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Sample records for rapid length steps

  1. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Renaudin, Valérie; SUSI, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier...

  2. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand’s motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  3. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Valérie; Susi, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user's step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor's signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand's motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only. PMID:23012503

  4. Step length estimation using handheld inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Valérie; Susi, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user's step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor's signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand's motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  5. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  6. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  7. Effects of step length and step frequency on lower-limb muscle function in human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yoong Ping; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

    2017-05-24

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of step length and step frequency on lower-limb muscle function in walking. Three-dimensional gait data were used in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling techniques to evaluate muscle function over a range of walking speeds using prescribed combinations of step length and step frequency. The body was modeled as a 10-segment, 21-degree-of-freedom skeleton actuated by 54 muscle-tendon units. Lower-limb muscle forces were calculated using inverse dynamics and static optimization. We found that five muscles - GMAX, GMED, VAS, GAS, and SOL - dominated vertical support and forward progression independent of changes made to either step length or step frequency, and that, overall, changes in step length had a greater influence on lower-limb joint motion, net joint moments and muscle function than step frequency. Peak forces developed by the uniarticular hip and knee extensors, as well as the normalized fiber lengths at which these muscles developed their peak forces, correlated more closely with changes in step length than step frequency. Increasing step length resulted in larger contributions from the hip and knee extensors and smaller contributions from gravitational forces (limb posture) to vertical support. These results provide insight into why older people with weak hip and knee extensors walk more slowly by reducing step length rather than step frequency and also help to identify the key muscle groups that ought to be targeted in exercise programs designed to improve gait biomechanics in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Regina Rachmawati; Diana Samara; Purnamawati Tjhin; Magdalena Wartono; Yefta Bastian

    2016-01-01

    Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC). The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects ha...

  9. Step Frequency and Step Length of 200-m Sprint in Able-bodied and Amputee Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, H; Sano, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Heldoorn, T A; Mochimaru, M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the difference in the 200-m sprint performance of amputee and able-bodied sprinters is due to a shorter step length rather than a lower step frequency. Men's elite-level 200-m races with a total of 16 able-bodied, 13 unilateral transtibial, 5 bilateral transtibial, and 16 unilateral transfemoral amputee sprinters were analyzed from publicly available internet broadcasts. For each run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the entire 200-m distance were analyzed for each sprinter. The average forward velocity of able-bodied sprinters was faster than that of the other 3 groups, but there was no significant difference in average step frequency between able-bodied and transtibial amputee sprinters. However, the average step length of able-bodied sprinters was significantly longer than that of the transtibial amputee sprinters. In contrast, the step frequency and step length of transfemoral amputees were significantly lower and shorter than those of the other 3 groups. These results suggest that the differences in 200-m sprint performance between able-bodied and amputee sprinters are dependent on amputation level. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Pelvic step: The contribution of horizontal pelvis rotation to step length in young healthy adults walking on a treadmill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, B.W.; Wu, W.H.; Meijer, O.G.; Lin, J.H.; Lv, G.R.; Lin, X.C.; Prins, M.R.; Hu, H.; van Dieen, J.H.; Bruijn, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Transverse plane pelvis rotations during walking may be regarded as the "first determinant of gait". This would assume that pelvis rotations increase step length, and thereby reduce the vertical movements of the centre of mass-"the pelvic step". We analysed the pelvic step using 20 healthy young

  11. Pelvic step: the contribution of horizontal pelvis rotation to step length in young healthy adults walking on a treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo Wei; Wu, Wen Hua; Meijer, Onno G; Lin, Jian Hua; Lv, Go Rong; Lin, Xiao Cong; Prins, Maarten R; Hu, Hai; van Dieën, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-01-01

    Transverse plane pelvis rotations during walking may be regarded as the "first determinant of gait". This would assume that pelvis rotations increase step length, and thereby reduce the vertical movements of the centre of mass-"the pelvic step". We analysed the pelvic step using 20 healthy young male subjects, walking on a treadmill at 1-5 km/h, with normal or big steps. Step length, pelvis rotation amplitude, leg-pelvis relative phase, and the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length were calculated. When speed increased in normal walking, pelvis rotation changed from more out-of-phase to in-phase with the upper leg. Consequently, the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length was negative at lower speeds, switching to positive at 3 km/h. With big steps, leg and pelvis were more in-phase, and the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length was always positive, and relatively large. Still, the overall contribution of pelvis rotations to step length was small, less than 3%. Regression analysis revealed that leg-pelvis relative phase predicted about 60% of the variance of this contribution. The results of the present study suggest that, during normal slow walking, pelvis rotations increase, rather than decrease, the vertical movements of the centre of mass. With large steps, this does not happen, because leg and pelvis are in-phase at all speeds. Finally, it has been suggested that patients with hip flexion limitation may use larger pelvis rotations to increase step length. This, however, may only work as long as the pelvis rotates in-phase with the leg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Displacement Height and Surface Roughness Length to Determination Boundary Layer Development Length over Stepped Spillway

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    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most uncertain parameters in stepped spillway design is the length (from the crest of boundary layer development. The normal velocity profiles responding to the steps as bed roughness are investigated in the developing non-aerated flow region. A detailed analysis of the logarithmic vertical velocity profiles on stepped spillways is conducted through experimental data to verify the computational code and numerical experiments to expand the data available. To determine development length, the hydraulic roughness and displacement thickness, along with the shear velocity, are needed. This includes determining displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 and the relationship of d and z0 to the step geometry. The results show that the hydraulic roughness height ks is the primary factor on which d and z0 depend. In different step height, step width, discharge and intake Froude number, the relations d/ks = 0.22–0.27, z0/ks = 0.06–0.1 and d/z0 = 2.2–4 result in a good estimate. Using the computational code and numerical experiments, air inception will occur over stepped spillway flow as long as the Bauer-defined boundary layer thickness is between 0.72 and 0.79.

  13. Study of the Inception Length of Flow over Stepped Spillway Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the inception (development) length increases as the unit discharge increases and it decreases with an increase in both stepped roughness height and chute angle. The ratio of the development length, in this study, to that of Bauer's was found to be 4:5. Finally, SMM-5 produced the least velocity of ...

  14. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.

  15. Bilateral step length estimation using a single inertial measurement unit attached to the pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Alper; Cereatti, Andrea; Della Croce, Ugo

    2012-02-08

    The estimation of the spatio-temporal gait parameters is of primary importance in both physical activity monitoring and clinical contexts. A method for estimating step length bilaterally, during level walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the pelvis is proposed. In contrast to previous studies, based either on a simplified representation of the human gait mechanics or on a general linear regressive model, the proposed method estimates the step length directly from the integration of the acceleration along the direction of progression. The IMU was placed at pelvis level fixed to the subject's belt on the right side. The method was validated using measurements from a stereo-photogrammetric system as a gold standard on nine subjects walking ten laps along a closed loop track of about 25 m, varying their speed. For each loop, only the IMU data recorded in a 4 m long portion of the track included in the calibrated volume of the SP system, were used for the analysis. The method takes advantage of the cyclic nature of gait and it requires an accurate determination of the foot contact instances. A combination of a Kalman filter and of an optimally filtered direct and reverse integration applied to the IMU signals formed a single novel method (Kalman and Optimally filtered Step length Estimation - KOSE method). A correction of the IMU displacement due to the pelvic rotation occurring in gait was implemented to estimate the step length and the traversed distance. The step length was estimated for all subjects with less than 3% error. Traversed distance was assessed with less than 2% error. The proposed method provided estimates of step length and traversed distance more accurate than any other method applied to measurements obtained from a single IMU that can be found in the literature. In healthy subjects, it is reasonable to expect that, errors in traversed distance estimation during daily monitoring activity would be of the same order of

  16. Bag-of-steps : Predicting lower-limb fracture rehabilitation length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pla, Albert; López, Beatriz; Nogueira, Cristofor; Mordvaniuk, Natalia; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Holtslag, Herman R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents bag-of-steps, a new methodology to predict the rehabilitation length of a patient by monitoring the weight he is bearing in his injured leg and using a predictive model based on the bag-of-words technique. A force sensor is used to monitor and characterize the patient's gait,

  17. The ergogenic effect of elastic therapeutic tape on stride and step length in fatigued runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, John; Sorrels, Kenneth; Coats, Jesse; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Moskop, JoAnn; Ueckert, Kate; Glass, Amanda

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if elastic therapeutic tape placed on anterior lower limbs would affect stride and step length in fatigued runners' gait. Forty-two healthy participants were equally divided into a kinesiology tape group (Rocktape) and a no-tape control group. Participants in both groups underwent a baseline running gait test at 6 mph without tape. After this, participants engaged in an exhaustive lower body fatigue protocol until they reached maximal volitional exhaustion. Participants were then randomized to 1 of 2 interventions: (1) Experimental group, which had kinesiology tape placed under tension on the anterior aspect of their lower limbs bilaterally from the upper thigh to just below the patella, or (2) Control group, which did not receive taping. All participants then engaged in a similar 6-mph running gait postanalysis. Participant's gait was analyzed for 90 seconds during each test iteration. Researchers used a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance considering fatigue (prefatigue, postfatigue) and group (tape, no-tape) as subject factors. After the fatigue protocol, the no-tape group demonstrated a significant decrease in step length of 14.2 mm (P = .041) and stride length of 29.4 mm (P = .043). The kinesiology tape group did not demonstrate a significant decline in these gait parameters. In this preliminary study, placing elastic therapeutic tape over the anterior lower limbs demonstrated short-term preservation of runner step length and stride length in a fatigued state.

  18. Contribution of Step Length to Increase Walking and Turning Speed as a Marker of Parkinson's Disease Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bayle

    Full Text Available When increasing ambulation speed in Parkinson's disease, step cadence increases more than stride length, indicating movement scaling difficulties that affect step generation in particular. We investigated whether step length variation when increasing ambulation speed was related to disease progression. Patients with Parkinson's disease (N = 39 and controls (N = 152 performed two timed ambulation tasks: at a 'free' (self-selected pace and then at 'maximal' speed. The total number of steps (including during turns and time to complete the task were clinically measured. The relative contribution of step length and cadence to increased ambulation speed was determined using two methods: the ratios of change in step length or in cadence to the change in ambulation speed, and the step length index. While the relative contribution of step length and cadence to increased ambulation speed was independent of age in both control and patient groups, in Parkinson's disease there was a negative correlation between time from diagnosis and the ratio of change in step length to change in ambulation speed (R = 0.54; p = 0.0004 and the step length index (R = 0.56, p = 0.0002. In parallel, there was a positive correlation between time since diagnosis and the ratio of change in cadence to change in ambulation speed (R = 0.57; p = 0.0002. The relative contribution of step length and cadence to increased ambulation speed is age invariant but a marker of Parkinson's disease advancement, and can be easily determined in the clinical setting.

  19. Bilateral step length estimation using a single inertial measurement unit attached to the pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The estimation of the spatio-temporal gait parameters is of primary importance in both physical activity monitoring and clinical contexts. A method for estimating step length bilaterally, during level walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the pelvis is proposed. In contrast to previous studies, based either on a simplified representation of the human gait mechanics or on a general linear regressive model, the proposed method estimates the step length directly from the integration of the acceleration along the direction of progression. Methods The IMU was placed at pelvis level fixed to the subject's belt on the right side. The method was validated using measurements from a stereo-photogrammetric system as a gold standard on nine subjects walking ten laps along a closed loop track of about 25 m, varying their speed. For each loop, only the IMU data recorded in a 4 m long portion of the track included in the calibrated volume of the SP system, were used for the analysis. The method takes advantage of the cyclic nature of gait and it requires an accurate determination of the foot contact instances. A combination of a Kalman filter and of an optimally filtered direct and reverse integration applied to the IMU signals formed a single novel method (Kalman and Optimally filtered Step length Estimation - KOSE method). A correction of the IMU displacement due to the pelvic rotation occurring in gait was implemented to estimate the step length and the traversed distance. Results The step length was estimated for all subjects with less than 3% error. Traversed distance was assessed with less than 2% error. Conclusions The proposed method provided estimates of step length and traversed distance more accurate than any other method applied to measurements obtained from a single IMU that can be found in the literature. In healthy subjects, it is reasonable to expect that, errors in traversed distance estimation during daily monitoring

  20. Step length after discrete perturbation predicts accidental falls and fall-related injury in elderly people with a range of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allet, Lara; Kim, Hogene; Ashton-Miller, James; De Mott, Trina; Richardson, James K

    2014-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy increases fall risk due to inability to cope with perturbations. We aimed to 1) identify the frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions which are necessary for robustness to a discrete, underfoot perturbation during gait; and 2) determine whether changes in the post-perturbed step parameters could distinguish between fallers and non fallers. Forty-two subjects (16 healthy old and 26 with diabetic PN) participated. Frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions were determined using established laboratory-based techniques. The subjects' most extreme alterations in step width or step length in response to a perturbation were measured. In addition, falls and fall-related injuries were prospectively recorded. Ankle proprioceptive threshold (APrT; p=.025) and hip abduction rate of torque generation (RTG; p=.041) independently predicted extreme step length after medial perturbation, with precise APrT and greater hip RTG allowing maintenance of step length. Injured subjects demonstrated greater extreme step length changes after medial perturbation than non-injured subjects (percent change = 18.5 ± 9.2 vs. 11.3 ± 4.57; p = .01). The ability to rapidly generate frontal plane hip strength and/or precisely perceive motion at the ankle is needed to maintain a normal step length after perturbation, a parameter which distinguishes between subjects sustaining a fall-related injury and those who did not. © 2014.

  1. The Ergogenic Effect of Elastic Therapeutic Tape on Stride and Step Length in Fatigued Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, John; Sorrels, Kenneth; Coats, Jesse; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Moskop, JoAnn; Ueckert, Kate; Glass, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if elastic therapeutic tape placed on anterior lower limbs would affect stride and step length in fatigued runners’ gait. Methods Forty-two healthy participants were equally divided into a kinesiology tape group (Rocktape) and a no-tape control group. Participants in both groups underwent a baseline running gait test at 6 mph without tape. After this, participants engaged in an exhaustive lower body fatigue protocol until they reached maximal volitional exhaustion. Participants were then randomized to 1 of 2 interventions: (1) Experimental group, which had kinesiology tape placed under tension on the anterior aspect of their lower limbs bilaterally from the upper thigh to just below the patella, or (2) Control group, which did not receive taping. All participants then engaged in a similar 6-mph running gait postanalysis. Participant’s gait was analyzed for 90 seconds during each test iteration. Researchers used a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance considering fatigue (prefatigue, postfatigue) and group (tape, no-tape) as subject factors. Results After the fatigue protocol, the no-tape group demonstrated a significant decrease in step length of 14.2 mm (P = .041) and stride length of 29.4 mm (P = .043). The kinesiology tape group did not demonstrate a significant decline in these gait parameters. Conclusions In this preliminary study, placing elastic therapeutic tape over the anterior lower limbs demonstrated short-term preservation of runner step length and stride length in a fatigued state. PMID:25435835

  2. Multi-Step Time Series Forecasting with an Ensemble of Varied Length Mixture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yicun; Yin, Hujun

    2017-11-13

    Many real-world problems require modeling and forecasting of time series, such as weather temperature, electricity demand, stock prices and foreign exchange (FX) rates. Often, the tasks involve predicting over a long-term period, e.g. several weeks or months. Most existing time series models are inheritably for one-step prediction, that is, predicting one time point ahead. Multi-step or long-term prediction is difficult and challenging due to the lack of information and uncertainty or error accumulation. The main existing approaches, iterative and independent, either use one-step model recursively or treat the multi-step task as an independent model. They generally perform poorly in practical applications. In this paper, as an extension of the self-organizing mixture autoregressive (AR) model, the varied length mixture (VLM) models are proposed to model and forecast time series over multi-steps. The key idea is to preserve the dependencies between the time points within the prediction horizon. Training data are segmented to various lengths corresponding to various forecasting horizons, and the VLM models are trained in a self-organizing fashion on these segments to capture these dependencies in its component AR models of various predicting horizons. The VLM models form a probabilistic mixture of these varied length models. A combination of short and long VLM models and an ensemble of them are proposed to further enhance the prediction performance. The effectiveness of the proposed methods and their marked improvements over the existing methods are demonstrated through a number of experiments on synthetic data, real-world FX rates and weather temperatures.

  3. Running posture and step length changes immediately after chiropractic treatment in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dean L; Walsh, Mark; Smith, Jane P

    2009-01-01

    This case study reports on selected measures of locomotion (running) in a 5-year-old patient with xeroderma pigmentosum after chiropractic care. A 5-year-old female patient (16.4 kg, 99.1 cm) with xeroderma pigmentosum (type A) volunteered to participate in the experiment with the consent of her parents. The patient had well-documented signs of delayed fine motor (eg, difficulty with writing, coloring, cutting) and gross motor control (eg, balance and coordination dysfunction and falling while running), and delayed speech. Trunk forward lean angles, step lengths, and hip horizontal translations were assessed by video as the participant ran as fast as possible down a laboratory runway. After chiropractic manipulation (adjustments), the patient reduced the trunk forward lean angle to become more vertical (P = .000). In addition, the patient experienced an increase in step length (P = .031). No significant change in lateral translation was observed after the intervention. For this patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, chiropractic manipulation (adjustments) resulted in immediate changes in running performance. Further investigation is needed to examine the effect of chiropractic on locomotion in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.

  4. Transverse Free Vibration of Axially Moving Stepped Beam with Different Length and Tip Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Axially moving stepped beam (AMSB with different length and tip mass is represented by adopting Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, and its characteristics and displacements of transverse free vibration are calculated by using semianalytical method. Firstly, the governing equation of the transverse free vibration is established based on Hamilton’s principle. The equation is cast into eigenvalue equation through the complex modal analysis. Then, a scheme is proposed to derive the continuous condition accordingly as the displacement, rotation, bending moment, and shear force are all equal at the connections of any two segments. Another scheme is to derive frequency equation from the given boundary conditions which contain a tip mass in the last segment. Finally, the natural frequency and modal function are calculated by using numerical method according to the eigenvalue equation and frequency equation. Due to the introduction of modal truncation, displacement and, the free vibration solution can be obtained by adopting modal superposition after Hilbert transform. The numerical examples illustrate that length, velocity, mass, and geometry affect characteristics and displacements significantly; the series of methods are effective and accurate to investigate the vibration of the AMSB with different length and tip mass after comparing several results.

  5. Walk Ratio (Step Length/Cadence) as a Summary Index of Neuromotor Control of Gait: Application to Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Viviana; Perucca, Laura; Simone, Anna; Tesio, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    In healthy adults, the step length/cadence ratio [walk ratio (WR) in mm/(steps/min) and normalized for height] is known to be constant around 6.5 mm/(step/min). It is a speed-independent index of the overall neuromotor gait control, in as much as it reflects energy expenditure, balance, between-step variability, and attentional demand. The speed…

  6. Step-Detection and Adaptive Step-Length Estimation for Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning at Various Walking Speeds Using a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ngoc-Huynh; Truong, Phuc Huu; Jeong, Gu-Min

    2016-09-02

    We propose a walking distance estimation method based on an adaptive step-length estimator at various walking speeds using a smartphone. First, we apply a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based smoother on the acceleration data collected by the smartphone to remove the interference signals. Then, we analyze these data using a set of step-detection rules in order to detect walking steps. Using an adaptive estimator, which is based on a model of average step speed, we accurately obtain the walking step length. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, we examine the distance estimation for four different distances and three speed levels. The experimental results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms conventional estimation methods in terms of accuracy.

  7. Polyadenylated tail length variation pattern in ultra-rapid vitrified bovine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Dutta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aims at investigating the polyadenylated (poly[A] tail length of morphologically high and low competent oocytes at different developmental stages. Furthermore, effect of ultra-rapid vitrification on the poly(A tail length was studied. Materials and Methods: Fresh bovine cumulus oocyte complexes from abattoir originated ovaries were graded based on morphological characters and matured in vitro. Cryopreservation was done by ultra-rapid vitrification method. mRNA was isolated from different categories of oocyte and subjected to ligation-mediated poly(A test followed by polymerase chain reaction for determining the poly(A tail length of β actin, gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1, poly(A polymerase alpha (PAPOLA, and heat shock 70 kDa protein (HSP70 transcripts. Results: GJA1, PAPOLA, and HSP70 showed significantly higher poly(A in immature oocytes of higher competence irrespective of vitrification effects as compared to mature oocytes of higher competence. Conclusion: mRNA poly(A tail size increases in developmentally high competent immature bovine oocytes. There was limited effect of ultra-rapid vitrification of bovine oocytes on poly(A.

  8. The association between the maximum step length test and the walking efficiency in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Minoru; Okada, Kyoji; Sakamoto, Hitoshi; Kondou, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To improve walking efficiency could be useful for reducing fatigue and extending possible period of walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP). For this purpose, current study compared conventional parameters of gross motor performance, step length, and cadence in the evaluation of walking efficiency in children with CP. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one children with CP (21 boys, 10 girls; mean age, 12.3 ± 2.7 years) participated. Parameters of gross motor performance, including the maximum step length (MSL), maximum side step length, step number, lateral step up number, and single leg standing time, were measured in both dominant and non-dominant sides. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking, including speed, step length, and cadence, were calculated. Total heart beat index (THBI), a parameter of walking efficiency, was also calculated from heartbeats and walking distance in 10 minutes of walking. To analyze the relationships between these parameters and the THBI, the coefficients of determination were calculated using stepwise analysis. [Results] The MSL of the dominant side best accounted for the THBI (R2=0.759). [Conclusion] The MSL of the dominant side was the best explanatory parameter for walking efficiency in children with CP. PMID:28603353

  9. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  10. Age differences in the required coefficient of friction during level walking do not exist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E.; Franck, Christopher T.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gait speed and step length on the required coefficient of friction (COF) confounds the investigation of age-related differences in required COF. The goals of this study were to investigate whether age differences in required COF during self-selected gait persist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length, and to determine the independent effects of speed and step length on required COF. Ten young and ten older healthy adults performed gait trials under five gait conditions: self-selected, slow and fast speeds without controlling step length, and slow and fast speeds while controlling step length. During self-selected gait, older adults walked with shorter step lengths and exhibited a lower required COF. Older adults also exhibited a lower required COF when walking at a controlled speed without controlling step length. When both age groups walked with the same speed and step length, no age difference in required COF was found. Thus, speed and step length can have a large influence on studies investigating age-related differences in required COF. It was also found that speed and step length have independent and opposite effects on required COF, with step length having a strong positive effect on required COF, and speed a weaker negative effect. PMID:24979811

  11. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  12. Step-height standards based on the rapid formation of monolayer steps on the surface of layered crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonov, A.I. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Prinz, V.Ya., E-mail: prinz@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, V.A. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kokh, K.A. [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGM SB RAS), pr. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (NIIC SB RAS), pr. Lavrentieva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Easily reproducible step-height standard for SPM calibrations was proposed. • Step-height standard is monolayer steps on the surface of layered single crystal. • Long-term change in surface morphology of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} was investigated. • Conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals appropriate for calibrating STM. • Ability of robust SPM calibrations under ambient conditions were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metrology is essential for nanotechnology, especially for structures and devices with feature sizes going down to nm. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) permits measurement of nanometer- and subnanometer-scale objects. Accuracy of size measurements performed using SPMs is largely defined by the accuracy of used calibration measures. In the present publication, we demonstrate that height standards of monolayer step (∼1 and ∼0.6 nm) can be easily prepared by cleaving Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} layered single crystals. It was shown that the conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals offers height standard appropriate for calibrating STMs and for testing conductive SPM probes. Our AFM study of the morphology of freshly cleaved (0001) Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} surfaces proved that such surfaces remained atomically smooth during a period of at least half a year. The (010) surfaces of ZnWO{sub 4} crystals remained atomically smooth during one day, but already two days later an additional nanorelief of amplitude ∼0.3 nm appeared on those surfaces. This relief, however, did not further grow in height, and it did not hamper the calibration. Simplicity and the possibility of rapid fabrication of the step-height standards, as well as their high stability, make these standards available for a great, permanently growing number of users involved in 3D printing activities.

  13. Lab on a chip Canada--rapid diffusion over large length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncker, David; Wheeler, Aaron R; Sinton, David

    2013-07-07

    The roots of lab on a chip in Canada are deep, comprising of some of the earliest contributions and first demonstrations of the potential of microfluidic chips. In an editorial leading off this special issue, Jed Harrison of University of Alberta reflects on these early days and Canada's role in the field's development (DOI: 10.1039/c3lc50522g). Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip research efforts grew exponentially - rapidly diffusing across the vast Canadian length scales.

  14. Evaluation of rapid one-step prostate specific antigen test against an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Main Objective: To evaluate the analytical performance of the rapid one-step immunochromatographic PSA assay against an established ELISA method. Design: A comparative study was conducted in the Department of Chemical Pathology at the University of Zimbabwe, College Health Sciences, between June 2012 and ...

  15. Older Adults Show Preserved Equilibrium but Impaired Step Length Control in Motor-Equivalent Stabilization of Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrel, Julius; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Stable walking depends on the coordination of multiple biomechanical degrees of freedom to ensure the dynamic maintenance of whole-body equilibrium as well as continuous forward progression. We investigated adult age-related differences in whole-body coordination underlying stabilization of center of mass (CoM) position and step pattern during locomotion. Sixteen younger (20-30 years) and 16 healthy older men (65–80 years) walked on a motorized treadmill at 80%, 100% and 120% of their self-selected preferred speed. Preferred speeds did not differ between the age groups. Motor-equivalent stabilization of step parameters (step length and width) and CoM position relative to the support (back and front foot) was examined using a generalized covariation analysis. Across age groups, covariation indices were highest for CoM position relative to the front foot, the measure most directly related to body equilibrium. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed lower covariation indices with respect to step length, extending previous findings of age-related differences in motor-equivalent coordination. In contrast, no reliable age differences were found regarding stabilization of step width or any of the CoM parameters. The observed pattern of results may reflect robust prioritization of balance over step pattern regularity, which may be adaptive in the face of age-associated sensorimotor losses and decline of coordinative capacities. PMID:23272200

  16. Step-height standards based on the rapid formation of monolayer steps on the surface of layered crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komonov, A. I.; Prinz, V. Ya.; Seleznev, V. A.; Kokh, K. A.; Shlegel, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    Metrology is essential for nanotechnology, especially for structures and devices with feature sizes going down to nm. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) permits measurement of nanometer- and subnanometer-scale objects. Accuracy of size measurements performed using SPMs is largely defined by the accuracy of used calibration measures. In the present publication, we demonstrate that height standards of monolayer step (∼1 and ∼0.6 nm) can be easily prepared by cleaving Bi2Se3 and ZnWO4 layered single crystals. It was shown that the conducting surface of Bi2Se3 crystals offers height standard appropriate for calibrating STMs and for testing conductive SPM probes. Our AFM study of the morphology of freshly cleaved (0001) Bi2Se3 surfaces proved that such surfaces remained atomically smooth during a period of at least half a year. The (010) surfaces of ZnWO4 crystals remained atomically smooth during one day, but already two days later an additional nanorelief of amplitude ∼0.3 nm appeared on those surfaces. This relief, however, did not further grow in height, and it did not hamper the calibration. Simplicity and the possibility of rapid fabrication of the step-height standards, as well as their high stability, make these standards available for a great, permanently growing number of users involved in 3D printing activities.

  17. Cost and Impact on Patient Length of Stay of Rapid Molecular Testing for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Bernadette; Rees, Eugene; Thomas, Ian; Ch'ng, Chin Lye; Isaac, Mike; Berry, Nidhika

    2014-12-01

    A study was performed to assess the cost of a rapid molecular assay (PCR) for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the impact of its routine use on patient length of stay (LOS) in comparison with cell culture cytotoxin neutralization assay (CCNA). From March 2011 to September 2011, Xpert(®) C. difficile (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) PCR was used on patients with suspicion of CDI in two acute care hospitals in Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Swansea, Wales, UK. Test results were used for patient management. LOS and time to reportable result were compared for negative and positive prospective patients tested by PCR and historic control patients tested by CCNA during March 2010 to September 2010. Tests were priced using micro-costing and a cost comparison analysis was undertaken. In total, 506 patients were included. Time to reportable result for PCR samples was 1.53 h compared to 46.54 h for CCNA negatives and 22.45 h for CCNA positives. Patients tested by CCNA stayed 4.88 days longer in hospital compared to PCR patients if they tested positive and 7.03 days if tests were negative. The mean reduction in LOS observed in our study has the potential to generate cost savings of up to £2,292.62 for every patient with suspected CDI, if samples were to be tested routinely with PCR instead of CCNA. A rapid molecular test for C. difficile in an acute hospital setting produced quick results that led to a decrease in LOS compared to historic CCNA control patients. This could result in considerable savings through reduced excess inpatient days.

