches the performance of prevalent classifiers. This research determines that the new method will require at least 19-fold less computing capacity than the prevalent classifier. To assess relative performances, the authors developed a benchmark that compares a statistic of library endmember separability in their respective feature spaces.

  8. Molecular Imaging Of Metabolic Reprogramming In Mutant IDH Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra eViswanath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH have recently been identified as drivers in the development of several tumor types. Most notably, cytosolic IDH1 is mutated in 70-90% of low-grade gliomas and upgraded glioblastomas, and mitochondrial IDH2 is mutated in ~20% of acute myeloid leukemia cases. Wild-type IDH catalyzes the interconversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG. Mutations in the enzyme lead to loss of wild-type enzymatic activity and a neomorphic activity that converts α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG. In turn, 2-HG, which has been termed an oncometabolite, inhibits key α-KG- dependent enzymes, resulting in alterations of the cellular epigenetic profile and, subsequently, inhibition of differentiation and initiation of tumorigenesis. In addition, it is now clear that the IDH mutation also induces a broad metabolic reprogramming that extends beyond 2-HG production, and this reprogramming often differs from what has been previously reported in other cancer types. In this review we will discuss in detail what is known to date about the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH cells and how this reprogramming has been investigated using molecular metabolic imaging. We will describe how metabolic imaging has helped shed light on the basic biology of mutant IDH cells and how this information can be leveraged to identify new therapeutic targets and to develop new clinically translatable imaging methods to detect and monitor mutant IDH tumors in vivo.

  9. Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Postradiotherapy Xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Blake; Schwartz, David L.; Dong Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Results: Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid D Met (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p Met may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing.

  10. Scheduling algorithms for rapid imaging using agile Cubesat constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Li, Alan S.; Merrick, James H.

    2018-02-01

    Distributed Space Missions such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important Earth Observation solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Cubesats are increasing in size (27U, ∼40 kg in development) with increasing capabilities to host imager payloads. Given the precise attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, Cubesats now have the ability to slew and capture images within short notice. We propose a modular framework that combines orbital mechanics, attitude control and scheduling optimization to plan the time-varying, full-body orientation of agile Cubesats in a constellation such that they maximize the number of observed images and observation time, within the constraints of Cubesat hardware specifications. The attitude control strategy combines bang-bang and PD control, with constraints such as power consumption, response time, and stability factored into the optimality computations and a possible extension to PID control to account for disturbances. Schedule optimization is performed using dynamic programming with two levels of heuristics, verified and improved upon using mixed integer linear programming. The automated scheduler is expected to run on ground station resources and the resultant schedules uplinked to the satellites for execution, however it can be adapted for onboard scheduling, contingent on Cubesat hardware and software upgrades. The framework is generalizable over small steerable spacecraft, sensor specifications, imaging objectives and regions of interest, and is demonstrated using multiple 20 kg satellites in Low Earth Orbit for two case studies - rapid imaging of Landsat's land and coastal images and extended imaging of global, warm water coral reefs. The proposed algorithm captures up to 161% more Landsat images than nadir-pointing sensors with the same field of view, on a 2-satellite constellation over a 12-h simulation. Integer programming was able to verify that

  11. Muscle perfusion and metabolic heterogeneity: insights from noninvasive imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in noninvasive imaging techniques have enabled the study of local changes in perfusion and metabolism in skeletal muscle as well as patterns of heterogeneity in these variables in humans. In this review, the principles of these techniques along with some recent findings...... on functional heterogeneity in human skeletal muscle will be presented....

  12. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data...

  13. Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Postradiotherapy Xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Blake [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Schwartz, David L., E-mail: dschwartz3@nshs.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, New York (United States); Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Results: Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid D{sub Met} (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p < 0.01) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In this pilot series, loss of parotid FDG uptake was strongly associated with acute clinical post-RT parotid toxicity. D{sub Met} may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing.

  14. Mapping soil heterogeneity using RapidEye satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccard, Isabelle; Eerens, Herman; Dong, Qinghan; Gobin, Anne; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of BELCAM, a project funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO), researchers from UCL, ULg, CRA-W and VITO aim to set up a collaborative system to develop and deliver relevant information for agricultural monitoring in Belgium. The main objective is to develop remote sensing methods and processing chains able to ingest crowd sourcing data, provided by farmers or associated partners, and to deliver in return relevant and up-to-date information for crop monitoring at the field and district level based on Sentinel-1 and -2 satellite imagery. One of the developments within BELCAM concerns an automatic procedure to detect soil heterogeneity within a parcel using optical high resolution images. Such heterogeneity maps can be used to adjust farming practices according to the detected heterogeneity. This heterogeneity may for instance be caused by differences in mineral composition of the soil, organic matter content, soil moisture or soil texture. Local differences in plant growth may be indicative for differences in soil characteristics. As such remote sensing derived vegetation indices may be used to reveal soil heterogeneity. VITO started to delineate homogeneous zones within parcels by analyzing a series of RapidEye images acquired in 2015 (as a precursor for Sentinel-2). Both unsupervised classification (ISODATA, K-means) and segmentation techniques were tested. Heterogeneity maps were generated from images acquired at different moments during the season (13 May, 30 June, 17 July, 31 August, 11 September and 1 November 2015). Tests were performed using blue, green, red, red edge and NIR reflectances separately and using derived indices such as NDVI, fAPAR, CIrededge, NDRE2. The results for selected winter wheat, maize and potato fields were evaluated together with experts from the collaborating agricultural research centers. For a few fields UAV images and/or yield measurements were available for comparison.

  15. MR imaging of metabolic white matter diseases: Therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebarski, S.S.; Allen, R.

    1987-01-01

    In metabolic diseases affecting the brain, MR imaging abnormalities include white-matter signal aberrations suggesting myelination delay, dysmyelination and demyelination, pathologic iron storage, and finally, loss of substance usually in a nonspecific pattern. The authors suggest that MR imaging may have therapeutic implications: (1) classic galactosemia - white-matter signal aberration became normal after dietary therapy; (2) phenylketonuria - age- and sex-matched treated and nontreated adolescents showed marked differences in brain volume, with the treated patient's volume nearly normal; (3) maple syrup urine disease - gross white-matter signal aberration became nearly normal after dietary therapy; and (4) hyperglycinemia - relentless progression of white-matter signal aberration and loss of brain substance despite therapy. These data suggest that brain MR imaging may provide a therapeutic index in certain metabolic diseases

  16. Analysis of Cancer Metabolism by Imaging Hyperpolarized Nuclei: Prospects for Translation to Clinical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kurhanewicz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in cancer biology is to monitor and understand cancer metabolism in vivo with the goal of improved diagnosis and perhaps therapy. Because of the complexity of biochemical pathways, tracer methods are required for detecting specific enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Stable isotopes such as 13C or 15N with detection by nuclear magnetic resonance provide the necessary information about tissue biochemistry, but the crucial metabolites are present in low concentration and therefore are beyond the detection threshold of traditional magnetic resonance methods. A solution is to improve sensitivity by a factor of 10,000 or more by temporarily redistributing the populations of nuclear spins in a magnetic field, a process termed hyperpolarization. Although this effect is short-lived, hyperpolarized molecules can be generated in an aqueous solution and infused in vivo where metabolism generates products that can be imaged. This discovery lifts the primary constraint on magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring metabolism—poor sensitivity—while preserving the advantage of biochemical information. The purpose of this report was to briefly summarize the known abnormalities in cancer metabolism, the value and limitations of current imaging methods for metabolism, and the principles of hyperpolarization. Recent preclinical applications are described. Hyperpolarization technology is still in its infancy, and current polarizer equipment and methods are suboptimal. Nevertheless, there are no fundamental barriers to rapid translation of this exciting technology to clinical research and perhaps clinical care.

  17. Metabolic imaging of tumor for diagnosis and response for therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaynova, Elena; Shirmanova, Marina; Lukina, Maria; Dudenkova, Varvara; Ignatova, Nadezgda; Elagin, Vadim; Shlivko, Irena; Scheslavsky, Vladislav; Orlinskay, Natalia

    2018-02-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging is a non-invasive imaging technique, based on the study of fluorescence decay times of naturally occurring fluorescent molecules, enabling a noninvasive investigation of the biological tissue with subcellular resolution. Cancer exhibits altered cellular metabolism, which affects the autofluorescence of metabolic cofactors NAD(P)H and FAD. In this study features of tumor metabolism in different systems of organization (from cell culture to patient lesion) was showed. The observed differences in the relative contributions of free NAD(P)H and FAD testify to an increased a glycolytic metabolism in cancer cells compare to fibroblasts. In 3D spheroids, the cells of the proliferating zone had greater a1 and lower tm values than the cells of the quiescent zone, which likely is a consequence of their higher glycolytic rate. During the growth of colorectal cancer in the experimental mouse model, the contribution of the free component of NAD(P)H was increased. Dysplastic nevus and melanoma is characterized by raised contribution of free NADH compare to healthy skin. Therefore, melanoma cells had very short value of τ1.

  18. A RAPID THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE TO IDENTIFY POOR AND EXTENSIVE OXIDATIVE DRUG METABOLIZERS IN MAN USING DEXTROMETHORPHAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEZEEUW, RA; EIKEMA, D; FRANKE, JP; JONKMAN, JHG

    A rapid TLC method is presented to distinguish poor oxidative drug metabolizers from extensive oxidative drug metabolizers. Dextromethorphan (1) is used as test probe because it is safe, well characterized, generally available and easy to measure. The method is based on the extraction of 1 and its

  19. Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) fuel their metabolism rapidly and directly with exogenous sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, O; Holtze, S; Barkan, S; Amichai, E; Korine, C; Pinshow, B; Voigt, C C

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies reported that fed bats and birds mostly use recently acquired exogenous nutrients as fuel for flight, rather than endogenous fuels, such as lipids or glycogen. However, this pattern of fuel use may be a simple size-related phenomenon because, to date, only small birds and bats have been studied with respect to the origin of metabolized fuel, and because small animals carry relatively small energy reserves, considering their high mass-specific metabolic rate. We hypothesized that approximately 150 g Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus Pteropodidae), which are more than an order of magnitude heavier than previously studied bats, also catabolize dietary sugars directly and exclusively to fuel both rest and flight metabolism. We based our expectation on the observation that these animals rapidly transport ingested dietary sugars, which are absorbed via passive paracellular pathways in the intestine, to organs of high energy demand. We used the stable carbon isotope ratio in exhaled CO(2) (delta(13)C(breath)) to assess the origin of metabolized substrates in 16 Egyptian fruit bats that were maintained on a diet of C3 plants before experiments. First, we predicted that in resting bats delta(13)C(breath) remains constant when bats ingest C3 sucrose, but increases and converges on the dietary isotopic signature when C4 sucrose and C4 glucose are ingested. Second, if flying fruit bats use exogenous nutrients exclusively to fuel flight, we predicted that delta(13)C(breath) of flying bats would converge on the isotopic signature of the C4 sucrose they were fed. Both resting and flying Egyptian fruit bats, indeed, directly fuelled their metabolism with freshly ingested exogenous substrates. The rate at which the fruit bats oxidized dietary sugars was as fast as in 10 g nectar-feeding bats and 5 g hummingbirds. Our results support the notion that flying bats, irrespective of their size, catabolize dietary sugars directly, and possibly exclusively, to

  20. A Swellable Microneedle Patch to Rapidly Extract Skin Interstitial Fluid for Timely Metabolic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao; Zheng, Mengjia; Yu, Xiaojun; Than, Aung; Seeni, Razina Z; Kang, Rongjie; Tian, Jingqi; Khanh, Duong Phan; Liu, Linbo; Chen, Peng; Xu, Chenjie

    2017-10-01

    Skin interstitial fluid (ISF) is an emerging source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Microneedle (MN) patch has been identified as an ideal platform to extract ISF from the skin due to its pain-free and easy-to-administrated properties. However, long sampling time is still a serious problem which impedes timely metabolic analysis. In this study, a swellable MN patch that can rapidly extract ISF is developed. The MN patch is made of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and further crosslinked through UV irradiation. Owing to the supreme water affinity of MeHA, this MN patch can extract sufficient ISF in a short time without the assistance of extra devices, which remarkably facilitates timely metabolic analysis. Due to covalent crosslinked network, the MN patch maintains the structure integrity in the swelling hydrated state without leaving residues in skin after usage. More importantly, the extracted ISF metabolites can be efficiently recovered from MN patch by centrifugation for the subsequent offline analysis of metabolites such as glucose and cholesterol. Given the recent trend of easy-to-use point-of-care devices for personal healthcare monitoring, this study opens a new avenue for the development of MN-based microdevices for sampling ISF and minimally invasive metabolic detection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Metabolic networks in epilepsy by MR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J W; Spencer, D D; Kuzniecky, R; Duckrow, R B; Hetherington, H; Spencer, S S

    2012-12-01

    The concept of an epileptic network has long been suggested from both animal and human studies of epilepsy. Based on the common observation that the MR spectroscopic imaging measure of NAA/Cr is sensitive to neuronal function and injury, we use this parameter to assess for the presence of a metabolic network in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients. A multivariate factor analysis is performed with controls and MTLE patients, using NAA/Cr measures from 12 loci: the bilateral hippocampi, thalami, basal ganglia, and insula. The factor analysis determines which and to what extent these loci are metabolically covarying. We extract two independent factors that explain the data's variability in control and MTLE patients. In controls, these factors characterize a 'thalamic' and 'dominant subcortical' function. The MTLE patients also exhibit a 'thalamic' factor, in addition to a second factor involving the ipsilateral insula and bilateral basal ganglia. These data suggest that MTLE patients demonstrate a metabolic network that involves the thalami, also seen in controls. The MTLE patients also display a second set of metabolically covarying regions that may be a manifestation of the epileptic network that characterizes limbic seizure propagation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Rapid metabolism of exogenous angiotensin II by catecholaminergic neuronal cells in culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Urmi; Seravalli, Javier; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Adamec, Jiri; Case, Adam J; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) acts on central neurons to increase neuronal firing and induce sympathoexcitation, which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and heart failure. Numerous studies have examined the precise AngII-induced intraneuronal signaling mechanism in an attempt to identify new therapeutic targets for these diseases. Considering the technical challenges in studying specific intraneuronal signaling pathways in vivo, especially in the cardiovascular control brain regions, most studies have relied on neuronal cell culture models. However, there are numerous limitations in using cell culture models to study AngII intraneuronal signaling, including the lack of evidence indicating the stability of AngII in culture media. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we measured levels of AngII and its metabolites, Ang III, Ang IV, and Ang-1-7, in neuronal cell culture media after administration of exogenous AngII (100 nmol/L) to a neuronal cell culture model (CATH.a neurons). AngII levels rapidly declined in the media, returning to near baseline levels within 3 h of administration. Additionally, levels of Ang III and Ang-1-7 acutely increased, while levels of Ang IV remained unchanged. Replenishing the media with exogenous AngII every 3 h for 24 h resulted in a consistent and significant increase in AngII levels for the duration of the treatment period. These data indicate that AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media, and replenishing the media at least every 3 h is needed to sustain chronically elevated levels. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease

  5. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, G.L.; Magill, H.L.; Schad, N.C.

    1993-01-01

    Recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium is essential in this era of cardiac revascularization. Positron emission tomography (PET) accurately identifies viability but is costly and unavailable to most patients. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic cardiac imaging is a potentially cost-effective alternative to PET. Using transmural myocardial biopsies obtained during coronary bypass surgery as the viability gold standard, resting IPPA imaging agreed with 39/43 (91%) biopsies, with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36(92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%) in patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eighty percent of IPPA viable, infarcted segments improved wall motion postoperatively. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-Tl) scans after myocardial infarction, there was IPPA-Tl concordance in 27/35 (77%)(Kappa=0.536, p=0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-Tl, 26/35 (74%) vs. 18/35 (51%)(p=0.047). Finally, when compared to transvenous endomyocardial biopsy for detecting rejection following cardiac transplantation, IPPA sensitivity for ≥Grade II rejection was 100%, and IPPA screening assessment for the necessity of biopsy could result in a 31% cost-savings. Therefore, IPPA metabolic cardiac imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique with a promising future. (author)

  6. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data....... It is concluded that PD most likely is characterized by widespread cortical hypometabolism, probably even at early disease stages. Widespread subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD, although certain small basal ganglia structures, such as the external pallidum, may display true...

  7. Chaos-based image encryption algorithm [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Fangjun; Guan, Wenjie

    2005-10-01

    In this Letter, a new image encryption scheme is presented, in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of image pixels are combined to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image. Firstly, the Arnold cat map is used to shuffle the positions of the image pixels in the spatial-domain. Then the discrete output signal of the Chen's chaotic system is preprocessed to be suitable for the grayscale image encryption, and the shuffled image is encrypted by the preprocessed signal pixel by pixel. The experimental results demonstrate that the key space is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and the distribution of grey values of the encrypted image has a random-like behavior.

  8. Cancer Metabolism and Tumor Heterogeneity: Imaging Perspectives Using MR Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigin Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain viability via genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations, expressing overall dynamic heterogeneity. The complex relaxation mechanisms of nuclear spins provide unique and convertible tissue contrasts, making magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS pertinent imaging tools in both clinics and research. In this review, we summarized MR methods that visualize tumor characteristics and its metabolic phenotypes on an anatomical, microvascular, microstructural, microenvironmental, and metabolomics scale. The review will progress from the utilities of basic spin-relaxation contrasts in cancer imaging to more advanced imaging methods that measure tumor-distinctive parameters such as perfusion, water diffusion, magnetic susceptibility, oxygenation, acidosis, redox state, and cell death. Analytical methods to assess tumor heterogeneity are also reviewed in brief. Although the clinical utility of tumor heterogeneity from imaging is debatable, the quantification of tumor heterogeneity using functional and metabolic MR images with development of robust analytical methods and improved MR methods may offer more critical roles of tumor heterogeneity data in clinics. MRI/MRS can also provide insightful information on pharmacometabolomics, biomarker discovery, disease diagnosis and prognosis, and treatment response. With these future directions in mind, we anticipate the widespread utilization of these MR-based techniques in studying in vivo cancer biology to better address significant clinical needs.

  9. Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2 = 0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2 = 0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases. PMID:23555650

  10. Images from the Mind: BCI image reconstruction based on Rapid Serial Visual Presentations of polygon primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F Seoane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide a proof of concept for an EEG-based reconstruction of a visual image which is on a user's mind. Our approach is based on the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP of polygon primitives and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technology. In an experimental setup, subjects were presented bursts of polygons: some of them contributed to building a target image (because they matched the shape and/or color of the target while some of them did not. The presentation of the contributing polygons triggered attention-related EEG patterns. These Event Related Potentials (ERPs could be determined using BCI classification and could be matched to the stimuli that elicited them. These stimuli (i.e. the ERP-correlated polygons were accumulated in the display until a satisfactory reconstruction of the target image was reached. As more polygons were accumulated, finer visual details were attained resulting in more challenging classification tasks. In our experiments, we observe an average classification accuracy of around 75%. An in-depth investigation suggests that many of the misclassifications were not misinterpretations of the BCI concerning the users' intent, but rather caused by ambiguous polygons that could contribute to reconstruct several different images. When we put our BCI-image reconstruction in perspective with other RSVP BCI paradigms, there is large room for improvement both in speed and accuracy. These results invite us to be optimistic. They open a plethora of possibilities to explore non-invasive BCIs for image reconstruction both in healthy and impaired subjects and, accordingly, suggest interesting recreational and clinical applications.

  11. Application of rapid-sampling, online microdialysis to the monitoring of brain metabolism during aneurysm surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Robin; Hashemi, Parastoo; Razzaq, Ashfaq; Parkin, Mark C; Hopwood, Sarah E; Boutelle, Martyn G; Strong, Anthony J

    2006-04-01

    To introduce rapid-sampling microdialysis for the early detection of adverse metabolic changes in tissue at risk during aneurysm surgery. A microdialysis catheter was inserted under direct vision into at-risk cortex at the start of surgery. This monitoring was sustained throughout the course of the operation, during which intraoperative events, for example, temporary arterial occlusion or lobe retraction, were precisely documented. A continuous online flow of dialysate was fed into a mobile bedside glucose and lactate analyser. This comprises flow-injection dual-assay enzyme-based biosensors capable of determining values of metabolites every 30 seconds. Eight patients underwent clipping or wrapping of intracranial aneurysms and were monitored. Time between events and detection: 9 minutes. Mean change in metabolite value +/- standard deviation: temporal lobe retraction lactate, +656 +/- 562 micromol/L (n = 7, P glucose, -123 +/- 138 micromol/L (n = 6, P = 0.08). Glucose intravenous bolus infusion glucose, +512 +/- 244 micromol/L (n = 5, P lactate, +731 +/- 346 micromol/L (n = 6, P glucose, -139 +/- 96 micromol/L (n = 5, P glucose and lactate in dialysate, particularly when rapid, transient changes in brain analyte levels need to be determined and the alternative offline methodology would be inadequate.

  12. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Magnetic resonance imaging inside metallic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2010-10-01

    We introduce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements inside metallic vessels. Until now, MRI has been unusable inside metallic vessels because of eddy currents in the walls. We have solved the problem and generated high quality images by employing a magnetic field gradient monitoring method. The ability to image within metal enclosures and structures means many new samples and systems are now amenable to MRI. Most importantly this study will form the basis of new MRI-compatible metallic pressure vessels, which will permit MRI of macroscopic systems at high pressure.

  13. Tumor image signatures and habitats: a processing pipeline of multimodality metabolic and physiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Kim, Michelle M; Aryal, Madhava P; Parmar, Hemant; Piert, Morand; Lawrence, Theodore S; Cao, Yue

    2018-01-01

    To create tumor "habitats" from the "signatures" discovered from multimodality metabolic and physiological images, we developed a framework of a processing pipeline. The processing pipeline consists of six major steps: (1) creating superpixels as a spatial unit in a tumor volume; (2) forming a data matrix [Formula: see text] containing all multimodality image parameters at superpixels; (3) forming and clustering a covariance or correlation matrix [Formula: see text] of the image parameters to discover major image "signatures;" (4) clustering the superpixels and organizing the parameter order of the [Formula: see text] matrix according to the one found in step 3; (5) creating "habitats" in the image space from the superpixels associated with the "signatures;" and (6) pooling and clustering a matrix consisting of correlation coefficients of each pair of image parameters from all patients to discover subgroup patterns of the tumors. The pipeline was applied to a dataset of multimodality images in glioblastoma (GBM) first, which consisted of 10 image parameters. Three major image "signatures" were identified. The three major "habitats" plus their overlaps were created. To test generalizability of the processing pipeline, a second image dataset from GBM, acquired on the scanners different from the first one, was processed. Also, to demonstrate the clinical association of image-defined "signatures" and "habitats," the patterns of recurrence of the patients were analyzed together with image parameters acquired prechemoradiation therapy. An association of the recurrence patterns with image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" was revealed. These image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" can be used to guide stereotactic tissue biopsy for genetic and mutation status analysis and to analyze for prediction of treatment outcomes, e.g., patterns of failure.

  14. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  15. Rapid countermeasure discovery against Francisella tularensis based on a metabolic network reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhartha Chaudhury

    Full Text Available In the future, we may be faced with the need to provide treatment for an emergent biological threat against which existing vaccines and drugs have limited efficacy or availability. To prepare for this eventuality, our objective was to use a metabolic network-based approach to rapidly identify potential drug targets and prospectively screen and validate novel small-molecule antimicrobials. Our target organism was the fully virulent Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis Schu S4 strain, a highly infectious intracellular pathogen that is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a category A biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We proceeded with a staggered computational and experimental workflow that used a strain-specific metabolic network model, homology modeling and X-ray crystallography of protein targets, and ligand- and structure-based drug design. Selected compounds were subsequently filtered based on physiological-based pharmacokinetic modeling, and we selected a final set of 40 compounds for experimental validation of antimicrobial activity. We began screening these compounds in whole bacterial cell-based assays in biosafety level 3 facilities in the 20th week of the study and completed the screens within 12 weeks. Six compounds showed significant growth inhibition of F. tularensis, and we determined their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations and mammalian cell cytotoxicities. The most promising compound had a low molecular weight, was non-toxic, and abolished bacterial growth at 13 µM, with putative activity against pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A, encoded by gene coaD. The novel antimicrobial compounds identified in this study serve as starting points for lead optimization, animal testing, and drug development against tularemia. Our integrated in silico/in vitro approach had an overall 15% success rate in terms of

  16. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto eMuzik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake.Methods: Fourteen adult normal subjects (9F/5M, 30+7 years underwent triple oxygen scans (H215O, C15O, 15O2 as well as indirect calorimetric measurements at rest and following exposure to mild cold (60F. Subjects were divided into two groups (BAT+ and BAT- based on the presence or absence of FDG tracer uptake (SUV > 2 in supraclavicular BAT. Blood flow (BF and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF was calculated from dynamic PET scans at the location of BAT, muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT. The metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2 in BAT was determined and used to calculate the contribution of activated BAT to daily energy expenditure (DEE.Results: The median mass of activated BAT in the BAT+ group (5F, 31+8yrs was 52.4 g (14-68g and was 1.7 g (0-6.3g in the BAT- group (5M/4F, 29+6yrs. SUV values were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (7.4+3.7 vs 1.9+0.9; p=0.03. BF values in BAT were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (13.1+4.4 vs 5.7+1.1 ml/100g/min, p=0.03, but were similar in WAT (4.1+1.6 vs 4.2+1.8 ml/100g/min and muscle (3.7+0.8 vs 3.3+1.2 ml/100g/min. Calculated MRO2 values in BAT increased from 0.95+0.74 to 1.62+0.82 ml/100g/min in the BAT+ group and were significantly higher than those determined in the BAT- group (0.43+0.27 vs 0.56+0.24; p=0.67. The DEE associated with BAT oxidative metabolism was highly variable in the BAT+ group, with an average of 5.5+6.4 kcal/day (range 0.57–15.3 kcal/day.

  17. The rapid isolation of vacuoles from leaves of crassulacean Acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringstad, R; Kenyon, W H; Black, C C

    1980-09-01

    A technique is presented for the isolation of vacuoles from Sedum telephium L. leaves. Leaf material is digested enzymically to produce protoplasts rapidly which are partially lysed by gentle osmotic shock and the inclusion of 5 millimolar ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetraacetic acid in the wash medium. Vacuoles are isolated from the partially lysed protoplasts by brief centrifugation on a three-step Ficoll-400 gradient consisting of 5, 10, and 15% (w/v) Ficoll-400. A majority of the vacuoles accumulate at the 5 to 10% Ficoll interface, whereas a smaller proportion sediments at the 10 to 15% Ficoll-400 interface. The total time required for vacuole isolation is 2 to 2.5 hours, beginning from leaf harvest.The yield of vacuoles is approximately 44%. The major vacuole layer is 15 hours when left in Ficoll; however, dispersion into media of various osmotic concentrations resulted in decreased stability. Addition of mercaptobenzothiazole, CaCl(2), MgCl(2), bovine serum albumin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, polyethylene glycol 600, and KH(2)PO(4) to the vacuole isolation media did not increase the stability of the isolated vacuoles.THIS TECHNIQUE WITH ONLY SLIGHT MODIFICATIONS HAS BEEN USED TO ISOLATE LEAF CELL VACUOLES FROM THE FOLLOWING CRASSULACEAN ACID METABOLISM PLANTS: pineapple, Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi, and Echeveria elegans. Spinach leaves also were used successfully.

  18. Mobile Image Ratiometry: A New Method for Instantaneous Analysis of Rapid Test Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Cooper; Bryan Callahan; Phil Callahan; Lee Burnett

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe Mobile Image Ratiometry (MIR), a new method for the automated quantification of standardized rapid immunoassay strips using consumer-based mobile smartphone and tablet cameras. To demonstrate MIR we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE). We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three d...

  19. Featured Image: Making a Rapidly Rotating Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    These stills from a simulation show the evolution (from left to right and top to bottom) of a high-mass X-ray binary over 1.1 days, starting after the star on the right fails to explode as a supernova and then collapses into a black hole. Many high-mass X-ray binaries like the well-known Cygnus X-1, the first source widely accepted to be a black hole host rapidly spinning black holes. Despite our observations of these systems, however, were still not sure how these objects end up with such high rotation speeds. Using simulations like that shown above, a team of scientists led by Aldo Batta (UC Santa Cruz) has demonstrated how a failed supernova explosion can result in such a rapidly spinning black hole. The authors work shows that in a binary where one star attempts to explode as a supernova and fails it doesnt succeed in unbinding the star the large amount of fallback material can interact with the companion star and then accrete onto the black hole, spinning it up in the process. You can read more about the authors simulations and conclusions in the paper below.CitationAldo Batta et al 2017 ApJL 846 L15. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa8506

  20. Low Birthweight, Rapid Weight Gain and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescence: An Illustrative Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old boy whose diabetes mellitus was diagnosed 3 months previously in a private hospital but was not placed on medication. The presenting complaints were fast breathing for 24 hours, weakness for 2 hours, and unresponsiveness to calls for 0.5 hours. His father was obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus and died 8 months earlier from cardiac arrest. His birthweight was low, 2.2kg. At first presentation, his weight, BMI and blood pressure were 60kg (25th-50th percentile, 19.4kg/m2 (25thpercentile and 110/70mmHg (systolic BP 50th percentile, diastolic BP 50th-90th percentile, respectively. He was managed for diabetic ketoacidosis and was discharged on subcutaneous premixed insulin, 1 Unit/kg/day. At point of discharge, weight and BP were 60.5 kg and 120/70 mmHg, respectively. The patient defaulted but presented again 6 months later at the age of 17 years. At second presentation, his weight, BMI and BP were 89 kg (95th percentile, 27.5 kg/m2 (90th-95th percentile and 180/80 mmHg (systolic 99th percentile; diastolic 90th percentile, respectively. His waist circumference was 98.7cm (> 90th percentile. We had no record of previous waist circumference. His lipid profile showed low HDL-cholesterol 0.7252 mmol/L [(28mg/dl; <5thpercentile]. His fasting blood glucose and HbA1C were 6.5 mmol/L (117mg/dl and 34 mol/mol (5.3%, respectively. A diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in a patient with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes was made. He was referred to the pediatric cardiologist for management of his hypertension. He defaulted again and was lost to follow up. Conclusion: This report illustrates the association of low birth weight and rapid weight gain with metabolic syndrome in adolescence.

  1. Quantitative imaging of subcellular metabolism with stable isotopes and multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Lechene, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) is the quantitative imaging of stable isotope labels in cells with a new type of secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS). The power of the methodology is attributable to (i) the immense advantage of using non-toxic stable isotope labels, (ii) high resolution imaging that approaches the resolution of usual transmission electron microscopy and (iii) the precise quantification of label down to 1 part-per-million and spanning several orders of magnitude. Here we review the basic elements of MIMS and describe new applications of MIMS to the quantitative study of metabolic processes including protein and nucleic acid synthesis in model organisms ranging from microbes to humans. PMID:23660233

  2. Direct imaging rapidly-rotating non-Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: Cosimo.Bambi@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 80333 Munich (Germany); Caravelli, Francesco, E-mail: fcaravelli@perimeterinstitute.ca [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, 14476 Golm (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Recently, two of us have argued that non-Kerr black holes in gravity theories different from General Relativity may have a topologically non-trivial event horizon. More precisely, the spatial topology of the horizon of non-rotating and slow-rotating objects would be a 2-sphere, like in Kerr space-time, while it would change above a critical value of the spin parameter. When the topology of the horizon changes, the black hole central singularity shows up. The accretion process from a thin disk can potentially overspin these black holes and induce the topology transition, violating the Weak Cosmic Censorship Conjecture. If the astrophysical black hole candidates are not the black holes predicted by General Relativity, we might have the quite unique opportunity to see their central region, where classical physics breaks down and quantum gravity effects should appear. Even if the quantum gravity region turned out to be extremely small, at the level of the Planck scale, the size of its apparent image would be finite and potentially observable with future facilities.

  3. Metabolic Imaging of Patients with Prostate Cancer Using Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah J.; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Harzstark, Andrea L.; Ferrone, Marcus; van Criekinge, Mark; Chang, Jose W.; Bok, Robert; Park, Ilwoo; Reed, Galen; Carvajal, Lucas; Small, Eric J.; Munster, Pamela; Weinberg, Vivian K.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Chen, Albert P.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Odegardstuen, Liv-Ingrid; Robb, Fraser J.; Tropp, James; Murray, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    This first-in-man imaging study evaluated the safety and feasibility of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate as an agent for noninvasively characterizing alterations in tumor metabolism for patients with prostate cancer. Imaging living systems with hyperpolarized agents can result in more than 10,000-fold enhancement in signal relative to conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. When combined with the rapid acquisition of in vivo 13C MR data, it is possible to evaluate the distribution of agents such as [1-13C]pyruvate and its metabolic products lactate, alanine, and bicarbonate in a matter of seconds. Preclinical studies in cancer models have detected elevated levels of hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate in tumor, with the ratio of [1-13C]lactate/[1-13C]pyruvate being increased in high-grade tumors and decreased after successful treatment. Translation of this technology into humans was achieved by modifying the instrument that generates the hyperpolarized agent, constructing specialized radio frequency coils to detect 13C nuclei, and developing new pulse sequences to efficiently capture the signal. The study population comprised patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, with 31 subjects being injected with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. The median time to deliver the agent was 66 s, and uptake was observed about 20 s after injection. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and the highest dose (0.43 ml/kg of 230 mM agent) gave the best signal-to-noise ratio for hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. The results were extremely promising in not only confirming the safety of the agent but also showing elevated [1-13C]lactate/[1-13C]pyruvate in regions of biopsy-proven cancer. These findings will be valuable for noninvasive cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring in future clinical trials. PMID:23946197

  4. Rapid myelin water imaging in human cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Emil; Vavasour, Irene; Tam, Roger; Yoo, Youngjin; Rauscher, Alexander; Li, David K B; Traboulsee, Anthony; MacKay, Alex; Kolind, Shannon

    2017-10-01

    Myelin water imaging (MWI) using multi-echo T 2 relaxation is a quantitative MRI technique that can be used as an in vivo biomarker for myelin in the central nervous system. MWI using a multi-echo spin echo sequence currently takes more than 20 min to acquire eight axial slices (5 mm thickness) in the cervical spinal cord, making spinal cord MWI impractical for implementation in clinical studies. In this study, an accelerated gradient and spin echo sequence (GRASE), previously validated for brain MWI, was adapted for spinal cord MWI. Ten healthy volunteers were scanned with the GRASE sequence (acquisition time 8.5 min) and compared with the multi-echo spin echo sequence (acquisition time 23.5 min). Using region of interest analysis, myelin estimates obtained from the two sequences were found to be in good agreement (mean difference = -0.0092, 95% confidence interval =  - 0.0092 ± 0.061; regression slope = 1.01, ρ = 0.9). MWI using GRASE was shown to be highly reproducible with an average coefficient of variation of 6.1%. The results from this study show that MWI can be performed in the cervical spinal cord in less than 10 min, allowing for practical implementation in multimodal clinical studies. Magn Reson Med 78:1482-1487, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. MO-DE-206-00: Joint AAPM-WMIS Symposium: Metabolic Imaging of Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    In this symposium jointly sponsored by the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and the AAPM, luminary speakers on imaging metabolism will discuss three impactful topics. The first presentation on Cellular Metabolism of FDG will be given by Guillem Pratx (Stanford). This presentation will detail new work on looking at how the most common molecular imaging agent, fluoro-deoxy-glucose is metabolized at a cellular level. This will be followed by a talk on an improved approach to whole-body PET imaging by Simon Cherry (UC Davis). Simon’s work on a new whole-body PET imaging system promises to have dramatic improvement in our ability to detect and characterize cancer using PET. Finally, Jim Bankson (MD Anderson) will discuss extremely sophisticated approaches to quantifying hyperpolarized-13-C pyruvate metabolism using MR imaging. This technology promises to compliment the exquisite sensitivity of PET with an ability to measure not just uptake, but tumor metabolism. Learning Objectives: Understand the metabolism of FDG at a cellular level. Appreciate the engineering related to a novel new high-sensitivity whole-body PET imaging system. Understand the process of hyperpolarization, how pyruvate relates to metabolism and how advanced modeling can be used to better quantify this data. G. Pratx, Funding: 5R01CA186275, 1R21CA193001, and Damon Runyon Cancer Foundation. S. Cherry, National Institutes of Health; University of California, Davis; Siemens Medical SolutionsJ. Bankson, GE Healthcare; NCI P30-CA016672; CPRIT PR140021-P5.

  6. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.L.; London, E.D.; Links, J.M.; Cascella, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states

  7. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  8. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  9. Signal to noise comparison of metabolic imaging methods on a clinical 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, C. A.; Hansen, Rie Beck; Skinner, J. G.

    MRI with hyperpolarized tracers has enabled new diagnostic applications, e.g. metabolic imaging in cancer research. However, the acquisition of the transient, hyperpolarized signal with spatial and frequency resolution requires dedicated imaging methods. Here, we compare three promising candidate...... for 2D MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI): (i) multi-echo balanced steady-state free precession (me-bSSFP), 1,2 (ii) echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) sequence and (iii) phase-encoded, pulseacquisition chemical-shift imaging (CSI)...

  10. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Based Rapid Image Triage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Searching for points of interest (POI in large-volume imagery is a challenging problem with few good solutions. In this work, a neural engineering approach called rapid image triage (RIT which could offer about a ten-fold speed up in POI searching is developed. It is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique, whereby the user is presented bursts of images at a speed of 6–15 images per second and then neural signals called event-related potential (ERP is used as the ‘cue’ for user seeing images of high relevance likelihood. Compared to past efforts, the implemented system has several unique features: (1 it applies overlapping frames in image chip preparation, to ensure rapid image triage performance; (2 a novel common spatial-temporal pattern (CSTP algorithm that makes use of both spatial and temporal patterns of ERP topography is proposed for high-accuracy single-trial ERP detection; (3 a weighted version of probabilistic support-vector-machine (SVM is used to address the inherent unbalanced nature of single-trial ERP detection for RIT. High accuracy, fast learning, and real-time capability of the developed system shown on 20 subjects demonstrate the feasibility of a brainmachine integrated rapid image triage system for fast detection of POI from large-volume imagery.

  11. Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Michael W.M.; Dearnley, Megan K.; Riessen, Grant A. van; Abbey, Brian; Putkunz, Corey T.; Junker, Mark D.; Vine, David J.; McNulty, Ian; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Tilley, Leann

    2014-01-01

    Phase-diverse X-ray coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) provides a route to high sensitivity and spatial resolution with moderate radiation dose. It also provides a robust solution to the well-known phase-problem, making on-line image reconstruction feasible. Here we apply phase-diverse CDI to a cellular sample, obtaining images of an erythrocyte infected by the sexual stage of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, with a radiation dose significantly lower than the lowest dose previously reported for cellular imaging using CDI. The high sensitivity and resolution allow key biological features to be identified within intact cells, providing complementary information to optical and electron microscopy. This high throughput method could be used for fast tomographic imaging, or to generate multiple replicates in two-dimensions of hydrated biological systems without freezing or fixing. This work demonstrates that phase-diverse CDI is a valuable complementary imaging method for the biological sciences and ready for immediate application. - Highlights: • Phase-diverse coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy provides high-resolution and high-contrast images of intact biological samples. • Rapid nanoscale resolution imaging is demonstrated at orders of magnitude lower dose than previously possible. • Phase-diverse coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a robust technique for rapid, quantitative, and correlative X-ray phase imaging

  12. Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Michael W.M., E-mail: michael.jones@latrobe.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Dearnley, Megan K. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Riessen, Grant A. van [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Abbey, Brian [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Putkunz, Corey T. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Junker, Mark D. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Vine, David J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); McNulty, Ian [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Centre for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nugent, Keith A. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Peele, Andrew G. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton 3168 (Australia); Tilley, Leann [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-Ray Science, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-08-01

    Phase-diverse X-ray coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) provides a route to high sensitivity and spatial resolution with moderate radiation dose. It also provides a robust solution to the well-known phase-problem, making on-line image reconstruction feasible. Here we apply phase-diverse CDI to a cellular sample, obtaining images of an erythrocyte infected by the sexual stage of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, with a radiation dose significantly lower than the lowest dose previously reported for cellular imaging using CDI. The high sensitivity and resolution allow key biological features to be identified within intact cells, providing complementary information to optical and electron microscopy. This high throughput method could be used for fast tomographic imaging, or to generate multiple replicates in two-dimensions of hydrated biological systems without freezing or fixing. This work demonstrates that phase-diverse CDI is a valuable complementary imaging method for the biological sciences and ready for immediate application. - Highlights: • Phase-diverse coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy provides high-resolution and high-contrast images of intact biological samples. • Rapid nanoscale resolution imaging is demonstrated at orders of magnitude lower dose than previously possible. • Phase-diverse coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a robust technique for rapid, quantitative, and correlative X-ray phase imaging.

  13. Advanced Imaging Approaches to Characterize Stromal and Metabolic Changes in In Vivo Mammary Tumor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Bird , L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, N. Ramanujam, Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells...1   Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0025 TITLE: Advanced Imaging Approaches to Characterize Stromal and Metabolic Changes in In Vivo Mammary... Metabolic Changes in In Vivo Mammary Tumor Models 5b. GRANT NUMBER BC112240 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Betty Diamond 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  14. Rapid 3D Reconstruction for Image Sequence Acquired from UAV Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufu Qu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D structures from an image sequence captured by unmanned aerial vehicles’ camera (UAVs and improve the processing speed, we propose a rapid 3D reconstruction method that is based on an image queue, considering the continuity and relevance of UAV camera images. The proposed approach first compresses the feature points of each image into three principal component points by using the principal component analysis method. In order to select the key images suitable for 3D reconstruction, the principal component points are used to estimate the interrelationships between images. Second, these key images are inserted into a fixed-length image queue. The positions and orientations of the images are calculated, and the 3D coordinates of the feature points are estimated using weighted bundle adjustment. With this structural information, the depth maps of these images can be calculated. Next, we update the image queue by deleting some of the old images and inserting some new images into the queue, and a structural calculation of all the images can be performed by repeating the previous steps. Finally, a dense 3D point cloud can be obtained using the depth–map fusion method. The experimental results indicate that when the texture of the images is complex and the number of images exceeds 100, the proposed method can improve the calculation speed by more than a factor of four with almost no loss of precision. Furthermore, as the number of images increases, the improvement in the calculation speed will become more noticeable.

  15. Rapid 3D Reconstruction for Image Sequence Acquired from UAV Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yufu; Huang, Jianyu; Zhang, Xuan

    2018-01-14

    In order to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) structures from an image sequence captured by unmanned aerial vehicles' camera (UAVs) and improve the processing speed, we propose a rapid 3D reconstruction method that is based on an image queue, considering the continuity and relevance of UAV camera images. The proposed approach first compresses the feature points of each image into three principal component points by using the principal component analysis method. In order to select the key images suitable for 3D reconstruction, the principal component points are used to estimate the interrelationships between images. Second, these key images are inserted into a fixed-length image queue. The positions and orientations of the images are calculated, and the 3D coordinates of the feature points are estimated using weighted bundle adjustment. With this structural information, the depth maps of these images can be calculated. Next, we update the image queue by deleting some of the old images and inserting some new images into the queue, and a structural calculation of all the images can be performed by repeating the previous steps. Finally, a dense 3D point cloud can be obtained using the depth-map fusion method. The experimental results indicate that when the texture of the images is complex and the number of images exceeds 100, the proposed method can improve the calculation speed by more than a factor of four with almost no loss of precision. Furthermore, as the number of images increases, the improvement in the calculation speed will become more noticeable.

  16. Technological Development of High-Performance MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Study of Metabolic Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feenstra, Adam D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    This thesis represents efforts made in technological developments for the study of metabolic biology in plants, specifically maize, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization-mass spectrometry imaging.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  18. [18F]Fallypride: Metabolism studies and quantification of the radiotracer and its radiometabolites in plasma using a simple and rapid solid-phase extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyronneau, Marie-Anne; Saba, Wadad; Goutal, Sébastien; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Dollé, Frédéric; Bottlaender, Michel; Valette, Héric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: [ 18 F]Fallypride, a fluorinated and substituted benzamide with high affinity for D 2 /D 3 receptors, is a useful PET radioligand for the study of striatal/extrastriatal areas. Since [ 18 F]fallypride is extensively metabolized in vivo and since PET examinations are long lasting in humans, the rapid measurement of the unchanged radiotracer in plasma is essential for the quantification of images. The present study aims: i) to evaluate if the radiometabolites of [ 18 F]fallypride cross the blood–brain barrier in rodents, ii) to identify these radiometabolites in baboon plasma and iii) to develop a rapid solid phase extraction method (SPE) suitable for human applications to quantify both [ 18 F]fallypride and its radiometabolites in plasma. Methods: The metabolites P450-dependant in rat and human liver microsomes were characterized by LC–MS–MS and compared to those detected in vivo. Sequential solvent elution on Oasis®-MCX-SPE cartridges was used to quantify [ 18 F]fallypride and its radiometabolites. Result: In rat microsomal incubations, five metabolites generated upon N/O-dealkylation or hydroxylation at the pyrrolidine and/or at the benzamide moiety were identified. No radiometabolite was detected in the rat brain. N-dealkylated and hydroxylated derivatives were detected in human microsomal incubations as well as in baboon plasma. The use of SPE (total recovery 100.2% ± 2.8%, extraction yield 95.5% ± 0.3%) allowed a complete separation of [ 18 F]fallypride from its radiometabolites in plasma and evaluate [ 18 F]fallypride at 150 min pi to be 22% ± 5% of plasma radioactivity. Conclusions: The major in vivo radiometabolites of [ 18 F]fallypride were produced by N-dealkylation and hydroxylation. Allowing the rapid analysis of multiple plasma samples, SPE is a method of choice for the determination of [ 18 F]fallypride until late images required for quantitative PET imaging in humans

  19. RapidEye constellation relative radiometric accuracy measurement using lunar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Joe; Tyc, George; Beckett, Keith; Hashida, Yoshi

    2009-09-01

    The RapidEye constellation includes five identical satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Each satellite has a 5-band (blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR)) multispectral imager at 6.5m GSD. A three-axes attitude control system allows pointing the imager of each satellite at the Moon during lunations. It is therefore possible to image the Moon from near identical viewing geometry within a span of 80 minutes with each one of the imagers. Comparing the radiometrically corrected images obtained from each band and each satellite allows a near instantaneous relative radiometric accuracy measurement and determination of relative gain changes between the five imagers. A more traditional terrestrial vicarious radiometric calibration program has also been completed by MDA on RapidEye. The two components of this program provide for spatial radiometric calibration ensuring that detector-to-detector response remains flat, while a temporal radiometric calibration approach has accumulated images of specific dry dessert calibration sites. These images are used to measure the constellation relative radiometric response and make on-ground gain and offset adjustments in order to maintain the relative accuracy of the constellation within +/-2.5%. A quantitative comparison between the gain changes measured by the lunar method and the terrestrial temporal radiometric calibration method is performed and will be presented.

  20. Multi-viewpoint Image Array Virtual Viewpoint Rapid Generation Algorithm Based on Image Layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu; Piao, Yan

    2018-04-01

    The use of multi-view image array combined with virtual viewpoint generation technology to record 3D scene information in large scenes has become one of the key technologies for the development of integrated imaging. This paper presents a virtual viewpoint rendering method based on image layering algorithm. Firstly, the depth information of reference viewpoint image is quickly obtained. During this process, SAD is chosen as the similarity measure function. Then layer the reference image and calculate the parallax based on the depth information. Through the relative distance between the virtual viewpoint and the reference viewpoint, the image layers are weighted and panned. Finally the virtual viewpoint image is rendered layer by layer according to the distance between the image layers and the viewer. This method avoids the disadvantages of the algorithm DIBR, such as high-precision requirements of depth map and complex mapping operations. Experiments show that, this algorithm can achieve the synthesis of virtual viewpoints in any position within 2×2 viewpoints range, and the rendering speed is also very impressive. The average result proved that this method can get satisfactory image quality. The average SSIM value of the results relative to real viewpoint images can reaches 0.9525, the PSNR value can reaches 38.353 and the image histogram similarity can reaches 93.77%.

  1. Characterization of Japanese standards for myocardial sympathetic and metabolic imaging in comparison with perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yamashina, Shohei; Sakata, Kazuyuki; Momose, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Jun; Kumita, Shinichiro; Kawano, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The standard patterns of myocardial radiotracer distribution of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and 123 I-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) should be defined in a Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to present and provide data on the characteristics of MIBG and BMIPP with respect to myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. The normal database included 123 I-MIBG and 123 I-BMIPP imaging and a 99 mTc-sestamibi/tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion study. The projection images were transferred by digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format and reconstructed and analyzed with polar maps. The projection data from multiple centers were successfully transferred to a common format for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. When the average values were analyzed using a 17-segment model, MIBG uptake in the inferior and apical wall appeared to be slightly lower than anterior uptake (P 99m Tc-tracer uptake (P<0.05). Myocardial sympathetic nerve and metabolic scintigraphy data that were specific for the Japanese population were generated and found to be different from that of perfusion tracers. The normal database can serve as a standard for nuclear cardiology work conducted in Japan. (author)

  2. The Impact of Rapid Weight Loss on Oxidative Stress Markers and the Expression of the Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tumova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is linked with a state of increased oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the etiology of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of rapid weight loss on oxidative stress markers in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Design and Methods. We measured oxidative stress markers in 40 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS+, 40 obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (MetS−, and 20 lean controls (LC at baseline and after three months of very low caloric diet. Results. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL levels decreased by 12% in MetS+ subjects, associated with a reduction in total cholesterol (TC, even after adjustment for age and sex. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 activity decreased by 4.7% in MetS+ subjects, associated with a drop in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, TC, and insulin levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a model including ox-LDL, LpPLA2 activity, and myeloperoxidase (MPO improved prediction of MetS status among obese individuals compared to each oxidative stress marker alone. Conclusions. Oxidative stress markers were predictive of MetS in obese subjects, suggesting a higher oxidative stress. Rapid weight loss resulted in a decline in oxidative stress markers, especially in MetS+ patients.

  3. Metabolic Imaging of Breast Cancer and the Normal Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar Butt, Sadia

    ) of hyperpolarized substrates enables the visualization, characterization, and quantification of biological processes taking without perturbing them. Biologic processes can, thus, be studied in their own physiologically authentic environment. This ability to measure fine metabolic changes opens up an incredible...

  4. Integration of image guidance and rapid prototyping technology in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, P; Dunaway, D; McGurk, L; Richards, R

    2013-08-01

    This technical note demonstrates the benefits of preoperative planning, involving the use of rapid prototype models and rehearsal of the surgical procedure, using image-guided navigational surgery. Optimum reconstruction of large defects can be achieved with this technique. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid identification of salmonella serotypes with stereo and hyperspectral microscope imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  6. Current imaging methods for evaluation of metabolic risk in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balev, B.; Lateva, M.; Popova, R.; Teneva, Ts.; Iotova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The incidence of cardio - metabolic diseases increase in an increasingly early age is one of the challenges of the 21st century. This phenomenon is attributed largely of the obesity epidemic, it is particularly significant when the obesity occurs in childhood - obese children have a greater probability of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes earlier. What you will learn: The significance of the obesity epidemic in childhood and metabolic risk increase; The compartment of adipose tissue and their role in maintaining metabolic balance and its breach; The importance of imaging methods in recent studies related to obesity and cardio - metabolic diseases in children; New imaging methods for proofing of pathological fat accumulation in other tissues and organs and their role in the study of metabolic disorders. Discussion: Various studies of pathology at obesity prove that obesity indicators are not sufficient for individualized assessment of cardio - metabolic risk. Only by imaging methods, information about the accumulated fat in metabolically more active visceral and ectopic adipose tissue depots has been obtained. The most common imaging techniques for analysis of body composition and adiposity in children - dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ultrasound , computed tomography ( CT) scan , magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) will be presented. Conclusion: The imaging methods are widely used in the obesity and metabolic risk studies, as the trend is to be applied increasingly into practice. The results from Imaging studies affect not only to therapeutic approach, but also to the motivation of parents and patients to comply prescribed measures

  7. Rapid volumetric imaging with Bessel-Beam three-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingying; Huang, Xiaoshuai; Gou, Dongzhou; Zeng, Jianzhi; Chen, Guoqing; Pang, Meijun; Hu, Yanhui; Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Zhuan; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Heping; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chris; Li, Yulong; Chen, Liangyi; Wang, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    Owing to its tissue-penetration ability, multi-photon fluorescence microscopy allows for the high-resolution, non-invasive imaging of deep tissue in vivo; the recently developed three-photon microscopy (3PM) has extended the depth of high-resolution, non-invasive functional imaging of mouse brains to beyond 1.0 mm. However, the low repetition rate of femtosecond lasers that are normally used in 3PM limits the temporal resolution of point-scanning three-photon microscopy. To increase the volumetric imaging speed of 3PM, we propose a combination of an axially elongated needle-like Bessel-beam with three-photon excitation (3PE) to image biological samples with an extended depth of focus. We demonstrate the higher signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the Bessel-beam 3PM compared to the two-photon version both theoretically and experimentally. Finally, we perform simultaneous calcium imaging of brain regions at different axial locations in live fruit flies and rapid volumetric imaging of neuronal structures in live mouse brains. These results highlight the unique advantage of conducting rapid volumetric imaging with a high SBR in the deep brain in vivo using scanning Bessel-3PM.

  8. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  9. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M.

    2003-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  10. Evidence of co-metabolic bentazone transformation by methanotrophic enrichment from a groundwater-fed rapid sand filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Deliniere, Hélène; Prasse, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    from 58 to 158, well within the range for methanotrophic co-metabolic degradation of trace contaminants calculated from the literature, with normalized substrate preferences varying from 3 to 400. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed formation of the transformation products (TPs) 6-OH, 8-OH......The herbicide bentazone is recalcitrant in aquifers and is therefore frequently detected in wells used for drinking water production. However, bentazone degradation has been observed in filter sand from a rapid sand filter at a waterworks with methane-rich groundwater. Here, the association between...... and bentazone at concentrations below 2 mg/L showed methanotrophic co-metabolic bentazone transformation: The culture removed 53% of the bentazone in 21 days in presence of 5 mg/L of methane, while only 31% was removed in absence of methane. Addition of acetylene inhibited methane oxidation and stopped...

  11. Hepatic adenomatosis: rapid sequence MR imaging following gadolinium enhancement: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummett, D.; Burton, E.M.; Sabio, H.

    1999-01-01

    Hepatic adenomas are primary liver tumors usually associated with underlying metabolic disease or with anabolic steroid or oral contraceptive use. Hepatic adenomatosis (HA) is defined as the presence of more than four adenomas. Only 13 cases of HA have been reported in patients without glycogen storage disease or steroid use. We report a case of HA imaged by postcontrast T1-weighted images obtained during a breath-holding series. The lesions were most conspicuous 3-4 min after contrast administration; 4 of the 5 tumors were not identified on T2-weighted images. Unlike previous reports of HA in which the lesions remained hyperintense during sequential postcontrast imaging, the smaller lesions in this case demonstrated contrast washout, thereby distinguishing them from hemangiomata. (orig.)

  12. Design and Applications of Rapid Image Tile Producing Software Based on Mosaic Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Z.; Huang, W.; Wang, C.; Tang, D.; Zhu, L.

    2018-04-01

    Map tile technology is widely used in web geographic information services. How to efficiently produce map tiles is key technology for rapid service of images on web. In this paper, a rapid producing software for image tile data based on mosaic dataset is designed, meanwhile, the flow of tile producing is given. Key technologies such as cluster processing, map representation, tile checking, tile conversion and compression in memory are discussed. Accomplished by software development and tested by actual image data, the results show that this software has a high degree of automation, would be able to effectively reducing the number of IO and improve the tile producing efficiency. Moreover, the manual operations would be reduced significantly.