  18. Rapid Titration of Measles and Other Viruses: Optimization with Determination of Replication Cycle Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Boyan; Rabilloud, Jessica; Lawrence, Philip; Gerlier, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Background Measles virus (MV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and an important human pathogen causing strong immunosuppression in affected individuals and a considerable number of deaths worldwide. Currently, measles is a re-emerging disease in developed countries. MV is usually quantified in infectious units as determined by limiting dilution and counting of plaque forming unit either directly (PFU method) or indirectly from random distribution in microwells (TCID50 method). Both methods are time-consuming (up to several days), cumbersome and, in the case of the PFU assay, possibly operator dependent. Methods/Findings A rapid, optimized, accurate, and reliable technique for titration of measles virus was developed based on the detection of virus infected cells by flow cytometry, single round of infection and titer calculation according to the Poisson's law. The kinetics follow up of the number of infected cells after infection with serial dilutions of a virus allowed estimation of the duration of the replication cycle, and consequently, the optimal infection time. The assay was set up to quantify measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using antibody labeling of viral glycoprotein, virus encoded fluorescent reporter protein and an inducible fluorescent-reporter cell line, respectively. Conclusion Overall, performing the assay takes only 24–30 hours for MV strains, 12 hours for VSV, and 52 hours for HIV-1. The step-by-step procedure we have set up can be, in principle, applicable to accurately quantify any virus including lentiviral vectors, provided that a virus encoded gene product can be detected by flow cytometry. PMID:21915289

  19. Rapid identification of rice blast resistance gene by specific length amplified fragment sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Excavation of resistance genes is one of the most effective and environment-friendly measures to control the devastating rice disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. Many resistance genes have been mapped and characterized in the last century. Nevertheless, only a few of the total resistance genes could be really applied in the rice breeding program. Huazhan (HZ is a new native rice restorer line developed in China and widely used in hybrid rice in recent years. HZ and its crossed combinations usually show a broad spectrum of resistance against rice blast in different rice ecosystems in China. Dissection of the genetic background of HZ is very useful for its further application. In this study, a combined method based on bulked segregation analysis (BSA and specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq was used to identify blast resistance gene(s in HZ. A total of 56,187 SLAFs labels were captured and 9051 polymorphic SLAFs markers were analysed and procured in this study. One trait associated with candidate resistance genes region on chromosome 12 overlapping 10.2–17.6 Mb has been identified, in which 10 NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat coding genes were used as resistance gene candidates. Our result indicated that SLAF-seq with BSA is a rapid and effective method for initial identification of blast resistance genes. The identification of resistance gene in HZ will improve its molecular breeding and resistance variety application.

  20. A rapid, one step molecular identification of Trichoderma citrinoviride and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Dina B; Dengeti, Shrinivas N; Aher, Supriya; Gupta, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Trichoderma species are widely used as production hosts for industrial enzymes. Identification of Trichoderma species requires a complex molecular biology based identification involving amplification and sequencing of multiple genes. Industrial laboratories are required to run identification tests repeatedly in cell banking procedures and also to prove absence of production host in the product. Such demands can be fulfilled by a brief method which enables confirmation of strain identity. This communication describes one step identification method for two common Trichoderma species; T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, based on identification of polymorphic region in the nucleotide sequence of translation elongation factor 1 alpha. A unique forward primer and common reverse primer resulted in 153 and 139 bp amplicon for T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, respectively. Simplification was further introduced by using mycelium as template for PCR amplification. Method described in this communication allows rapid, one step identification of two Trichoderma species.

  1. Rapid measurement of a high step microstructure with 90° steep sidewall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Zhang, Wei; Fang, F Z

    2012-01-01

    A prototype STM system with high aspect ratio measurement capability is developed to fulfill accurate profile measurement of a high step microstructure with 90° steep sidewall. Distinguished from the traditional STM, the new system consists of a long range piezoelectric (PZT) actuator with full stroke of 60 μm as Z-direction servo scanner, a specially customized high aspect ratio STM probe with effective tip length of 300 μm, and an X-Y motorized driven stage for planar scanning. A tilt stage is used to adjust the probe-sample relative angle to compensate the evitable non-parallel effects. Based on the new STM system, sample-tilt-scanning methodology is proposed for eliminating the scanning blind region between the probe and the microstructure. A high step microstructure with height of 23 μm, 90° steep sidewall and width of 50μm has been successfully measured. The slope angle of the sidewall has been achieved to be 85° and the step height at the rising edge and the trench depth at the falling edge are both measured to be 22.96 μm. The whole measuring process only spent less than 10 min. It provides an effective and nondestructive solution for the measurement of high step or deep trench microstructures. In addition, this work also opens the way for further study on sidewall roughness and the tip-sample interaction at the edge of the sidewall, which are highly valuable for fabrication and quality control of high step microstructures.

  2. Geometrical Alignment of Multiple Fabrication Steps for Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Macka, Mirek

    2017-11-21

    Three main fabrication steps for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) were fully integrated with accurate geometrical alignment between the individual steps in a simple and rapid manner. A wax printer for creating hydrophobic barriers was integrated with an inexpensive (ca. $300) electronic craft plotter/cutter for paper cutting, followed by colorimetric reagent deposition using technical pens. The principal shortcoming in the lack of accurate and precise alignment of the features created by these three individual fabrication steps was addressed in this work by developing appropriate alignment procedures during the multistep fabrication process. The wax printing step was geometrically aligned with the following cutting and plotting (deposition) steps in a highly accurate and precise manner using optical scanning function of the plotter/cutter based on registration marks printed on the paper using the wax printer and scanned by the plotter/cutter. The accuracy and precision of alignment in a two-dimensional plane were quantified by cutting and plotting cross-shaped features and measuring their center coordinates relative to wax printed reference lines. The average accuracy along the X- and Y-axis was 0.12 and 0.16 mm for cutting and 0.19 and 0.17 mm for plotting, respectively. The potential of this approach was demonstrated by fabricating μPADs for instrument-free determination of cobalt in waters using distance-based readout, with excellent precision (%RSD = 5.7) and detection limit (LOD) of 2.5 ng and 0.5 mg/L (mass and concentration LODs, respectively).

  3. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  4. Gold Nanorod-based Photo-PCR System for One-Step, Rapid Detection of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinjoo; Kim, Hansol; Park, Ji Ho; Jon, Sangyong

    2017-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been an essential tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, but conventional PCR still has some limitations with respect to applications to point-of-care (POC) diagnostic systems that require rapid detection and miniaturization. Here we report a light-based PCR method, termed as photo-PCR, which enables rapid detection of bacteria in a single step. In the photo-PCR system, poly(enthylene glycol)-modified gold nanorods (PEG-GNRs), used as a heat generator, are added into the PCR mixture, which is subsequently periodically irradiated with a 808-nm laser to create thermal cycling. Photo-PCR was able to significantly reduce overall thermal cycling time by integrating bacterial cell lysis and DNA amplification into a single step. Furthermore, when combined with KAPA2G fast polymerase and cooling system, the entire process of bacterial genomic DNA extraction and amplification was further shortened, highlighting the potential of photo-PCR for use in a portable, POC diagnostic system.

  5. A two-step method for rapid characterization of electroosmotic flows in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; He, Muyi; Yuan, Tao; Xu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of electroosmotic flow (EOF) is important in a capillary electrophoresis (CE) experiment in terms of performance optimization and stability improvement. Although several methods exist, there are demanding needs to accurately characterize ultra-low electroosmotic flow rates (EOF rates), such as in coated capillaries used in protein separations. In this work, a new method, called the two-step method, was developed to accurately and rapidly measure EOF rates in a capillary, especially for measuring the ultra-low EOF rates in coated capillaries. In this two-step method, the EOF rates were calculated by measuring the migration time difference of a neutral marker in two consecutive experiments, in which a pressure driven was introduced to accelerate the migration and the DC voltage was reversed to switch the EOF direction. Uncoated capillaries were first characterized by both this two-step method and a conventional method to confirm the validity of this new method. Then this new method was applied in the study of coated capillaries. Results show that this new method is not only fast in speed, but also better in accuracy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Development of a rapid, one-step screening method for the isolation of presumptive proteolytic enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ken; Rea, Rosemary; Simpson, Paul; Stack, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Enterococci show higher proteolytic activities than other lactic acid bacteria and thus have received considerable attention in scientific literature in recent years. Proteolytic enzymes of enterococci have warranted the use of some species as starter, adjuncts or protective cultures and as probiotics, while in some strains they have also been linked with virulence. Consequently, the isolation and identification of proteolytic enterococci is becoming of increasing interest and importance. However, current screening methods for proteolytic enterococci can be time consuming, requiring a two-step procedure which may take up to 96h. This study describes a method, utilising Kanamycin Skim Milk Aesculin Azide (KSMEA) agar, for the isolation of proteolytic enterococci in one-step, thereby significantly reducing screening time. KSMEA combines the selective properties of Kanamycin Aesculin Azide Agar (KAA) with skim milk powder for the detection of proteolytic enterococci. Enterococci produced colonies with a black halo on KSMEA which were accompanied by a zone of clearing in the media when enterococci were proteolytic. KSMEA medium retained the selectivity of KAA, while proteolytic enterococci were easily distinguished from non-proteolytic enterococci when two known strains were propagated on KSMEA. KSMEA also proved effective at isolating and detecting enterococci in raw milk, faeces and soil. Isolates recovered from the screen were confirmed as enterococci using genus-specific primers. Proteolytic enterococci were present in the raw milk sample only and were easily distinguishable from non-proteolytic enterococci and other microorganisms. Therefore, KSMEA provides a rapid, one-step screening method for the isolation of presumptive proteolytic enterococci. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced step length reduces knee joint contact forces during running following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction but does not alter inter-limb asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowersock, Collin D; Willy, Richard W; DeVita, Paul; Willson, John D

    2017-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is associated with early onset knee osteoarthritis. Running is a typical activity following this surgery, but elevated knee joint contact forces are thought to contribute to osteoarthritis degenerative processes. It is therefore clinically relevant to identify interventions to reduce contact forces during running among individuals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing step length during running on patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint contact forces among people with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Inter limb knee joint contact force differences during running were also examined. 18 individuals at an average of 54.8months after unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction ran in 3 step length conditions (preferred, -5%, -10%). Bilateral patellofemoral, tibiofemoral, and medial tibiofemoral compartment peak force, loading rate, impulse, and impulse per kilometer were evaluated between step length conditions and limbs using separate 2 factor analyses of variance. Reducing step length 5% decreased patellofemoral, tibiofemoral, and medial tibiofemoral compartment peak force, impulse, and impulse per kilometer bilaterally. A 10% step length reduction further decreased peak forces and force impulses, but did not further reduce force impulses per kilometer. Tibiofemoral joint impulse, impulse per kilometer, and patellofemoral joint loading rate were lower in the previously injured limb compared to the contralateral limb. Running with a shorter step length is a feasible clinical intervention to reduce knee joint contact forces during running among people with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-step blood direct PCR: A robust and rapid method to diagnose triplet repeat disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inder; Swarup, Vishnu; Shakya, Sunil; Goyal, Vinay; Faruq, Mohammed; Srivastava, Achal Kumar

    2017-08-15

    DNA extraction prior to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in genetic diagnoses of triplet repeat disorders (TRDs) is tedious and labour-intensive and has the limitations of sample contamination with foreign DNA, including that from preceding samples. Therefore, we aimed to develop a rapid, robust, and cost-effective method for expeditious genetic investigation of TRDs from whole blood as a DNA template. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 70 clinically suspected patients of progressive ataxia. The conventional method using genomic DNA and single-step Blood-Direct PCR (BD-PCR) method with just 2μl of whole blood sample were tested to amplify triplet repeat expansion in genes related to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 1, 2, 3, 12 and Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Post-PCR, the allele sizes were mapped and repeat numbers were calculated using GeneMapper and macros run in Microsoft Excel programmes. Successful amplification of target regions was achieved in all samples by both methods. The frequency of the normal and mutated allele was concordant between both methods, diagnosing 37% positive for a mutation in either of the candidate genes. The BD-PCR resulted in higher intensities of product peaks of normal and pathogenic alleles. The nearly-accurate sizing of the normal and expanded allele was achieved in a shorter time (4-5h), without DNA extraction and any risk of cross contamination, which suggests the BD-PCR to be a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid method to confirm TRDs. This technique can be introduced in routine diagnostic procedures of other tandem repeat disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid Single-step Formation of Liposomes by Flow Assisted Stationary Phase Interdiffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has, Chandra; Phapal, Sopan M; Sunthar, P

    2018-01-17

    Laboratory preparation of unilamellar liposomes often involves multiple steps carried out over several hours to achieve a monodisperse size distribution. Here we present a methodology, based on a recently introduced lipid self-assembly principle-stationary phase interdiffusion (SPI)-to prepare large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of a monodisperse population in a short period of about 10min. The stationary interface between a lipid-ethanol phase and an aqueous phase is created by a density difference induced convective flow in a horizontal capillary. The average size of the liposomes, as expected from the SPI principle, is modulated only by the temperature and the type of lipids. Lipid concentration, ethanol content, pH of the aqueous phase, and the time duration of the experiment have little influence on the mean diameter of the vesicles. This simple methodology can be easily carried out with a capillary and a micro-needled syringe, and provides a rapid production tool for researchers requiring reproducible liposome suspensions. Refined natural lipids, based on soy and egg lecithin mixtures, yield LUVs in the range 100-200 nm, suitable for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vertical flow immunoassay (VFA) biosensor for a rapid one-step immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Kyoung; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Kim, Sanghyo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2013-03-07

    A highly rapid, one-step immunoassay of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) using a biosensor with a vertical flow immunoassay (VFA) was developed. The VFA biosensor was primarily composed of a sample pad, conjugate pad, FTH film and nitrocellulose (NC) membrane, which were all vertically stacked upon one another. Anti-hsCRP and secondary antibodies were consecutively immobilized on the NC membrane at the position below the holes. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated with another anti-hsCRP antibody were encapsulated in the conjugation pad. Various assay conditions, including the size of the hole and the sample volume, were optimized. Under optimized conditions, hsCRP concentrations from 0.01 to 10 μg mL(-1) were detected within 2 min. In comparison with a lateral flow assay (LFA) system, the VFA sensor showed a gradual increase of signal in a concentration-dependent manner without a hook effect in the tested range.

  11. Effect of Afterbody Length and Keel Angle on Minimum Depth of Step for Landing Stability and on Take-Off Stability of a Flying Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Roland E; Land, Norman S

    1949-01-01

    Tests were made to fill partly the need for information on the effect of afterbody dimensions on the hydrodynamic stability of a flying boat in smooth water. The dimensions investigated were depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and length of afterbody. An analysis of the data showed that as either the afterbody length or keel angle was increased an accompanying increase in depth of step was required in order to maintain adequate landing stability. The landing-tests results have been reduced to an empirical formula giving the minimum depth of step in terms of afterbody length and keel angle. This formula is compared with results from other tank tests, and the correlation is fairly good. The formula thus becomes of use in preliminary design.

  12. Full splitting of the first zero-field steps in the I-V curve of Josephson junctions of intermediate length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Divin, Yu. Ya.; Mygind, Jesper

    1986-01-01

    We report on the observation of full splitting of the first zero-field steps in the I-V curves of Josephson transmission lines of intermediate length L≊(3–5)λJ, where λJ is the Josephson penetration length. We study in detail how this splitting of the step into two branches depends on the tempera...... on the temperature of the junction and on a weak applied magnetic field. We relate the splitting to excitations in the junctions whose behavior is described by the perturbed sine-Gordon equation....

  13. Test anxiety and telomere length: Academic stress in adolescents may not cause rapid telomere erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaru; Leong, Waiian; Yao, Mingling; Hu, Xuefei; Lu, Sixiao; Zhu, Xiaowei; Chen, Lianxiang; Tong, Jianjing; Shi, Jingyi; Gilson, Eric; Ye, Jing; Lu, Yiming

    2017-02-14

    Academic stress (AS) is one of the most important health problems experienced by students, but no biomarker of the potential psychological or physical problems associated with AS has yet been identified. As several cross-sectional studies have shown that psychiatric conditions accelerate aging and shorten telomere length (TL), we explored whether AS affected TL.Between June 2014 and July 2014, we recruited 200 junior high school students with imminent final examinations for participation in this study. The students were divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe anxiety) using the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Saliva samples were collected for TL measurement via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Students from both a specialized and a general school suffered from anxiety (p > 0.05). A total 35% had severe anxiety (score: 26.09±3.87), 33% had moderate anxiety (16.98±2.64), and 32% had mild anxiety (7.89±1.92). The TAS values differed significantly (p 0.05): 1.14±0.46 for those with severe anxiety, 1.02±0.40 for those with moderate anxiety, and 1.12±0.45 for those with mild anxiety.Previous reports have found that AS is very common in Asian adolescents. We found no immediate telomere shortening in adolescents with AS. Longitudinal observations are required to determine if TL is affected by AS.

  14. Magnetic Beads-Based Sensor with Tailored Sensitivity for Rapid and Single-Step Amperometric Determination of miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vargas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a sensitive amperometric magneto-biosensor for single-step and rapid determination of microRNAs (miRNAs. The developed strategy involves the use of direct hybridization of the target miRNA (miRNA-21 with a specific biotinylated DNA probe immobilized on streptavidin-modified magnetic beads (MBs, and labeling of the resulting heteroduplexes with a specific DNA–RNA antibody and the bacterial protein A (ProtA conjugated with an horseradish peroxidase (HRP homopolymer (Poly-HRP40 as an enzymatic label for signal amplification. Amperometric detection is performed upon magnetic capture of the modified MBs onto the working electrode surface of disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs using the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ system. The magnitude of the cathodic signal obtained at −0.20 V (vs. the Ag pseudo-reference electrode demonstrated linear dependence with the concentration of the synthetic target miRNA over the 1.0 to 100 pM range. The method provided a detection limit (LOD of 10 attomoles (in a 25 μL sample without any target miRNA amplification in just 30 min (once the DNA capture probe-MBs were prepared. This approach shows improved sensitivity compared with that of biosensors constructed with the same anti-DNA–RNA Ab as capture instead of a detector antibody and further labeling with a Strep-HRP conjugate instead of the Poly-HRP40 homopolymer. The developed strategy involves a single step working protocol, as well as the possibility to tailor the sensitivity by enlarging the length of the DNA/miRNA heteroduplexes using additional probes and/or performing the labelling with ProtA conjugated with homopolymers prepared with different numbers of HRP molecules. The practical usefulness was demonstrated by determination of the endogenous levels of the mature target miRNA in 250 ng raw total RNA (RNAt extracted from human mammary epithelial normal (MCF-10A and cancer (MCF-7 cells and tumor tissues.

  15. A rapid two step protocol of in vitro propagation of an important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation aimed at developing rapid micro propagation protocol, which can be used for conservation of Centella asiatica and mass multiplication of a valuable medicinal plant to meet out the pharmaceutical demand and its conservation. Attempts were made to evolve a rapid in vitro technology to conserve, ...

  16. A rapid two step protocol of in vitro propagation of an important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chandrakant tiwari

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... The present investigation aimed at developing rapid micro propagation protocol, which can be used for conservation of Centella asiatica and mass multiplication of a valuable medicinal plant to meet out the pharmaceutical demand and its conservation. Attempts were made to evolve a rapid in vitro ...

  17. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  18. Application of AFP whole blood one-step rapid detection kit in screening for HCC in Qidong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Shi, Jin-Lei; Xue, Xue-Feng; Lu, Ling-Ling; Lu, Jian-Hua; Jiang, Xiao-Ping; Hu, Jiang-Feng; Duan, Ben-Song; Yang, Chang-Qing; Lu, Da-Ru; Lu, De-Li; Chen, Jian-Guo; Gao, Heng-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a big problem in China where the Hepatitis B (HBV) infection patients are near to 120 million. Early screening and diagnosis is the key to reduce the incidence and mortality of HCC. Serum AFP detection is the main methods for diagnosis, recurrent monitoring and therapeutic evaluation of primary HCC. Hepatitis patients should detect the AFP at least once every six months to help early diagnosis of HCC. Unfortunately, most hepatitis and other liver disease patients do not test their AFP regularly. Therefore, a rapid, convenient detect kit for AFP is necessary for the hepatitis patients to test AFP at home by themselves. It will be very helpful to the HCC early screening and early diagnosis. We screened 859 individuals who were HBsAg positive and had high risk of HCC in Qidong by using two different kits, AFP one-step rapid detection kit (Shanghai Outdo Biotech) and AFP Diagnostics ELISA kit (Zhengzhou Autobio Diagnostics), and compared the results. As a result, the positive accordance rate and the negative accordance rate of AFP one-step rapid detection kit and the Autobio ELISA kit were 95.65% (22/23) and 99.40% (831/836), respectively. The total diagnose accordance rate reached up to 99.30% (853/859). The screening results showed a high accordance rate of two methods. It is so meaningful to achieve home-test and improve HCC early screening and diagnosis by using AFP one-step rapid detection kit.

  19. Deconstructing Chronic Low Back Pain in the Older Adult-Step-by-Step Evidence and Expert-Based Recommendations for Evaluation and Treatment: Part XII: Leg Length Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havran, Mark; Scholten, Joel D; Breuer, Paula; Lundberg, Jennifer; Kochersberger, Gary; Newman, Dave; Weiner, Debra K

    2016-12-01

     To present the last in a 12-part series designed to deconstruct chronic low back pain (CLBP) in older adults. This article focuses on leg length discrepancy (LLD) and presents an algorithm outlining approaches to diagnosis and management of LLD in older adults, along with a representative clinical case. METHODS : Using a modified Delphi approach, the LLD evaluation and treatment algorithm was developed by a multidisciplinary expert panel representing expertise in physical therapy, geriatric medicine, and physical medicine and rehabilitation. The materials were subsequently refined through an iterative process of input from a primary care provider panel comprised of VA and non-VA providers. The clinical case was taken from one of the authors. RESULTS : We present an algorithm and illustrative clinical case to help guide the care of older adults with LLD, which can be an important contributor to CLBP. Firstline assessment includes referral to physical therapy or orthopedics, depending on the context of the LLD. A variety of nonsurgical interventions may ensue depending on the etiology of the LLD, including shoe inserts, customized shoes, manual therapy, or a combination. CONCLUSIONS : To promote a patient-centered approach, providers should consider evaluating for leg length discrepancy when treating older adults with CLBP to help diminish pain and disability. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Pain Medicine 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Axelsson

    Full Text Available Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Selstam and Öquist (1985 were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985 to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957, it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

  1. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter?s Eight Steps of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Terrie R.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. Results This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter?s Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small...

  2. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R; Holmes, Kristi L

    2017-07-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today's academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions.

  3. Rapid biodiesel synthesis from waste pepper seeds without lipid isolation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Kim, Jieun; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-09-01

    In situ transformation of lipid in waste pepper seeds into biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters: FAMEs) via thermally-induced transmethylation on silica was mainly investigated in this study. This study reported that waste pepper seeds contained 26.9wt% of lipid and that 94.1% of the total lipid in waste pepper seeds could be converted into biodiesel without lipid extraction step for only ∼1min reaction time. This study also suggested that the optimal temperature for in situ transmethylation was identified as 390°C. Moreover, comparison of in situ process via the conventional transmethylation catalyzed by H 2 SO 4 showed that the introduced biodiesel conversion in this study had a higher tolerance against impurities, thereby being technically feasible. The in situ biodiesel production from other oil-bearing food wastes can be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A One-Step, Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Rhinovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duc H.; Laus, Stella; Leber, Amy; Marcon, Mario J.; Jordan, Jeanne A.; Martin, Judith M.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    One-step, real-time PCR assays for rhinovirus have been developed for a limited number of PCR amplification platforms and chemistries, and some exhibit cross-reactivity with genetically similar enteroviruses. We developed a one-step, real-time PCR assay for rhinovirus by using a sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems; Foster City, CA). The primers were designed to amplify a 120-base target in the noncoding region of picornavirus RNA, and a TaqMan (Applied Biosystems) degenerate probe was designed for the specific detection of rhinovirus amplicons. The PCR assay had no cross-reactivity with a panel of 76 nontarget nucleic acids, which included RNAs from 43 enterovirus strains. Excellent lower limits of detection relative to viral culture were observed for the PCR assay by using 38 of 40 rhinovirus reference strains representing different serotypes, which could reproducibly detect rhinovirus serotype 2 in viral transport medium containing 10 to 10,000 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose endpoint) units/ml of the virus. However, for rhinovirus serotypes 59 and 69, the PCR assay was less sensitive than culture. Testing of 48 clinical specimens from children with cold-like illnesses for rhinovirus by the PCR and culture assays yielded detection rates of 16.7% and 6.3%, respectively. For a batch of 10 specimens, the entire assay was completed in 4.5 hours. This real-time PCR assay enables detection of many rhinovirus serotypes with the Applied Biosystems reagent-instrument platform. PMID:19948820

  5. One-step and rapid synthesis of porous Pd nanoparticles with superior catalytic activity toward ethanol/formic acid electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Fang, Youxing; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2014-02-01

    Porous Pd nanoparticles are successfully prepared by a rapid, one-step, and efficient route with high yield in aqueous solution. The developed method is very simple, just by mixing sodium tetrachloropalladate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and hydroquinone and heated at 70 °C for 15 min. The structure and composition are analyzed by transmission electron microscope, selected-area electron diffraction, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical catalytic measurement results prove that the as synthesized porous Pd nanoparticles exhibit superior catalytic activity towards ethanol and formic acid electrooxidation.

  6. Rapid and sensitive single-step radiochemical assay for catechol-O-methyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuercher, G.; Da Prada, M. (Hoffmann-La Roche (F.) and Co., Basel (Switzerland))

    1982-01-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable radiometric assay for the determination of catechol-O-methyltransferase activity is described. The method is based on the conversion of catechol to (/sup 3/H)guaiacol by catechol-O-methyltransferase in the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/, adenosine deaminase and S-adenosyl L-(methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine. Incubation and direct extraction of (/sup 3/H)guaiacol into organic scintillation fluid, as well as counting, are performed in the same standard scintillation vial. The assay is easy to perform and more sensitive than previous analogous procedures. The method has been applied to the assay of catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in discrete brain areas and also peripheral organs of rat and in human erythrocytes.

  7. submitter Estimation of stepping motor current from long distances through cable-length-adaptive piecewise affine virtual sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveri, Alberto; Masi, Alessandro; Storace, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a piecewise affine virtual sensor is used for the estimation of the motor-side current of hybrid stepper motors, which actuate the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) collimators at CERN. The estimation is performed starting from measurements of the current in the driver, which is connected to the motor by a long cable (up to 720 m). The measured current is therefore affected by noise and ringing phenomena. The proposed method does not require a model of the cable, since it is only based on measured data and can be used with cables of different length. A circuit architecture suitable for FPGA implementation has been designed and the effects of fixed point representation of data are analyzed.

  8. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter’s Eight Steps of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. Results This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter’s Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Conclusions Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today’s academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions. PMID:28670217

  9. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP for rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The difficulties in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis are due to varied clinical presentation, low sensitivity of blood culture which is considered the gold standard and empirical antibiotic usage affecting the outcome of results. Though polymerase chain reaction (PCR based detection of bacterial 16S rRNA gene has been reported earlier, this does not provide identification of the causative agent. In this study, we used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of amplified 16S rRNA gene to identify the organisms involved in neonatal sepsis and compared the findings with blood culture. Methods: Blood samples from 97 neonates were evaluated for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using BacT/Alert (automated blood culture and PCR-RFLP. Results: Bacterial DNA was detected by 16S rRNA gene PCR in 55 cases, while BacT/Alert culture was positive in 34 cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism detected with both methods. Klebsiella spp. was isolated from four samples by culture but was detected by PCR-RFLP in five cases while Acinetobacter spp. was isolated from one case but detected in eight cases by PCR-RFLP. The sensitivity of PCR was found to be 82.3 per cent with a negative predictive value of 85.7 per cent. Eighty of the 97 neonates had prior exposure to antibiotics. Interpretation & conclusions:The results of our study demonstrate that PCR-RFLP having a rapid turnaround time may be useful for the early diagnosis of culture negative neonatal sepsis.

  10. Rapid two-step metallization through physicochemical conversion of Ag2O for printed ``black'' transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Dongwook; Park, Jungwon; Lee, Young-Boo; Hwang, Inseok; Chun, Sangki

    2013-05-01

    A rapid two-step metallization for fabrication of a ``black'' transparent conductive film on a flexible substrate for display applications is presented, using a mixture of silver oxide (Ag2O) and silver neodecanoate (C10H19AgO2), and its electrical conductivity and colour transition behaviours are investigated. Silver nanoparticles, which are physicochemically converted from silver oxide microparticles in the presence of silver neodecanoate in the course of the first metallization step at 150 °C for 10 min, are chemically annealed by immersing them in an acidic ferric chloride (FeCl3) solution at room temperature for 10 s. During this second metallization step, silver nanoparticles are found to be tightly packed through Ostwald ripening, which eventually leads to the dramatic enhancement of electrical conductivity by six orders of magnitude from 1.33 S m-1 to 1.0 × 107 S m-1, which corresponds to 15.9% of the electrical conductivity of bulk silver. In addition to the enhancement of electrical conductivity, the silver chloride (AgCl) layer formed on the surface of the silver layer due to ferric ions (Fe3+) enhances the blackness of the transparent conductive film by a factor of 1.69, from 36.29 B to 61.51 B. The sheet resistance and optical transparency of a roll-to-roll printed black transparent conductive film for a touch screen panel are found to be as low as 0.9 Ω □-1 and 81%, respectively, after conducting the proposed two-step metallization.

  11. High-order time-stepping for nonlinear PDEs through rapid estimation of block Gaussian quadrature nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, James V.

    2016-06-01

    The stiffness of systems of ODEs that arise from spatial discretization of PDEs causes difficulties for both explicit and implicit time-stepping methods. Krylov Subspace Spectral (KSS) methods present a balance between the efficiency of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods by computing each Fourier coefficient from an individualized approximation of the solution operator of the PDE. While KSS methods are explicit methods that exhibit a high order of accuracy and stability similar to that of implicit methods, their efficiency needs to be improved. Here, a detailed asymptotic study is performed in order to rapidly estimate all nodes, thus drastically reducing computational expense without sacrificing accuracy. Extension to PDEs on a disk, through expansions built on Legendre polynomials, is also discussed. Exponential propagation iterative (EPI) methods provide an efficient approach to the solution of large stiff nonlinear systems of ODE, compared to standard integrators. However, the bulk of the computational effort in these methods is due to products of matrix functions and vectors, which can become very costly at high resolution due to an increase in the number of Krylov projection steps needed to maintain accuracy. In this talk, it is proposed to modify EPI methods by using KSS methods, instead of standard Krylov projection methods, to compute products of matrix functions and vectors. Numerical experiments demonstrate that this modification causes the number of Krylov projection steps to become bounded independently of the grid size, thus dramatically improving efficiency and scalability. It is also demonstrated that the convergence of Krylov projection can be significantly accelerated, without noticeable loss of accuracy, through filtering techniques, thus improving performance and scalability even further.

  12. Effects of Conjugate Gradient Methods and Step-Length Formulas on the Multiscale Full Waveform Inversion in Time Domain: Numerical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youshan; Teng, Jiwen; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Liu, Qinya; Zhou, Bing

    2017-05-01

    We carry out full waveform inversion (FWI) in time domain based on an alternative frequency-band selection strategy that allows us to implement the method with success. This strategy aims at decomposing the seismic data within partially overlapped frequency intervals by carrying out a concatenated treatment of the wavelet to largely avoid redundant frequency information to adapt to wavelength or wavenumber coverage. A pertinent numerical test proves the effectiveness of this strategy. Based on this strategy, we comparatively analyze the effects of update parameters for the nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) method and step-length formulas on the multiscale FWI through several numerical tests. The investigations of up to eight versions of the nonlinear CG method with and without Gaussian white noise make clear that the HS (Hestenes and Stiefel in J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect 5:409-436, 1952), CD (Fletcher in Practical methods of optimization vol. 1: unconstrained optimization, Wiley, New York, 1987), and PRP (Polak and Ribière in Revue Francaise Informat Recherche Opertionelle, 3e Année 16:35-43, 1969; Polyak in USSR Comput Math Math Phys 9:94-112, 1969) versions are more efficient among the eight versions, while the DY (Dai and Yuan in SIAM J Optim 10:177-182, 1999) version always yields inaccurate result, because it overestimates the deeper parts of the model. The application of FWI algorithms using distinct step-length formulas, such as the direct method ( Direct), the parabolic search method ( Search), and the two-point quadratic interpolation method ( Interp), proves that the Interp is more efficient for noise-free data, while the Direct is more efficient for Gaussian white noise data. In contrast, the Search is less efficient because of its slow convergence. In general, the three step-length formulas are robust or partly insensitive to Gaussian white noise and the complexity of the model. When the initial velocity model deviates far from the real model or the

  13. Characterization of 0.18- μm gate length AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC fabricated using two-step gate recessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung Sup; Min, Byoung-Gue; Lee, Jong Min; Kang, Dong Min; Ahn, Ho Kyun; Cho, Kyu-Jun; Do, Jae-Won; Shin, Min Jeong; Jung, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Sung Il; Kim, Hae Cheon; Lim, Jong Won

    2017-09-01

    We fabricated a 0.18- μm gate-length AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) on SiC substrate fabricated by using two-step gate recessing which was composed of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching with a gas mixture of BCl3/Cl2 and wet chemical etching using the oxygen plasma treatment and HCl-based cleaning. The two-step gate recessing process exhibited an etch depth of 4.5 nm for the AlGaN layer and the clean surface of AlGaN layer at the AlGaN/gate metal contact region for the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The recessed 0.18 μm × 200 μm AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices showed good DC characteristics, having a good Schottky diode ideality factor of 1.25, an extrinsic transconductance ( g m ) of 345 mS/mm, and a threshold voltage ( V th ) of -2.03 V. The recessed HEMT devices exhibited high RF performance, having a cut-off frequency ( f T ) of 48 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency ( f max ) of 130 GHz. These devices also showed minimum noise figure of 0.83 dB and associated gain of 12.2 dB at 10 GHz.

  14. Development of a rapid and sensitive one-step reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction in a single tube using the droplet-polymerase chain reaction machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sueki, Akane; Taira, Chiaki; Uehara, Masayuki; Saito, Yasunori; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-08-25

    Reverse transcription (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a time-consuming procedure because it has several handling steps and is associated with the risk of cross-contamination during each step. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive one-step RT-nested PCR was developed that could be performed in a single tube using a droplet-PCR machine. The K562 BCR-ABL mRNA-positive cell line as well as bone marrow aspirates from 5 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and 5 controls without CML were used. We evaluated one-step RT-nested PCR using the droplet-PCR machine. One-step RT-nested PCR performed in a single tube using the droplet-PCR machine enabled the detection of BCR-ABL mRNA within 40min, which was 10(3)-fold superior to conventional RT nested PCR using three steps in separate tubes. The sensitivity of the one-step RT-nested PCR was 0.001%, with sample reactivity comparable to that of the conventional assay. One-step RT-nested PCR was developed using the droplet-PCR machine, which enabled all reactions to be performed in a single tube accurately and rapidly and with high sensitivity. This one-step RT-nested PCR may be applicable to a wide spectrum of genetic tests in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tuning Toehold Length and Temperature to Achieve Rapid, Colorimetric Detection of DNA from the Disassembly of DNA-Gold Nanoparticle Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael K; Gadzikwa, Tendai; Nguyen, Trang; Kausar, Abu; Alladin-Mustan, B Safeenaz; Sikder, Md Delwar; Gibbs-Davis, Julianne M

    2016-02-16

    Gold nanoparticles have been widely utilized to achieve colorimetric detection for various diagnostic applications. One of the most frequently used methods for DNA detection involves the aggregation of DNA-modified gold nanoparticles driven by target DNA hybridization. This process, however, is intrinsically slow, limiting its use in rapid diagnostics. Here we take advantage of the reverse process: the disassembly of preformed aggregates triggered by the addition of target DNA via a strand displacement mechanism. A systematic study of the dependence of the disassembly rate on temperature, with and without toeholds, has delivered a system that produces an extremely rapid colorimetric response. Furthermore, using an optimal toehold length of 5 nucleotides, target triggered disassembly is rapid over a wide range of ambient temperatures. Using this overhang system, simple visualization of low picomole amounts of target DNA is possible within 10 min at room temperature.

  16. A rapid one-step kinetics-based immunoassay procedure for the highly-sensitive detection of C-reactive protein

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Sandeep Kumar Vashist, Gregor Czilwik, Thomas van Oordt, Felix von Stetten, Roland Zengerle, E. Marion Schneider & John H.T. Luong ### Abstract A rapid one-step kinetics-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) procedure has been developed for highly-sensitive detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in less than 30 min. With minimal process steps, the procedure is highly simplified and cost-effective. The analysis only involves sequentially the formation of a sandwic...

  17. Rapid analysis and quantification of fluorescent brighteners in wheat flour by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy and computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Gu, Dong-Chen; Sun, Su-Qin; Xu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Fluorescent brightener, industrial whitening agent, has been illegally used to whitening wheat flour. In this article, computer vision technology (E-eyes) and colorimetry were employed to investigate color difference among different concentrations of fluorescent brightener in wheat flour using DMS as an example. Tri-step infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR)) was used to identify and quantitate DMS in wheat flour. According to color analysis, the whitening effect was significant when added with less than 30 mg/g DMS but when more than 100 mg/g, the flour began greenish. Thus it was speculated that the concentration of DMS should be below 100 mg/g in real flour adulterant with DMS. With the increase of the concentration, the spectral similarity of wheat flour with DMS to DMS standard was increasing. SD-IR peaks at 1153 cm-1, 1141 cm-1, 1112 cm-1, 1085 cm-1 and 1025 cm-1 attributed to DMS were regularly enhanced. Furthermore, it could be differentiated by 2DOS-IR between DMS standard and wheat flour added with DMS low to 0.05 mg/g and the bands in the range of 1000-1500 cm-1 could be an exclusive range to identify whether wheat flour contained DMS. Finally, a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by Partial least squares (PLS) with a concentration range from 1 mg/g to 100 mg/g. The calibration set gave a determination coefficient of 0.9884 with a standard error (RMSEC) of 5.56 and the validation set presented a determination coefficient of 0.9881 with a standard error of 5.73. It was demonstrated that computer vision technology and colorimetry were effective to estimate the content of DMS in wheat flour and the Tri-step infrared macro-fingerprinting combined with PLS was applicable for rapid and nondestructive fluorescent brightener identification and quantitation.

  18. An interference-free and rapid electrochemical lateral-flow immunoassay for one-step ultrasensitive detection with serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Md Rajibul; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Tamilavan, Vellaiappillai; Park, Seonhwa; Kim, Sinyoung; Hyun, Myung Ho; Kim, Min-Gon; Yang, Haesik

    2014-03-21

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in clinical samples is of great importance for rapid and cost-effective diagnosis. However, it is extremely challenging to develop an electrochemical POCT technique retaining both ultrasensitivity and simplicity. We report an interference-free electrochemical lateral-flow immunoassay that enables one-step ultrasensitive detection with serum. The electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) redox cycling combined with an enzymatic reaction of an enzyme label is used to obtain high signal amplification. The ECC redox cycling involving Ru(NH3)6(3+), enzyme product, and tris(3-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) depends on pH, because the formal potentials of an enzyme product and TCEP increase with decreasing pH although that of Ru(NH3)6(3+) is pH-independent. With consideration of the pH dependence of ECC redox cycling, a noble combination of enzyme label, substrate, and product [β-galactosidase, 4-amino-1-naphthyl β-D-galactopyranoside, and 4-amino-1-naphthol, respectively] is introduced to ensure fast and selective ECC redox cycling of the enzyme product along with a low background level. The selective ECC redox cycling at a low applied potential (0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl) minimizes the interference effect of electroactive species (L-ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and uric acid) in serum. A detection limit of 0.1 pg mL(-1) for troponin I is obtained only 11 min after serum dropping without the use of an additional solution. Moreover, the lateral-flow immunoassay is applicable to the analysis of real clinical samples.

  19. Rapid detection of dihydropteroate polymorphism in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by restriction fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Lundgren, B

    2000-01-01

    Sulpha agents, which act by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), are used widely for the treatment and prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Recently, we have shown that mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of Pneumocystis carinii f.sp hominis...... are associated with failure of sulpha prophylaxis and increased mortality in HIV-1 positive patients with PCP, suggesting that DHPS mutations may cause sulpha resistance. To facilitate detection of DHPS mutations we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, detecting mutations at codon...

  20. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region: a rapid and precise method for plant identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertea, Cinzia Margherita; Gnavi, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Molecular genetic methods have several advantages over classical morphological and chemical analyses. The genetic method requires genotype instead than phenotype, therefore PCR-based techniques have been widely used for a rapid identification of plant species, varieties and chemotypes. Recently, the molecular discrimination of some higher plant species has been evaluated using sequences of a 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. The variation in the nontranscribed sequence (NTS) region has been used in a number of plant species for studying intraspecific variation, genome evolution, and phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we describe a rapid method based on the use of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region as a tool for plant DNA fingerprinting, which combines PCR, sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses.

  1. Energy deficit and length of hospital stay can be reduced by a two-step quality improvement of nutrition therapy: the intensive care unit dietitian can make the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soguel, Ludivine; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Schaller, Marie-Denise; Longchamp, Corinne; Berger, Mette M

    2012-02-01

    Critically ill patients are at high risk of malnutrition. Insufficient nutritional support still remains a widespread problem despite guidelines. The aim of this study was to measure the clinical impact of a two-step interdisciplinary quality nutrition program. Prospective interventional study over three periods (A, baseline; B and C, intervention periods). Mixed intensive care unit within a university hospital. Five hundred seventy-two patients (age 59 ± 17 yrs) requiring >72 hrs of intensive care unit treatment. Two-step quality program: 1) bottom-up implementation of feeding guideline; and 2) additional presence of an intensive care unit dietitian. The nutrition protocol was based on the European guidelines. Anthropometric data, intensive care unit severity scores, energy delivery, and cumulated energy balance (daily, day 7, and discharge), feeding route (enteral, parenteral, combined, none-oral), length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Altogether 5800 intensive care unit days were analyzed. Patients in period A were healthier with lower Simplified Acute Physiologic Scale and proportion of "rapidly fatal" McCabe scores. Energy delivery and balance increased gradually: impact was particularly marked on cumulated energy deficit on day 7 which improved from -5870 kcal to -3950 kcal (p intakes were low (mean: 385 kcal*day, 6 kcal*kg*day ). Hospital mortality increased with severity of condition in periods B and C. A bottom-up protocol improved nutritional support. The presence of the intensive care unit dietitian provided significant additional progression, which were related to early introduction and route of feeding, and which achieved overall better early energy balance.

  2. Limits of a rapid identification of common Mediterranean sandflies using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzedine Bounamous

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 131 phlebotomine Algerian sandflies have been processed in the present study. They belong to the species Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus chabaudi, Phlebotomus riouxi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus longicuspis, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus chadlii, Sergentomyia fallax, Sergentomyia minuta, Sergentomyia antennata, Sergentomyia schwetzi, Sergentomyia clydei, Sergentomyia christophersi and Grassomyia dreyfussi. They have been characterised by sequencing of a part of the cytochrome b (cyt b, t RNA serine and NADH1 on the one hand and of the cytochrome C oxidase I of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA on the other hand. Our study highlights two sympatric populations within P. sergenti in the area of its type-locality and new haplotypes of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis without recording the specimens called lcx previously found in North Africa. We tried to use a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on a combined double digestion of each marker. These method is not interesting to identify sandflies all over the Mediterranean Basin.

  3. Simple and rapid human papillomavirus genotyping method by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with two restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghan; Watanabe, Ken; Haruyama, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Cervical cancer, the third most common cancer that affects women worldwide, is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and is treatable when detected at an early stage. To date, more than 100 different HPV types have been described, and the development of simple, low-cost, and accurate methods to distinguish HPV genotypes is highly warranted. In this study, an HPV genotyping assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated. This method involved the use of MY09/11 primers followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with the restriction enzymes HpyCH4V and NlaIII. Cervical specimens preserved using CytoRich Blue fluid were collected from 1,134 female volunteers for HPV detection, and 1,111 valid samples were amplified using PCR. The PCR method was sensitive enough to detect 25 copies of HPV18, and three copies of HPV16. Out of 202 PCR-positive samples, HPV genotypes were determined in 189 samples (93.6%) by this RFLP method. Results were then evaluated further by capillary sequencing method. Concordant results between the two tests were as high as 96.0%. Thirteen samples, which tested negative with RFLP, were verified as non-specific amplifications with PCR. In conclusion, this PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzymes HpyCH4V and NlaIII is simple, non-labor intensive, and is applicable for the inexpensive determination of HPV genotypes in clinical samples. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Tank tests to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls II : effect of varying depth of step, angle of after- body keel, length of afterbody chine, and gross load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John R; Mckann, Robert; Hay, Elizabeth S

    1946-01-01

    The second part of a series of tests made in Langley tank no. 2 to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls is presented. Results are given to show the effects on resistance characteristics of varying angle of afterbody keel, depth of step, and length of afterbody chine. The effect of varying the gross load is shown for one configuration. The resistance characteristics of planing-tail hulls are compared with those of a conventional flying-boat hull. The forces on the forebody and afterbody of one configuration are compared with the forces on a conventional hull. Increasing the angle of afterbody keel had small effect on hump resistance and no effect on high-speed resistance but increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Increasing the depth of step increased hump resistance, had little effect on high-speed resistance, and increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Omitting the chines on the forward 25 percent of the afterbody had no appreciable effect on resistance. Omitting 70 percent of the chine length had almost no effect on maximum resistance but broadened the hump and increased spray around the afterbody. Load-resistance ratio at the hump decreased more rapidly with increasing load coefficient for the planing-tail hull than for the representative conventional hull, although the load-resistance ratio at the hump was greater for the planing-tail hull than for the conventional hull throughout the range of loads tested. At speeds higher than hump speed, load-resistance ratio for the planing-tail hull was a maximum at a particular gross load and was slightly less at heavier and lighter gross loads. The planing-tail hull was found to have lower resistance than the conventional hull at both the hump and at high speeds, but at intermediate speeds there was little difference. The lower hump resistance of the planing-tail hull was attributed to the ability of the afterbody to carry a greater percentage of the

  5. Determining the group velocity dispersion by field analysis for the LP0X, LP1X, and LP2X mode groups independently of the fiber length: applications to step-index fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    By knowing the electric field distribution of a guided mode in an optical fiber, we are able to evaluate the group velocity dispersion in a weakly guiding step-index fiber for a pure mode in the LP0X, LP1X, and LP2X mode groups independently of the fiber length. We demonstrate the method...

  6. Rapid Construction of Stable Infectious Full-Length cDNA Clone of Papaya Leaf Distortion Mosaic Virus Using In-Fusion Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) is becoming a threat to papaya and transgenic papaya resistant to the related pathogen, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The generation of infectious viral clones is an essential step for reverse-genetics studies of viral gene function and cross-protection. In this study, a sequence- and ligation-independent cloning system, the In-Fusion(®) Cloning Kit (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA), was used to construct intron-less or intron-containing full-length cDNA clones of the isolate PLDMV-DF, with the simultaneous scarless assembly of multiple viral and intron fragments into a plasmid vector in a single reaction. The intron-containing full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV-DF was stably propagated in Escherichia coli. In vitro intron-containing transcripts were processed and spliced into biologically active intron-less transcripts following mechanical inoculation and then initiated systemic infections in Carica papaya L. seedlings, which developed similar symptoms to those caused by the wild-type virus. However, no infectivity was detected when the plants were inoculated with RNA transcripts from the intron-less construct because the instability of the viral cDNA clone in bacterial cells caused a non-sense or deletion mutation of the genomic sequence of PLDMV-DF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV and the splicing of intron-containing transcripts following mechanical inoculation. In-Fusion cloning shortens the construction time from months to days. Therefore, it is a faster, more flexible, and more efficient method than the traditional multistep restriction enzyme-mediated subcloning procedure.

  7. Rapid Construction of Stable Infectious Full-Length cDNA Clone of Papaya Leaf Distortion Mosaic Virus Using In-Fusion Cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV is becoming a threat to papaya and transgenic papaya resistant to the related pathogen, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. The generation of infectious viral clones is an essential step for reverse-genetics studies of viral gene function and cross-protection. In this study, a sequence- and ligation-independent cloning system, the In-Fusion® Cloning Kit (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA, was used to construct intron-less or intron-containing full-length cDNA clones of the isolate PLDMV-DF, with the simultaneous scarless assembly of multiple viral and intron fragments into a plasmid vector in a single reaction. The intron-containing full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV-DF was stably propagated in Escherichia coli. In vitro intron-containing transcripts were processed and spliced into biologically active intron-less transcripts following mechanical inoculation and then initiated systemic infections in Carica papaya L. seedlings, which developed similar symptoms to those caused by the wild-type virus. However, no infectivity was detected when the plants were inoculated with RNA transcripts from the intron-less construct because the instability of the viral cDNA clone in bacterial cells caused a non-sense or deletion mutation of the genomic sequence of PLDMV-DF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV and the splicing of intron-containing transcripts following mechanical inoculation. In-Fusion cloning shortens the construction time from months to days. Therefore, it is a faster, more flexible, and more efficient method than the traditional multistep restriction enzyme-mediated subcloning procedure.

  8. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Translation invariance, axiom of choice, continuum hypothesis, axiom of determinateness. B V Rao was a Professor at the Indian Statistical. Institute, Kolkata. Currently he is with the. Chennai Mathematical. Institute. This is the story of length, one of the simplest concepts. Starting with the concept of length for intervals, we ...

  9. Rapid One-Step Selection Method for Generating Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Development of a DNA Aptamer against alpha-Bungarotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Shamaileh, Hadi A.; Edwards, Stacey L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nucleic acids based therapeutic approaches have gained significant interest in recent years towards the development of therapeutics against many diseases. Recently, research on aptamers led to the marketing of Macugen (R), an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF......) for the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD). Aptamer technology may prove useful as a therapeutic alternative against an array of human maladies. Considering the increased interest in aptamer technology globally that rival antibody mediated therapeutic approaches, a simplified selection, possibly...... in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period. Principal Findings: Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against alpha-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed...

  10. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, E F; Silverman, M P

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in sewage treatment plant effluents is described. The method requires the use of only one lactose-based medium and a single incubation temperature of 44.5 degrees C, and it can be completed in 18 h or less, as compared with up to 72 h for the standard most-probable-number method. The appearance of growth is the sole criterion used for designating positives, which can be determined either by increases in the electrical impedance ratio of inoculated medium, as compared to an uninoculated control using a Bactometer model 32, or by visual examination of inoculated medium for turbidity. In trials with 53 samples of unchlorinated sewage treatment plant effluent, fecal coliform counts by the single-step most-probable-number method, throughout a range of less than 10 to almost 10(7) fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent, were in excellent agreement with counts abtained by the standard most-probable-number procedure. Similar agreement was obtained in comparative trials with 31 chlorinated effluent samples from two sewage treatment plants. Overall, 87% of 452 positives were confirmed as containing fecal coliforms. The applicability of the single-step most-probable-number method to automated sewage treatment plant operations is discussed. PMID:378129

  11. Facile and rapid one-step radiosynthesis of [(18)F]BAY94-9172 with a new precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Shi, Huixian; Yu, Haiyan; Jiang, Shende; Tang, Ganghua

    2011-01-01

    [(18)F]BAY94-9172 (Florbetaben) (Compound 8) is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer that is currently in Phase III study for in vivo mapping of fibrillar amyloid β as a pathological hallmark for Alzheimer's disease. This work reports new methods for the synthesis of [(19)F]BAY94-9172 and its two different precursors and radiosynthesis of [(18)F]BAY94-9172 with the two precursors by purification using Sep-Pak cartridge. The reference standard [(19)F]BAY94-9172 and the new precursor (Compound 9) were obtained from the reactions of (E)-4-methylamino-4'-hydroxystilbene (Compound 1) with methanesulfonic acid 2-[2-(2-fluoro-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethyl ester (Compound 11) and methanesulfonic acid 2-[2-(2-methanesulfonyloxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethyl ester (Compound 13), respectively. The reported precursor (Compound 6) is an N-BOC-protected mesylate compound, which was obtained from Compound 9. The one-step radiosynthesis of [(18)F]BAY94-9172 was carried out in the modified PET-MF-2V-IT-1 synthesizer by [(18)F]fluorination of the new precursor (Compound 9) and purification with plus C18 Sep-Pak cartridges and was compared with two-step one-pot radiosynthesis using the reported precursor (Compound 6) and Sep-Pak cartridge purification. For one-step radiosynthesis, the uncorrected radiochemical yield of [(18)F]BAY94-9172 was 23 ± 3% (n = 5, based on [(18)F]fluoride) within 30 min and the radiochemical purity was greater than 95%. For two-step one-pot radiosynthesis, the uncorrected radiochemical yield of [(18)F]BAY94-9172 was 17 ± 2% in 45 min (n = 4, based on [(18)F]fluoride) with the radiochemical purity being above 95% after the Sep-Pak cartridge purification. [(19)F]BAY94-9172 and the two precursors were synthesized by a short synthetic route. Compared with HPLC purification, the use of Sep-Pak purification of [(18)F]BAY94-9172 reduced the total radiosynthesis time. The one-step radiosynthesis of [(18)F]BAY94-9172 is convenient and can easily be applied to the

  12. Investigating cryoinjury using simulations and experiments. 1: TF-1 cells during two-step freezing (rapid cooling interrupted with a hold time).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Rodriguez, L U; Elliott, J A W; McGann, L E

    2010-08-01

    There is significant interest in designing a cryopreservation protocol for hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which does not rely on dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) as a cryoprotectant. Computer simulations that describe cellular osmotic responses during cooling and warming can be used to optimize the viability of cryopreserved HSC; however, a better understanding of cellular osmotic parameters is required for these simulations. As a model for HSC, the erythroleukemic human cell line TF-1 was used in this study. Simulations, based on the osmotic properties of TF-1 cells and on the solution properties of the intra- and extracellular compartments, were used to interpret cryoinjury associated with a two-step cryopreservation protocol. Calculated intracellular supercooling was used as an indicator of cryoinjury related to intracellular ice formation. Simulations were applied to the two-step cooling protocol (rapid cooling interrupted with a hold time) for TF-1 cells in the absence of Me(2)SO or other cryoprotectants and optimized by minimizing the indicator of cryoinjury. A comparison of simulations and experimental measurements of membrane integrity supports the concept that, for two-step cooling, increasing intracellular supercooling is the primary contributor to potential freezing injury due to the increase in the likelihood of intracellular ice formation. By calculating intracellular supercooling for each step separately and comparing these calculations with cell recovery data, it was demonstrated that it is not optimal simply to limit overall supercooling during two-step freezing procedures. More aptly, appropriate limitations of supercooling differ from the first step to the second step. This study also demonstrates why high cell recovery after cryopreservation could be achieved in the absence of traditional cryoprotectants. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  15. Rapid generation of mature hepatocyte-like cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells by an efficient three-step protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Tseng, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Yang, Vincent W; Lee, Oscar K

    2012-04-01

    Liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for end-stage cirrhosis and fulminant liver failure, but the lack of available donor livers is a major obstacle to liver transplantation. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the reprogramming of somatic fibroblasts, have been shown to resemble embryonic stem (ES) cells in that they have pluripotent properties and the potential to differentiate into all cell lineages in vitro, including hepatocytes. Thus, iPSCs could serve as a favorable cell source for a wide range of applications, including drug toxicity testing, cell transplantation, and patient-specific disease modeling. Here, we describe an efficient and rapid three-step protocol that is able to rapidly generate hepatocyte-like cells from human iPSCs. This occurs because the endodermal induction step allows for more efficient and definitive endoderm cell formation. We show that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which synergizes with activin A and Wnt3a, elevates the expression of the endodermal marker Foxa2 (forkhead box a2) by 39.3% compared to when HGF is absent (14.2%) during the endodermal induction step. In addition, iPSC-derived hepatocytes had a similar gene expression profile to mature hepatocytes. Importantly, the hepatocyte-like cells exhibited cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme activity, secreted urea, uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and possessed the ability to store glycogen. Moreover, the hepatocyte-like cells rescued lethal fulminant hepatic failure in a nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mouse model. We have established a rapid and efficient differentiation protocol that is able to generate functional hepatocyte-like cells from human iPSCs. This may offer an alternative option for treatment of liver diseases. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step for a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry and China's Role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-10-14

    PV customers wish to know how long their PV modules will last, but quantitatively predicting service life is difficult because of the large number of ways that a module can fail, the variability of the use environment, the cost of the testing, and the short product development time, especially when compared with the long desired lifetime. China should play a key role in developing international standards because China manufactures most of the world's PV modules. The presentation will describe the steps that need to be taken to create a service life prediction within the context of a defined bill of materials, process window and use environment. Worldwide standards for cost-effective approaches to service-life predictions will be beneficial to both PV customers and manufacturers since the consequences of premature module failure can be disastrous for both.