  13. DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS OF RAPID IMAGE TILE PRODUCING SOFTWARE BASED ON MOSAIC DATASET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Map tile technology is widely used in web geographic information services. How to efficiently produce map tiles is key technology for rapid service of images on web. In this paper, a rapid producing software for image tile data based on mosaic dataset is designed, meanwhile, the flow of tile producing is given. Key technologies such as cluster processing, map representation, tile checking, tile conversion and compression in memory are discussed. Accomplished by software development and tested by actual image data, the results show that this software has a high degree of automation, would be able to effectively reducing the number of IO and improve the tile producing efficiency. Moreover, the manual operations would be reduced significantly.

  14. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  15. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  16. Metabolic imaging of patients with prostate cancer using hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Sarah J; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    This first-in-man imaging study evaluated the safety and feasibility of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate as an agent for noninvasively characterizing alterations in tumor metabolism for patients with prostate cancer. Imaging living systems with hyperpolarized agents can result in more than 10,000-f...

  17. Rapid Revival of a Patient after very Severe Metabolic Acidosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic acidosis is a fatal finding in trauma patients thatcomplicates the process of resuscitation.Case: The case was a 37-year-old man with open fracture in both legs and fracturein second lumbar vertebral (L2. The serial arterial blood gas (ABG test resultsshowed a pH value of 6.7 indicating a very severe and special case of metabolicacidosis. The rate of mortality for such a case was very high. The patient wastreated with sodium bicarbonate and successfully revived after four hours posttreatment and metabolic acidosis was resolved.Conclusion: This indicated that bicarbonate administration is useful for verysevere cases. The good condition of the patient after survival from the severeacademia allowed for extubation.

  18. Rapid Sequential in Situ Multiplexing with DNA Exchange Imaging in Neuronal Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Donoghue, Noah; Dai, Mingjie; Avendaño, Maier S; Schackmann, Ron C J; Zoeller, Jason J; Wang, Shan Shan H; Tillberg, Paul W; Park, Demian; Lapan, Sylvain W; Boyden, Edward S; Brugge, Joan S; Kaeser, Pascal S; Church, George M; Agasti, Sarit S; Jungmann, Ralf; Yin, Peng

    2017-10-11

    To decipher the molecular mechanisms of biological function, it is critical to map the molecular composition of individual cells or even more importantly tissue samples in the context of their biological environment in situ. Immunofluorescence (IF) provides specific labeling for molecular profiling. However, conventional IF methods have finite multiplexing capabilities due to spectral overlap of the fluorophores. Various sequential imaging methods have been developed to circumvent this spectral limit but are not widely adopted due to the common limitation of requiring multirounds of slow (typically over 2 h at room temperature to overnight at 4 °C in practice) immunostaining. We present here a practical and robust method, which we call DNA Exchange Imaging (DEI), for rapid in situ spectrally unlimited multiplexing. This technique overcomes speed restrictions by allowing for single-round immunostaining with DNA-barcoded antibodies, followed by rapid (less than 10 min) buffer exchange of fluorophore-bearing DNA imager strands. The programmability of DEI allows us to apply it to diverse microscopy platforms (with Exchange Confocal, Exchange-SIM, Exchange-STED, and Exchange-PAINT demonstrated here) at multiple desired resolution scales (from ∼300 nm down to sub-20 nm). We optimized and validated the use of DEI in complex biological samples, including primary neuron cultures and tissue sections. These results collectively suggest DNA exchange as a versatile, practical platform for rapid, highly multiplexed in situ imaging, potentially enabling new applications ranging from basic science, to drug discovery, and to clinical pathology.

  19. Anato-metabolic fusion of PET, CT and MRI images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przetak, C.; Baum, R.P.; Niesen, A.; Slomka, P.; Proeschild, A.; Leonhardi, J.

    2000-01-01

    The fusion of cross-sectional images - especially in oncology - appears to be a very helpful tool to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic accuracy. Though many advantages exist, image fusion is applied routinely only in a few hospitals. To introduce image fusion as a common procedure, technical and logistical conditions have to be fulfilled which are related to long term archiving of digital data, data transfer and improvement of the available software in terms of usefulness and documentation. The accuracy of coregistration and the quality of image fusion has to be validated by further controlled studies. (orig.) [de

  20. Automated Detection of Buildings from Heterogeneous VHR Satellite Images for Rapid Response to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaodan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatically detecting buildings from multiple heterogeneous and uncalibrated very high-resolution (VHR satellite images for a rapid response to natural disasters. In the proposed method, a simple and efficient visual attention method is first used to extract built-up area candidates (BACs from each multispectral (MS satellite image. After this, morphological building indices (MBIs are extracted from all the masked panchromatic (PAN and MS images with BACs to characterize the structural features of buildings. Finally, buildings are automatically detected in a hierarchical probabilistic model by fusing the MBI and masked PAN images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to supervised classification methods in terms of recall, precision and F-value.

  1. Rapid visuomotor processing of phobic images in spider- and snake-fearful participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Filipp; Schmidt, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates enhanced visuomotor processing of phobic compared to fear-relevant and neutral stimuli. We used a response priming design to measure rapid, automatic motor activation by natural images (spiders, snakes, mushrooms, and flowers) in spider-fearful, snake-fearful, and control participants. We found strong priming effects in all tasks and conditions; however, results showed marked differences between groups. Most importantly, in the group of spider-fearful individuals, spider pictures had a strong and specific influence on even the fastest motor responses: Phobic primes entailed the largest priming effects, and phobic targets accelerated responses, both effects indicating speeded response activation by phobic images. In snake-fearful participants, this processing enhancement for phobic material was less pronounced and extended to both snake and spider images. We conclude that spider phobia leads to enhanced processing capacity for phobic images. We argue that this is enabled by long-term perceptual learning processes. © 2013.

  2. Technical Note: Deep learning based MRAC using rapid ultra-short echo time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Gengyan; Bradshaw, Tyler; McMillan, Alan B

    2018-05-15

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of a novel framework for MR-based attenuation correction for PET/MR imaging based on deep learning via convolutional neural networks, which enables fully automated and robust estimation of a pseudo CT image based on ultrashort echo time (UTE), fat, and water images obtained by a rapid MR acquisition. MR images for MRAC are acquired using dual echo ramped hybrid encoding (dRHE), where both UTE and out-of-phase echo images are obtained within a short single acquisition (35 sec). Tissue labeling of air, soft tissue, and bone in the UTE image is accomplished via a deep learning network that was pre-trained with T1-weighted MR images. UTE images are used as input to the network, which was trained using labels derived from co-registered CT images. The tissue labels estimated by deep learning are refined by a conditional random field based correction. The soft tissue labels are further separated into fat and water components using the two-point Dixon method. The estimated bone, air, fat, and water images are then assigned appropriate Hounsfield units, resulting in a pseudo CT image for PET attenuation correction. To evaluate the proposed MRAC method, PET/MR imaging of the head was performed on 8 human subjects, where Dice similarity coefficients of the estimated tissue labels and relative PET errors were evaluated through comparison to a registered CT image. Dice coefficients for air (within the head), soft tissue, and bone labels were 0.76±0.03, 0.96±0.006, and 0.88±0.01. In PET quantification, the proposed MRAC method produced relative PET errors less than 1% within most brain regions. The proposed MRAC method utilizing deep learning with transfer learning and an efficient dRHE acquisition enables reliable PET quantification with accurate and rapid pseudo CT generation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  4. A rapid method for creating qualitative images indicative of thick oil emulsion on the ocean's surface from imaging spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, K. Eric; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; McCubbin, Ian B.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Lundeen, Sarah R.; Sarture, Charles M.; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Bradley, Eliza S.; Roberts, Dar A.; ,

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a method to create color-composite images indicative of thick oil:water emulsions on the surface of clear, deep ocean water by using normalized difference ratios derived from remotely sensed data collected by an imaging spectrometer. The spectral bands used in the normalized difference ratios are located in wavelength regions where the spectra of thick oil:water emulsions on the ocean's surface have a distinct shape compared to clear water and clouds. In contrast to quantitative analyses, which require rigorous conversion to reflectance, the method described is easily computed and can be applied rapidly to radiance data or data that have been atmospherically corrected or ground-calibrated to reflectance. Examples are shown of the method applied to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer data collected May 17 and May 19, 2010, over the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Hyperspectral imaging solutions for brain tissue metabolic and hemodynamic monitoring: past, current and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Luca; Lange, Frédéric; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technologies have been used extensively in medical research, targeting various biological phenomena and multiple tissue types. Their high spectral resolution over a wide range of wavelengths enables acquisition of spatial information corresponding to different light-interacting biological compounds. This review focuses on the application of HSI to monitor brain tissue metabolism and hemodynamics in life sciences. Different approaches involving HSI have been investigated to assess and quantify cerebral activity, mainly focusing on: (1) mapping tissue oxygen delivery through measurement of changes in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin; and (2) the assessment of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) to estimate oxygen consumption by brain tissue. Finally, we introduce future perspectives of HSI of brain metabolism, including its potential use for imaging optical signals from molecules directly involved in cellular energy production. HSI solutions can provide remarkable insight in understanding cerebral tissue metabolism and oxygenation, aiding investigation on brain tissue physiological processes.

  6. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  7. Rapid selection of a pyrethroid metabolic enzyme CYP9K1 by operational malaria control activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Grigoraki, Linda; Morgan, John; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Fuseini, Godwin; Segura, Luis; Niemczura de Carvalho, Julie; Nguema, Raul; Weetman, David; Slotman, Michel A; Hemingway, Janet

    2018-05-01

    Since 2004, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bednets (LLINs) have reduced the malaria parasite prevalence in children on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, from 45% to 12%. After target site-based (knockdown resistance; kdr ) pyrethroid resistance was detected in 2004 in Anopheles coluzzii (formerly known as the M form of the Anopheles gambiae complex), the carbamate bendiocarb was introduced. Subsequent analysis showed that kdr alone was not operationally significant, so pyrethroid-based IRS was successfully reintroduced in 2012. In 2007 and 2014-2015, mass distribution of new pyrethroid LLINs was undertaken to increase the net coverage levels. The combined selection pressure of IRS and LLINs resulted in an increase in the frequency of pyrethroid resistance in 2015. In addition to a significant increase in kd r frequency, an additional metabolic pyrethroid resistance mechanism had been selected. Increased metabolism of the pyrethroid deltamethrin was linked with up-regulation of the cytochrome P450 CYP9K1. The increase in resistance prompted a reversion to bendiocarb IRS in 2016 to avoid a resurgence of malaria, in line with the national Malaria Control Program plan. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  8. Hyperspectral image analysis for rapid and accurate discrimination of bacterial infections: A benchmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Simone; Turra, Giovanni; Signoroni, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid diffusion of Full Laboratory Automation systems, Clinical Microbiology is currently experiencing a new digital revolution. The ability to capture and process large amounts of visual data from microbiological specimen processing enables the definition of completely new objectives. These include the direct identification of pathogens growing on culturing plates, with expected improvements in rapid definition of the right treatment for patients affected by bacterial infections. In this framework, the synergies between light spectroscopy and image analysis, offered by hyperspectral imaging, are of prominent interest. This leads us to assess the feasibility of a reliable and rapid discrimination of pathogens through the classification of their spectral signatures extracted from hyperspectral image acquisitions of bacteria colonies growing on blood agar plates. We designed and implemented the whole data acquisition and processing pipeline and performed a comprehensive comparison among 40 combinations of different data preprocessing and classification techniques. High discrimination performance has been achieved also thanks to improved colony segmentation and spectral signature extraction. Experimental results reveal the high accuracy and suitability of the proposed approach, driving the selection of most suitable and scalable classification pipelines and stimulating clinical validations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A rapid and robust gradient measurement technique using dynamic single-point imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; McMillan, Alan B

    2017-09-01

    We propose a new gradient measurement technique based on dynamic single-point imaging (SPI), which allows simple, rapid, and robust measurement of k-space trajectory. To enable gradient measurement, we utilize the variable field-of-view (FOV) property of dynamic SPI, which is dependent on gradient shape. First, one-dimensional (1D) dynamic SPI data are acquired from a targeted gradient axis, and then relative FOV scaling factors between 1D images or k-spaces at varying encoding times are found. These relative scaling factors are the relative k-space position that can be used for image reconstruction. The gradient measurement technique also can be used to estimate the gradient impulse response function for reproducible gradient estimation as a linear time invariant system. The proposed measurement technique was used to improve reconstructed image quality in 3D ultrashort echo, 2D spiral, and multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging. In multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging, measurement of the k-space trajectory allowed the use of a ramp-sampled trajectory for improved acquisition speed (approximately 30%) and more accurate quantitative fat and water separation in a phantom. The proposed dynamic SPI-based method allows fast k-space trajectory measurement with a simple implementation and no additional hardware for improved image quality. Magn Reson Med 78:950-962, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Regional differences in brain glucose metabolism determined by imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    André Kleinridders; Heather A. Ferris; Michelle L. Reyzer; Michaela Rath; Marion Soto; M. Lisa Manier; Jeffrey Spraggins; Zhihong Yang; Robert C. Stanton; Richard M. Caprioli; C. Ronald Kahn

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Glucose is the major energy substrate of the brain and crucial for normal brain function. In diabetes, the brain is subject to episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia resulting in acute outcomes ranging from confusion to seizures, while chronic metabolic dysregulation puts patients at increased risk for depression and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we aimed to determine how glucose is metabolized in different regions of the brain using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Metho...

  11. F-19 MR imaging of glucose metabolism in the rat and rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, T.; Kwee, I.L.; Card, P.J.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Griffey, B.V.; Griffey, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging reflecting regional pathway specific glucose metabolism was performed utilizing F-19 as the MR signal probe and two fluorinated glucose analogues, 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-FDG) and 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3-FDG) as the metabolic probe. 2-FDG-6-phosphate images provides regional quantitative information regarding glycolytic activities, while 2-FDG-6-phosphoglyconate images provide information on the pentose monophosphate shunt activities. 3-FDG-sorbitol and 3-FDG-fructose indicate regional aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities of the aldose reductase sorbitol pathway, respectively. The potential toxicity of 2-FDG in high doses precludes the immediate application of the 2-FDG MR imaging method to humans. The extremely low toxicity of 3-FDG, however, indicates promise for clinical application of 3-FDG MR imaging

  12. In vivo imaging of cerebral energy metabolism with two-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Sakadžić, Sava; Wu, Weicheng; Becker, Wolfgang; Kasischke, Karl A; Boas, David A

    2013-02-01

    Minimally invasive, specific measurement of cellular energy metabolism is crucial for understanding cerebral pathophysiology. Here, we present high-resolution, in vivo observations of autofluorescence lifetime as a biomarker of cerebral energy metabolism in exposed rat cortices. We describe a customized two-photon imaging system with time correlated single photon counting detection and specialized software for modeling multiple-component fits of fluorescence decay and monitoring their transient behaviors. In vivo cerebral NADH fluorescence suggests the presence of four distinct components, which respond differently to brief periods of anoxia and likely indicate different enzymatic formulations. Individual components show potential as indicators of specific molecular pathways involved in oxidative metabolism.

  13. Rapid adaptation of the stimulatory effect of CO2 on brain norepinephrine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E A

    1983-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of exposure of rats to elevated environmental levels of CO2 on norepinephrine metabolism in the hypothalamus and other regions of the brain. In confirmation of previous findings by others CO2 at 10 or 15% was found to elevate both dopa accumulation after dopa decarboxylase inhibition and norepinephrine utilization after tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition. These effects however were found to be transient occurring only during the first 30 min of 2.5 h exposure. In this regard CO2 differs from another form of stress, restraint which produces a sustained 2.5 h increase of dopa accumulation and NE accumulation. Restraint was also more effective than CO2 in depleting endogenous stores of hypothalamic NE. The factor responsible for the adaptation of the catecholamine response to CO2 was not identified although it was shown not to be hypothermia and it was reversed by a 2 h CO2-free recovery period.

  14. PET imaging of cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism in stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, O.; Yasaka, M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Newton, M.R.; Thomas, D.L.; Chan, C.G.; Egan, G.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; O``Keefe, G.; Donnan, G.A.; McKay, W.J. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for PET and Depts of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Stroke remains a devastating clinical event with few therapeutic options. In patients with acute stroke, we studied the cerebral perfusion and metabolic patterns with {sup 15}O-CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O and {sup 15}O-O{sub 2} positron emission tomography and correlated these findings to the clinical background. Forty three patients underwent 45 studies 0-23 days post-stroke (mean 7 days). Fifteen patients showed luxury perfusion (Group A), 10 had matched low perfusion and metabolism (B) and 3 showed mixed pattern including an area of misery perfusion (C). Seventeen showed no relevant abnormality (D) and there were no examples of isolated misery perfusion. Twelve of the 15 in Group A had either haemorrhagic transformation on CT, re-opening on angiography, or a cardioembolic mechanism. In contrast only 5/10 in Group B, 0/3 in Group C and 2/17 in Group D had these features. Although 7/10 in group B had moderate or large size infarcts on CT the incidence of haemorrhagic transformation was low (2/10) and significant carotid stenoses were more common in those studied (5/8) compared with the other groups. Misery perfusion was not seen beyond five days. Thus, luxury perfusion seems to be related to a cardio-embolic mechanism or reperfusion. Matched low perfusion and metabolism was associated with a low rate of haemorrhagic transformation despite a high incidence of moderate to large size infarcts. Misery perfusion is an early phenomenon in the evolution of ischaemic stroke.

  15. Tryptophan metabolism in breast cancers: molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhász, Csaba; Nahleh, Zeina; Zitron, Ian; Chugani, Diane C.; Janabi, Majid Z.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mangner, Thomas J.; Chakraborty, Pulak K.; Mittal, Sandeep; Muzik, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tryptophan oxidation via the kynurenine pathway is an important mechanism of tumoral immunoresistance. Increased tryptophan metabolism via the serotonin pathway has been linked to malignant progression in breast cancer. In this study, we combined quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) with tumor immunohistochemistry to analyze tryptophan transport and metabolism in breast cancer. Methods: Dynamic α-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET was performed in nine women with stage II–IV breast cancer. PET tracer kinetic modeling was performed in all tumors. Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1; the initial enzyme of the serotonin pathway) was assessed by immunostaining of resected tumor specimens. Results: Tumor AMT uptake peaked at 5–20 min postinjection in seven tumors; the other two cases showed protracted tracer accumulation. Tumor standardized uptake values (SUVs) varied widely (2.6–9.8) and showed a strong positive correlation with volume of distribution values derived from kinetic analysis (P < .01). Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 6) showed particularly high AMT SUVs (range, 4.7–9.8). Moderate to strong immunostaining for LAT1, IDO and TPH1 was detected in most tumor cells. Conclusions: Breast cancers show differential tryptophan kinetics on dynamic PET. SUVs measured 5–20 min postinjection reflect reasonably the tracer's volume of distribution. Further studies are warranted to determine if in vivo AMT accumulation in these tumors is related to tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine and serotonin pathways.

  16. Increases in myocardial workload induced by rapid atrial pacing trigger alterations in global metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan T Turer

    Full Text Available To determine whether increases in cardiac work lead to alterations in the plasma metabolome and whether such changes arise from the heart or peripheral organs.There is growing evidence that the heart influences systemic metabolism through endocrine effects and affecting pathways involved in energy homeostasis.Nineteen patients referred for cardiac catheterization were enrolled. Peripheral and selective coronary sinus (CS blood sampling was performed at serial timepoints following the initiation of pacing, and metabolite profiling was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS.Pacing-stress resulted in a 225% increase in the median rate·pressure product from baseline. Increased myocardial work induced significant changes in the peripheral concentration of 43 of 125 metabolites assayed, including large changes in purine [adenosine (+99%, p = 0.006, ADP (+42%, p = 0.01, AMP (+79%, p = 0.004, GDP (+69%, p = 0.003, GMP (+58%, p = 0.01, IMP (+50%, p = 0.03, xanthine (+61%, p = 0.0006], and several bile acid metabolites. The CS changes in metabolites qualitatively mirrored those in the peripheral blood in both timing and magnitude, suggesting the heart was not the major source of the metabolite release.Isolated increases in myocardial work can induce changes in the plasma metabolome, but these changes do not appear to be directly cardiac in origin. A number of these dynamic metabolites have known signaling functions. Our study provides additional evidence to a growing body of literature on metabolic 'cross-talk' between the heart and other organs.

  17. Rapid development of medical imaging tools with open-source libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban, Jesus J; Joshi, Alark; Nagy, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Rapid prototyping is an important element in researching new imaging analysis techniques and developing custom medical applications. In the last ten years, the open source community and the number of open source libraries and freely available frameworks for biomedical research have grown significantly. What they offer are now considered standards in medical image analysis, computer-aided diagnosis, and medical visualization. A cursory review of the peer-reviewed literature in imaging informatics (indeed, in almost any information technology-dependent scientific discipline) indicates the current reliance on open source libraries to accelerate development and validation of processes and techniques. In this survey paper, we review and compare a few of the most successful open source libraries and frameworks for medical application development. Our dual intentions are to provide evidence that these approaches already constitute a vital and essential part of medical image analysis, diagnosis, and visualization and to motivate the reader to use open source libraries and software for rapid prototyping of medical applications and tools.

  18. Investigating the Feasibility of Rapid MRI for Image-Guided Motion Management in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sawant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-to-cycle variations in respiratory motion can cause significant geometric and dosimetric errors in the administration of lung cancer radiation therapy. A common limitation of the current strategies for motion management is that they assume a constant, reproducible respiratory cycle. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using rapid MRI for providing long-term imaging of the thorax in order to better capture cycle-to-cycle variations. Two nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients were imaged (free-breathing, no extrinsic contrast, and 1.5 T scanner. A balanced steady-state-free-precession (b-SSFP sequence was used to acquire cine-2D and cine-3D (4D images. In the case of Patient 1 (right midlobe lesion, ~40 mm diameter, tumor motion was well correlated with diaphragmatic motion. In the case of Patient 2, (left upper-lobe lesion, ~60 mm diameter, tumor motion was poorly correlated with diaphragmatic motion. Furthermore, the motion of the tumor centroid was poorly correlated with the motion of individual points on the tumor boundary, indicating significant rotation and/or deformation. These studies indicate that image quality and acquisition speed of cine-2D MRI were adequate for motion monitoring. However, significant improvements are required to achieve comparable speeds for truly 4D MRI. Despite several challenges, rapid MRI offers a feasible and attractive tool for noninvasive, long-term motion monitoring.

  19. Investigating the feasibility of rapid MRI for image-guided motion management in lung cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul; Pauly, Kim Butts; Alley, Marcus; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Loo, Billy W; Hinkle, Jacob; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-01-01

    Cycle-to-cycle variations in respiratory motion can cause significant geometric and dosimetric errors in the administration of lung cancer radiation therapy. A common limitation of the current strategies for motion management is that they assume a constant, reproducible respiratory cycle. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using rapid MRI for providing long-term imaging of the thorax in order to better capture cycle-to-cycle variations. Two nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients were imaged (free-breathing, no extrinsic contrast, and 1.5 T scanner). A balanced steady-state-free-precession (b-SSFP) sequence was used to acquire cine-2D and cine-3D (4D) images. In the case of Patient 1 (right midlobe lesion, ~40 mm diameter), tumor motion was well correlated with diaphragmatic motion. In the case of Patient 2, (left upper-lobe lesion, ~60 mm diameter), tumor motion was poorly correlated with diaphragmatic motion. Furthermore, the motion of the tumor centroid was poorly correlated with the motion of individual points on the tumor boundary, indicating significant rotation and/or deformation. These studies indicate that image quality and acquisition speed of cine-2D MRI were adequate for motion monitoring. However, significant improvements are required to achieve comparable speeds for truly 4D MRI. Despite several challenges, rapid MRI offers a feasible and attractive tool for noninvasive, long-term motion monitoring.

  20. Rapid characterization of a nanomaterial structure using X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Osami; Yoshimoto, Mamoru; Miki, Kazushi

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging method is able to record the reciprocal-lattice-space of nanostructure by sample-and-detector fixed geometry. This method was developed by the surface structure analysis beam line BL13XU of SPring-8. Outline of the X-ray diffraction method and basic principles of the X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging method, and application examples are stated. The method is able to find out the Bragg conditions of nanostructure of surface in the atmosphere. The reciprocal-lattice of the embedded trace atomic wires was observed. The trace atoms of Bi atomic wires embedded in silicone showed the diffraction signal and image by a short exposure time. This method is useful at rapid non-destructive measurement of nanostructure. (S.Y.)

  1. Temporal characteristics of radiologists’ and novices’ lesion detection in viewing medical images presented rapidly and sequentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although viewing multiple stacks of medical images presented on a display is a relatively new but useful medical task, little is known about this task. Particularly, it is unclear how radiologists search for lesions in this type of image reading. When viewing cluttered and dynamic displays, continuous motion itself does not capture attention. Thus, it is effective for the target detection that observers’ attention is captured by the onset signal of a suddenly appearing target among the continuously moving distractors (i.e., a passive viewing strategy. This can be applied to stack viewing tasks, because lesions often show up as transient signals in medical images which are sequentially presented simulating a dynamic and smoothly transforming image progression of organs. However, it is unclear whether observers can detect a target when the target appears at the beginning of a sequential presentation where the global apparent motion onset signal (i.e., signal of the initiation of the apparent motion by sequential presentation occurs. We investigated the ability of radiologists to detect lesions during such tasks by comparing the performances of radiologists and novices. Results show that overall performance of radiologists is better than novices. Furthermore, the temporal locations of lesions in CT image sequences, i.e., when a lesion appears in an image sequence, does not affect the performance of radiologists, whereas it does affect the performance of novices. Results indicate that novices have greater difficulty in detecting a lesion appearing early than late in the image sequence. We suggest that radiologists have other mechanisms to detect lesions in medical images with little attention which novices do not have. This ability is critically important when viewing rapid sequential presentations of multiple CT images, such as stack viewing tasks.

  2. Coil concepts for rapid and motion-compensated MR-Imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this work radiofrequency-coils for the imaging of small animals in clinical whole-body MRI-systems were developed. Therefore in a first step single-channel solenoids were designed and characterized. The solenoids had two and three windings respectively, which were implemented as double wires to increase the homogeneity of the receive profile. These coils allow the acquisition of whole-body images of mice with high signal-to-noise ratio and homogeneity over a distance of at least 6.3 cm. Since many imaging experiments require rapid image acquisition, in the next step a novel coil concept was developed, which, due to its geometry, enables parallel imaging in arbitrary directions. A prototype was assembled and tested on phantom and small-animal experiments. With an accelerating factor of R=2, the difference of the SNR in all directions from the theoretical maximum, was less than 1%. In order to compensate physiological motion by the self-gating technique, in this work a coil is presented for the first time, which selectively amplifies the self-gating signal, while - due to a optical detuning technique - preserving the homogeneous illumination of the image. In vivo experiments on a small animal show an amplification of the self-gating signal by at least 40%. (orig.)

  3. A rapid automatic analyzer and its methodology for effective bentonite content based on image recognition technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate determination of effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand is very important for selecting the correct mixing ratio and mixing process to obtain high-performance molding sand. Currently, the effective bentonite content is determined by testing the ethylene blue absorbed in used clay bonded sand, which is usually a manual operation with some disadvantages including complicated process, long testing time and low accuracy. A rapid automatic analyzer of the effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand was developed based on image recognition technology. The instrument consists of auto stirring, auto liquid removal, auto titration, step-rotation and image acquisition components, and processor. The principle of the image recognition method is first to decompose the color images into three-channel gray images based on the photosensitive degree difference of the light blue and dark blue in the three channels of red, green and blue, then to make the gray values subtraction calculation and gray level transformation of the gray images, and finally, to extract the outer circle light blue halo and the inner circle blue spot and calculate their area ratio. The titration process can be judged to reach the end-point while the area ratio is higher than the setting value.

  4. Cerebral O2 metabolism and cerebral blood flow in humans during deep and rapid-eye-movement sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    on examination of this question. We have now measured CBF and CMRO2 in young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness, deep sleep (stage 3/4), and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep as verified by standard polysomnography...... associated with light anesthesia. During REM sleep (dream sleep) CMRO2 was practically the same as in the awake state. Changes in CBF paralleled changes in CMRO2 during both deep and REM sleep.......It could be expected that the various stages of sleep were reflected in variation of the overall level of cerebral activity and thereby in the magnitude of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The elusive nature of sleep imposes major methodological restrictions...

  5. β-oxidation and rapid metabolism, but not uptake regulate brain eicosapentaenoic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The brain has a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, with high levels of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are several orders of magnitude lower. As evidence accumulated that fatty acid entry into the brain was not selective and, in fact, that DHA and EPA enter the brain at similar rates, new mechanisms were required to explain their large concentration differences in the brain. Here we summarize recent research demonstrating that EPA is rapidly and extensively β-oxidized upon entry into the brain. Although the ATP generated from the β-oxidation of EPA is low compared to the use of glucose, fatty acid β-oxidation may serve to regulate brain fatty acid levels in the absence of selective transportation. Furthermore, when β-oxidation of EPA is blocked, desaturation of EPA increases and Land׳s recycling decreases to maintain low EPA levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging cerebral 2-ketoisocaproate metabolism with hyperpolarized (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Sadia Asghar; Søgaard, Lise Vejby-Christensen; Magnusson, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    The branched chain amino acid transaminase (BCAT) has an important role in nitrogen shuttling and glutamate metabolism in the brain. The purpose of this study was to describe the cerebral distribution and metabolism of hyperpolarized 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate (KIC) in the normal rat using magnet...... & Metabolism advance online publication, 28 March 2012; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2012.34....

  7. Rapid synthesis and metabolism of glutamate in N2-fixing bacteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, S.O.; Streeter, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Symbiotic nodule bacteroids are thought to support N 2 fixation mainly by metabolizing dicarboxylic acids to CO 2 , generating reductant and ATP required by nitrogenase. Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids were isolated anaerobically and incubated at 2% O 2 with 14 C-labeled succinate, malate, glutamate, or aspartate. 14 CO 2 was collected, and the bacteroid contents separated into neutral, organic acid, and amino acid fractions. The respiration of substrates, relative to their uptake, was malate > glutamate > succinate > aspartate. Analysis of the fractions revealed that will all substrates the radioactivity was found mostly in the amino acid fraction. The labeling of the neutral fraction was negligible and only a small amount of label was found in the organic acid fraction indicating a small pool size. TLC of the amino acid fraction showed the label to be principally in glutamate. Glutamate contained 67, 80, 97, and 88% of the 14 C in the amino acid fraction in bacteroids fed with succinate, malate, glutamate and aspartate, respectively. The data suggest that glutamate may play an important role in the bacteroid function

  8. RAPID AND AUTOMATED PROCESSING OF MALDI-FTICR/MS DATA FOR N-METABOLIC LABELING IN A SHOTGUN PROTEOMICS ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Amster, I Jonathan

    2009-10-15

    Offline high performance liquid chromatography combined with matrix assisted laser desorption and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-MALDI-FTICR/MS) provides the means to rapidly analyze complex mixtures of peptides, such as those produced by proteolytic digestion of a proteome. This method is particularly useful for making quantitative measurements of changes in protein expression by using (15)N-metabolic labeling. Proteolytic digestion of combined labeled and unlabeled proteomes produces complex mixtures that with many mass overlaps when analyzed by HPLC-MALDI-FTICR/MS. A significant challenge to data analysis is the matching of pairs of peaks which represent an unlabeled peptide and its labeled counterpart. We have developed an algorithm and incorporated it into a compute program which significantly accelerates the interpretation of (15)N metabolic labeling data by automating the process of identifying unlabeled/labeled peak pairs. The algorithm takes advantage of the high resolution and mass accuracy of FTICR mass spectrometry. The algorithm is shown to be able to successfully identify the (15)N/(14)N peptide pairs and calculate peptide relative abundance ratios in highly complex mixtures from the proteolytic digest of a whole organism protein extract.

  9. A method of rapidly evaluating image quality of NED optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Qiu, Chuankai; Yang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, with the development of technology of micro-display, advanced optics and the software and hardware, near-to-eye display ( NED) optical system will have a wide range of potential applications in the fields of amusement and virtual reality. However, research on the evaluating image quality of this kind optical system is comparatively lagging behind. Although now there are some methods and equipment for evaluation, they can't be applied in commercial production because of their complex operation and inaccuracy. In this paper, an academic method is proposed and a Rapid Evaluation System (RES) is designed to evaluate the image of optical system rapidly and exactly. Firstly, a set of parameters that eyes are sensitive to and also express the quality of system should be extracted and quantized to be criterion, so the evaluation standards can be established. Then, some parameters can be detected by RES consisted of micro-display, CCD camera and computer and so on. By process of scaling, the measuring results of the RES are exact and creditable, relationship between object measurement, subjective evaluation and the RES will be established. After that, image quality of optical system can be evaluated just by detecting parameters of that. The RES is simple and the results of evaluation are exact and keeping with human vision. So the method can be used not only for optimizing design of optical system, but also for evaluation in commercial production.

  10. The Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST) for Rapid Prototyping and Publishing of Neuroimaging Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Blake C.; Bogovic, John A.; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L.; Pham, Dzung

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques enable extraordinarily sensitive and specific in vivo study of the structure, functional response and connectivity of biological mechanisms. With these advanced methods comes a heavy reliance on computer-based processing, analysis and interpretation. While the neuroimaging community has produced many excellent academic and commercial tool packages, new tools are often required to interpret new modalities and paradigms. Developing custom tools and ensuring interoperability with existing tools is a significant hurdle. To address these limitations, we present a new framework for algorithm development that implicitly ensures tool interoperability, generates graphical user interfaces, provides advanced batch processing tools, and, most importantly, requires minimal additional programming or computational overhead. Java-based rapid prototyping with this system is an efficient and practical approach to evaluate new algorithms since the proposed system ensures that rapidly constructed prototypes are actually fully-functional processing modules with support for multiple GUI's, a broad range of file formats, and distributed computation. Herein, we demonstrate MRI image processing with the proposed system for cortical surface extraction in large cross-sectional cohorts, provide a system for fully automated diffusion tensor image analysis, and illustrate how the system can be used as a simulation framework for the development of a new image analysis method. The system is released as open source under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) through the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC). PMID:20077162

  11. The Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST) for rapid prototyping and publishing of neuroimaging software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Blake C; Bogovic, John A; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L; Landman, Bennett A

    2010-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques enable extraordinarily sensitive and specific in vivo study of the structure, functional response and connectivity of biological mechanisms. With these advanced methods comes a heavy reliance on computer-based processing, analysis and interpretation. While the neuroimaging community has produced many excellent academic and commercial tool packages, new tools are often required to interpret new modalities and paradigms. Developing custom tools and ensuring interoperability with existing tools is a significant hurdle. To address these limitations, we present a new framework for algorithm development that implicitly ensures tool interoperability, generates graphical user interfaces, provides advanced batch processing tools, and, most importantly, requires minimal additional programming or computational overhead. Java-based rapid prototyping with this system is an efficient and practical approach to evaluate new algorithms since the proposed system ensures that rapidly constructed prototypes are actually fully-functional processing modules with support for multiple GUI's, a broad range of file formats, and distributed computation. Herein, we demonstrate MRI image processing with the proposed system for cortical surface extraction in large cross-sectional cohorts, provide a system for fully automated diffusion tensor image analysis, and illustrate how the system can be used as a simulation framework for the development of a new image analysis method. The system is released as open source under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) through the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC).

  12. Rapid intracerebroventricular delivery of Cu-DOTA-etanercept after peripheral administration demonstrated by PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoyuan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, and the cytokine blocker interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, all have been demonstrated to enter the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF following peripheral administration. Recent reports of rapid clinical improvement in patients with Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia following perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF antagonist, suggest that etanercept also has the ability to reach the brain CSF. To investigate, etanercept was labeled with a positron emitter to enable visualization of its intracranial distribution following peripheral administration by PET in an animal model. Findings Radiolabeling of etanercept with the PET emitter 64Cu was performed by DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraacetic acid conjugation of etanercept, followed by column purification and 64Cu labeling. MicroPET imaging revealed accumulation of 64Cu-DOTA-etanercept within the lateral and third cerebral ventricles within minutes of peripheral perispinal administration in a normal rat anesthesized with isoflurane anesthesia, with concentration within the choroid plexus and into the CSF. Conclusion Synthesis of 64Cu-DOTA-etanercept enabled visualization of its intracranial distribution by microPET imaging. MicroPET imaging documented rapid accumulation of 64Cu-DOTA-etanercept within the choroid plexus and the cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles of a living rat after peripheral administration. Further study of the effects of etanercept and TNF at the level of the choroid plexus may yield valuable insights into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  14. Rapid and Quantitative Assessment of Cancer Treatment Response Using In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assessment of orthotopic tumor models in animals utilizes survival as the primary therapeutic end point. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies [1 ]. Using human tumor cell lines constitutively expressing luciferase, the kinetics of tumor growth and response to therapy have been assessed in intraperitoneal [2], subcutaneous, and intravascular [3] cancer models. However, use of this approach for evaluating orthotopic tumor models has not been demonstrated. In this report, the ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth and therapeuticinduced cell kill of orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from 9L gliosarcoma cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase (9LLuc was investigated. Intracerebral tumor burden was monitored over time by quantitation of photon emission and tumor volume using a cryogenically cooled CCD camera and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, respectively. There was excellent correlation (r=0.91 between detected photons and tumor volume. A quantitative comparison of tumor cell kill determined from serial MRI volume measurements and BLI photon counts following 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU treatment revealed that both imaging modalities yielded statistically similar cell kill values (P=.951. These results provide direct validation of BLI imaging as a powerful and quantitative tool for the assessment of antineoplastic therapies in living animals.

  15. The rapid secondary electron imaging system of the proton beam writer at CIBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udalagama, C.N.B.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Teo, E.J.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    The recent years have witnessed a proliferation of research involving proton beam (p-beam) writing. This has prompted investigations into means of optimizing the process of p-beam writing so as to make it less time consuming and more efficient. One such avenue is the improvement of the pre-writing preparatory procedures that involves beam focusing and sample alignment which is centred on acquiring images of a resolution standard or sample. The conventional mode of imaging used up to now has utilized conventional nuclear microprobe signals that are of a pulsed nature and are inherently slow. In this work, we report the new imaging system that has been introduced, which uses proton induced secondary electrons. This in conjunction with software developed in-house that uses a National Instruments DAQ card with hardware triggering, facilitates large data transfer rates enabling rapid imaging. Frame rates as much as 10 frames/s have been achieved at an imaging resolution of 512 x 512 pixels

  16. Statistical intensity variation analysis for rapid volumetric imaging of capillary network flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Jiang, James Y; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2014-04-01

    We present a novel optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based technique for rapid volumetric imaging of red blood cell (RBC) flux in capillary networks. Previously we reported that OCT can capture individual RBC passage within a capillary, where the OCT intensity signal at a voxel fluctuates when an RBC passes the voxel. Based on this finding, we defined a metric of statistical intensity variation (SIV) and validated that the mean SIV is proportional to the RBC flux [RBC/s] through simulations and measurements. From rapidly scanned volume data, we used Hessian matrix analysis to vectorize a segment path of each capillary and estimate its flux from the mean of the SIVs gathered along the path. Repeating this process led to a 3D flux map of the capillary network. The present technique enabled us to trace the RBC flux changes over hundreds of capillaries with a temporal resolution of ~1 s during functional activation.

  17. Metabolic imaging for breast cancer detection and treatment: a role for mitochondrial Complex I function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2018-02-01

    Cancer cells are known to display a variety of metabolic reprogramming strategies to fulfill their own growth and proliferative agenda. With the advent of high resolution imaging strategies, metabolomics techniques etc., there is an increasing appreciation of critical role that tumor cell metabolism plays in the overall breast cancer (BC) growth. A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that the development of invasive cancers could be causally connected to deficits in mitochondrial function. Using this study as a rationale, we hypothesize that the widely accepted multistep tumor growth model might have a strong metabolic component as well. In this study, we explore the possibility of targeting mitochondrial Complex I enzyme system for not only metabolic detection of cancer-associated redox changes but also for modulating breast cancer cell growth characteristics. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate two approaches (pharmacological and genetic) for modulating mitochondrial Complex I function so as to achieve breast cancer control.

  18. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Richard; de Castro, Claudio Campi; Hadad, David Jamil; da Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P

    2015-09-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5%), small nodules (61.5%), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4%), and collections (26.9%). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8%), and collections (15.4%). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1%), small nodules (42.3%), nodules (15.4%), and collections (11.5%). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection may occur following laparoscopy. • Post-laparoscopy mycobacterial infection CT findings are densification, collection, and nodules. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection following laparoscopy may involve the peritoneal cavity. • Post-laparoscopy rapidly growing mycobacterial intraperitoneal infection is not associated with ascites or lymphadenopathy.

  19. Ischaemic memory imaging using metabolic radiopharmaceuticals: overview of clinical settings and ongoing investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Naya, Masanao [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Sapporo (Japan); Shiga, Tohru; Suzuki, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    ''Ischaemic memory'' is defined as a prolonged functional and/or biochemical alteration remaining after a particular episode of severe myocardial ischaemia. The biochemical alteration has been reported as metabolic stunning. Metabolic imaging has been used to detect the footprint left by previous ischaemic episodes evident due to delayed recovery of myocardial metabolism (persistent dominant glucose utilization with suppression of fatty acid oxidation). β-Methyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer widely used for metabolic imaging in clinical settings in Japan. In patients with suspected coronary artery disease but no previous myocardial infarction, BMIPP has shown acceptable diagnostic accuracy. In particular, BMIPP plays an important role in the identification of prior ischaemic insult in patients arriving at emergency departments with acute chest pain syndrome. Recent data also show the usefulness of {sup 123}I-BMIPP SPECT for predicting cardiovascular events in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Similarly, SPECT or PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG injected during peak exercise or after exercise under fasting conditions shows an increase in FDG uptake in postischaemic areas. This article will overview the roles of ischaemic memory imaging both under established indications and in ongoing investigations. (orig.)

  20. Ischaemic memory imaging using metabolic radiopharmaceuticals: overview of clinical settings and ongoing investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Naya, Masanao; Shiga, Tohru; Suzuki, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-01-01

    ''Ischaemic memory'' is defined as a prolonged functional and/or biochemical alteration remaining after a particular episode of severe myocardial ischaemia. The biochemical alteration has been reported as metabolic stunning. Metabolic imaging has been used to detect the footprint left by previous ischaemic episodes evident due to delayed recovery of myocardial metabolism (persistent dominant glucose utilization with suppression of fatty acid oxidation). β-Methyl-p-[ 123 I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer widely used for metabolic imaging in clinical settings in Japan. In patients with suspected coronary artery disease but no previous myocardial infarction, BMIPP has shown acceptable diagnostic accuracy. In particular, BMIPP plays an important role in the identification of prior ischaemic insult in patients arriving at emergency departments with acute chest pain syndrome. Recent data also show the usefulness of 123 I-BMIPP SPECT for predicting cardiovascular events in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Similarly, SPECT or PET imaging with 18 F-FDG injected during peak exercise or after exercise under fasting conditions shows an increase in FDG uptake in postischaemic areas. This article will overview the roles of ischaemic memory imaging both under established indications and in ongoing investigations. (orig.)

  1. Ischaemic memory imaging using metabolic radiopharmaceuticals: overview of clinical settings and ongoing investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Naya, Masanao; Shiga, Tohru; Suzuki, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-02-01

    "Ischaemic memory" is defined as a prolonged functional and/or biochemical alteration remaining after a particular episode of severe myocardial ischaemia. The biochemical alteration has been reported as metabolic stunning. Metabolic imaging has been used to detect the footprint left by previous ischaemic episodes evident due to delayed recovery of myocardial metabolism (persistent dominant glucose utilization with suppression of fatty acid oxidation). β-Methyl-p-[(123)I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer widely used for metabolic imaging in clinical settings in Japan. In patients with suspected coronary artery disease but no previous myocardial infarction, BMIPP has shown acceptable diagnostic accuracy. In particular, BMIPP plays an important role in the identification of prior ischaemic insult in patients arriving at emergency departments with acute chest pain syndrome. Recent data also show the usefulness of (123)I-BMIPP SPECT for predicting cardiovascular events in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Similarly, SPECT or PET imaging with (18)F-FDG injected during peak exercise or after exercise under fasting conditions shows an increase in FDG uptake in postischaemic areas. This article will overview the roles of ischaemic memory imaging both under established indications and in ongoing investigations.

  2. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  3. Quantitating subcellular metabolism with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Bailey, Andrew; Senyo, Samuel E.; Guillermier, Christelle; Perlstein, Todd S.; Gould, Alex P.; Lee, Richard T.; Lechene, Claude P.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry with stable isotope labels has been seminal in discovering the dynamic state of living matter 1,2 but is limited to bulk tissues or cells. We developed multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) that allowed us to view and measure stable isotope incorporation with sub-micron resolution 3,4 . Here we apply MIMS to diverse organisms, including Drosophila, mice, and humans. We test the “immortal strand hypothesis,” which predicts that during asymmetric stem cell division ch...

  4. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  5. A Case Series of Rapid Prototyping and Intraoperative Imaging in Orbital Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Christopher G.T.; Campbell, Duncan I.; Cook, Nicholas; Erasmus, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In Christchurch Hospital, rapid prototyping (RP) and intraoperative imaging are the standard of care in orbital trauma and has been used since February 2013. RP allows the fabrication of an anatomical model to visualize complex anatomical structures which is dimensionally accurate and cost effective. This assists diagnosis, planning, and preoperative implant adaptation for orbital reconstruction. Intraoperative imaging involves a computed tomography scan during surgery to evaluate surgical implants and restored anatomy and allows the clinician to correct errors in implant positioning that may occur during the same procedure. This article aims to demonstrate the potential clinical and cost saving benefits when both these technologies are used in orbital reconstruction which minimize the need for revision surgery. PMID:26000080

  6. A case series of rapid prototyping and intraoperative imaging in orbital reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Christopher G T; Campbell, Duncan I; Cook, Nicholas; Erasmus, Jason

    2015-06-01

    In Christchurch Hospital, rapid prototyping (RP) and intraoperative imaging are the standard of care in orbital trauma and has been used since February 2013. RP allows the fabrication of an anatomical model to visualize complex anatomical structures which is dimensionally accurate and cost effective. This assists diagnosis, planning, and preoperative implant adaptation for orbital reconstruction. Intraoperative imaging involves a computed tomography scan during surgery to evaluate surgical implants and restored anatomy and allows the clinician to correct errors in implant positioning that may occur during the same procedure. This article aims to demonstrate the potential clinical and cost saving benefits when both these technologies are used in orbital reconstruction which minimize the need for revision surgery.

  7. Optimization of an on-board imaging system for extremely rapid radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry Kemmerling, Erica M.; Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu; Yang, He; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Next-generation extremely rapid radiation therapy systems could mitigate the need for motion management, improve patient comfort during the treatment, and increase patient throughput for cost effectiveness. Such systems require an on-board imaging system that is competitively priced, fast, and of sufficiently high quality to allow good registration between the image taken on the day of treatment and the image taken the day of treatment planning. In this study, three different detectors for a custom on-board CT system were investigated to select the best design for integration with an extremely rapid radiation therapy system. Methods: Three different CT detectors are proposed: low-resolution (all 4 × 4 mm pixels), medium-resolution (a combination of 4 × 4 mm pixels and 2 × 2 mm pixels), and high-resolution (all 1 × 1 mm pixels). An in-house program was used to generate projection images of a numerical anthropomorphic phantom and to reconstruct the projections into CT datasets, henceforth called “realistic” images. Scatter was calculated using a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the model included an antiscatter grid and bowtie filter. Diagnostic-quality images of the phantom were generated to represent the patient scan at the time of treatment planning. Commercial deformable registration software was used to register the diagnostic-quality scan to images produced by the various on-board detector configurations. The deformation fields were compared against a “gold standard” deformation field generated by registering initial and deformed images of the numerical phantoms that were used to make the diagnostic and treatment-day images. Registrations of on-board imaging system data were judged by the amount their deformation fields differed from the corresponding gold standard deformation fields—the smaller the difference, the better the system. To evaluate the registrations, the pointwise distance between gold standard and realistic registration

  8. Optimization of an on-board imaging system for extremely rapid radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry Kemmerling, Erica M.; Wu, Meng; Yang, He; Fahrig, Rebecca; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Next-generation extremely rapid radiation therapy systems could mitigate the need for motion management, improve patient comfort during the treatment, and increase patient throughput for cost effectiveness. Such systems require an on-board imaging system that is competitively priced, fast, and of sufficiently high quality to allow good registration between the image taken on the day of treatment and the image taken the day of treatment planning. In this study, three different detectors for a custom on-board CT system were investigated to select the best design for integration with an extremely rapid radiation therapy system. Methods: Three different CT detectors are proposed: low-resolution (all 4 × 4 mm pixels), medium-resolution (a combination of 4 × 4 mm pixels and 2 × 2 mm pixels), and high-resolution (all 1 × 1 mm pixels). An in-house program was used to generate projection images of a numerical anthropomorphic phantom and to reconstruct the projections into CT datasets, henceforth called “realistic” images. Scatter was calculated using a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the model included an antiscatter grid and bowtie filter. Diagnostic-quality images of the phantom were generated to represent the patient scan at the time of treatment planning. Commercial deformable registration software was used to register the diagnostic-quality scan to images produced by the various on-board detector configurations. The deformation fields were compared against a “gold standard” deformation field generated by registering initial and deformed images of the numerical phantoms that were used to make the diagnostic and treatment-day images. Registrations of on-board imaging system data were judged by the amount their deformation fields differed from the corresponding gold standard deformation fields—the smaller the difference, the better the system. To evaluate the registrations, the pointwise distance between gold standard and realistic registration

  9. How Lovebirds Maneuver Rapidly Using Super-Fast Head Saccades and Image Feature Stabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kress

    Full Text Available Diurnal flying animals such as birds depend primarily on vision to coordinate their flight path during goal-directed flight tasks. To extract the spatial structure of the surrounding environment, birds are thought to use retinal image motion (optical flow that is primarily induced by motion of their head. It is unclear what gaze behaviors birds perform to support visuomotor control during rapid maneuvering flight in which they continuously switch between flight modes. To analyze this, we measured the gaze behavior of rapidly turning lovebirds in a goal-directed task: take-off and fly away from a perch, turn on a dime, and fly back and land on the same perch. High-speed flight recordings revealed that rapidly turning lovebirds perform a remarkable stereotypical gaze behavior with peak saccadic head turns up to 2700 degrees per second, as fast as insects, enabled by fast neck muscles. In between saccades, gaze orientation is held constant. By comparing saccade and wingbeat phase, we find that these super-fast saccades are coordinated with the downstroke when the lateral visual field is occluded by the wings. Lovebirds thus maximize visual perception by overlying behaviors that impair vision, which helps coordinate maneuvers. Before the turn, lovebirds keep a high contrast edge in their visual midline. Similarly, before landing, the lovebirds stabilize the center of the perch in their visual midline. The perch on which the birds land swings, like a branch in the wind, and we find that retinal size of the perch is the most parsimonious visual cue to initiate landing. Our observations show that rapidly maneuvering birds use precisely timed stereotypic gaze behaviors consisting of rapid head turns and frontal feature stabilization, which facilitates optical flow based flight control. Similar gaze behaviors have been reported for visually navigating humans. This finding can inspire more effective vision-based autopilots for drones.

  10. Rapid non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for post appendectomy intra-abdominal abscess in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Megan H.; Eutsler, Eric P.; Khanna, Geetika; Sheybani, Elizabeth F.

    2017-01-01

    Acute appendicitis, especially if perforated at presentation, is often complicated by postoperative abscess formation. The detection of a postoperative abscess relies primarily on imaging. This has traditionally been done with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to accurately detect intra-abdominal abscesses, especially with the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). To evaluate our single-center experience with a rapid non-contrast MRI protocol evaluating post-appendectomy abscesses in children with persistent postsurgical symptoms. In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, all patients underwent a clinically indicated non-contrast 1.5- or 3-Tesla abdomen/pelvis MRI consisting of single-shot fast spin echo, inversion recovery and DWI sequences. All MRI studies were reviewed by two blinded pediatric radiologists to identify the presence of a drainable fluid collection. Each fluid collection was further characterized as accessible or not accessible for percutaneous or transrectal drainage. Imaging findings were compared to clinical outcome. Seven of the 15 patients had a clinically significant fluid collection, and 5 of these patients were treated with percutaneous drain placement or exploratory laparotomy. The other patients had a phlegmon or a clinically insignificant fluid collection and were discharged home within 48 h. Rapid non-contrast MRI utilizing fluid-sensitive and DWI sequences can be used to identify drainable fluid collections in post-appendectomy patients. This protocol can be used to triage patients between conservative management vs. abscess drainage without oral/intravenous contrast or exposure to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  11. Rapid non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for post appendectomy intra-abdominal abscess in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Megan H. [Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Eutsler, Eric P.; Khanna, Geetika [Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Pediatric Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [Mercy Hospital St. Louis, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Acute appendicitis, especially if perforated at presentation, is often complicated by postoperative abscess formation. The detection of a postoperative abscess relies primarily on imaging. This has traditionally been done with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to accurately detect intra-abdominal abscesses, especially with the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). To evaluate our single-center experience with a rapid non-contrast MRI protocol evaluating post-appendectomy abscesses in children with persistent postsurgical symptoms. In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, all patients underwent a clinically indicated non-contrast 1.5- or 3-Tesla abdomen/pelvis MRI consisting of single-shot fast spin echo, inversion recovery and DWI sequences. All MRI studies were reviewed by two blinded pediatric radiologists to identify the presence of a drainable fluid collection. Each fluid collection was further characterized as accessible or not accessible for percutaneous or transrectal drainage. Imaging findings were compared to clinical outcome. Seven of the 15 patients had a clinically significant fluid collection, and 5 of these patients were treated with percutaneous drain placement or exploratory laparotomy. The other patients had a phlegmon or a clinically insignificant fluid collection and were discharged home within 48 h. Rapid non-contrast MRI utilizing fluid-sensitive and DWI sequences can be used to identify drainable fluid collections in post-appendectomy patients. This protocol can be used to triage patients between conservative management vs. abscess drainage without oral/intravenous contrast or exposure to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  12. JMorph: Software for performing rapid morphometric measurements on digital images of fossil assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, Peter G.; Grey, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative morphometric analyses of form are widely used in palaeontology, especially for taxonomic and evolutionary research. These analyses can involve several measurements performed on hundreds or even thousands of samples. Performing measurements of size and shape on large assemblages of macro- or microfossil samples is generally infeasible or impossible with traditional instruments such as vernier calipers. Instead, digital image processing software is required to perform measurements via suitable digital images of samples. Many software packages exist for morphometric analyses but there is not much available for the integral stage of data collection, particularly for the measurement of the outlines of samples. Some software exists to automatically detect the outline of a fossil sample from a digital image. However, automatic outline detection methods may perform inadequately when samples have incomplete outlines or images contain poor contrast between the sample and staging background. Hence, a manual digitization approach may be the only option. We are not aware of any software packages that are designed specifically for efficient digital measurement of fossil assemblages with numerous samples, especially for the purposes of manual outline analysis. Throughout several previous studies, we have developed a new software tool, JMorph, that is custom-built for that task. JMorph provides the means to perform many different types of measurements, which we describe in this manuscript. We focus on JMorph's ability to rapidly and accurately digitize the outlines of fossils. JMorph is freely available from the authors.