  17. Treatment plan comparison of Linac step and shoot,Tomotherapy, RapidArc, and Proton therapy for prostate cancer using dosimetrical and biological index

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Suk; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Shim, Jang Bo; Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Kim, Chul Yong; Cho, Sam Ju; Lee, Sang Hoon; Min, Chul Kee; Kim, Woo Chul; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Huh, Hyun Do; Lim, Sangwook; Shin, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use various dosimetrical indices to determine the best IMRT modality technique for treating patients with prostate cancer. Ten patients with prostate cancer were included in this study. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were designed to include different modalities, including the linac step and shoot, Tomotherapy, RapidArc, and Proton systems. Various dosimetrical indices, like the prescription isodose to target volume (PITV) ratio, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage index (TCI), modified dose homogeneity index (MHI), conformation number (CN), critical organ scoring index (COSI), and quality factor (QF) were determined to compare the different treatment plans. Biological indices such as the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD), based tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were also calculated and used to compare the treatment plans. The RapidArc plan attained better PTV coverage, as evidenc...

  18. Rapid Mechanistic Evaluation and Parameter Estimation of Putative Inhibitors in a Single-Step Progress-Curve Analysis: The Case of Horse Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Stojan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and rapid lead compound evaluation for estimation of inhibition parameters and type of inhibition is proposed. This is based on a single progress-curve measurement in the presence of each candidate compound, followed by the simultaneous analysis of all of these curves using the ENZO enzyme kinetics suite, which can be implemented as a web application. In the first step, all of the candidate ligands are tested as competitive inhibitors. Where the theoretical curves do not correspond to the experimental data, minimal additional measurements are added, with subsequent processing according to modified reaction mechanisms.

  19. Rapid Mechanistic Evaluation and Parameter Estimation of Putative Inhibitors in a Single-Step Progress-Curve Analysis: The Case of Horse Butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojan, Jure

    2017-07-26

    Highly efficient and rapid lead compound evaluation for estimation of inhibition parameters and type of inhibition is proposed. This is based on a single progress-curve measurement in the presence of each candidate compound, followed by the simultaneous analysis of all of these curves using the ENZO enzyme kinetics suite, which can be implemented as a web application. In the first step, all of the candidate ligands are tested as competitive inhibitors. Where the theoretical curves do not correspond to the experimental data, minimal additional measurements are added, with subsequent processing according to modified reaction mechanisms.

  20. Microchip-based one step DNA extraction and real-time PCR in one chamber for rapid pathogen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Gun; Cheong, Kwang Ho; Huh, Nam; Kim, Suhyeon; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Ko, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    Optimal detection of a pathogen present in biological samples depends on the ability to extract DNA molecules rapidly and efficiently. In this paper, we report a novel method for efficient DNA extraction and subsequent real-time detection in a single microchip by combining laser irradiation and magnetic beads. By using a 808 nm laser and carboxyl-terminated magnetic beads, we demonstrate that a single pulse of 40 seconds lysed pathogens including E. coli and Gram-positive bacterial cells as well as the hepatitis B virus mixed with human serum. We further demonstrate that the real-time pathogen detection was performed with pre-mixed PCR reagents in a real-time PCR machine using the same microchip, after laser irradiation in a hand-held device equipped with a small laser diode. These results suggest that the new sample preparation method is well suited to be integrated into lab-on-a-chip application of the pathogen detection system.

  1. One-step antibody immobilization-based rapid and highly-sensitive sandwich ELISA procedure for potential in vitro diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Marion Schneider, E.; Lam, Edmond; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T.

    2014-01-01

    An improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay using one-step antibody immobilization has been developed for the detection of human fetuin A (HFA), a specific biomarker for atherosclerosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The anti-HFA formed a stable complex with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) by ionic and hydrophobic interactions. The complex adsorbed on microtiter plates exhibited a detection range of 4.9 pg mL−1 to 20 ng mL−1 HFA, with a limit of detection of 7 pg mL−1. Furthermore, an analytical sensitivity of 10 pg mL−1 was achieved, representing a 51-fold increase in sensitivity over the commercial sandwich ELISA kit. The results obtained for HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and plasma showed the same precision as the commercial kit. When stored at 4°C in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), the anti-HFA bound microtiter plates displayed no significant decrease in their functional activity after two months. The new ELISA procedure was extended for the detection of C-reactive protein, human albumin and human lipocalin-2 with excellent analytical performance. PMID:24638258

  2. Computer-assisted glucose regulation during rapid step-wise increases of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schoorl, Michiel A; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Wietasch, J K Götz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W N

    2010-01-01

    Early delivery of calories is important in critically ill patients, and the administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) is sometimes required to achieve this goal. However, PN can induce acute hyperglycemia, which is associated with adverse outcome. We hypothesized that initiation of PN using a rapid "step-up" approach, coupled with a computerized insulin-dosing protocol, would result in a desirable caloric intake within 24 hours without causing hyperglycemia. In our surgical intensive care unit (ICU), glucose is regulated by a nurse-centered computerized glucose regulation program. When adequate enteral feeding was not possible, PN was initiated according to a simple step-up rule at an infusion rate of 10 mL/h (approximately 10 kcal/h) and subsequently increased by steps of 10 mL/h every 4 hours, provided glucose was up period and for 24 hours after achieving target feeding. In all 23 consecutive patients requiring PN, mean intake was 1 kcal/kg/h within 24 hours. Of the 280 glucose samples during the 48-hour study period, mean ± standard deviation glucose level was 7.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L. Only 4.5% of glucose measurements during the step-up period were transiently ≥10 mmol/L. After initiating PN, the insulin requirement rose from 1.1 ± 1.5 units/h to 2.9 ± 2.5 units/h (P initiation of PN using a step-up approach coupled with computerized glucose control resulted in adequate caloric intake within 24 hours while maintaining adequate glycemic control.

  3. Simultaneous and rapid differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum based on a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to simultaneously detect and differentiate Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female patients suffering from genital complications by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Materials and Methods : Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients. They were transported to the laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline. For PCR, samples were analysed with genus-specific MyUu-R and MyUu-F primers. This primer set, which was originally designed in our laboratory, amplified a 465 bp fragment (M. genitalium and a 559 bp fragment (U. urealyticum. Samples containing a band of the expected sizes for the Mycoplasma strains were subjected to digestion with a restriction endonuclease enzyme of TaqI and Cac8I. Results: Of the 210 samples, a total of 100 (47.6% samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasmas (seven M. genitalium isolates, 3.3%; and 89 U. urealyticum isolates, 42.4%, and coinfections with both species were detected in four samples (1.9%. The PCR-RFLP results showed that M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are different by enzyme patterns. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP offers a rapid and easily applicable protocol to simultaneous detection and differentiation of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum from clinical samples when specific primers and restriction enzymes are used.

  4. Rapid identification of pearl powder from Hyriopsis cumingii by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy combined with computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Wei, Wei; Bai, Zhiyi; Wang, Xichang; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chuanxian; Liu, Xia; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Changhua

    2018-01-01

    Pearl powder, an important raw material in cosmetics and Chinese patent medicines, is commonly uneven in quality and frequently adulterated with low-cost shell powder in the market. The aim of this study is to establish an adequate approach based on Tri-step infrared spectroscopy with enhancing resolution combined with chemometrics for qualitative identification of pearl powder originated from three different quality grades of pearls and quantitative prediction of the proportions of shell powder adulterated in pearl powder. Additionally, computer vision technology (E-eyes) can investigate the color difference among different pearl powders and make it traceable to the pearl quality trait-visual color categories. Though the different grades of pearl powder or adulterated pearl powder have almost identical IR spectra, SD-IR peak intensity at about 861 cm- 1 (v2 band) exhibited regular enhancement with the increasing quality grade of pearls, while the 1082 cm- 1 (v1 band), 712 cm- 1 and 699 cm- 1 (v4 band) were just the reverse. Contrastly, only the peak intensity at 862 cm- 1 was enhanced regularly with the increasing concentration of shell powder. Thus, the bands in the ranges of (1550-1350 cm- 1, 730-680 cm- 1) and (830-880 cm- 1, 690-725 cm- 1) could be exclusive ranges to discriminate three distinct pearl powders and identify adulteration, respectively. For massive sample analysis, a qualitative classification model and a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS), respectively. The developed method demonstrated great potential for pearl powder quality control and authenticity identification in a direct, holistic manner.

  5. Rapid identification of pearl powder from Hyriopsis cumingii by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy combined with computer vision technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Wei, Wei; Bai, Zhiyi; Wang, Xichang; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chuanxian; Liu, Xia; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Changhua

    2018-01-15

    Pearl powder, an important raw material in cosmetics and Chinese patent medicines, is commonly uneven in quality and frequently adulterated with low-cost shell powder in the market. The aim of this study is to establish an adequate approach based on Tri-step infrared spectroscopy with enhancing resolution combined with chemometrics for qualitative identification of pearl powder originated from three different quality grades of pearls and quantitative prediction of the proportions of shell powder adulterated in pearl powder. Additionally, computer vision technology (E-eyes) can investigate the color difference among different pearl powders and make it traceable to the pearl quality trait-visual color categories. Though the different grades of pearl powder or adulterated pearl powder have almost identical IR spectra, SD-IR peak intensity at about 861cm-1 (v2 band) exhibited regular enhancement with the increasing quality grade of pearls, while the 1082cm-1 (v1 band), 712cm-1 and 699cm-1 (v4 band) were just the reverse. Contrastly, only the peak intensity at 862cm-1 was enhanced regularly with the increasing concentration of shell powder. Thus, the bands in the ranges of (1550-1350cm-1, 730-680cm-1) and (830-880cm-1, 690-725cm-1) could be exclusive ranges to discriminate three distinct pearl powders and identify adulteration, respectively. For massive sample analysis, a qualitative classification model and a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS), respectively. The developed method demonstrated great potential for pearl powder quality control and authenticity identification in a direct, holistic manner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Development of a rapid DNA extraction method and one-step nested PCR for the detection of Naegleria fowleri from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Lonnen, James; Andrew, Peter W; Kilvington, Simon

    2011-10-15

    Naegleria fowleri is a small free-living amoebo-flagellate found in natural and manmade thermal aquatic habitats worldwide. The organism is pathogenic to man causing fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Infection typically results from bathing in contaminated water and is usually fatal. It is, therefore, important to identify sites containing N. fowleri in the interests of preventive public health microbiology. Culture of environmental material is the conventional method for the isolation of N. fowleri but requires several days incubation and subsequent biochemical or molecular tests to confirm identification. Here, a nested one-step PCR test, in conjunction with a direct DNA extraction from water or sediment material, was developed for the rapid and reliable detection of N. fowleri from the environment. Here, the assay detected N, fowleri in 18/109 river water samples associated with a nuclear power plant in South West France and 0/10 from a similar site in the UK. Although culture of samples yielded numerous thermophilic free-living amoebae, none were N. fowleri or other thermophilic Naegleria spp. The availability of a rapid, reliable and sensitive one-step nested PCR method for the direct detection of N. fowleri from the environment may aid ecological studies and enable intervention to prevent PAM cases. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of multiple organophosphorus pesticides in Salvia miltiorrhizae after ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaofei; Qin, Jia'an; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Hongzheng; Wang, Yong; Guo, Weiying; Ma, Zhijie; Kong, Weijun

    2017-11-15

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was developed for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in Salvia miltiorrhizae by using ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction (USAE) without any clean-up steps. Some crucial parameters such as type of extraction solvent were optimized to improve the method performance for trace analysis. Any clean-up steps were negligent as no interferences were detected in the GC-FPD chromatograms for sensitive detection. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) for all pesticides were in the range of 0.001-0.002mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg, respectively, which were all below the regulatory maximum residue limits suggested. RSDs for method precision (intra- and inter-day variations) were lower than 6.8% in approval with international regulations. Average recovery rates for all pesticides at three fortification levels (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0mg/kg) were in the range of 71.2-101.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) pesticide (dimethoate) out of the 12 targets was simultaneously detected in four samples at concentrations of 0.016-0.02mg/kg. Dichlorvos and omethoate were found in the same sample from Sichuan province at 0.004 and 0.027mg/kg, respectively. Malathion and monocrotophos were determined in the other two samples at 0.014 and 0.028mg/kg, respectively. All the positive samples were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. The simple, reliable and rapid USAE-GC-FPD method with many advantages over traditional techniques would be preferred for trace analysis of multiple pesticides in more complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A rapid analytical and quantitative evaluation of formaldehyde in squid based on Tri-step IR and partial least squares (PLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dong-Chen; Zou, Meng-Jun; Guo, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Pan; Lin, Zhi-Wei; Hu, Tu; Wu, Ya-Fen; Liu, Yuan; Gan, Jian-Hong; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Xi-Chang; Xu, Chang-Hua

    2017-08-15

    Formaldehyde abuse for retaining squid freshness is detrimental to public health. The aim is to establish a rapid and quantitative detection method of formaldehyde in squid for screening massive samples. A linear relationship between formaldehyde concentration in squid and formaldehyde concentration in squid soaked water was observed using HPLC. Chemical profile variances of squids were rapidly analyzed by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy. Specifically, with increasing formaldehyde concentration, peak intensities of 2927cm -1 (v as (CH 2 )), 1081cm -1 (glycogen), 1631cm -1 (β-sheet proteins) decreased while 1655cm -1 (α-helix proteins) increased. Spectral curve-fitting results further disclosed that β-sheet proteins were transformed to α-helix and β-turn conformations. Furthermore, a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established by PLS (R 2 , 0.9787; RMSEC, 5.51). The developed method was applicable for rapid (c.a. 5min) and quantitative analysis of formaldehyde in squids with LOD of 15mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel, In-House, SYBR Green Based One-Step rRT-PCR: Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Suspected Patients From Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Najarasl, Mohammad; Zahiriyeganeh, Samaneh; Tat, Mahdi; Metanat, Maliheh; Sepehri Rad, Nahid; Khansari-Nejad, Behzad; Zafari, Ehsan; Sharti, Mojtaba; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe disease in humans, with a high mortality rate. Since, there is no approved vaccine or specific treatment for CCHF, an early and accurate diagnosis, as well as reliable surveillance, is essential for case management and patient improvement. For this research, our aim was to evaluate the application of a novel SYBR Green based one-step real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for the in-house diagnosis of the CCHF virus. In this experimental study, the highly conserved S-region sequence of the CCHF viral genome was first adapted from GenBank, and the specific primers targeting this region were designed. Then, the viral RNA was extracted from 75 serum samples from different patients in eastern Iran. The sensitivity and specificity of the primers were also evaluated in positive serum samples previously confirmed to have the CCHF virus, by this one-step rRT-PCR assay, as well as a DNA sequencing analysis. From a total of 75 suspected serum samples, 42 were confirmed to be positive for CCHF virus, with no false-positives detected by the sequencing results. After 40 amplification cycles, the melting curve analysis revealed a mean melting temperature (Tm) of 86.5 ± 0.6°C (quite different from those of the primer-dimers), and the positive samples showed only a small variation in the parameters. In all of the positive samples, the predicted length of 420 bp was confirmed by electrophoresis. Moreover, the sensitivity test showed that this assay can detect less than 20 copies of viral RNA per reaction. This study showed that this novel one-step rRT-PCR assay is a rapid, reliable, repeatable, specific, sensitive, and simple tool for the detection of the CCHF virus.

  10. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments.

  11. A rapid two-step algorithm detects and identifies clinical macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuedong; Nie, Shuping; Xia, Chengjing; Huang, Lie; He, Ying; Wu, Runxiang; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    Aiming to identify macrolide and beta-lactam resistance in clinical bacterial isolates rapidly and accurately, a two-step algorithm was developed based on detection of eight antibiotic resistance genes. Targeting at genes linked to bacterial macrolide (msrA, ermA, ermB, and ermC) and beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9) antibiotic resistances, this method includes a multiplex real-time PCR, a melting temperature profile analysis as well as a liquid bead microarray assay. Liquid bead microarray assay is applied only when indistinguishable Tm profile is observed. The clinical validity of this method was assessed on clinical bacterial isolates. Among the total 580 isolates that were determined by our diagnostic method, 75% of them were identified by the multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis alone, while the remaining 25% required both multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis and liquid bead microarray assay for identification. Compared with the traditional phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility test, an overall agreement of 81.2% (kappa=0.614, 95% CI=0.550-0.679) was observed, with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.7% and 73% respectively. Besides, the average test turnaround time is 3.9h, which is much shorter in comparison with more than 24h for the traditional phenotypic tests. Having the advantages of the shorter operating time and comparable high sensitivity and specificity with the traditional phenotypic test, our two-step algorithm provides an efficient tool for rapid determination of macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistances in clinical bacterial isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A broadly reactive one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of murine norovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Hanaki

    Full Text Available A one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of a broad range of murine noroviruses (MNVs. The primer design was based on the multiple sequence alignments of 101 sequences of the open reading frame (ORF1-ORF2 junction of MNV. The broad reactivity and quantitative capacity of the assay were validated using 7 MNV plasmids. The assay was completed within 1 h, and the reliable detection limit was 10 copies of MNV plasmid or 0.063 median tissue culture infective doses per milliliter of RAW264 cell culture-propagated viruses. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated using 158 mouse fecal samples, 91 of which were confirmed to be positive. The melting curve analysis demonstrated the diversity of MNV in the samples. This is the first report of a broadly reactive one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting of MNVs. The rapid and sensitive performance of this assay makes it a powerful tool for diagnostic applications.

  13. Rapid detection and quantification of Ebola Zaire virus by one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Young-Tae; Ticer, Anysha; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L

    2017-04-01

    Given that Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with mortality rates as high as 90%, rapid and accurate detection of this virus is essential both for controlling infection and preventing further transmission. Here, a one-step qRT-PCR assay for rapid and quantitative detection of an Ebola Zaire strain using GP, VP24 or VP40 genes as a target is introduced. Routine assay conditions for hydrolysis probe detection were established from the manufacturer's protocol used in the assays. The analytical specificity and sensitivity of each assay was evaluated using in vitro synthesized viral RNA transcripts. The assays were highly specific for the RNA transcripts, no cross-reactivity being observed among them. The limits of detection of the assays ranged from 102 to 103 copies per reaction. The assays were also evaluated using viral RNAs extracted from cell culture-propagated viruses (Ebola Zaire, Sudan and Reston strains), confirming that they are gene- and strain-specific. The RT-PCR assays detected viral RNAs in blood samples from virus-infected animal, suggesting that they can be also a useful method for identifying Ebola virus in clinical samples. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Prompt detection of PRRSV in the field samples is important for effective PRRS control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. In this study, a rapid SYBR-based, one step real-time RT-PCR quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Primers were designed based on the sequence of highly conservative region of PRRSV N gene. Results The sensitivity of the real-time qRT-PCR assay was achieved through PRRSV ch-1a RNA for the generation of a standard curve. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 9.6 RNA copies per reaction mixture. This assay had excellent intra- and inter-assay reproducibility as in total 65 field samples were screened for the presence of PRRSV by conventional RT-PCR in parallel with qRT-PCR, and the detection rate increased from 60.0% to 76.9%. Moreover, the specificity result indicated that this assay could reliably differentiate PRRSV from the other swine viral diseases, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV). Conclusion The real-time qRT-PCR assay described in this report allows the rapid, specific and sensitive laboratory detection of PRRSV in field samples. PMID:20459705

  15. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XiangTao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt detection of PRRSV in the field samples is important for effective PRRS control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. In this study, a rapid SYBR-based, one step real-time RT-PCR quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Primers were designed based on the sequence of highly conservative region of PRRSV N gene. Results The sensitivity of the real-time qRT-PCR assay was achieved through PRRSV ch-1a RNA for the generation of a standard curve. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 9.6 RNA copies per reaction mixture. This assay had excellent intra- and inter-assay reproducibility as in total 65 field samples were screened for the presence of PRRSV by conventional RT-PCR in parallel with qRT-PCR, and the detection rate increased from 60.0% to 76.9%. Moreover, the specificity result indicated that this assay could reliably differentiate PRRSV from the other swine viral diseases, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV, swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV. Conclusion The real-time qRT-PCR assay described in this report allows the rapid, specific and sensitive laboratory detection of PRRSV in field samples.

  16. Troca rápida de ferramentas: proposta metodológica e estudo de caso Rapid exchange of tools: method steps and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sanson Fogliatto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A troca rápida de ferramentas (TRF tem por objetivo reduzir o tempo de preparação (ou setup de equipamentos, minimizando períodos não-produtivos no chão-de-fábrica. Como conseqüência, é possível a redução do tamanho dos lotes de produção na manufatura. A TRF fundamenta-se em técnicas que enfatizam o trabalho cooperativo em equipe e a proposição de formas criativas de melhoria de processos. Este artigo apresenta uma proposta metodológica para a TRF, constituída dos seguintes passos: definição do projeto, planejamento das atividades, treinamento da equipe de implantação, implantação propriamente dita, acompanhamento e consolidação. Um estudo de caso desenvolvido na indústria moveleira ilustra a metodologia proposta.Single-minute exchange of die (SMED and alternative methodologies aim at reducing the time needed for equipment setup, minimizing non-productive periods in the shop floor. That in turns enables production of increasingly smaller lot sizes. SMED is based on a number of improvement techniques that emphasize cooperative teamwork and the proposal of creative ways to improve existing processes. This paper presents a methodology for rapid exchange of die, comprised of the following steps: project definition, planning of activities, personnel training in SMED, implementation per se and follow-up and consolidation. A case study from the furniture industry illustrates the methodology steps.

  17. Improving the Specificity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Diagnosis in High-Transmission Settings with a Two-Step Rapid Diagnostic Test and Microscopy Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murungi, Moses; Fulton, Travis; Reyes, Raquel; Matte, Michael; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Nyehangane, Dan; Juliano, Jonathan J; Siedner, Mark J; Boum, Yap; Boyce, Ross M

    2017-05-01

    Poor specificity may negatively impact rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-based diagnostic strategies for malaria. We performed real-time PCR on a subset of subjects who had undergone diagnostic testing with a multiple-antigen (histidine-rich protein 2 and pan-lactate dehydrogenase pLDH [HRP2/pLDH]) RDT and microscopy. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT in comparison to results of PCR for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We developed and evaluated a two-step algorithm utilizing the multiple-antigen RDT to screen patients, followed by confirmatory microscopy for those individuals with HRP2-positive (HRP2+)/pLDH-negative (pLDH-) results. In total, dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from 276 individuals. There were 124 (44.9%) individuals with an HRP2+/pLDH+ result, 94 (34.1%) with an HRP2+/pLDH- result, and 58 (21%) with a negative RDT result. The sensitivity and specificity of the RDT compared to results with real-time PCR were 99.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95.9 to 100.0%) and 46.7% (95% CI, 37.7 to 55.9%), respectively. Of the 94 HRP2+/pLDH- results, only 32 (34.0%) and 35 (37.2%) were positive by microscopy and PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the two-step algorithm compared to results with real-time PCR were 95.5% (95% CI, 90.5 to 98.0%) and 91.0% (95% CI, 84.1 to 95.2), respectively. HRP2 antigen bands demonstrated poor specificity for the diagnosis of malaria compared to that of real-time PCR in a high-transmission setting. The most likely explanation for this finding is the persistence of HRP2 antigenemia following treatment of an acute infection. The two-step diagnostic algorithm utilizing microscopy as a confirmatory test for indeterminate HRP2+/pLDH- results showed significantly improved specificity with little loss of sensitivity in a high-transmission setting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. The NFP locus of Medicago truncatula controls an early step of Nod factor signal transduction upstream of a rapid calcium flux and root hair deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Besma Ben; Shaw, Sidney L; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Maillet, Fabienne; Penmetsa, R Varma; Cook, Douglas; Long, Sharon R; Dénarié, Jean; Gough, Clare

    2003-05-01

    Establishment of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis depends on a molecular dialogue, in which rhizobial nodulation (Nod) factors act as symbiotic signals, playing a key role in the control of specificity of infection and nodule formation. Using nodulation-defective (Nod-) mutants of Medicago truncatula to study the mechanisms controlling Nod factor perception and signalling, we have previously identified five genes that control components of a Nod factor-activated signal transduction pathway. Characterisation of a new M. truncatula Nod- mutant led to the identification of the Nod Factor Perception (NFP) locus. The nfp mutant has a novel phenotype among Nod- mutants of M. truncatula, as it does not respond to Nod factors by any of the responses tested. The nfp mutant thus shows no rapid calcium flux, the earliest detectable Nod factor response of wild-type plants, and no root hair deformation. The nfp mutant is also deficient in Nod factor-induced calcium spiking and early nodulin gene expression. While certain genes controlling Nod factor signal transduction also control the establishment of an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, the nfp mutant shows a wild-type mycorrhizal phenotype. These data indicate that the NFP locus controls an early step of Nod factor signal transduction, upstream of previously identified genes and specific to nodulation.

  19. Application of stepwise gradients in counter-current chromatography: a rapid and economical strategy for the one-step separation of eight coumarins from Seseli resinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Omer; Khan, Salman; Ha, In Jin; Park, Youmie; Tosun, Alev; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-10-04

    The targeted purification of compounds with a broad polarity range from traditional medicinal plants is a big challenge for counter-current chromatography (CCC). Gradient elution was introduced in CCC to address this problem. However, once a suitable solvent system is selected, the separation process requires optimization of operational parameters. The present study was conducted to optimize various operational parameters to integrate the flow rate and solvent gradients for the rapid isolation of eight coumarins from Seseli resinosum in a single run. An increase in the system temperature from 15°C to 35°C increased the stationary phase retention and solubility of the sample, whereas the operation time and viscosity of the system were decreased. The high purity of each compound was ensured by collecting the fractions from the main peaks while all the shoulder peaks were mixed and separated under the same conditions with semi-preparative CCC. GC-FID was used to analyze the components of each phase, which was prepared without presaturation to save the time and solvent consumption. Finally, eight coumarins were purified, including (1) d-laserpitin, (2) (3'S,4'S)-3'-angeloyloxy-4'-hydroxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, (3) (+)-samidin, (4) (3'S,4'S)-3'-acetoxy-4'-angeloyloxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, (5) deltoin (6), calipteryxin, (7) (3'S,4'S)-3',4'-disenecioyloxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, and (8) (-)-anomalin. The present technique has successfully accomplished the goal of one-step separation of these compounds with high purity and recovery in an economic and time efficient manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Multiplex Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for Rapid and Simultaneous Analysis of Different Components of the Soil Microbial Community▿

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Brajesh K.; Nazaries, Loic; Munro, Stacey; Ian C Anderson; Campbell, Colin D.

    2006-01-01

    A multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (M-TRFLP) fingerprinting method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the diversity and community structure of two or more microbial taxa (up to four taxa). The reproducibility and robustness of the method were examined using soil samples collected from different habitats. DNA was PCR amplified separately from soil samples using individual taxon-specific primers for bacteria, archaea, and fungi. The same samples ...

  1. Development of a one-step probe based molecular assay for rapid immunodiagnosis of infection with M. tuberculosis using dried blood spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Blauenfeldt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is the most promising alternative marker to IFN-γ for infection with M. tuberculosis. Compared to Interferon-γ release assays (IGRA, IP-10 is released in high levels enabling novel approaches such as field friendly dried blood spots (DBS and molecular detection. AIM: To develop a robust IP-10 based molecular assay for the diagnosis of infection with M. tubercuolsis from whole blood and DBS. METHOD: We developed a one-step probe based multiplex RT-qPCR assay for detecting IP-10 and IFN-γ mRNA expression from whole blood and DBS samples. The assay was validated and applied for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in DBS samples from 43 patients with confirmed TB, 13 patients with latent TB and 96 presumed uninfected controls. In parallel, IP-10 and INF-γ levels were measured in Quantiferon (QFT-TB plasma supernatants. RESULTS: IP-10 mRNA upregulation was detectable at 4 hours after stimulation (6 fold upregulation peaking at 8 hours (108 fold upregulation. IFN-γ expression occurred in concert but levels were lower (peak 6.7 fold upregulation. IP-10 gene expression level was significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis (median 31.2, IQR 10.7-67.0 and persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI (41.2, IQR 9.8-64.9 compared to healthy controls (1.6, IQR 1.1-2.4; p<0.0001. The IP-10 mRNA and protein based tests had comparable diagnostic accuracy to QFT-TB, sensitivity (85% and 88% vs 85% and specificity (96% and 96% vs 97%, p = ns.. CONCLUSION: We developed a rapid, robust and accurate molecular immunodiagnostic test for M. tuberculosis infection. By combining DBS based sample acquisition, mail or currier based sample transport with centralized molecular detection, this immunodiagnostic test concept can reduce the local technological requirements everywhere and make it possible to offer highly accurate immunodiagnostic tests in low resource settings.

  2. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  3. Rapid Changes in Scores on Principal Components of the EEG Spectrum do not Occur in the Course of "Drowsy" Sleep of Varying Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, Arcady A

    2015-04-01

    Wakefulness is separated from a well-established sleep by an onset period. This is characterized by dramatic changes in scores on the first and second principal components of the electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum, which reflects the kinetics of sleep- and wake-promoting processes. The present analysis examined whether significant buildups and declines of the first and second scores can occur throughout stage 1 sleep, or only on its boundaries with stage 2 and wakefulness. Twenty-seven adults participated in multiple 20-minute attempts to nap in the course of 24-hour wakefulness after either deprivation, restriction or ad lib night sleep. Power spectra were calculated on 1-minute intervals of 251 EEG records. Irrespective of accumulated sleep debt and duration of stage 1 sleep (from 5 minutes), the first principal component score was permanently attenuated across this stage as well as during preceding wakefulness. It showed rapid buildup only on the boundary with stage 2. The second principal component score always started its decline earlier, on the wake-sleep boundary. It did not show further decline throughout the following intervals of stages 1 and 2. It seems that stage 1 sleep occurs due to a delay of the buildup of the sleep-promoting process relative to the decline of the wake-promoting process which coincide, with initiation of stage 2 sleep and termination of wakefulness. Therefore, "drowsy" sleep can be regarded as occupying "no man's land", between the opponent driving forces for wake and sleep. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  4. CBCT of skeletal changes following rapid maxillary expansion to increase arch-length with a development-dependent bonded or banded appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomi, Ryuzo; Deguchi, Toru; Kakuno, Eriko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Roberts, W Eugene

    2013-09-01

    To assess the three-dimensional (3D) skeletal response to a standardized 5 mm of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in growing children (6-15 years) with maxillary width deficiency and crowding. A bonded appliance was used prior to the eruption of the maxillary first premolars (Mx4s), and a banded appliance was used thereafter. A consecutive sample of 89 patients (29 boys and 60 girls) from a large pediatric dentistry and orthodontics practice was divided into four groups: 1) 6-8 years old (n = 26), 2) 9-11 years old with unerupted Mx4s (n = 21), 3) 9-11 years with erupted Mx4s (n = 23), and 4) 12-15 years (n = 19). For all patients, the 3D evaluation of dental and skeletal effects was performed with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). For both appliances in all patients, CBCT confirmed a triangular pattern of expansion in both the frontal and sagittal planes. Overall, both appliances produced significant maxillary expansion (>80% of the 5-mm activation), but older children showed a progressively more dental (less skeletal) response. Comparison of the two types of expanders in the crossover sample, children aged 9-11 years, showed that the bonded RME produced the most efficient skeletal expansion in the preadolescent sample. Increased maxillary width at the level of the zygomaticomaxillary suture was the best indicator for development of maxillary arch circumference. Development-dependent appliances (bonded RPE before Mx4s erupt, and a banded device thereafter) provided optimal RME treatment for all children from age 6-15 years.

  5. Quality of Care Is Improved by Rapid Short Incubation MALDI-ToF Identification from Blood Cultures as Measured by Reduced Length of Stay and Patient Outcomes as Part of a Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Bacteremia in Pediatric Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A Delport

    Full Text Available Sepsis has seen an incremental increase in cases of about 13% annually in the USA and accounts for approximately 4400 deaths among pediatric patients. Early identification of the specific pathogen allows the clinician to ensure that the antibiotic coverage is optimal, an intervention that has been shown to improve patient outcomes in sepsis. Our study's objective was to assess the impact of a rapid Bruker MALDI-Tof identification protocol on pediatric sepsis cases by assessing various indicators. We assessed the quality of care by measuring the following indicators; time to identification of the pathogen, initiation of the most appropriate antibiotic, length of stay (LOS in hospital and patient outcomes, using a retrospective review over three consecutive years. In total 92 pediatric patients, similar in age and gender distributions were assessed; 37 in 2012, 33 in 2013 and 22 in 2014. The introduction of MALDI-TOF identification in 2013 led to a significant decrease in time to identify a pathogen by 21.03 hours (p = 1.95E-05. A short incubation MALDI-TOF identification protocol in 2014 further reduced time to identification by 17.75 hours (p = 2.48E-3. Overall in 2014 this led to a trend to earlier optimization of antibiotics by 20.2 hours (p = 0.14 and a reduction in length of stay after the implementation of MALDI-ToF identification in 2013 of 3.07 days and a further reduction of 8.92 days after the introduction of the rapid short incubation identification protocol using MALDI-Tof in 2014 (P = 0.12. By evaluating the subgroup of patients where antibiotics were changed, our study confirmed that patients received appropriate therapy 48.8% (20.2 hours earlier compared to conventional methods leading to a decrease in length of stay of 23.65 days after the implementation of MALDI-ToF identification and a further reduction of 9.82 days in 2014 compared to 2012 (p = 0.02. In 2014 outcomes between the patients needing a change in their antibiotic

  6. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an electronic medication management system to reduce medication errors, adverse drug events and average length of stay at two paediatric hospitals: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J I; Li, L; Raban, M Z; Baysari, M T; Mumford, V; Prgomet, M; Georgiou, A; Kim, T; Lake, R; McCullagh, C; Dalla-Pozza, L; Karnon, J; O'Brien, T A; Ambler, G; Day, R; Cowell, C T; Gazarian, M; Worthington, R; Lehmann, C U; White, L; Barbaric, D; Gardo, A; Kelly, M; Kennedy, P

    2016-10-21

    Medication errors are the most frequent cause of preventable harm in hospitals. Medication management in paediatric patients is particularly complex and consequently potential for harms are greater than in adults. Electronic medication management (eMM) systems are heralded as a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs), yet internationally evidence of their effectiveness in paediatric populations is limited. This study will assess the effectiveness of an eMM system to reduce medication errors, ADEs and length of stay (LOS). The study will also investigate system impact on clinical work processes. A stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) will measure changes pre-eMM and post-eMM system implementation in prescribing and medication administration error (MAE) rates, potential and actual ADEs, and average LOS. In stage 1, 8 wards within the first paediatric hospital will be randomised to receive the eMM system 1 week apart. In stage 2, the second paediatric hospital will randomise implementation of a modified eMM and outcomes will be assessed. Prescribing errors will be identified through record reviews, and MAEs through direct observation of nurses and record reviews. Actual and potential severity will be assigned. Outcomes will be assessed at the patient-level using mixed models, taking into account correlation of admissions within wards and multiple admissions for the same patient, with adjustment for potential confounders. Interviews and direct observation of clinicians will investigate the effects of the system on workflow. Data from site 1 will be used to develop improvements in the eMM and implemented at site 2, where the SWCRCT design will be repeated (stage 2). The research has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network and Macquarie University. Results will be reported through academic journals and seminar and conference presentations. Australian New Zealand

  7. Next Step for STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  8. Rapid generation of functional dopaminergic neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells through a single-step procedure using cell lineage transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theka, Ilda; Caiazzo, Massimiliano; Dvoretskova, Elena; Leo, Damiana; Ungaro, Federica; Curreli, Sebastiano; Managò, Francesca; Dell'Anno, Maria Teresa; Pezzoli, Gianni; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Dityatev, Alexander; Broccoli, Vania

    2013-06-01

    Current protocols for in vitro differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to generate dopamine (DA) neurons are laborious and time-expensive. In order to accelerate the overall process, we have established a fast protocol by expressing the developmental transcription factors ASCL1, NURR1, and LMX1A. With this method, we were able to generate mature and functional dopaminergic neurons in as few as 21 days, skipping all the intermediate steps for inducting and selecting embryoid bodies and rosette-neural precursors. Strikingly, the resulting neuronal conversion process was very proficient, with an overall efficiency that was more than 93% of all the coinfected cells. hiPSC-derived DA neurons expressed all the critical molecular markers of the DA molecular machinery and exhibited sophisticated functional features including spontaneous electrical activity and dopamine release. This one-step protocol holds important implications for in vitro disease modeling and is particularly amenable for exploitation in high-throughput screening protocols.

  9. How chain length and charge affect surfactant denaturation of acyl coenzyme a binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell; Otzen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    maltoside (DDM). The aim has been to determine how surfactant chain length and micellar charge affect the denaturation mechanism. ACBP denatures in two steps irrespective of surfactant chain length, but with increasing chain length, the potency of the denaturant rises more rapidly than the critical micelle...... concentration (cmc) declines. Increasing proportions of DDM, which significantly reduce the amount of monomelic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), make the first denaturation step occur at lower concentrations but weaken and eventually remove the second denaturation step. The logarithm of the unfolding rate...... constants increases linearly with denaturant concentration below the cmc but declines at higher concentrations. Both shortening chain length and decreasing micellar charge reduce the overall kinetics of unfolding and makes the dependence of unfolding rate constants on surfactant concentration more complex...

  10. Rapid, one-step fabrication and loading of nanoscale 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes in a simple, double flow-focusing microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien Sing Young, Ryan V; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    Liposomes are currently well-established as biocompatible delivery vehicles for numerous compounds. However, conventional manufacturing tends to rely on time-consuming processes, costly equipment, unstable reaction parameters, and numerous pre- and post-processing steps. Herein, we demonstrate a microscope-slide-sized alternative: a double flow-focusing microfluidic geometry capable of sub-hour synthesis and controlled loading of tunable liposomes. Using phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as the bilayer constituent, the effect of varying the dissolved lipid concentration and flow rate ratio on synthesized liposome diameters was investigated and the encapsulation of fluorescent hydrophobic drug model ergost-5,7,9(11),22-tetraen-3β-ol was performed to ascertain the potential of this device as a loading platform.

  11. Synthesis of Antibodies-Conjugated Fluorescent Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticles for a Rapid Single Step Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Live Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachira Tansub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of antibodies-conjugated fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles (FDS-NPs was developed to detect Campylobacter jejuni cells under a fluorescence microscope. The particles prepared by sol-gel microemulsion techniques have a round shape with an average size of 43 ± 4 nm. They were highly photo stable and could emit strong orange fluorescent for 60 min. Both amine- and carboxyl-functionalized properties were evident from FTIR and FT Raman spectra. The FDS-NPs conjugated with antibodies against C. jejuni were well dispersed in PBS solution at 20 mM of NaCl. The conjugation with monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni was successful. The direct observation of the antibodies-conjugated FDS-NPs- that bounds C. jejuni with Petroff Hausser counting chamber at 40x was clear. The different focus lengths clearly separated bound and unbound FDS-NPs under the microscope. We successfully synthesis the bio-conjugated dye doped silica nanoparticles for C. jejuni that are easy to use and giving clear detection in due time.

  12. Rapid On-Line Control to Reaching Is Preserved in Children With Congenital Spastic Hemiplegia: Evidence From Double-Step Reaching Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Christian; Fuelscher, Ian; Enticott, Peter G; Reid, Susan M; Williams, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the integrity of on-line control of reaching in congenital spastic hemiplegia in light of disparate evidence. Twelve children with and without spastic hemiplegia (11-17 years old) completed a double-step reaching task requiring them to reach and touch a target that remained stationary for most trials (viz nonjump trial) but unexpectedly displaced laterally at movement onset for a minority of trials (20%: known as jump trials). Although children with spastic hemiplegia were generally slower than age-matched controls, they could account for target perturbation at age-appropriate levels shown by a lack of interaction effect on movement time and nonsignificant group difference for time to reach trajectory correction on jump trials. Our data suggest that at a group level, on-line control of reaching may be age-appropriate in spastic hemiplegia. However, our data also highlight the need to experimentally acknowledge the considerable heterogeneity of the spastic hemiplegia population when investigating motor cognition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Single-step, rapid low-temperature synthesis of Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix in high-density reactive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Qijin [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Xu Shuyan [Plasma Sources and Applications Centre, NIE, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk 637616 (Singapore); Ostrikov, Kostya, E-mail: Kostya.Ostrikov@csiro.au [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia) and School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    A simple, effective and innovative approach based on low-pressure, thermally nonequilibrium, high-density inductively coupled plasmas is proposed to rapidly synthesize Si quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an amorphous SiC (a-SiC) matrix at a low substrate temperature and without any commonly used hydrogen dilution. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that uniform crystalline Si QDs with a size of 3-4 nm embedded in the silicon-rich (carbon content up to 10.7at.%) a-SiC matrix can be formed from the reactive mixture of silane and methane gases, with high growth rates of {approx}1.27-2.34 nm s{sup -1} and at a low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. The achievement of the high-rate growth of Si QDs embedded in the a-SiC without any commonly used hydrogen dilution is discussed based on the unique properties of the inductively coupled plasma-based process. This work is particularly important for the development of the all-Si tandem cell-based third generation photovoltaic solar cells.

  14. 1-1-12 one-step wash-in scheme for desflurane-nitrous oxide low-flow anesthesia: rapid and predictable induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathitkarnmanee, Thepakorn; Tribuddharat, Sirirat; Suttinarakorn, Chakthip; Nonlhaopol, Duangthida; Thananun, Maneerat; Somdee, Wilawan; Theerapongpakdee, Sunchai

    2014-01-01

    We propose a 1-1-12 wash-in scheme for desflurane-nitrous oxide (N2O) low-flow anesthesia. The objective of our study was to determine the time to achieve alveolar concentration of desflurane (FAD) at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6%. We enrolled 106 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia. After induction and intubation, wash-in was started with a fresh gas flow (FGF) of N2O : O2 1 : 1 L min(-1) and vaporizer concentration of desflurane (FD) of 12%. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PACO2 at 30-35 mmHg. The FAD rose rapidly from 0 to 4% in 2 min in a linear manner in 0.5 min increments. An FAD of 6% was achieved in 4 min in a linear fashion from FAD of 4% but in 1 min increments. An FAD of 1 to 6% occurred at 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 min. Heart rate during wash-in showed a statistically, albeit not clinically, significant pattern of increase. By contrast, blood pressure slightly decreased during this period. We developed a 1-1-12 wash-in scheme using a FGF of N2O : O2 1 : 1 L min(-1) and FD of 12% for desflurane-nitrous oxide low-flow anesthesia. A respective FAD of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% can be expected at 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 min.

  15. Multiplex one-step Real-time PCR by Taqman-MGB method for rapid detection of pan and H5 subtype avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujun Zhang

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV can infect a variety of avian species and mammals, leading to severe economic losses in poultry industry and posing a substantial threat to public health. Currently, traditional virus isolation and identification is inadequate for the early diagnosis because of its labor-intensive and time-consuming features. Real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR is an ideal method for the detection of AIV since it is highly specific, sensitive and rapid. In addition, as the new quencher MGB is used in RRT-PCR, it only needs shorter probe and helps the binding of target gene and probe. In this study, a pan-AIV RRT-PCR for the detection of all AIVs and H5-AIV RRT-PCR for detection of H5 AIV based on NP gene of AIV and HA gene of H5 AIV were successfully established using Taqman-MGB method. We tested 14 AIV strains in total and the results showed that the pan-AIV RRT-PCR can detect AIV of various HA subtypes and the H5-AIV RRT-PCR can detect H5 AIV circulating in poultry in China in recent three years, including H5 viruses of clade 7.2, clade 2.3.4.4 and clade 2.3.2.1. Furthermore, the multiplex detection limit for pan-AIV and H5-AIV RRT-PCR was 5 copies per reaction. When this multiplex method was applied in the detection of experimental and live poultry market samples, the detection rates of pan-AIV and H5 AIV in RRT-PCR were both higher than the routine virus isolation method with embryonated chicken eggs. The multiplex RRT-PCR method established in our study showed high sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity, suggesting the promising application of our method for surveillance of both pan AIV and prevalent H5 AIV in live poultry markets and clinical samples.

  16. 1-1-12 One-Step Wash-In Scheme for Desflurane-Nitrous Oxide Low-Flow Anesthesia: Rapid and Predictable Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We propose a 1-1-12 wash-in scheme for desflurane-nitrous oxide (N2O low-flow anesthesia. The objective of our study was to determine the time to achieve alveolar concentration of desflurane (FAD at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6%. Methods. We enrolled 106 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia. After induction and intubation, wash-in was started with a fresh gas flow (FGF of N2O : O2 1 : 1 L min−1 and vaporizer concentration of desflurane (FD of 12%. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PACO2 at 30–35 mmHg. Results. The FAD rose rapidly from 0 to 4% in 2 min in a linear manner in 0.5 min increments. An FAD of 6% was achieved in 4 min in a linear fashion from FAD of 4% but in 1 min increments. An FAD of 1 to 6% occurred at 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 min. Heart rate during wash-in showed a statistically, albeit not clinically, significant pattern of increase. By contrast, blood pressure slightly decreased during this period. Conclusions. We developed a 1-1-12 wash-in scheme using a FGF of N2O : O2 1 : 1 L min−1 and FD of 12% for desflurane-nitrous oxide low-flow anesthesia. A respective FAD of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% can be expected at 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 min.

  17. Modeling the Stepping Process of Negative Lightning Stepped Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical model based on the mechanism observed in experimental investigations is introduced to describe the formation of negative leader steps. Starting with a small length of a space leader located at the periphery of the negative streamer system of the stepped leader, the model simulates the growth and the subsequent formation of the leader step. Based on the model, the step length, the step forming time, and the propagation speed of stepped leaders as a function of the prospective return stroke peak current are estimated. The results show that the step length and the leader speed increase with increasing prospective return stroke current. The results also show that the speed of the stepped leader increases as it approaches the ground. For prospective return stroke currents in the range of 15 kA–60 kA, the step lengths lie within the range 5 m–100 m, the step forming times lie within the range 10 μs–250 μs, and the leader speed lies within the range 105 m/s −1.5 × 106 m/s. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations.

  18. PHOEBE - step by step manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasche, P.

    2016-03-01

    An easy step-by-step manual of PHOEBE is presented. It should serve as a starting point for the first time users of PHOEBE analyzing the eclipsing binary light curve. It is demonstrated on one particular detached system also with the downloadable data and the whole procedure is described easily till the final trustworthy fit is being reached.

  19. How to measure path length?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.

    2015-01-01

    Path length measuring is a relevant engineering problem. Leonardo Da Vinci designed for the military appropriate equipment, the podometer, to do so. Modern equipment such as step meters and map meters are quite similar to Da Vinci?s design, despite geometrical statistical - stereological - methods

  20. Rapid determination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites in aqueous samples by one-step microwave-assisted headspace controlled-temperature liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth Kumar, Ponnusamy; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2011-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its main metabolites in environmental aqueous samples has been developed using one-step microwave-assisted headspace controlled-temperature liquid-phase micro-extraction (MA-HS-CT-LPME) technique coupled with gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). In this study, the one-step extraction of DDT and its main metabolites was achieved by using microwave heating to accelerate the evaporation of analytes into the controlled-temperature headspace to form a cloudy mist vapor zone for LPME sampling. Parameters influencing extraction efficiency were thoroughly optimized, and the best extraction for DDT and its main metabolites from 10-mL aqueous sample at pH 6.0 was achieved by using 1-octanol (4-μL) as the LPME solvent, sampling at 34°C for 6.5 min under 249W of microwave irradiation. Under optimum conditions, excellent linear relationship was obtained in the range of 0.05-1.0 μg/L for 1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), 0.1-2.0 μg/L for o,p'-DDT, 0.15-3.0 μg/L for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDD) and p,p'-DDT, with detection limits of 20 ng/L for p,p'-DDE, and 30 ng/L for o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT. Precision was in the range of 3.2-11.3% RSD. The proposed method was validated with environmental water samples. The spiked recovery was between 95.5% and 101.3% for agricultural-field water, between 94% and 99.7% for sea water and between 93.5% and 98% for river water. Thus the established method has been proved to be a simple, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and eco-friendly procedure for the determination of DDT and its main metabolites in environmental water samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Dual TaqMan Based One-Step rRT-PCR Assay Panel for Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Test of MERS-CoV: A Novel Human Coronavirus, Ahead of Hajj Pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Rasouli, Rahimeh; Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Izadi, Morteza; Tat, Mahdi; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Najarasl, Mohammad; Khansari Nejad, Behzad; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-11-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing primarily respiratory disease in humans. A novel human coronavirus, subsequently named middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September of 2012. With increasing numbers of infections and deaths from MERS-CoV, development of a rapid and reliable kit was crucial to prevent further spread of MERS-CoV. In this study, we present two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for in-house rapid and sensitive diagnostic testing of MERS-CoV, detecting the regions upstream of the envelope gene (upE) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b, respectively, for initial screening and final confirmation of MERS-CoV infection, as recommended by the world health organization (WHO). In this experimental study, acquiring patient samples was difficult; thus, according to WHO recommendations and standard protocols, we synthesized RNA sequences of upE and ORF1b genes as the template signatures and TaqMan based-diagnostic rRT-PCR assays were carried out using these synthetic genes for detection of MERS-CoV. In this research, we also inaugurated a cell-free system to transcribe these RNA sequences using the DNA templates synthesized. The upE and ORF1b based one-step rRT-PCR assays were optimized by testing several times via different synthetic RNAs, and validation results were highly successful. The sensitivity obtained for upE was fewer than ten copies of RNA template per reaction and for ORF1b was 50 or fewer copies per reaction. This study showed that the developed rRT-PCR assays are rapid, reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive, and simple tools for detection of MERS-CoV. Finally, a kit consisting of two assay signatures and controls was assembled, which can be distributed to public health laboratories in Iran to support international MERS-CoV surveillance and public health response.

  2. Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L; Sacha, Gregory

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters, that is, the contact parameter K(cs) and the separation distance l(v), using the sublimation rate profiles measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). In this study, each size of vial was filled with pure water followed by a freeze-drying cycle using a LyoStar II dryer (FTS Systems) with step-changes of the chamber pressure set-point at to 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mTorr. K(cs) was independently determined by nonlinear parameter estimation using the sublimation rates measured at the pressure set-point of 25 mTorr. After obtaining K(cs), the l(v) value for each vial size was determined by nonlinear parameter estimation using the pooled sublimation rate profiles obtained at 25 to 400 mTorr. The vial heat transfer coefficient K(v), as a function of the chamber pressure, was readily calculated, using the obtained K(cs) and l(v) values. It is interesting to note the significant difference in K(v) of two similar types of 10 mL Schott tubing vials, primary due to the geometry of the vial-bottom, as demonstrated by the images of the contact areas of the vial-bottom. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  3. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus...

  4. A rapid and non-invasive 2-step algorithm for diagnosing tuberculous peritonitis using a T cell-based assay on peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid mononuclear cells together with peritoneal fluid adenosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2015-04-01

    A recently developed RD-1 gene-based assay for diagnosing tuberculous peritonitis (TBP) has given promising results. We therefore created a clinical algorithm for differentiating TBP from other diagnoses using peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid mononuclear cells (PBMC/PF-MC) along with conventional tests. All adult patients with suspected TBP in whom enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays were performed both on PBMC and PF-MC were prospectively enrolled over a 6-year period. Confirmed TBP with positive cultures or Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR, probable TBP with PF changes consistent with TBP, caseating granuloma, and a successful response to anti-TB therapy, as well as possible TBP without exclusion of TBP, were each defined. A total of 74 patients were enrolled. Of these, 45 (61%) (19 confirmed, 16 probable, and 10 possible) were classified as TBP. The other 29 (39%) patients were classified as not TB. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of the tested methods for diagnosing TBP were as follows: PBMC ELISPOT (≥6 spots), 84% and 59%; PF-MC ELISPOT (≥6 spots), 87% and 86%; PF-MC/PBMC ratio (≥3), 69% and 97%; and PF-ADA level (≥21 U/L), 82% and 79%. The areas under the ROC curves were as follows: PF-MC ELISPOT, 0.90; PF-MC/PBMC ratio, 0.82; PBMC ELISPOT, 0.80; and PF-ADA, 0.80, respectively. When a 2-step algorithm ('PBMC ELISPOT ≥6 spots or PF-ADA ≥21 U/L' as a rule-out test and 'PF-MC/PBMC ratio ≥3' as a rule-in test) was applied, 67% (30/45) of the patients with TBP were accurately classified without undergoing invasive procedures. A 2-step algorithm using the PBMC/PF-MC ELISPOT assays and PF-ADA appears to be a promising rapid and non-invasive approach for diagnosing TBP. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragments linked to soybean mosaic virus resistance gene in Glycine soja and conversion to a sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) marker for rapid selection.

  6. Rapid one-step purification of single-cells encapsulated in alginate microcapsules from oil to aqueous phase using a hydrophobic filter paper: implications for single-cell experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Hyun; Jang, Miran; Park, Je-Kyun

    2014-10-01

    By virtue of the biocompatibility and physical properties of hydrogel, picoliter-sized hydrogel microcapsules have been considered to be a biometric signature containing several features similar to that of encapsulated single cells, including phenotype, viability, and intracellular content. To maximize the experimental potential of encapsulating cells in hydrogel microcapsules, a method that enables efficient hydrogel microcapsule purification from oil is necessary. Current methods based on centrifugation for the conventional stepwise rinsing of oil, are slow and laborious and decrease the monodispersity and yield of the recovered hydrogel microcapsules. To remedy these shortcomings we have developed a simple one-step method to purify alginate microcapsules, containing a single live cell, from oil to aqueous phase. This method employs oil impregnation using a commercially available hydrophobic filter paper without multistep centrifugal purification and complicated microchannel networks. The oil-suspended alginate microcapsules encapsulating single cells from mammalian cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HepG2, and U937) and microorganisms (Chlorella vulgaris) were successfully exchanged to cell culture media by quick (~10 min) depletion of the surrounding oil phase without coalescence of neighboring microcapsules. Cell proliferation and high integrity of the microcapsules were also demonstrated by long-term incubation of microcapsules containing a single live cell. We expect that this method for the simple and rapid purification of encapsulated single-cell microcapsules will attain widespread adoption, assisting cell biologists and clinicians in the development of single-cell experiments. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Linear algebra step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Kuldeep

    2013-01-01

    Linear algebra is a fundamental area of mathematics, and is arguably the most powerful mathematical tool ever developed. It is a core topic of study within fields as diverse as: business, economics, engineering, physics, computer science, ecology, sociology, demography and genetics. For an example of linear algebra at work, one needs to look no further than the Google search engine, which relies upon linear algebra to rank the results of a search with respect to relevance. The strength of the text is in the large number of examples and the step-by-step explanation of each topic as it is introduced. It is compiled in a way that allows distance learning, with explicit solutions to set problems freely available online. The miscellaneous exercises at the end of each chapter comprise questions from past exam papers from various universities, helping to reinforce the reader's confidence. Also included, generally at the beginning of sections, are short historicalbiographies of the leading players in the field of lin...

  8. A one-step reaction for the rapid identification of Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus frumenti using oligonucleotide primers designed from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic sequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferchichi, M; Valcheva, R; Prévost, H; Onno, B; Dousset, X

    2008-01-01

    ...) were designed to rapidly discriminate between Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus frumenti species recently isolated from French sourdough...

  9. Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.

  10. One-Step Fabrication of Microchannels with Integrated Three Dimensional Features by Hot Intrusion Embossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Debono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We build on the concept of hot intrusion embossing to develop a one-step fabrication method for thermoplastic microfluidic channels containing integrated three-dimensional features. This was accomplished with simple, rapid-to-fabricate imprint templates containing microcavities that locally control the intrusion of heated thermoplastic based on their cross-sectional geometries. The use of circular, rectangular and triangular cavity geometries was demonstrated for the purposes of forming posts, multi-focal length microlense arrays, walls, steps, tapered features and three-dimensional serpentine microchannels. Process variables, such as temperature and pressure, controlled feature dimensions without affecting the overall microchannel geometry. The approach was demonstrated for polycarbonate, cycloolefin copolymer and polystyrene, but in principle is applicable to any thermoplastic. The approach is a step forward towards rapid fabrication of complex, robust, microfluidic platforms with integrated multi-functional elements.

  11. One-Step Fabrication of Microchannels with Integrated Three Dimensional Features by Hot Intrusion Embossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Mike; Voicu, Dan; Pousti, Mohammad; Safdar, Muhammad; Young, Robert; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Greener, Jesse

    2016-11-29

    We build on the concept of hot intrusion embossing to develop a one-step fabrication method for thermoplastic microfluidic channels containing integrated three-dimensional features. This was accomplished with simple, rapid-to-fabricate imprint templates containing microcavities that locally control the intrusion of heated thermoplastic based on their cross-sectional geometries. The use of circular, rectangular and triangular cavity geometries was demonstrated for the purposes of forming posts, multi-focal length microlense arrays, walls, steps, tapered features and three-dimensional serpentine microchannels. Process variables, such as temperature and pressure, controlled feature dimensions without affecting the overall microchannel geometry. The approach was demonstrated for polycarbonate, cycloolefin copolymer and polystyrene, but in principle is applicable to any thermoplastic. The approach is a step forward towards rapid fabrication of complex, robust, microfluidic platforms with integrated multi-functional elements.