  13. Direct imaging of glycans in Arabidopsis roots via click labeling of metabolically incorporated azido-monosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Berghuis, Nathalja; Cramer, Dario; Geurts, Rene; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-10-10

    Carbohydrates, also called glycans, play a crucial but not fully understood role in plant health and development. The non-template driven formation of glycans makes it impossible to image them in vivo with genetically encoded fluorescent tags and related molecular biology approaches. A solution to this problem is the use of tailor-made glycan analogs that are metabolically incorporated by the plant into its glycans. These metabolically incorporated probes can be visualized, but techniques documented so far use toxic copper-catalyzed labeling. To further expand our knowledge of plant glycobiology by direct imaging of its glycans via this method, there is need for novel click-compatible glycan analogs for plants that can be bioorthogonally labelled via copper-free techniques. Arabidopsis seedlings were incubated with azido-containing monosaccharide analogs of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, L-fucose, and L-arabinofuranose. These azido-monosaccharides were metabolically incorporated in plant cell wall glycans of Arabidopsis seedlings. Control experiments indicated active metabolic incorporation of the azido-monosaccharide analogs into glycans rather than through non-specific absorption of the glycan analogs onto the plant cell wall. Successful copper-free labeling reactions were performed, namely an inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction using an incorporated N-acetylglucosamine analog, and a strain-promoted azide-alkyne click reaction. All evaluated azido-monosaccharide analogs were observed to be non-toxic at the used concentrations under normal growth conditions. Our results for the metabolic incorporation and fluorescent labeling of these azido-monosaccharide analogs expand the possibilities for studying plant glycans by direct imaging. Overall we successfully evaluated five azido-monosaccharide analogs for their ability to be metabolically incorporated in Arabidopsis roots and their imaging after fluorescent labeling. This expands

  14. Rapidly-steered single-element ultrasound for real-time volumetric imaging and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Mark; Western, Craig; Solek, Roman; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dmitre; Schlosser, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric ultrasound (US) imaging has the potential to provide real-time anatomical imaging with high soft-tissue contrast in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic guidance applications. However, existing volumetric US machines utilize "wobbling" linear phased array or matrix phased array transducers which are costly to manufacture and necessitate bulky external processing units. To drastically reduce cost, improve portability, and reduce footprint, we propose a rapidly-steered single-element volumetric US imaging system. In this paper we explore the feasibility of this system with a proof-of-concept single-element volumetric US imaging device. The device uses a multi-directional raster-scan technique to generate a series of two-dimensional (2D) slices that were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) volumes. At 15 cm depth, 90° lateral field of view (FOV), and 20° elevation FOV, the device produced 20-slice volumes at a rate of 0.8 Hz. Imaging performance was evaluated using an US phantom. Spatial resolution was 2.0 mm, 4.7 mm, and 5.0 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions at 7.5 cm. Relative motion of phantom targets were automatically tracked within US volumes with a mean error of -0.3+/-0.3 mm, -0.3+/-0.3 mm, and -0.1+/-0.5 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions, respectively. The device exhibited a mean spatial distortion error of 0.3+/-0.9 mm, 0.4+/-0.7 mm, and -0.3+/-1.9 in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions. With a production cost near $1000, the performance characteristics of the proposed system make it an ideal candidate for diagnostic and image-guided therapy applications where form factor and low cost are paramount.

  15. Element distribution imaging in rat kidney using a 2 D rapid scan EDXRF device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R. G. [Universidad de la Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Francisco Salazar 1145, Temuco 4811230, Araucania (Chile); Lozano, E. [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Unidad de Fisica Medica, Av. Profesor Zanartu 1010, Santiago (Chile); Bongiovanni, G., E-mail: figueror@ufro.cl [IDEPA-CONICET, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina)

    2013-08-01

    Visualization of elemental distributions of biological tissue is gaining importance in many disciplines of biological, forensic and medical research. Furthermore, the maps of elements have wide application in archaeology for the understanding of the pigments, modes of preservation and environmental context. Since major advances in relation to collimators and detectors have yielded micro scale images, the chemical mapping via synchrotron scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-{mu}X RF) is widely used as microanalytical techniques. However, the acquisition time is a limitation of current SR-{mu}X RF imaging protocols, doing tedious micro analysis of samples of more than 1 cm and very difficult to study of larger samples such as animal organ, whole organisms, work or art, etc. Recently we have developed a robotic system to image the chemistry of large specimens rapidly ar concentration levels of parts per million. Multiple images of distribution of elements can be obtained on surfaces of 100 x 100 mm and a spatial resolution of up to 0.2 mm{sup 2} per pixel, with a spectral capture time up to 1 ms per point. This system has proven to be highly efficient for the X RF mapping of elements in large biological samples, achieving comparable s results to those obtained by SR-{mu}X RF. Thus, images of As and Cu accumulation in renal cortex of arsenic-exposed rats were obtained by both methodologies. However, the new imaging system enables the X RF scanning in few minutes, whereas SR-{mu}X RF required several hours. These and other advantages as well as the potential applications of this system, will be discussed. (Author)

  16. Cherenkov imaging method for rapid optimization of clinical treatment geometry in total skin electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org; Glaser, Adam K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Gladstone, David J.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Jarvis, Lesley A., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: A method was developed utilizing Cherenkov imaging for rapid and thorough determination of the two gantry angles that produce the most uniform treatment plane during dual-field total skin electron beam therapy (TSET). Methods: Cherenkov imaging was implemented to gather 2D measurements of relative surface dose from 6 MeV electron beams on a white polyethylene sheet. An intensified charge-coupled device camera time-gated to the Linac was used for Cherenkov emission imaging at sixty-two different gantry angles (1° increments, from 239.5° to 300.5°). Following a modified Stanford TSET technique, which uses two fields per patient position for full body coverage, composite images were created as the sum of two beam images on the sheet; each angle pair was evaluated for minimum variation across the patient region of interest. Cherenkov versus dose correlation was verified with ionization chamber measurements. The process was repeated at source to surface distance (SSD) = 441, 370.5, and 300 cm to determine optimal angle spread for varying room geometries. In addition, three patients receiving TSET using a modified Stanford six-dual field technique with 6 MeV electron beams at SSD = 441 cm were imaged during treatment. Results: As in previous studies, Cherenkov intensity was shown to directly correlate with dose for homogenous flat phantoms (R{sup 2} = 0.93), making Cherenkov imaging an appropriate candidate to assess and optimize TSET setup geometry. This method provided dense 2D images allowing 1891 possible treatment geometries to be comprehensively analyzed from one data set of 62 single images. Gantry angles historically used for TSET at their institution were 255.5° and 284.5° at SSD = 441 cm; however, the angles optimized for maximum homogeneity were found to be 252.5° and 287.5° (+6° increase in angle spread). Ionization chamber measurements confirmed improvement in dose homogeneity across the treatment field from a range of 24.4% at the initial

  17. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  18. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T 1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  19. A rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Young

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient high throughput screening systems of useful mutants are prerequisite for study of plant functional genomics and lots of application fields. Advance in such screening tools, thanks to the development of analytic instruments. Direct analysis in real-time (DART-mass spectrometry (MS by ionization of complex materials at atmospheric pressure is a rapid, simple, high-resolution analytical technique. Here we describe a rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by DART-MS. Results To determine whether this DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis can perform genetic discrimination based on global metabolic profiling, intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds were subjected to DART-MS without any sample preparation. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA of DART-MS spectral data from intact seeds classified 14 different lines of seeds into two distinct groups: Columbia (Col-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype backgrounds. A hierarchical dendrogram based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA subdivided the Col-0 ecotype into two groups: mutant lines harboring defects in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants without these defects. These results indicated that metabolic profiling with DART-MS could discriminate intact Arabidopsis seeds at least ecotype level and metabolic pathway level within same ecotype. Conclusion The described DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis allows for rapid screening and metabolic characterization of lots of Arabidopsis mutant seeds without complex metabolic preparation steps. Moreover, potential novel metabolic markers can be detected and used to clarify the genetic relationship between Arabidopsis cultivars. Furthermore this technique can be applied to predict the novel gene function of metabolic mutants regardless of morphological phenotypes.

  20. Quantitating subcellular metabolism with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Bailey, Andrew; Senyo, Samuel E.; Guillermier, Christelle; Perlstein, Todd S.; Gould, Alex P.; Lee, Richard T.; Lechene, Claude P.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry with stable isotope labels has been seminal in discovering the dynamic state of living matter1,2 but is limited to bulk tissues or cells. We developed multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) that allowed us to view and measure stable isotope incorporation with sub-micron resolution3,4. Here we apply MIMS to diverse organisms, including Drosophila, mice, and humans. We test the “immortal strand hypothesis,” which predicts that during asymmetric stem cell division chromosomes containing older template DNA are segregated to the daughter destined to remain a stem cell, thus insuring lifetime genetic stability. After labeling mice with 15N-thymidine from gestation through post-natal week 8, we find no 15N label retention by dividing small intestinal crypt cells after 4wk chase. In adult mice administered 15N-thymidine pulse-chase, we find that proliferating crypt cells dilute label consistent with random strand segregation. We demonstrate the broad utility of MIMS with proof-of-principle studies of lipid turnover in Drosophila and translation to the human hematopoietic system. These studies show that MIMS provides high-resolution quantitation of stable isotope labels that cannot be obtained using other techniques and that is broadly applicable to biological and medical research. PMID:22246326

  1. White matter microstructure and cognitive decline in metabolic syndrome: a review of diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Freddy J; Gavrieli, Anna; Saade-Lemus, Patricia; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Novak, Vera

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors defined by the presence of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. It is a major public health epidemic worldwide, and a known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and worse cognitive outcomes, however, evidence of brain structure pathology is limited. Diffusion tensor imaging has offered new opportunities to detect microstructural white matter changes in metabolic syndrome, and a possibility to detect associations between functional and structural abnormalities. This review analyzes the impact of metabolic syndrome on white matter microstructural integrity, brain structure abnormalities and their relationship to cognitive function. Each of the metabolic syndrome components exerts a specific signature of white matter microstructural abnormalities. Metabolic syndrome and its components exert both additive/synergistic, as well as, independent effects on brain microstructure thus accelerating brain aging and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical Note: Rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M.; Guenther, Bob D.; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Pearlstein, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6x0.6x0.625 mm 3 resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  3. In vivo measurement of regional brain metabolic response to hyperventilation using magnetic resonance: proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posse, S; Dager, S R; Richards, T L; Yuan, C; Ogg, R; Artru, A A; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Hayes, C

    1997-06-01

    A new rapid spectroscopic imaging technique with improved sensitivity and lipid suppression, referred to as Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (PEPSI), has been developed to measure the 2-dimensional distribution of brain lactate increases during hyperventilation on a conventional clinical scanner equipped with a head surface coil phased array. PEPSI images (nominal voxel size: 1.125 cm3) in five healthy subjects from an axial section approximately 20 mm inferior to the intercommissural line were obtained during an 8.5-min baseline period of normocapnia and during the final 8.5 min of a 10-min period of capnometry-controlled hyperventilation (end-tidal PCO2 of 20 mmHg). The lactate/N-acetyl aspartate signal increased significantly from baseline during hyperventilation for the insular cortex, temporal cortex, and occipital regions of both the right and left hemisphere, but not in the basal ganglia. Regional or hemispheric right-to-left differences were not found. The study extends previous work using single-voxel MR spectroscopy to dynamically study hyperventilation effects on brain metabolism.

  4. Digital imaging of regional glucose metabolism of the heart with a MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Camici, P.; Coppini, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Ragadini, M.; Spandre, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1983-01-01

    The digital imaging of carbohydrate consumption in myocardial tissue has been performed by using a deposit tracer of glucose metabolism ( 3 H-deoxyglucose) and a specially designed Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) that acts as a position sensitive radioactivity detector. The resolving power (approx. =1.5 mm FWHM), sensitivity (approx. =10 -1 Bq/cm 2 ), efficiency (approx. =10%) and uniformity (+ or -4%) of the system are shown and MWPC digital autoradiographs of canine heart in different pathophysiological conditions are presented

  5. SERS imaging of cell-surface biomolecules metabolically labeled with bioorthogonal Raman reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Lin, Liang; Li, Zefan; Liu, Jie; Hong, Senlian; Li, Yaya; Zheng, Meiling; Duan, Xuanming; Chen, Xing

    2014-08-01

    Live imaging of biomolecules with high specificity and sensitivity as well as minimal perturbation is essential for studying cellular processes. Here, we report the development of a bioorthogonal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging approach that exploits small Raman reporters for visualizing cell-surface biomolecules. The cells were cultured and imaged by SERS microscopy on arrays of Raman-enhancing nanoparticles coated on silicon wafers or glass slides. The Raman reporters including azides, alkynes, and carbondeuterium bonds are small in size and spectroscopically bioorthogonal (background-free). We demonstrated that various cell-surface biomolecules including proteins, glycans, and lipids were metabolically incorporated with the corresponding precursors bearing a Raman reporter and visualized by SERS microscopy. The coupling of SERS microscopy with bioorthogonal Raman reporters expands the capabilities of live-cell microscopy beyond the modalities of fluorescence and label-free imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Visual processing in rapid-chase systems: Image processing, attention, and awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchmidt

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be classified so rapidly that their analysis may be based on a single sweep of feedforward processing through the visuomotor system. Behavioral criteria for feedforward processing can be evaluated in response priming tasks where speeded pointing or keypress responses are performed towards target stimuli which are preceded by prime stimuli. We apply this method to several classes of complex stimuli. 1 When participants classify natural images into animals or non-animals, the time course of their pointing responses indicates that prime and target signals remain strictly sequential throughout all processing stages, meeting stringent behavioral criteria for feedforward processing (rapid-chase criteria. 2 Such priming effects are boosted by selective visual attention for positions, shapes, and colors, in a way consistent with bottom-up enhancement of visuomotor processing, even when primes cannot be consciously identified. 3 Speeded processing of phobic images is observed in participants specifically fearful of spiders or snakes, suggesting enhancement of feedforward processing by long-term perceptual learning. 4 When the perceived brightness of primes in complex displays is altered by means of illumination or transparency illusions, priming effects in speeded keypress responses can systematically contradict subjective brightness judgments, such that one prime appears brighter than the other but activates motor responses as if it was darker. We propose that response priming captures the output of the first feedforward pass of visual signals through the visuomotor system, and that this output lacks some characteristic features of more elaborate, recurrent processing. This way, visuomotor measures may become dissociated from several aspects of conscious vision. We argue that "fast" visuomotor measures predominantly driven by feedforward processing should supplement "slow" psychophysical measures predominantly based on visual

  7. Imaging Prostate Cancer Invasion with Multi-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods: The Metabolic Boyden Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilatus

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological milieu within solid tumors can influence invasion and metastasis. To determine the impact of the physiological environment and cellular metabolism on cancer cell invasion, it is necessary to measure invasion during well-controlled modulation of the physiological environment. Recently, we demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging can be used to monitor cancer cell invasion into a Matrigel layer [Artemov D, Pilatus U, Chou S, Mori N, Nelson JB, and Bhujwalla ZM. (1999. Dynamics of prostate cancer cell invasion studied in vitro by NMR microscopy. Mag Res Med 42, 277–282.]. Here we have developed an invasion assay (“Metabolic Boyden Chamber” that combines this capability with the properties of our isolated cell perfusion system. Long-term experiments can be performed to determine invasion as well as cellular metabolism under controlled environmental conditions. To characterize the assay, we performed experiments with prostate cancer cell lines preselected for different invasive characteristics. The results showed invasion into, and degradation of the Matrigel layer, by the highly invasive/metastatic line (MatLyLu, whereas no significant changes were observed for the less invasive/metastatic cell line (DU-145. With this assay, invasion and metabolism was measured dynamically, together with oxygen tensions within the cellular environment and within the Matrigel layer. Such a system can be used to identify physiological and metabolic characteristics that promote invasion, and evaluate therapeutic interventions to inhibit invasion.

  8. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Elizabeth A; Atkins, Tonya M; Gilbert, Dustin A; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Liu, Kai; Louie, Angelique Y

    2012-06-01

    Currently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are the only nanosized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents approved for clinical use, yet commercial manufacturing of these agents has been limited or discontinued. Though there is still widespread demand for these particles both for clinical use and research, they are difficult to obtain commercially, and complicated syntheses make in-house preparation unfeasible for most biological research labs or clinics. To make commercial production viable and increase accessibility of these products, it is crucial to develop simple, rapid and reproducible preparations of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles. Here, we report a rapid, straightforward microwave-assisted synthesis of superparamagnetic dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were produced in two hydrodynamic sizes with differing core morphologies by varying the synthetic method as either a two-step or single-step process. A striking benefit of these methods is the ability to obtain swift and consistent results without the necessity for air-, pH- or temperature-sensitive techniques; therefore, reaction times and complex manufacturing processes are greatly reduced as compared to conventional synthetic methods. This is a great benefit for cost-effective translation to commercial production. The nanoparticles are found to be superparamagnetic and exhibit properties consistent for use in MRI. In addition, the dextran coating imparts the water solubility and biocompatibility necessary for in vivo utilization.

  9. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, Elizabeth A; Atkins, Tonya M; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Gilbert, Dustin A; Liu Kai; Louie, Angelique Y

    2012-01-01

    Currently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are the only nanosized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents approved for clinical use, yet commercial manufacturing of these agents has been limited or discontinued. Though there is still widespread demand for these particles both for clinical use and research, they are difficult to obtain commercially, and complicated syntheses make in-house preparation unfeasible for most biological research labs or clinics. To make commercial production viable and increase accessibility of these products, it is crucial to develop simple, rapid and reproducible preparations of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles. Here, we report a rapid, straightforward microwave-assisted synthesis of superparamagnetic dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were produced in two hydrodynamic sizes with differing core morphologies by varying the synthetic method as either a two-step or single-step process. A striking benefit of these methods is the ability to obtain swift and consistent results without the necessity for air-, pH- or temperature-sensitive techniques; therefore, reaction times and complex manufacturing processes are greatly reduced as compared to conventional synthetic methods. This is a great benefit for cost-effective translation to commercial production. The nanoparticles are found to be superparamagnetic and exhibit properties consistent for use in MRI. In addition, the dextran coating imparts the water solubility and biocompatibility necessary for in vivo utilization. (paper)

  10. PET Imaging Reveals Brain Metabolic Changes in Adolescent Rats Following Chronic Escalating Morphine Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Hou, Haifeng; Feng, Jin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Yao; Wang, Jing; Ji, Jianfeng; He, Xiao; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Hong

    2018-04-10

    Non-medical use of prescription opioids, especially among adolescents, has been substantially increased in recent years. However, the neuromechanism remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the brain metabolic changes in adolescent rats following chronic escalating morphine administration using positron emission tomography (PET). 2-Deoxy-2-[ 18 F]Fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) microPET imaging was performed, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used for image analysis. Glucose transporter 3 (Glut-3), dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R), and Mμ-opioid receptor (μ-OR) were used for immunostaining analysis. Cerebral glucose metabolism was increased in the corpus callosum (CC) and right retrosplenial dysgranular cortex (rRSD), while it was decreased in the right ventral pallidum (rVP). The expressions of Glut-3, D 2 R, and μ-OR were increased in CC and rRSD, while they were decreased in rVP. Furthermore, glucose metabolism and Glut-3 expression were positively correlated with the expressions of D 2 R or μ-OR in CC, rRSD, and rVP. [ 18 F]FDG microPET brain imaging study in combination with immunohistological investigation revealed that CC, rRSD, and rVP were specifically involved in opioid dependence in adolescents. Our findings provided valuable insights into the neuromechanism of adolescent addiction of prescription opioids and might have important implications for the development of prevention and intervention approaches.

  11. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpato, Richard; Campi de Castro, Claudio; Hadad, David Jamil; Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  12. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  13. 3-Bromopyruvate induces rapid human prostate cancer cell death by affecting cell energy metabolism, GSH pool and the glyoxalase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Daniela; Vacca, Rosa A; de Bari, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an anti-tumour drug effective on hepatocellular carcinoma and other tumour cell types, which affects both glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, depleting cellular ATP pool. Here we tested 3-BP on human prostate cancer cells showing, differently from other tumour types, efficient ATP production and functional mitochondrial metabolism. We found that 3-BP rapidly induced cultured androgen-insensitive (PC-3) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell death at low concentrations (IC(50) values of 50 and 70 μM, respectively) with a multimodal mechanism of action. In particular, 3-BP-treated PC-3 cells showed a selective, strong reduction of glyceraldeide 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, due to the direct interaction of the drug with the enzyme. Moreover, 3-BP strongly impaired both glutamate/malate- and succinate-dependent mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential generation and ATP synthesis, concomitant with the inhibition of respiratory chain complex I, II and ATP synthase activities. The drastic reduction of cellular ATP levels and depletion of GSH pool, associated with significant increase in cell oxidative stress, were found after 3-BP treatment of PC-3 cells. Interestingly, the activity of both glyoxalase I and II, devoted to the elimination of the cytotoxic methylglyoxal, was strongly inhibited by 3-BP. Both N-acetylcysteine and aminoguanidine, GSH precursor and methylglyoxal scavenger, respectively, prevented 3-BP-induced PC-3 cell death, showing that impaired cell antioxidant and detoxifying capacities are crucial events leading to cell death. The provided information on the multi-target cytotoxic action of 3-BP, finally leading to PC-3 cell necrosis, might be useful for future development of 3-BP as a therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment.

  14. Multichannel optical brain imaging to separate cerebral vascular, tissue metabolic, and neuronal effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hugang; Luo, Zhongchi; Yuan, Zhijia; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2012-02-01

    Characterization of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation metabolic changes, as well neuronal function is of great importance to study of brain functions and the relevant brain disorders such as drug addiction. Compared with other neuroimaging modalities, optical imaging techniques have the potential for high spatiotemporal resolution and dissection of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobing oxygenation and intracellular Ca ([Ca2+]i), which serves as markers of vascular function, tissue metabolism and neuronal activity, respectively. Recently, we developed a multiwavelength imaging system and integrated it into a surgical microscope. Three LEDs of λ1=530nm, λ2=570nm and λ3=630nm were used for exciting [Ca2+]i fluorescence labeled by Rhod2 (AM) and sensitizing total hemoglobin (i.e., CBV), and deoxygenated-hemoglobin, whereas one LD of λ1=830nm was used for laser speckle imaging to form a CBF mapping of the brain. These light sources were time-sharing for illumination on the brain and synchronized with the exposure of CCD camera for multichannel images of the brain. Our animal studies indicated that this optical approach enabled simultaneous mapping of cocaine-induced changes in CBF, CBV and oxygenated- and deoxygenated hemoglobin as well as [Ca2+]i in the cortical brain. Its high spatiotemporal resolution (30μm, 10Hz) and large field of view (4x5 mm2) are advanced as a neuroimaging tool for brain functional study.

  15. Metabolic imaging in obesity: underlying mechanisms and consequences in the whole body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzo, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a phenotype resulting from a series of causative factors with a variable risk of complications. Etiologic diversity requires personalized prevention and treatment. Imaging procedures offer the potential to investigate the interplay between organs and pathways underlying energy intake and consumption in an integrated manner, and may open the perspective to classify and treat obesity according to causative mechanisms. This review illustrates the contribution provided by imaging studies to the understanding of human obesity, starting with the regulation of food intake and intestinal metabolism, followed by the role of adipose tissue in storing, releasing, and utilizing substrates, including the interconversion of white and brown fat, and concluding with the examination of imaging risk indicators related to complications, including type 2 diabetes, liver pathologies, cardiac and kidney diseases, and sleep disorders. The imaging modalities include (1) positron emission tomography to quantify organ-specific perfusion and substrate metabolism; (2) computed tomography to assess tissue density as an indicator of fat content and browning/ whitening; (3) ultrasounds to examine liver steatosis, stiffness, and inflammation; and (4) magnetic resonance techniques to assess blood oxygenation levels in the brain, liver stiffness, and metabolite contents (triglycerides, fatty acids, glucose, phosphocreatine, ATP, and acetylcarnitine) in a variety of organs. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy without echocardiographic abnormalities evaluated by myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiologic process in patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with ST, T changes but without echocardiographic abnormalities was investigated by myocardial perfusion imaging and fatty acid metabolic imaging. Exercise stress 99m Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) imaging and rest 123 I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging were performed in 59 patients with electrocardiographic hypertrophy including 29 without apparent cause including hypertension and echocardiographic hypertrophy, and 30 with essential hypertension. Coronary angiography was performed in 6 patients without hypertension and 4 with hypertension and biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventricular apex from 6 patients without hypertension. Myocardial perfusion and 123 I-BMIPP images were classified into 3 types: normal, increased accumulation of the isotope at the left ventricular apex (high uptake) and defect. Transient perfusion abnormality and apical defect observed by 123 I-BMIPP imaging were more frequent in patients without hypertension than in patients with hypertension (32% vs. 17%, p=0.04671 in perfusion; 62% vs. 30%, p=0.0236 in 123 I-BMIPP). Eighteen normotensive patients with apical defect by 123 I-BMIPP imaging included 3 of 10 patients with normal perfusion at exercise, 6 of 10 patients with high uptake and 9 of 9 patients with perfusion defect. The defect size revealed by 123 I-BMIPP imaging was greater than that of the perfusion abnormality. Coronary stenoses were not observed and myocardial specimens showed myocardial disarray with hypertrophy. Moreover, 9 patients with hypertension and apical defects by 123 I-BMIPP showed 3 different types of perfusion. Many patients without hypertension show a pathologic process similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Perfusion and 123 I-BMIPP imaging are useful for the identification of these patients. (author)

  17. Imaging regional metabolic changes in the ischemic rat heart in vivo using hyperpolarized(1-13C)Pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Magnusson, Peter; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    in the in vivo rat heart in an open-chest model of ischemia reperfusion. Hyperpolarized MRI enables new possibilities for evaluating changes in cardiac metabolism noninvasively and in real time, which potentially could be used for research to evaluate new treatments and metabolic interventions for myocardial......We evaluated the use of hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an open-chest rat model of myocardial infarction to image regional changes in myocardial metabolism. In total, 10 rats were examined before and after 30 minutes of occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary...

  18. Radiographic and metabolic response rates following image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Grills, Inga S.; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver; Galerani, Ana Paula; Chao, Kenneth; Welsh, Robert; Chmielewski, Gary; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate radiographic and metabolic response after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early lung tumors. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine tumors were treated prospectively with SBRT (dose = 48-60 Gy, 4-5 Fx). Thirty-six cases were primary NSCLC (T1N0 = 67%; T2N0 = 25%); three cases were solitary metastases. Patients were followed using CT and PET at 6, 16, and 52 weeks post-SBRT, with CT follow-up thereafter. RECIST and EORTC criteria were used to evaluate CT and PET responses. Results: At median follow-up of 9 months (0.4-26), RECIST complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and stable disease (SD) rates were 3%, 43%, 54% at 6 weeks; 15%, 38%, 46% at 16 weeks; 27%, 64%, 9% at 52 weeks. Mean baseline tumor volume was reduced by 46%, 70%, 87%, and 96%, respectively at 6, 16, 52, and 72 weeks. Mean baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was 8.3 (1.1-20.3) and reduced to 3.4, 3.0, and 3.7 at 6, 16, and 52 weeks after SBRT. EORTC metabolic CR/PR, SD, and progressive disease rates were 67%, 22%, 11% at 6 weeks; 86%, 10%, 3% at 16 weeks; 95%, 5%, 0% at 52 weeks. Conclusions: SBRT yields excellent RECIST and EORTC based response. Metabolic response is rapid however radiographic response occurs even after 1-year post treatment.

  19. IMAGING BRAIN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND METABOLISM VIA ARACHIDONIC AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2012-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), important second messengers in brain, are released from membrane phospholipid following receptor-mediated activation of specific phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. We developed an in vivo method in rodents using quantitative autoradiography to image PUFA incorporation into brain from plasma, and showed that their incorporation rates equal their rates of metabolic consumption by brain. Thus, quantitative imaging of unesterified plasma AA or DHA incorporation into brain can be used as a biomarker of brain PUFA metabolism and neurotransmission. We have employed our method to image and quantify effects of mood stabilizers on brain AA/DHA incorporation during neurotransmission by muscarinic M1,3,5, serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C, dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, D4) or glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and effects of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, of selective serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter inhibitors, of neuroinflammation (HIV-1 and lipopolysaccharide) and excitotoxicity, and in genetically modified rodents. The method has been extended for the use with positron emission tomography (PET), and can be employed to determine how human brain AA/DHA signaling and consumption are influenced by diet, aging, disease and genetics. PMID:22178644

  20. Noninvasive imaging of brain oxygen metabolism in children with primary nocturnal enuresis during natural sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Huang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Hongwei; Peng, Miao; Guo, Qiyong

    2017-05-01

    A series of studies have revealed that nocturnal enuresis is closely related to hypoxia in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). However, brain oxygen metabolism of PNE children has not been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in children suffering from PNE. We used the newly developed T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging technique. Neurological evaluation, structural imaging, phase-contrast, and the TRUST imaging method were applied in children with PNE (n = 37) and healthy age- and sex-matched control volunteers (n = 39) during natural sleep to assess whole-brain CMRO 2 , CBF, OEF, and arousal from sleep scores. Results showed that whole-brain CMRO 2 and OEF values of PNE children were higher in controls, while there was no significant difference in CBF. Consequently, OEF levels of PNE children were increased to maintain oxygen supply. The elevation of OEF was positively correlated with the difficulty of arousal. Our results provide the first evidence that high oxygen consumption and high OEF values could make PNE children more susceptible to hypoxia, which may induce cumulative arousal deficits and make them more prone to nocturnal enuresis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2532-2539, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cryogenic optical systems for the rapid infrared imager/spectrometer (RIMAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, John I.; Content, David A.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Robinson, Frederick D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Toy, Vicki L.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2014-07-01

    The Rapid Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (RIMAS) is designed to perform follow-up observations of transient astronomical sources at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (0.9 - 2.4 microns). In particular, RIMAS will be used to perform photometric and spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows to compliment the Swift satellite's science goals. Upon completion, RIMAS will be installed on Lowell Observatory's 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) located in Happy Jack, Arizona. The instrument's optical design includes a collimator lens assembly, a dichroic to divide the wavelength coverage into two optical arms (0.9 - 1.4 microns and 1.4 - 2.4 microns respectively), and a camera lens assembly for each optical arm. Because the wavelength coverage extends out to 2.4 microns, all optical elements are cooled to ~70 K. Filters and transmission gratings are located on wheels prior to each camera allowing the instrument to be quickly configured for photometry or spectroscopy. An athermal optomechanical design is being implemented to prevent lenses from loosing their room temperature alignment as the system is cooled. The thermal expansion of materials used in this design have been measured in the lab. Additionally, RIMAS has a guide camera consisting of four lenses to aid observers in passing light from target sources through spectroscopic slits. Efforts to align these optics are ongoing.

  2. Rapid implementation of evidence-based guidelines for imaging after first urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerardi, Karen E; Elkeeb, Dena; Weiser, Jason; Brinkman, William B

    2013-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics published a new guideline for management of first urinary tract infection (UTI) in children aged 2 to 24 months in September 2011. The imaging evaluation changed from the previous guideline to recommend voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) only for patients with an abnormal renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS). The objective was to decrease the proportion of guideline-eligible children with a normal RBUS who underwent VCUG from median of 92% for patients treated as inpatients and 100% for patients treated in the emergency department to 5% in both settings. This was a quality improvement implementation study in a large academic medical center. Key drivers included: appropriate guideline knowledge, timely identification of guideline eligible patients, and effective communication with the community-based primary care provider. A multidisciplinary team developed and tested interventions. Impact was assessed with annotated run charts. Statistical comparisons were made with χ(2) analysis and Fisher's exact test. The proportion of children with first UTI and normal RBUS who underwent VCUG decreased from a median of 92% to 0% within 1 month of initiating the project among those hospitalized and from 100% to 40% within 4 months among those diagnosed in the emergency department. Rates have been sustained for 12 months and 8 months, respectively. Interventions using the electronic medical record and ordering system were most impactful. Rapid adoption of evidence-based UTI care across multiple settings is achievable. Practice change occurred faster and to a greater magnitude in the inpatient setting compared with the outpatient setting.

  3. MATLAB Algorithms for Rapid Detection and Embedding of Palindrome and Emordnilap Electronic Watermarks in Simulated Chemical and Biological Image Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robbins, Ronny C

    2004-01-01

    .... This is similar to words such as STOP which when flipped left right gives the new word POTS. Emordnilap is palindrome spelled backwards. This paper explores the use of MATLAB algorithms in the rapid detection and embedding of palindrome and emordnilap electronic watermarks in simulated chemical and biological Image Data.

  4. Rapid wide-field Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Sanaz; Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, I Alex

    2016-03-01

    A new polarimetry method is demonstrated to image the entire Mueller matrix of a turbid sample using four photoelastic modulators (PEMs) and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, with no moving parts. Accurate wide-field imaging is enabled with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) optical gating technique and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) that optimizes imaging times. This technique accurately and rapidly measured the Mueller matrices of air, polarization elements, and turbid phantoms. The system should prove advantageous for Mueller matrix analysis of turbid samples (e.g., biological tissues) over large fields of view, in less than a second.

  5. Delayed sodium (18)F-fluoride PET/CT imaging does not improve quantification of vascular calcification metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Thomassen, Anders; Takx, Richard A P

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if delayed sodium (18)F-fluoride (Na(18)F) PET/CT imaging improves quantification of vascular calcification metabolism. Blood-pool activity can disturb the arterial Na(18)F signal. With time, blood-pool activity declines. Therefore, delayed imaging can potentially...

  6. EzMol: A Web Server Wizard for the Rapid Visualization and Image Production of Protein and Nucleic Acid Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher R; Islam, Suhail A; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2018-01-31

    EzMol is a molecular visualization Web server in the form of a software wizard, located at http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/ezmol/. It is designed for easy and rapid image manipulation and display of protein molecules, and is intended for users who need to quickly produce high-resolution images of protein molecules but do not have the time or inclination to use a software molecular visualization system. EzMol allows the upload of molecular structure files in PDB format to generate a Web page including a representation of the structure that the user can manipulate. EzMol provides intuitive options for chain display, adjusting the color/transparency of residues, side chains and protein surfaces, and for adding labels to residues. The final adjusted protein image can then be downloaded as a high-resolution image. There are a range of applications for rapid protein display, including the illustration of specific areas of a protein structure and the rapid prototyping of images. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Using multimodal imaging techniques to monitor limb ischemia: a rapid noninvasive method for assessing extremity wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rajiv; Caruso, Joseph D.; Radowsky, Jason S.; Rodriguez, Maricela; Forsberg, Jonathan; Elster, Eric A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2013-03-01

    Over 70% of military casualties resulting from the current conflicts sustain major extremity injuries. Of these the majority are caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices. The resulting injuries include traumatic amputations, open fractures, crush injuries, and acute vascular disruption. Critical tissue ischemia—the point at which ischemic tissues lose the capacity to recover—is therefore a major concern, as lack of blood flow to tissues rapidly leads to tissue deoxygenation and necrosis. If left undetected or unaddressed, a potentially salvageable limb may require more extensive debridement or, more commonly, amputation. Predicting wound outcome during the initial management of blast wounds remains a significant challenge, as wounds continue to "evolve" during the debridement process and our ability to assess wound viability remains subjectively based. Better means of identifying critical ischemia are needed. We developed a swine limb ischemia model in which two imaging modalities were combined to produce an objective and quantitative assessment of wound perfusion and tissue viability. By using 3 Charge-Coupled Device (3CCD) and Infrared (IR) cameras, both surface tissue oxygenation as well as overall limb perfusion could be depicted. We observed a change in mean 3CCD and IR values at peak ischemia and during reperfusion correlate well with clinically observed indicators for limb function and vitality. After correcting for baseline mean R-B values, the 3CCD values correlate with surface tissue oxygenation and the IR values with changes in perfusion. This study aims to not only increase fundamental understanding of the processes involved with limb ischemia and reperfusion, but also to develop tools to monitor overall limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting. A rapid and objective diagnostic for extent of ischemic damage and overall limb viability could provide surgeons with a more accurate indication of tissue viability. This may

  8. Image findings and bone metabolic markers of bone involvement by oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameta, Ayako; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Harada, Mikiko; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Hayama, Kazuhide

    2000-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that the circulating pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and carboxyl-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) are useful markers for detecting metastasis of malignancies to bone. Since ICTP and PICP are related to collagen metabolism, respectively breaking down and synthesizing type I collagen, elevated blood concentrations of these markers may reflect direct jaw bone destruction by oral cancer. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between serum ICTP and PICP levels and bone invasion associated with oral cancer. Bone invasion was evaluated in 41 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by panoramic radiography and 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy. We also assayed serum levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and compared them with concentrations of bone metabolic markers and imaging findings. There was no significant relationship between serum ICTP and PICP levels and bone invasion. However, in three of the five cases that showed remarkably high serum ICTP levels, 99m Tc-MDP uptake in the lesion was intensely increased. This suggests that serum ICTP levels may be elevated when bone metabolic changes caused by cancer involving the bone are extensive. We could find no significant correlation among serum levels of ICTP, PICP, and PTHrP. ICTP and PICP do not appear to be good indicators of direct bone invasion by oral SCC in early stages. (author)

  9. A New Instrument for the IRTF: the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System (MORIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Rojas, F. E.; Bus, S. J.; Rayner, J. T.; Stahlberger, W. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Adams, E. R.; Person, M. J.

    2010-10-01

    NASA's 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, HI plays a leading role in obtaining planetary science observations. However, there has been no capability for high-speed, visible imaging from this telescope. Here we present a new IRTF instrument, MORIS, the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System. MORIS is based on POETS (Portable Occultation Eclipse and Transit Systems; Souza et al., 2006, PASP, 118, 1550). Its primary component is an Andor iXon camera, a 512x512 array of 16-micron pixels with high quantum efficiency, low read noise, low dark current, and full-frame readout rates of between 3.5 Hz (6 e /pixel read noise) and 35 Hz (49 e /pixel read noise at electron-multiplying gain=1). User-selectable binning and subframing can increase the cadence to a few hundred Hz. An electron-multiplying mode can be employed for photon counting, effectively reducing the read noise to sub-electron levels at the expense of dynamic range. Data cubes, or individual frames, can be triggered to nanosecond accuracy using a GPS. MORIS is mounted on the side-facing widow of SpeX (Rayner et al. 2003, PASP, 115, 362), allowing simultaneous near-infrared and visible observations. The mounting box contains 3:1 reducing optics to produce a 60 arcsec x 60 arcsec field of view at f/12.7. It hosts a ten-slot filter wheel, with Sloan g×, r×, i×, and z×, VR, Johnson V, and long-pass red filters. We describe the instrument design, components, and measured characteristics. We report results from the first science observations, a 24 June 2008 stellar occultation by Pluto. We also discuss a recent overhaul of the optical path, performed in order to eliminate scattered light. This work is supported in part by NASA Planetary Major Equipment grant NNX07AK95G. We are indebted to the University of Hawai'i Institute for Astronomy machine shop, in particular Randy Chung, for fabricating instrument components.

  10. Geodetic Imaging for Rapid Assessment of Earthquakes: Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Sartori, M.; Fernandez-Diaz, J.; National CenterAirborne Laser Mapping Operational Center

    2010-12-01

    northwest, from the epicenter in Baja California through the US-Mexico border. The ALS observations were collected from an aircraft altitude of 600 m, flying at approximately 80 m/sec, using an Optech Inc. Gemini sensor, operating at 100 kHz, a scanning angle plus/minus 14 degrees and scan rate of 60 Hz. Some 24 lines, comprising a corridor 3 km wide and 106 km in length, were mapped, with a nominal point density of just over 10 points/m2. Total flight time for the project was just under 21 hours, but the laser on time was only 13 hours and 21 minutes. Preliminary versions of the observational data were delivered to the PIs (Michael Oskin, UC Davis, and Ramon Arrowsmith, ASU) within a few days of their collection. Geodetic imaging is still in its early stages of development, and ALS technology is progressing rapidly. The use of multiple channel (based on multiple lasers of the same or different colors and/or receivers operating in parallel) ALS units will result in contiguous sub-decimeter coverage, and deployment of ALS units in UAVs, with data transmitted to the operators in real time, will further reduce the turn-around time and enable more rapid assessment of earthquakes within the next decade.

  11. Structural imaging of mild traumatic brain injury may not be enough: overview of functional and metabolic imaging of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Samuel S; Bales, James W; Edward Dixon, C; Hwang, Misun

    2017-04-01

    A majority of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) present as mild injury with no findings on conventional clinical imaging methods. Due to this difficulty of imaging assessment on mild TBI patients, there has been much emphasis on the development of diffusion imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, basic science research in TBI shows that many of the functional and metabolic abnormalities in TBI may be present even in the absence of structural damage. Moreover, structural damage may be present at a microscopic and molecular level that is not detectable by structural imaging modality. The use of functional and metabolic imaging modalities can provide information on pathological changes in mild TBI patients that may not be detected by structural imaging. Although there are various differences in protocols of positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) methods, these may be important modalities to be used in conjunction with structural imaging in the future in order to detect and understand the pathophysiology of mild TBI. In this review, studies of mild TBI patients using these modalities that detect functional and metabolic state of the brain are discussed. Each modality's advantages and disadvantages are compared, and potential future applications of using combined modalities are explored.

  12. Imaging of metabolism and autonomic innervation of the heart by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melon, P.; Schwaiger, M.

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows, in combination with multiple radiopharmaceuticals, unique physiological and biochemical tissue characterization. Tracers of blood flow, metabolism and neuronal function have been employed with this technique for research application. More recently, PET has emerged in cardiology as useful for the detection of coronary artery disease and the evaluation of tissue viability. Metabolic tracers such as flourine-18 deoxyglucose (FDG) permit the specific delineation of ischaemically compromised myocardium. Clinical studies have indicated that the metabolic imaging is helpful in selecting patients for coronary artery bypass surgery or coronary angioplasty. More recent research work has concentrated on the use of carbon-11 acetate as a marker of myocardial oxygen consumption. Together with measurements of left ventricular performance, estimates of cardiac efficiency can be derived from dynamic 11 C-acetate studies. The non-invasive evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart was limited in the past. With the introduction of radiopharmaceuticals which specifically bind to neuronal structures, the regional integrity of the autonomic nervous system of the heart can be evaluated with PET. Numerous tracers for pre- and postsynaptic binding sites have been synthesized. 11 C-Hydroxyephedrine represent a new catecholamine analogne which is stored in cardiac presynaptic sympathetic nerve terminals. Initial clinical studies with it suggest a promising role for PET in the study of the sympathetic nervous system in various cardiac diseases such as cardiomyopathy, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. The specificity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the quantitative measurements of tissue tracer distribution provided by PET make this technology a very attractive research tool in the cardiovascular sciences with great promise in the area of cardiac metabolism and neurocardiology. (orig.)

  13. Anatomical and metabolic small-animal whole-body imaging using ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the wide use of animals for human disease studies, small animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose metabolic information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image coregistration, the spatial resolution of the metabolic imaging modality is not improved. We present a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT) system that can provide both assessments in a single modality. Utilizing the novel design of confocal full-ring light delivery and ultrasound transducer array detection, RC-PACT provides full-view cross-sectional imaging with high spatial resolution. Scanning along the orthogonal direction provides three-dimensional imaging. While the mouse anatomy was imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, the glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. Through mouse tumor models, we demonstrate that RC-PACT may be a paradigm shifting imaging method for preclinical research.

  14. Quantitative metabolic imaging using endogenous fluorescence to detect stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kyle P.; Sridharan, Gautham V.; Hayden, Rebecca S.; Kaplan, David L.; Lee, Kyongbum; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The non-invasive high-resolution spatial mapping of cell metabolism within tissues could provide substantial advancements in assessing the efficacy of stem cell therapy and understanding tissue development. Here, using two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy, we elucidate the relationships among endogenous cell fluorescence, cell redox state, and the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into adipogenic and osteoblastic lineages. Using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantitative PCR, we evaluate the sensitivity of an optical redox ratio of FAD/(NADH + FAD) to metabolic changes associated with stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, we probe the underlying physiological mechanisms, which relate a decrease in the redox ratio to the onset of differentiation. Because traditional assessments of stem cells and engineered tissues are destructive, time consuming, and logistically intensive, the development and validation of a non-invasive, label-free approach to defining the spatiotemporal patterns of cell differentiation can offer a powerful tool for rapid, high-content characterization of cell and tissue cultures.

  15. Refining prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma through incorporation of metabolic imaging biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Satoshi [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology, Sapporo (Japan); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Rohren, Eric M. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Abdel-Wahab, Reham [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Assiut University Hospital, Clinical Oncology Department, Assiut (Egypt); Xiao, Lianchun; Morris, Jeffrey S. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Macapinlac, Homer A. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Hassan, Manal M. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Kaseb, Ahmed O. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-06-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomopraphy/computed tomography (FDGPET/CT) has been proven to be useful for imaging many types of cancer; however, its role is not well defined in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We assessed the prognostic value of metabolic imaging biomarkers as established by baseline pretreatment FDG PET/CT in patients with HCC. We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with HCC who underwent FDG PET/CT before initial treatment from May 2013 through May 2014. Four PET/CT parameters were measured: maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and tumor-to-normal-liver SUV ratio (TNR). Optimal cut-off values for the PET/CT parameters to stratify patients in terms of overall survival (OS) were determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine whether the PET/CT parameters could add to the prognostic value of the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) scoring system and the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system. The analysis included 56 patients. Univariate analysis of the association between OS and continuous variables, including the PET/CT parameters SUV{sub max}, TLG, tumor size, total bilirubin level, and alkaline phosphatase level were significant predictors of OS. SUV{sub max} ≥ 11.7, TLG ≥ 1,341, MTV ≥ 230 mL, and TNR ≥ 4.8 were identified as cut-off values. Multivariate analysis revealed that SUV{sub max} ≥ 11.7 and TNR ≥ 4.8 were independent factors predicting a poor prognosis in both the CLIP scoring system and the BCLC staging system, as was TLG in the BCLC staging system. Pretreatment FDG PET/CT in patients with HCC can add to the prognostic value of standard clinical measures. Incorporation of imaging biomarkers derived from FDG PET/CT into HCC staging systems should be considered. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of renal masses with rapid-acquisition spin-echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilenberg, S.S.; Lee, J.K.T.; Brown, J.J.; Heiken, J.P.; Mirowitz, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the diagnostic accuracy of Gd-DTPA-enhanced rapid-acquisition spin-echo (RASE) imaging with standard spin-echo techniques for detecting renal cysts and solid renal neoplasms. RASE imaging combines a short TR (275 msec)/short TE (10 msec), single excitation pulse sequence with half-Fourier data sampling. Eighteen patients with CT evidence of renal masses were first evaluated with standard T1-and T2-weighted SE sequences. Pre- and serial postcontrast (Cd-DTPA, 0.1 mmol./kg) RASE sequences were then performed during suspended respiration. A final set of postcontrast images was obtained with the standard T1-weighted SE sequence. Each set of MR images was first reviewed separately (ie, T1, T2, pre- and post-contrast RASE, etc)

  17. Serotonin mediates rapid changes of striatal glucose and lactate metabolism after systemic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") administration in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Cumming, Paul

    2007-01-01

     The pathway for selective serotonergic toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is poorly understood, but has been linked to hyperthermia and disturbed energy metabolism. We investigated the dose-dependency and time-course of MDMA-induced perturbations of cerebral glucose...... was monitored by telemetry. A single dose of MDMA (2-10-20 mg/kg i.v.) evoked a transient increase of interstitial glucose concentrations in striatum (139-223%) with rapid onset and of less than 2h duration, a concomitant but more prolonged lactate increase (>187%) at the highest MDMA dose and no significant...... depletions of striatal serotonin. Blood glucose and lactate levels were also transiently elevated (163 and 135%) at the highest MDMA doses. The blood glucose rises were significantly related to brain glucose and brain lactate changes. The metabolic perturbations in striatum and the hyperthermic response (+1...

  18. Assessment of chitosan-affected metabolic response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

  19. Carboxylesterase 1A2 encoding gene with increased transcription and potential rapid drug metabolism in Asian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Lyauk, Yassine Kamal

    2017-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase implicated in the metabolism of commonly used drugs. CES1A2, a hybrid of CES1 and a CES1-like pseudogene, has a promoter that is weak in most individuals. However, some individuals harbor a promoter haplotype of this gene with two overlapping...

  20. Successive myocardial fatty acid metabolic imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Usefulness as a prognostic indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Sindoh, Takashi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Honda, Minoru

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of fatty acid metabolic imaging in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), we performed myocardial imaging with 123 I-BMIPP (BMIPP). We studied 23 patients with DCM who were admitted because of congestive heart failure (CHF) and after discharge the stable condition persisted for more than one year. BMIPP imaging was obtained when CHF recovered (first study) and the second study was performed one year after the first study. From BMIPP imaging we calculated % Uptake (percentage of cardiac uptake of isotope to total injected dose) and Defect Score (degree and extent of regional abnormality in BMIPP uptake, DS). In the first study, we performed myocardial imaging with 201 Tl to calculate Uptake Ratio of BMIPP (% Uptake of BMIPP divided by % Uptake of 201 Tl, UR). During the follow up period of 18.2±9.5 months (4.5-39.6 months) after the second study, cardiac event developed in 8 patients (cardiac death; 4, deterioration of CHF; 4). On univariate analysis, the following indices differed significantly between the event and event-free groups; left ventricular end-systolic dimension, graded DS, UR and % Uptake of 201 Tl at the first study, % Uptake of BMIPP and DS at the second study, difference of % Uptake of BMIPP and DS between the first and second study, and newly designed index from graded DS of the first study and its change in the second study (Defect Index, DI). Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that DI (p=0.0026) and age (p=0.0262) were independent predictors of cardiac event. In patients with DI≥3, the relative risk of cardiac event was 25.0 times greater than that in patients with DI≤2. These data suggested that the extent and degree of regional abnormality of BMIPP uptake (DS) and its changes with time were useful for evaluating the prognosis in patients with DCM even though a clinically stable condition is persisting. (author)

  1. Rapid portal imaging with a high-efficiency, large field-of-view detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh-Shirazi, M A; Evans, P M; Swindell, W; Symonds-Tayler, J R; Webb, S; Partridge, M

    1998-12-01

    The design, construction, and performance evaluation of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) are described. The EPID has the same imaging geometry as the current mirror-based systems except for the x-ray detection stage, where a two-dimensional (2D) array of 1 cm thick CsI(Tl) detector elements are utilized. The approximately 18% x-ray quantum efficiency of the scintillation detector and its 30 x 40 cm2 field-of-view at the isocenter are greater than other area-imaging EPIDs. The imaging issues addressed are theoretical and measured signal-to-noise ratio, linearity of the imaging chain, influence of frame-summing on image quality and image calibration. Portal images of test objects and a humanoid phantom are used to measure the performance of the system. An image quality similar to the current devices is achieved but with a lower dose. With approximately 1 cGy dose delivered by a 6 MV beam, a 2 mm diam structure of 1.3% contrast and an 18 mm diam object of 0.125% contrast can be resolved without using image-enhancement methods. A spatial resolution of about 2 mm at the isocenter is demonstrated. The capability of the system to perform fast sequential imaging, synchronized with the radiation pulses, makes it suitable for patient motion studies and verification of intensity-modulated beams as well as its application in cone-beam megavoltage computed tomography.

  2. Morphological, functional and metabolic imaging biomarkers: assessment of vascular-disrupting effect on rodent liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huaijun; Li, Junjie; Keyzer, Frederik De; Yu, Jie; Feng, Yuanbo; Marchal, Guy; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng; Nuyts, Johan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate effects of a vascular-disrupting agent on rodent tumour models. Twenty rats with liver rhabdomyosarcomas received ZD6126 intravenously at 20 mg/kg, and 10 vehicle-treated rats were used as controls. Multiple sequences, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with the microvascular permeability constant (K), were acquired at baseline, 1 h, 24 h and 48 h post-treatment by using 1.5-T MRI. [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose micro-positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG μPET) was acquired pre- and post-treatment. The imaging biomarkers including tumour volume, enhancement ratio, necrosis ratio, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and K from MRI, and maximal standardised uptake value (SUV max ) from FDG μPET were quantified and correlated with postmortem microangiography and histopathology. In the ZD6126-treated group, tumours grew slower with higher necrosis ratio at 48 h (P max dropped at 24 h (P < 0.01). Relative K of tumour versus liver at 48 h correlated with relative vascular density on microangiography (r = 0.93, P < 0.05). The imaging biomarkers allowed morphological, functional and metabolic quantifications of vascular shutdown, necrosis formation and tumour relapse shortly after treatment. A single dose of ZD6126 significantly diminished tumour blood supply and growth until 48 h post-treatment. (orig.)

  3. Neo-angiogenesis metabolic biomarker of tumor-genesis tracking by infrared joystick contact imaging in personalized homecare system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hoekstra, Philip; Landa, Joseph; Vydelingum, Nadarajen A.

    2014-05-01

    We describe an strong>affordable, harmless, and administrative (AHA) metabolic biomarker (MBM)strong> for homecare cancer screening. It may save hundreds of thousands of women's and thousands of men's lives every year from breast cancer and melanoma. The goal is to increase the specificity ofstrong> infrared (IR)strong> imagery to reduce the strong>false alarm rate (FAR). strong>The patient's hands are immersed in icy cold water, about 11oC, for 30 seconds. We then compare two IR images, taken before and after the cold stimulus, and the difference reveals an enhanced signal and noise ratio (SNR) at tumorigenesis sites since the contraction of capillaries under cold challenge is natural to healthy capillaries, except those newly built capillaries during angiogenesis (Folkman, Nature 1995). Concomitant with the genome and the phenome (molecular signaling by phosphor-mediate protein causing inflammation by strong>platelet activating factor (PAF)strong> that transform cells from benign to malignant is the amplification of strong>nitric oxide (NO)strong> syntheses, a short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) that dilates regional blood vessels; superseding normal autonomic nervous system regulation. A rapidly growing tumor site might implicate accumulation of strong>ROSstrong>, for which strong>NOstrong> can rapidly stretch the capillary bed system usually having thinning muscular lining known as strong>Neo-Angiogenesis (NA)strong> that could behave like strong>Leaky In-situ Faucet Effect (LIFE)strong> in response to cold challenge. To emphasize the state of art knowledge of strong>NAstrong>, we mentioned in passing the first generation of an anticapillary growth drug, strong>Avastinstrong> by Genetech; it is an antibody protein that is injected for metastasis, while the second generation drug; strong>Sorafenibstrong> by Bayers (2001) and strong>Sutentstrong> by Pfizer (2000) both target molecular signaling loci to block receptor associated tyrosine kinase induced

  4. Functional imaging to monitor vascular and metabolic response in canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødal, Jan; Rusten, Espen; Søvik, Åste; Skogmo, Hege Kippenes; Malinen, Eirik

    2013-10-01

    Radiotherapy causes alterations in tumor biology, and non-invasive early assessment of such alterations may become useful for identifying treatment resistant disease. The purpose of the current work is to assess changes in vascular and metabolic features derived from functional imaging of canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy. Material and methods. Three dogs with spontaneous head and neck tumors received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Contrast-enhanced cone beam computed tomography (CE-CBCT) at the treatment unit was performed at five treatment fractions. Dynamic (18)FDG-PET (D-PET) was performed prior to the start of radiotherapy, at mid-treatment and at 3-12 weeks after the completion of treatment. Tumor contrast enhancement in the CE-CBCT images was used as a surrogate for tumor vasculature. Vascular and metabolic tumor parameters were further obtained from the D-PET images. Changes in these tumor parameters were assessed, with emphasis on intra-tumoral distributions. Results. For all three patients, metabolic imaging parameters obtained from D-PET decreased from the pre- to the inter-therapy session. Correspondingly, for two of three patients, vascular imaging parameters obtained from both CE-CBCT and D-PET increased. Only one of the tumors showed a clear metabolic response after therapy. No systematic changes in the intra-tumor heterogeneity in the imaging parameters were found. Conclusion. Changes in vascular and metabolic parameters could be detected by the current functional imaging methods. Vascular tumor features from CE-CBCT and D-PET corresponded well. CE-CBCT is a potential method for easy response assessment when the patient is at the treatment unit.

  5. MR imaging of the brain: metabolic and toxic white matter diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsting, M.