  12. Amplitude e cadência do passo e componentes da aptidão muscular em idosos: um estudo correlacional multivariado Amplitud y cadencia del paso y componentes de la capacidad muscular en personas de edad avanzada: un estudio correlativo multivariado A multivariate analysis of the correlation between step length-pacing and muscular fitness components in elder subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti

    2004-10-01

    resultados indicaron que: a AMP y CAP se asociaron significativamente con el conjunto de las variables de fuerza y flexibilidad, según sugerido por la buena correlación canónica (r can = 0,79; p The objective of the study was to verify the association between step length and pacing during gait and muscular fitness components (CAM (flexibility, strength and muscular endurance of the inferior limbs in 25 physically independent and apparently healthy women aged between 65 to 86 years-old (mean = 79±7 yrs tests. The following variables were assessed: a total and inferior limbs height and body weight; b step length and pacing (CAMP and CAP; c 2-minute step-in-place test (number of repetitions (RESISR; d maximal strength of knee extensors (load/body weight (FORCAR; e ankle and hip flexibility (FLEXT and FLEXQ. Data were analyzed by simple and multivariate correlation techniques. The results suggested that: a step length and pacing variables were directly associated to CAM, as suggested by the canonical analysis (rcan =.79; p <.05; b the step length seemed to be more correlated with maximal strength and muscular endurance than with flexibility; c the overall association of FLEXT, FLEXQ, FORCAR and RESISR with AMP and CAP was stronger than the correlations found for any isolated variable. Based on these findings, a regression equation was proposed to estimate gait efficiency from CAM variables: EMB = 7.53-.26(FLEXQ+.29(FLEXT-1.87(FORCAR-.05(RESISR, and EMF = 7(EMB+76, where EMB = Raw Gait Score and EMF = Final Gait Score (r² =.90; SEE =.35; p <.0001.

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Norovirus Genomes in Oysters by a Two-Step Isothermal Amplification Assay System Combining Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification and Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shinji; Sasaki, Yukie; Seno, Masato

    2008-01-01

    We developed a two-step isothermal amplification assay system, which achieved the detection of norovirus (NoV) genomes in oysters with a sensitivity similar to that of reverse transcription-seminested PCR. The time taken for the amplification of NoV genomes from RNA extracts was shortened to about 3 h. PMID:18456857

  14. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Norovirus Genomes in Oysters by a Two-Step Isothermal Amplification Assay System Combining Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification and Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shinji; Sasaki, Yukie; Seno, Masato

    2008-01-01

    We developed a two-step isothermal amplification assay system, which achieved the detection of norovirus (NoV) genomes in oysters with a sensitivity similar to that of reverse transcription-seminested PCR. The time taken for the amplification of NoV genomes from RNA extracts was shortened to about 3 h.

  15. Rapid and sensitive detection of norovirus genomes in oysters by a two-step isothermal amplification assay system combining nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shinji; Sasaki, Yukie; Seno, Masato

    2008-06-01

    We developed a two-step isothermal amplification assay system, which achieved the detection of norovirus (NoV) genomes in oysters with a sensitivity similar to that of reverse transcription-seminested PCR. The time taken for the amplification of NoV genomes from RNA extracts was shortened to about 3 h.

  16. Neandertal clavicle length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  17. Neandertal clavicle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W; Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2014-03-25

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status.

  18. Length-weight relationships of fishes from South African estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, TD

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available studies, the length of a fish is often more rapidly and easily measured than is its mass; it is therefore convenient to be able to determine mass where only the length is known. This paper describes the length + or - weight relationship of 83 fish species...

  19. Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.

    2011-03-01

    Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.

  20. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication.......0-21.5). The genetic analyses suggested that telomere length was not causally associated with attendance at hospital for depression or with purchase of antidepressant medication. CONCLUSIONS: Short telomeres were not associated with depression in prospective or in causal, genetic analyses.......BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...

  1. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  2. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  3. A rapid one step purification procedure for murine IgD based on the specific affinity of Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia-1 for N-linked carbohydrates on IgD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, J D; Amin, A R; Thorbecke, G J

    1990-07-03

    The alpha-D-galactopyranosyl binding lectin from the seeds of Bandeiraea simplicifolia (a.k.a. Griffonia simplicifolia) termed BS-I, strongly reacts with murine IgD and with no other protein in ascites including all other classes of immunoglobulins as determined by immunoprecipitation, hemagglutination inhibition and affinity binding. Based on this finding, murine IgD could be rapidly purified directly from whole ascitic fluid by passage over affinity beads of BS-I linked to Sepharose 4B and subsequent elution by a buffer containing 0.1 M D-galactose. The sugar eluted product is 95-99% pure as determined by SDS-PAGE and represents 90-95% of the total IgD in the initial ascites by ELISA assay. Both monomeric and dimeric murine IgD may be purified by this procedure. Human IgD is unreactive with this lectin. Treatment of purified IgD with endoglycosidases that remove either O- or N-linked glycosides indicates that BS-I binds to IgD only via N-linked carbohydrate chains.

  4. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  5. On Computational Small Steps and Big Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jacob

    rules in the small-step semantics cause the refocusing step of the syntactic correspondence to be inapplicable. Second, we propose two solutions to overcome this in-applicability: backtracking and rule generalization. Third, we show how these solutions affect the other transformations of the two...

  6. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  7. Protocol: a fast, comprehensive and reproducible one-step extraction method for the rapid preparation of polar and semi-polar metabolites, lipids, proteins, starch and cell wall polymers from a single sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A; Jüppner, Jessica; Bajdzienko, Krzysztof; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The elucidation of complex biological systems requires integration of multiple molecular parameters. Accordingly, high throughput methods like transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics have emerged to provide the tools for successful system-wide investigations. Unfortunately, optimized analysis of different compounds requires specific extraction procedures in combination with specific analytical instrumentation. However, the most efficient extraction protocols often only cover a restricted number of compounds due to the different physico-chemical properties of these biological compounds. Consequently, comprehensive analysis of several molecular components like polar primary metabolites next to lipids or proteins require multiple aliquots to enable the specific extraction procedures required to cover these diverse compound classes. This multi-parallel sample handling of different sample aliquots is therefore not only more sample intensive, it also requires more time and effort to obtain the required extracts. To circumvent large sample amounts, distributed into several aliquots for the comprehensive extraction of most relevant biological compounds, we developed a simple, robust and reproducible two-phase liquid-liquid extraction protocol. This one-step extraction protocol allows for the analysis of polar-, semi-polar and hydrophobic metabolites, next to insoluble or precipitated compounds, including proteins, starch and plant cell wall components, from a single sample. The method is scalable regarding the used sample amounts but also the employed volumes and can be performed in microcentrifuge tubes, enabling high throughput analysis. The obtained fractions are fully compatible with common analytical methods, including spectroscopic, chromatographic and mass spectrometry-based techniques. To document the utility of the described protocol, we used 25 mg of Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaves for the generation of multi-omics data sets, covering

  8. One-step microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda

    1997-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  9. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  10. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  11. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hanllym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jung Suk [Mothers Clinic, Bundang, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, {<=} 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, {<=}18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, {<=} 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  12. Efficient One-Step Fusion PCR Based on Dual-Asymmetric Primers and Two-Step Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Jinjin; Thygesen, Anders

    2018-02-01

    Gene splicing by fusion PCR is a versatile and widely used methodology, especially in synthetic biology. We here describe a rapid method for splicing two fragments by one-round fusion PCR with a dual-asymmetric primers and two-step annealing (ODT) method. During the process, the asymmetric intermediate fragments were generated in the early stage. Thereafter, they were hybridized in the subsequent cycles to serve as template for the target full-length product. The process parameters such as primer ratio, elongation temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. In addition, the fusion products produced with this method were successfully applied in seamless genome editing. The fusion of two fragments by this method takes less than 0.5 day. The method is expected to facilitate various kinds of complex genetic engineering projects with enhanced efficiency.

  13. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  14. Energy-Length Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Mihul, Alexandru C; Mihul, Eleonora A

    2006-01-01

    Lorentz ordering (causality) implies the following rule: for any given energy p0 of a system there is a certain interval c0 on x0 so that their product is the Lorentz ordering constant L It means p0c0 = L. The constant L=hc. Hence Planck constant h in a similar way as c are both consequences of Lorentz metric. The basic ideas are: 1. Lorentz metric implies that x0 must represent a length like the other components of x in X 2. The dual metric space X* is well defined since the Lorentz metric t...

  15. Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2007-01-01

    The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…

  16. One-step construction of lentiviral reporter using Red-mediated recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Juanmin; Chen, Xin; Li, Chaojun; Zhu, Minsheng; Ding, Guoxian; He, Weiqi

    2011-11-01

    Current approaches to generate lentiviral vectors, which have been used extensively for gene therapy, are time consuming and require a large expenditure. Here, we directly clone the full length myosin light chain kinase cDNA into enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-fused pLenti6/V5 expression vector in just one step with the use of Red-mediated recombination system, allowing for rapid and effective cloning of lentiviral expression vectors. In addition, the simultaneous expression of EGFP reporter provides a convenient monitoring mean for host cell infection and for localization of the target proteins.

  17. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  18. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  19. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  20. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  1. Two Independent Contributions to Step Variability during Over-Ground Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Steven H.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Human walking exhibits small variations in both step length and step width, some of which may be related to active balance control. Lateral balance is thought to require integrative sensorimotor control through adjustment of step width rather than length, contributing to greater variability in step width. Here we propose that step length variations are largely explained by the typical human preference for step length to increase with walking speed, which itself normally exhibits some slow and spontaneous fluctuation. In contrast, step width variations should have little relation to speed if they are produced more for lateral balance. As a test, we examined hundreds of overground walking steps by healthy young adults (N = 14, age step length (59%, P step length is actually quite precise if not for the slow speed fluctuations. Step width varied over faster time scales and was independent of speed fluctuations, with variance 4.3 times greater than that for step length (P Step variability is separable in both direction and time scale into balance- and speed-related components. The separation of factors not related to balance may reveal which aspects of walking are most critical for the nervous system to control. PMID:24015308

  2. Information on stepping motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongarland, G.

    1982-04-01

    The principles of the stepping motors which are often used in servomechanisms are reviewed. Variable reluctance as well as permanent magnet stepping motors are considered. Their operation is explained which includes permanent rotation, starting, stopping, and resonance effects. Several application examples, drawn from problems in automation, are outlined.

  3. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  4. Synthesis of aerogel tiles with high light scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Okunev, A G; Onuchin, A P; Shaurman, S A

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of aerogel tiles production for RICH detectors is described. Monolithic blocks of silica aerogel were synthesized by two-step sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane Si(OEt) sub 4 followed by high temperature supercritical drying with organic solvent. The important characteristic of aerogel is the light scattering length. In the wide range of refraction indexes the light scattering length exceeds 4 cm at 400 nm.

  5. Flu & You: Preventive Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Preventive Steps Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... for infants should be vaccinated instead. Take everyday preventive actions to stop the spread of germs. Try ...

  6. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  7. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Cristina; Srougi, Victor; da Costa, José Batista; Baghdad, Mohammed; Velilla, Guillermo; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Bergerat, Sebastien; Garcia-Barreras, Silvia; Rozet, François; Ingels, Alexandre; Galiano, Marc; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa). The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipament utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40ºC) to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1-5). Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  8. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  9. An Amplitude Spectral Capon Estimator with a Variable Filter Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Smaragdis, Paris; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    The filter bank methods have been a popular non-parametric way of computing the complex amplitude spectrum. So far, the length of the filters in these filter banks has been set to some constant value independently of the data. In this paper, we take the first step towards considering the filter...... length as an unknown parameter. Specifically, we derive a very simple and approximate way of determining the optimal filter length in a data-adaptive way. Based on this analysis, we also derive a model averaged version of the forward and the forward-backward amplitude spectral Capon estimators. Through...

  10. Roughness of sandstone fracture surfaces: Profilometry and shadow length investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Boffa, Jean-Marc; Allain, C.; Chertcoff, R.; Hulin, Jean-Pierre; Plouraboué, Franck; Roux, Stéphane

    1999-01-01

    The geometrical properties of fractured sandstone surfaces were studied by measuring the length distribution of the shadows appearing under grazing illumination. Three distinct domains of variation were found: at short length scales a cut-off of self-affinity is observed due to the inter-granular rupture of sandstones, at long length scales, the number of shadows falls off very rapidly because of the non-zero illumination angle and of the finite roughness amplitude. Finally, in the intermediate do...

  11. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  12. Length-weight and length-length relationships for six fish species from Zohreh River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Keivany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports Length-weight and length-length parameters for six fish species belonging to four families from the Zohreh River. The weight-length relationships were estimated using the equation W= Lb. The values of the slope parameter (b varied between 2.72 and 3.72, with a mean±SD of 3.015±0.18. The values b parameter in the length-weight relationship equations were calculated as 2.72 for Arabibarbus grypus (Heckel, 1843, 2.96 for Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843, 2.72 for Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843, 3.25 for Aphanius dispar (Rüppell, 1829, 2.91 for Sillago sihama (Forsskål, 1775 and 3.15 for Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981. This study presents the first reference on LWR and LLR for these species in Zohreh River.

  13. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  14. Switching between dynamic states in intermediate-length Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of zero-field steps (ZFS’s) in the current-voltage characteristics of intermediate-length overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junctions described by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation (PSGE) is associated with the growth of parametrically excited instabilities of the McCumber backgroun...

  15. Investigation of reattachment length for a turbulent flow over a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (2D), segregated, renormalized group (RNG) k−ε turbulence model has been chosen for CFD simulations. The analysis of the results showed that with the increase in step angle and expansion ratio, the reattachment length increases. Effect of Reynolds number is also studied by varying it over a range 15000 to 64000 and it ...

  16. Learning SQL in Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Garner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning SQL is a common problem for many Computer Science (CS students, the steps involved are quite different to those mastered when learning procedural or object-oriented programming languages. The introduction of commercial products that include shortcuts into the learning environment can initially appear to benefit the student, however, transferring these skills to a textual environment can be difficult for many students. Computer Science students are required to build textual SQL queries because the demands of complex queries can quickly out grow the capabilities of graphical query builders available in many software packages. SQL in Steps (SiS is a graphical user interface centred around the textual translation of a query; this combination of a GUI and a clear representation of its textual meaning has the potential to improve the way in which users gain an understanding of SQL. SiS allows for an incremental and evolutionary development of queries by enabling students to build queries step by step until their goal is reached. A planned evaluation of SiS hopes to quantify the extent to which the introduction of such a user interface into the learning environment can improve the students' understanding of the language.

  17. Queen Mary Two Step

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Mats H.

    2007-01-01

    n/a Dance devised by Mats Melin in October 2007 whilst teaching Ceilidh dancing on board the cruise ship Queen Mary 2 crossing the Atlantic from Southampton to New York and back with the Ian Muir Sound from Prestwick. The segment of music featured is from Ian Muir Scottish Dance Band's recording of an Eva Three step.

  18. Nursing 'takes backward step'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Veronica

    2016-12-07

    No one should have any part in the government's plans for associate nurses - or 'nurses on the cheap', as they undoubtedly are. And the plan for nursing degree apprenticeships is a retrograde step. Was the fight for degree-entry nursing a waste of time?

  19. Range of motion (ROM) restriction influences quipazine-induced stepping behavior in postnatal day one and day ten rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Misty M; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that neonatal rats can adapt their stepping behavior in response to sensory feedback in real-time. The current study examined real-time and persistent effects of ROM (range of motion) restriction on stepping in P1 and P10 rats. On the day of testing, rat pups were suspended in a sling. After a 5-min baseline, they were treated with the serotonergic receptor agonist quipazine (3.0mg/kg) or saline (vehicle control). Half of the pups had a Plexiglas plate placed beneath them at 50% of limb length to induce a period of ROM restriction during stepping. The entire test session included a 5-min baseline, 15-min ROM restriction, and 15-min post-ROM restriction periods. Following treatment with quipazine, there was an increase in both fore- and hindlimb total movement and alternated steps in P1 and P10 pups. P10 pups also showed more synchronized steps than P1 pups. During the ROM restriction period, there was a suppression of forelimb movement and synchronized steps. We did not find evidence of persistent effects of ROM restriction on the amount of stepping. However, real-time and persistent changes in intralimb coordination occurred. Developmental differences also were seen in the time course of stepping between P1 and P10 pups, with P10 subjects showing show less stepping than younger pups. These results suggest that sensory feedback modulates locomotor activity during the period of development in which the neural mechanisms of locomotion are undergoing rapid development. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Escherichia coli–expressed near full length HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Sheikh M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160, useful in detecting anti-HIV-1 antibodies, is difficult to express in heterologous hosts. The major hurdles are its signal sequence, strong hydrophobic regions and heavy glycosylation. While it has not been possible to express full length recombinant (r-gp160 in E. coli, it can be expressed in insect and mammalian cells, but at relatively higher cost. In this work, we report E. coli-based over-expression of r-gp160 variant and evaluate its performance in diagnostic immunoassays for the detection of anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Methods A deletion variant of r-gp160 lacking hydrophobic regions of the parent full length molecule was expressed in E. coli and purified to near homogeneity using single-step Ni(II-affinity chromatography. Biotinylated and europium(III chelate-labeled versions of this antigen were used to set up one- and two-step time-resolved fluorometric double antigen sandwich assays. The performance of these assays was evaluated against a collection of well-characterized human sera (n=131, that included an in-house panel and four commercially procured panels. Results In-frame deletion of three hydrophobic regions, spanning amino acid residues 1–43, 519–538 and 676–706, of full length HIV-1 gp160 resulted in its expression in E. coli. Both the one- and two-step assays manifested high sensitivity unambiguously identifying 75/77 and 77/77 HIV-1 positive sera, respectively. Both assays also identified all 52 HIV-seronegative sera correctly. Between the two assays, the mean signal-to-cutoff value of the two-step assay was an order of magnitude greater than that of the one-step assay. Both assays were highly specific manifesting no cross-reactivity towards antibodies specific to other viruses like hepatitis B, C, and human T cell leukemia viruses. Conclusions This study has demonstrated the expression of r-gp160 variant in E. coli, by deletion

  1. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...

  2. Learning SQL in Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Garner; John Mariani

    2015-01-01

    Learning SQL is a common problem for many Computer Science (CS) students, the steps involved are quite different to those mastered when learning procedural or object-oriented programming languages. The introduction of commercial products that include shortcuts into the learning environment can initially appear to benefit the student, however, transferring these skills to a textual environment can be difficult for many students. Computer Science students are required to build textual SQL queri...

  3. Multi-step continuous-flow synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Joshua; Raston, Colin L

    2017-03-06

    Organic chemistry is continually evolving to improve the syntheses of value added and bioactive compounds. Through this progression, a concomitant advancement in laboratory technology has occurred. Many researchers now choose to mediate transformations in continuous-flow systems given the many benefits over round bottom flasks. Furthermore, reaction scale up is often less problematic as this is addressed at the inception of the science. Although single-step transformations in continuous-flow systems are common, multi-step transformations are more valuable. In these systems, molecular complexity is accrued through sequential transformations to a mobile scaffold, much like an in vitro version of Nature's polyketide synthases. Utilizing this methodology, multi-step continuous-flow systems have improved the syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), natural products, and commodity chemicals. This Review details these advancements while highlighting the rapid progress, benefits, and diversification of this expanding field.

  4. When Does Length Cause the Word Length Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Bireta, Tamra J.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2011-01-01

    The word length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, has been termed one of the benchmark findings that any theory of immediate memory must account for. Indeed, the effect led directly to the development of working memory and the phonological loop, and it is viewed as the best remaining…

  5. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  6. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  7. Selective excitation of multiple Raman Stokes wavelengths (green-yellow-red) using shaped multi-step pulses from an all-fiber PM MOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dejiao; Alam, Shaif-ul; Teh, Peh Siong; Chen, Kang Kang; Richardson, David J

    2011-01-31

    We report a rapidly tunable, wavelength agile fiber laser system capable of the synchronous generation of sequences of pulses with different wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum using stimulated Raman scattering of multi-step pump pulses in a 250 m length of fiber. The frequency doubled output of a single polarization all-fiber Yb-doped MOPA operating at 1060 nm was used as the pump source. By adjusting the pump power and the pulse profiles we achieved the sequential excitation of green (1st Stokes), yellow (4th Stokes) and red light (6th Stokes) using 3-step pulses, or the combination of any two using 2-step pulses. The wavelength switching time was <5 ns and was limited only by the pulse shaping drive electronics.

  8. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Welsch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a "submarine-like" budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular "rocket-like" protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses.

  9. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A G

    2010-04-29

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a "submarine-like" budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular "rocket-like" protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses.

  10. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  11. Slip length measurement using BBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadegan, Adib; Snoeyink, Craig

    2015-11-01

    We will be presenting experimental characterizations of slip lengths of fluids in nano/micro channels. These channels are becoming increasingly important in sensor and separations applications. However, crucial questions still remain on the mechanisms that govern slip-length behavior. We used Bessel Beam microscopy (BBM), a novel super-resolution imaging system, in conjunction with TIRF system. These two, together led us to be able to do Particle Tracking Velocimetry with significantly higher accuracy than previously possible. We will be presenting results demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and advantages that make this method unique.

  12. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  13. New photolithography stepping machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Markle, D. [Ultratech Stepper Inc. (United States)

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  14. Stepping Stones through Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indo-European mythology is known only through written records but it needs to be understood in terms of the preliterate oral-cultural context in which it was rooted. It is proposed that this world was conceptually organized through a memory-capsule consisting of the current generation and the three before it, and that there was a system of alternate generations with each generation taking a step into the future under the leadership of a white or red king.

  15. Turbulence Closure for Mixing Length Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Adam S.; Lesaffre, Pierre; Tout, Christopher A.; Chitre, Shashikumar M.

    2018-01-01

    We present an approach to turbulence closure based on mixing length theory with three-dimensional fluctuations against a two-dimensional background. This model is intended to be rapidly computable for implementation in stellar evolution software and to capture a wide range of relevant phenomena with just a single free parameter, namely the mixing length. We incorporate magnetic, rotational, baroclinic and buoyancy effects exactly within the formalism of linear growth theories with nonlinear decay. We treat differential rotation effects perturbatively in the corotating frame using a novel controlled approximation which matches the time evolution of the reference frame to arbitrary order. We then implement this model in an efficient open source code and discuss the resulting turbulent stresses and transport coefficients. We demonstrate that this model exhibits convective, baroclinic and shear instabilities as well as the magnetorotational instability (MRI). It also exhibits non-linear saturation behaviour, and we use this to extract the asymptotic scaling of various transport coefficients in physically interesting limits.

  16. The probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niraula, D., E-mail: Dipesh.Niraula@rockets.utoledo.edu; Karpov, V. G., E-mail: victor.karpov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Significant reliability concerns in multiple industries are related to metal whiskers, which are random high aspect ratio filaments growing on metal surfaces and causing shorts in electronic packages. We derive a closed form expression for the probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths. Our consideration is based on the electrostatic theory of metal whiskers, according to which whisker growth is interrupted when its tip enters a random local “dead region” of a weak electric field. Here, we use the approximation neglecting the possibility of thermally activated escapes from the “dead regions,” which is later justified. We predict a one-parameter distribution with a peak at a length that depends on the metal surface charge density and surface tension. In the intermediate range, it fits well the log-normal distribution used in the experimental studies, although it decays more rapidly in the range of very long whiskers. In addition, our theory quantitatively explains how the typical whisker concentration is much lower than that of surface grains. Finally, it predicts the stop-and-go phenomenon for some of the whiskers growth.

  17. Critical Nucleation Length for Accelerating Frictional Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldam, Michael; Weikamp, Marc; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2017-11-01

    The spontaneous nucleation of accelerating slip along slowly driven frictional interfaces is central to a broad range of geophysical, physical, and engineering systems, with particularly far-reaching implications for earthquake physics. A common approach to this problem associates nucleation with an instability of an expanding creep patch upon surpassing a critical length Lc. The critical nucleation length Lc is conventionally obtained from a spring-block linear stability analysis extended to interfaces separating elastically deformable bodies using model-dependent fracture mechanics estimates. We propose an alternative approach in which the critical nucleation length is obtained from a related linear stability analysis of homogeneous sliding along interfaces separating elastically deformable bodies. For elastically identical half-spaces and rate-and-state friction, the two approaches are shown to yield Lc that features the same scaling structure, but with substantially different numerical prefactors, resulting in a significantly larger Lc in our approach. The proposed approach is also shown to be naturally applicable to finite-size systems and bimaterial interfaces, for which various analytic results are derived. To quantitatively test the proposed approach, we performed inertial Finite-Element-Method calculations for a finite-size two-dimensional elastically deformable body in rate-and-state frictional contact with a rigid body under sideway loading. We show that the theoretically predicted Lc and its finite-size dependence are in reasonably good quantitative agreement with the full numerical solutions, lending support to the proposed approach. These results offer a theoretical framework for predicting rapid slip nucleation along frictional interfaces.

  18. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  19. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Conclusion: The fetal parameters used in this study were consistently smaller than reported values from European studies up to the 34th week of ... parameters include crown‑rump length, abdominal circumference, femur ... the continuous mid‑line echo is broken by the cavum septi pellucidi, and taken from ...

  20. Noise Attenuation Estimation for Maximum Length Sequences in Deconvolution Process of Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of maximum length sequence (m-sequence has been found beneficial for recovering both linear and nonlinear components at rapid stimulation. Since m-sequence is fully characterized by a primitive polynomial of different orders, the selection of polynomial order can be problematic in practice. Usually, the m-sequence is repetitively delivered in a looped fashion. Ensemble averaging is carried out as the first step and followed by the cross-correlation analysis to deconvolve linear/nonlinear responses. According to the classical noise reduction property based on additive noise model, theoretical equations have been derived in measuring noise attenuation ratios (NARs after the averaging and correlation processes in the present study. A computer simulation experiment was conducted to test the derived equations, and a nonlinear deconvolution experiment was also conducted using order 7 and 9 m-sequences to address this issue with real data. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the NAR is essentially independent of the m-sequence order and is decided by the total length of valid data, as well as stimulation rate. The present study offers a guideline for m-sequence selections, which can be used to estimate required recording time and signal-to-noise ratio in designing m-sequence experiments.

  1. Active stabilization of a fiber-optic two-photon interferometer using continuous optical length control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Seok-Beom; Kim, Heonoh

    2016-01-01

    ... 6-km-long fiber-optic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. The two-step active control techniques are applied for measuring highly stable two-photon interference fringes by scanning the optical path-length difference...

  2. Foot clearance strategy for step-over-step stair climbing in transfemoral amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamasaki, Nobuya; Ogata, Toru

    2014-08-01

    Stair ascent is a particularly challenging task for transfemoral amputees. The aim of this clinical note was to describe the kinematic features of foot clearance in transfemoral amputee who can ascend stairs using a step-over-step strategy. The marker trajectories of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (Mt1) and clearance height were measured in two transfemoral amputees who could (TF1) and could not (TF2) climb stairs using a step-over-step strategy. The Mt1 marker trajectories of the TF1 moved backward in the early swing phase, and the trajectory followed an off-centered parabolic arc to achieve a similar clearance height as able-bodied subjects. TF2 could not climb the stairs without tripping in each step. An effective compensatory strategy to avoid tripping during stair climbing may be to use the hip joint for a backward extension and rapid flexion of the prosthetic leg during the early swing phase. The foot clearance strategy in transfemoral amputees who can climb stairs using a step-over-step strategy will help us better understand adaptive prosthetic control and thus develop more effective gait rehabilitation programs. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  3. A novel measuring device for step gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Shen, Xueping; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Ye, Xiaoyou

    2014-08-01

    Combining laser interferometric comparator with high precision inductance sensor, a novel measuring device for step gauge was developed. A high precision laser interferometer system was used for a length standard; a zero-crossing trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was used for the aiming signal. In order to improve the measuring accuracy, several high precision sensors were installed to measure environmental parameters for compensating the laser wavelength according to the Edlén empirical equation. A rotating mechanism was designed. Two key problems, probe obstacle avoidance and aiming repeatability, were solved. Experimental analysis of the contact force and speed of influence on measuring probe repeatability, and a segmented control method of the movement speed was established. The experiment indicates that the system has a high accuracy of measurement, which can be used for contact measurement of other one dimension length standard.

  4. A new adaptive time step method for unsteady flow simulations in a human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenández-Tena, Ana; Marcos, Alfonso C; Martínez, Cristina; Keith Walters, D

    2017-06-01

    The innovation presented is a method for adaptive time-stepping that allows clustering of time steps in portions of the cycle for which flow variables are rapidly changing, based on the concept of using a uniform step in a relevant dependent variable rather than a uniform step in the independent variable time. A user-defined function was developed to adapt the magnitude of the time step (adaptive time step) to a defined rate of change in inlet velocity. Quantitative comparison indicates that the new adaptive time stepping method significantly improves accuracy for simulations using an equivalent number of time steps per cycle.

  5. Stair-stepped Mound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-429, 22 July 2003This April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a stair-stepped mound of sedimentary rock (right of center) on the floor of a large impact crater in western Arabia Terra near 11.0oN, 4.4oW. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common in the craters of this region. The repeated thickness and uniformity of the layers that make up this mound suggest that their depositional environment was one in which cyclic or episodic events occurred over some period of time. The sediments might have been deposited in a lake, or they may have settled directly out of the atmosphere. Most of the layered material was later eroded away, leaving this circular mound and the other nearby mesas and knobs. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  6. Astronomical sketching a step-by-step introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; Perez, Jeremy; Rix, Erika; Robbins, Sol

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the amateur with fine examples of astronomical sketches and step-by-step tutorials in each medium, from pencil to computer graphics programs. This unique book can teach almost anyone to create beautiful sketches of celestial objects.

  7. Galactan synthesis in a single step via oligomerization of monosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dräger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Galactans ranging in length from one to five residues were prepared in a single step by treatment of the glycosyl donor 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride with lanthanum perchlorate in the presence of an initiator alcohol. The product oligosaccharides were readily chromatographically separable. This oligomerization was used to synthesize a pentagalactan in a single step from monosaccharide building blocks in reasonable overall yields.

  8. Generating regionalized neuronal cells from pluripotency, a step-by-step protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Agnete; Nelander, Jenny; Parmar, Malin

    2012-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells possess the potential to generate cells for regenerative therapies in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, and constitute an excellent cell source for studying human neural development and disease modeling. Protocols for neural differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells have undergone significant progress during recent years, allowing for rapid and synchronized neural conversion. Differentiation procedures can further be combined with accurate and efficient positional patterning to yield regionalized neural progenitors and subtype-specific neurons corresponding to different parts of the developing human brain. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol for neuralization and regionalization of human pluripotent cells for transplantation studies or in vitro analysis.

  9. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...

  10. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  11. Green Schools Energy Project: A Step-by-Step Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Gwen

    This publication contains a step-by-step guide for implementing an energy-saving project in local school districts: the installation of newer, more energy-efficient "T-8" fluorescent tube lights in place of "T-12" lights. Eleven steps are explained in detail: (1) find out what kind of lights the school district currently uses;…

  12. Rapid mapping of volumetric errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulewich, D.; Hale, L.; Yordy, D.

    1995-09-13

    This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to mapping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) modeling the relationship between the volumetric error and the current state of the machine; (2) acquiring error data based on length measurements throughout the work volume; and (3) optimizing the model to the particular machine.

  13. Mechanical model of the recovery reaction from stumbling: effect of step length on trunk control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forner-Cordero, A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2014-01-01

    Falling after a gait perturbation is a major problem for elderly people. The goal of this paper is to model some mechanical limitations of the recovery strategies performed after a trip or stumble, such as elevating or lowering strategies. A biomechanical model of the recovery was used to interpret

  14. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  15. Rapid extraction and preservation of genomic DNA from human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, D; Kim, J-H; Yeo, W-H; Oh, K; Lee, K-H; Kim, M-H; Ryew, S-M; Ahn, S-G; Gao, D; Cangelosi, G A; Chung, J-H

    2013-02-01

    Simple and rapid extraction of human genomic DNA remains a bottleneck for genome analysis and disease diagnosis. Current methods using microfilters require cumbersome, multiple handling steps in part because salt conditions must be controlled for attraction and elution of DNA in porous silica. We report a novel extraction method of human genomic DNA from buccal swab and saliva samples. DNA is attracted onto a gold-coated microchip by an electric field and capillary action while the captured DNA is eluted by thermal heating at 70 °C. A prototype device was designed to handle four microchips, and a compatible protocol was developed. The extracted DNA using microchips was characterized by qPCR for different sample volumes, using different lengths of PCR amplicon, and nuclear and mitochondrial genes. In comparison with a commercial kit, an equivalent yield of DNA extraction was achieved with fewer steps. Room-temperature preservation for 1 month was demonstrated for captured DNA, facilitating straightforward collection, delivery, and handling of genomic DNA in an environment-friendly protocol.

  16. Fluxon propagation and Fiske steps in long Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erné, S. N.; Ferrigno, A.; Parmentier, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    ) model. Resonant propagating configurations corresponding to the first and third Fiske steps are found. The fundamental frequencies and power levels of the radiation emitted from one end when the junction is biased on the first and third Fiske steps and on the first zero-field step are comparable......The dynamical behavior of fluxons propagating in the presence of an applied magnetic field on an overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junction of length 5λJ having a McCumber βc=5π is studied by numerical integration of the circuit equations of a 50-section lumped RSJ-type (resistive shunted junction...

  17. Variable Frame Rate and Length Analysis for Data Compression in Distributed Speech Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraljevski, Ivan; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    at the signal level, and then increases the length of the selected frame according to the number of non-selected preceding frames to find the right time-frequency resolution at the frame level. It produces high frame rate and small frame length in rapidly changing regions and low frame rate and large frame...

  18. Joint variable frame rate and length analysis for speech recognition under adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kraljevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    -to-noise (SNR) ratio weighted energy distance and increases the length of the selected frames, according to the number of non-selected preceding frames. It assigns a higher frame rate and a normal frame length to a rapidly changing and high SNR region of a speech signal, and a lower frame rate and an increased...

  19. Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Word Length on Memory for Lists Shown at RSVP and STM Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, Veronika; Mondy, Stephen; Dux, Paul E.; Stephenson, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This article reports 3 experiments in which effects of orthographic and phonological word length on memory were examined for short lists shown at rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) and short-term memory (STM) rates. Only visual-orthographic length reduced RSVP serial recall, whereas both orthographic and phonological length lowered recall for…

  20. Step-step interactions on GaAs (110) nanopatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Tejedor, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-14

    The step-step interactions on vicinal GaAs (110) surface patterns have been extracted from the quantitative analysis of the terrace width distribution (TWD). We have specifically studied the interactions in near-equilibrium faceting and kinetics-driven step bunching and meandering formed by spontaneous self-organization or through the modification of GaAs growth kinetics by atomic hydrogen. We show that the experimental TWDs determined from atomic force microscopy measurements can be accurately described by a weighed sum of a generalized Wigner distribution and several Gaussians. The results of our calculations indicate that straight facets are formed during high temperature homoepitaxy due to attractive interactions between [110] steps. At low temperatures, steady state attractive interactions in [110] step bunches are preceded by a transition regime dominated by entropic and energetic repulsions between meandering [11n]-type steps (n {>=} 2), whose population density exceeds that of the [110] bunched steps. In addition, it has been found that atomic H reduces the attractive interactions between [110] bunched steps and enhances entropic and dipole-induced energetic repulsions between H-terminated [11n] steps through the inhibition of As-As bond formation at step edges. Our analysis has evidenced a correlation between the value of the adjustable parameter that accounts in our model for the specific weight of the secondary peaks in the TWD ({beta}) and the extent of transverse meandering on the vicinal surface.

  1. Empirical Modeling of Oxygen Uptake of Flow Over Stepped Chutes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation evaluates the influence of three different step chute geometry when skimming flow was allowed over them with the aim of determining the aerated flow length which is a significant factor when developing empirical equations for estimating aeration efficiency of flow. Overall, forty experiments were ...

  2. QKD system with fast active optical path length compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Kwon; Lee, Min Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2017-06-01

    We develop a quantum key distribution (QKD) system with fast active optical path length compensation. A rapid and reliable active optical path length compensation scheme is proposed and applied to a plug-and-play QKD system. The system monitors changes in key rates and controls it is own operation automatically. The system achieves its optimal performance within three seconds of operation, which includes a sifted key rate of 5.5 kbps and a quantum bit error rate of less than 2% after an abrupt temperature variation along the 25 km quantum channel. The system also operates well over a 24 h period while completing more than 60 active optical path length compensations.

  3. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Akutsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL, which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111 surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the 〈101〉 direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  4. Relation of Stump Length with Various Gait Parameters in Trans-tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Majumdar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is evaluating the impact of stump length of unilateral below knee amputees (BKA on different gait parameters. Nine unilateral BKA were chosen and divided into three groups comprising patients with short, medium, and long stump length. Each of them underwent gait analysis test by Computer Dynography (CDG system to measure the gait parameters. It was found that the ground reaction force is higher in the patients with medium stump length whereas the velocity, step length both for the prosthetic and sound limb and cadence were high in longer stump length. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05 between the gait parameters of BKA with medium and longer stump length. The patients with longer stump length were more efficient than medium and short stump patients as they consumed comparatively lesser energy while walking with self-selected velocity and conventional (Solid ankle cushioned heel SACH foot.

  5. Geometry of area without length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Inami, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    To define a free string by the Nambu-Goto action, all we need is the notion of area, and mathematically the area can be defined directly in the absence of a metric. Motivated by the possibility that string theory admits backgrounds where the notion of length is not well defined but a definition of area is given, we study space-time geometries based on the generalization of a metric to an area metric. In analogy with Riemannian geometry, we define the analogues of connections, curvatures, and Einstein tensor. We propose a formulation generalizing Einstein's theory that will be useful if at a certain stage or a certain scale the metric is ill defined and the space-time is better characterized by the notion of area. Static spherical solutions are found for the generalized Einstein equation in vacuum, including the Schwarzschild solution as a special case.

  6. A Radiographic method for determining the actual tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    Tooth length determination is a crucial step in endodontic treatment. Traditionally, radiographs are used to confirm working length of the root length. This study was performed to evaluate the radiographic distortion (magnification) and calculate correction coefficients for the object-film distance. Ninety-six radiographs were made of eight extracted teeth (two upper first premolars, two lower first premolars, two upper first molars, and two lower first molars) by using the 16 inch long cone paralleling techniques with 1 mm interval from 5 to 16 mm tooth-film distance. The following results obtained; 1. The least mean radiographic distortion from 5 to 16 mm tooth-film distance was 2.42 {+-}0.68% (the length of mesiobuccal cusp-mesial root of lower first molars), the greatest distortion was 4.74 {+-}1.36% (the length of mesiobuccal cusp-mesiobuccal root of upper first molars). 2. The greatest correction coefficient was 0.986 (the mesiobuccal cusp-mesial root of lower molars, the lowest one was 0.937 (the mesiobuccal cusp-mesiobuccal root of upper first molars).

  7. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  8. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  9. Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States, but your child's risk ... the site of the bite with soap and water. Step 5: Swab the bite site with ... of disease transmission). Next Steps Call your doctor after the ...

  10. Preface, Soil Science: A step-by-step analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book provides step-by-step procedures for soil professionals, without a lot of background theory. Chapters are targeted toward agricultural and environmental consultants, producers, students, teachers, government, and industry. Applied soil scientists gave input through a survey, which guided t...

  11. Step Bunching and Solution Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Imagine a sequence of equidistant steps parallel to one another on a crystal face growing from solution. Steps may be one or part of a lattice spacing high. With such ideal morphology, the most perfect material is expected to be produced. Sometimes this happens. Much more often, however, steps form bunches, acquire wavy shapes and interlace. With time, these spontaneous perturbations may be increased in amplitude, i.e. the stepped surface becomes morphologically unstable. Interferometric studies of Y.G. Kuznetsov, L.N. Rashkovich, P.G. Vekilov and N.A. Booth and the author demonstrated that the step bunching depends at least on direction and rate of solution flow over the interface, supersaturation and presence of impurities. In particular, if solution and step flow are parallel to one another, the steps convene into bunches. If these flows are antiparallel, the bunches disappear. As the step train propagates, the overall bunch height often increases infinitely. However, we have found recently that if the flow rate is large enough, (approximately 1 meter per second), the bunch height may be limited. All these phenomena come from interaction between steps. The interaction mechanisms are still not fully understood. I plan to overview major approaches to the still unresolved problem on how these dissipative structures on growing crystal face appear and evolve.

  12. Electromyogram amplitude estimation with adaptive smoothing window length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, E A

    1999-06-01

    Typical electromyogram (EMG) amplitude estimators use a fixed window length for smoothing the amplitude estimate. When the EMG amplitude is dynamic, previous research suggests that varying the smoothing length as a function of time may improve amplitude estimation. This paper develops optimal time-varying selection of the smoothing window length using a stochastic model of the EMG signal. Optimal selection is a function of the EMG amplitude and its derivatives. Simulation studies, in which EMG amplitude was changed randomly, found that the "best" adaptive filter performed as well as the "best" fixed-length filter. Experimental studies found the advantages of the adaptive processor to be situation dependent. Subjects used real-time EMG amplitude estimates to track a randomly-moving target. Perhaps due to task difficulty, no differences in adaptive versus fixed-length processors were observed when the target speed was fast. When the target speed was slow, the experimental results were consistent with the simulation predictions. When the target moved between two constant levels, the adaptive processor responded rapidly to the target level transitions and had low variance while the target dwelled on a level.

  13. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  14. ONE-STEP AND TWO-STEP CALIBRATION OF A PORTABLE PANORAMIC IMAGE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS is proposed for rapid acquisition of three-dimensional spatial information. By considering the convenience of use, cost, weight of equipment, precision, and power supply, the designed PPIMS is equipped with 6 circularly arranged cameras to capture panoramic images and a GPS receiver for positioning. The motivation for this design is to develop a hand-held Mobile Mapping System (MMS for some difficult accessing areas by vehicle MMS, such as rugged terrains, forest areas, heavily damaged disaster areas, and crowed places etc. This PPIMS is in fact a GPS assisted close-range photogrammetric system. Compared with the traditional close-range photogrammetry, PPIMS can reduce the need of ground control points significantly. Under the condition of knowing the relative geometric relationships of the equipped sensors, the elements of exterior orientation of each captured image can be solved. However, the procedure of a system calibration should be done accurately to determine the relative geometric relationships of multi-cameras and the GPS antenna center, before the PPIMS can be applied for geo-referenced mapping. In this paper, both of one-step and two-step calibration procedures for PPIMS are performed to determine the lever-arm offsets and boresight angles among cameras and GPS. The performance of the one-step and two-step calibration is evaluated through the analysis of the experimental results. The comparison between these two calibration procedures was also conducted. The two-step calibration method outperforms the one-step calibration method in terms of calibration accuracy and operation convenience. We expect that the proposed two-step calibration procedure can also be applied to other platform-based MMSs.

  15. One-Step Synthesis of PEGylated Gold Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rares Stiufiuc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports a rapid, simple and efficient one-step synthesis and detailed characterisation of stable aqueous colloids of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs coated with unmodified poly(ethyleneglycol (PEG molecules of different molecular weights and surface charges. By mixing and heating aqueous solutions of PEG with variable molecular chain and gold(III chloride hydrate (HAuCl4 in the presence of NaOH, we have successfully produced uniform colloidal 5 nm PEG coated AuNPs of spherical shape with tunable surface charge and an average diameter of 30 nm within a few minutes. It has been found out that PEGylated AuNPs provide optical enhancement of the characteristic vibrational bands of PEG molecules attached to the gold surface when they are excited with both visible (532 nm and NIR (785 nm laser lines. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS signal does not depend on the length of the PEG molecular chain enveloping the AuNPs, and the stability of the colloid is not affected by the addition of concentrated salt solution (0.1 M NaCl, thus suggesting their potential use for in vitro and in vivo applications. Moreover, by gradually changing the chain length of the biopolymer, we were able to control nanoparticles’ surface charge from −28 to −2 mV, without any modification of the Raman enhancement properties and of the colloidal stability.

  16. Telomere Length in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Carlos A; Verde, Zoraida; Diaz-Ureña, Germán; Santiago, Catalina; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Díaz, Enrique; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation. The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114). The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.

  17. Sensible Steps Towards Library Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ellen Wasby

    1972-01-01

    The article argues two main points: (1) make decisions about library automation in the context of competent organization, management, and planning; and (2) lay a sound foundation for automation by completing a step-by-step sequence of tasks. (Author/NH)

  18. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  19. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...

  20. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bin...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  1. Computation of turbulent flows over backward-facing step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moin, P.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical method for computing incompressible turbulent flows is presented. The method is tested by calculating laminar recirculating flows and is applied in conjunction with a modified Kappa-epsilon model to compute the flow over a backward-facing step. In the laminar regime, the computational results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The turbulent flow study shows that the reattachment length is underpredicted by the standard Kappa-epsilon model. The addition of a term to the standard model that accounts for the effects of rotation on turbulent flow improves the results in the recirculation region and increases the computed reattachment length.

  2. Control of ruthenium oxide nanorod length in reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Michael W [School of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Varhue, Walter J [School of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Hitt, Darren L [School of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Adams, Edward [IBM Microelectronics, Essex Junction, VT 05452 (United States)

    2008-01-30

    Ruthenium oxide nanorods have been grown on Si wafer substrates under a variety of pre-existing surface conditions by reactive radio frequency sputtering in an electron cyclotron resonant plasma process. Nanorod formation by this method is fast relative to that observed in other processes reported in the literature, with nucleation being the rate determining step. Growth in the axial direction is limited by the availability of ruthenium precursors which competes with their consumption in the lateral growth of the nanorods. The availability of Ru precursors at the top of the nanorods can be controlled by surface diffusion and therefore substrate temperature. The ultimate length of the nanorods is determined by the mole fraction of oxygen used in the reactor ambient through the production of mobile Ru hyperoxide precursors. The results of this investigation show the way to develop a process for producing a high density field of nanorods with a specified length.

  3. A Model for Geometry-Dependent Errors in Length Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Daniel; Parry, Brian; Phillips, Steven; Blackburn, Chris; Muralikrishnan, Bala

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed model of dimensional changes in long length artifacts, such as step gauges and ball bars, due to bending under gravity. The comprehensive model is based on evaluation of the gauge points relative to the neutral bending surface. It yields the errors observed when the gauge points are located off the neutral bending surface of a bar or rod but also reveals the significant error associated with out-of-straightness of a bar or rod even if the gauge points are located in the neutral bending surface. For example, one experimental result shows a length change of greater than 1.5 µm on a 1 m ball bar with an out-of-straightness of 0.4 mm. This and other results are in agreement with the model presented in this paper.

  4. Step scaling and behaviour selection in a constrained set of manual material handling transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David W; Reed, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Predictive biomechanical analysis of manual material handling (MMH) transfers is dependent on accurate prediction of foot locations relative to the task. Previous studies have classified common acyclic stepping patterns used during those transfer tasks, but the influence of walking distance prior to the transfer is not well understood. Twenty men and women performed transfers for a minimum of six different delivery distance conditions. The number of steps used by the participants ranged from two to seven. A theoretical framework for idealised step-scaling strategies is proposed and compared with the experimental data. The maximum observed increase in step length prior to delivery was 1.43 times the nominal step length calculated for each participant. The data suggest that although participants can scale their steps to facilitate the use of a single terminal stance at the transfer, the majority of participants chose to utilise a combination of stepping strategies if the preferred contralateral lead foot strategy could not be easily implemented. Accurate foot placements are needed for predictive biomechanical analysis of MMH. A laboratory study investigated the influence of previous step positions on MMH. A flexible step-scaling strategy, in which step lengths and strategy were varied, suggests that analysis based on simulated movements should consider multiple lifting postures.

  5. Assessment of dose uniformity around high dose rate 192Ir and 60Co stepping sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Bagher; Ghorbani, Mahdi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate dose uniformity for 192Ir and 60Co stepping sources. High dose rate 192Ir and 60Co stepping sources were simulated by the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To investigate dose uniformity, treatment lengths of 30, 50, 100, and 150 mm with stepping distances of 3, 5, 7, and 10 mm were considered. Finally, dose uniformity for the 192Ir and 60Co stepping sources with increasing distances from the source were assessed at these treatment lengths and steps. The findings showed that the dose distribution was non-uniform for regions in close vicinity of the source, especially in the high source steps, but for most points at distances >10 mm from the center of the source, the dose distribution was uniform. For most points, the dose uniformity increased with reduction of the source steps and increments of the transverse distance from the source. The dose non-uniformity was similar for most of the corresponding points of 60Co and 192Ir sources with the same treatment lengths and source steps, except at the distance of 150 mm. When using stepping technique for the treatment of tumors, more attention should be focused on treatment planning, especially with higher stepping distances and lower transverse distances from the source.

  6. Step 1: Learn about Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 1: Learn About Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of ... fewer problems with your eyesight, feet, and gums. Learn how caring for your diabetes helps you feel ...

  7. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... 6. Don't Drink Too Much Why? The consequences of alcohol misuse are serious — in many cases, ...

  8. Effect of Fiber Length on Carbon Nanotube-Induced Fibrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Manke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Given their extremely small size and light weight, carbon nanotubes (CNTs can be readily inhaled by human lungs resulting in increased rates of pulmonary disorders, particularly fibrosis. Although the fibrogenic potential of CNTs is well established, there is a lack of consensus regarding the contribution of physicochemical attributes of CNTs on the underlying fibrotic outcome. We designed an experimentally validated in vitro fibroblast culture model aimed at investigating the effect of fiber length on single-walled CNT (SWCNT-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The fibrogenic response to short and long SWCNTs was assessed via oxidative stress generation, collagen expression and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β production as potential fibrosis biomarkers. Long SWCNTs were significantly more potent than short SWCNTs in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS response, collagen production and TGF-β release. Furthermore, our finding on the length-dependent in vitro fibrogenic response was validated by the in vivo lung fibrosis outcome, thus supporting the predictive value of the in vitro model. Our results also demonstrated the key role of ROS in SWCNT-induced collagen expression and TGF-β activation, indicating the potential mechanisms of length-dependent SWCNT-induced fibrosis. Together, our study provides new evidence for the role of fiber length in SWCNT-induced lung fibrosis and offers a rapid cell-based assay for fibrogenicity testing of nanomaterials with the ability to predict pulmonary fibrogenic response in vivo.

  9. Stepped psychological care after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Ian I

    2016-09-01

    Emotional difficulties are common after stroke and have an impact on rehabilitation outcome. It is a challenge to manage these problems effectively, particularly in times of resource stringency. One proposal for how to do this has arisen out of an approach to general mental health management: a system of 'stepped care'. Such a system directs intervention by considering level of need, thereby making the most efficient use of available resources. It is the purpose of this article to articulate a stepped psychological care approach for emotional problems after stroke. Narrative review and elaboration of the model proposed by the Department of Health in England for the management of emotional problems after stroke. A stepped care model for the management of emotional problems after stroke is presented in detail, including descriptions of specific interventions and guidance to inform the level of management. The stepped psychological care proposal for emotional problems after stroke requires evaluation but is potentially of use within comparable healthcare systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Emotional problems are common after stroke and effect rehabilitation outcomes. A stepped care approach to these problems offers the ability to cater to all according to need. Greater specification of the services at each step can be outlined. While recommended, such an approach requires evaluation to prove its efficacy.

  10. Energetic cost of walking with increased step variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shawn M; Xu, Henry Z; Kuo, Arthur D

    2012-05-01

    Step-by-step variations occur during normal human walking, induced in part by imperfect sensorimotor control and naturally occurring random perturbations. These effects might increase energy expenditure during walking, because they differ from the nominal preferred gait, which is typically the most economical, and because of the cost of making active feedback adjustments to maintain gait stability. We tested this hypothesis by artificially inducing greater step variability through visual perturbations from a virtual reality display, and measuring the effect on energy expenditure. Young healthy adult subjects (N=11) walked on a treadmill while viewing a virtual hallway, to which virtual perturbations were applied in fore-aft or medio-lateral directions. The greatest effect on gait was achieved with medio-lateral visual perturbations, which resulted in a 65% increase in step width variability and a 5.9% increase (both Pstep width and (to a lesser degree) step length, and also induced slightly wider and (to a lesser degree) shorter mean steps. Each of these measures was found to correlate significantly with each other, regardless of perturbation direction and magnitude. They also correlated with metabolic rate (Pmeasure), despite explaining only a modest proportion of overall energetic variations (R(2)Step variability increases with some gait disorders and with increasing age. Our results suggest that imperfect sensorimotor control may contribute to the increased metabolic cost of walking observed with such conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perception of a Stepping-across Affordance when Approaching an Obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Cornus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Affordances are behavior opportunities that delineate a phase transition beyond which a change in behavior requiring muscular reorganization. In the stepping across task, this muscular reorganization enables subjects to put the tip of the shoe as close as possible to the obstacle. But subjects modify step lengths when approaching an obstacle to secure these adequate foot placements. What is the relationship between the perception of the phase transition and the modification of step lengths? This experiment consisted of two different tasks. The first involved subjects physically stepping across an obstacle, the second involved subjects judging the step-acrossability of an obstacle when moving towards the given obstacle. The results showed that subjects seemed to perceive the step-acrossability of the obstacle before the initiation of regulation.

  12. Active stabilization of a fiber-optic two-photon interferometer using continuous optical length control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok-Beom; Kim, Heonoh

    2016-05-16

    The practical realization of long-distance entanglement-based quantum communication systems strongly rely on the observation of highly stable quantum interference between correlated single photons. This task must accompany active stabilization of the optical path lengths within the single-photon coherence length. Here, we provide two-step interferometer stabilization methods employing continuous optical length control and experimentally demonstrate two-photon quantum interference using an actively stabilized 6-km-long fiber-optic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. The two-step active control techniques are applied for measuring highly stable two-photon interference fringes by scanning the optical path-length difference. The obtained two-photon interference visibilities with and without accidental subtraction are found to be approximately 90.7% and 65.4%, respectively.

  13. Inheritance of telomere length in a bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Horn

    Full Text Available Telomere dynamics are intensively studied in human ageing research and epidemiology, with many correlations reported between telomere length and age-related diseases, cancer and death. While telomere length is influenced by environmental factors there is also good evidence for a strong heritable component. In human, the mode of telomere length inheritance appears to be paternal and telomere length differs between sexes, with females having longer telomeres than males. Genetic factors, e.g. sex chromosomal inactivation, and non-genetic factors, e.g. antioxidant properties of oestrogen, have been suggested as possible explanations for these sex-specific telomere inheritance and telomere length differences. To test the influence of sex chromosomes on telomere length, we investigated inheritance and sex-specificity of telomere length in a bird species, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, in which females are the heterogametic sex (ZW and males are the homogametic (ZZ sex. We found that, contrary to findings in humans, telomere length was maternally inherited and also longer in males. These results argue against an effect of sex hormones on telomere length and suggest that factors associated with heterogamy may play a role in telomere inheritance and sex-specific differences in telomere length.

  14. Length-weight and length-length relationships in populations of Garra rufa from different rivers and basins of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Keivany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the length-weight and length-length relationships for 28 populations of Garra ruffa in different basins of Iran, including Tigris, Karkheh, Karun, Persis and Hormuz. The length-weight relationships from most localities are reported here for the first time. For most populations the b value was not significantly different from 3, indicating an isometric growth, in a few, it was significantly bigger than 3, indicating a positive allometric growth, and in some, it was significantly smaller than 3, indicating a negative allometric growth. In the whole samples, it was not significantly different from 3, indicating an isometric growth.

  15. Analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tingrong

    2008-01-01

    In Kleinrock and Kamoun's paper, the inverse relation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model is illustrated. In this paper we give the analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model.

  16. Simple Steps to Preventing Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soar too high. When you eat, most digestible carbohydrates are converted into glucose and rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. Any rise in blood sugar signals the pancreas to make and release insulin. This hormone instructs cells to sponge up glucose. ...

  17. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  18. Transoral Robotic Surgery: Step-by-Step Radical Tonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Granell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS radical tonsillectomy is an emerging minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of cancer of the tonsil. The detailed surgical technique and claims for its reproducibility have been previously published. Case Presentation. We present a patient with a T2N2bM0 epidermoid carcinoma of the tonsil to illustrate step by step the surgical procedure for TORS radical tonsillectomy. Neck dissection and TORS were staged. No surgical reconstruction of the defect was required. No tracheostomy was necessary. The patient could eat without any feeding tube and was on full oral diet on the fifth postoperative day. Discussion. The transoral approach offers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery to patients with cancer of the tonsil. The excellent exposure and high precision provided by robotic instrumentation allow the surgeon to closely follow and accomplish the surgical steps, which is the best warranty for safety and effectiveness.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SOLE DESIGN AND COMPOSITION UPON THE LENGTH OF THE FOOTPRINT LEFT DURING WALKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    assume that longer step might be the result of a momentary elongation of the outsole during walking, it was decided to measure the length of footprints...made by various types of outsoles in standing and walking. Significant differences were obtained with ripple and Tru-glide outsoles . The footprints...were longer than the outsoles . The mechanism responsible for this increase in length probably depends on a forward glide of the shoe as the weight of

  20. Visual attention distracter insertion for improved EEG rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) target stimuli detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Huber, David J.; Martin, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    This paper† describes a technique in which we improve upon the prior performance of the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) EEG paradigm for image classification though the insertion of visual attention distracters and overall sequence reordering based upon the expected ratio of rare to common "events" in the environment and operational context. Inserting distracter images maintains the ratio of common events to rare events at an ideal level, maximizing the rare event detection via P300 EEG response to the RSVP stimuli. The method has two steps: first, we compute the optimal number of distracters needed for an RSVP stimuli based on the desired sequence length and expected number of targets and insert the distracters into the RSVP sequence, and then we reorder the RSVP sequence to maximize P300 detection. We show that by reducing the ratio of target events to nontarget events using this method, we can allow RSVP sequences with more targets without sacrificing area under the ROC curve (azimuth).