    1999-01-01

    Metabolic disorders of the brain are rare, complex and confusing. The diagnostic modality of choice nowadays is MRI. The high diagnostic sensitivity, however, is coupled with a lack of specificity and usually results in the depiction of similar appearing but clinically diverse white matter processes. For this reason it is essential to perform the MRI as early as possible during the course of the disease and to keep in close contact to the referring clinician to optimize image interpretation. Another precondition is to know the natural course of brain myelination and to know how this appears on the individual MR machine with different parameters. In some diseases like phenylketonuria MRI seems to be an excellent tool to monitor dietary treatment and patient compliance. In patients after radio- and / or chemotherapy MRI reveals the radiation induced leucencephalopathy and can usually differentiate between a recurrent malignancy. (orig.)

  6. MR imaging of the brain: metabolic and toxic white matter diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, M. [Univ. of Essen (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    1999-08-01

    Metabolic disorders of the brain are rare, complex and confusing. The diagnostic modality of choice nowadays is MRI. The high diagnostic sensitivity, however, is coupled with a lack of specificity and usually results in the depiction of similar appearing but clinically diverse white matter processes. For this reason it is essential to perform the MRI as early as possible during the course of the disease and to keep in close contact to the referring clinician to optimize image interpretation. Another precondition is to know the natural course of brain myelination and to know how this appears on the individual MR machine with different parameters. In some diseases like phenylketonuria MRI seems to be an excellent tool to monitor dietary treatment and patient compliance. In patients after radio- and / or chemotherapy MRI reveals the radiation induced leucencephalopathy and can usually differentiate between a recurrent malignancy. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 23 refs.

  7. Nuclear medicine for treatment of thyroid diseases. Diagnostic evaluation and imaging of the intrathyroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic interest of nuclear medicine is focussed on the imaging and quantification of intrathyroidal iodine metabolism. Most frequently the various forms of autonomy will be investigated by functional scintigraphy. Cold nodules and the differential diagnosis of Graves disease are further indications. In the case of a sufficient iodine uptake hyperthyroidism can be treated by 1311. Severe hyperthyroidism requires a medical pretreatment before radioiodine therapy. A rigid age limit for radioiodine therapy is not necessary. Pregnancy and the suspicion of malignancy are contraindications of a radioiodine therapy. The after-treatment depends on the nature of the treated hyperthyroidism and the posttreatment result. If a focal autonomy could be eliminated a sufficient amount of iodine should be supplied. To prevent the development of hypothyroidism clinical and thyroid hormon controls, and if necessary a substitution with thyroxin is necessary. (orig.) [de

  8. Investigation of Fat Metabolism during Antiobesity Interventions by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Pola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of current treatments for obesity is to reduce the body weight or visceral fat, which requires longer duration to show effect. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes in fat metabolism in liver, abdomen, and skeletal muscle during antiobesity interventions including Sibutramine treatment and diet restriction in obese rats using magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and blood chemistry. Sibutramine is an antiobesity drug that results in weight loss by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. The Sibutramine-treated rats showed reduction of liver fat and intramyocellular lipids on day 3. The triglycerides (TG decreased on day 1 and 3 compared to baseline (day 0. The early response/nonresponse in different fat depots will permit optimization of treatment for better clinical outcome rather than staying with a drug for longer periods.

  9. Experimental basis of metabolic imaging of the myocardium with radioiodinated aromatic free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Winkler, C.

    1986-01-01

    For the investigation of myocardial perfusion and left ventricular pump function, advanced radioisotopic techniques have been established. New developments in radiopharmacology and single-photon emission computed tomography have recently enabled the investigation of parameters of regional energy metabolism in well defined areas of the heart muscle. For this purpose, various iodine ( 123 I)-labeled free fatty acids (FFA) have been synthesized. The diagnostic application of labeled FFA in heart disease may be important, since FFA are the preferred substrates for cardiac energy production at rest in the fasting state. In addition, regional myocardial FFA uptake and regional myocardial blood flow are tightly coupled in normal myocardium with beta-oxidation which is extremely sensitive to oxygen deprivation. This article outlines the basic physiologic pathways of FFA in normal and ischemic myocardium and reviews the results of animal experiments validating the application of these principles for metabolic imaging of the heart by means of the aromatic radioiodinated FFA, 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid. In addition, the development, physiologic properties, and potential applications of a new generation of 3-methyl-substituted radioiodinated fatty acids that show high myocardial uptake but prolonged retention are discussed. 64 references

  10. Metabolic changes of cultured DRG neurons induced by adenosine using confocal microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liqin; Huang, Yimei; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    Adenosine exerts multiple effects on pain transmission in the peripheral nervous system. This study was performed to use confocal microscopy to evaluate whether adenosine could affect dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro and test which adenosine receptor mediates the effect of adenosine on DRG neurons. After adding adenosine with different concentration, we compared the metabolic changes by the real time imaging of calcium and mitochondria membrane potential using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the effect of 500 μM adenosine on the metabolic changes of DRG neurons was more significant than others. Furthermore, four different adenosine receptor antagonists were used to study which receptor mediated the influences of adenosine on the cultured DRG neurons. All adenosine receptor antagonists especially A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX) had effect on the Ca2+ and mitochondria membrane potential dynamics of DRG neurons. The above studies demonstrated that the effect of adenosine which may be involved in the signal transmission on the sensory neurons was dose-dependent, and all the four adenosine receptors especially the A1R may mediate the transmission.

  11. Rapid anatomical brain imaging using spiral acquisition and an expanded signal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Lars; Engel, Maria; Barmet, Christoph; Haeberlin, Maximilian; Wilm, Bertram J; Dietrich, Benjamin E; Schmid, Thomas; Gross, Simon; Brunner, David O; Stephan, Klaas E; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2018-03-01

    We report the deployment of spiral acquisition for high-resolution structural imaging at 7T. Long spiral readouts are rendered manageable by an expanded signal model including static off-resonance and B 0 dynamics along with k-space trajectories and coil sensitivity maps. Image reconstruction is accomplished by inversion of the signal model using an extension of the iterative non-Cartesian SENSE algorithm. Spiral readouts up to 25 ms are shown to permit whole-brain 2D imaging at 0.5 mm in-plane resolution in less than a minute. A range of options is explored, including proton-density and T 2 * contrast, acceleration by parallel imaging, different readout orientations, and the extraction of phase images. Results are shown to exhibit competitive image quality along with high geometric consistency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic imaging of human kidney triglyceride content: reproducibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Hammer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantification of triglyceride content and to compare spectral quality and reproducibility without and with respiratory motion compensation in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institutional Review Board of our institution approved the study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. After technical optimization, a total of 20 healthy volunteers underwent renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the renal cortex both without and with respiratory motion compensation and volume tracking. After the first session the subjects were repositioned and the protocol was repeated to assess reproducibility. Spectral quality (linewidth of the water signal and triglyceride content were quantified. Bland-Altman analyses and a test by Pitman were performed. RESULTS: Linewidth changed from 11.5±0.4 Hz to 10.7±0.4 Hz (all data pooled, p<0.05, without and with respiratory motion compensation respectively. Mean % triglyceride content in the first and second session without respiratory motion compensation were respectively 0.58±0.12% and 0.51±0.14% (P = NS. Mean % triglyceride content in the first and second session with respiratory motion compensation were respectively 0.44±0.10% and 0.43±0.10% (P = NS between sessions and P = NS compared to measurements with respiratory motion compensation. Bland-Altman analyses showed narrower limits of agreement and a significant difference in the correlated variances (correlation of -0.59, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Metabolic imaging of the human kidney using renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a feasible tool to assess cortical triglyceride content in humans in vivo and the use of respiratory motion compensation significantly improves spectral quality and reproducibility. Therefore, respiratory motion compensation seems a necessity for metabolic imaging of renal triglyceride content in vivo.

  13. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns in Metabolic and Toxic Brain Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N. [Ege Univ. Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate metabolic and toxic brain disorders that manifest with restricted, elevated, or both restricted and elevated diffusion patterns on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Echo-planar diffusion MRI examinations were obtained in 34 pediatric patients with metabolic and toxic brain disorders proved by appropriate laboratory studies. The MRI unit operated at 1.5T with a gradient strength of 30 mT/meter, and a rise time of 600 s. b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with ADC values were studied. Results: Three patterns were observed: 1. A restricted diffusion pattern (high signal on b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and low ADC values); 2. an elevated diffusion pattern (normal signal on b=1000 s/mm2 images and high ADC values); and 3. a mixed pattern (coexistent restricted and increased diffusion patterns in the same patient). Disorders manifesting with a restricted diffusion pattern included metachromatic leukodystrophy (n=2), phenylketonuria (n=3), maple syrup urine disease (intermediate form) (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Wilson (n=3), and Canavan disease (n=1). Disorders with an elevated diffusion pattern included phenylketonuria (n=1), adrenoleukodystrophy (n=1), merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (n=2), mucopolysaccharidosis (n=2), Lowe syndrome (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Alexander (n=1), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (n=1), and Wilson (n=3) disease. Disorders with a mixed pattern included L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria (n=2), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=2), maple syrup urine disease (n=1), and Leigh (n=1) disease. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the three different diffusion patterns reflect the histopathological changes associated with the disorders and different stages of a particular disorder. It is likely that the restricted diffusion pattern corresponds to abnormalities related to myelin, and the elevated

  14. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns in Metabolic and Toxic Brain Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate metabolic and toxic brain disorders that manifest with restricted, elevated, or both restricted and elevated diffusion patterns on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Echo-planar diffusion MRI examinations were obtained in 34 pediatric patients with metabolic and toxic brain disorders proved by appropriate laboratory studies. The MRI unit operated at 1.5T with a gradient strength of 30 mT/meter, and a rise time of 600 s. b=1000 s/mm 2 images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with ADC values were studied. Results: Three patterns were observed: 1. A restricted diffusion pattern (high signal on b=1000 s/mm 2 images and low ADC values); 2. an elevated diffusion pattern (normal signal on b=1000 s/mm2 images and high ADC values); and 3. a mixed pattern (coexistent restricted and increased diffusion patterns in the same patient). Disorders manifesting with a restricted diffusion pattern included metachromatic leukodystrophy (n=2), phenylketonuria (n=3), maple syrup urine disease (intermediate form) (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Wilson (n=3), and Canavan disease (n=1). Disorders with an elevated diffusion pattern included phenylketonuria (n=1), adrenoleukodystrophy (n=1), merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (n=2), mucopolysaccharidosis (n=2), Lowe syndrome (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Alexander (n=1), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (n=1), and Wilson (n=3) disease. Disorders with a mixed pattern included L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria (n=2), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=2), maple syrup urine disease (n=1), and Leigh (n=1) disease. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the three different diffusion patterns reflect the histopathological changes associated with the disorders and different stages of a particular disorder. It is likely that the restricted diffusion pattern corresponds to abnormalities related to myelin, and the elevated diffusion pattern

  15. Rapid ex vivo imaging of PAIII prostate to bone tumor with SWIFT-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhach, Ihor; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Lynch, Conor C; Corum, Curt; Martinez, Gary V; Garwood, Michael; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    The limiting factor for MRI of skeletal/mineralized tissue is fast transverse relaxation. A recent advancement in MRI technology, SWIFT (Sweep Imaging with Fourier Transform), is emerging as a new approach to overcome this difficulty. Among other techniques like UTE, ZTE, and WASPI, the application of SWIFT technology has the strong potential to impact preclinical and clinical imaging, particularly in the context of primary or metastatic bone cancers because it has the added advantage of imaging water in mineralized tissues of bone allowing MRI images to be obtained of tissues previously visible only with modalities such as computed tomography (CT). The goal of the current study is to examine the feasibility of SWIFT for the assessment of the prostate cancer induced changes in bone formation (osteogenesis) and destruction (osteolysis) in ex vivo specimens. A luciferase expressing prostate cancer cell line (PAIII) or saline control was inoculated directly into the tibia of 6-week-old immunocompromised male mice. Tumor growth was assessed weekly for 3 weeks before euthanasia and dissection of the tumor bearing and sham tibias. The ex vivo mouse tibia specimens were imaged with a 9.4 Tesla (T) and 7T MRI systems. SWIFT images are compared with traditional gradient-echo and spin-echo MRI images as well as CT and histological sections. SWIFT images with nominal resolution of 78 μm are obtained with the tumor and different bone structures identified. Prostate cancer induced changes in the bone microstructure are visible in SWIFT images, which is supported by spin-echo, high resolution CT and histological analysis. SWIFT MRI is capable of high-quality high-resolution ex vivo imaging of bone tumor and surrounding bone and soft tissues. Furthermore, SWIFT MRI shows promise for in vivo bone tumor imaging, with the added benefits of nonexposure to ionizing radiation, quietness, and speed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rapid Assessment of Tablet Film Coating Quality by Multispectral UV Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X.; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    and coated with a polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer using a pan coater. It was demonstrated that the coating intactness can be assessed accurately and fast by UV imaging. The different types of coating defects could be differentiated and localized based on multivariate image analysis...

  17. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Min, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Study of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is important for basic understanding and therapeutic management of cancer progression. We here used metabolic labeling and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a strategy of bioorthogonal chemical imaging, to directly visualize changes in anabolic metabolism during cancer EMT at a single-cell level. MCF-7 breast cancer cell is employed as a model system. Four types of metabolites (amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and choline) are labeled with either deuterium or alkyne (C≡C) tag. Their intracellular incorporations into MCF-7 cells before or after EMT are visualized by SRS imaging targeted at the signature vibration frequency of C-D or C≡C bonds. Overall, after EMT, anabolism of amino acids, glucose, and choline is less active, reflecting slower protein and membrane synthesis in mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, we also observed less incorporation of glucose and palmitate acids into membrane lipids, but more of them into lipid droplets in mesenchymal cells. This result indicates that, although mesenchymal cells synthesize fewer membrane lipids, they are actively storing energy into lipid droplets, either through de novo lipogenesis from glucose or direct scavenging of exogenous free fatty acids. Hence, metabolic labeling coupled with SRS can be a straightforward method in imaging cancer metabolism.

  18. Rapid dynamic MR imaging of the heart in the evaluation of valvular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, J.A.; Herfkens, R.J.; Heinsimer, J.; Glover, G.H.; Pelc, N.J.; Shimakawa, A.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic MR images were obtained utilizing a repetition time of 21 msec, a 30-degree flip angle, and 12-msec gradient refocused echoes. Images were ECG-triggered and constructed at 16 images per cardiac cycle. To assess the sensitivity of dynamic MR imaging of valvular regurgitation, 17 patients were so examined and results were compared with results of echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Mitral and tricuspid valves were well visualized in all patients. Regurgitation was demonstrated in 14 cases as an area of decreased signal extending from the valve into the regurgitant chamber, corresponding in time to ventricular systole for mitral and tricuspid regurgitation and diastole for aortic insufficiency. There were no false-negative MR imaging studies

  19. Fabrication of a small animal restraint for synchrotron biomedical imaging using a rapid prototyper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Zhang Honglin; McCrea, Richard; Bewer, Brian; Wiebe, Sheldon; Nichol, Helen; Ryan, Christopher; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical research at synchrotron facilities may involve imaging live animals that must remain motionless for extended periods of time to obtain quality images. Even breathing movements reduce image quality but on the other hand excessive restraint of animals increases morbidity and mortality. We describe a humane animal restraint designed to eliminate head movements while promoting animal survival. This paper describes how an animal restraint that conforms to the shape of an animal's head was fabricated by a 3D prototyper. The method used to translate medical computed tomography (CT) data to a 3D stereolithography format is described and images of its use at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) are shown. This type of restraint holds great promise in improving image quality and repeatability while reducing stress on experimental animals

  20. Tsunami Rapid Assessment Using High Resolution Images and Field Surveys: the 2010 , Central Chile, and the 2011, Tohoku Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Navarrete-Pacheco, J.; Lagos, M.; Arcas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent extreme tsunamis have shown their major socioeconomic impact and imprint in the coastal landscape. Extensive destruction, erosion, sediment transport and deposition resculpted coastal landscape within few minutes along hundreds of kilometers of the Central Chile, in 2010, and the Northeast coast of Japan, in 2011. In the central coast of Chile, we performed a post-tsunami survey a week after the tsunami due to access restrictions. Our observations focus on the inundation and geomorphic effects of the 2010 tsunami and included an air reconnaissance flight, analysis of pre- and post-event low fly air-photographs and Google Earth satellite images, together with ground reconnaissance and mapping in the field, including topographic transects, during a period of 13 days. Eyewitness accounts enabled us to confirm our observations on effects produced by the tsunami along ~ 500km along the coastline landscape in central Chile For the Tohoku case study, we assessed in a day tsunami inundation distances and runup heights using satellite data (very high resolution satellite images from the GeoEye1 satellite and from the DigitalGlobe worldview through the Google crisis response project, SRTM and ASTER GDEM) of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Field survey data by Japanese, other international scientists and us validated our results. The rapid assessment of damage using high-resolution images has proven to be an excellent tool neccessary for effcient postsunami surveys as well as for rapid assessment of areas with access restrictions. All countries, in particular those with less access to technology and infrastructure, can benefit from the use of freely available satellite imagery and DEMs for an initial, pre-field survey, rapid estimate of inundated areas, distances and runup, tsunami effects in the coastal geomorphology and for assisting in hazard management and mitigation after a natural disaster. These data provide unprecedented opportunities for rapid assessment

  1. Rapid dual-tracer PTSM+ATSM PET imaging of tumour blood flow and hypoxia: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, T C; Kadrmas, D J

    2006-01-01

    Blood flow and hypoxia are interrelated aspects of physiology that affect cancer treatment and response. Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM are related PET tracers for blood flow and hypoxia, and the ability to rapidly image both tracers in a single scan would bring several advantages over conventional single-tracer techniques. Using dynamic imaging with staggered injections, overlapping signals for multiple PET tracers may be recovered utilizing information from kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, rapid dual-tracer PTSM+ATSM PET was simulated and tested as a function of injection delay, order and relative dose for several copper isotopes, and the results were compared relative to separate single-tracer data. Time-activity curves representing a broad range of tumour blood flow and hypoxia levels were simulated, and parallel dual-tracer compartment modelling was used to recover the signals for each tracer. The main results were tested further using a torso phantom simulation of PET tumour imaging. Using scans as short as 30 minutes, the dual-tracer method provided measures of blood flow and hypoxia similar to single-tracer imaging. The best performance was obtained by injecting PTSM first and using a somewhat higher dose for ATSM. Comparable results for different copper isotopes suggest that tracer kinetics with staggered injections play a more important role than radioactive decay in the signal separation process. Rapid PTSM+ATSM PET has excellent potential for characterizing both tumour blood flow and hypoxia in a single, fast scan, provided that technological hurdles related to algorithm development and routine use can be overcome

  2. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Visualizing In Situ Metabolism of Endogenous Metabolites and Dietary Phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of bioactive small molecules is indispensable for elucidating their biological or pharmaceutical roles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables determination of the distribution of ionizable molecules present in tissue sections of whole-body or single heterogeneous organ samples by direct ionization and detection. This emerging technique is now widely used for in situ label-free molecular imaging of endogenous or exogenous small molecules. MSI allows the simultaneous visualization of many types of molecules including a parent molecule and its metabolites. Thus, MSI has received much attention as a potential tool for pathological analysis, understanding pharmaceutical mechanisms, and biomarker discovery. On the other hand, several issues regarding the technical limitations of MSI are as of yet still unresolved. In this review, we describe the capabilities of the latest matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI technology for visualizing in situ metabolism of endogenous metabolites or dietary phytochemicals (food factors), and also discuss the technical problems and new challenges, including MALDI matrix selection and metabolite identification, that need to be addressed for effective and widespread application of MSI in the diverse fields of biological, biomedical, and nutraceutical (food functionality) research. PMID:24957029

  3. PET imaging of cerebral metabolic change in tinnitus using 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jiahe; Wang Hongtian; Yin Dayi; Yao Shulin; Shao Mingzhe; Yang Weiyan; Jiang Sichang

    2000-01-01

    Tinnitus is an auditory disorder hardly assessable by clinical technology. PET imaging of the brain in 13 cases with and 10 without tinnitus was undertaken at 40 min after injection of 280-440 MBq 18 F-FDG. To ensure the quality of the PET study, all cases followed a normalized procedure with visual and auditory blockage. CT/MRI imaging and routine acoustic tests were carried out in all subjects. PET revealed that an increased uptake of 18 F-FDG at left med-temporal lobe (primary auditory center, PAC) present exclusively in tinnitus, regardless the side of hearing hallucination. Significant asymmetry was noted between left and right PAC, but not at other cortex area. While control cases showed no asymmetric uptake between two hemispheres. The abnormal PAC uptake did not respond to external pure sound stimulus, nor did it relate to the severity of hearing loss assessed by acoustic tests. No anatomical or morphological alteration could be proven on CT/MRI. In conclusion, PET/ 18 F-FDG objectively revealed an increased metabolic change at left PAC in tinnitus, which is of diagnostic value; and there is evidence suggesting tinnitus is most likely induced by a functional change in the brain

  4. PET imaging of cerebral metabolic change in tinnitus using {sup 18}F-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiahe, Tian; Hongtian, Wang; Dayi, Yin; Shulin, Yao; Mingzhe, Shao; Weiyan, Yang; Sichang, Jiang [The PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2000-11-01

    Tinnitus is an auditory disorder hardly assessable by clinical technology. PET imaging of the brain in 13 cases with and 10 without tinnitus was undertaken at 40 min after injection of 280-440 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG. To ensure the quality of the PET study, all cases followed a normalized procedure with visual and auditory blockage. CT/MRI imaging and routine acoustic tests were carried out in all subjects. PET revealed that an increased uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG at left med-temporal lobe (primary auditory center, PAC) present exclusively in tinnitus, regardless the side of hearing hallucination. Significant asymmetry was noted between left and right PAC, but not at other cortex area. While control cases showed no asymmetric uptake between two hemispheres. The abnormal PAC uptake did not respond to external pure sound stimulus, nor did it relate to the severity of hearing loss assessed by acoustic tests. No anatomical or morphological alteration could be proven on CT/MRI. In conclusion, PET/{sup 18}F-FDG objectively revealed an increased metabolic change at left PAC in tinnitus, which is of diagnostic value; and there is evidence suggesting tinnitus is most likely induced by a functional change in the brain.

  5. Rapid musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging using integrated parallel acquisition techniques (IPAT) - Initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaneehsen, B.; Oberholzer, K.; Kreitner, K.-F.; Mueller, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using multiple receiver coil elements for time saving integrated parallel imaging techniques (iPAT) in traumatic musculoskeletal disorders. Material and methods: 6 patients with traumatic derangements of the knee, ankle and hip underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T. For signal detection of the knee and ankle, we used a 6-channel body array coil that was placed around the joints, for hip imaging two 4-channel body array coils and two elements of the spine array coil were combined for signal detection. All patients were investigated with a standard imaging protocol that mainly consisted of different turbo spin-echo sequences (PD-, T 2 -weighted TSE with and without fat suppression, STIR). All sequences were repeated with an integrated parallel acquisition technique (iPAT) using a modified sensitivity encoding (mSENSE) technique with an acceleration factor of 2. Overall image quality was subjectively assessed using a five-point scale as well as the ability for detection of pathologic findings. Results: Regarding overall image quality, there were no significant differences between standard imaging and imaging using mSENSE. All pathologies (occult fracture, meniscal tear, torn and interpositioned Hoffa's cleft, cartilage damage) were detected by both techniques. iPAT led to a 48% reduction of acquisition time compared with standard technique. Additionally, time savings with iPAT led to a decrease of pain-induced motion artifacts in two cases. Conclusion: In times of increasing cost pressure, iPAT using multiple coil elements seems to be an efficient and economic tool for fast musculoskeletal imaging with diagnostic performance comparable to conventional techniques. (orig.) [de

  6. Rapid calibrated high-resolution hyperspectral imaging using tunable laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Margalith, Eli

    2009-05-01

    We present a novel hyperspectral imaging technique based on tunable laser technology. By replacing the broadband source and tunable filters of a typical NIR imaging instrument, several advantages are realized, including: high spectral resolution, highly variable field-of-views, fast scan-rates, high signal-to-noise ratio, and the ability to use optical fiber for efficient and flexible sample illumination. With this technique, high-resolution, calibrated hyperspectral images over the NIR range can be acquired in seconds. The performance of system features will be demonstrated on two example applications: detecting melamine contamination in wheat gluten and separating bovine protein from wheat protein in cattle feed.

  7. Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between media exposure and risk behavior among youth is established at a population level, the specific psychological and social mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of media on youth remain poorly understood. This study reports on an investigation of the impact of the introduction of television to a rural community in Western Fiji on adolescent ethnic Fijian girls in a setting of rapid social and economic change. Narrative data were collected from 30 purposively selected ethnic Fijian secondary school girls via semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were conducted in 1998, 3 years after television was first broadcast to this region of Fiji. Narrative data were analyzed for content relating to response to television and mechanisms that mediate self and body image in Fijian adolescents. Data in this sample suggest that media imagery is used in both creative and destructive ways by adolescent Fijian girls to navigate opportunities and conflicts posed by the rapidly changing social environment. Study respondents indicated their explicit modeling of the perceived positive attributes of characters presented in television dramas, but also the beginnings of weight and body shape preoccupation, purging behavior to control weight, and body disparagement. Response to television appeared to be shaped by a desire for competitive social positioning during a period of rapid social transition. Understanding vulnerability to images and values imported with media will be critical to preventing disordered eating and, potentially, other youth risk behaviors in this population, as well as other populations at risk.

  8. First results from the RAPID imaging energetic particle spectrometer on board Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilken

    Full Text Available The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001, when Cluster was travelling from a perigee near dawn northward across the pole towards an apogee in the solar wind, is used to demonstrate the capabilities of RAPID in investigating a wide variety of particle populations. RAPID, with its unique capability of measuring the complete angular distribution of energetic particles, allows for the simultaneous measurements of local density gradients, as reflected in the anisotropies of 90° particles and the remote sensing of changes in the distant field line topology, as manifested in the variations of loss cone properties. A detailed discussion of angle-angle plots shows considerable differences in the structure of the boundaries between the open and closed field lines on the nightside fraction of the pass and the magnetopause crossing. The 3 March 2001 encounter of Cluster with an FTE just outside the magnetosphere is used to show the first structural plasma investigations of an FTE by energetic multi-spacecraft observations.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosheath

  9. First results from the RAPID imaging energetic particle spectrometer on board Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilken

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001, when Cluster was travelling from a perigee near dawn northward across the pole towards an apogee in the solar wind, is used to demonstrate the capabilities of RAPID in investigating a wide variety of particle populations. RAPID, with its unique capability of measuring the complete angular distribution of energetic particles, allows for the simultaneous measurements of local density gradients, as reflected in the anisotropies of 90° particles and the remote sensing of changes in the distant field line topology, as manifested in the variations of loss cone properties. A detailed discussion of angle-angle plots shows considerable differences in the structure of the boundaries between the open and closed field lines on the nightside fraction of the pass and the magnetopause crossing. The 3 March 2001 encounter of Cluster with an FTE just outside the magnetosphere is used to show the first structural plasma investigations of an FTE by energetic multi-spacecraft observations.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosheath

  10. Rapid Automatic Lighting Control of a Mixed Light Source for Image Acquisition using Derivative Optimum Search Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic lighting (auto-lighting is a function that maximizes the image quality of a vision inspection system by adjusting the light intensity and color.In most inspection systems, a single color light source is used, and an equal step search is employed to determine the maximum image quality. However, when a mixed light source is used, the number of iterations becomes large, and therefore, a rapid search method must be applied to reduce their number. Derivative optimum search methods follow the tangential direction of a function and are usually faster than other methods. In this study, multi-dimensional forms of derivative optimum search methods are applied to obtain the maximum image quality considering a mixed-light source. The auto-lighting algorithms were derived from the steepest descent and conjugate gradient methods, which have N-size inputs of driving voltage and one output of image quality. Experiments in which the proposed algorithm was applied to semiconductor patterns showed that a reduced number of iterations is required to determine the locally maximized image quality.

  11. Monitoring the metabolic state of fungal hyphae and the presence of melanin by nonlinear spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Helene; Blab, Gerhard A; Agronskaia, Alexandra V; van den Heuvel, Dave J; Gerritsen, Hans C; Wösten, Han A B

    2013-10-01

    Label-free nonlinear spectral imaging microscopy (NLSM) records two-photon-excited fluorescence emission spectra of endogenous fluorophores within the specimen. Here, NLSM is introduced as a novel, minimally invasive method to analyze the metabolic state of fungal hyphae by monitoring the autofluorescence of NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Moreover, the presence of melanin was analyzed by NLSM. NAD(P)H, FAD, and melanin were used as biomarkers for freshness of mushrooms of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) that had been stored at 4°C for 0 to 17 days. During this period, the mushrooms did not show changes in morphology or color detectable by eye. In contrast, FAD/NAD(P)H and melanin/NAD(P)H ratios increased over time. For instance, these ratios increased from 0.92 to 2.02 and from 0.76 to 1.53, respectively, at the surface of mushroom caps that had been harvested by cutting the stem. These ratios were lower under the skin than at the surface of fresh mushrooms (0.78 versus 0.92 and 0.41 versus 0.76, respectively), indicative of higher metabolism and lower pigment formation within the fruiting body. Signals were different not only between tissues of the mushroom but also between neighboring hyphae. These data show that NLSM can be used to determine the freshness of mushrooms and to monitor the postharvest browning process at an early stage. Moreover, these data demonstrate the potential of NLSM to address a broad range of fundamental and applied microbiological processes.

  12. Optical imaging of metabolic adaptability in metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Lisa; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2018-02-01

    Accurate methods for determining metastatic risk from the primary tumor are crucial for patient survival. Cell metabolism could potentially be used as a marker of metastatic risk. Optical imaging of the endogenous fluorescent molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) provides a non-destructive and label-free method for determining cell metabolism. The optical redox ratio (FAD/FAD+NADH) is sensitive to the balance between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We have previously established that hypoxia-reoxygenation stress leads to metastatic potential-dependent changes in optical redox ratio. The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in optical redox ratio in breast cancer cells in response to different periods of hypoxic stress as well various levels of hypoxia to establish an optimal protocol. We measured the optical redox ratio of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells under normoxic conditions and after exposure to 30, 60, and 120 minutes of 0.5% O2. This was followed by an hour of reoxygenation. We found an increase in the optical redox ratio following reoxygenation from hypoxia for all durations. Statistically significant differences were observed at 60 and 120 minutes (p˂0.01) compared with normoxia, implying an ability to adapt to OXPHOS after reoxygenation. The switch to OXPHOS has been shown to be a key promoter of cell invasion. We will present our results from these investigations in human breast cancer cells as well as non-metastatic breast cancer cells exposed to various levels of hypoxia.

  13. Neurochemistry of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: Results of metabolic imaging and future application of ligand binding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, K.A.; Koeppe, R.A.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been recognized for over a decade as a leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly, its etiology remains unknown. Radiotracer imaging studies have revealed characteristic patterns of abnormal energy metabolism and blood flow in AD. A consistent reduction in cerebral glucose metabolism, determined by positron emission tomography, is observed in the parietal, temporal, and frontal association cortices. It is proposed that this occurs on the basis of diffuse cortical pathology, resulting in disproportionate loss of presynaptic input to higher cortical association areas. Postmortem neurochemical studies consistently indicate a severe depletion of cortical presynaptic cholinergic markers in AD. This is accounted for by loss of cholinergic projection neurons in the basal forebrain. In addition, loss of extrinsic serotonergic innervation of the cortex and losses of intrinsic cortical markers such as somatostatin, substance P, glutamate receptors, and glutamate- and GABA-uptake sites are reported. These observations offer the opportunity for study in vivo with the use of radioligand imaging methods under development. The role of tracer imaging studies in the investigation and diagnosis of dementia is likely to become increasingly central, as metabolic imaging provides evidence of abnormality early in the clinical course. New neurochemical imaging methods will allow direct testing of hypotheses of selective neuronal degeneration, and will assist in design of future studies of AD pathophysiology

  14. A rapid extraction of landslide disaster information research based on GF-1 image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Xu, Suning; Peng, Ling; Wang, Zhiyi; Wang, Na

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the landslide disasters occurred frequently because of the seismic activity. It brings great harm to people's life. It has caused high attention of the state and the extensive concern of society. In the field of geological disaster, landslide information extraction based on remote sensing has been controversial, but high resolution remote sensing image can improve the accuracy of information extraction effectively with its rich texture and geometry information. Therefore, it is feasible to extract the information of earthquake- triggered landslides with serious surface damage and large scale. Taking the Wenchuan county as the study area, this paper uses multi-scale segmentation method to extract the landslide image object through domestic GF-1 images and DEM data, which uses the estimation of scale parameter tool to determine the optimal segmentation scale; After analyzing the characteristics of landslide high-resolution image comprehensively and selecting spectrum feature, texture feature, geometric features and landform characteristics of the image, we can establish the extracting rules to extract landslide disaster information. The extraction results show that there are 20 landslide whose total area is 521279.31 .Compared with visual interpretation results, the extraction accuracy is 72.22%. This study indicates its efficient and feasible to extract earthquake landslide disaster information based on high resolution remote sensing and it provides important technical support for post-disaster emergency investigation and disaster assessment.

  15. A simple rapid process for semi-automated brain extraction from magnetic resonance images of the whole mouse head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delora, Adam; Gonzales, Aaron; Medina, Christopher S; Mitchell, Adam; Mohed, Abdul Faheem; Jacobs, Russell E; Bearer, Elaine L

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-developed technique in neuroscience. Limitations in applying MRI to rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders include the large number of animals required to achieve statistical significance, and the paucity of automation tools for the critical early step in processing, brain extraction, which prepares brain images for alignment and voxel-wise statistics. This novel timesaving automation of template-based brain extraction ("skull-stripping") is capable of quickly and reliably extracting the brain from large numbers of whole head images in a single step. The method is simple to install and requires minimal user interaction. This method is equally applicable to different types of MR images. Results were evaluated with Dice and Jacquard similarity indices and compared in 3D surface projections with other stripping approaches. Statistical comparisons demonstrate that individual variation of brain volumes are preserved. A downloadable software package not otherwise available for extraction of brains from whole head images is included here. This software tool increases speed, can be used with an atlas or a template from within the dataset, and produces masks that need little further refinement. Our new automation can be applied to any MR dataset, since the starting point is a template mask generated specifically for that dataset. The method reliably and rapidly extracts brain images from whole head images, rendering them useable for subsequent analytical processing. This software tool will accelerate the exploitation of mouse models for the investigation of human brain disorders by MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers to Assess Substantia Nigra Damage in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Gaurav, Rahul; Arnaldi, Dario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Valabregue, Romain; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered to be a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). At PD onset, 40 to 70% of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are already lost. Thus, milder SN damage is expected in participants with iRBD. We aimed to quantify SN damage in participants with iRBD using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine biomarker efficacy in preclinical Parkinsonism. Nineteen participants with iRBD and 18 controls underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging, neuromelanin (NM)-sensitive imaging, and T2* mapping. Regions of interest in the SN area were drawn in NM-sensitive and T2-weighted images. The volume and normalized signal intensity in NM-sensitive images, R2*, and diffusion tensor measures were quantified in the SN. Additionally, two raters performed visual analysis of the SN using the NM-sensitive images. Participants with iRBD showed a reduction in the NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity and a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) versus controls, but showed no differences in axial, radial, or mean diffusivity or in R2*. For NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity, the receiver operating characteristic analysis discriminated between participants with iRBD and controls with a diagnostic accuracy of 0.86 and 0.79, respectively, whereas the accuracy was 0.77 for FA. The three biomarkers had a combined accuracy of 0.92. The fraction of participants correctly characterized by visual assessment was 0.81. NM-sensitive imaging and FA allowed for the detection of SN damage in participants with iRBD with good diagnostic accuracy. These measures may represent valuable biomarkers for prodromal Parkinsonism. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Imaging characteristics of two subtypes of congenital hemangiomas: rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas and non-involuting congenital hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorincour, Guillaume; Rypens, Francoise; Garel, Laurent; Dubois, Josee; Kokta, Victor; Powell, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Common infantile hemangiomas (COMMON) occur in approximately 10% of infants by the age of 1 year, with a female predominance. Some hemangiomas can be fully developed at birth and are thus called congenital hemangiomas (CH). Within this population, two courses have been identified: rapidly involuting CH (RICH) and non-involuting CH (NICH). Little has been reported on the clinical prognosis and imaging features of these entities. To describe the imaging characteristics of two subtypes of CH, i.e. RICH and NICH, and to compare them with COMMON. We retrospectively gathered data on 26 children presenting with CH, i.e. lesions fully developed at birth. These lesions were divided into two groups according to the clinical course: suspected RICH (n=8) and suspected NICH (n=18). We used US, CT or MRI and angiography to identify the gross anatomy and structure and the vascularization. Imaging findings were compared with the clinical course and pathology results, when available. The imaging findings in these patients were compared retrospectively with those in 26 patients with COMMON randomly chosen from the database of our multidisciplinary clinic. When compared with COMMON imaging characteristics, NICH and RICH had distinctive features on US such as being heterogeneous (72% of NICH and 62.5% of RICH vs 42.3% of COMMON), visible vessels (72% of NICH and 62.5% of RICH vs 15.4% of COMMON), calcifications (17% of NICH and 37.5% of RICH vs no case of COMMON). On CT and/or MRI, we compared imaging features such as well-defined limits (67% of NICH and 60% of RICH vs 100% of COMMON), and fat stranding (29.4% of NICH and RICH vs 7.7% of COMMON). Distinctive imaging characteristics are observed in cases of CH with US findings of visible vessels and calcifications statistically significant. (orig.)

  18. Rapid and coordinated processing of global motion images by local clusters of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tachibana, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs). We simultaneously recorded the firing of GCs in the goldfish isolated retina using a multi-electrode array, and classified each GC based on the temporal profile of its receptive field (RF). A moving target that accompanied the global motion (simulating a saccade following a period of fixational eye movements) modulated the RF properties and evoked synchronized and correlated firing among local clusters of the specific GCs. Our findings provide a novel concept for retinal information processing during eye movements.

  19. Quantitative redox imaging biomarkers for studying tissue metabolic state and its heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NAD+/NADH redox state has been implicated in many diseases such as cancer and diabetes as well as in the regulation of embryonic development and aging. To fluorimetrically assess the mitochondrial redox state, Dr. Chance and co-workers measured the fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp including flavin–adenine–dinucleotide (FAD and demonstrated their ratio (i.e. the redox ratio is a sensitive indicator of the mitochondrial redox states. The Chance redox scanner was built to simultaneously measure NADH and Fp in tissue at submillimeter scale in 3D using the freeze-trap protocol. This paper summarizes our recent research experience, development and new applications of the redox scanning technique in collaboration with Dr. Chance beginning in 2005. Dr. Chance initiated or actively involved in many of the projects during the last several years of his life. We advanced the redox scanning technique by measuring the nominal concentrations (in reference to the frozen solution standards of the endogenous fluorescent analytes, i.e., [NADH] and [Fp] to quantify the redox ratios in various biological tissues. The advancement has enabled us to identify an array of the redox indices as quantitative imaging biomarkers (including [NADH], [Fp], [Fp]/([NADH]+[Fp], [NADH]/[Fp], and their standard deviations for studying some important biological questions on cancer and normal tissue metabolism. We found that the redox indices were associated or changed with (1 tumorigenesis (cancer versus non-cancer of human breast tissue biopsies; (2 tumor metastatic potential; (3 tumor glucose uptake; (4 tumor p53 status; (5 PI3K pathway activation in pre-malignant tissue; (6 therapeutic effects on tumors; (7 embryonic stem cell differentiation; (8 the heart under fasting. Together, our work demonstrated that the tissue redox indices obtained from the redox scanning technique may provide useful information about tissue metabolism and physiology status in normal

  20. How lovebirds maneuver rapidly using super-fast head saccades and image feature stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kress, Daniel; Bokhorst, Van Evelien; Lentink, David

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal flying animals such as birds depend primarily on vision to coordinate their flight path during goal-directed flight tasks. To extract the spatial structure of the surrounding environment, birds are thought to use retinal image motion (optical flow) that is primarily induced by motion of

  1. A system for rapid prototyping of hearts with congenital malformations based on the medical imaging interaction toolkit (MITK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ivo; Böttger, Thomas; Rietdorf, Urte; Maleike, Daniel; Greil, Gerald; Sieverding, Ludger; Miller, Stephan; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2006-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the individual cardiac anatomy is essential for diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. Complex malformations of the heart can best be comprehended not from images but from anatomic specimens. Physical models can be created from data using rapid prototyping techniques, e.g., lasersintering or 3D-printing. We have developed a system for obtaining data that show the relevant cardiac anatomy from high-resolution CT/MR images and are suitable for rapid prototyping. The challenge is to preserve all relevant details unaltered in the produced models. The main anatomical structures of interest are the four heart cavities (atria, ventricles), the valves and the septum separating the cavities, and the great vessels. These can be shown either by reproducing the morphology itself or by producing a model of the blood-pool, thus creating a negative of the morphology. Algorithmically the key issue is segmentation. Practically, possibilities allowing the cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to interactively check and correct the segmentation are even more important due to the complex, irregular anatomy and imaging artefacts. The paper presents the algorithmic and interactive processing steps implemented in the system, which is based on the open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK, www.mitk.org). It is shown how the principles used in MITK enable to assemble the system from modules (functionalities) developed independently from each other. The system allows to produce models of the heart (and other anatomic structures) of individual patients as well as to reproduce unique specimens from pathology collections for teaching purposes.

  2. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect.

  3. Three-dimensional brain metabolic imaging in patients with toxic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callender, T.J.; Duhon, D.; Ristovv, M.; Morrow, L.; Subramanian, K.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-three workers, ages 24 to 63, developed clinical toxic encephalopathy after exposure to neurotoxins and were studied by SPECT brain scans. Five were exposed to pesticides, 13 were acutely exposed to mixtures of solvents, 8 were chronically exposed to mixtures of hazardous wastes that contained organic solvents, 2 were acutely exposed to phosgene and other toxins, and 5 had exposures to hydrogen sulfide. Twenty-nine had neuropsychological testing and all had a medical history and physical. Of the workers who had a clinical diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy, 31 (93.9%) had abnormal SPECT brain scans with the most frequent areas of abnormality being temporal lobes (67.7%), frontal lobes (61.3%), basal ganglia (45.2%), thalamus (29.0%), parietal lobes (12.9%), motorstrip (9.68%), cerebral hemisphere (6.45%), occipital lobes (3.23%), and caudate nucleus (3.23%). Twenty-three out of 29 (79.3%) neuropsychological evaluations were abnormal. Other modalities when performed included the following percentages of abnormals: NCV, 33.3%; CPT sensory nerve testing, 91.3%, vestibular function testing, 71.4%; olfactory testing, 89.2%; sleep EEG analysis, 85.7%; EEG, 8.33%; CT, 7.14%; and MRI brain scans, 28.6%. The complex of symptoms seen in toxic encephalopathy implies dysfunction involving several CNS regions. This series of patients adds to the previous experience of brain metabolic imaging and demonstrates that certain areas of the brain are typically affected despite differences in toxin structure, that these lesions can be globally defined by SPECT/PET brain scans, that these lesions correlate well with clinical and neuropsychological testing, and that such testing is a useful adjunct to previous methods. EEG and structural brain imaging such as CT and MRI are observed to have poor sensitivity in this type of patient. 32 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Rapid musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging using integrated parallel acquisition techniques (IPAT) - Initial experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaneehsen, B.; Oberholzer, K.; Kreitner, K.-F. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Mueller, L.P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using multiple receiver coil elements for time saving integrated parallel imaging techniques (iPAT) in traumatic musculoskeletal disorders. Material and methods: 6 patients with traumatic derangements of the knee, ankle and hip underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T. For signal detection of the knee and ankle, we used a 6-channel body array coil that was placed around the joints, for hip imaging two 4-channel body array coils and two elements of the spine array coil were combined for signal detection. All patients were investigated with a standard imaging protocol that mainly consisted of different turbo spin-echo sequences (PD-, T{sub 2}-weighted TSE with and without fat suppression, STIR). All sequences were repeated with an integrated parallel acquisition technique (iPAT) using a modified sensitivity encoding (mSENSE) technique with an acceleration factor of 2. Overall image quality was subjectively assessed using a five-point scale as well as the ability for detection of pathologic findings. Results: Regarding overall image quality, there were no significant differences between standard imaging and imaging using mSENSE. All pathologies (occult fracture, meniscal tear, torn and interpositioned Hoffa's cleft, cartilage damage) were detected by both techniques. iPAT led to a 48% reduction of acquisition time compared with standard technique. Additionally, time savings with iPAT led to a decrease of pain-induced motion artifacts in two cases. Conclusion: In times of increasing cost pressure, iPAT using multiple coil elements seems to be an efficient and economic tool for fast musculoskeletal imaging with diagnostic performance comparable to conventional techniques. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Einsatz integrierter paralleler Akquisitionstechniken (iPAT) zur Verkuerzung der Untersuchungszeit bei muskuloskelettalen Verletzungen. Material und Methoden: 6 Patienten mit einem Knie, Sprunggelenks- oder Huefttrauma wurden bei 1,5 T

  5. Rapidly produced /sup 125/I labelled autologous fibrinogen: in vitro properties and preliminary metabolic studies in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, R J; Hawker, L M [Birmingham Univ. (UK)

    1976-06-01

    The properties of fibrinogen extracted by a precipitation method using glycine at ambient temperatures near neutral pH are described. The simple and reproducible method gave a 73% yield of high purity plasminogen-free fibrinogen in 45 minutes from small volumes of plasma. The protein extract was labelled with /sup 125/I using chloramine-T under conditions optimal for fibrinogen stability. The extraction procedure, radio-iodination, desalting, and sterilization take only 70 minutes for completion from the time donor blood is received in the laboratory. The methods, using a specially developed extraction vessel and desalting/sterilizing column, can be used in a small hospital laboratory. Autologous fibrinogen can thus be extracted from patients' blood, eliminating the risk of transmitting hepatitis when it is re-administered. The autologous material, which is 97% clottable and contains less than 0.05% free iodide, is being routinely used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of deep vein thrombosis. The high purity of the preparation facilitates metabolic studies and in vitro experimental work. In vivo results showed a mean half-life in three normal volunteers of 3.95 days and a catabolic rate of 25.23% per day with the extravascular space estimated as 24.86%. In 30 surgical patients an expected reduced half-life in plasma was determined with a mean of 3.1 days.

  6. Gentamicin differentially alters cellular metabolism of cochlear hair cells as revealed by NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V.; Ward, Kristina G.; Nichols, Michael G.; Smith, Heather Jensen

    2015-05-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are implicated as culprits of hearing loss in more than 120,000 individuals annually. Research has shown that the sensory cells, but not supporting cells, of the cochlea are readily damaged and/or lost after use of such antibiotics. High-frequency outer hair cells (OHCs) show a greater sensitivity to antibiotics than high- and low-frequency inner hair cells (IHCs). We hypothesize that variations in mitochondrial metabolism account for differences in susceptibility. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy was used to quantify changes in NAD(P)H in sensory and supporting cells from explanted murine cochleae exposed to mitochondrial uncouplers, inhibitors, and an ototoxic antibiotic, gentamicin (GM). Changes in metabolic state resulted in a redistribution of NAD(P)H between subcellular fluorescence lifetime pools. Supporting cells had a significantly longer lifetime than sensory cells. Pretreatment with GM increased NAD(P)H intensity in high-frequency sensory cells, as well as the NAD(P)H lifetime within IHCs. GM specifically increased NAD(P)H concentration in high-frequency OHCs, but not in IHCs or pillar cells. Variations in NAD(P)H intensity in response to mitochondrial toxins and GM were greatest in high-frequency OHCs. These results demonstrate that GM rapidly alters mitochondrial metabolism, differentially modulates cell metabolism, and provides evidence that GM-induced changes in metabolism are significant and greatest in high-frequency OHCs.

  7. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  8. Rapid, all-optical crystal orientation imaging of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Sabrina N.; Zhai, Yao; Zande, Arend M. van der; O'Brien, Kevin; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Chenet, Daniel A.; Hone, James C.; Zhang, Xiang; Yin, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant research and industrial interest for their electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. While large-area crystal growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition have been demonstrated, the presence of grain boundaries and orientation of grains arising in such growths substantially affect the physical properties of the materials. There is currently no scalable characterization method for determining these boundaries and orientations over a large sample area. We here present a second-harmonic generation based microscopy technique for rapidly mapping grain orientations and boundaries of 2D TMDCs. We experimentally demonstrate the capability to map large samples to an angular resolution of ±1° with minimal sample preparation and without involved analysis. A direct comparison of the all-optical grain orientation maps against results obtained by diffraction-filtered dark-field transmission electron microscopy plus selected-area electron diffraction on identical TMDC samples is provided. This rapid and accurate tool should enable large-area characterization of TMDC samples for expedited studies of grain boundary effects and the efficient characterization of industrial-scale production techniques

  9. Multi-Frequency Encoding for Rapid Color Flow and Quadroplex Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic color flow maps are made by estimating the velocities line by line over the region of interest. For each velocity estimate, multiple repetitions are needed. This sets a limit on the frame rate, which becomes increasingly severe when imaging deeper lying structures or when simultaneously...... acquiring spectrogram data for triplex imaging. This paper proposes a method for decreasing the data acquisition time by simultaneously sampling multiple lines at different spatial positions for the color flow map using narrow band signals with disjoint spectral support. The signals are separated...... in the receiver by filters matched to the emitted waveforms and the autocorrelation estimator is applied. Alternatively, one spectral band can be used for creating a color flow map, while data for a number of spectrograms are acquired simultaneously. Using three disjoint spectral bands, this will result...

  10. A novel intra-operative positron imager for rapid localization of tumor margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Hamid; Stack, Brendan C.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an intra-operative and compact imaging tool for surgeons to detect PET- positive lesions. Currently, most such probes on the market are non-imaging, and provide no ancillary information of surveyed areas, such as clear delineations of malignant tissues. Our probe consists of a novel hybrid scintillator coupled to a compact silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array with associated front-end electronics encapsulated in an ergonomic housing. Pulse shape discrimination electronics has been implemented and integrated into the downstream data acquisition system. The hybrid scintillator consists of a 0.4 mm thick layer of CsI:Tl scintillator coupled to a 1 mm thick LYSO crystal. To achieve high spatial resolution, CsI:Tl is pixelated to 0.5×0.5 mm2 pixels using laser ablation technique. While CsI:Tl act as beta-sensitive scintillator, LYSO senses the gamma radiation and can be used to navigate the probe to the locations of interest. The gamma response is also subtracted from the beta image for improved SNR and contrast. To achieve accurate centroid position estimation and uniform beta sensitivity over the entire imaging area, the LYSO thickness is optimized such that it acts as scintillation light diffuser by spreading CsI:Tl light over multiple SiPM pixels. The results show that the response of the two scintillators exposed to radiation could be easily distinguished based on their pulse shapes. The probe's spatial resolution is beta radiation even in presence of strong gamma background.

  11. A novel way to rapidly monitor microplastics in soil by hyperspectral imaging technology and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jiajia; Zhao, Junbo; Liu, Lifen; Zhang, Yituo; Wang, Xue; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology has been investigated as a possible way to detect microplastics contamination in soil directly and efficiently in this study. Hyperspectral images with wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm were obtained from soil samples containing different materials including microplastics, fresh leaves, wilted leaves, rocks and dry branches. Supervised classification algorithms such as support vector machine (SVM), mahalanobis distance (MD) and maximum likelihood (ML) algorithms were used to identify microplastics from the other materials in hyperspectral images. To investigate the effect of particle size and color, white polyethylene (PE) and black PE particles extracted from soil with two different particle size ranges (1-5 mm and 0.5-1 mm) were studied in this work. The results showed that SVM was the most applicable method for detecting white PE in soil, with the precision of 84% and 77% for PE particles in size ranges of 1-5 mm and 0.5-1 mm respectively. The precision of black PE detection achieved by SVM were 58% and 76% for particles of 1-5 mm and 0.5-1 mm respectively. Six kinds of household polymers including drink bottle, bottle cap, rubber, packing bag, clothes hanger and plastic clip were used to validate the developed method, and the classification precision of polymers were obtained from 79% to 100% and 86%-99% for microplastics particle 1-5 mm and 0.5-1 mm respectively. The results indicate that hyperspectral imaging technology is a potential technique to determine and visualize the microplastics with particle size from 0.5 to 5 mm on soil surface directly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MRI of the cartilages of the knee, 3-D imaging with a rapid computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, G.; Bohndorf, K.; Prescher, A.; Drobnitzky, M.; Guenther, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    2-D spin-echo sequences were compared with 3-D gradient-echo sequences using normal and cadaver knee joints. The important advantages of 3-D-imaging are: sections of less than 1 mm, reconstruction in any required plane, which can be related to the complex anatomy of the knee joint, and very good distinction between intra-articular fluid, fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. (orig./GDG).

  13. Aptamer-Based Dual-Functional Probe for Rapid and Specific Counting and Imaging of MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Yin, Xiao; Xu, Chi; Hu, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Development of multimodal detection technologies for accurate diagnosis of cancer at early stages is in great demand. In this work, we report a novel approach using an aptamer-based dual-functional probe for rapid, sensitive, and specific counting and visualization of MCF-7 cells by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence imaging. The probe consists of a recognition unit of aptamer to catch cancer cells specifically, a fluorescent dye (FAM) moiety for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based "off-on" fluorescence imaging as well as gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) tag for both ICP-MS quantification and fluorescence quenching. Due to the signal amplification effect and low spectral interference of Au NPs in ICP-MS, an excellent linearity and sensitivity were achieved. Accordingly, a limit of detection of 81 MCF-7 cells and a relative standard deviation of 5.6% (800 cells, n = 7) were obtained. The dynamic linear range was 2 × 10 2 to 1.2 × 10 4 cells, and the recoveries in human whole blood were in the range of 98-110%. Overall, the established method provides quantitative and visualized information on MCF-7 cells with a simple and rapid process and paves the way for a promising strategy for biomedical research and clinical diagnostics.

  14. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  15. Mirror-Imaged Rapid Prototype Skull Model and Pre-Molded Synthetic Scaffold to Achieve Optimal Orbital Cavity Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Woo; Choi, Jong Woo; Koh, Kyung S; Oh, Tae Suk

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of traumatic orbital wall defects has evolved to restore the original complex anatomy with the rapidly growing use of computer-aided design and prototyping. This study evaluated a mirror-imaged rapid prototype skull model and a pre-molded synthetic scaffold for traumatic orbital wall reconstruction. A single-center retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent orbital wall reconstruction after trauma from 2012 to 2014. Patients were included by admission through the emergency department after facial trauma or by a tertiary referral for post-traumatic orbital deformity. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomogram-based mirror-imaged reconstruction images of the orbit and an individually manufactured rapid prototype skull model by a 3D printing technique were obtained for each case. Synthetic scaffolds were anatomically pre-molded using the skull model as guide and inserted at the individual orbital defect. Postoperative complications were assessed and 3D volumetric measurements of the orbital cavity were performed. Paired samples t test was used for statistical analysis. One hundred four patients with immediate orbital defect reconstructions and 23 post-traumatic orbital deformity reconstructions were included in this study. All reconstructions were successful without immediate postoperative complications, although there were 10 cases with mild enophthalmos and 2 cases with persistent diplopia. Reoperations were performed for 2 cases of persistent diplopia and secondary touchup procedures were performed to contour soft tissue in 4 cases. Postoperative volumetric measurement of the orbital cavity showed nonsignificant volume differences between the damaged orbit and the reconstructed orbit (21.35 ± 1.93 vs 20.93 ± 2.07 cm(2); P = .98). This protocol was extended to severe cases in which more than 40% of the orbital frame was lost and combined with extensive soft tissue defects. Traumatic orbital reconstruction can be optimized and

  16. Rapidly updated hyperspectral sounding and imaging data for severe storm prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gail; Jensen, Scott; Elwell, John; Cardon, Joel; Crain, David; Huang, Hung-Lung (Allen); Smith, William L.; Revercomb, Hank E.; Huppi, Ronald J.

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have shown that a geostationary hyperspectral imager/sounder can provide the most significant value increase in short term, regional numerical prediction weather models over a range of other options. In 1998, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) proposal was selected by NASA as the New Millennium Earth Observation 3 program over several other geostationary instrument development proposals. After the EO3 GIFTS flight demonstration program was changed to an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) due to funding limitations by one of the partners, the EDU was subjected to flight-like thermal vacuum calibration and testing and successfully validated the breakthrough technologies needed to make a successful observatory. After several government stops and starts, only EUMETSAT's Meteosat Third Generation (MTG-S) sounder is in operational development. Recently, a commercial partnership has been formed to fill the significant data gap. AsiaSat has partnered with GeoMetWatch (GMW)1 to fund the development and launch of the Sounding and Tracking Observatory for Regional Meteorology (STORMTM) sensor, a derivative of the Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) EDU that was designed, built, and tested by Utah State University (USU). STORMTM combines advanced technologies to observe surface thermal properties, atmospheric weather, and chemistry variables in four dimensions to provide high vertical resolution temperature and moisture sounding information, with the fourth dimension (time) provided by the geosynchronous satellite platform ability to measure a location as often as desired. STORMTM will enhance the polar orbiting imaging and sounding measurements by providing: (1) a direct measure of moisture flux and altitude-resolved water vapor and cloud tracer winds throughout the troposphere, (2) an observation of the time varying atmospheric thermodynamics associated with storm system development, and (3) the

  17. Net-based data transfer and automatic image fusion of metabolic (PET) and morphologic (CT/MRI) images for radiosurgical planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Przetak, C.; Schmuecking, M.; Klener, G.; Surber, G.; Hamm, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The main purpose of radiosurgery in comparison to conventional radiotherapy of brain tumors is to reach a higher radiation dose in the tumor and sparing normal brain tissue as much as possible. To reach this aim it is crucial to define the target volume extremely accurately. For this purpose, MRI and CT examinations are used for radiotherapy planning. In certain cases, however, metabolic information obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) may be useful to achieve a higher therapeutic accuracy by sparing important brain structures. This can be the case, i.e. in low grade astrocytomas for exact delineation of vital tumor as well as in differentiating scaring tissue from tumor recurrence and edema after operation. For this purpose, radiolabeled aminoacid analogues (e.g. C-11 methionine) and recently O-2-[ 18 F] Fluorethyl-L-Tyrosin (F-18 FET) have been introduced as PET tracers to detect the area of highest tumor metabolism which allows to obtain additional information as compared to FDG-PET that reflects the local glucose metabolism. In these cases, anatomical and metabolic data have to be combined with the technique of digital image fusion to exactly determine the target volume, the isodoses and the area where the highest dose has to be applied. Materials: We have set up a data transfer from the PET Center of the Zentralklinik Bad Berka with the Department of Stereotactic Radiation at the Helios Klinik Erfurt (distance approx. 25 km) to enable this kind of image fusion. PET data (ECAT EXACT 47, Siemens/CTI) are transferred to a workstation (NOVALIS) in the Dept. of Stereotactic Radiation to be co-registered with the CT or MRI data of the patient. All PET images are in DICOM format (obtained by using a HERMES computer, Nuclear Diagnostics, Sweden) and can easily be introduced into the NOVALIS workstation. The software uses the optimation of mutual information to achieve a good fusion quality. Sometimes manual corrections have to be performed to get an

  18. A hybrid peptide PTS that facilitates transmembrane delivery and its application for the rapid in vivo imaging via near-infrared fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao eYan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Intravital imaging provides invaluable readouts for clinical diagnoses and therapies and shows great potential in the design of individualized drug dosage regimes. Ts is a mammalian free cell membrane-penetrating peptide. This study aimed to introduce a novel approach to the design of a cancer-selective peptide on the basis of a membrane-penetrating peptide and to explore its potential as a carrier of medical substances. Experimental approach: Ts was linked with a αvβ3-binding peptide P1c to create a hybrid referred to as PTS. The hybrid was labeled with an FITC or Cy5.5 as an imaging indicator to evaluate its in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. Key results: Hemolysis tests proved that in comparison with Ts, PTS caused similar or even less leakage of human erythrocytes at concentrations of up to 1 mmol/L. Flow cytometry assay and confocal microscopy demonstrated the following. 1 P1c alone could target and mostly halt at the cancer cell membrane. 2 Ts alone could not bind to the membrane sufficiently. 3 P1c greatly enhanced the binding affinity of PTS with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that upregulated αvβ3. 4 Ts conferred PTS with the ability to traverse a cell membrane and thus facilitate the transmembrane delivery of imaging probes. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging demonstrated that the imaging probes were rapidly concentrated in a MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue within 1 h after intravenous injection. Conclusions and implications: PTS exhibited the capability of targeting specific tumors and greatly facilitating the transmembrane delivery of imaging probes.

  19. Ultrasonic imaging algorithms with limited transmission cycles for rapid nondestructive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Ludovic; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Wilcox, Paul D

    2009-09-01

    Imaging algorithms recently developed in ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) have shown good potential for defect characterization. Many of them are based on the concept of collecting the full matrix of data, obtained by firing each element of an ultrasonic phased array independently, while collecting the data with all elements. Because of the finite sound velocity in the test structure, 2 consecutive firings must be separated by a minimum time interval. Depending on the number of elements in a given array, this may become problematic if data must be collected within a short time, as it is often the case, for example, in an industrial context. An obvious way to decrease the duration of data capture is to use a sparse transmit aperture, in which only a restricted number of elements are used to transmit ultrasonic waves. This paper compares 2 approaches aimed at producing an image on the basis of restricted data: the common source method and the effective aperture technique. The effective aperture technique is based on the far-field approximation, and no similar approach exists for the near-field. This paper investigates the performance of this technique in near-field conditions, where most NDT applications are made. First, these methods are described and their point spread functions are compared with that of the Total Focusing Method (TFM), which consists of focusing the array at every point in the image. Then, a map of efficiency is given for the different algorithms in the near-field. The map can be used to select the most appropriate algorithm. Finally, this map is validated by testing the different algorithms on experimental data.

  20. Imaging rapid redistribution of sensory-evoked depolarization through existing cortical pathways after targeted stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Albrecht; Mohajerani, Majid H; Murphy, Timothy H

    2009-07-14

    Evidence suggests that recovery from stroke damage results from the production of new synaptic pathways within surviving brain regions over weeks. To address whether brain function might redistribute more rapidly through preexisting pathways, we examined patterns of sensory-evoked depolarization in mouse somatosensory cortex within hours after targeted stroke to a subset of the forelimb sensory map. Brain activity was mapped with voltage-sensitive dye imaging allowing millisecond time resolution over 9 mm(2) of brain. Before targeted stroke, we report rapid activation of the forelimb area within 10 ms of contralateral forelimb stimulation and more delayed activation of related areas of cortex such as the hindlimb sensory and motor cortices. After stroke to a subset of the forelimb somatosensory cortex map, function was lost in ischemic areas within the forelimb map center, but maintained in regions 200-500 microm blood flow deficits indicating the size of a perfused, but nonfunctional, penumbra. In many cases, stroke led to only partial loss of the forelimb map, indicating that a subset of a somatosensory domain can function on its own. Within the forelimb map spared by stroke, forelimb-stimulated responses became delayed in kinetics, and their center of activity shifted into adjacent hindlimb and posterior-lateral sensory areas. We conclude that the focus of forelimb-specific somatosensory cortex activity can be rapidly redistributed after ischemic damage. Given that redistribution occurs within an hour, the effect is likely to involve surviving accessory pathways and could potentially contribute to rapid behavioral compensation or direct future circuit rewiring.

  1. A rapid compression technique for 4-D functional MRI images using data rearrangement and modified binary array techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma Vetri Selvi, G; Nadarajan, R

    2015-12-01

    Compression techniques are vital for efficient storage and fast transfer of medical image data. The existing compression techniques take significant amount of time for performing encoding and decoding and hence the purpose of compression is not fully satisfied. In this paper a rapid 4-D lossy compression method constructed using data rearrangement, wavelet-based contourlet transformation and a modified binary array technique has been proposed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images. In the proposed method, the image slices of fMRI data are rearranged so that the redundant slices form a sequence. The image sequence is then divided into slices and transformed using wavelet-based contourlet transform (WBCT). In WBCT, the high frequency sub-band obtained from wavelet transform is further decomposed into multiple directional sub-bands by directional filter bank to obtain more directional information. The relationship between the coefficients has been changed in WBCT as it has more directions. The differences in parent–child relationships are handled by a repositioning algorithm. The repositioned coefficients are then subjected to quantization. The quantized coefficients are further compressed by modified binary array technique where the most frequently occurring value of a sequence is coded only once. The proposed method has been experimented with fMRI images the results indicated that the processing time of the proposed method is less compared to existing wavelet-based set partitioning in hierarchical trees and set partitioning embedded block coder (SPECK) compression schemes [1]. The proposed method could also yield a better compression performance compared to wavelet-based SPECK coder. The objective results showed that the proposed method could gain good compression ratio in maintaining a peak signal noise ratio value of above 70 for all the experimented sequences. The SSIM value is equal to 1 and the value of CC is greater than 0.9 for all

  2. WE-DE-BRA-08: A Linear Accelerator Target Allowing Rapid Switching Between Treatment and High-Contrast Imaging Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yewondwossen, M; Robar, J; Parsons, D [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: During radiotherapy treatment, lung tumors can display substantial respiratory motion. This motion usually necessitates enlarged treatment margins to provide full tumour coverage. Unfortunately, these margins limit the dose that can be prescribed for tumour control and cause complications to normal tissue. Options for real-time methods of direct detection of tumour position, and particularly those that obviate the need for inserted fiducial markers, are limited. We propose a method of tumor tracking without implanted fiducial markers using a novel fast switching-target that toggles between a FFF copper/tungsten therapy mode and a FFF low-Z target mode for imaging. In this work we demonstrate proof-of-concept of this new technology. Methods: The prototype includes two targets: i) a FFF copper/tungsten target equivalent to that in the Varian 2100 EX 6 MV, and ii) a low-Z (carbon) target with a thickness of 110% of continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA) at 7 MeV. The two targets can be exchanged with a custom made linear slide and motor-driven actuator. The usefulness of the switching-target concept is demonstrated through experimental BEV Planar images acquired with continual treatment and imaging at a user-defined period. Results: The prototype switching-target demonstrates that two recent advances in linac technology (FFF target for therapy and low-Z target) can be combined with synergy. The switching-target approach offers the capacity for rapid switching between treatment and high-contrast imaging modes, allowing intrafractional tracking, as demonstrated in this work with dynamic breathing phantom. By using a single beam-line, the design is streamlined and may obviate the need for an auxiliary imaging system (e.g., kV OBI.) Conclusion: This switching-target approach is a feasible combination of two current advances in linac technology (FFF target for therapy and a FFF low-Z target) allowing new options in on-line IGRT.

  3. Quantification of hepatic and visceral fat by CT and MR imaging: relevance to the obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffy, Peter M; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2016-06-01

    Trends in obesity have continued to increase in the developed world over the past few decades, along with related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, which is strongly associated with this epidemic. Novel and innovative methods to assess relevant obesity-related biomarkers are needed to determine the clinical significance, allow for surveillance and intervene if appropriate. Aggregations of specific types of fat, specifically hepatic and visceral adiposity, are now known to be correlated with these conditions, and there are a variety of imaging techniques to identify and quantify their distributions and provide diagnostic information. These methods are particularly salient for metabolic syndrome, which is related to both hepatic and visceral adiposity but currently not defined by it. Simpler non-specific fat measurements, such as body weight, abdominal circumference and body mass index are more frequently used but lack the ability to characterize fat location. In addition, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a related condition that carries relevance not only for obesity-related diseases but also for the progression of the liver-specific disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, albeit at a much lower frequency. Recent CT and MRI techniques have emerged to potentially optimize diagnosing metabolic syndrome and NAFLD through non-invasive quantification of visceral fat and hepatic steatosis with high accuracy. These imaging modalities should aid us in further understanding the relationship of hepatic and visceral fat to the obesity-related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, NAFLD and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Rapid Target Detection in High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Using Yolo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Chen, X.; Gao, Y.; Li, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Object detection in high resolution remote sensing images is a fundamental and challenging problem in the field of remote sensing imagery analysis for civil and military application due to the complex neighboring environments, which can cause the recognition algorithms to mistake irrelevant ground objects for target objects. Deep Convolution Neural Network(DCNN) is the hotspot in object detection for its powerful ability of feature extraction and has achieved state-of-the-art results in Computer Vision. Common pipeline of object detection based on DCNN consists of region proposal, CNN feature extraction, region classification and post processing. YOLO model frames object detection as a regression problem, using a single CNN predicts bounding boxes and class probabilities in an end-to-end way and make the predict faster. In this paper, a YOLO based model is used for object detection in high resolution sensing images. The experiments on NWPU VHR-10 dataset and our airport/airplane dataset gain from GoogleEarth show that, compare with the common pipeline, the proposed model speeds up the detection process and have good accuracy.

  5. Rapid Extraction of Landslide and Spatial Distribution Analysis after Jiuzhaigou Ms7.0 Earthquake Based on Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Q. S.; Luo, Y.; Shen, W. H.; Li, Q.; Wang, X.

    2018-04-01

    Jiuzhaigou earthquake led to the collapse of the mountains and formed lots of landslides in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot and surrounding roads which caused road blockage and serious ecological damage. Due to the urgency of the rescue, the authors carried unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and entered the disaster area as early as August 9 to obtain the aerial images near the epicenter. On the basis of summarizing the earthquake landslides characteristics in aerial images, by using the object-oriented analysis method, landslides image objects were obtained by multi-scale segmentation, and the feature rule set of each level was automatically built by SEaTH (Separability and Thresholds) algorithm to realize the rapid landslide extraction. Compared with visual interpretation, object-oriented automatic landslides extraction method achieved an accuracy of 94.3 %. The spatial distribution of the earthquake landslide had a significant positive correlation with slope and relief and had a negative correlation with the roughness, but no obvious correlation with the aspect. The relationship between the landslide and the aspect was not found and the probable reason may be that the distance between the study area and the seismogenic fault was too far away. This work provided technical support for the earthquake field emergency, earthquake landslide prediction and disaster loss assessment.

  6. RAPID EXTRACTION OF LANDSLIDE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AFTER JIUZHAIGOU Ms7.0 EARTHQUAKE BASED ON UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. S. Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiuzhaigou earthquake led to the collapse of the mountains and formed lots of landslides in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot and surrounding roads which caused road blockage and serious ecological damage. Due to the urgency of the rescue, the authors carried unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and entered the disaster area as early as August 9 to obtain the aerial images near the epicenter. On the basis of summarizing the earthquake landslides characteristics in aerial images, by using the object-oriented analysis method, landslides image objects were obtained by multi-scale segmentation, and the feature rule set of each level was automatically built by SEaTH (Separability and Thresholds algorithm to realize the rapid landslide extraction. Compared with visual interpretation, object-oriented automatic landslides extraction method achieved an accuracy of 94.3 %. The spatial distribution of the earthquake landslide had a significant positive correlation with slope and relief and had a negative correlation with the roughness, but no obvious correlation with the aspect. The relationship between the landslide and the aspect was not found and the probable reason may be that the distance between the study area and the seismogenic fault was too far away. This work provided technical support for the earthquake field emergency, earthquake landslide prediction and disaster loss assessment.

  7. Suitability of hyperspectral imaging for rapid evaluation of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hong-Bin; Wang, Qi-Jun; Chen, Yu-Nan

    2015-03-15

    The suitability of hyperspectral imaging technique (400-1000 nm) was investigated to determine the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value for monitoring lipid oxidation in fish fillets during cold storage at 4°C for 0, 2, 5, and 8 days. The PLSR calibration model was established with full spectral region between the spectral data extracted from the hyperspectral images and the reference TBA values and showed good performance for predicting TBA value with determination coefficients (R(2)P) of 0.8325 and root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1172 mg MDA/kg flesh. Two simplified PLSR and MLR models were built and compared using the selected ten most important wavelengths. The optimised MLR model yielded satisfactory results with R(2)P of 0.8395 and RMSEP of 0.1147 mg MDA/kg flesh, which was used to visualise the TBA values distribution in fish fillets. The whole results confirmed that using hyperspectral imaging technique as a rapid and non-destructive tool is suitable for the determination of TBA values for monitoring lipid oxidation and evaluation of fish freshness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid simulation of X-ray transmission imaging for baggage inspection via GPU-based ray-tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; Coccarelli, David S.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Vera, Esteban; Gehm, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    We present a pipeline that rapidly simulates X-ray transmission imaging for arbitrary system architectures using GPU-based ray-tracing techniques. The purpose of the pipeline is to enable statistical analysis of threat detection in the context of airline baggage inspection. As a faster alternative to Monte Carlo methods, we adopt a deterministic approach for simulating photoelectric absorption-based imaging. The highly-optimized NVIDIA OptiX API is used to implement ray-tracing, greatly speeding code execution. In addition, we implement the first hierarchical representation structure to determine the interaction path length of rays traversing heterogeneous media described by layered polygons. The accuracy of the pipeline has been validated by comparing simulated data with experimental data collected using a heterogenous phantom and a laboratory X-ray imaging system. On a single computer, our approach allows us to generate over 400 2D transmission projections (125 × 125 pixels per frame) per hour for a bag packed with hundreds of everyday objects. By implementing our approach on cloud-based GPU computing platforms, we find that the same 2D projections of approximately 3.9 million bags can be obtained in a single day using 400 GPU instances, at a cost of only 0.001 per bag.

  9. Optimizing the Attitude Control of Small Satellite Constellations for Rapid Response Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Given the increasingly accurate attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, small spacecraft now have the ability to slew and point within few minutes of notice. In spite of hardware development in CubeSats at the payload (e.g. NASA InVEST) and subsystems (e.g. Blue Canyon Technologies), software development for tradespace analysis in constellation design (e.g. Goddard's TAT-C), planning and scheduling development in single spacecraft (e.g. GEO-CAPE) and aerial flight path optimizations for UAVs (e.g. NASA Sensor Web), there is a gap in open-source, open-access software tools for planning and scheduling distributed satellite operations in terms of pointing and observing targets. This paper will demonstrate results from a tool being developed for scheduling pointing operations of narrow field-of-view (FOV) sensors over mission lifetime to maximize metrics such as global coverage and revisit statistics. Past research has shown the need for at least fourteen satellites to cover the Earth globally everyday using a LandSat-like sensor. Increasing the FOV three times reduces the need to four satellites, however adds image distortion and BRDF complexities to the observed reflectance. If narrow FOV sensors on a small satellite constellation were commanded using robust algorithms to slew their sensor dynamically, they would be able to coordinately cover the global landmass much faster without compensating for spatial resolution or BRDF effects. Our algorithm to optimize constellation satellite pointing is based on a dynamic programming approach under the constraints of orbital mechanics and existing attitude control systems for small satellites. As a case study for our algorithm, we minimize the time required to cover the 17000 Landsat images with maximum signal to noise ratio fall

  10. Rapid, semi-automatic fracture and contact mapping for point clouds, images and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Samuel T.; Grose, Lachlan; Samsu, Anindita; Micklethwaite, Steven; Vollgger, Stefan A.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of large digital datasets from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and satellite platforms now challenges our ability to extract information across multiple scales in a timely manner, often meaning that the full value of the data is not realised. Here we adapt a least-cost-path solver and specially tailored cost functions to rapidly interpolate structural features between manually defined control points in point cloud and raster datasets. We implement the method in the geographic information system QGIS and the point cloud and mesh processing software CloudCompare. Using these implementations, the method can be applied to a variety of three-dimensional (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) datasets, including high-resolution aerial imagery, digital outcrop models, digital elevation models (DEMs) and geophysical grids. We demonstrate the algorithm with four diverse applications in which we extract (1) joint and contact patterns in high-resolution orthophotographs, (2) fracture patterns in a dense 3-D point cloud, (3) earthquake surface ruptures of the Greendale Fault associated with the Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (New Zealand) from high-resolution light detection and ranging (lidar) data, and (4) oceanic fracture zones from bathymetric data of the North Atlantic. The approach improves the consistency of the interpretation process while retaining expert guidance and achieves significant improvements (35-65 %) in digitisation time compared to traditional methods. Furthermore, it opens up new possibilities for data synthesis and can quantify the agreement between datasets and an interpretation.

  11. Imaging metals in proteins by combining electrophoresis with rapid x-ray fluorescence mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, L.; Chishti, Y.; Khare, T.; Giometti, C.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.; Vogt, S.

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence points toward a very dynamic role for metals in biology. This suggests that physiological circumstance may mandate metal ion redistribution among ligands. This work addresses a critical need for technology that detects, identifies, and measures the metal-containing components of complex biological matrixes. We describe a direct, user-friendly approach for identifying and quantifying metal?protein adducts in complex samples using native- or SDS-PAGE, blotting, and rapid synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping with micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) of entire blots. The identification and quantification of each metal bound to a protein spot has been demonstrated, and the technique has been applied in two exemplary cases. In the first, the speciation of the in vitro binding of exogenous chromium to blood serum proteins was influenced markedly by both the oxidation state of chromium exposed to the serum proteins and the treatment conditions, which is of relevance to the biochemistry of Cr dietary supplements. In the second case, in vivo changes in endogenous metal speciation were examined to probe the influence of oxygen depletion on iron speciation in Shewanella oneidensis.

  12. MO-AB-BRA-08: Rapid Treatment Field Uniformity Optimization for Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy Using Cherenkov Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreozzi, J; Zhang, R; Glaser, A; Pogue, B; Jarvis, L; Williams, B; Gladstone, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment field heterogeneity resulting from gantry angle choice in total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) following a modified Stanford dual-field technique, and determine a relationship between source to surface distance (SSD) and optimized gantry angle spread. Methods: Cherenkov imaging was used to image 62 treatment fields on a sheet of 1.2m x 2.2m x 1.2cm polyethylene following standard TSEBT setup at our institution (6 MeV, 888 MU/min, no spoiler, SSD=441cm), where gantry angles spanned from 239.5° to 300.5° at 1° increments. Average Cherenkov intensity and coefficient of variation in the region of interest were compared for the set of composite Cherenkov images created by summing all unique combinations of angle pairs to simulate dual-field treatment. The angle pair which produced the lowest coefficient of variation was further studied using an ionization chamber. The experiment was repeated at SSD=300cm, and SSD=370.5cm. Cherenkov imaging was also implemented during TSEBT of three patients. Results: The most uniform treatment region from a symmetric angle spread was achieved using gantry angles +/−17.5° about the horizontal axis at SSD=441cm, +/−18.5° at SSD=370.5cm, and +/−19.5° at SSD=300cm. Ionization chamber measurements comparing the original treatment spread (+/−14.5°) and the optimized angle pair (+/−17.5°) at SSD=441cm showed no significant deviation (r=0.999) in percent depth dose curves, and chamber measurements from nine locations within the field showed an improvement in dose uniformity from 24.41% to 9.75%. Ionization chamber measurements correlated strongly (r=0.981) with Cherenkov intensity measured concurrently on the flat Plastic Water phantom. Patient images and TLD results also showed modest uniformity improvements. Conclusion: A decreasing linear relationship between optimal angle spread and SSD was observed. Cherenkov imaging offers a new method of rapidly analyzing and optimizing TSEBT setup

  13. Imaging investigation of metabolic and endocrine bone disease of vertebral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuezeng; Tian Xiali; Li Jingxue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To probe vertebral density of metabolic and endocrine bone disease imaging features, characterize the regional distribution of bone trabecular in sandwich spine. Methods: Thirty-six patients who had the bone density abnormality appearance in radiograms were collected in this study. Twelve patients with sandwich spine were performed lumbar CT scan. Thirty-two healthy volunteers as control group were performed lumbar CT scan too. CT values of two groups were measured from different portions of vertebral body, and then were analysed. Twenty two patients were performed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). One patient was performed bone histomorphometry. Results: Abnormal density included decreased and increased density. Decreased density was found in different portions of all patients, which divided into general and regional type. Increased density was obviously in vertebrae, including diffusely increased density and sandwich spine. The mean CT values of superior, middle and inferior portions of sandwich vertebral body were (259.94±18.08), (182.96±34.85), (270.34±19.40) HU. The mean CT values of both superior and inferior portions of sandwich vertebral body were higher than that of control group. The mean CT values of superior and inferior portions of sandwich spine were higher than that of middle portion. The difference of mean CT values between superior and inferior portions had no statistical significance. The difference of CT values among the regions of superior and inferior portions had no statistical significance (F=0.457, 0.462, P>0.05). The difference of CT values among the regions of middle portion had statistical significance(F=4.539, P<0.05). The DXA measurement of sandwich spine showed high, normal and low BMD. Conclusion: The sandwich spine is useful to measure superior and inferior portions of sandwich vertebral body if QCT would be performed. Sandwich spine sign can be used as an imaging index of state evaluation. Increased density in

  14. Fluorescence imaging of bombesin and transferrin receptor expression is comparable to 18F-FDG PET in early detection of sorafenib-induced changes in tumor metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Tseng

    Full Text Available Physical measurement of tumor volume reduction is the most commonly used approach to assess tumor progression and treatment efficacy in mouse tumor models. However, it is relatively insensitive, and often requires long treatment courses to achieve gross physical tumor destruction. As alternatives, several non-invasive imaging methods such as bioluminescence imaging (BLI, fluorescence imaging (FLI and positron emission tomography (PET have been developed for more accurate measurement. As tumors have elevated glucose metabolism, 18F-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG has become a sensitive PET imaging tracer for cancer detection, diagnosis, and efficacy assessment by measuring alterations in glucose metabolism. In particular, the ability of 18F-FDG imaging to detect drug-induced effects on tumor metabolism at a very early phase has dramatically improved the speed of decision-making regarding treatment efficacy. Here we demonstrated an approach with FLI that offers not only comparable performance to PET imaging, but also provides additional benefits, including ease of use, imaging throughput, probe stability, and the potential for multiplex imaging. In this report, we used sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor clinically approved for cancer therapy, for treatment of a mouse tumor xenograft model. The drug is known to block several key signaling pathways involved in tumor metabolism. We first identified an appropriate sorafenib dose, 40 mg/kg (daily on days 0-4 and 7-10, that retained ultimate therapeutic efficacy yet provided a 2-3 day window post-treatment for imaging early, subtle metabolic changes prior to gross tumor regression. We then used 18F-FDG PET as the gold standard for assessing the effects of sorafenib treatment on tumor metabolism and compared this to results obtained by measurement of tumor size, tumor BLI, and tumor FLI changes. PET imaging showed ~55-60% inhibition of tumor uptake of 18F-FDG as early as days 2 and 3 post-treatment, without

  15. Hyperpolarized 1-13C Pyruvate Imaging of Porcine Cardiac Metabolism shift by GIK Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling; Mikkelsen, Emmeli

    to evaluate the general feasibility to detect an imposed shift in metabolic substrate utilization during metabolic modulation with glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) infusion. This study demonstrates that hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate, in a large animal, is a feasible method for cardiac studies, and...

  16. Rapid and quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging with magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ouri; Huang, Shuning; McMahon, Michael T; Rosen, Matthew S; Farrar, Christian T

    2018-05-13

    To develop a fast magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) method for quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging. We implemented a CEST-MRF method to quantify the chemical exchange rate and volume fraction of the N α -amine protons of L-arginine (L-Arg) phantoms and the amide and semi-solid exchangeable protons of in vivo rat brain tissue. L-Arg phantoms were made with different concentrations (25-100 mM) and pH (pH 4-6). The MRF acquisition schedule varied the saturation power randomly for 30 iterations (phantom: 0-6 μT; in vivo: 0-4 μT) with a total acquisition time of ≤2 min. The signal trajectories were pattern-matched to a large dictionary of signal trajectories simulated using the Bloch-McConnell equations for different combinations of exchange rate, exchangeable proton volume fraction, and water T 1 and T 2 relaxation times. The chemical exchange rates of the N α -amine protons of L-Arg were significantly (P exchange using saturation power method. Similarly, the L-Arg concentrations determined using MRF were significantly (P exchange rate was well fit (R 2  = 0.9186) by a base catalyzed exchange model. The amide proton exchange rate measured in rat brain cortex (34.8 ± 11.7 Hz) was in good agreement with that measured previously with the water exchange spectroscopy method (28.6 ± 7.4 Hz). The semi-solid proton volume fraction was elevated in white (12.2 ± 1.7%) compared to gray (8.1 ± 1.1%) matter brain regions in agreement with previous magnetization transfer studies. CEST-MRF provides a method for fast, quantitative CEST imaging. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. A game-based crowdsourcing platform for rapidly training middle and high school students to perform biomedical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Woo, Min-jae; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Eunso; Ki, Sojung; Shao, Lei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    We developed an easy-to-use and widely accessible crowd-sourcing tool for rapidly training humans to perform biomedical image diagnostic tasks and demonstrated this platform's ability on middle and high school students in South Korea to diagnose malaria infected red-blood-cells (RBCs) using Giemsa-stained thin blood smears imaged under light microscopes. We previously used the same platform (i.e., BioGames) to crowd-source diagnostics of individual RBC images, marking them as malaria positive (infected), negative (uninfected), or questionable (insufficient information for a reliable diagnosis). Using a custom-developed statistical framework, we combined the diagnoses from both expert diagnosticians and the minimally trained human crowd to generate a gold standard library of malaria-infection labels for RBCs. Using this library of labels, we developed a web-based training and educational toolset that provides a quantified score for diagnosticians/users to compare their performance against their peers and view misdiagnosed cells. We have since demonstrated the ability of this platform to quickly train humans without prior training to reach high diagnostic accuracy as compared to expert diagnosticians. Our initial trial group of 55 middle and high school students has collectively played more than 170 hours, each demonstrating significant improvements after only 3 hours of training games, with diagnostic scores that match expert diagnosticians'. Next, through a national-scale educational outreach program in South Korea we recruited >1660 students who demonstrated a similar performance level after 5 hours of training. We plan to further demonstrate this tool's effectiveness for other diagnostic tasks involving image labeling and aim to provide an easily-accessible and quickly adaptable framework for online training of new diagnosticians.

  18. Technical note: Rapid image-based field methods improve the quantification of termite mound structures and greenhouse-gas fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Termite mounds (TMs mediate biogeochemical processes with global relevance, such as turnover of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4. However, the complex internal and external morphology of TMs impede an accurate quantitative description. Here we present two novel field methods, photogrammetry (PG and cross-sectional image analysis, to quantify TM external and internal mound structure of 29 TMs of three termite species. Photogrammetry was used to measure epigeal volume (VE, surface area (AE and mound basal area (AB by reconstructing 3-D models from digital photographs, and compared against a water-displacement method and the conventional approach of approximating TMs by simple geometric shapes. To describe TM internal structure, we introduce TM macro- and micro-porosity (θM and θμ, the volume fractions of macroscopic chambers, and microscopic pores in the wall material, respectively. Macro-porosity was estimated using image analysis of single TM cross sections, and compared against full X-ray computer tomography (CT scans of 17 TMs. For these TMs we present complete pore fractions to assess species-specific differences in internal structure. The PG method yielded VE nearly identical to a water-displacement method, while approximation of TMs by simple geometric shapes led to errors of 4–200 %. Likewise, using PG substantially improved the accuracy of CH4 emission estimates by 10–50 %. Comprehensive CT scanning revealed that investigated TMs have species-specific ranges of θM and θμ, but similar total porosity. Image analysis of single TM cross sections produced good estimates of θM for species with thick walls and evenly distributed chambers. The new image-based methods allow rapid and accurate quantitative characterisation of TMs to answer ecological, physiological and biogeochemical questions. The PG method should be applied when measuring greenhouse-gas emissions from TMs to avoid large errors from inadequate shape

  19. Acute renal metabolic effect of metformin treatment assessed with hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Haiyun; Nielsen, Per Mose; Schroeder, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is the primary anti-diabetic drug in type-2 diabetes patients. However, controversy exists on its use in patients with renal impairment. Here we investigated the acute metabolic effects of metformin treatment in rat kidneys, with hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate and Clark......-electrodes. A significantly altered metabolic phenotype was observed 30 min post metformin treatment. Anaerobic metabolism was elevated in the cytosol, indicated by increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, and mitochondrial aerobic metabolism was reduced, indicated by decreased bicarbonate/pyruvate ratio. Acute metformin treatment...... increased renal blood flow with higher O2 saturation and did not change tubular O2 consumption. These results indicate that metformin reduces mitochondrial respiration and enhances anaerobic metabolism, even with enough oxygen supply, within only 30 min of treatment....

  20. Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Chandris, Panagiotis; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Bao, Zhirong; McAuliffe, Matthew; Rondeau, Gary; Shroff, Hari

    2015-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a compact dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscope (diSPIM) for time-lapse volumetric (4D) imaging of living samples at subcellular resolution. Our protocol enables a biologist with some prior microscopy experience to assemble a diSPIM from commercially available parts, to align optics and test system performance, to prepare samples, and to control hardware and data processing with our software. Unlike existing light sheet microscopy protocols, our method does not require the sample to be embedded in agarose; instead, samples are prepared conventionally on glass coverslips. Tissue culture cells and Caenorhabditis elegans embryos are used as examples in this protocol; successful implementation of the protocol results in isotropic resolution and acquisition speeds up to several volumes per s on these samples. Assembling and verifying diSPIM performance takes ~6 d, sample preparation and data acquisition take up to 5 d and postprocessing takes 3–8 h, depending on the size of the data. PMID:25299154

  1. Fluorescence Imaging and Streamline Visualization of Hypersonic Flow over Rapid Prototype Wind-Tunnel Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Berger, Karen T.; Buck, Gregory M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Reentry models for use in hypersonic wind tunnel tests were fabricated using a stereolithography apparatus. These models were produced in one day or less, which is a significant time savings compared to the manufacture of ceramic or metal models. The models were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel. Only a few of the models survived repeated tests in the tunnel, and several failure modes of the models were identified. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide (NO) was used to visualize the flowfields in the wakes of these models. Pure NO was either seeded through tubes plumbed into the model or via a tube attached to the strut holding the model, which provided localized addition of NO into the model s wake through a porous metal cylinder attached to the end of the tube. Models included several 2- inch diameter Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) models and 5-inch diameter Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) models. Various model configurations and NO seeding methods were used, including a new streamwise visualization method based on PLIF. Virtual Diagnostics Interface (ViDI) technology, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, was used to visualize the data sets in post processing. The use of calibration "dotcards" was investigated to correct for camera perspective and lens distortions in the PLIF images.

  2. A high-performance gradient insert for rapid and short-T2 imaging at full duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiger, Markus; Overweg, Johan; Rösler, Manuela Barbara; Froidevaux, Romain; Hennel, Franciszek; Wilm, Bertram Jakob; Penn, Alexander; Sturzenegger, Urs; Schuth, Wout; Mathlener, Menno; Borgo, Martino; Börnert, Peter; Leussler, Christoph; Luechinger, Roger; Dietrich, Benjamin Emanuel; Reber, Jonas; Brunner, David Otto; Schmid, Thomas; Vionnet, Laetitia; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this study was to devise a gradient system for MRI in humans that reconciles cutting-edge gradient strength with rapid switching and brings up the duty cycle to 100% at full continuous amplitude. Aiming to advance neuroimaging and short-T 2 techniques, the hardware design focused on the head and the extremities as target anatomies. A boundary element method with minimization of power dissipation and stored magnetic energy was used to design anatomy-targeted gradient coils with maximally relaxed geometry constraints. The design relies on hollow conductors for high-performance cooling and split coils to enable dual-mode gradient amplifier operation. With this approach, strength and slew rate specifications of either 100 mT/m with 1200 mT/m/ms or 200 mT/m with 600 mT/m/ms were reached at 100% duty cycle, assuming a standard gradient amplifier and cooling unit. After manufacturing, the specified values for maximum gradient strength, maximum switching rate, and field geometry were verified experimentally. In temperature measurements, maximum local values of 63°C were observed, confirming that the device can be operated continuously at full amplitude. Testing for peripheral nerve stimulation showed nearly unrestricted applicability in humans at full gradient performance. In measurements of acoustic noise, a maximum average sound pressure level of 132 dB(A) was determined. In vivo capability was demonstrated by head and knee imaging. Full gradient performance was employed with echo planar and zero echo time readouts. Combining extreme gradient strength and switching speed without duty cycle limitations, the described system offers unprecedented options for rapid and short-T 2 imaging. Magn Reson Med 79:3256-3266, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Integrating Remote Sensing Data, Hybrid-Cloud Computing, and Event Notifications for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Agram, P.; Manipon, G.; Stough, T. M.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilson, B. D.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.; Cruz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are now important elements in our toolset for monitoring earthquake-generating faults, volcanic eruptions, hurricane damage, landslides, reservoir subsidence, and other natural and man-made hazards. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation with high spatial and temporal resolution has revolutionized both earthquake science and volcanology. Continuous monitoring of surface deformation and surface change before, during, and after natural hazards improves decision-making from better forecasts, increased situational awareness, and more informed recovery. However, analyses of InSAR and GPS data sets are currently handcrafted following events and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for use in operational response to natural disasters. Additionally, the sheer data volumes needed to handle a continuous stream of InSAR data sets also presents a bottleneck. It has been estimated that continuous processing of InSAR coverage of California alone over 3-years would reach PB-scale data volumes. Our Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Monitoring Hazards (ARIA-MH) science data system enables both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interest with derived geodetic data products via seamless data preparation, processing, discovery, and access. We will present our findings on the use of hybrid-cloud computing to improve the timely processing and delivery of geodetic data products, integrating event notifications from USGS to improve the timely processing for response, as well as providing browse results for quick looks with other tools for integrative analysis.

  4. Catch-up growth following fetal growth restriction promotes rapid restoration of fat mass but without metabolic consequences at one year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beltrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR followed by rapid weight gain during early life has been suggested to be the initial sequence promoting central adiposity and insulin resistance. However, the link between fetal and early postnatal growth and the associated anthropometric and metabolic changes have been poorly studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the first year of post-natal life, changes in body mass index, skinfold thickness and hormonal concentrations were prospectively monitored in 94 infants in whom the fetal growth velocity had previously been measured using a repeated standardized procedure of ultrasound fetal measurements. 45 infants, thinner at birth, had experienced previous FGR (FGR+ regardless of birth weight. Growth pattern in the first four months of life was characterized by greater change in BMI z-score in FGR+ (+1.26+/-1.2 vs +0.58 +/-1.17 SD in FGR- resulting in the restoration of BMI and of fat mass to values similar to FGR-, independently of caloric intakes. Growth velocity after 4 months was similar and BMI z-score and fat mass remained similar at 12 months of age. At both time-points, fetal growth velocity was an independent predictor of fat mass in FGR+. At one year, fasting insulin levels were not different but leptin was significantly higher in the FGR+ (4.43+/-1.41 vs 2.63+/-1 ng/ml in FGR-. CONCLUSION: Early catch-up growth is related to the fetal growth pattern itself, irrespective of birth weight, and is associated with higher insulin sensitivity and lower leptin levels after birth. Catch-up growth promotes the restoration of body size and fat stores without detrimental consequences at one year of age on body composition or metabolic profile. The higher leptin concentration at one year may reflect a positive energy balance in children who previously faced fetal growth restriction.

  5. Nanobodies: site-specific labeling for super-resolution imaging, rapid epitope-mapping and native protein complex isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Tino; Bates, Mark; Trakhanov, Sergei; Lee, Chung-Tien; Schliep, Jan Erik; Chug, Hema; Böhning, Marc; Stark, Holger; Urlaub, Henning; Görlich, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Nanobodies are single-domain antibodies of camelid origin. We generated nanobodies against the vertebrate nuclear pore complex (NPC) and used them in STORM imaging to locate individual NPC proteins with nanobody sequence and labeled the resulting proteins with fluorophore-maleimides. As nanobodies are normally stabilized by disulfide-bonded cysteines, this appears counterintuitive. Yet, our analysis showed that this caused no folding problems. Compared to traditional NHS ester-labeling of lysines, the cysteine-maleimide strategy resulted in far less background in fluorescence imaging, it better preserved epitope recognition and it is site-specific. We also devised a rapid epitope-mapping strategy, which relies on crosslinking mass spectrometry and the introduced ectopic cysteines. Finally, we used different anti-nucleoporin nanobodies to purify the major NPC building blocks – each in a single step, with native elution and, as demonstrated, in excellent quality for structural analysis by electron microscopy. The presented strategies are applicable to any nanobody and nanobody-target. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11349.001 PMID:26633879

  6. Characterization of Diesel and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine using OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sundar Rajan; Srinivasan, Kalyan Kumar; Stegmeir, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Direct-injection compression ignition combustion of diesel and gasoline were studied in a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM) using high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The RCEM (bore = 84 mm, stroke = 110-250 mm) was used to simulate engine-like operating conditions at the start of fuel injection. The fuels were supplied by a high-pressure fuel cart with an air-over-fuel pressure amplification system capable of providing fuel injection pressures up to 2000 bar. A production diesel fuel injector was modified to provide a single fuel spray for both diesel and gasoline operation. Time-resolved combustion pressure in the RCEM was measured using a Kistler piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted on the cylinder head and the instantaneous piston displacement was measured using an inductive linear displacement sensor (0.05 mm resolution). Time-resolved, line-of-sight OH* chemiluminescence images were obtained using a Phantom V611 CMOS camera (20.9 kHz @ 512 x 512 pixel resolution, ~ 48 μs time resolution) coupled with a short wave pass filter (cut-off ~ 348 nm). The instantaneous OH* distributions, which indicate high temperature flame regions within the combustion chamber, were used to discern the characteristic differences between diesel and gasoline compression ignition combustion. The authors gratefully acknowledge facilities support for the present work from the Energy Institute at Mississippi State University.

  7. Rapid Measurements of Aerosol Size Distribution and Hygroscopic Growth via Image Processing with a Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pinterich, T.; Spielman, S. R.; Hering, S. V.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity are among key parameters in determining the impact of atmospheric aerosols on global radiation and climate change. In situ submicron aerosol size distribution measurements commonly involve a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The SMPS scanning time is in the scale of minutes, which is often too slow to capture the variation of aerosol size distribution, such as for aerosols formed via nucleation processes or measurements onboard research aircraft. To solve this problem, a Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS) based on image processing was developed for rapid measurements of aerosol size distributions from 10 to 500 nm. The FIMS consists of a parallel plate classifier, a condenser, and a CCD detector array. Inside the classifier an electric field separates charged aerosols based on electrical mobilities. Upon exiting the classifier, the aerosols pass through a three stage growth channel (Pinterich et al. 2017; Spielman et al. 2017), where aerosols as small as 7 nm are enlarged to above 1 μm through water or heptanol condensation. Finally, the grown aerosols are illuminated by a laser sheet and imaged onto a CCD array. The images provide both aerosol concentration and position, which directly relate to the aerosol size distribution. By this simultaneous measurement of aerosols with different sizes, the FIMS provides aerosol size spectra nearly 100 times faster than the SMPS. Recent deployment onboard research aircraft demonstrated that the FIMS is capable of measuring aerosol size distributions in 1s (Figure), thereby offering a great advantage in applications requiring high time resolution (Wang et al. 2016). In addition, the coupling of the FIMS with other conventional aerosol instruments provides orders of magnitude more rapid characterization of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. For example, the combination of a differential mobility analyzer, a relative humidity control unit, and a FIMS was

  8. Heterogeneity of Glucose Metabolism in Esophageal Cancer Measured by Fractal Analysis of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Image: Correlation between Metabolic Heterogeneity and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochigi, Toru; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Kono, Tsuguaki; Ohira, Gaku; Tohma, Takayuki; Gunji, Hisashi; Hayano, Koichi; Narushima, Kazuo; Fujishiro, Takeshi; Hanaoka, Toshiharu; Akutsu, Yasunori; Okazumi, Shinichi; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is a well-recognized characteristic feature of cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the heterogeneity of the intratumoral glucose metabolism using fractal analysis, and evaluate its prognostic value in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies of 79 patients who received curative surgery were evaluated. FDG-PET images were analyzed using fractal analysis software, where differential box-counting method was employed to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) of the tumor lesion. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and FD were compared with overall survival (OS). The median SUVmax and FD of ESCCs in this cohort were 13.8 and 1.95, respectively. In univariate analysis performed using Cox's proportional hazard model, T stage and FD showed significant associations with OS (p = 0.04, p heterogeneity measured by fractal analysis can be a novel imaging biomarker for survival in patients with ESCC. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Three-dimensional portal image-based dose reconstruction in a virtual phantom for rapid evaluation of IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansbacher, W.

    2006-01-01

    A new method for rapid evaluation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans has been developed, using portal images for reconstruction of the dose delivered to a virtual three-dimensional (3D) phantom. This technique can replace an array of less complete but more time-consuming measurements. A reference dose calculation is first created by transferring an IMRT plan to a cylindrical phantom, retaining the treatment gantry angles. The isocenter of the fields is placed on or near the phantom axis. This geometry preserves the relative locations of high and low dose regions and has the required symmetry for the dose reconstruction. An electronic portal image (EPI) is acquired for each field, representing the dose in the midplane of a virtual phantom. The image is convolved with a kernel to correct for the lack of scatter, replicating the effect of the cylindrical phantom surrounding the dose plane. This avoids the need to calculate fluence. Images are calibrated to a reference field that delivers a known dose to the isocenter of this phantom. The 3D dose matrix is reconstructed by attenuation and divergence corrections and summed to create a dose matrix (PI-dose) on the same grid spacing as the reference calculation. Comparison of the two distributions is performed with a gradient-weighted 3D dose difference based on dose and position tolerances. Because of its inherent simplicity, the technique is optimally suited for detecting clinically significant variances from a planned dose distribution, rather than for use in the validation of IMRT algorithms. An analysis of differences between PI-dose and calculation, δ PI , compared to differences between conventional quality assurance (QA) and calculation, δ CQ , was performed retrospectively for 20 clinical IMRT cases. PI-dose differences at the isocenter were in good agreement with ionization chamber differences (mean δ PI =-0.8%, standard deviation σ=1.5%, against δ CQ =0.3%, σ=1.0%, respectively). PI

  10. Time series changes of MR/PET image of brain glucose metabolism in healthy subjects and alzheimer disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarusawa, Ayaka; Nihei, Mitsuyo; Tanaka, Mika; Fukami, Tadanori; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Wu, Jin; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Combination of morphological information by MRI and functional one by positron emission tomography (PET) was applied to quantitative evaluation of brain regional glucose metabolism in healthy subjects (HS) and Alzheimer disease patients (AD) and their individual aging changes were elucidated for ultimate purpose of computer-aided diagnosis. Subjects were: 5 AD patients (3M/2F, av. age 77.27 y), 14 ε4-carrying HS (EHS, 4M/10F, 71.3y) and 24 non-ε4-carrying HS (NEHS, 4M/20F, 70.21), where ε4 (apolipoprotein E type 4 gene allele)-carrying HS were reported to be prone to early AD and to tend to give increased brain atrophy incidence. Acquisitions of T1-weighted 3D MR and PET images were in 256 x 256 x(88-104) and x (90-100) voxels, respectively, with digitization level 16 bits, and were repeated 3 times in the time series of 21-38 months. Segmentation was performed with the MR imaging software SPM8 (Statistic Parametric Mapping: Metalab) to specify the regions of white/gray matters and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The binary MR and registered PET images were fused for comparison of glucose metabolism by SUVs (standardized uptake values) in gray matter of the three subject groups. Findings were: SUV in AD was markedly reduced; average time series changes per year were 0.11% in AD, -2.63% in EHS and 1.48% in NEHS; and statistical significance of the changes was between AD and NEHS, and between EHS and NEHS. Glucose metabolism by MR/PET can be thus used for a distinction of ε4-carrier and non-carrier in HS. (T.T.)

  11. Thermospheric winds in the auroral oval: observations of small scale structures and rapid fluctuations by a Doppler imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, S.; Rees, D.

    1990-01-01

    At high geomagnetic latitudes, thermospheric wind flows are dramatically affected by the combined effects of magnetospheric ion convection and Joule and particle heating. Thermospheric winds have been observed by ground based and space-borne Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs). Short period, localized wind fluctuations have always been difficult to resolve with a conventional FPI, due to the limited time and spatial resolution. However, the highest quality wind data obtained by these instruments from the middle and upper thermosphere have implied that thermospheric winds may respond to the combination of strong local ion drag forcing and heating within the auroral oval and polar cap, with spatial scale sizes of 50-500 km, and with time scales as short as 10-30 min. Since the 1982/1983 winter, a prototype Doppler Imaging System (DIS) has been operated at Kiruna (67.84 0 N, 20.42 0 E). This instrument maps thermospheric wind flows over a region some 500 km in diameter centred on Kiruna and has observed many interesting features in the thermospheric wind fields. In particular, strong local wind gradients, rapid wind reversals and small scale structures are regularly observed, particularly during geomagnetically disturbed nights. (author)

  12. The Relation of Rapid Changes in Obesity Measures to Lipid Profile - Insights from a Nationwide Metabolic Health Survey in 444 Polish Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Bernhard M.; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Nelson, Christopher P.; Lukas, Witold; Mastej, Mirosław; Windak, Adam; Tomasik, Tomasz; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Tykarski, Andrzej; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Ślęzak-Prochazka, Izabella; Ślęzak, Andrzej; Charchar, Fadi J.; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, John R.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of fast changes in obesity indices on other measures of metabolic health is poorly defined in the general population. Using the Polish accession to the European Union as a model of political and social transformation we examined how an expected rapid increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference relates to changes in lipid profile, both at the population and personal level. Methods Through primary care centres in 444 Polish cities, two cross-sectional nationwide population-based surveys (LIPIDOGRAM 2004 and LIPIDOGRAM 2006) examined 15,404 and 15,453 adult individuals in 2004 and 2006, respectively. A separate prospective sample of 1,840 individuals recruited in 2004 had a follow-up in 2006 (LIPIDOGRAM PLUS). Results Two years after Polish accession to European Union, mean population BMI and waist circumference increased by 0.6% and 0.9%, respectively. This tracked with a 7.6% drop in HDL-cholesterol and a 2.1% increase in triglycerides (all p<0.001) nationwide. The direction and magnitude of the population changes were replicated at the personal level in LIPIDOGRAM PLUS (0.7%, 0.3%, 8.6% and 1.8%, respectively). However, increases in BMI and waist circumference were both only weakly associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides changes prospectively. The relation of BMI to the magnitude of change in both lipid fractions was comparable to that of waist circumference. Conclusions Moderate changes in obesity measures tracked with a significant deterioration in measures of pro-atherogenic dyslipidaemia at both personal and population level. These associations were predominantly driven by factors not measureable directly through either BMI or waist circumference. PMID:24497983

  13. Amyloid and metabolic positron emission tomography imaging of cognitively normal adults with Alzheimer's parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosconi, Lisa; Rinne, Juha O; Tsui, Wai H

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between fibrillar beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and reduced glucose metabolism, a proxy for neuronal dysfunction, in cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a parent affected by late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty-seven 40-80-year-old NL received positr...

  14. PET-imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism during sleep and dreaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W.D.; Pawlik, G.; Herholz, K.; Wagner, R.; Wienhard, K.

    1985-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of ( 18 F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) affording non-invasive repeatable quantification of local cerebral glucose utilization was employed to determine possible differential effects of sleep, with and without dreaming, on regional brain metabolism of normal volunteers also measured during wakefulness. (author). 7 refs.; 1 tab

  15. Analysis of glucose metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus by using functional images derived from 18F-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Tohru; Yokoyama, Ikuo; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kosaka, Noboru; Momose, Toshimitsu; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Serizawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1993-01-01

    Functional images of K complex (KC) and regional myocardial glucose utilization rates (rMGU), derived from F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (F-18-FDG) positron emission computed tomography, were prepared. Using functional images obtained, myocardial glucose metabolism was examined in the fasting state, oral glucose loading (OG), and insulin clamp (IC) condition. The subjects were 10 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), consisting of 8 with non-insulin dependent DM and 2 with insulin dependent DM, and 4 normal persons. Image quality, derived from both OG and IC approaches, was favorable in the normal group. In the groups of non-insulin dependent DM and insulin dependent DM patients, however, image quality was good with IC method but not with OG method. In the group of non-insulin dependent DM, rMGU derived by IC method was relatively high, but was significantly lower than that in the control group, suggesting a decreased function in glucose transporter. When using OG method, rMGU was even more decreased due to high blood sugar and low insulin. In the group of insulin dependent DM, both IC and OG approaches achieved the same rMGU as that in the control group, with the exception of KC derived by OG method that was decreased due to high blood sugar. In moderate or severe DM, myocardial viability seems to be difficult to evaluate because F-18-FDG uptake is decreased in the ischemic area associated with fasting high blood sugar. Mismatching between blood flow and metabolism is also difficult to detect due to high insulin or glucose load. Thus, myocardial viability should be evaluated in the condition of slightly loaded insulin by decreasing blood sugar. (N.K.)

  16. Diagnostic value of a new myocardial perfusion agent, teboroxime (SO 30,217), utilizing a rapid planar imaging protocol: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendel, R.C.; McSherry, B.; Karimeddini, M.; Leppo, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled agents have advantages over thallium-201 in terms of photon statistics, cost and clinical availability. They have been suggested as an alternative to thallium for myocardial perfusion imaging. Teboroxime is a new boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime (BATO) compound that demonstrates favorable characteristics in preliminary studies. With use of a novel (seated) patient positioning technique and a rapid dynamic acquisition protocol, 30 patients underwent planar imaging with teboroxoime while at rest and after maximal treadmill exercise. Postexercise scans were completed in an average time (mean +/- SD) of 4.4 +/- 1.6 min, with 4.8 +/- 1.5 min for the views at rest. These results were compared with coronary arteriography or thallium scintigraphy after treadmill exercise, or both. Diagnostic agreement (abnormal versus normal) was present in 28 of the 30 patients (p less than 0.001). Regarding physiologic assessment as compared with thallium scintigraphy, the finding of infarction and ischemia was concordant in 89% and 86% of patients, respectively. This report describes the initial use of teboroxime with a rapid dynamic planar imaging technique, resulting in a high correlation with exercise thallium scintigraphy. Delayed postexercise images obtained 5 to 10 min after exercise demonstrated rapid disappearance of exercise-induced defects noted on the initial (0 to 5 min) postexercise views. The rapid differential washout with teboroxime has not been previously described and the possible clinical significance is discussed

  17. In Vivo Metabolic Trapping Radiotracers for Imaging Monoamine Oxidase-A and –B Enzymatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Allen F.; Shao, Xia; Quesada, Carole A.; Sherman, Phillip; Scott, Peter J.H.; Kilbourn, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    The isozymes of monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) are important enzymes involved in the metabolism of numerous biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. Recently, changes in concentrations of MAO-B have been proposed as an in vivo marker of neuroinflammation associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Previous developments of in vivo radiotracers for imaging changes in MAO enzyme expression or activity have utilized the irreversible propargylamine-based suicide inhibitors, or high-affinity reversibly-binding inhibitors. As an alternative approach, we have investigated 1-[11C]methyl-4-aryloxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines as metabolic trapping agents for the monoamine oxidases. MAO-mediated oxidation and spontaneous hydrolysis yields 1-[11C]methyl-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridinone as a hydrophilic metabolite that is trapped within brain tissues. Radiotracers with phenyl, biphenyl and 7-coumarinyl ethers were evaluated using microPET imaging in rat and primate brain. No isozyme selectivity for radiotracer trapping was observed in the rat brain for any compound, but in the monkey brain the phenyl ether demonstrated MAO-A selectivity, and the coumarinyl ether showed MAO-B selectivity. These are lead compounds for further development of 1-[11C]methyl-4-aryloxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines with optimized brain pharmacokinetics and isozyme selectivity. PMID:26393369

  18. Noninvasive imaging of intracellular lipid metabolism in macrophages by Raman microscopy in combination with stable isotopic labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Brehm, Bernhard R; Lorkowski, Stefan; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-10-16

    Monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis because their transformation into foam cells is responsible for deposition of lipids in plaques within arterial walls. The appearance of cytosolic lipid droplets is a hallmark of macrophage foam cell formation, and the molecular basics involved in this process are not well understood. Of particular interest is the intracellular fate of different individual lipid species, such as fatty acids or cholesterol. Here, we utilize Raman microscopy to image the metabolism of such lipids and to trace their subsequent storage patterns. The combination of microscopic information with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful molecular imaging method, which allows visualization at the diffraction limit of the employed laser light and biochemical characterization through associated spectral information. In order to distinguish the molecules of interest from other naturally occurring lipids spectroscopically, deuterium labels were introduced. Intracellular distribution and metabolic changes were observed for serum albumin-complexed palmitic and oleic acid and cholesterol and quantitatively evaluated by monitoring the increase in CD scattering intensities at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 24, 30, and 36 h. This approach may also allow for investigating the cellular trafficking of other molecules, such as nutrients, metabolites, and drugs.

  19. Metabolic Mapping of Breast Cancer with Multiphoton Spectral and Lifetime Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    2002. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Appl. Spec- trosc. 56 :155-166. 38. Becker, W., A. Bergmann, E. Haustein , Z...photon fluores- cence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing. J. Microsc. 185 :339-353. 45. Lin, H.J., P. Herman , and

  20. The preliminary study of the blood perfusion and ammonia metabolism of pituitary using dynamic 13N-NH3 PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; Tang Anwu; Qiao Suixian; Chen Liguang; Luo Yaowu; Liu Bin; Xu Weiping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily study the blood perfusion and ammonia metabolism of pituitary using dynamic 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging. Methods: 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging was performed on 21 subjects without pituitary diseases, 6 of them underwent dynamic PET imaging, and 8 of them underwent brain MRI in addition to PET. PET images were registered with MRI. Results: The pituitary could be clearly seen in 13 N-NH 3 PET images, and being confirmed by PET/MRI image fusion. The size of pituitary was (1.07 +- 0.17) cm x (1.09 +- 0.15) cm x (1.14 +- 0.17) cm, the standard uptake value (SUV) was 3.84 +- 1.75, and the radioactivity ratio of pituitary to thalamus was 1.35 +- 0.63. Pituitary image was seen at 10 s after the internal carotid was seen in dynamic 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging. 13 N-NH 3 was retained in pituitary, and was hardly cleaned out within 20 min. The radioactivity ratio of pituitary to internal carotid was 0.75 +- 0.13 when the radioactivity of internal carotid was at its highest level. Conclusions: The blood flow and ammonia metabolism of pituitary can be observed with dynamic 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging. Ammonia is highly extracted by pituitary, and metabolized in pituitary cells

  1. Digital still images from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images taken during CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes images of substrate type and species....

  2. Evaluation of the metabolism in rat hearts of two new radioiodinated 3-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, K R; Owen, B A; Goodman, M M; Knapp, Jr, F F

    1987-01-01

    The biological fate of two new radioiodinated 3-methyl-branched fatty acids has been evaluated in rat hearts following intravenous administration. Methyl-branching was introduced in (15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) to inhibit ..beta..-oxidation. The goals of these studies were to correlate the effects of methyl-branching on the incorporation of these agents into the various fatty acid pools and subcellular distribution profiles, and to relate these data to the myocardial retention properties. The properties of BMIPP and DMIPP were compared with the 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid straight-chain analogue (IPP). Differences in the heart retention of the analogues after intravenous administration in rats correlated with differences observed in subcellular distribution patterns. The dimethyl DMIPP analogue showed the longest retention and the highest association with the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions (34%, 38%) 30 min after injection. These data are in contrast to the rapid clearance of the straight-chain IPP analogue which showed much lower relative association with the mitochondria and microsomes (18%, 15%). The distribution patterns of each analogue in the various lipid pools appeared consistent with the expected capacity of the analogues to be metabolized by ..beta..-oxidation. In contrast to the rapid oxidation of the straight-chain IPP analogue, the 3-monomethyl BMIPP analogue appeared to undergo slower oxidation and clearance, whereas the dimethyl-branched DMIPP analogue was apparatently not catabolized by the myocardium. All three analogues showed some incorporation into triglycerides. The metabolism patterns of the branched analogues reported here may provide useful information in the description of the mechanisms by which BMIPP and DMIPP are retained in rat myocardium.

  3. New layer-based imaging and rapid prototyping techniques for computer-aided design and manufacture of custom dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M-Y; Chang, C-C; Ku, Y C

    2008-01-01

    Fixed dental restoration by conventional methods greatly relies on the skill and experience of the dental technician. The quality and accuracy of the final product depends mostly on the technician's subjective judgment. In addition, the traditional manual operation involves many complex procedures, and is a time-consuming and labour-intensive job. Most importantly, no quantitative design and manufacturing information is preserved for future retrieval. In this paper, a new device for scanning the dental profile and reconstructing 3D digital information of a dental model based on a layer-based imaging technique, called abrasive computer tomography (ACT) was designed in-house and proposed for the design of custom dental restoration. The fixed partial dental restoration was then produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and computer numerical control (CNC) machining methods based on the ACT scanned digital information. A force feedback sculptor (FreeForm system, Sensible Technologies, Inc., Cambridge MA, USA), which comprises 3D Touch technology, was applied to modify the morphology and design of the fixed dental restoration. In addition, a comparison of conventional manual operation and digital manufacture using both RP and CNC machining technologies for fixed dental restoration production is presented. Finally, a digital custom fixed restoration manufacturing protocol integrating proposed layer-based dental profile scanning, computer-aided design, 3D force feedback feature modification and advanced fixed restoration manufacturing techniques is illustrated. The proposed method provides solid evidence that computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies may become a new avenue for custom-made fixed restoration design, analysis, and production in the 21st century.

  4. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of PVP-coated ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahdatkhah, Parisa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaah Hosseini, Hamid Reza, E-mail: Madaah@sharif.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodaei, Azin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazerabadi, Ali Reza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Irajirad, Rasoul [Biomolecular Image Analysis Group, Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oghabian, Mohamad Ali [Biomolecular Image Analysis Group, Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Delavari, Hamid H., E-mail: Hamid.delavari@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, PO Box 14115-143 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-12

    Highlights: • A rapid microwave-assisted polyol process used to synthesize Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. • In situ surface modification of ultrasmall Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs with PVP has been performed. • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs shows considerable increasing of relaxivity in comparison to Gd-chelates. • PVP-covered Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs show appropriate stability for approximately 15 days. • Spectrophotometric indicates the leaching of free Gd ions not occurred versus time. - Abstract: Synthesis of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated ultrasmall Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) with enhanced T{sub 1}-weighted signal intensity and r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} ratio close to unity is performed by a microwave-assisted polyol process. PVP coated Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs with spherical shape and uniform size of 2.5 ± 0.5 nm have been synthesized below 5 min and structure and morphology confirmed by HRTEM, XRD and FTIR. The longitudinal (r{sub 1}) and transversal relaxation (r{sub 2}) of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs is measured by a 3 T MRI scanner. The results showed considerable increasing of relaxivity for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs in comparison to gadolinium chelates which are commonly used for clinical magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, a mechanism for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs formation and in situ surface modification of PVP-grafted Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs is proposed.

  5. Study on microstructure of corpus striatum in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder using magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-meng ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the structure of corpus striatum and the integrity of white matter fiber in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD.  Methods Twelve patients with iRBD, 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy subjects that were well matched in gender, age and education were enrolled in this study. Head MRI examination was performed to all subjects to observe the changes of corpus striatum structure (the gray matter volume and the integrity of white matter fiber [fractional anisotropy (FA] by combining voxel?based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI.  Results Compared with healthy subjects, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus was significantly decreased (P < 0.005, and FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.005, right caudate nucleus (P < 0.001 and right putamen (P < 0.05 were all significantly reduced in iRBD patients; FA value of right putamen was significantly decreased in PD patients (P < 0.05. Compared with PD patients, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus of iRBD patients was significantly reduced (P < 0.001, FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.01 and right caudate nucleus (P < 0.005 of iRBD patients were significantly reduced.  Conclusions There is atrophy of gray matter volume and extensive white matter fiber impairment in corpus striatum of patients with iRBD, and the white matter fiber impairment was similar to PD, which provides an anatomical evidence for iRBD being presymptom of PD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.008

  6. Rapid immuno-analytical system physically integrated with lens-free CMOS image sensor for food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Mook; Lee, Won-Ho; Lee, Do-Young; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2014-02-15

    To realize an inexpensive, pocket-sized immunosensor system, a rapid test devise based on cross-flow immuno-chromatography was physically combined with a lens-free CMOS image sensor (CIS), which was then applied to the detection of the food-borne pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). Two CISs, each retaining 1.3 mega pixel array, were mounted on a printed circuit board to fabricate a disposable sensing module, being connectable with a signal detection system. For the bacterial analysis, a cellulose membrane-based immunosensing platform, ELISA-on-a-chip (EOC), was employed, being integrated with the CIS module, and the antigen-antibody reaction sites were aligned with the respective sensor. In such sensor construction, the chemiluminescent signals produced from the EOC are transferred directly into the sensors and are converted to electric signals on the detector. The EOC-CIS integrated sensor was capable of detecting a traceable amount of the bacterium (4.22 × 10(3)CFU/mL), nearly comparable to that adopting a sophisticated detector such as cooled-charge-coupled device, while having greatly reduced dimensions and cost. Upon coupling with immuno-magnetic separation, the sensor showed an additional 67-fold enhancement in the detection limit. Furthermore, a real sample test was carried out for fish muscles inoculated with a sample of 3.3CFU S. typhimurium per 10 g, which was able to be detected earlier than 6h after the onset of pre-enrichment by culture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P < 0.05). In contrast, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was ∼64% higher (P < 0.001) after isomaltulose ingestion, which results in an increased insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P < 0.001) compared with sucrose. The cumulative amount of systemic glucose appearance was ∼35% lower after isomaltulose than after sucrose (P = 0.003) because of the reduction in orally derived and endogenously produced glucose and a higher first-pass splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU). Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  8. Metabolic Mapping of Breast Cancer with Multiphoton Spectral and Lifetime Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    measurement of autofluorescence. A method to detect metabolic changes in the fundus]," Ophthalmologe 99(10), 774-779 (2002) 23. P. J. Tadrous, J...University of Wisconsin animal use and care commit- tee approved this study. Breeding pairs of Col1a1tmJae mice [26] in the B6/129 background were obtained...Biomedical Optics May/June 2008 Vol. 133031220-1 the most prevalent cancer among women. 1 Therefore, tech- nologies to detect, classify, study, and

  9. Imaging microbial metal metabolism in situ under conditions of the deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, P. M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

    2006-12-01

    High-pressure biotopes are the most widely spread biotopes on Earth. They represent one possible location for the origin of life. They also share striking similarities with extraterrestrial biotopes such as those postulated for Europe or Mars. In absence of light, dissimilatory reduction of metals (DMR) is fueling the ecosystem. Monitoring the metabolism of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent microbial fauna under P, T and chemical conditions relevant to their isolation environment can be difficult because of the confinement and because most spectroscopic probes do not sense metallic ions in solution. We demonstrated the possibility to use Xray spectroscopy to monitor the speciation of metallic species in solution. Experiments were performed at The ESRF using Selenium (Se) detoxification by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as an analog of DMR. The reduction of Se from selenite to the metal was monitored by a combiantion of two Xray spectroscopic techniques (XANES and μXRF). Cells were incubated in the low pressure DAC in growth medium supplemented with 5mM Selenite and incubated under pressures up to 60 Mpa at 30°C for 24h. The evolution of the speciation can be easily monitored and the concentration of each Se species determined from the Xray spectra by linear combinations of standard spectra. Selenite is transformed by the bacterium into a mixture of metal Se and methylated Se after 24 hours. Se detoxification is observed in situ up to at least 25 MPa. The technique, developped for Se can be adapted to monitor other elements more relevant to DMR such as As, Fe or S, which should allow to monitor in situ under controlled pressure and temperature the metabolism of vent organisms. It is also amenable to the monitoring of toxic metals. Xray spectroscopy and the lpDAC are compatible with other spectroscopic techniques, such as Raman, UV or IR spectroscopies, allowing to probe other metabolic activities. Hence, enlarging the range of metabolic information that can be obtained in

  10. Profiling the metabolic signals involved in chemical communication between microbes using imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasulli, Nikolas M; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    The ability of microbes to secrete bioactive chemical signals into their environment has been known for over a century. However, it is only in the last decade that imaging mass spectrometry has provided us with the ability to directly visualize the spatial distributions of these microbial metabolites. This technology involves collecting mass spectra from multiple discrete locations across a biological sample, yielding chemical ‘maps’ that simultaneously reveal the distributions of hundreds of metabolites in two dimensions. Advances in microbial imaging mass spectrometry summarized here have included the identification of novel strain- or coculture-specific compounds, the visualization of biotransformation events (where one metabolite is converted into another by a neighboring microbe), and the implementation of a method to reconstruct the 3D subsurface distributions of metabolites, among others. Here we review the recent literature and discuss how imaging mass spectrometry has spurred novel insights regarding the chemical consequences of microbial interactions.

  11. Noninvasive imaging of protein metabolic labeling in single human cells using stable isotopes and Raman microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    We have combined nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy and spectral imaging with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to selectively detect the incorporation of deuterium-labeled phenylalanine, tyrosine, and methionine into proteins in intact, single HeLa cells. The C−D

  12. Fast Megavoltage Computed Tomography: A Rapid Imaging Method for Total Body or Marrow Irradiation in Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magome, Taiki [Department of Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Haga, Akihiro [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Dusenbery, Kathryn E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: shui@coh.org [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, California (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Megavoltage computed tomographic (MVCT) imaging has been widely used for the 3-dimensional (3-D) setup of patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT). One drawback of MVCT is its very long imaging time, the result of slow couch speeds of approximately 1 mm/s, which can be difficult for the patient to tolerate. We sought to develop an MVCT imaging method allowing faster couch speeds and to assess its accuracy for image guidance for HT. Methods and Materials: Three cadavers were scanned 4 times with couch speeds of 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm/s. The resulting MVCT images were reconstructed using an iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm with a penalty term of total variation and with a conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. The MVCT images were registered with kilovoltage CT images, and the registration errors from the 2 reconstruction algorithms were compared. This fast MVCT imaging was tested in 3 cases of total marrow irradiation as a clinical trial. Results: The 3-D registration errors of the MVCT images reconstructed with the IR algorithm were smaller than the errors of images reconstructed with the FBP algorithm at fast couch speeds (2, 3, 4 mm/s). The scan time and imaging dose at a speed of 4 mm/s were reduced to 30% of those from a conventional coarse mode scan. For the patient imaging, faster MVCT (3 mm/s couch speed) scanning reduced the imaging time and still generated images useful for anatomic registration. Conclusions: Fast MVCT with the IR algorithm is clinically feasible for large 3-D target localization, which may reduce the overall time for the treatment procedure. This technique may also be useful for calculating daily dose distributions or organ motion analyses in HT treatment over a wide area. Automated integration of this imaging is at least needed to further assess its clinical benefits.

  13. Rapid MR venography in children using a blood pool contrast agent and multi-station fat-water-separated volumetric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanouni, Pejman; Walters, Shannon G.; Vasanawala, Shreyas S.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, reliable radiation-free method of pediatric body venography might complement US by evaluating veins in the abdomen and pelvis and by providing a global depiction of venous anatomy. We describe a MR venography technique utilizing gadofosveset, a blood pool contrast agent, in children. The technique allows high-spatial-resolution imaging of the veins from the diaphragm to the knees in less than 15 min of total exam time. (orig.)

  14. Gadolinium-Enhanced Three-Dimensional Magnetization - Prepared Rapid Gradient-Echo (3D MP-RAGE) Imaging is Superior to Spin-Echo Imaging in Delineating Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Takeda, A.; Nagaoka, T.; Kunieda, E.; Takemasa, K.; Watanabe, M.; Hatou, T.; Oguro, S.; Katayama, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Precisely defining the number and location of brain metastases is very important for establishing a treatment strategy for malignancies. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the best modality, various improvements in sequences are still being made. Purpose: To prospectively compare the diagnostic ability of three-dimensional, magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D MP-RAGE) imaging in detecting metastatic brain tumors, with that of two-dimensional spin-echo (2D SE) T1-weighted imaging. Material and Methods: A total of 123 examinations were included in this study, and 119 examinations from 88 patients with known malignancies were analyzed. All patients underwent T1- and T2-weighted 2D SE transverse imaging, followed by gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted transverse and coronal 2D SE imaging and 3D MP-RAGE transverse imaging. Four radiologists interpreted the images to compare the accuracy and the time required for interpretation for each imaging. Results: 3D MP-RAGE imaging was significantly better than 2D SE imaging for detecting metastatic brain lesions, regardless of the readers' experience. The sensitivities of the 3D MP-RAGE and 2D SE imaging for all observers were 0.81 vs. 0.80 (P>0.05), specificities were 0.93 vs. 0.87 (P 0.05), and accuracies were 0.84 vs. 0.78 (P<0.05), respectively. There was no significant difference in the time required for image interpretation between the two modalities (15.6±4.0 vs. 15.4±4.1 min). Conclusion: 3D MP-RAGE imaging proved superior to 2D SE imaging in the detection of brain metastases

  15. Clinical evaluation of 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yueqin; Wei Hongxing; Guo Xinhua; Guo Feng; He Zuoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that consist of a collection of independent factors at risk of developing coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 251 patients [mean age (59 ± 10) years, 179 men, 72 women] were included in this study. All patients underwent exercise and rest 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography. Results: Of the 163 patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 116 showed abnormal 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging; and among the 88 patients with normal coronary angiography, 82 showed normal myocardial perfusion imaging. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging for coronary artery disease detection were 71% (116/163), 93% (82/88) and 79% (198/251), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 95% (116/122) and 64% (82/129), respectively. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging has important clinical value for detecting coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome. (authors)

  16. SU-F-303-11: Implementation and Applications of Rapid, SIFT-Based Cine MR Image Binning and Region Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, T; Wang, Y; Fischer-Valuck, B; Acharya, S; Kashani, R; Li, H; Yang, D; Zoberi, I; Thomas, M; Mutic, S; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel and rapid, SIFT-based algorithm for assessing feature motion on cine MR images acquired during MRI-guided radiotherapy treatments. In particular, we apply SIFT descriptors toward both partitioning cine images into respiratory states and tracking regions across frames. Methods: Among a training set of images acquired during a fraction, we densely assign SIFT descriptors to pixels within the images. We cluster these descriptors across all frames in order to produce a dictionary of trackable features. Associating the best-matching descriptors at every frame among the training images to these features, we construct motion traces for the features. We use these traces to define respiratory bins for sorting images in order to facilitate robust pixel-by-pixel tracking. Instead of applying conventional methods for identifying pixel correspondences across frames we utilize a recently-developed algorithm that derives correspondences via a matching objective for SIFT descriptors. Results: We apply these methods to a collection of lung, abdominal, and breast patients. We evaluate the procedure for respiratory binning using target sites exhibiting high-amplitude motion among 20 lung and abdominal patients. In particular, we investigate whether these methods yield minimal variation between images within a bin by perturbing the resulting image distributions among bins. Moreover, we compare the motion between averaged images across respiratory states to 4DCT data for these patients. We evaluate the algorithm for obtaining pixel correspondences between frames by tracking contours among a set of breast patients. As an initial case, we track easily-identifiable edges of lumpectomy cavities that show minimal motion over treatment. Conclusions: These SIFT-based methods reliably extract motion information from cine MR images acquired during patient treatments. While we performed our analysis retrospectively, the algorithm lends itself to prospective motion

  17. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project: Status of SAR products for Earthquakes, Floods, Volcanoes and Groundwater-related Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Yun, S. H.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Liu, Z.; Sacco, G. F.; Manipon, G.; Linick, J. P.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Farr, T. G.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project for Natural Hazards is focused on rapidly generating high-level geodetic imaging products and placing them in the hands of the solid earth science and local, national, and international natural hazard communities by providing science product generation, exploration, and delivery capabilities at an operational level. Space-based geodetic measurement techniques including Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), differential Global Positioning System, and SAR-based change detection have become critical additions to our toolset for understanding and mapping the damage and deformation caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, landslides, and groundwater extraction. Up until recently, processing of these data sets has been handcrafted for each study or event and has not generated products rapidly and reliably enough for response to natural disasters or for timely analysis of large data sets. The ARIA project, a joint venture co-sponsored by the California Institute of Technology and by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been capturing the knowledge applied to these responses and building it into an automated infrastructure to generate imaging products in near real-time that can improve situational awareness for disaster response. In addition to supporting the growing science and hazard response communities, the ARIA project has developed the capabilities to provide automated imaging and analysis capabilities necessary to keep up with the influx of raw SAR data from geodetic imaging missions such as ESA's Sentinel-1A/B, now operating with repeat intervals as short as 6 days, and the upcoming NASA NISAR mission. We will present the progress and results we have made on automating the analysis of Sentinel-1A/B SAR data for hazard monitoring and response, with emphasis on recent developments and end user engagement in flood extent mapping and deformation time series for both volcano

  18. Utility of adenosine PET (perfusion/metabolic) imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction following thrombolytic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.C.; Esterbrooks, D.M.; Shiue, C.; Mohiuddin, S.; Hilleman, D.; Frick, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the diagnostic role of adenosine (AI) proton emission tomography (PET) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and thrombolytic therapy using adenosine as a coronary vasodilator. The authors performed rest/stress myocardial perfusion and metabolic image studies (using N-13 NH 3 and F-18 FDG) in 14 patients within 1 week after thrombolytic therapy for an AMI. AI (140 μg/kg/min for 6 minutes) used a pharmacologic stressor resulted only in transient and well-tolerated side effects. Sensitivities and specificities of the rest/stress perfusion imaging and coronary angiographic results (performed within 1 week) are as follows: LAD, 87.5% and 83.3%; LCX, 100% and 100%; RCA, 100% and 83.3%; and overall, 94.4% and 91.3%. Resting NH 3 /FDG mismatch (hypoperfused viable myocardium) was seen in 2/14 patients in infarct-related (IR) and 3/14 patients in non-IR stenoses

  19. High altitude may alter oxygen availability and renal metabolism in diabetics as measured by hyperpolarized [1-1C]pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lycke, Sara; Palm, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    inspired oxygen did not alter renal metabolism in the control group. Reduced oxygen availability in the diabetic kidney altered energy metabolism by increasing lactate and alanine formation by 23% and 34%, respectively, whereas the bicarbonate flux was unchanged. Thus, the increased prevalence and severity......The kidneys account for about 10% of the whole body oxygen consumption, whereas only 0.5% of the total body mass. It is known that intrarenal hypoxia is present in several diseases associated with development of kidney disease, including diabetes, and when renal blood flow is unaffected....... The importance of deranged oxygen metabolism is further supported by deterioration of kidney function in patients with diabetes living at high altitude. Thus, we argue that reduced oxygen availability alters renal energy metabolism. Here, we introduce a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to monitor...

  20. Calibrated image-derived input functions for the determination of the metabolic uptake rate of glucose with [18F]-FDG PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, Michala H.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of a simple calibration method to remove bias in previously proposed approaches to image-derived input functions (IDIFs) when used to calculate the metabolic uptake rate of glucose (Km) from dynamic [18F]-FDG PET scans of the thigh. Our objective was to obtain nonbiased, low...

  1. Automated Method for the Rapid and Precise Estimation of Adherent Cell Culture Characteristics from Phase Contrast Microscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D; Keser, Ana; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative determination of key adherent cell culture characteristics such as confluency, morphology, and cell density is necessary for the evaluation of experimental outcomes and to provide a suitable basis for the establishment of robust cell culture protocols. Automated processing of images acquired using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), an imaging modality widely used for the visual inspection of adherent cell cultures, could enable the non-invasive determination of these characteristics. We present an image-processing approach that accurately detects cellular objects in PCM images through a combination of local contrast thresholding and post hoc correction of halo artifacts. The method was thoroughly validated using a variety of cell lines, microscope models and imaging conditions, demonstrating consistently high segmentation performance in all cases and very short processing times (image). Based on the high segmentation performance, it was possible to precisely determine culture confluency, cell density, and the morphology of cellular objects, demonstrating the wide applicability of our algorithm for typical microscopy image processing pipelines. Furthermore, PCM image segmentation was used to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of fluorescence microscopy data, enabling the determination of temporal and spatial expression patterns of a fluorescent reporter. We created a software toolbox (PHANTAST) that bundles all the algorithms and provides an easy to use graphical user interface. Source-code for MATLAB and ImageJ is freely available under a permissive open-source license. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 504–517. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24037521

  2. Preliminary study of metabolic radiotherapy with 188Re via small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoccia, A.; Baldazzi, G.; Bello, M.

    2006-01-01

    188 Re is a β - (Emax=2.12 MeV) and γ (155 keV) emitter. Since its chemistry is similar to that of the largely employed tracer, 99m Tc, molecules of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been labelled with 188 Re to produce a target specific radiopharmaceutical. The radiolabeled compound, i.v. injected in healthy mice, is able to accumulate into the liver after a few minutes. To study the effect of metabolic radiotherapy in mice, we have built a small gamma camera based on a matrix of YAP:Ce crystals, with 0.6x0.6x10 mm 3 pixels, read out by a R2486 Hamamatsu PSPMT. A high-sensitivity 20 mm thick lead parallel-hole collimator, with hole diameter 1.5 mm and septa of 0.18 mm, is placed in front of the YAP matrix. Preliminary results obtained with various phantoms containing a solution of 188 Re and with C57 black mice injected with the 188 Re-HA solution are presented. To increase the space resolution and to obtain two orthogonal projections simultaneously we are building in parallel two new cameras to be positioned at 90 degrees. They use a CsI(Tl) matrix with 1x1x5 mm 3 pixels read out by H8500 Hamamatsu Flat panel PMT

  3. Rest/exercise thallium myocardial perfusion imaging: a new and rapid technique to evaluate coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, G.M.; Zipkin, R.E.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-six patients underwent conventional exercise/4-h redistribution thallium myocardial perfusion imaging as well as rest/exercise imaging on different days. For the rest/exercise study, patients were inmaged 10 min after receiving 1 mCi thallium at rest. The resting study was immediately followed by symptom-limited treadmill exercise. Patients were injected with 2 mCi thallium at peak exercise and imaged 10 min later. The entire rest/exercise study was completed in 2 h. There was a high degree of correlation between the two studies. Of the 130 segments analysed, 84 were normal and 46 were abnormal by exercise/redistribution imaging whereas 88 were normal and 42 were abnormal by rest/exercise imaging. Among the 14 patients who had coronary arteriography, both exercise/redistribution and rest/exercise imaging correctly identified 23/35 segments as abnormal (sensitivity [pi003] 66% and 34/35 segments as normal (specificity=97%). Furthermore, abnormal segments were more likely to be reversible on the rest/exercise study. The results suggest that the accuracy of rest/exercise thallium imaging is equal to conventional exercise/redistribution imaging in the evaluation of coronary artery disease. The significant time economy and possible improvement in assessing myocardial viability are important potential advantages of this new technique. (Author)

  4. Pre-treatment verification of RapidArc® using Electronic Portal Imaging Device; Verificacao pre-tratamento de RapidArc® utilizando Dispositivo Eletronico de Imagem Porta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marilia B.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Pirani, Luis F.; Silveira, Thiago B., E-mail: mbeckerlima@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The RapidArc® is a novel but widespread technique to achieve intensity modulated beams. One of the major challenges concerning this technique is the pretreatment verification process. The aim of this paper was to analyze the viability of the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) used to perform the verification of RapidArc® using the Sun Nuclear SNC Patient software enable to EPID dose conversion (EPIDose license) and compare its results with punctual dose measurements against a low volume ion chamber. There were analyze five RapidArc® planning, evaluating, separately, planar and punctual doses for each arc. For punctual measurements was used a 0,15 cm³ volume ion chamber and the planar distributions, in Calibration Units (CU), were acquired using the EPID and then converted to absolute dose in centigray through EPIDose. The predicted doses were calculated using the AAA algorithm in Eclipse treatment planning system, version 8.6. The planar comparisons, performed in SNC Patient, employed the Gamma Index tool with a 4% dose difference, 4 mm distance to agreement and 20% threshold. The evaluation of punctual dose was defined by calculating deviations between predicted and measured doses. The mean approval percentage in planar distributions was 94.8% and the average deviation in punctual dose was -1.2%. The use of EPID for RapidArc® pre-treatment verification proved to be feasible and showed good sensibility, because of its high spatial resolution. However one must consider the uncertainty of the method. (author)

  5. Coil concepts for rapid and motion-compensated MR-Imaging of small animals; Spulenkonzepte zur schnellen und bewegungskompensierten MR-Bildgebung von Kleintieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-05-06

    In this work radiofrequency-coils for the imaging of small animals in clinical whole-body MRI-systems were developed. Therefore in a first step single-channel solenoids were designed and characterized. The solenoids had two and three windings respectively, which were implemented as double wires to increase the homogeneity of the receive profile. These coils allow the acquisition of whole-body images of mice with high signal-to-noise ratio and homogeneity over a distance of at least 6.3 cm. Since many imaging experiments require rapid image acquisition, in the next step a novel coil concept was developed, which, due to its geometry, enables parallel imaging in arbitrary directions. A prototype was assembled and tested on phantom and small-animal experiments. With an accelerating factor of R=2, the difference of the SNR in all directions from the theoretical maximum, was less than 1%. In order to compensate physiological motion by the self-gating technique, in this work a coil is presented for the first time, which selectively amplifies the self-gating signal, while - due to a optical detuning technique - preserving the homogeneous illumination of the image. In vivo experiments on a small animal show an amplification of the self-gating signal by at least 40%. (orig.)

  6. Transform- and multi-domain deep learning for single-frame rapid autofocusing in whole slide imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaowei; Liao, Jun; Bian, Zichao; Guo, Kaikai; Zhang, Yongbing; Zheng, Guoan

    2018-04-01

    A whole slide imaging (WSI) system has recently been approved for primary diagnostic use in the US. The image quality and system throughput of WSI is largely determined by the autofocusing process. Traditional approaches acquire multiple images along the optical axis and maximize a figure of merit for autofocusing. Here we explore the use of deep convolution neural networks (CNNs) to predict the focal position of the acquired image without axial scanning. We investigate the autofocusing performance with three illumination settings: incoherent Kohler illumination, partially coherent illumination with two plane waves, and one-plane-wave illumination. We acquire ~130,000 images with different defocus distances as the training data set. Different defocus distances lead to different spatial features of the captured images. However, solely relying on the spatial information leads to a relatively bad performance of the autofocusing process. It is better to extract defocus features from transform domains of the acquired image. For incoherent illumination, the Fourier cutoff frequency is directly related to the defocus distance. Similarly, autocorrelation peaks are directly related to the defocus distance for two-plane-wave illumination. In our implementation, we use the spatial image, the Fourier spectrum, the autocorrelation of the spatial image, and combinations thereof as the inputs for the CNNs. We show that the information from the transform domains can improve the performance and robustness of the autofocusing process. The resulting focusing error is ~0.5 µm, which is within the 0.8-µm depth-of-field range. The reported approach requires little hardware modification for conventional WSI systems and the images can be captured on the fly without focus map surveying. It may find applications in WSI and time-lapse microscopy. The transform- and multi-domain approaches may also provide new insights for developing microscopy-related deep-learning networks. We have made

  7. Rapid detection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-active tumours: pretargeted imaging with a protein degrading in a mechanism similar to hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Masashi [Kyoto University, Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kudo, Takashi; Konishi, Hiroaki; Miyano, Azusa; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Mukai, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Department of Biomolecular Recognition Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto University, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in malignant tumour progression. For the imaging of HIF-1-active tumours, we previously developed a protein, POS, which is effectively delivered to and selectively stabilized in HIF-1-active cells, and a radioiodinated biotin derivative, (3-{sup 123}I-iodobenzoyl)norbiotinamide ({sup 123}I-IBB), which can bind to the streptavidin moiety of POS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of the pretargeting method using POS and {sup 123}I-IBB for rapid imaging of HIF-1-active tumours. Tumour-implanted mice were pretargeted with POS. After 24 h, {sup 125}I-IBB was administered and subsequently, the biodistribution of radioactivity was investigated at several time points. In vivo planar imaging, comparison between {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation and HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and autoradiography were performed at 6 h after the administration of {sup 125}I-IBB. The same sections that were used in autoradiographic analysis were subjected to HIF-1{alpha} immunohistochemistry. {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation was observed in tumours of mice pretargeted with POS (1.6%ID/g at 6 h). This result is comparable to the data derived from {sup 125}I-IBB-conjugated POS-treated mice (1.4%ID/g at 24 h). In vivo planar imaging provided clear tumour images. The tumoral accumulation of {sup 125}I-IBB significantly correlated with HIF-1-dependent luciferase bioluminescence (R=0.84, p<0.01). The intratumoral distribution of {sup 125}I-IBB was heterogeneous and was significantly correlated with HIF-1{alpha}-positive regions (R=0.58, p<0.0001). POS pretargeting with {sup 123}I-IBB is a useful technique in the rapid imaging and detection of HIF-1-active regions in tumours. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis and tissue distribution of fluorine-18 labeled trifluorohexadecanoic acids. Considerations in the development of metabolically blocked myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochapsky, S.S.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; VanBrocklin, H.F.; Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A versatile method for the synthesis of trifluoro fatty acids, potential metabolically blocked myocardial imaging agents, has been developed. Two trifluorohexadecanoic (palmitic) acids have been prepared [6,6,16-trifluorohexadecanoic acid (I) and 7,7,16-trifluorohexadecanoic acid (II)], each of which bears two of the fluorine atoms as a gem-difluoromethylene unit on the fatty acid chain (at C-6 or C-7) and the third at the ω (C-16) position. The metabolic stability of carbon-fluorine bonds suggests the gem-difluoro group may block the β-oxidation pathway, while the terminal fluorine could be the site for labeling with fluorine-18. The convergent synthetic approach utilizes a 2-lithio-1,3-dithiane derived from 10-undecenal or 9-decenal, which is alkylated with the OBO (oxabicyclooctyl) ester of 5-bromopentanoic acid or 6-bromohexanoic acid, respectively. Hydroboration-oxidation and alcohol protection are followed by halofluorination to convert the 1,3-dithiane system to a gem-difluoro group. The third fluorine is introduced by fluoride ion displacement of a trifluoromethanesulfonate. This synthesis is adapted to the labeling of these trifluoro fatty acids with the short-lived radionuclide fluorine-18 (t 1/2 = 110 min), with the third fluorine introduced as fluoride ion in the penultimate step. The radiochemical syntheses proceed in 3-34% radiochemical yield (decay corrected), with an overall synthesis and purification time of 90 min. Tissue distribution studies in rats were performed with I and II, as well as with 16-[ 18 F]fluoropalmitic acid (III), [ 11 C]palmitic acid, and [ 11 C]octanoic acid. The heart uptake of the fluoropalmitic acids decreases with substitution, the 2-min activity level for 16-fluoropalmitic acid being 65% and that for both 6,6,16-and 7,7,17-trifluoropalmitic acids being 30% that of palmitic acid

  9. Multiparametric PET imaging in thyroid malignancy characterizing tumour heterogeneity: somatostatin receptors and glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Putzer, Daniel; Bale, Reto [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Dobrozemsky, Georg; Nilica, Bernhard; Kendler, Dorota; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Radiolabelled somatostatin (SST) analogues have proven useful in diagnosing tumours positive for SST receptor (SSTR). As different subtypes of SSTR are expressed on the tumour cell surface, the choice of appropriate therapeutic SST analogue is crucial. We evaluated the SSTR status of thyroid cancer patients who had signs of progressive disease comparing different SSTR ligands for PET imaging to evaluate possible further therapeutic options. PET with {sup 68}Ga-radiolabelled SSTR ligands DOTA lanreotide (DOTA-LAN), DOTA-Tyr{sup 3} octreotide (DOTA-TOC) and {sup 18}F-FDG was performed in 31 patients with thyroid cancer (TC). These 31 patients comprised 18 with radioiodine non-avid differentiated TC (DTC) including 6 papillary TC (PTC), 8 follicular TC (FTC) and 4 oxyphilic TC (oxyTC), 5 with anaplastic TC (ATC), and 8 with medullary TC (MTC). The PET results were compared in a region-based evaluation. All patients underwent a PET study with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-LAN, 28 patients with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC and 28 patients with {sup 18}F-FDG. A lack of SSTR expression was found in 13 of the 31 patients (42 %) with negative results with both SSTR tracers in 12 patients. Ambiguous results with both SSTR tracers were observed in one patient. High tracer uptake in SSTR PET images was seen in seven DTC patients (39 %; two PTC, three FTC, two oxyTC), in four ATC patients (80 %) and in six MTC patients (75 %). Lesions showing aerobic glycolysis on {sup 18}F-FDG PET were found in 24 of 28 patients (86 %) with corresponding positive results with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-LAN in 35 % and with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC in 29 %. The heterogeneous SSTR profile of TC tumour lesions needs to be evaluated using different SSTR PET tracers to characterize more closely the SSTR subtype affinities in patients with progressive TC in order to further stratify therapy with SSTR therapeutics. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolism and cerebral function by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Chuzo; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Umeda, Masahiro; Naruse, Shoji; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Ueda, Satoshi; Furuya, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) method has the unique potentiality of detecting cerebral metabolites, cerebral blood flow and brain functions in a noninvasive fashion. We have developed several MR techniques to detect these cerebral parameters with the use of clinical MRI scanners. By modifying the MR spectroscopy (MRS) technique, both 31 P- and 1 H-MRS data can be obtained from multiple, localized regions (multi-voxel method) of the brain, and the distribution of each metabolite in the brain can be readily visualized by metabolite mapping. The use of diffusion weighted images (DWI) permits visualization of the anisotropy of water diffusion in white matter, and based on the difference of diffusion coefficiency, the differential diagnosis between epidermoid tumor and arachnoid cyst can be made. By employing dynamic-MRI (Dyn-MRI) with Gd-DTPA administration, it is possible to examine the difference in blood circulation between brain tumor tissue and normal tissue, as well as among different types of brain tumors. By using magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) imaging, it has become possible to detect brain tumors, and with a small dose of Gd-DTPA, to visualize the vascular system. Functional MRI (fMRI) visualizes the activated brain by using conventional gradient echo technique on conventional MRI scanners. This method has the unique characteristic of detecting a brain function with high spatial and temporal resolution by using the intrinsic substance. Moreover, the localization of motor and sensory areas was detected by noninvasive means within few minutes. The fMRI procedure will be used in the future to analyze the higher and complex brain functions. In conclusion, multi-modality MR is a powerful technique that is useful for investigating the pathogenesis of many diseases, and provides a noninvasive analytic modality for studying brain function. (author)

  11. [Digital imaging system are rapidly introduced in Swedish departments of radiography. This calls for new strategic planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, S; Norberg, K A

    2000-10-11

    Diagnostic radiology in Sweden is changing rapidly to digital (filmless) technique. The advantages are more rapid delivery of radiologic service, better working conditions and less negative effects on the environment. Teleradiology is also facilitated. The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare has investigated the speed with which this change is taking place. In 1998, 26 of the 118 departments of diagnostic radiology had already turned digital; it is estimated that in the near future at least five departments will become fully digital each year. For planning purposes, less emphasis should be put on the supply of radiographic film, and more on telecommunications, computer hardware and digital storage.

  12. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  13. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min

    2005-01-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1- 14 C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in any

  14. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipids and Gene Expression Reveals Differences in Fatty Acid Metabolism between Follicular Compartments in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Uzbekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, oocytes develop inside the ovarian follicles; this process is strongly supported by the surrounding follicular environment consisting of cumulus, granulosa and theca cells, and follicular fluid. In the antral follicle, the final stages of oogenesis require large amounts of energy that is produced by follicular cells from substrates including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FAs. Since lipid metabolism plays an important role in acquiring oocyte developmental competence, the aim of this study was to investigate site-specificity of lipid metabolism in ovaries by comparing lipid profiles and expression of FA metabolism-related genes in different ovarian compartments. Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, images of porcine ovary sections were reconstructed from lipid ion signals for the first time. Cluster analysis of ion spectra revealed differences in spatial distribution of lipid species among ovarian compartments, notably between the follicles and interstitial tissue. Inside the follicles analysis differentiated follicular fluid, granulosa, theca and the oocyte-cumulus complex. Moreover, by transcript quantification using real time PCR, we showed that expression of five key genes in FA metabolism significantly varied between somatic follicular cells (theca, granulosa and cumulus and the oocyte. In conclusion, lipid metabolism differs between ovarian and follicular compartments.

  15. Exploiting machine learning algorithms for tree species classification in a semiarid woodland using RapidEye image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adelabu, S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available in semiarid environments. In this study, we examined the suitability of 5-band RapidEye satellite data for the classification of five tree species in mopane woodland of Botswana using machine leaning algorithms with limited training samples. We performed...

  16. RAPID EXTRACTION OF LANDSLIDE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AFTER JIUZHAIGOU Ms7.0 EARTHQUAKE BASED ON UAV IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Q. S. Jiao; Y. Luo; W. H. Shen; Q. Li; X. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Jiuzhaigou earthquake led to the collapse of the mountains and formed lots of landslides in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot and surrounding roads which caused road blockage and serious ecological damage. Due to the urgency of the rescue, the authors carried unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and entered the disaster area as early as August 9 to obtain the aerial images near the epicenter. On the basis of summarizing the earthquake landslides characteristics in aerial images, by using the object-oriented an...

  17. Intrahepatic fat, abdominal adipose tissues, and metabolic state: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Cohen, Noa; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Zelicha, Hila; Rein, Michal; Bril, Nitzan; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Dicker, Dror; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is controversial. While IHF ≥ 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat subdepots, pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats. We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat subdepots, %pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among 275 participants, %IHF widely ranged (0.01%-50.4%) and was lower in women (1.6%) than men (7.3%; P fat was positively associated with %IHF (P = .005). In an age, sex, WC, and VAT-adjusted models, elevated liver enzymes, glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with increased %IHF (P fat is differentially associated with abdominal fat subdepots. Intrahepatic-fat as a continuous variable could be predicted by specific traditional parameters, even within the current normal range, and partially independent of VAT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry quantifies stem cell division and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Matthew L; Bailey, Andrew P; Senyo, Samuel E; Guillermier, Christelle; Perlstein, Todd S; Gould, Alex P; Lee, Richard T; Lechene, Claude P

    2012-01-15

    Mass spectrometry with stable isotope labels has been seminal in discovering the dynamic state of living matter, but is limited to bulk tissues or cells. We developed multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) that allowed us to view and measure stable isotope incorporation with submicrometre resolution. Here we apply MIMS to diverse organisms, including Drosophila, mice and humans. We test the 'immortal strand hypothesis', which predicts that during asymmetric stem cell division chromosomes containing older template DNA are segregated to the daughter destined to remain a stem cell, thus insuring lifetime genetic stability. After labelling mice with (15)N-thymidine from gestation until post-natal week 8, we find no (15)N label retention by dividing small intestinal crypt cells after a four-week chase. In adult mice administered (15)N-thymidine pulse-chase, we find that proliferating crypt cells dilute the (15)N label, consistent with random strand segregation. We demonstrate the broad utility of MIMS with proof-of-principle studies of lipid turnover in Drosophila and translation to the human haematopoietic system. These studies show that MIMS provides high-resolution quantification of stable isotope labels that cannot be obtained using other techniques and that is broadly applicable to biological and medical research.

  19. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project: Providing Standard and On-Demand SAR products for Hazard Science and Hazard Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Rosen, P. A.; Agram, P. S.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Yun, S. H.; Sacco, G. F.; Liu, Z.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Moore, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    A new era of geodetic imaging arrived with the launch of the ESA Sentinel-1A/B satellites in 2014 and 2016, and with the 2016 confirmation of the NISAR mission, planned for launch in 2021. These missions assure high quality, freely and openly distributed regularly sampled SAR data into the indefinite future. These unprecedented data sets are a watershed for solid earth sciences as we progress towards the goal of ubiquitous InSAR measurements. We now face the challenge of how to best address the massive volumes of data and intensive processing requirements. Should scientists individually process the same data independently themselves? Should a centralized service provider create standard products that all can use? Are there other approaches to accelerate science that are cost effective and efficient? The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project, a joint venture co-sponsored by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is focused on rapidly generating higher level geodetic imaging products and placing them in the hands of the solid earth science and local, national, and international natural hazard communities by providing science product generation, exploration, and delivery capabilities at an operational level. However, there are challenges in defining the optimal InSAR data products for the solid earth science community. In this presentation, we will present our experience with InSAR users, our lessons learned the advantages of on demand and standard products, and our proposal for the most effective path forward.

  20. Assessment of relevant hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents by rapid fat-selective GRE imaging with spatial-spectral excitation: a quantitative comparison with spectroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, Fabian; Schick, Fritz; Ehehalt, Stefan; Binder, Gerhard; Sommer, Julia; Ballweg, Verena; Machann, Juergen; Claussen, Claus D.

    2011-01-01

    To test the feasibility of fat-selective GRE imaging using a spectral-spatial excitation technique for determination of intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) in obese adolescents. Fat-selective MR imaging (1.5 T) was applied to record a single axial slice through a representative liver region within a single breath-hold. The sequence uses six equidistant slice-selective excitation pulses with binomial amplitude ratios to achieve high selectivity for lipid signals after appropriate shimming. IHL MRI content was quantified using signal intensity of adjacent subcutaneous adipose tissue. As the gold standard for IHL quantification, single-voxel stimulated echo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was applied. IHL MRS was quantified using the water peak as a reference. Forty-five MR examinations could be performed, and IHL MRS content ranged from 0.7% to 19.1%. Results from MRS and fat-selective imaging correlated well with Spearman coefficients between r = 0.78 and r = 0.86. There were no relevant regional differences in IHL within the liver parenchyma (p > 0.6359). Fat-selective imaging was able to reliably identify patients with IHL content above 5% with positive/negative likelihood ratio of 11.8 and 0.05, respectively. Fat-selective MR imaging provides both a reliable and a convenient method of rapidly quantifying IHL content in obese adolescents. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of relevant hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents by rapid fat-selective GRE imaging with spatial-spectral excitation: a quantitative comparison with spectroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Fabian; Schick, Fritz [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ehehalt, Stefan; Binder, Gerhard [University Children' s Hospital Tuebingen, Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Tuebingen (Germany); Sommer, Julia; Ballweg, Verena; Machann, Juergen [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, Claus D. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    To test the feasibility of fat-selective GRE imaging using a spectral-spatial excitation technique for determination of intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) in obese adolescents. Fat-selective MR imaging (1.5 T) was applied to record a single axial slice through a representative liver region within a single breath-hold. The sequence uses six equidistant slice-selective excitation pulses with binomial amplitude ratios to achieve high selectivity for lipid signals after appropriate shimming. IHL{sub MRI} content was quantified using signal intensity of adjacent subcutaneous adipose tissue. As the gold standard for IHL quantification, single-voxel stimulated echo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was applied. IHL{sub MRS} was quantified using the water peak as a reference. Forty-five MR examinations could be performed, and IHL{sub MRS} content ranged from 0.7% to 19.1%. Results from MRS and fat-selective imaging correlated well with Spearman coefficients between r = 0.78 and r = 0.86. There were no relevant regional differences in IHL within the liver parenchyma (p > 0.6359). Fat-selective imaging was able to reliably identify patients with IHL content above 5% with positive/negative likelihood ratio of 11.8 and 0.05, respectively. Fat-selective MR imaging provides both a reliable and a convenient method of rapidly quantifying IHL content in obese adolescents. (orig.)

  2. Label-free in vivo in situ diagnostic imaging by cellular metabolism quantification with a flexible multiphoton endomicroscope (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Pierre; Hage, Charles-Henri; Fabert, Marc; Brevier, Julien; O'Connor, Rodney P.; Bardet-Coste, Sylvia M.; Habert, Rémi; Braud, Flavie; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Louradour, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a cutting edge imaging modality leading to increasing advances in biology and also in the clinical field. To use it at its full potential and at the very heart of clinical practice, there have been several developments of fiber-based multiphoton microendoscopes. The application for those probes is now limited by few major restrictions, such as the difficulty to collect autofluorescence signals from tissues and cells theses being inherently weak (e.g. the ones from intracellular NADH or FAD metabolites). This limitation reduces the usefulness of microendoscopy in general, effectively restraining it to morphological imaging modality requiring staining of the tissues. Our aim is to go beyond this limitation, showing for the first time label-free cellular metabolism monitoring, in vivo in situ in real time. The experimental setup is an upgrade of a recently published one (Ducourthial et.al, Scientific Reports, 2016) where femtosecond pulse fiber delivery is further optimized thank's to a new transmissive-GRISM-based pulse stretcher permitting high energy throughput and wide bandwidth. This device allows fast sequential operation with two different excitation wavelengths for efficient two-photon excited NADH and FAD autofluorescence endoscopic detection (i.e. 860 nm for FAD and 760 nm for NADH), enabling cellular optical redox ratio quantification at 8 frames/s. The obtained results on cell models in vitro and also on animal models in vivo (e.g. neurons of a living mouse) prove that we accurately assess the level of NADH and FAD at subcellular resolution through a 3-meters-long fiber with our miniaturized probe (O.D. =2.2 mm).

  3. Accurate, rapid identification of dislocation lines in coherent diffractive imaging via a min-max optimization formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulvestad, A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, USA; Menickelly, M. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, USA; Wild, S. M. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, USA

    2018-01-01

    Defects such as dislocations impact materials properties and their response during external stimuli. Imaging these defects in their native operating conditions to establish the structure-function relationship and, ultimately, to improve performance via defect engineering has remained a considerable challenge for both electron-based and x-ray-based imaging techniques. While Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (BCDI) is successful in many cases, nuances in identifying the dislocations has left manual identification as the preferred method. Derivative-based methods are also used, but they can be inaccurate and are computationally inefficient. Here we demonstrate a derivative-free method that is both more accurate and more computationally efficient than either derivative-or human-based methods for identifying 3D dislocation lines in nanocrystal images produced by BCDI. We formulate the problem as a min-max optimization problem and show exceptional accuracy for experimental images. We demonstrate a 227x speedup for a typical experimental dataset with higher accuracy over current methods. We discuss the possibility of using this algorithm as part of a sparsity-based phase retrieval process. We also provide MATLAB code for use by other researchers.

  4. Rapid and sensitive phenotypic marker detection on breast cancer cells using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeop; Chon, Hyangah; Lee, Jiyoung; Ko, Juhui; Chung, Bong Hyun; Lim, Dong Woo; Choo, Jaebum

    2014-01-15

    We report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based cellular imaging technique to detect and quantify breast cancer phenotypic markers expressed on cell surfaces. This technique involves the synthesis of SERS nano tags consisting of silica-encapsulated hollow gold nanospheres (SEHGNs) conjugated with specific antibodies. Hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) enhance SERS signal intensity of individual particles by localizing surface electromagnetic fields through pinholes in the hollow particle structures. This capacity to enhance imaging at the level of single molecules permits the use of HGNs to detect specific biological markers expressed in living cancer cells. In addition, silica encapsulation greatly enhances the stability of nanoparticles. Here we applied a SERS-based imaging technique using SEHGNs in the multiplex imaging of three breast cancer cell phenotypes. Expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), ErbB2, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors were assessed in the MDA-MB-468, KPL4 and SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell lines. SERS imaging technology described here can be used to test the phenotype of a cancer cell and quantify proteins expressed on the cell surface simultaneously. Based on results, this technique may enable an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer than is currently possible and offer guidance in treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of speckle image correlation for real-time assessment of metabolic activity in herpes virus-infected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. P.; Malygin, A. S.; Mikhailova, J. A.; Borodin, E. M.; Bakharev, A. A.; Poryvayeva, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    Earlier we reported developing a speckle interferometry technique and a device designed to assess the metabolic activity of a cell monolayer cultivated on a glass substrate. This paper aimed at upgrading the technique and studying its potential for real-time assessment of herpes virus development process. Speckle dynamics was recorded in the image plane of intact and virus-infected cell monolayer. HLE-3, L-41 and Vero cells were chosen as research targets. Herpes simplex virus-1-(HSV-1)- infected cell cultures were studied. For 24 h we recorded the digital value of optical signal I in one pixel and parameter η characterizing change in the distribution of the optical signal on 10 × 10-pixel areas. The coefficient of multiple determination calculated by η time dependences for three intact cell cultures equals 0.94. It was demonstrated that the activity parameters are significantly different for intact and virus-infected cells. The difference of η value for intact and HSV-1-infected cells is detectable 10 minutes from the experiment start.

  6. In vivo imaging and tracking of host-microbiota interactions via metabolic labeling of gut anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva-Zatorsky, Naama; Alvarez, David; Hudak, Jason E.; Reading, Nicola C.; Erturk-Hasdemir, Deniz; Dasgupta, Suryasarathi; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is densely populated by anaerobic commensal bacteria. These microorganisms shape immune system development, but our understanding of host–commensal interactions is hampered by a lack of tools for studying the anaerobic intestinal environment. We applied metabolic oligosaccharide engineering and bioorthogonal click-chemistry to label various commensal anaerobes, including Bacteroides fragilis, a common and immunologically important commensal. We studied the dissemination of B. fragilis following acute peritonitis, and characterized the interactions of the intact microbe and its polysaccharide components in myeloid and B cell lineages. The distribution and colonization of labeled B. fragilis along the intestine can be assessed, as well as niche competition following coadministration of multiple species of the microbiota. Nine additional anaerobic commensals (both gram-negative and gram-positive) from three phyla common in the gut—Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria—and five families and one aerobic pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) were also fluorescently labeled. This strategy permits visualization of the anaerobic microbial niche by various methods, including intravital two-photon microscopy and non-invasive whole-body imaging, and an approach to study microbial colonization and host–microbe interactions in real-time. PMID:26280120

  7. Application of speckle image correlation for real-time assessment of metabolic activity in herpes virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, A P; Malygin, A S; Mikhailova, J A; Borodin, E M; Bakharev, A A; Poryvayeva, A P

    2014-01-01

    Earlier we reported developing a speckle interferometry technique and a device designed to assess the metabolic activity of a cell monolayer cultivated on a glass substrate. This paper aimed at upgrading the technique and studying its potential for real-time assessment of herpes virus development process. Speckle dynamics was recorded in the image plane of intact and virus-infected cell monolayer. HLE-3, L-41 and Vero cells were chosen as research targets. Herpes simplex virus-1-(HSV-1)- infected cell cultures were studied. For 24 h we recorded the digital value of optical signal I in one pixel and parameter η characterizing change in the distribution of the optical signal on 10 × 10-pixel areas. The coefficient of multiple determination calculated by η time dependences for three intact cell cultures equals 0.94. It was demonstrated that the activity parameters are significantly different for intact and virus-infected cells. The difference of η value for intact and HSV-1-infected cells is detectable 10 minutes from the experiment start.

  8. Apparent brain temperature imaging with multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy compared with cerebral blood flow and metabolism imaging on positron emission tomography in patients with unilateral chronic major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanba, Takamasa; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Shunrou; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Open and Transdisciplinary Research Initiatives, Osaka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Uwano, Ikuko [Iwate Medical University, Institute for Biomedical Science, Iwate (Japan); Terasaki, Kazunori [Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether apparent brain temperature imaging using multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy correlates with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism imaging in the deep white matter of patients with unilateral chronic major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease. Apparent brain temperature and CBF and metabolism imaging were measured using proton MR spectroscopy and {sup 15}O-positron emission tomography (PET), respectively, in 35 patients. A set of regions of interest (ROIs) of 5 x 5 voxels was placed on an MR image so that the voxel row at each edge was located in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale in each cerebral hemisphere. PET images were co-registered with MR images with these ROIs and were re-sliced automatically using image analysis software. In 175 voxel pairs located in the deep white matter, the brain temperature difference (affected hemisphere - contralateral hemisphere: ΔBT) was correlated with cerebral blood volume (CBV) (r = 0.570) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) ratios (affected hemisphere/contralateral hemisphere) (r = 0.641). We excluded voxels that contained ischemic lesions or cerebrospinal fluid and calculated the mean values of voxel pairs in each patient. The mean ΔBT was correlated with the mean CBF (r = - 0.376), mean CBV (r = 0.702), and mean OEF ratio (r = 0.774). Apparent brain temperature imaging using multi-voxel proton MR spectroscopy was correlated with CBF and metabolism imaging in the deep white matter of patients with unilateral major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease. (orig.)

  9. Metabolic cardiac imaging in severe coronary disease: assessment of viability with iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid and multicrystal gamma camera, and correlation with biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G; Schad, N; Ladd, W; Allie, D; vander Zwagg, R; Avet, P; Rockett, J

    1992-07-01

    Fifteen patients with coronary disease and resting left ventricular ejection fractions of less than or equal to 0.35 underwent resting metabolic cardiac imaging utilizing 1 mCi [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) intravenously and a multicrystal gamma camera. Parametric images of regional rates of IPPA clearance and accumulation were generated. Forty-two vascular territories (22 infarcted) were evaluated by metabolic imaging as well as transmural myocardial biopsy. Despite resting akinesis or dyskinesis in 20/22 (91%) infarcted territories, 16/22 (73%) of these territories were metabolically viable. Transmural myocardial biopsies in all patients (43 sites, 42 vascular territories) during coronary bypass surgery confirmed IPPA results in 39/43 patients (91%). When compared to biopsy, scan sensitivity for viability was 33/36 (92%) with a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Eighty percent of bypassed, infarcted but IPPA viable segments demonstrated improved regional systolic wall motion postoperatively as assessed by exercise radionuclide angiography. We conclude resting IPPA imaging identifies viable myocardium, thereby providing a safe, cost-effective technique for myocardial viability assessment.

  10. Metabolic Myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness. The glycogen-storage diseases present during brief bouts of high-intensity exercise, whereas fatty acid oxidation defects and mitochondrial myopathies present during a long-duration/low-intensity endurance-type activity or during fasting or another metabolically stressful event (eg, surgery, fever). The clinical examination is often normal between acute events, and evaluation involves exercise testing, blood testing (creatine kinase, acylcarnitine profile, lactate, amino acids), urine organic acids (ketones, dicarboxylic acids, 3-methylglutaconic acid), muscle biopsy (histology, ultrastructure, enzyme testing), MRI/spectroscopy, and targeted or untargeted genetic testing. Accurate and early identification of metabolic myopathies can lead to therapeutic interventions with lifestyle and nutritional modification, cofactor treatment, and rapid treatment of rhabdomyolysis.

  11. Laser Doppler imaging of cutaneous blood flow through transparent face masks: a necessary preamble to computer-controlled rapid prototyping fabrication with submillimeter precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allely, Rebekah R; Van-Buendia, Lan B; Jeng, James C; White, Patricia; Wu, Jingshu; Niszczak, Jonathan; Jordan, Marion H

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm shift in management of postburn facial scarring is lurking "just beneath the waves" with the widespread availability of two recent technologies: precise three-dimensional scanning/digitizing of complex surfaces and computer-controlled rapid prototyping three-dimensional "printers". Laser Doppler imaging may be the sensible method to track the scar hyperemia that should form the basis of assessing progress and directing incremental changes in the digitized topographical face mask "prescription". The purpose of this study was to establish feasibility of detecting perfusion through transparent face masks using the Laser Doppler Imaging scanner. Laser Doppler images of perfusion were obtained at multiple facial regions on five uninjured staff members. Images were obtained without a mask, followed by images with a loose fitting mask with and without a silicone liner, and then with a tight fitting mask with and without a silicone liner. Right and left oblique images, in addition to the frontal images, were used to overcome unobtainable measurements at the extremes of face mask curvature. General linear model, mixed model, and t tests were used for data analysis. Three hundred seventy-five measurements were used for analysis, with a mean perfusion unit of 299 and pixel validity of 97%. The effect of face mask pressure with and without the silicone liner was readily quantified with significant changes in mean cutaneous blood flow (P face masks. Perfusion decreases with the application of pressure and with silicone. Every participant measured differently in perfusion units; however, consistent perfusion patterns in the face were observed.

  12. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J; Breuer, S; Poeggel, G; Braun, K

    2017-03-01

    In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical observations revealed that early life stress impairs dopaminergic functions, we predicted that these symptoms can be normalized by treatment with methylphenidate. In line with our hypothesis, the behavioral analysis revealed that repeated ELS induced locomotor hyperactivity and reduced attention towards an emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus. Functional imaging using ( 14 C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose-autoradiography revealed that the behavioral symptoms are paralleled by metabolic hypoactivity of prefrontal, mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. High signal in the spinal cord on T2-weighted images in rapidly progressive tropical spastic paraparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Hara, A.; Murakami, T.; Ando, Y.; Uyama, E.; Mita, S.; Uchino, M. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamashita, T. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Dept. of Neurology, Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    We report a 59-year-old woman with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis who showed high signal in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord on T2-weighted and contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  14. A technique for a rapid imaging of regional CBF and partition coefficient using dynamic SPECT and N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Iida, Hidehiro; Murakami, Matsutaro

    1993-01-01

    IMP (iodoamphetamine) is a flow tracer due to a large first pass extraction fraction and high affinity in the brain, but significant clearance from the brain causes change of distribution when the beginning time of scan is delayed. The purpose of the present study was to develop a new method to rapidly calculate a quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) image by taking clearance effects into account. A dynamic SPECT scan was performed on 5 subjects (4 patients with cerebral infarction and one normal volunteer) following slow intravenous infusion of 123 I-IMP. The arterial input function was obtained by frequent blood sampling and by measuring an octanol extraction ratio for each sample. Firstly, non-linear least square fitting (NLS) was performed to investigate the tracer kinetics of 123 I-IMP. The 3 compartment model analysis yielded negligibly small k 3 (retaining rate constant) (0.0056±0.0128 (ml/ml/min)), and consistent k 1 (transport rate constant) with those determined by 2 compartment model (2CM) analysis (r=0.96, p 1 was consistent with CBF measured by 15 O water PET technique. These observations suggested the validity of using 2CM for describing the IMP tracer kinetics. Secondly, a weighted integration (WI) technique has been implemented to calculate rapidly images of CBF and partition coefficient (V d ). The WI technique yielded values of CBF (k 1 ) and V d (k 1 /k 2 ). They were confirmed to be consistent with those determined by NLS technique (CBF; r=0.99, p d ; r=0.99, p 1 agreed well with PET CBF (r=0.91, p d in infarcted patients. This supports an importance for calculating V d image. V d image will provide additional clinical information because 123 I-IMP binding mechanism may be related to cell viability. (author)

  15. Effect of morin on pharmacokinetics of piracetam in rats, in vitro enzyme kinetics and metabolic stability assay using rapid UPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kapendra; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Siddiqui, Anees A

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Morin on the pharmacokinetics of Piracetam in rats, in vitro enzyme kinetics and metabolic stability (high throughput) studies using human liver microsomes in UPLC. For pharmacokinetics studies, male Wistar rats were pretreated with Morin (10 mg/kg) for one week and on the last day, a single dose of Piracetam (50 mg/kg) was given orally. In another group, both Morin and Piracetam were co-administered to evaluate the acute effect of Morin on Piracetam. The control group received oral distilled water for one week and administered with Piracetam on the last day. As Morin is an inhibitor of P- Glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP 3A, it was anticipated to improve the bioavailability of Piracetam. Amazingly, relative to control, the areas under the concentration time curve and peak plasma concentration of Piracetam were 1.50- and 1.45-fold, respectively, greater in the Morin-pretreated group. However, co-administration of Morin had no significant effect on these parameters. Apart from the aforementioned merits, the results of this study are further confirmed by clinical trials; Piracetam dosages should be adjusted to avoid potential drug interaction when Piracetam is used clinically in combination with Morin and Morin-containing dietary supplements. The in vitro enzyme kinetics were performed to determined km, Vmax & CLins . The in vitro metabolic stability executed for the estimation of metabolic rate constant and half-life of Piracetam. These studies also extrapolate to in vivo intrinsic hepatic clearance (Clint, in vivo ) from in vitro intrinsic hepatic clearance (CLint, in vitro ). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Rapid thin-layer chromatographic photodensitometric method for the determination of metoclopramide and clebopride in the presence of some of their metabolic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizing, G; Beckett, A H; Segura, J

    1979-04-21

    Metoclopramide and its newly developed analogue clebopride, together with some of their metabolic products are quantitated, following extraction from biological tissues and fluids, and subsequent separation on silica gel thin-layer chromatographic plates. Diazotisation, followed by coupling with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediammonium dichloride, carried out on the thin-layer plate, is utilised for visualisation. The intensity of the spots is measured by photodensitometric analysis. The effect of variation of various experimental conditions is studied. The method has proven to be satisfactory for the measurement of 20 ng/ml of these compounds in biological material; the results are well within the accepted limits of deviation.

  17. Contrast-enhanced MR venography of the head using magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo imaging. Comparison between head and body radiofrequency transmitter coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunobu, Satosi; Amanuma, Makoto; Tsukuda, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and vascular selectivity of MR venography of the head using an magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) technique when obtained with a body radiofrequency transmitter coil system. A total of 24 patients were imaged with a head or body radiofrequency (RF) transmission system. Subtraction MR angiography (MRA) was processed with 0.1 mmol Gd-DTPA administration, and signal-to-noise ratios of the vascular system were measured. Venous demonstration and selectivity were also assessed. MP-RAGE MR venography with a body transmission system showed almost the same signal intensity for the venous and arterial systems, resulting in nonspecific vascular demonstration, while the head transmission system showed semi-selective venograms owing to inflow-induced high signal on precontrast images. However, MRA with a body transmission system provided a 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher signal-to-noise ratios based on higher gradient performance and excellent demonstration of the head veins, especially those below the skull base. Although selective venography was difficult, MRA with a body transmission coil provided excellent vascular images of the brain. (author)

  18. Optimization of Sample Preparation and Instrumental Parameters for the Rapid Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Hair samples by MALDI-MS/MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Bryn; Beasley, Emma; Verlaan, Ricky M.; Cuypers, Eva; Francese, Simona; Bassindale, Tom; Clench, Malcolm R.; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has been employed to rapidly screen longitudinally sectioned drug user hair samples for cocaine and its metabolites using continuous raster imaging. Optimization of the spatial resolution and raster speed were performed on intact cocaine contaminated hair samples. The optimized settings (100 × 150 μm at 0.24 mm/s) were subsequently used to examine longitudinally sectioned drug user hair samples. The MALDI-MS/MS images showed the distribution of the most abundant cocaine product ion at m/z 182. Using the optimized settings, multiple hair samples obtained from two users were analyzed in approximately 3 h: six times faster than the standard spot-to-spot acquisition method. Quantitation was achieved using longitudinally sectioned control hair samples sprayed with a cocaine dilution series. A multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiment was also performed using the `dynamic pixel' imaging method to screen for cocaine and a range of its metabolites, in order to differentiate between contaminated hairs and drug users. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and cocaethylene were detectable, in agreement with analyses carried out using the standard LC-MS/MS method. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Acute putaminal necrosis and white matter demyelination in a child with subnormal copper metabolism in Wilson disease: MR imaging and spectroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Shy-Chy; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chu, Hsin; Zimmerman, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) that manifests solely with acute and severe neurological damage in the absence of hepatic disease and Kayser-Fleischer ring of the cornea is rare and difficult to diagnose at the acute setting. This report describes unusual diffusion and proton spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 12-year-old boy with WD who presented with hemichorea and subnormal copper metabolism. The MR imaging findings of lactate accumulation, decrease of N-acerylaspartate/creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio and markedly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the asymmetrical edematous putaminal lesions in the early stage were suggestive of acute necrosis with anaerobic metabolism of glucose leading to poor clinical outcome at follow-up. (orig.)

  20. Acute putaminal necrosis and white matter demyelination in a child with subnormal copper metabolism in Wilson disease: MR imaging and spectroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (Taiwan); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Shy-Chy; Hsueh, Chun-Jen [Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (Taiwan); Chu, Hsin [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Taipei (Taiwan); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Wilson disease (WD) that manifests solely with acute and severe neurological damage in the absence of hepatic disease and Kayser-Fleischer ring of the cornea is rare and difficult to diagnose at the acute setting. This report describes unusual diffusion and proton spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a 12-year-old boy with WD who presented with hemichorea and subnormal copper metabolism. The MR imaging findings of lactate accumulation, decrease of N-acerylaspartate/creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio and markedly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the asymmetrical edematous putaminal lesions in the early stage were suggestive of acute necrosis with anaerobic metabolism of glucose leading to poor clinical outcome at follow-up. (orig.)

  1. Rapid fusion of 2D X-ray fluoroscopy with 3D multislice CT for image-guided electrophysiology procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Manzke, Robert; Cury, Ricardo; Reddy, Vivek Y.; Chan, Raymond C.

    2007-03-01

    Interventional cardiac electrophysiology (EP) procedures are typically performed under X-ray fluoroscopy for visualizing catheters and EP devices relative to other highly-attenuating structures such as the thoracic spine and ribs. These projections do not however contain information about soft-tissue anatomy and there is a recognized need for fusion of conventional fluoroscopy with pre-operatively acquired cardiac multislice computed tomography (MSCT) volumes. Rapid 2D-3D integration in this application would allow for real-time visualization of all catheters present within the thorax in relation to the cardiovascular anatomy visible in MSCT. We present a method for rapid fusion of 2D X-ray fluoroscopy with 3DMSCT that can facilitate EP mapping and interventional procedures by reducing the need for intra-operative contrast injections to visualize heart chambers and specialized systems to track catheters within the cardiovascular anatomy. We use hardware-accelerated ray-casting to compute digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the MSCT volume and iteratively optimize the rigid-body pose of the volumetric data to maximize the similarity between the MSCT-derived DRR and the intra-operative X-ray projection data.

  2. Label-free optical imaging technologies for rapid translation and use during intraoperative surgical and tumor margin assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppart, Stephen A.; Brown, J. Quincy; Farah, Camile S.; Kho, Esther; Marcu, Laura; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2018-02-01

    The biannual International Conference on Biophotonics was recently held on April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia. This continuing conference series brought together key opinion leaders in biophotonics to present their latest results and, importantly, to participate in discussions on the future of the field and what opportunities exist when we collectively work together for using biophotonics for biological discovery and medical applications. One session in this conference, entitled "Tumor Margin Identification: Critiquing Technologies," challenged invited speakers and attendees to review and critique representative label-free optical imaging technologies and their application for intraoperative assessment and guidance in surgical oncology. We are pleased to share a summary in this outlook paper, with the intent to motivate more research inquiry and investigations, to challenge these and other optical imaging modalities to evaluate and improve performance, to spur translation and adoption, and ultimately, to improve the care and outcomes of patients.

  3. Rapid development of systemic insulin resistance with overeating is not accompanied by robust changes in skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Andrea S; Hinko, Alexander; Nelson, Rachael K; Barkan, Ariel L; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2013-05-01

    Prolonged overeating and the resultant weight gain are clearly linked with the development of insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic abnormalities, but adaptations that occur after relatively short periods of overeating are not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic adaptations that may accompany the development of insulin resistance after 2 weeks of overeating. Healthy, nonobese subjects (n = 9) were admitted to the hospital for 2 weeks, during which time they ate ∼4000 kcals·day(-1) (70 kcal·kg(-1) fat free mass·day(-1)). Insulin sensitivity was estimated during a meal tolerance test, and a muscle biopsy was obtained to assess muscle lipid accumulation and protein markers associated with insulin resistance, inflammation, and the regulation of lipid metabolism. Whole-body insulin sensitivity declined markedly after 2 weeks of overeating (Matsuda composite index: 8.3 ± 1.3 vs. 4.6 ± 0.7, p overeating. Intramyocellular lipids tended to increase after 2 weeks of overeating (triacylglyceride: 7.6 ± 1.6 vs. 10.0 ± 1.8 nmol·mg(-1) wet weight; diacylglyceride: 104 ± 10 vs. 142 ± 23 pmol·mg(-1) wet weight) but these changes did not reach statistical significance. Overeating induced a 2-fold increase in 24-h insulin response (area under the curve (AUC); p overeating.

  4. Zooplankton biomass and metabolism through image analysis systems: from the development and testing of metabolic equations to the assessment of carbon fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Garijo, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Programa de Doctorado en Oceanografía Zooplankton plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Due to their central position in the ocean’s food web, they recycle and redistribute energy and matter, not only at different levels of the trophic web, but also horizontally and vertically in the water column. Understanding the role of zooplankton in the biological pump and the ocean carbon cycle requires accurate estimates of community biomass and metabolism at large spati...

  5. A Novel Procedure for Rapid Imaging of Adult Mouse Brains with MicroCT Using Iodine-Based Contrast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Anderson

    Full Text Available High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been the primary modality for obtaining 3D cross-sectional anatomical information in animals for soft tissue, particularly brain. However, costs associated with MRI can be considerably high for large phenotypic screens for gross differences in the structure of the brain due to pathology and/or experimental manipulations. MicroCT (mCT, especially benchtop mCT, is becoming a common laboratory equipment with throughput rates equal or faster than any form of high-resolution MRI at lower costs. Here we explore adapting previously developed contrast based mCT to image adult mouse brains in-situ. We show that 2% weight per volume (w/v iodine-potassium iodide solution can be successfully used to image adult mouse brains within 48 hours post-mortem when a structural support matrix is used. We demonstrate that hydrogel can be effectively used as a perfusant which limits the tissue shrinkage due to iodine.

  6. Evaluation of heterogeneous metabolic profile in an orthotopic human glioblastoma xenograft model using compressed sensing hyperpolarized 3D 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ilwoo; Hu, Simon; Bok, Robert; Ozawa, Tomoko; Ito, Motokazu; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Phillips, Joanna J; James, C David; Pieper, Russell O; Ronen, Sabrina M; Vigneron, Daniel B; Nelson, Sarah J

    2013-07-01

    High resolution compressed sensing hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was applied in orthotopic human glioblastoma xenografts for quantitative assessment of spatial variations in (13)C metabolic profiles and comparison with histopathology. A new compressed sensing sampling design with a factor of 3.72 acceleration was implemented to enable a factor of 4 increase in spatial resolution. Compressed sensing 3D (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data were acquired from a phantom and 10 tumor-bearing rats following injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]-pyruvate using a 3T scanner. The (13)C metabolic profiles were compared with hematoxylin and eosin staining and carbonic anhydrase 9 staining. The high-resolution compressed sensing (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data enabled the differentiation of distinct (13)C metabolite patterns within abnormal tissues with high specificity in similar scan times compared to the fully sampled method. The results from pathology confirmed the different characteristics of (13)C metabolic profiles between viable, non-necrotic, nonhypoxic tumor, and necrotic, hypoxic tissue. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A preliminary feasibility study of simultaneous dual-isotope imaging with a solid-state dedicated cardiac camera for evaluating myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Toshiyuki; Utanohara, Yuko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kurihara, Makiko; Iguchi, Nobuo; Umemura, Jun; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Tomoike, Hitonobu

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT imaging with 201Tl and (123)I-β-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is used to study the perfusion-metabolism mismatch. It predicts post-ischemic functional recovery by detecting stunned myocardium. On the other hand, (99m)Tc-MIBI is another radioisotope widely used in myocardial perfusion imaging because of its better image quality and lower radiation exposure than 201Tl. However, since the photopeak energies of (99m)Tc and (123)I are very similar, crosstalk hampers the simultaneous use of these two radioisotopes. To overcome this problem, we conducted simultaneous dual-isotope imaging study using the D-SPECT scanner (Spectrum-Dynamics, Israel) which has a novel detector design and excellent energy resolution. We first conducted a basic experiment using cardiac phantom to simulate the condition of normal perfusion and impaired fatty acid metabolism. Subsequently, we prospectively recruited 30 consecutive patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, and performed (99m)Tc-MIBI/(123)I-BMIPP dual-isotope imaging within 5 days after reperfusion. Images were interpreted by two experienced cardiovascular radiologists to identify the infarcted and stunned areas based on the coronary artery territories. As a result, cardiac phantom experiment revealed no significant crosstalk between (99m)Tc and (123)I. In the subsequent clinical study, (99m)Tc-MIBI/(123)I-BMIPP dual-isotope imaging in all participant yielded excellent image quality and detected infarcted and stunned areas correctly when compared with coronary angiographic findings. Furthermore, we were able to reduce radiation exposure to significantly approximately one-eighth. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated the practical application of simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism by (99m)Tc-MIBI and (123)I-BMIPP using a D-SPECT cardiac scanner. Compared with conventional (201)Tl

  8. Neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2- and 6-fluorodopamine: false neurotransmitters for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Hovevey-Sion, D.; Kopin, I.J.; Miletich, R.; Kirk, K.L.; Finn, R.; Goldstein, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2-fluorodopamine (2F-dopamine), 6-fluorodopamine (6F-dopamine) and tritium-labeled dopamine were compared in heart, submaxillary gland and spleen of rats to assess the utility of 18F-labeled 2F- or 6F-dopamine for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues. Tritiated dopamine with and without 2F- or 6F-dopamine, or tritiated 2F-dopamine alone, were injected i.v. into rats that were or were not pretreated with desipramine to block catecholamine neuronal uptake or with reserpine to block vesicular translocation of catecholamines. Tissue and plasma samples were obtained at intervals up to 1 hr after injections. At 1 hr after injection of tritiated dopamine, tritium-labeled norepinephrine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglucol accounted for less than 2% of the tritium in plasma but up to 92% of that in tissues; tritiated norepinephrine accounted for 70% or more of the tritium in tissues. In contrast, at 1 hr after injection of tritiated 2F-dopamine, tritiated 2F-norepinephrine accounted for 30 to 46% of the tritium in tissues. Desipramine and reserpine pretreatment blocked the tissue accumulation of tritiated and fluorinated dopamine as well as their dihydroxy-metabolites, indicating that accumulation of exogenous norepinephrine and dopamine analogs was within sympathetic storage vesicles. Relative to the doses of dopamine precursors, less 2F- and 6F-norepinephrine accumulated in tissues than tritiated norepinephrine, due largely to inefficient beta-hydroxylation of fluorinated dopamine.

  9. Neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2- and 6-fluorodopamine: false neurotransmitters for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Hovevey-Sion, D.; Kopin, I.J.; Miletich, R.; Kirk, K.L.; Finn, R.; Goldstein, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2-fluorodopamine (2F-dopamine), 6-fluorodopamine (6F-dopamine) and tritium-labeled dopamine were compared in heart, submaxillary gland and spleen of rats to assess the utility of 18F-labeled 2F- or 6F-dopamine for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues. Tritiated dopamine with and without 2F- or 6F-dopamine, or tritiated 2F-dopamine alone, were injected i.v. into rats that were or were not pretreated with desipramine to block catecholamine neuronal uptake or with reserpine to block vesicular translocation of catecholamines. Tissue and plasma samples were obtained at intervals up to 1 hr after injections. At 1 hr after injection of tritiated dopamine, tritium-labeled norepinephrine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglucol accounted for less than 2% of the tritium in plasma but up to 92% of that in tissues; tritiated norepinephrine accounted for 70% or more of the tritium in tissues. In contrast, at 1 hr after injection of tritiated 2F-dopamine, tritiated 2F-norepinephrine accounted for 30 to 46% of the tritium in tissues. Desipramine and reserpine pretreatment blocked the tissue accumulation of tritiated and fluorinated dopamine as well as their dihydroxy-metabolites, indicating that accumulation of exogenous norepinephrine and dopamine analogs was within sympathetic storage vesicles. Relative to the doses of dopamine precursors, less 2F- and 6F-norepinephrine accumulated in tissues than tritiated norepinephrine, due largely to inefficient beta-hydroxylation of fluorinated dopamine

  10. Knock-in/Knock-out (KIKO) vectors for rapid integration of large DNA sequences, including whole metabolic pathways, onto the Escherichia coli chromosome at well-characterised loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Suriana; Steen, Jennifer A; Bongers, Mareike; Nielsen, Lars K; Vickers, Claudia E

    2013-06-24

    Metabolic engineering projects often require integration of multiple genes in order to control the desired phenotype. However, this often requires iterative rounds of engineering because many current insertion approaches are limited by the size of the DNA that can be transferred onto the chromosome. Consequently, construction of highly engineered strains is very time-consuming. A lack of well-characterised insertion loci is also problematic. A series of knock-in/knock-out (KIKO) vectors was constructed for integration of large DNA sequences onto the E. coli chromosome at well-defined loci. The KIKO plasmids target three nonessential genes/operons as insertion sites: arsB (an arsenite transporter); lacZ (β-galactosidase); and rbsA-rbsR (a ribose metabolism operon). Two homologous 'arms' target each insertion locus; insertion is mediated by λ Red recombinase through these arms. Between the arms is a multiple cloning site for the introduction of exogenous sequences and an antibiotic resistance marker (either chloramphenicol or kanamycin) for selection of positive recombinants. The resistance marker can subsequently be removed by flippase-mediated recombination. The insertion cassette is flanked by hairpin loops to isolate it from the effects of external transcription at the integration locus. To characterize each target locus, a xylanase reporter gene (xynA) was integrated onto the chromosomes of E. coli strains W and K-12 using the KIKO vectors. Expression levels varied between loci, with the arsB locus consistently showing the highest level of expression. To demonstrate the simultaneous use of all three loci in one strain, xynA, green fluorescent protein (gfp) and a sucrose catabolic operon (cscAKB) were introduced into lacZ, arsB and rbsAR respectively, and shown to be functional. The KIKO plasmids are a useful tool for efficient integration of large DNA fragments (including multiple genes and pathways) into E. coli. Chromosomal insertion provides stable

  11. Rapid assessment of different oxygenic phototrophs and single-cell photosynthesis with multicolour variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trampe, Erik Christian Løvbjerg; Kolbowski, J.; Schreiber, U.

    2011-01-01

    , red or white light. Automated sequential exposure of microscopic samples to the three excitation colours enables subsequent deconvolution of the resulting fluorescence signals and colour marking of cells with different photopigmentation, i.e., cyanobacteria, green algae, red algae and diatoms....... The photosynthetic activity in complex mixtures of phototrophs and natural samples can thus be assigned to different types of phototrophs, which can be quantified simultaneously. Here, we describe the composition and performance of the new imaging system and present applications with both natural phytoplankton...

  12. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for

  13. Rapid small-angle X-ray diffraction of a tonically contracting molluscan smooth muscle recorded with imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Y.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, O.; Seto, T.; Amemiya, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns from the anterior byssus retractor muscles of Mytilus edulis contracting tonically in response to stimulation with acetylcholine were recorded in a 30 s exposure with synchrotron radiation and a high-sensitivity X-ray area detector called an imaging plate. The 190 A layer line from the thin filaments increased in intensity with increase in tonic tension up to 6x10 4 kg m -2 . Above this value, the layer-line intensity remained almost constant and comparable to that for a contracting skeletal muscle, indicating that the same structural changes of the thin filaments occur in both muscles. (orig.)

  14. Rapid computation of single PET scan rest-stress myocardial blood flow parametric images by table look up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guehl, Nicolas J; Normandin, Marc D; Wooten, Dustin W; Rozen, Guy; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Shoup, Timothy M; Woo, Jonghye; Ptaszek, Leon M; Fakhri, Georges El; Alpert, Nathaniel M

    2017-09-01

    We have recently reported a method for measuring rest-stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) using a single, relatively short, PET scan session. The method requires two IV tracer injections, one to initiate rest imaging and one at peak stress. We previously validated absolute flow quantitation in ml/min/cc for standard bull's eye, segmental analysis. In this work, we extend the method for fast computation of rest-stress MBF parametric images. We provide an analytic solution to the single-scan rest-stress flow model which is then solved using a two-dimensional table lookup method (LM). Simulations were performed to compare the accuracy and precision of the lookup method with the original nonlinear method (NLM). Then the method was applied to 16 single scan rest/stress measurements made in 12 pigs: seven studied after infarction of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) territory, and nine imaged in the native state. Parametric maps of rest and stress MBF as well as maps of left (f LV ) and right (f RV ) ventricular spill-over fractions were generated. Regions of interest (ROIs) for 17 myocardial segments were defined in bull's eye fashion on the parametric maps. The mean of each ROI was then compared to the rest (K 1r ) and stress (K 1s ) MBF estimates obtained from fitting the 17 regional TACs with the NLM. In simulation, the LM performed as well as the NLM in terms of precision and accuracy. The simulation did not show that bias was introduced by the use of a predefined two-dimensional lookup table. In experimental data, parametric maps demonstrated good statistical quality and the LM was computationally much more efficient than the original NLM. Very good agreement was obtained between the mean MBF calculated on the parametric maps for each of the 17 ROIs and the regional MBF values estimated by the NLM (K 1map LM  = 1.019 × K 1 ROI NLM  + 0.019, R 2  = 0.986; mean difference = 0.034 ± 0.036 mL/min/cc). We developed a table lookup method for fast

  15. A simple, rapid method to isolate salt glands for three-dimensional visualization, fluorescence imaging and cytological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tit-Meng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some plants inhabiting saline environment remove salts via the salt glands embedded in the epidermal tissues. Cytological studies of salt glands will provide valuable information to our understanding of the secretory process. Previous studies on salt gland histology relied mainly on two-dimensional microscopic observations of microtome sections. Optical sectioning properties of confocal laser scanning microscope offer alternative approach for obtaining three-dimensional structural information of salt glands. Difficulty in light penetration through intact leaves and interference from neighbouring leaf cells, however, impede the acquiring of good optical salt gland sections and limit its applications in salt gland imaging. Freeing the glands from adjacent leaf tissues will allow better manipulations for three-dimensional imaging through confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results Here, we present a simple and fast method for the isolation of individual salt glands released from the interference of neighbouring cells. About 100-200 salt glands could be isolated from just one cm2 of Avicennia officinalis leaf within hours and microscopic visualization of isolated salt glands was made possible within a day. Using these isolated glands, confocal laser scanning microscopic techniques could be applied and better resolution salt gland images could be achieved. By making use of their intrinsic fluorescent properties, optical sections of the gland cells could be acquired without the use of fluorescent probes and the corresponding three-dimensional images constructed. Useful cytological information of the salt gland cells could also be obtained through the applications of fluorescent dyes (e.g., LysoTracker® Red, FM®4-64, Texas Red®. Conclusions The study of salt glands directly at the glandular level are made possible with the successful isolation of these specialized structures. Preparation of materials for subsequent microscopic

  16. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging protocol for detecting femoral head avascular necrosis: A case series-it′s utility in the general population in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sanjay Khaladkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is an increasing cause of musculoskeletal disability, common among the younger population, between the third and fifth decade of life, affecting mainly men, thereby requiring prompt diagnosis and early intervention. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to formulate a limited magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination protocol for detection of avascular necrosis (AVN in clinically suspected cases that can be performed rapidly and will be inexpensive. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients suspected clinically and or on conventional radiography for AVN of the femoral head were referred for MRI hip. MRI hip was done on 1.5 T Siemens Avanto. Of 45, 36 were detected to have AVN (total 58 hips, whereas 9 did not have AVN on MRI. Initially, coronal T1-weighted image (T1WI sequence was obtained as limited MRI protocol, followed by complete MRI examination. Results: Maximum patients belonged to age group 31-40 (30.5%. 32 (88.88% patients were males and 4 (11.11% were females. Bilateral AVN was detected in 44 (61.1% and unilateral in 14 patients (38.8%. Pre collapsed stage (Stages I and II was detected in 18 hips (31.03%, collapsed stage (Stages III and IV was detected in 40 hips (68.9%. Peripheral low-intensity rim was seen on T1WI in all 58 cases of AVN. Double line sign on T2-weighted image was seen in 33/58 (56.8%. Conclusion: Our study concluded that coronal T1W sequence is an easy, rapid and cost-effective method of detecting unilateral or bilateral AVN.

  17. Rapid Measurement and Correction of Phase Errors from B0 Eddy Currents: Impact on Image Quality for Non-Cartesian Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Ethan K.; Klaers, Jessica L.; Samsonov, Alexey A.; Kijowski, Richard; Block, Walter F.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Cartesian imaging sequences and navigational methods can be more sensitive to scanner imperfections that have little impact on conventional clinical sequences, an issue which has repeatedly complicated the commercialization of these techniques by frustrating transitions to multi-center evaluations. One such imperfection is phase errors caused by resonant frequency shifts from eddy currents induced in the cryostat by time-varying gradients, a phenomemon known as B0 eddy currents. These phase errors can have a substantial impact on sequences that use ramp sampling, bipolar gradients, and readouts at varying azimuthal angles. We present a method for measuring and correcting phase errors from B0 eddy currents and examine the results on two different scanner models. This technique yields significant improvements in image quality for high-resolution joint imaging on certain scanners. The results suggest that correction of short time B0 eddy currents in manufacturer provided service routines would simplify adoption of non-Cartesian sampling methods. PMID:22488532

  18. Myocardial metabolism of 123I-BMIPP under low-dose dobutamine infusion: implications for clinical SPECT imaging of ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kambara, Naoshige; Ohba, Muneo; Tadamura, Eiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Nohara, Ryuji; Hirai, Taku; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2005-01-01

    123 I-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) is a fatty acid analog for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that is mainly stored in the triglyceride pool. Low-dose dobutamine infusion has been reported to improve BMIPP uptake in the stunned myocardium, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the myocardial metabolism of 123 I-BMIPP in the stunned myocardium under low-dose dobutamine infusion, and to elucidate the mechanism by which dobutamine improves BMIPP uptake. Using open-chest dogs, stunned myocardium was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 min, with subsequent reperfusion (ischemia group, n=6). After direct injection of BMIPP into the LAD, myocardial extraction and retention were examined and metabolites evaluated (using high-performance liquid chromatography) during dobutamine infusion. The results in the ischemia group were compared with findings obtained in a control group under dobutamine infusion (n=6). Dobutamine infusion significantly increased both the rapid extraction (within 30 s) of BMIPP into the myocardium (control vs ischemia group: 48±19% vs 66±14%, p<0.05) and its subsequent retention (73±13% vs 85±8%, p<0.05). The metabolites from the myocardium consisted of back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP, the alpha-oxidation metabolite, intermediate metabolites, and the full-oxidation metabolite. Among these metabolites, the full-oxidation metabolite decreased significantly (from 34.0±20.0% to 15.8±9.3%, p<0.05) in the stunned regions, though back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP increased (from 51.3±21.9% to 71.3±10.1%, p<0.05). These results indicate that increased uptake of BMIPP in stunned myocardium is mainly due to decreased beta-oxidation in tissue and increased shunt retention of BMIPP in the triglyceride pool, and thereby provide further insight into the pathophysiology of

  19. Myocardial metabolism of {sup 123}I-BMIPP under low-dose dobutamine infusion: implications for clinical SPECT imaging of ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kambara, Naoshige; Ohba, Muneo; Tadamura, Eiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nohara, Ryuji [The Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Department of Cardiology, Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Hirai, Taku [Kinki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Nara Hospital, Nara (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Fukui Medical University, Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    {sup 123}I-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) is a fatty acid analog for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that is mainly stored in the triglyceride pool. Low-dose dobutamine infusion has been reported to improve BMIPP uptake in the stunned myocardium, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the myocardial metabolism of {sup 123}I-BMIPP in the stunned myocardium under low-dose dobutamine infusion, and to elucidate the mechanism by which dobutamine improves BMIPP uptake. Using open-chest dogs, stunned myocardium was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 min, with subsequent reperfusion (ischemia group, n=6). After direct injection of BMIPP into the LAD, myocardial extraction and retention were examined and metabolites evaluated (using high-performance liquid chromatography) during dobutamine infusion. The results in the ischemia group were compared with findings obtained in a control group under dobutamine infusion (n=6). Dobutamine infusion significantly increased both the rapid extraction (within 30 s) of BMIPP into the myocardium (control vs ischemia group: 48{+-}19% vs 66{+-}14%, p<0.05) and its subsequent retention (73{+-}13% vs 85{+-}8%, p<0.05). The metabolites from the myocardium consisted of back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP, the alpha-oxidation metabolite, intermediate metabolites, and the full-oxidation metabolite. Among these metabolites, the full-oxidation metabolite decreased significantly (from 34.0{+-}20.0% to 15.8{+-}9.3%, p<0.05) in the stunned regions, though back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP increased (from 51.3{+-}21.9% to 71.3{+-}10.1%, p<0.05). These results indicate that increased uptake of BMIPP in stunned myocardium is mainly due to decreased beta-oxidation in tissue and increased shunt retention of BMIPP in the triglyceride pool, and thereby provide further insight

  20. A biodegradable colorimetric film for rapid low-cost field determination of formaldehyde contamination by digital image colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongniramaikul, Worawit; Limsakul, Wadcharawadee; Choodum, Aree

    2018-05-30

    A biodegradable colorimetric film was fabricated on the lid of portable tube for in-tube formaldehyde detection. Based on the entrapment of colorimetric reagents within a thin film of tapioca starch, the yellow reaction product was observed with formaldehyde. Intensity of the blue channel from the digital image of yellow product showed a linear relationship in the range of 0-25 mg L -1 with low detection limit of 0.7 ± 0.1 mg L -1 . Inter-day precision of 0.61-3.10%RSD were obtained with less than 4.2% relative error from control samples. The developed method was applied for various food samples in Phuket and formaldehyde concentration range was non-detectable to 1.413 mg kg -1 . The quantified concentrations of formaldehyde in fish and squid samples provided relative errors of -7.7% and +10.8% compared to spectrophotometry. This low cost sensor (∼0.04 USD/test) with digital image colorimetry was thus an effective alternative for formaldehyde detection in food sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 68Ga-THP-PSMA: A PET Imaging Agent for Prostate Cancer Offering Rapid, Room-Temperature, 1-Step Kit-Based Radiolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer D; Abbate, Vincenzo; Imberti, Cinzia; Meszaros, Levente K; Ma, Michelle T; Terry, Samantha Y A; Hider, Robert C; Mullen, Greg E; Blower, Philip J

    2017-08-01

    The clinical impact and accessibility of 68 Ga tracers for the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and other targets would be greatly enhanced by the availability of a simple, 1-step kit-based labeling process. Radiopharmacy staff are accustomed to such procedures in the daily preparation of 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals. Currently, chelating agents used in 68 Ga radiopharmaceuticals do not meet this ideal. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate preclinically a 68 Ga radiotracer for imaging PSMA expression that could be radiolabeled simply by addition of 68 Ga generator eluate to a cold kit. Methods: A conjugate of a tris(hydroxypyridinone) (THP) chelator with the established urea-based PSMA inhibitor was synthesized and radiolabeled with 68 Ga by adding generator eluate directly to a vial containing the cold precursors THP-PSMA and sodium bicarbonate, with no further manipulation. It was analyzed after 5 min by instant thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The product was subjected to in vitro studies to determine PSMA affinity using PSMA-expressing DU145-PSMA cells, with their nonexpressing analog DU145 as a control. In vivo PET imaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies were performed in mice bearing xenografts of the same cell lines, comparing 68 Ga-THP-PSMA with 68 Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA. Results: Radiolabeling was complete (>95%) within 5 min at room temperature, showing a single radioactive species by high-performance liquid chromatography that was stable in human serum for more than 6 h and showed specific binding to PSMA-expressing cells (concentration giving 50% inhibition of 361 ± 60 nM). In vivo PET imaging showed specific uptake in PSMA-expressing tumors, reaching 5.6 ± 1.2 percentage injected dose per cubic centimeter at 40-60 min and rapid clearance from blood to kidney and bladder. The tumor uptake, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics were not significantly different from those of 68 Ga

  2. Crowdsourcing Rapid Assessment of Collapsed Buildings Early after the Earthquake Based on Aerial Remote Sensing Image: A Case Study of Yushu Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS images play a significant role in disaster emergency response. Web2.0 changes the way data are created, making it possible for the public to participate in scientific issues. In this paper, an experiment is designed to evaluate the reliability of crowdsourcing buildings collapse assessment in the early time after an earthquake based on aerial remote sensing image. The procedure of RS data pre-processing and crowdsourcing data collection is presented. A probabilistic model including maximum likelihood estimation (MLE, Bayes’ theorem and expectation-maximization (EM algorithm are applied to quantitatively estimate the individual error-rate and “ground truth” according to multiple participants’ assessment results. An experimental area of Yushu earthquake is provided to present the results contributed by participants. Following the results, some discussion is provided regarding accuracy and variation among participants. The features of buildings labeled as the same damage type are found highly consistent. This suggests that the building damage assessment contributed by crowdsourcing can be treated as reliable samples. This study shows potential for a rapid building collapse assessment through crowdsourcing and quantitatively inferring “ground truth” according to crowdsourcing data in the early time after the earthquake based on aerial remote sensing image.

  3. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation ( 0 ) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue. (orig.) [de

  4. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation (< 90/sup 0/) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue.

  5. Rapid Visualization of Human Tumor Xenografts through Optical Imaging with a Near-Infrared Fluorescent Anti–Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Nanobody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is found in many types of human epithelial cancers, noninvasive molecular imaging of this receptor is of great interest. A number of studies have employed monoclonal antibodies as probes; however, their characteristic long half-life in the bloodstream has encouraged the development of smaller probes. In this study, an anti-EGFR nanobody-based probe was developed and tested in comparison with cetuximab for application in optical molecular imaging. To this aim, the anti-EGFR nanobody 7D12 and cetuximab were conjugated to the near-infrared fluorophore IRDye800CW. 7D12-IR allowed the visualization of tumors as early as 30 minutes postinjection, whereas with cetuximab-IR, no signal above background was observed at the tumor site. Quantification of the IR-conjugated proteins in the tumors revealed ≈ 17% of injected dose per gram 2 hours after injection of 7D12-IR, which was significantly higher than the tumor uptake obtained 24 hours after injection of cetuximab-IR. This difference is associated with the superior penetration and distribution of 7D12-IR within the tumor. These results demonstrate that this anti-EGFR nanobody conjugated to the NIR fluorophore has excellent properties for rapid preclinical optical imaging, which holds promise for its future use as a complementary diagnostic tool in humans.

  6. Rapid palatal expansion effects on mandibular transverse dimensions in unilateral posterior crossbite patients: a three-dimensional digital imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ugolini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate indirect effects on mandibular arch dimensions, 1 year after rapid palatal expansion (RPE therapy. Methods Thirty-three patients in mixed dentition (mean age 8.8 years showing unilateral posterior crossbite and maxillary deficiency were treated with a RPE (Haas type cemented on the first permanent molars. Treatment protocol consisted of two turns per day until slight overcorrection of the molar transverse relationship occurred. The Haas expander was kept on the teeth as a passive retainer for an average of 6 months. Study models were taken prior (T1 and 15 months on average (T2 after expansion. A control group of 15 untreated subjects with maxillary deficiency (mean age 8.3 years was also recorded with a 12-month interval. Stone casts were digitized with a 3D scanner (3Shape, DK. Results In the treated group, both mandibular intermolar distance (+1.9 mm and mandibular molar angulation (+9° increased. Mandibular incisor angulation showed an increase of 1.9°. There was little effect on intercanine distance and canine angulation. Controls showed a reduction in transverse arch dimension and a decrease in molar and canine angulation values. Conclusions RPE protocol has indirect widening effects on the mandibular incisors and first molars.

  7. A system for applying rapid warming or cooling stimuli to cells during patch clamp recording or ion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G; Amuzescu, B; Zech, E; Flonta, M L

    2001-10-15

    We describe a system for superfusing small groups of cells at a precisely controlled and rapidly adjustable local temperature. Before being applied to the cell or cells under study, solutions are heated or cooled in a chamber of small volume ( approximately 150 microl) and large surface area, sandwiched between four small Peltier elements. The current through the Peltier elements is controlled by a microprocessor using a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) feedback algorithm. The chamber can be heated to at least 60 degrees C and cooled to 0 degrees C, changing its temperature at a maximum rate of about 7 degrees C per second; temperature ramps can be followed under feedback control at up to 4 degrees C per second. Temperature commands can be applied from the digital-to-analogue converter of any laboratory interface or generated digitally by the microprocessor. The peak-to-peak noise contributed by the system does not exceed that contributed by a patch pipette, holder and headstage, making it suitable for single channel as well as whole cell recordings.

  8. Self-adaptive method to distinguish inner and outer contours of industrial computed tomography image for rapid prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Liming; Ye Yong; Zhang Xia; Zuo Jian

    2013-01-01

    A self-adaptive identification method is proposed for realizing more accurate and efficient judgment about the inner and outer contours of industrial computed tomography (CT) slice images. The convexity-concavity of the single-pixel-wide closed contour is identified with angle method at first. Then, contours with concave vertices are distinguished to be inner or outer contours with ray method, and contours without concave vertices are distinguished with extreme coordinate value method. The method was chosen to automatically distinguish contours by means of identifying the convexity and concavity of the contours. Thus, the disadvantages of single distinguishing methods, such as ray method's time-consuming and extreme coordinate method's fallibility, can be avoided. The experiments prove the adaptability, efficiency, and accuracy of the self-adaptive method. (authors)

  9. In vivo imaging reveals rapid astrocyte depletion and axon damage in a model of neuromyelitis optica-related pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herwerth, Marina; Kalluri, Sudhakar Reddy; Srivastava, Rajneesh

    2016-01-01

    IgG autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), an astrocytic water channel. Antibodies against AQP4 can damage astrocytes via complement, but NMO histopathology also shows demyelination, and - importantly - axon injury, which may determine permanent deficits following NMO relapses. The dynamics...... antibodies in mice. RESULTS: We found that human AQP4 antibodies caused acute astrocyte depletion with initial oligodendrocyte survival. Within two hours of antibody application, we observed secondary axon injury in the form of progressive swellings. Astrocyte toxicity and axon damage were dependent on AQP4...... antibody concentration and complement, specifically C1q. INTERPRETATION: In vivo imaging of the spinal cord reveals the swift development of NMO-related acute axon injury following AQP4 antibody-mediated astrocyte depletion. This approach will be useful in studying the mechanisms underlying the spread...

  10. A comparison of rapid-scanning X-ray fluorescence mapping and magnetic resonance imaging to localize brain iron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, Richard P.E.; Harder, Sheri L.; Martin, Melanie; Buist, Richard; Nichol, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of many neurodegenerative disorders relies primarily or exclusively on observed behaviors rather than measurable physical tests. One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the presence of amyloid-containing plaques associated with deposits of iron, copper and/or zinc. Work in other laboratories has shown that iron-rich plaques can be seen in the mouse brain in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a high-field strength magnet but this iron cannot be visualized in humans using clinical magnets. To improve the interpretation of MRI, we correlated iron accumulation visualized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, an element-specific technique with T1, T2, and susceptibility weighted MR (SWI) in a mouse model of AD. We show that SWI best shows areas of increased iron accumulation when compared to standard sequences

  11. Myocardial viability assessment with dynamic low-dose iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic imaging: comparison with myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G L; Schad, N C; Magill, H L; Vander Zwaag, R

    1994-04-01

    Aggressive cardiac revascularization requires recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium, and cost considerations may well govern the technique used. Dynamic low-dose (1 mCi) [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic imaging is a potential alternative to PET using either 18FDG or 15O-water. Resting IPPA images were obtained from patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy, and transmural myocardial biopsies were obtained during coronary bypass surgery to confirm viability. Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) biopsies confirmed the results of the IPPA images with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36 (92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Postoperatively, wall motion improved in 80% of IPPA-viable, dysfunctional segments. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-TI) scans after myocardial infarction, IPPA-SPECT-TI concordance occurred in 27/35 (77%) (K = 0.536, p = 0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-TI, 26/35 (74%) versus 18/35 (51%) (p = 0.047). Metabolic IPPA cardiac viability imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique that may be a useful alternative to PET.

  12. The effect of light and ancymidol on the metabolism of 14C-ent-Kaurene in photoblastic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazebroek, J.P.; Coolbaugh, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of light ancymidol on the metabolism of 14 C-kaurene in light-requiring lettuce seeds was investigated. Seeds were soaked in a solution of 14 C-kaurene in CH 2 Cl 2 with 0.1% Tween-20 for 24 h. The treatment did not reduce viability nor alter the light requirement. The solvent was removed and the seeds were incubated at 25 degree C in continuous light or dark in 20% (w/v) PEG or 10 mM anycymidol. Labeled metabolites were extracted and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. 14 C-Kaurenol and 14 C-kaurenal were identified in seed incubated in 20% PeG in the light, while no acid EtOAc-soluble metabolites were found in seeds incubated in the dark. In the presence of ancymidol, 14 C-karuenol, 14 C-kaurenal, and a polar metabolite were found in seeds exposed to light, while only a trace of 14 C-kaurenol was detected in seeds incubated in the dark. These results indicate that the oxidation of kaurene is a light sensitive step in the biosynthesis of gibberellins in photoblastic lettuce seeds. Under these conditions ancymidol inhibits germination at a site different than the light sensitive kaurene oxidation step

  13. Rapid and accurate liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong; Ma, Bingliang; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2015-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes play a central role in the biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous substances. A sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the products of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. After the substrates were incubated separately, the samples were pooled and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source in the positive and negative ion modes. The method exhibited linearity over a broad concentration range, insensitivity to matrix effects, and high accuracy, precision, and stability. The novel method was successfully applied to study the kinetics of phenacetin-O deethylation, coumarin-7 hydroxylation, bupropion hydroxylation, taxol-6 hydroxylation, omeprazole-5 hydroxylation, dextromethorphan-O demethylation, tolbutamide-4 hydroxylation, chlorzoxazone-6 hydroxylation, testosterone-6β hydroxylation, and midazolam-1 hydroxylation in rat liver microsomes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Flux response of glycolysis and storage metabolism during rapid feast/famine conditions in Penicillium chrysogenum using dynamic (13)C labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Lodewijk; Buijs, Nicolaas A A; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M; Abate, Alessandro; Wahl, S Aljoscha

    2014-03-01

    The scale-up of fermentation processes frequently leads to a reduced productivity compared to small-scale screening experiments. Large-scale mixing limitations that lead to gradients in substrate and oxygen availability could influence the microorganism performance. Here, the impact of substrate gradients on a penicillin G producing Penicillium chrysogenum cultivation was analyzed using an intermittent glucose feeding regime. The intermittent feeding led to fluctuations in the extracellular glucose concentration between 400 μM down to 6.5 μM at the end of the cycle. The intracellular metabolite concentrations responded strongly and showed up to 100-fold changes. The intracellular flux changes were estimated on the basis of dynamic (13) C mass isotopomer measurements during three cycles of feast and famine using a novel hybrid modeling approach. The flux estimations indicated a high turnover of internal and external storage metabolites in P. chrysogenum under feast/famine conditions. The synthesis and degradation of storage requires cellular energy (ATP and UTP) in competition with other cellular functions including product formation. Especially, 38% of the incoming glucose was recycled once in storage metabolism. This result indicated that storage turnover is increased under dynamic cultivation conditions and contributes to the observed decrease in productivity compared to reference steady-state conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Rapid estimation of the vertebral body volume: a combination of the Cavalieri principle and computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaci, Ersan; Sahin, Buenyamin; Sonmez, Osman Fikret; Kaplan, Sueleyman; Bas, Orhan; Bilgic, Sait; Bek, Yueksel; Erguer, Hayati

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The exact volume of the vertebral body is necessary for the evaluation, treatment and surgical application of related vertebral body. Thereby, the volume changes of the vertebral body are monitored, such as infectious diseases of vertebra and traumatic or non-traumatic fractures and deformities of the spine. Several studies have been conducted for the assessment of the vertebral body size based on the evaluation of the different criteria of the spine using different techniques. However, we have not found any detailed study in the literature describing the combination of the Cavalieri principle and vertebral body volume estimation. Materials and methods: In the present study we describe a rapid, simple, accurate and practical technique for estimating the volume of vertebral body. Two specimens were taken from the cadavers including ten lumbar vertebras and were scanned in axial, sagittal and coronal section planes by a computed tomography (CT) machine. The consecutive sections in 5 and 3 mm thicknesses were used to estimate the total volume of the vertebral bodies by means of the Cavalieri principle. Furthermore, to evaluate inter-observer differences the volume estimations were carried out by three performers. Results: There were no significant differences between the performers' estimates and real volumes of the vertebral bodies (P>0.05) and also between the performers' volume estimates (P>0.05). The section thickness and the section plains did not affect the accuracy of the estimates (P>0.05). A high correlation was seen between the estimates of performers and the real volumes of the vertebral bodies (r=0.881). Conclusion: We concluded that the combination of CT scanning with the Cavalieri principle is a direct and accurate technique that can be safely applied to estimate the volume of the vertebral body with the mean of 5 min and 11 s workload per vertebra

  16. Rapid prototyping of SoC-based real-time vision system: application to image preprocessing and face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Maher; Alfalou, Ayman

    2017-05-01

    By this paper, the major goal is to investigate the Multi-CPU/FPGA SoC (System on Chip) design flow and to transfer a know-how and skills to rapidly design embedded real-time vision system. Our aim is to show how the use of these devices can be benefit for system level integration since they make possible simultaneous hardware and software development. We take the facial detection and pretreatments as case study since they have a great potential to be used in several applications such as video surveillance, building access control and criminal identification. The designed system use the Xilinx Zedboard platform. The last is the central element of the developed vision system. The video acquisition is performed using either standard webcam connected to the Zedboard via USB interface or several camera IP devices. The visualization of video content and intermediate results are possible with HDMI interface connected to HD display. The treatments embedded in the system are as follow: (i) pre-processing such as edge detection implemented in the ARM and in the reconfigurable logic, (ii) software implementation of motion detection and face detection using either ViolaJones or LBP (Local Binary Pattern), and (iii) application layer to select processing application and to display results in a web page. One uniquely interesting feature of the proposed system is that two functions have been developed to transmit data from and to the VDMA port. With the proposed optimization, the hardware implementation of the Sobel filter takes 27 ms and 76 ms for 640x480, and 720p resolutions, respectively. Hence, with the FPGA implementation, an acceleration of 5 times is obtained which allow the processing of 37 fps and 13 fps for 640x480, and 720p resolutions, respectively.

  17. Direct observation of characteristic dissociation behaviors of hydrate-bearing cores by rapid-scanning X-ray CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinuma, T.; Oyama, H.; Utiumi, T.; Nagao, J.; Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Toyohiraku, Sapporo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrate has significant potential as a new source of energy. Major considerations in developing production methods of methane from hydrates are the fundamental properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, and the dissociation behavior of methane hydrate and the gas and water flow generated by its dissociation in sediments. Marine methane hydrates occur several hundred meters below the sea floor, in a variety of forms. The pore-space filling-type is considered to be the most suited to exploitation, as it is contained within the pore spaces of sandy sediments, and has relatively larger gas permeability compared to other forms. However, shallow sandy sediments are not usually consolidated, and methane hydrate is unstable at normal pressure and temperature. Therefore, common methods are not suitable, and new experimental methods have been developed to study the properties of hydrate-bearing sediment and its dissociation process. This paper presented the results of an experimental study involving the dissociation of artificial methane-hydrate-bearing sediments. The experiment was performed using X-ray computed tomography in order to directly observe dissociation behavior in the sediments and the gas and water flows generated by dissociation. The paper described the depressurization process and presented a schematic diagram of rapid scanning X-ray computed tomography scanner and core holder with tri-axial structure. The experimental apparatus for dissociation of methane hydrate was also illustrated. The thermal stimulation process and hot water injection process were explained. It was concluded that dissociation by depressurization demonstrated that the temperature reduction induced by depressurization depended on the phase equilibrium state of methane hydrate, and that dissociation preferentially occurred at the periphery of the core. This behavior was due to the heat flux from the outside of the core, where the heat flux controlled the dissociation rate. 10 refs

  18. Multiparametric imaging of patient and tumour heterogeneity in non-small-cell lung cancer: quantification of tumour hypoxia, metabolism and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmpt, Wouter van; Zegers, Catharina M.L.; Reymen, Bart; Even, Aniek J.G.; Oellers, Michel; Troost, Esther G.C.; Lambin, Philippe [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Dingemans, Anne-Marie C. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Multiple imaging techniques are nowadays available for clinical in-vivo visualization of tumour biology. FDG PET/CT identifies increased tumour metabolism, hypoxia PET visualizes tumour oxygenation and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT characterizes vasculature and morphology. We explored the relationships among these biological features in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at both the patient level and the tumour subvolume level. A group of 14 NSCLC patients from two ongoing clinical trials (NCT01024829 and NCT01210378) were scanned using FDG PET/CT, HX4 PET/CT and DCE CT prior to chemoradiotherapy. Standardized uptake values (SUV) in the primary tumour were calculated for the FDG and hypoxia HX4 PET/CT scans. For hypoxia imaging, the hypoxic volume, fraction and tumour-to-blood ratio (TBR) were also defined. Blood flow and blood volume were obtained from DCE CT imaging. A tumour subvolume analysis was used to quantify the spatial overlap between subvolumes. At the patient level, negative correlations were observed between blood flow and the hypoxia parameters (TBR >1.2): hypoxic volume (-0.65, p = 0.014), hypoxic fraction (-0.60, p = 0.025) and TBR (-0.56, p = 0.042). At the tumour subvolume level, hypoxic and metabolically active subvolumes showed an overlap of 53 ± 36 %. Overlap between hypoxic sub-volumes and those with high blood flow and blood volume was smaller: 15 ± 17 % and 28 ± 28 %, respectively. Half of the patients showed a spatial mismatch (overlap <5 %) between increased blood flow and hypoxia. The biological imaging features defined in NSCLC tumours showed large interpatient and intratumour variability. There was overlap between hypoxic and metabolically active subvolumes in the majority of tumours, there was spatial mismatch between regions with high blood flow and those with increased hypoxia. (orig.)

  19. PET Imaging on Dynamic Metabolic Changes after Combination Therapy of Paclitaxel and the Traditional Chinese Medicine in Breast Cancer-Bearing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Wang, Ling; Liu, Hao; Song, Fahuan; Xu, Caiyun; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Qing; Wu, Shuang; Zhu, Yunqi; Dong, Ying; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to non-invasively evaluate the anticancer activity of a traditional Chinese medicine-Huaier, combined with paclitaxel (PTX) in breast cancer bearing mice by detecting dynamic metabolic changes with positron emission tomography (PET). Balb/c nude mice were randomly divided into one of the four groups: Huaier, PTX, PTX + Huaier, or the control. PET imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) was performed to monitor the metabolic changes in BT474 (luminal B) and MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative) breast cancer xenografts. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) study was performed immediately after the final PET scan to assess the expressions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-AKT (p-AKT), caspase-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Compared to the control group, [ 18 F]FDG accumulation demonstrated a significant decrease in PTX + Huaier (p PET imaging could be a potential non-invasive approach to assess the metabolic changes after chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine in the breast cancer.

  20. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

  1. Spatiotemporal PET Imaging of Dynamic Metabolic Changes After Therapeutic Approaches of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Neuronal Stem Cells, and a Chinese Patent Medicine in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Fahuan; Xu, Caiyun; Liu, Hao; Wang, Zefeng; Li, Jinhui; Wu, Shuang; YehuaShen; Chen, Yao; Zhu, Yunqi; Du, Ruili; Tian, Mei

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to use spatiotemporal PET imaging to investigate the dynamic metabolic changes after a combined therapeutic approach of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neuronal stem cells (NSCs), and Chinese patent medicine in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cerebral ischemia was established by the middle cerebral artery occlusion approach. Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 groups: control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Chinese patent medicine (Qing-kai-ling [QKL]), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), combination of iPSCs and QKL, neuronal stem cells (NSCs), and combination of NSCs and QKL. Serial (18)F-FDG small-animal PET imaging and neurofunctional tests were performed weekly. Autoradiographic imaging and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses were performed at 4 wk after stem cell transplantation. Compared with the PBS control group, significantly higher (18)F-FDG accumulations in the ipsilateral cerebral infarction were observed in 5 treatment groups from weeks 1-4. Interestingly, the most intensive (18)F-FDG accumulation was found in the NSCs + QKL group at week 1 but in the iPSCs + QKL group at week 4. The neurofunctional scores in the 5 treatment groups were significantly higher than that of the PBS group from week 3 to 4. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the PET imaging findings and neurofunctional recovery (P PET imaging with (18)F-FDG demonstrated dynamic metabolic and functional recovery after iPSCs or NSCs combined with QKL in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. iPSCs or NSCs combined with Chinese medicine QKL seemed to be a better therapeutic approach than these stem cells used individually. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  2. In vivo detection of metabolic abnormalities of MS plaques by means of 1H MR spectroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    's-Gravenmade, E.J.; Vencken, L.M.; Minderhoud, J.M.; Hollander, J.A. den; Luyten, P.R.; Marien, A.J.H.; Oosterwaal, L.J.M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify focal metabolic changes associated with MS lesions, and to establish a possible relationship between the extent of those changes and the activity of the disease. (author). 12 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Exclusion and diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by a rapid ELISA D-dimer test and noninvasive imaging techniques within the context of a clinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, J J; Pattynama, P M

    2000-01-01

    A negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test alone in out-patients with a low to moderate clinical probability (CP) on pulmonary embolism (PE) is predicted to safely exclude pulmonary embolism. The combination of a negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test and a low to moderate CP on PE followed by compression ultrasonography (CUS) for the detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is safe and cost-effective as it reduces the need for noninvasive imaging techniques to about 50% to 60% of outpatients with suspected PE. A high probability ventilation-perfusion (VP) scan or a positive spiral CT consistent with PE and the detection of DVT by CUS are currently considered to be clear indications for anticoagulant treatment. Subsequent pulmonary angiography (PA) is the gold standard diagnostic strategy to exclude or diagnose PE in suspected outpatients with a negative CUS, a positive rapid ELISA D-dimer test, and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT to prevent overtreatment with anticoagulants. However, the willingness of clinicians and the availability of resources to perform PA is restricted, a fact that has provided an impetus for clinical investigators to search for alternative noninvasive strategies to exclude or detect venous thromboembolism (VTE). Serial CUS testing for the detection of DVT in patients with a low to moderate CP on PE and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT is predicted to be safe and will reduce the need for PA to less than 10% or even less than 5%. This noninvasive serial CUS strategy restricts the need for invasive PA to a minor group of patients (spiral CT and a high CP on PE. Prospective evaluations are warranted to implement and to validate the advantages and the disadvantages of the various combinations of noninvasive strategies and to compare serial CUS testing versus PA in randomized clinical management studies of outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

  4. Pathology in a tube step 2: simple rapid fabrication of curved circular cross section millifluidic channels for biopsy preparation/3D imaging towards pancreatic cancer detection and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ronnie; Burfeind, Chris W.; Lim, Saniel D.; Patle, Shubham; Seibel, Eric J.

    2018-02-01

    3D pathology is intrinsically dependent on 3D microscopy, or the whole tissue imaging of patient tissue biopsies (TBs). Consequently, unsectioned needle specimens must be processed whole: a procedure which cannot necessarily be accomplished through manual methods, or by retasking automated pathology machines. Thus "millifluidic" devices (for millimeter-scale biopsies) are an ideal solution for tissue handling/preparation. TBs are large, messy and a solid-liquid mixture; they vary in material, geometry and structure based on the organ biopsied, the clinician skill and the needle type used. As a result, traditional microfluidic devices are insufficient to handle such mm-sized samples and their associated fabrication techniques are impractical and costly with respect to time/efficiency. Our research group has devised a simple, rapid fabrication process for millifluidic devices using jointed skeletal molds composed of machined, reusable metal rods, segmented rods and stranded wire as structural cores; these cores are surrounded by Teflon outer housing. We can therefore produce curving, circular-cross-section (CCCS) millifluidic channels in rapid fashion that cannot normally be achieved by microfabrication, micro-/CNC-machining, or 3D printing. The approach has several advantages. CLINICAL: round channels interface coring needles. PROCESSING: CCCS channels permit multi-layer device designs for additional (processing, monitoring, testing) stages. REUSABILITY: for a biopsy/needle diameter, molding (interchangeable) components may be produced one-time then reused for other designs. RAPID: structural cores can be quickly removed due to Teflon®'s ultra-low friction; housing may be released with ethanol; PDMS volumes cure faster since metal skeleton molds conduct additional heat from within the curing elastomer.

  5. Integrative analysis of cardiac function and metabolism in patients with idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with H-1 cine MR imaging and P-31 MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.; Chew, W.M.; Semelka, R.; Tomei, E.; Caputo, G.; O'Sullivan, M.; Chatterjee, K.; Parmley, W.W.; Wolfe, C.L.; Higgins, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use MR imaging and P-31 spectroscopy for the functional and metabolic characterization of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Nine patients with HCM underwent combined P-31 spectroscopy (one-dimensional chemical shift imaging) and MR imaging at 1.5 T. MR imaging localized the distribution of ventricular hypertrophy and cine MR imaging quantitated cardiac volumes, contractility, and left ventricular mass. The phosphodiester/phosphocreatine ratio (PDE/PCr) in six HCM patients was not different from normal, but in three patients it was significantly (P <.01) higher. This finding could not be attributed to contractible abnormalities, the distribution of hypertrophy, or the left ventricular mass. The abnormal PDE/PCr ratio was found only in patients with echocardiographic findings of resting left ventricular outflow obstruction but was not associated with severity or distribution of hypertrophy. The study shows the use of combined MR imaging and MR spectroscopy to characterize HCM and possibly to identify abnormal myocardial tissue

  6. Imaging the NADH:NAD+ Homeostasis for Understanding the Metabolic Response of Mycobacterium to Physiologically Relevant Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shabir A; Iqbal, Iram K; Kumar, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    The NADH:NAD + ratio is the primary indicator of the metabolic state of bacteria. NAD(H) homeostasis is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival and is thus considered an important drug target, but the spatio-temporal measurements of NAD(H) remain a challenge. Genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors of the NADH:NAD + ratios were recently described, paving the way for investigations of the metabolic state of pathogens during infection. Here we have adapted the genetically encoded biosensor Peredox for measurement of the metabolic state of Mtb in vitro and during infection of macrophage cells. Using Peredox, here we show that inhibition of the electron transport chain, disruption of the membrane potential and proton gradient, exposure to reactive oxygen species and treatment with antimycobacterial drugs led to the accumulation of NADH in mycobacterial cells. We have further demonstrated that Mtb residing in macrophages displays higher NADH:NAD + ratios, that may indicate a metabolic stress faced by the intracellular Mtb. We also demonstrate that the Mtb residing in macrophages display a metabolic heterogeneity, which may perhaps explain the tolerance displayed by intracellular Mtb. Next we studied the effect of immunological modulation by interferon gamma on metabolism of intracellular Mtb, since macrophage activation is known to restrict mycobacterial growth. We observed that activation of resting macrophages with interferon-gamma results in higher NADH:NAD + levels in resident Mtb cells. We have further demonstrated that exposure of Isoniazid, Bedaquiline, Rifampicin, and O-floxacin results in higher NADH:NAD + ratios in the Mtb residing in macrophages. However, intracellular Mtb displays lower NADH:NAD + ratio upon exposure to clofazimine. In summary, we have generated reporter strains capable of measuring the metabolic state of Mtb cells in vitro and in vivo with spatio-temporal resolution. We believe that this tool will facilitate further

  7. SynPAnal: software for rapid quantification of the density and intensity of protein puncta from fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Danielson

    Full Text Available Continuous modification of the protein composition at synapses is a driving force for the plastic changes of synaptic strength, and provides the fundamental molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity and information storage in the brain. Studying synaptic protein turnover is not only important for understanding learning and memory, but also has direct implication for understanding pathological conditions like aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. Proteins involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are typically concentrated at synapses of neurons and thus appear as puncta (clusters in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Quantitative measurement of the changes in puncta density, intensity, and sizes of specific proteins provide valuable information on their function in synaptic transmission, circuit development, synaptic plasticity, and synaptopathy. Unfortunately, puncta quantification is very labor intensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe a software tool designed for the rapid semi-automatic detection and quantification of synaptic protein puncta from 2D immunofluorescence images generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The software, dubbed as SynPAnal (for Synaptic Puncta Analysis, streamlines data quantification for puncta density and average intensity, thereby increases data analysis throughput compared to a manual method. SynPAnal is stand-alone software written using the JAVA programming language, and thus is portable and platform-free.

  8. The use of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis for rapid detection of non-producing revertant cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Katja; Lang, Imke; Enke, Heike; Grohme, Diana; Frohme, Marcus

    2015-04-17

    Ethanol production via genetically engineered cyanobacteria is a promising solution for the production of biofuels. Through the introduction of a pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase direct ethanol production becomes possible within the cells. However, during cultivation genetic instability can lead to mutations and thus loss of ethanol production. Cells then revert back to the wild type phenotype. A method for a rapid and simple detection of these non-producing revertant cells in an ethanol producing cell population is an important quality control measure in order to predict genetic stability and the longevity of a producing culture. Several comparable cultivation experiments revealed a difference in the pigmentation for non-producing and producing cells: the accessory pigment phycocyanin (PC) is reduced in case of the ethanol producer, resulting in a yellowish appearance of the culture. Microarray and western blot studies of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 confirmed this PC reduction on the level of RNA and protein. Based on these findings we developed a method for fluorescence microscopy in order to distinguish producing and non-producing cells with respect to their pigmentation phenotype. By applying a specific filter set the emitted fluorescence of a producer cell with a reduced PC content appeared orange. The emitted fluorescence of a non-producing cell with a wt pigmentation phenotype was detected in red, and dead cells in green. In an automated process multiple images of each sample were taken and analyzed with a plugin for the image analysis software ImageJ to identify dead (green), non-producing (red) and producing (orange) cells. The results of the presented validation experiments revealed a good identification with 98 % red cells in the wt sample and 90 % orange cells in the producer sample. The detected wt pigmentation phenotype (red cells) in the producer sample were either not fully induced yet (in 48 h induced

  9. A three-dimensional image processing program for accurate, rapid, and semi-automated segmentation of neuronal somata with dense neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James D.; Cullen, D. Kacy; Harris, James P.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis techniques provide a powerful means to rapidly and accurately assess complex morphological and functional interactions between neural cells. Current software-based identification methods of neural cells generally fall into two applications: (1) segmentation of cell nuclei in high-density constructs or (2) tracing of cell neurites in single cell investigations. We have developed novel methodologies to permit the systematic identification of populations of neuronal somata possessing rich morphological detail and dense neurite arborization throughout thick tissue or 3-D in vitro constructs. The image analysis incorporates several novel automated features for the discrimination of neurites and somata by initially classifying features in 2-D and merging these classifications into 3-D objects; the 3-D reconstructions automatically identify and adjust for over and under segmentation errors. Additionally, the platform provides for software-assisted error corrections to further minimize error. These features attain very accurate cell boundary identifications to handle a wide range of morphological complexities. We validated these tools using confocal z-stacks from thick 3-D neural constructs where neuronal somata had varying degrees of neurite arborization and complexity, achieving an accuracy of ≥95%. We demonstrated the robustness of these algorithms in a more complex arena through the automated segmentation of neural cells in ex vivo brain slices. These novel methods surpass previous techniques by improving the robustness and accuracy by: (1) the ability to process neurites and somata, (2) bidirectional segmentation correction, and (3) validation via software-assisted user input. This 3-D image analysis platform provides valuable tools for the unbiased analysis of neural tissue or tissue surrogates within a 3-D context, appropriate for the study of multi-dimensional cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. PMID

  10. Web Based Rapid Mapping of Disaster Areas using Satellite Images, Web Processing Service, Web Mapping Service, Frequency Based Change Detection Algorithm and J-iView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandibas, J. C.; Takarada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Timely identification of areas affected by natural disasters is very important for a successful rescue and effective emergency relief efforts. This research focuses on the development of a cost effective and efficient system of identifying areas affected by natural disasters, and the efficient distribution of the information. The developed system is composed of 3 modules which are the Web Processing Service (WPS), Web Map Service (WMS) and the user interface provided by J-iView (fig. 1). WPS is an online system that provides computation, storage and data access services. In this study, the WPS module provides online access of the software implementing the developed frequency based change detection algorithm for the identification of areas affected by natural disasters. It also sends requests to WMS servers to get the remotely sensed data to be used in the computation. WMS is a standard protocol that provides a simple HTTP interface for requesting geo-registered map images from one or more geospatial databases. In this research, the WMS component provides remote access of the satellite images which are used as inputs for land cover change detection. The user interface in this system is provided by J-iView, which is an online mapping system developed at the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ). The 3 modules are seamlessly integrated into a single package using J-iView, which could rapidly generate a map of disaster areas that is instantaneously viewable online. The developed system was tested using ASTER images covering the areas damaged by the March 11, 2011 tsunami in northeastern Japan. The developed system efficiently generated a map showing areas devastated by the tsunami. Based on the initial results of the study, the developed system proved to be a useful tool for emergency workers to quickly identify areas affected by natural disasters.

  11. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Paul M; Kley, Nathan J; Clarke, Julia A; Colbert, Matthew W; Morhardt, Ashley C; Cerio, Donald; Cost, Ian N; Cox, Philip G; Daza, Juan D; Early, Catherine M; Echols, M Scott; Henkelman, R Mark; Herdina, A Nele; Holliday, Casey M; Li, Zhiheng; Mahlow, Kristin; Merchant, Samer; Müller, Johannes; Orsbon, Courtney P; Paluh, Daniel J; Thies, Monte L; Tsai, Henry P; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-06-01

    Morphologists have historically had to rely on destructive procedures to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of animals. More recently, however, non-destructive techniques have come to the forefront. These include X-ray computed tomography (CT), which has been used most commonly to examine the mineralized, hard-tissue anatomy of living and fossil metazoans. One relatively new and potentially transformative aspect of current CT-based research is the use of chemical agents to render visible, and differentiate between, soft-tissue structures in X-ray images. Specifically, iodine has emerged as one of the most widely used of these contrast agents among animal morphologists due to its ease of handling, cost effectiveness, and differential affinities for major types of soft tissues. The rapid adoption of iodine-based contrast agents has resulted in a proliferation of distinct specimen preparations and scanning parameter choices, as well as an increasing variety of imaging hardware and software preferences. Here we provide a critical review of the recent contributions to iodine-based, contrast-enhanced CT research to enable researchers just beginning to employ contrast enhancement to make sense of this complex new landscape of methodologies. We provide a detailed summary of recent case studies, assess factors that govern success at each step of the specimen storage, preparation, and imaging processes, and make recommendations for standardizing both techniques and reporting practices. Finally, we discuss potential cutting-edge applications of diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) and the issues that must still be overcome to facilitate the broader adoption of diceCT going forward. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  12. A Phytochemical-Sensing Strategy Based on Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolic Profiling for Understanding the Functionality of the Medicinal Herb Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2017-09-27

    Low-molecular-weight phytochemicals have health benefits and reduce the risk of diseases, but the mechanisms underlying their activities have remained elusive because of the lack of a methodology that can easily visualize the exact behavior of such small molecules. Recently, we developed an in situ label-free imaging technique, called mass spectrometry imaging, for visualizing spatially-resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol and its phase II metabolites. In addition, we established a mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling technique capable of evaluating the bioactivities of diverse green tea extracts, which contain multiple phytochemicals, by focusing on their compositional balances. This methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate the relative contributions of the multiple compounds present in a multicomponent system to its bioactivity. This review highlights small molecule-sensing techniques for visualizing the complex behaviors of herbal components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of the functionalities of multicomponent medicinal herbs.

  13. Acute afterload-imposed change in porcine cardiac metabolism imaged by hyperpolarized [1-13C]Pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling; Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Laustsen, Christoffer

    Deranged metabolism is now considered a key causal factor in heart failure and has therefore gained considerable scientific interest. The novel technique hyperpolarized MR has emerged as a leading methodological candidate to study these derangements. We employed a clinically relevant, large animal...

  14. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Harley H. L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Vescan, Allan; Daly, Michael J.; Prisman, Eitan; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i) a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii) a multi-material skull base simulator and iii) 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and fabrication techniques

  15. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Harley H L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Vescan, Allan; Daly, Michael J; Prisman, Eitan; Irish, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i) a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii) a multi-material skull base simulator and iii) 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and fabrication techniques

  16. Rapid synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of folic acid derivatives labeled with fluorine-18 for PET imaging of folate receptor-positive tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammaz, I. Al, E-mail: jammaz@kfshrc.edu.sa; Al-Otaibi, B.; Amer, S.; Okarvi, S.M.

    2011-10-15

    In an attempt to visualize folate receptors that overexpress on many cancers, [{sup 18}F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazide-folate/methotrexate conjugates ([{sup 18}F]-1, [{sup 18}F]-2-folates and [{sup 18}F]-8, [{sup 18}F]-9-MTXs) were synthesized by the nucleophilic displacement reactions using ethyl-trimethylammonium-benzoate and pyridinecarboxylate precursors. The intermediates ethyl [{sup 18}F]-fluorinated benzene and pyridine esters were reacted with hydrazine to produce the [{sup 18}F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazides, followed by coupling with N-hydroxysuccinimide-folate/MTX. Radiochemical yields were greater than 80% (decay corrected), with total synthesis time of less than 45 min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 97% without high-performance liquid chromatography purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for the radiofluorination of folate derivatives with high radiochemical yield in short synthesis time. In vitro tests on KB cell line showed that significant amount of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions, and in vivo characterization in normal Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates with excretion predominantly by the urinary and partially by the hepatobiliary systems. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts demonstrated significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for [{sup 18}F]-2-folate over the other conjugates. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess coinjection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. Micro-positron emission tomography images of nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts confirmed these observations. These results demonstrate that [{sup 18}F]-2-folate may be useful as molecular probe for detecting and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response

  17. Rapid synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of folic acid derivatives labeled with fluorine-18 for PET imaging of folate receptor-positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammaz, I. Al; Al-Otaibi, B.; Amer, S.; Okarvi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to visualize folate receptors that overexpress on many cancers, [ 18 F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazide-folate/methotrexate conjugates ([ 18 F]-1, [ 18 F]-2-folates and [ 18 F]-8, [ 18 F]-9-MTXs) were synthesized by the nucleophilic displacement reactions using ethyl-trimethylammonium-benzoate and pyridinecarboxylate precursors. The intermediates ethyl [ 18 F]-fluorinated benzene and pyridine esters were reacted with hydrazine to produce the [ 18 F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazides, followed by coupling with N-hydroxysuccinimide-folate/MTX. Radiochemical yields were greater than 80% (decay corrected), with total synthesis time of less than 45 min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 97% without high-performance liquid chromatography purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for the radiofluorination of folate derivatives with high radiochemical yield in short synthesis time. In vitro tests on KB cell line showed that significant amount of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions, and in vivo characterization in normal Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates with excretion predominantly by the urinary and partially by the hepatobiliary systems. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts demonstrated significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for [ 18 F]-2-folate over the other conjugates. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess coinjection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. Micro-positron emission tomography images of nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts confirmed these observations. These results demonstrate that [ 18 F]-2-folate may be useful as molecular probe for detecting and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response to treatment.

  18. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley H L Chan

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii a multi-material skull base simulator and iii 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and

  19. A Score-Based Approach to 18F-FDG PET Images as a Tool to Describe Metabolic Predictors of Myocardial Doxorubicin Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bauckneht

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To verify the capability of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT to identify patients at higher risk of developing doxorubicin (DXR-induced cardiotoxicity, using a score-based image approach. Methods: 36 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. These patients had shown full remission after DXR-based chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease (DXR dose: 40–50 mg/m2 per cycle, and were retrospectively enrolled. Inclusion criteria implied the presence of both pre- and post-chemotherapy clinical evaluation encompassing electrocardiogram (ECG and echocardiography. Myocardial metabolism at pre-therapy PET was evaluated according to both standardized uptake value (SUV- and score-based approaches. The capability of the score-based image assessment to predict the occurrence of cardiac toxicity with respect to SUV measurement was then evaluated. Results: In contrast to the SUV-based approach, the five-point scale method does not linearly stratify the risk of the subsequent development of cardiotoxicity. However, converting the five-points scale to a dichotomic evaluation (low vs. high myocardial metabolism, FDG-PET/CT showed high diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of cardiac toxicity (specificity = 100% and sensitivity = 83.3%. In patients showing high myocardial uptake at baseline, in which the score-based method is not able to definitively exclude the occurrence of cardiac toxicity, myocardial SUV mean quantification is able to further stratify the risk between low and intermediate risk classes. Conclusions: the score-based approach to FDG-PET/CT images is a feasible method for predicting DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. This method might improve the inter-reader and inter-scanner variability, thus allowing the evaluation of FDG-PET/CT images in a multicentral setting.

  20. Evaluation and Refinement of a System and a Method for the Use of Hyperspectral Imaging for Metabolic Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mansfield, James

    2003-01-01

    ...) will change during hemorrhagic shock and during hypothermia. Secondary endpoints included the qualitative appearance of the ROT in the HST images, and a quantitative measure of tissue heterogeneity...

  1. Quantitative Non-canonical Amino Acid Tagging (QuaNCAT) Proteomics Identifies Distinct Patterns of Protein Synthesis Rapidly Induced by Hypertrophic Agents in Cardiomyocytes, Revealing New Aspects of Metabolic Remodeling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kenney, Justin W.; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Johnston, Harvey E.; Kamei, Makoto; Woelk, Christopher H.; Xie, Jianling; Schwarzer, Michael; Proud, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes undergo growth and remodeling in response to specific pathological or physiological conditions. In the former, myocardial growth is a risk factor for cardiac failure and faster protein synthesis is a major factor driving cardiomyocyte growth. Our goal was to quantify the rapid effects of different pro-hypertrophic stimuli on the synthesis of specific proteins in ARVC and to determine whether such effects are caused by alterations on mRNA abundance or the translation of specific mRNAs. Cardiomyocytes have very low rates of protein synthesis, posing a challenging problem in terms of studying changes in the synthesis of specific proteins, which also applies to other nondividing primary cells. To study the rates of accumulation of specific proteins in these cells, we developed an optimized version of the Quantitative Noncanonical Amino acid Tagging LC/MS proteomic method to label and selectively enrich newly synthesized proteins in these primary cells while eliminating the suppressive effects of pre-existing and highly abundant nonisotope-tagged polypeptides. Our data revealed that a classical pathologic (phenylephrine; PE) and the recently identified insulin stimulus that also contributes to the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy (insulin), both increased the synthesis of proteins involved in, e.g. glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and beta-oxidation, and sarcomeric components. However, insulin increased synthesis of many metabolic enzymes to a greater extent than PE. Using a novel validation method, we confirmed that synthesis of selected candidates is indeed up-regulated by PE and insulin. Synthesis of all proteins studied was up-regulated by signaling through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 without changes in their mRNA levels, showing the key importance of translational control in the rapid effects of hypertrophic stimuli. Expression of PKM2 was up-regulated in rat hearts following TAC. This isoform possesses specific regulatory

  2. Rapid kit-based (68)Ga-labelling and PET imaging with THP-Tyr(3)-octreotate: a preliminary comparison with DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Michelle T; Cullinane, Carleen; Waldeck, Kelly; Roselt, Peter; Hicks, Rodney J; Blower, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    Ge/(68)Ga generators provide an inexpensive source of a PET isotope to hospitals without cyclotron facilities. The development of new (68)Ga-based molecular imaging agents and subsequent clinical translation would be greatly facilitated by simplification of radiochemical syntheses. We report the properties of a tris(hydroxypyridinone) conjugate of the SSTR2-targeted peptide, Tyr(3)-octreotate (TATE), and compare the (68)Ga-labelling and biodistribution of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] with the clinical radiopharmaceutical [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)]. A tris(hydroxypyridinone) with a pendant isothiocyanate group was conjugated to the primary amine terminus of H2N-PEG2-Lys(iv-Dde)(5)-TATE, and the resulting conjugate was deprotected to provide THP-TATE. THP-TATE was radiolabelled with (68)Ga(3+) from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. In vitro uptake was assessed in SSTR2-positive 427-7 cells and SSTR2-negative 427 (parental) cells. Biodistribution of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] was compared with that of [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)] in Balb/c nude mice bearing SSTR2-positive AR42J tumours. PET scans were obtained 1 h post-injection, after which animals were euthanised and tissues/organs harvested and counted. [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] was radiolabelled and formulated rapidly in negative cells, and receptor binding and internalisation were specific. Animals administered [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] demonstrated comparable SSTR2-positive tumour activity (11.5 ± 0.6 %ID g(-1)) compared to animals administered [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)] (14.4 ± 0.8 %ID g(-1)). Co-administration of unconjugated Tyr(3)-octreotate effectively blocked tumour accumulation of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] (2.7 ± 0.6 %ID g(-1)). Blood clearance of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] was rapid and excretion was predominantly renal, although compared to [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)], [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] exhibited comparatively longer kidney retention. Radiochemical synthesis of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] is significantly faster, proceeds under milder conditions, and requires less manipulation

  3. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Iranzo, Alex; Gschliesser, Viola; Seppi, Klaus; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner

    2011-02-01

    We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 26 patients with iRBD (mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 6.4 years) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. SPM localized significant decreases of FA in the tegmentum of the midbrain and rostral pons and increases of MD within the pontine reticular formation overlapping with a cluster of decreased FA in the midbrain (p < 0.001). VBM revealed increases of gray matter densities in both hippocampi of iRBD patients (p < 0.001). The observed changes in the pontomesencephalic brainstem localized 2 areas harboring key neuronal circuits believed to be involved in the regulation of REM sleep and overlap with areas of structural brainstem damage causing symptomatic RBD in humans. Bilateral increases in gray matter density of the hippocampus suggest functional neuronal reorganization in this brain area in iRBD. This study indicates that DTI detects distinct structural brainstem tissue abnormalities in iRBD in the regions where REM is modulated. Further studies should explore the relationship between MRI pathology and the risk of patients with iRBD of developing alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  4. Correlating metabolic and anatomic responses of primary lung cancers to radiotherapy by combined F-18 FDG PET-CT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grills Inga

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To correlate the metabolic changes with size changes for tumor response by concomitant PET-CT evaluation of lung cancers after radiotherapy. Methods 36 patients were studied pre- and post-radiotherapy with18FDG PET-CT scans at a median interval of 71 days. All of the patients were followed clinically and radiographically after a mean period of 342 days for assessment of local control or failure rates. Change in size (sum of maximum orthogonal diameters was correlated with that of maximum standard uptake value (SUV of the primary lung cancer before and after conventional radiotherapy. Results There was a significant reduction in both SUV and size of the primary cancer after radiotherapy (p Conclusion Correlating and incorporating metabolic change by PET into size change by concomitant CT is more sensitive in assessing therapeutic response than CT alone.

  5. SUV navigator enables rapid [18F]-FDG PET/CT image interpretation compared with 2D ROI and 3D VOI evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okizaki, Atsutaka; Nakayama Michihiro; Ishitoya, Shunta; Nakajima, Kaori; Yamashina Masaaki; Aburano, Tamio; Takahashi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) is a useful technique for assessing malignant tumors. Measurements of SUV max in multiple lesions per patient frequently require many time-consuming procedures. To address this issue, we designed a novel interface named SUV Navigator (SUVnavi), and the purpose of this study was to investigate its utility. We measured SUV max in 661 lesions from 100 patients with malignant tumors. Diagnoses and SUV max measurements were made with SUVnavi, 2D, and 3D measurements. SUV measurement accuracy in each method were also evaluated. The average reduction in time with SUVnavi versus 2D was 53.8% and 3D was 37.5%; time required with SUVnavi was significantly shorter than with 2D and 3D (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The time reduction and lesion number had a positive correlation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). SUV max agreed with precise SUV max in all lesions measured with SUVnavi and 3D but in only 466 of 661 lesions (70.5%) measured with 2D. Conclusion SUVnavi may be useful for rapid [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomogra phy/computed tomography ([ 18 F]-FDG PET/CT) image interpretation without reducing the accuracy of SUV max measurement. (author)

  6. Genome scale metabolic modeling of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Avlant; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    of metabolism which allows simulation and hypotheses testing of metabolic strategies. It has successfully been applied to many microorganisms and is now used to study cancer metabolism. Generic models of human metabolism have been reconstructed based on the existence of metabolic genes in the human genome......Cancer cells reprogram metabolism to support rapid proliferation and survival. Energy metabolism is particularly important for growth and genes encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism are frequently altered in cancer cells. A genome scale metabolic model (GEM) is a mathematical formalization...

  7. Comparison of the prognostic value of SPECT after nitrate administration and metabolic imaging by PET in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrentino, Anna R.; Acampa, Wanda; Mainolfi, Ciro; Salvatore, Marco; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages of the National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    We compared the prognostic value of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after nitrate administration and positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in patients with ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Eighty-nine patients with previous myocardial infarction and LV dysfunction (LV ejection fraction 33 {+-} 10%) underwent {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT under control conditions (baseline) and after sublingual administration of 10 mg of isosorbide dinitrate (nitrate). Within 1 week, all patients underwent PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG. Four patients were excluded because of inadequate FDG uptake caused by severe diabetes. Follow-up data were obtained by phone contact with patients and by review of hospital or physicians' records. Cardiac death, myocardial infarction and late revascularisation for unstable angina were considered as events. Follow-up data were not available in three patients. Follow-up was 96% complete at a mean period of 29 {+-} 19 months. At baseline SPECT, 59 (72%) patients had evidence of viable myocardium, while 23 did not. Of these latter patients, 12 (52%) demonstrated viable myocardium after nitrate and 13 (56%) had preserved metabolic activity. Cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction and late revascularisation for unstable angina) occurred in 24 (29%) patients. Event-free survival was similar in patients with and patients without viable myocardium at baseline SPECT (p = 0.8). In contrast, event-free survival was lower in patients with viable myocardium at nitrate SPECT and PET compared to those without viable myocardium (both p<0.05). In patients with ischaemic LV dysfunction, the prognostic value of SPECT imaging after nitrate is comparable to that of PET metabolic imaging. (orig.)

  8. Single-Shot-RARE for rapid 3D hyperpolarized metabolic ex vivo tissue imaging: RF-pulse design for semi-dense spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, P.O.; Jensen, Pernille Rose; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    MRS of hyperpolarized (HP) 13C-enriched compounds is a promising method for in vivo cancer diagnosis . Sentinel lymph node ex vivo tissue sample histology used in clinical routine for breast cancer metastasis diagnosis requires time consuming sample analysis. 3D-HP-MRSI can potentially speed up...

  9. The Effects of Rapid Sedimentation upon Continental Breakup: Kinematic and Thermal Modeling of the Salton Trough, Southern California, Based upon Recent Seismic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Lowell, R. P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) illuminated crustal and upper mantle structure of the Salton Trough, the northern-most rift segment of the Gulf of California plate boundary. The crust is 17-18 km thick and homogeneous for 100 km in the plate motion direction. New crust is being created by distributed rift magmatism, Colorado River sedimentation, and metamorphism of the sediment. A 5 km thick pre-existing crustal layer may still exist. The crust has not broken apart to enable initiation of seafloor spreading. A one-dimensional time-dependent kinematic and thermal model was developed to simulate these observations. We assume that all crustal layers are stretched uniformly during extension. Distributed mafic magmatism and sedimentation are added simultaneously to compensate for the crustal thinning. The ratio of magmatism to sedimentation is constrained by the seismic observations. Heat is transported by thermal conduction and by advection due to stretching of the crust. A constant temperature boundary at the Moho is used to represent partial melting in the upper mantle. Assuming a constant plate motion rate, the zone of active rifting extends linearly with time. The crustal thickness and internal structure also evolve with time. The model constraints are the observed seismic structure and heat flow. The model rapidly reaches quasi-steady state, and could continue for many millions of years. The observed seismic structure and heat flow are reproduced after 3 Myr. The yield strength profile calculated from lithology and model temperature indicates that ductile deformation in the middle and lower crust dominates the crustal rheology. Rapid sedimentation delays crustal breakup and the initiation of seafloor spreading by maintaining the thickness of the crust and keeping it predominantly ductile. This process probably occurs wherever a large river flows into an active rift driven by far-field extension. It may have built passive margins in many locations

  10. Can bone metabolism markers be adopted as an alternative to scintigraphic imaging in monitoring bone metastases from breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Martinetti, A.; Castellani, M.R.; Seregni, E.; Miceli, R.; Mariani, L.

    1997-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy plays a major role in the diagnosis of bone metastases. The clinical utility of new biochemical markers of bone metabolism has recently been investigated in various bone diseases. This study evaluated the role of some bone metabolism markers in comparison with bone scan in the follow-up of breast cancer patients. We studied 149 patients with breast cancer, 33 (22%) of whom had bone metastases. IRMAs were used for the evaluation of blood levels of osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), the C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). Multivariate regression analysis showed that menopausal status (P=0.007) and metastatic bone lesions (P=0.001) affected bone marker levels. When considering post-menopausal women, the only subset in which bone metabolism marker behaviour could be reliably investigated, we found a high degree of overlap in marker distribution for scan-positive and scan-negative patients. Discrimination between scan-negative and scan-positive patients based on the above markers, taken singly or jointly, was assessed by means of logistic discriminant analysis. The best discrimination was achieved with BAP, closely followed by ICTP. BAP and ICTP together gave a slight improvement over the use of the two markers separately. However, even in this case the degree of discrimination was poor and its clinical utility was limited. In fact, to achieve a specificity of 95%, the sensitivity of the test was about 20%; conversely, with a sensitivity of 95%, the specificity was below 10%. In conclusion, based on our findings, we believe that blood levels of the investigated markers cannot replace bone scintigraphy in the follow-up of breast cancer patients for the early detection of bone metastases. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of bone-seeking superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents for imaging bone metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Arash; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Doschak, Michael R

    2013-06-12

    In this article, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a new class of nonionizing bone-targeting contrast agents based on bisphosphonate-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), for use in imaging of bone turnover with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Similar to bone-targeting (99m)Technetium medronate, our novel contrast agent uses bisphosphonates to impart bone-seeking properties, but replaces the former radioisotope with nonionizing SPIONs which enables their subsequent detection using MRI. Our reported method is relatively simple, quick and cost-effective and results in BP-SPIONs with a final nanoparticle size of 17 nm under electron microscopy technique (i.e., TEM). In-vitro binding studies of our novel bone tracer have shown selective binding affinity (around 65%) for hydroxyapatite, the principal mineral of bone. Bone-targeting SPIONs offer the potential for use as nonionizing MRI contrast agents capable of imaging dynamic bone turnover, for use in the diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases and related bone pathology.

  12. Assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose by means of Bayesian ICA and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in small animal PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berradja, Khadidja; Boughanmi, Nabil

    2016-09-01

    In dynamic cardiac PET FDG studies the assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (MMRG) requires the knowledge of the blood input function (IF). IF can be obtained by manual or automatic blood sampling and cross calibrated with PET. These procedures are cumbersome, invasive and generate uncertainties. The IF is contaminated by spillover of radioactivity from the adjacent myocardium and this could cause important error in the estimated MMRG. In this study, we show that the IF can be extracted from the images in a rat heart study with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based on Bayesian theory and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method (BICA). Images of the heart from rats were acquired with the Sherbrooke small animal PET scanner. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn around the rat image and decomposed into blood and tissue using BICA. The Statistical study showed that there is a significant difference (p corrupted with spillover.

  13. McGET: A rapid image-based method to determine the morphological characteristics of gravels on the Gobi desert surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yue; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Bangyou; Guo, Wei; Feng, Yiming

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between morphological characteristics (e.g. gravel size, coverage, angularity and orientation) and local geomorphic features (e.g. slope gradient and aspect) of desert has been used to explore the evolution process of Gobi desert. Conventional quantification methods are time-consuming, inefficient and even prove impossible to determine the characteristics of large numbers of gravels. We propose a rapid image-based method to obtain the morphological characteristics of gravels on the Gobi desert surface, which is called the "morphological characteristics gained effectively technique" (McGET). The image of the Gobi desert surface was classified into gravel clusters and background by a machine-learning "classification and regression tree" (CART) algorithm. Then gravel clusters were segmented into individual gravel clasts by separating objects in images using a "watershed segmentation" algorithm. Thirdly, gravel coverage, diameter, aspect ratio and orientation were calculated based on the basic principles of 2D computer graphics. We validated this method with two independent datasets in which the gravel morphological characteristics were obtained from 2728 gravels measured in the field and 7422 gravels measured by manual digitization. Finally, we applied McGET to derive the spatial variation of gravel morphology on the Gobi desert along an alluvial-proluvial fan located in Hami, Xinjiang, China. The validated results show that the mean gravel diameter measured in the field agreed well with that calculated by McGET for large gravels (R2 = 0.89, P < 0.001). Compared to manual digitization, the McGET accuracies for gravel coverage, gravel diameter and aspect ratio were 97%, 83% and 96%, respectively. The orientation distributions calculated were consistent across two different methods. More importantly, McGET significantly shortens the time cost in obtaining gravel morphological characteristics in the field and laboratory. The spatial variation results

  14. Study on the metabolic characteristics of renal imaging agent 99mTc-PAHIDA with tracer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Lun Mingyue

    1995-01-01

    Tracer experiment showed that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney. The distribution in other tissue was in the following descending order: heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, muscle, adipose tissue, testes, and brain. The smaller the intravenous dose, the lower the proportion of the drug was combined to plasma protein and the more the drug was distributed in kidney. Excretion of 99m Tc-PAHIDa via urine was rapid and was in its original form as shown by radiochromatography

  15. A phase I feasibility study of multi-modality imaging assessing rapid expansion of marrow fat and decreased bone mineral density in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Susanta K; Arentsen, Luke; Sueblinvong, Thanasak; Brown, Keenan; Bolan, Pat; Ghebre, Rahel G; Downs, Levi; Shanley, Ryan; Hansen, Karen E; Minenko, Anne G; Takhashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Zhang, Yan; Geller, Melissa; Reynolds, Margaret; Lee, Chung K; Blaes, Anne H; Allen, Sharon; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Le, Chap; Froelich, Jerry; Rosen, Clifford; Yee, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for fractures, but lack of effective and economical biomarkers limits quantitative assessments of marrow fat (MF), bone mineral density (BMD) and their relation in response to cytotoxic cancer treatment. We report dual energy CT (DECT) imaging, commonly used for cancer diagnosis, treatment and surveillance, as a novel biomarker of MF and BMD. We validated DECT in pre-clinical and phase I clinical trials and verified with water-fat MRI (WF-MRI), quantitative CT (QCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Basis material composition framework was validated using water and small-chain alcohols simulating different components of bone marrow. Histologic validation was achieved by measuring percent adipocyte in the cadaver vertebrae and compared with DECT and WF-MRI. For a phase I trial, sixteen patients with gynecologic malignancies (treated with oophorectomy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy) underwent DECT, QCT, WF-MRI and DXA before and 12months after treatment. BMD and MF percent and distribution were quantified in the lumbar vertebrae and the right femoral neck. Measured precision (3mg/cm(3)) was sufficient to distinguish test solutions. Adiposity in cadaver bone histology was highly correlated with MF measured using DECT and WF-MRI (r=0.80 and 0.77, respectively). In the clinical trial, DECT showed high overall correlation (r=0.77, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.83) with WF-MRI. MF increased significantly after treatment (p<0.002). Chemotherapy and radiation caused greater increases in MF than oophorectomy (p<0.032). L4 BMD decreased 14% by DECT, 20% by QCT, but only 5% by DXA (p<0.002 for all). At baseline, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between MF and BMD which was dramatically attenuated after treatment. Our study demonstrated that DECT, similar to WF-MRI, can accurately measure marrow adiposity. Both imaging modalities show rapid increase in MF following cancer treatment. Our results suggest that MF and

  16. An Object-Based Image Analysis Method for Monitoring Land Conversion by Artificial Sprawl Use of RapidEye and IRS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Balestrat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, in the peri-urban context, urban sprawl dynamics are particularly strong with huge population growth as well as a land crisis. The increase and spreading of built-up areas from the city centre towards the periphery takes place to the detriment of natural and agricultural spaces. The conversion of land with agricultural potential is all the more worrying as it is usually irreversible. The French Ministry of Agriculture therefore needs reliable and repeatable spatial-temporal methods to locate and quantify loss of land at both local and national scales. The main objective of this study was to design a repeatable method to monitor land conversion characterized by artificial sprawl: (i We used an object-based image analysis to extract artificial areas from satellite images; (ii We built an artificial patch that consists of aggregating all the peripheral areas that characterize artificial areas. The “artificialized” patch concept is an innovative extension of the urban patch concept, but differs in the nature of its components and in the continuity distance applied; (iii The diachronic analysis of artificial patch maps enables characterization of artificial sprawl. The method was applied at the scale of four departments (similar to provinces along the coast of Languedoc-Roussillon, in the South of France, based on two satellite datasets, one acquired in 1996–1997 (Indian Remote Sensing and the other in 2009 (RapidEye. In the four departments, we measured an increase in artificial areas of from 113,000 ha in 1997 to 133,000 ha in 2009, i.e., an 18% increase in 12 years. The package comes in the form of a 1/15,000 valid cartography, usable at the scale of a commune (the smallest territorial division used for administrative purposes in France that can be adapted to departmental and regional scales. The method is reproducible in homogenous spatial-temporal terms, so that it could be used periodically to assess changes in land conversion

  17. Temporal Changes in Phosphatidylserine Expression and Glucose Metabolism after Myocardial Infarction: An in Vivo Imaging Study in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lehner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET for in vivo monitoring of phosphatidylserine externalization and glucose metabolism can potentially provide early predictors of outcome of cardioprotective therapies after myocardial infarction. We performed serial [68Ga]annexin A5 PET (annexin-PET and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET after myocardial infarction to determine the time of peak phosphatidylserine externalization in relation to impaired glucose metabolism in infracted tissue. Annexin- and FDG-PET recordings were obtained in female (C57BL6/N mice on days 1 to 4 after ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD artery. [68Ga]annexin A5 uptake (%ID/g in the LAD artery territory increased from 1.7 ± 1.1 on day 1 to 5.0 ± 3.3 on day 2 and then declined to 2.0 ± 1.4 on day 3 (p = .047 vs day 2 and 1.6 ± 1.4 on day 4 (p = .014 vs day 2. These results matched apoptosis rates as estimated by autoradiography and fluorescein staining. FDG uptake (%ID/g declined from 28 ± 14 on day 1 to 14 ± 3.5 on day 4 (p < .0001 vs day 1. Whereas FDG-PET revealed continuous loss of cell viability after permanent LAD artery occlusion, annexin-PET indicated peak phosphatidylserine expression at day 2, which might be the optimal time point for therapy monitoring.

  18. Rapid 3D in vivo 1H human lung respiratory imaging at 1.5 T using ultra-fast balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Orso; Bauman, Grzegorz; Wielpütz, Mark O; Nyilas, Sylvia; Latzin, Philipp; Heussel, Claus P; Bieri, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    To introduce a reproducible, nonenhanced 1H MRI method for rapid in vivo functional assessment of the whole lung at 1.5 Tesla (T). At different respiratory volumes, the pulmonary signal of ultra-fast steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) follows an adapted sponge model, characterized by a respiratory index α. From the model, α reflects local ventilation-related information, is virtually independent from the lung density and thus from the inspiratory phase and breathing amplitude. Respiratory α-mapping is evaluated for healthy volunteers and patients with obstructive lung disease from a set of five consecutive 3D ultra-fast steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) scans performed in breath-hold and at different inspiratory volumes. For the patients, α-maps were compared with CT, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and Fourier decomposition (FD). In healthy volunteers, respiratory α-maps showed good reproducibility and were homogeneous on iso-gravitational planes, but showed a gravity-dependent respiratory gradient. In patients with obstructive pulmonary disease, the functional impairment observed in respiratory α-maps was associated with emphysematous regions present on CT images, perfusion defects observable on DCE-MRI, and impairments visualized on FD ventilation and perfusion maps. Respiratory α-mapping derived from multivolumetric ufSSFP provides insights into functional lung impairment and may serve as a reproducible and normative measure for clinical studies. Magn Reson Med 78:1059-1069, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Brain energy metabolism and neuroinflammation in ageing APP/PS1-21 mice using longitudinal 18F-FDG and 18F-DPA-714 PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takkinen, Jatta S; López-Picón, Francisco R; Al Majidi, Rana; Eskola, Olli; Krzyczmonik, Anna; Keller, Thomas; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Solin, Olof; Rinne, Juha O; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical animal model studies of brain energy metabolism and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease have produced conflicting results, hampering both the elucidation of the underlying disease mechanism and the development of effective Alzheimer's disease therapies. Here, we aimed to quantify the relationship between brain energy metabolism and neuroinflammation in the APP/PS1-21 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease using longitudinal in vivo 18 F-FDG and 18 F-DPA-714) PET imaging and ex vivo brain autoradiography. APP/PS1-21 (TG, n = 9) and wild type control mice (WT, n = 9) were studied longitudinally every third month from age 6 to 15 months with 18 F-FDG and 18 F-DPA-714 with a one-week interval between the scans. Additional TG (n = 52) and WT (n = 29) mice were used for ex vivo studies. In vivo, the 18 F-FDG SUVs were lower and the 18 F-DPA-714 binding ratios relative to the cerebellum were higher in the TG mouse cortex and hippocampus than in WT mice at age 12 to 15 months ( p < 0.05). The ex vivo cerebellum binding ratios supported the results of the in vivo 18 F-DPA-714 studies but not the 18 F-FDG studies. This longitudinal PET study demonstrated decreased energy metabolism and increased inflammation in the brains of APP/PS1-21 mice compared to WT mice.

  20. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain: a magnetization transfer imaging study of brain macro- and micro-structure in older adults without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; Jansen, Steffy W; van Buchem, Mark A; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-08-01

    Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain MRI was used to detect macro-structural damage (atrophy, white matter hyper-intensities, infarcts and/or micro-bleeds) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) to detect loss of micro-structural homogeneity that remains otherwise invisible on conventional MRI. Macro-structurally, higher fasted glucose was significantly associated with white matter atrophy (P = 0.028). Micro-structurally, decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) peak height in gray matter was associated with higher fasted insulin (P = 0.010), AUCinsulin (P = 0.001), insulinogenic index (P = 0.008) and lower HOMA-IS index (P glucose was associated with macro-structural damage, impaired insulin action was associated more strongly with reduced micro-structural brain parenchymal homogeneity. These findings offer some insight into the association between different parameters of glucose metabolism (impairment of which is characteristic of diabetes mellitus) and brain aging.

  1. Anato-metabolic fusion of PET, CT and MRI images; Anatometabolische Bildfusion von PET, CT und MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przetak, C.; Baum, R.P.; Niesen, A. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin/PET-Zentrum; Slomka, P. [University of Western Ontario, Toronto (Canada). Health Sciences Centre; Proeschild, A.; Leonhardi, J. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Inst. fuer bildgebende Diagnostik

    2000-12-01

    The fusion of cross-sectional images - especially in oncology - appears to be a very helpful tool to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic accuracy. Though many advantages exist, image fusion is applied routinely only in a few hospitals. To introduce image fusion as a common procedure, technical and logistical conditions have to be fulfilled which are related to long term archiving of digital data, data transfer and improvement of the available software in terms of usefulness and documentation. The accuracy of coregistration and the quality of image fusion has to be validated by further controlled studies. (orig.) [German] Zur Erhoehung der diagnostischen und therapeutischen Sicherheit ist die Fusion von Schnittbildern verschiedener tomographischer Verfahren insbesondere in der Onkologie sehr hilfreich. Trotz bestehender Vorteile hat die Bildfusion bisher nur in einzelnen Zentren Einzug in die nuklearmedizinische und radiologische Routinediagnostik gefunden. Um die Bildfusion allgemein einsetzen zu koennen, sind bestimmte technische und logistische Voraussetzungen notwendig. Dies betrifft die Langzeitarchivierung von diagitalen Daten, die Moeglichkeiten zur Datenuebertragung und die Weiterentwicklung der verfuegbaren Software, auch was den Bedienkomfort und die Dokumentation anbelangt. Zudem ist es notwendig, die Exaktheit der Koregistrierung und damit die Qualitaet der Bildfusion durch kontrollierte Studien zu validieren. (orig.)

  2. The effect of 18F-FDG-PET image reconstruction algorithms on the expression of characteristic metabolic brain network in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomše, Petra; Jensterle, Luka; Rep, Sebastijan; Grmek, Marko; Zaletel, Katja; Eidelberg, David; Dhawan, Vijay; Ma, Yilong; Trošt, Maja

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the expression of Parkinson's Disease Related Pattern (PDRP) across multiple sets of 18F-FDG-PET brain images reconstructed with different reconstruction algorithms. 18F-FDG-PET brain imaging was performed in two independent cohorts of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and normal controls (NC). Slovenian cohort (20 PD patients, 20 NC) was scanned with Siemens Biograph mCT camera and reconstructed using FBP, FBP+TOF, OSEM, OSEM+TOF, OSEM+PSF and OSEM+PSF+TOF. American Cohort (20 PD patients, 7 NC) was scanned with GE Advance camera and reconstructed using 3DRP, FORE-FBP and FORE-Iterative. Expressions of two previously-validated PDRP patterns (PDRP-Slovenia and PDRP-USA) were calculated. We compared the ability of PDRP to discriminate PD patients from NC, differences and correlation between the corresponding subject scores and ROC analysis results across the different reconstruction algorithms. The expression of PDRP-Slovenia and PDRP-USA networks was significantly elevated in PD patients compared to NC (palgorithms. PDRP expression strongly correlated between all studied algorithms and the reference algorithm (r⩾0.993, palgorithms varied within 0.73 and 0.08 of the reference value for PDRP-Slovenia and PDRP-USA, respectively. ROC analysis confirmed high similarity in sensitivity, specificity and AUC among all studied reconstruction algorithms. These results show that the expression of PDRP is reproducible across a variety of reconstruction algorithms of 18F-FDG-PET brain images. PDRP is capable of providing a robust metabolic biomarker of PD for multicenter 18F-FDG-PET images acquired in the context of differential diagnosis or clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 16-Channel surface coil for 13C-hyperpolarized spectroscopic imaging of cardiac metabolism in pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frijia, Francesca; Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Koellisch, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate and its metabolites in large animal models is a powerful tool for assessing cardiac metabolism in patho-physiological conditions. In 13C studies, a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is crucial to overcome the intrinsic data quality...... both targets. In this study, a 16-channel receive surface coil was designed for 13C hyperpolarized studies of the pig heart with a clinical 3-T scanner. The coil performance was characterized by phantom experiments and compared with that of a birdcage coil used in transmit/receive mode. Segmental...... of the 16-channel coil is recommended for studies of septal and anterior LV walls....

  4. Study on the metabolic characteristics of renal imaging agent {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA with tracer experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoupeng, Zhu; Liuyi, Wang; Mingyue, Lun [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China); and others

    1995-05-01

    Tracer experiment showed that {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney. The distribution in other tissue was in the following descending order: heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, muscle, adipose tissue, testes, and brain. The smaller the intravenous dose, the lower the proportion of the drug was combined to plasma protein and the more the drug was distributed in kidney. Excretion of {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDa via urine was rapid and was in its original form as shown by radiochromatography.

  5. Validation of 99mTc-labeled '4+1' fatty acids for myocardial metabolism and flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirtschink, Peter; Stehr, Sebastian N.; Walther, Martin; Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Weichsel, Johannes; Pexa, Annette; Dieterich, Peter; Wunderlich, Gerd; Binas, Bert; Kropp, Joachim; Deussen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Our group has synthesized technetium-labeled fatty acids (FA) that are extracted into the myocardium and sequestered due to heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) binding. In this article, we further address the detailed subcellular distribution and potential myocardial metabolism of [ 99m Tc]'4+1' FA. Methods: Experi