  1. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  2. Microsoft Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Londer, Olga; Bleeker, Todd; Coventry, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Windows SharePoint Services to enable effective team collaboration. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build your own SharePoint site with easy-to-use templatesCreate lists and libraries to store informationAdd discussion boards, wikis, and blogsSet up Document and Meeting Workspaces for easy collaborationShare calendars, contacts, and data from Microsoft Office programsCustomize your pages with Web Parts Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Fi

  3. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  4. Information marketing business entrepreneur's step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2012-01-01

    A six-figure income from information? Yes! It sounds easy because it is. You've got information that millions of others are looking for and now you can learn how to package, price and sell it.The experts at Entrepreneur take you step by step, jumpstarting your thinking about your area of expertise and showing you how to convert it into a high-demand information product. Following the example set by today's most successful information marketers, you learn the ins and outs of running your own information marketing business using proven strategies and effective marketing techniques.

  5. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Steve; Lambert, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to build database solutions with Access 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build databases from scratch or from templatesExchange data with other databases and Office documentsCreate forms to simplify data entryUse filters and queries to find and analyze informationDesign rich reports that help make your data meaningfulHelp prevent data corruption and unauthorized access Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Files for building skills and practic

  6. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  7. Controlling Arc Length in Plasma Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit maintains arc length on irregularly shaped workpieces. Length of plasma arc continuously adjusted by control circuit to maintain commanded value. After pilot arc is established, contactor closed and transfers arc to workpiece. Control circuit then half-wave rectifies ac arc voltage to produce dc control signal proportional to arc length. Circuit added to plasma arc welding machines with few wiring changes. Welds made with circuit cleaner and require less rework than welds made without it. Beads smooth and free of inclusions.

  8. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  9. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  10. Four steps to two sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, V; Law, R

    1993-07-22

    Four steps through which parasitic intracellular symbionts could bring about the evolution of two sexes are considered. In the first step, a primitive host population has biparental cytoplasmic inheritance and lacks gametic differentiation: parasitic cytoplasmic elements readily invade and spread by vertical transmission through such host populations, even if they have major deleterious effects on their hosts. The second step leads to the establishment of a nuclear mutant in the host (locus A) that prevents inheritance of the cytoplasm in gametes in which it occurs. This mutant comes to equilibrium at an intermediate frequency, because a double dose of symbionts is more deleterious than a single dose, and zygotes lacking cytoplasm from both gametes are inviable. The third step involves the spread of a mutant at another nuclear locus (B), causing self-incompatibility of gametes in which it occurs. If this is closely linked to locus A, the mutant may become established by preventing the deleterious gamete unions. The mutant at locus B must, however, start both with an appreciable frequency and be in gametic disequilibrium with locus A. In the fourth step a second mutation causing self-incompatibility occurs at locus B. This allele spreads by becoming associated with the other allele at locus A, eventually leaving the population with two gamete types, or sexes, one predominantly transmitting the cytoplasm, and the other eliminating it. It is argued that this is a feasible mechanism for the origin of two sexes.

  11. Channel Impulse Response Length and Noise Variance Estimation for OFDM Systems with Adaptive Guard Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelle Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm estimating channel impulse response (CIR length and noise variance for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM systems with adaptive guard interval (GI length is proposed. To estimate the CIR length and the noise variance, the different statistical characteristics of the additive noise and the mobile radio channels are exploited. This difference is due to the fact that the variance of the channel coefficients depends on the position within the CIR, whereas the noise variance of each estimated channel tap is equal. Moreover, the channel can vary rapidly, but its length changes more slowly than its coefficients. An auxiliary function is established to distinguish these characteristics. The CIR length and the noise variance are estimated by varying the parameters of this function. The proposed method provides reliable information of the estimated CIR length and the noise variance even at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 0 dB. This information can be applied to an OFDM system with adaptive GI length, where the length of the GI is adapted to the current length of the CIR. The length of the GI can therefore be optimized. Consequently, the spectral efficiency of the system is increased.

  12. Channel Impulse Response Length and Noise Variance Estimation for OFDM Systems with Adaptive Guard Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Duc Nguyen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm estimating channel impulse response (CIR length and noise variance for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM systems with adaptive guard interval (GI length is proposed. To estimate the CIR length and the noise variance, the different statistical characteristics of the additive noise and the mobile radio channels are exploited. This difference is due to the fact that the variance of the channel coefficients depends on the position within the CIR, whereas the noise variance of each estimated channel tap is equal. Moreover, the channel can vary rapidly, but its length changes more slowly than its coefficients. An auxiliary function is established to distinguish these characteristics. The CIR length and the noise variance are estimated by varying the parameters of this function. The proposed method provides reliable information of the estimated CIR length and the noise variance even at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 0 dB. This information can be applied to an OFDM system with adaptive GI length, where the length of the GI is adapted to the current length of the CIR. The length of the GI can therefore be optimized. Consequently, the spectral efficiency of the system is increased.

  13. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; McRae, Brian; Jusufi, Ardian; Birkmeyer, Paul; Hoover, Aaron M.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot. PMID:22701594

  15. Rapid inversion: running animals and robots swing like a pendulum under ledges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mongeau

    Full Text Available Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12-15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.

  16. Step by step male to female transsexual surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Uliano Moser; Abreu, Fernando Jahn da Silva; da Silva, Gabriel M V; Dos Santos, João Vitor Quadra Vieira; Batezini, Nelson Sivonei da Silva; Silva, Brasil; Rosito, Tiago Elias

    2017-10-17

    After the diagnosis of transsexualism is confirmed therapy commences with psychotherapeutic preparation for the conversion, and after conversion, long-term patient rehabilitation is maintained for at least two years. The indication for surgery is chronic discomfort caused by discord with the patient's natural gender, intense dislike of developing secondary sex characteristics and the onset of puberty. The surgical conversion of transsexuals is the main step in the complex care of these problematic patients (1). This surgery was first described by Benjamin H, using a flap of inverted penile skin (2) and is considered the gold standard since then. Male-to-female transsexual surgical techniques are well defined and give good cosmetic and functional results. Sex reassignment surgery promotes the improvement of psychological aspects and social relationships as shown in the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment applied in the patients submitted to this procedure (3). Techniques include the creation of a normal appearing female introitus, a vaginoplasty allowing sexual intercourse and the capability of clitoral orgasm (4). Various methods for neovaginoplasty have been described and can be classified into five categories, i.e. pedicled intestinal transplants, penile skin grafts, penile skin flaps, non-genital skin flaps and non-genital skin grafts (5). In our Hospital, we use penile and scrotal skin flaps. Until now, 174 procedures have been performed by our team using this technique with high rates of satisfaction (3). We present a step-by-step male to female transsexual surgery. Surgical gender reassignment of male transsexuals resulted in replicas of female genitalia which enabled coitus with orgasm (1). With this video we show step by step that a surgery using penile skin flaps is able to be performed with good cosmetic results. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  17. Needed Computations Shortcutting Needed Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoy, Sergio; Johannsen, Jacob; Libby, Steven

    We define a compilation scheme for a constructor-based strongly-sequential graph rewriting system which shortcuts some needed steps. The result of this compilation is another constructor-based graph rewriting system that is normalizing for the original system when using an innermost strategy. We...... then modify the resulting rewrite sytem in a way that avoids totally or partially the construction of the contracta of some needed steps of a computation. The resulting rewrite system can be easily implemented by eager functions in a variety of programming languages. When computing normal forms in this way...

  18. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Britt J; Blount, Jonathan D; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B; Monaghan, Pat

    2012-01-31

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length.

  19. Variation in leader length of bitterbrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Hubbard; David. Dunaway

    1958-01-01

    The estimation of herbage production and· utilization in browse plants has been a problem for many years. Most range technicians have simply estimated the average length of twigs or leaders. then expressed use by deer and livestock as a percentage thereof based on the estimated average length left after grazing. Riordan used this method on mountain mahogany (

  20. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  1. Length-biased Weighted Maxwell Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Modi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of length-biased distribution can be employed in development of proper models for life-time data. In this paper, we develop the length-biased form of Weighted Maxwell distribution (WMD. We study the statistical properties of the derived distribution including moments, moment generating function, hazard rate, reverse hazard rate, Shannon entropy and estimation of parameters

  2. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans...

  3. On the homology length spectrum of surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, Daniel; Parlier, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    On a surface with a Finsler metric, we investigate the asymptotic growth of the number of closed geodesics of length less than L which minimize length among all geodesic multicurves in the same homology class. An important class of surfaces which are of interest to us are hyperbolic surfaces.

  4. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity.

  5. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H

    2008-07-21

    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  6. Estimation of height from the length of the sternum in an adult Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Parchake, Soniya Bhaurao; Bardale, Rajesh Vaijnathrao; Dixit, Pradeep Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    Stature estimation is one of the essential early steps during forensic investigation of human skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to obtain a linear regression formula for estimating stature from sternal length of a central Indian population. The study includes 92 male cadavers brought for medico-legal autopsies. The linear regression equations were derived from manubrium, mesosternum and the total sternal length. The regression model provided a 95% confidence interval of ±14.8 cm and a correlation coefficient of 0.55. Compared with other studies, regression formulae based on the length of the sternum provided considerably larger standard errors than that based on long bone lengths. The study indicates that sternal length in relation with body stature shows a moderate positive correlation and relatively low reliability in estimating stature, and has limited forensic value. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The effect of root preparation technique and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Carlos G; Yoshioka, Takatomo; Suda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Forty extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were randomly selected and mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The teeth were divided into four groups of 10 teeth each for different canal preparation techniques and instrumentation lengths: group A: step-back preparation (SB) with stainless steel files (SF) using root canal length (RCL) to guide instrumentation length; group B: SB using RCL - 1 mm; group C: crown-down preparation (CD) with Profile using RCL; and group D: CD with PF using RCL - 1 mm. Digital images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of instrumentation length (p 0.05) on the development of apical cracks.

  8. Stepped-impedance phase shifters

    CERN Document Server

    Faltin, L

    1977-01-01

    A coupled-line phase shifter can be decomposed in two lines of stepped characteristic impedances, interconnected by a 180 degrees hybrid. This network permits phase responses which cannot be realised with coupled lines. Practical simplifications are possible by omitting one of the two lines or by using a 90 degrees hybrid. (5 refs).

  9. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat...

  10. Stepping out: dare to step forward, step back, or just stand still and breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    It is important to step out and make a difference. We have one of the most unique and diverse professions that allows for diversity in thought and practice, permitting each of us to grow in our unique niches and make significant contributions. I was frightened to 'step out' to go to culinary school at the age of 46, but it changed forever the way I look at my profession and I have since experienced the most enjoyable and innovative career. There are also times when it is important to 'step back' to relish the roots of our profession; to help bring food back into nutrition; to translate all of our wonderful science into a language of food that Canadians understand. We all need to take time to 'just stand still and breathe': to celebrate our accomplishments, reflect on our actions, ensure we are heading toward our vision, keep the profession vibrant and relevant, and cherish one another.

  11. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  12. Dissecting a complex neurosurgical illustration: step-by-step development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Ian

    2011-12-01

    Modern computer graphics software has enabled the medical illustrator to render very complex anatomy by composing many different layers of drawings simultaneously. This and the author's capacity to take an "editorial" approach to compress several chronological events into a single, comprehensive two-dimensional illustration are analyzed in a step-by-step process. Through a series of images, the article provides a visual synopsis of the development of an illustration for an extensive clinical case: total sacrectomy performed through an all-posterior approach. Originally given as a slide presentation at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Theodore Kurze Lecture in April 2011, the article provides some detailed notes on the techniques the author used to develop a comprehensive neurosurgical illustration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Current issues in the design and analysis of stepped wedge trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James P; Granston, Tanya S; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2015-11-01

    The use of stepped wedge designs in cluster-randomized trials and implementation studies has increased rapidly in recent years but there remains considerable debate regarding the merits of the design. We discuss three key issues in the design and analysis of stepped wedge trials - time-on-treatment effects, treatment effect heterogeneity and cohort studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Industrial multi-step biotransformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panke, S.; Kümmel, A.; Schümperli, M.; Heinemann, M.

    Biotransformations have moved far beyond the classic one-reaction approach. Progress in genomic science enables the rapid assembly of complex multi-enzyme catalysts that allow [i] utilizing cheaper starting materials, as in the case of 5-acetylneuraminic acid formation from N-acetylglucosamine; [ii

  15. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  16. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  17. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  18. Length filtration of the separable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Doković, Dragomir Ž.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the separable states ρ of an arbitrary multi-partite quantum system with Hilbert space H of dimension d. The length L(ρ) of ρ is defined as the smallest number of pure product states having ρ as their mixture. The length filtration of the set of separable states, S , is the increasing chain ∅ ⊊S1‧⊆S2‧⊆⋯, where Si‧={ρ ∈S :L (ρ )≤i }. We define the maximum length, Lmax=maxρ ∈S L (ρ ), critical length, Lcrit, and yet another special length, Lc, which was defined by a simple formula in one of our previous papers. The critical length indicates the first term in the length filtration whose dimension is equal to Dim S . We show that in general d≤Lc≤Lcrit≤Lmax≤d2. We conjecture that the equality Lcrit=Lc holds for all finite-dimensional multi-partite quantum systems. Our main result is that Lcrit=Lc for the bipartite systems having a single qubit as one of the parties. This is accomplished by computing the rank of the Jacobian matrix of a suitable map having S as its range.

  19. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  20. Walkway Length Determination for Steady State Walking in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Pamela A.; Looney, Marilyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) distances that would accommodate young and older adults walking at their preferred and fast speeds. A secondary purpose was to determine the minimal walkway length needed to record six steady state (SS) steps (three full gait cycles) for younger and older…

  1. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  2. Martian Length of Day Measurements from Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Bills, B.

    2012-06-01

    Changes in the Martian Length of Day (LOD) can be determined at a scientifically use level by a combination of regular (but not necessarily frequent) range and Doppler measurements from Earth and dead reckoning in a Kalman filter.

  3. CPS Trawl Life History Length Frequency Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Length distribution of a subset of individuals from a species (mainly non-target) caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of coastal pelagic...

  4. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  5. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  6. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D imag...

  8. Process for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor precursor between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to form a super conductor layer.

  9. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  10. Sequence-Dependent Persistence Lengths of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Glowacki, Jaroslaw; Grandchamp, Alexandre E; Manning, Robert S; Maddocks, John H

    2017-04-11

    A Monte Carlo code applied to the cgDNA coarse-grain rigid-base model of B-form double-stranded DNA is used to predict a sequence-averaged persistence length of l F = 53.5 nm in the sense of Flory, and of l p = 160 bp or 53.5 nm in the sense of apparent tangent-tangent correlation decay. These estimates are slightly higher than the consensus experimental values of 150 bp or 50 nm, but we believe the agreement to be good given that the cgDNA model is itself parametrized from molecular dynamics simulations of short fragments of length 10-20 bp, with no explicit fit to persistence length. Our Monte Carlo simulations further predict that there can be substantial dependence of persistence lengths on the specific sequence [Formula: see text] of a fragment. We propose, and confirm the numerical accuracy of, a simple factorization that separates the part of the apparent tangent-tangent correlation decay [Formula: see text] attributable to intrinsic shape, from a part [Formula: see text] attributable purely to stiffness, i.e., a sequence-dependent version of what has been called sequence-averaged dynamic persistence length l̅ d (=58.8 nm within the cgDNA model). For ensembles of both random and λ-phage fragments, the apparent persistence length [Formula: see text] has a standard deviation of 4 nm over sequence, whereas our dynamic persistence length [Formula: see text] has a standard deviation of only 1 nm. However, there are notable dynamic persistence length outliers, including poly(A) (exceptionally straight and stiff), poly(TA) (tightly coiled and exceptionally soft), and phased A-tract sequence motifs (exceptionally bent and stiff). The results of our numerical simulations agree reasonably well with both molecular dynamics simulation and diverse experimental data including minicircle cyclization rates and stereo cryo-electron microscopy images.

  11. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  12. The analysis of terminal endpoint events in stepped wedge designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhuozhao; de Bock, Geertruida H; Wiggers, Theo; van den Heuvel, Edwin

    2016-10-30

    The stepped wedge design is a unique clinical trial design that allows for a sequential introduction of an intervention. However, the statistical analysis is unclear when this design is applied in survival data. The time-dependent introduction of the intervention in combination with terminal endpoints and interval censoring makes the analysis more complicated. In this paper, a time-on-study scale discrete survival model was constructed. Simulations were conducted primarily to study the performance of our model for different settings of the stepped wedge design. Secondary, we compared our approach to continuous Cox proportional hazard model. The results show that the discrete survival model estimates the intervention effects unbiasedly. If the length of the censoring interval is increased, the precision of the estimates is decreased. Without left truncation and late entry, the number of steps improves the precision of the estimates, whereas in combination of left truncation and late entry, the number of steps decreases the precision. Given the same number of participants and clusters, a parallel group design has higher precision than a stepped wedge design. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Automatic Determination of Fiber-Length Distribution in Composite Material Using 3D CT Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Greiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymer components is a crucial step in quality assurance, since fiber length has a strong influence on overall strength, stiffness, and stability of the material. The approximate fiber length distribution is usually determined early in the development process, as conventional methods require a destruction of the sample component. In this paper, a novel, automatic, and nondestructive approach for the determination of fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymers is presented. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography is used as imaging method together with subsequent image analysis for evaluation. The image analysis consists of an iterative process where single fibers are detected automatically in each iteration step after having applied image enhancement algorithms. Subsequently, a model-based approach is used together with a priori information in order to guide a fiber tracing and segmentation process. Thereby, the length of the segmented fibers can be calculated and a length distribution can be deduced. The performance and the robustness of the segmentation method is demonstrated by applying it to artificially generated test data and selected real components.

  14. Single-step quantitative susceptibility mapping with variational penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatnuntawech, Itthi; McDaniel, Patrick; Cauley, Stephen F; Gagoski, Borjan A; Langkammer, Christian; Martin, Adrian; Grant, P Ellen; Wald, Lawrence L; Setsompop, Kawin; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Bilgic, Berkin

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) estimates the underlying tissue magnetic susceptibility from the gradient echo (GRE) phase signal through background phase removal and dipole inversion steps. Each of these steps typically requires the solution of an ill-posed inverse problem and thus necessitates additional regularization. Recently developed single-step QSM algorithms directly relate the unprocessed GRE phase to the unknown susceptibility distribution, thereby requiring the solution of a single inverse problem. In this work, we show that such a holistic approach provides susceptibility estimation with artifact mitigation and develop efficient algorithms that involve simple analytical solutions for all of the optimization steps. Our methods employ total variation (TV) and total generalized variation (TGV) to jointly perform the background removal and dipole inversion in a single step. Using multiple spherical mean value (SMV) kernels of varying radii permits high-fidelity background removal whilst retaining the phase information in the cortex. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed single-step methods reduce the reconstruction error by up to 66% relative to the multi-step methods that involve SMV background filtering with the same number of SMV kernels, followed by TV- or TGV-regularized dipole inversion. In vivo single-step experiments demonstrate a dramatic reduction in dipole streaking artifacts and improved homogeneity of image contrast. These acquisitions employ the rapid three-dimensional echo planar imaging (3D EPI) and Wave-CAIPI (controlled aliasing in parallel imaging) trajectories for signal-to-noise ratio-efficient whole-brain imaging. Herein, we also demonstrate the multi-echo capability of the Wave-CAIPI sequence for the first time, and introduce an automated, phase-sensitive coil sensitivity estimation scheme based on a 4-s calibration acquisition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  15. Acta Clinica Croatica: progress of a journal step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    The journal Acta Clinica Croatica (ACC) was founded in 1962 under the title Anali Bolnice Dr. M. Stojanović. In 1995, the title of the journal was changed into its present form and ever since all papers have been published in English. In 2000, the electronic (online) edition of the ACC was released in addition to the print version. The paper presents development of the journal from 1962 to 2012 based on the analysis of the following SCOPUS citation index parameters: type and number of documents published in the journal; number of citations; and number of domestic and foreign authors. The studied period was analyzed in three time segments: the period from 1995 to 1999, the period from 2000 to 2006 and the period from 2007 to 2012. The same parameters were analyzed in the Web of Science/SCI-Expanded bibliographic and citation index for the 2007-2012 period. The increasing number of documents, authors (both domestic and foreign) and citations demonstrates gradual rise in the quality, visibility and impact of the journal. The fifty years of experience show that a goal, at first very distant and almost unachievable, may be reached by progressing step by step.

  16. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.J. Smeets (Lin); V. Codd (Veryan); M. Denniff (Matthew); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with growth hormone (GH), inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere

  17. Tracking and fixed ranking of leukocyte telomere length across the adult life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetos, Athanase; Kark, Jeremy D; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with atherosclerosis in adults and diminished survival in the elderly. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL at birth, which is highly variable, and its age-dependent attrition thereafter, which is rapid during the first 20 years of life. We examined ...

  18. The Effect of Afterbody Length of the Hydrodynamic Stability of a Dynamic Model of a Flying Boat: Langley Tank Model 134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Norman S

    1945-01-01

    A program of model tests has been completed at Langley tank no. 1 which will furnish a qualitative guide as to the relation of length of afterbody and depth of step. The model used for the tests was a l/12-size unpowered dynamic model of a hypothetical 160,000-pound airplane. The results showed that an increase in length of afterbody requires an accompanying increase in depth of step to maintain adequate landing stability. Changing the length of afterbody and depth of step in such a manner as to maintain a given landing stability will result in only small changes in take-off stability.

  19. Improvement of hemocompatibility for hydrodynamic levitation centrifugal pump by optimizing step bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Ryo; Yada, Toru; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a hydrodynamic levitation centrifugal blood pump with a semi-open impeller for a mechanically circulatory assist. The impeller levitated with original hydrodynamic bearings without any complicated control and sensors. However, narrow bearing gap has the potential for causing hemolysis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the geometric configuration of the hydrodynamic step bearing to minimize hemolysis by expansion of the bearing gap. Firstly, we performed the numerical analysis of the step bearing based on Reynolds equation, and measured the actual hydrodynamic force of the step bearing. Secondly, the bearing gap measurement test and the hemolysis test were performed to the blood pumps, whose step length were 0 %, 33 % and 67 % of the vane length respectively. As a result, in the numerical analysis, the hydrodynamic force was the largest, when the step bearing was around 70 %. In the actual evaluation tests, the blood pump having step 67 % obtained the maximum bearing gap, and was able to improve the hemolysis, compared to those having step 0% and 33%. We confirmed that the numerical analysis of the step bearing worked effectively, and the blood pump having step 67 % was suitable configuration to minimize hemolysis, because it realized the largest bearing gap.

  20. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  1. TypeLoader: A fast and efficient automated workflow for the annotation and submission of novel full-length HLA alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendranath, V; Albrecht, V; Hayhurst, J D; Schöne, B; Robinson, J; Marsh, S G E; Schmidt, A H; Lange, V

    2017-07-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the discovery of novel allelic variants of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Commonly, only the exons encoding the peptide binding domains of novel HLA alleles are submitted. As a result, the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database lacks sequence information outside those regions for the majority of known alleles. This has implications for the application of the new sequencing technologies, which deliver sequence data often covering the complete gene. As these technologies simplify the characterization of the complete gene regions, it is desirable for novel alleles to be submitted as full-length sequences to the database. However, the manual annotation of full-length alleles and the generation of specific formats required by the sequence repositories is prone to error and time consuming. We have developed TypeLoader to address both these facets. With only the full-length sequence as a starting point, Typeloader performs automatic sequence annotation and subsequently handles all steps involved in preparing the specific formats for submission with very little manual intervention. TypeLoader is routinely used at the DKMS Life Science Lab and has aided in the successful submission of more than 900 novel HLA alleles as full-length sequences to the European Nucleotide Archive repository and the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database with a 95% reduction in the time spent on annotation and submission when compared with handling these processes manually. TypeLoader is implemented as a web application and can be easily installed and used on a standalone Linux desktop system or within a Linux client/server architecture. TypeLoader is downloadable from http://www.github.com/DKMS-LSL/typeloader. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Social mobility: the next steps

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, P; Cleal, Paul; Shephard, Gillian; Milburn, Alan; Johnston, David; Attwood, Tom; Carrie, Anne Marie; Guy, Christian; Williams, Catriona; Hamilton, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission was formally tasked by Ministers to give its view on what further steps the UK government could reasonably take to improve social mobility.The Commission advised opportunities for low paid workers to move up the career ladder, for young people to move from school to employment, and for disadvantaged youngsters to get support in their earliest years should be Ministers’ top priorities if they are to make headway on tackling the UK’s stagnating l...

  3. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  4. Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepped chutes and spillways are commonly used for routing discharges during flood events. In addition, stepped chutes are used for overtopping protection of earthen embankments. Stepped spillways provide significant energy dissipation due to its stepped feature; as a result, the stilling basin as...

  5. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  6. What Promotes Wisdom in 12-Step Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGangi, Julia A; Majer, John M; Mendoza, Leslie; Droege, Jocelyn R; Jason, Leonard A; Contreras, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Research investigations on twelve-step groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) have addressed a number of resources associated with 12-step recovery. However, little is known about the role of wisdom, and whether aspects of 12-step participation might increase this resource among 12-step members. An exploratory analysis revealed that participants who reported having a "spiritual awakening" and considered themselves "members" of 12-step groups reported significantly higher levels of wisdom. Twelve-step meeting attendance was not significantly related to wisdom scores. Findings suggest certain aspects of 12-step involvement are associated with wisdom and may play a role in substance abuse recovery.

  7. Ultrasound assessment of cervical length in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, An-Shine; Chao, Angel; Hsieh, Peter Ching-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Cervical length in high-risk women for preterm birth has to be identified before early second trimester. Sequential evaluations lead to high predictive significance. The mean cervical length at 24 weeks is about 35 mm when measured by transvaginal ultrasound. A short cervix is defined as a cervix that is less than 25 mm and funneling, i.e. ballooning of the membranes into a dilated internal os, but with a closed external os. Factors such as short cervical length, uterine anomaly, previous cervical surgery, multiple gestation and positive fetal fibronectin results are associated with preterm delivery. Serial transvaginal ultrasound examinations during the early second trimester would provide longitudinal changes in the cervical length. The use of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and cerclage has shown to be beneficial in preventing preterm delivery. When combined with other predictors such as occiput position, parity, maternal age and body mass index, cervical length is a useful parameter for predicting the feasibility of labor induction and successful delivery.

  8. Ultrasound Assessment of Cervical Length in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shine Chao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical length in high-risk women for preterm birth has to be identified before early second trimester. Sequential evaluations lead to high predictive significance. The mean cervical length at 24 weeks is about 35 mm when measured by transvaginal ultrasound. A short cervix is defined as a cervix that is less than 25 mm and funneling, i.e. ballooning of the membranes into a dilated internal os, but with a closed external os. Factors such as short cervical length, uterine anomaly, previous cervical surgery, multiple gestation and positive fetal fibronectin results are associated with preterm delivery. Serial transvaginal ultrasound examinations during the early second trimester would provide longitudinal changes in the cervical length. The use of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and cerclage has shown to be beneficial in preventing preterm delivery. When combined with other predictors such as occiput position, parity, maternal age and body mass index, cervical length is a useful parameter for predicting the feasibility of labor induction and successful delivery.

  9. Scaling of avian primary feather length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather (f(prim contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus. The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was controlled for using independent contrasts: f(prim is proportional to ta(0.78-0.82. The scaling exponent was not significantly different from that predicted (0.86 by earlier work. It appears that there is a general trend for the primary feathers of birds to contribute proportionally less, and ta proportionally more, to overall wingspan as this dimension increases. Wingspan in birds is constrained close to mass (M(1/3 because of optimisation for lift production, which limits opportunities for exterior morphological change. Within the wing, variations in underlying bone and feather lengths nevertheless may, in altering the joint positions, permit a range of different flight styles by facilitating variation in upstroke kinematics.

  10. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  11. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  12. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  13. Stature estimation from the length of the sternum in South Indian males: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kumar, G Pradeep; Rao, P P Jagadish; Lobo, Stany W; Uysal, Selma; Krishan, Kewal; Kalthur, Sneha G; Nagesh, K R; Shettigar, Sunder

    2009-11-01

    Estimation of stature is one of the important initial steps during forensic analysis of human skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to derive a linear regression formula for estimating stature of adult South Indian males from the length of the sternum. The study included 35 male sternums of South Indian origin dissected from cadavers during medico-legal autopsies. The linear regression equation [Stature=117.784 + (3.429 x Sternal length)] was derived to estimate the stature from the length of the sternum. The correlation coefficient was 0.638. The standard error of the estimate was 5.64 cm. This preliminary study concludes that the length of the sternum can be used as a tool for stature estimation in adult South Indian males.

  14. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.

  15. Altered Maxwell equations in the length gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, H R

    2013-01-01

    The length gauge uses a scalar potential to describe a laser field, thus treating it as a longitudinal field rather than as a transverse field. This distinction is revealed in the fact that the Maxwell equations that relate to the length gauge are not the same as those for transverse fields. In particular, a source term is necessary in the length-gauge Maxwell equations, whereas the Coulomb-gauge description of plane waves possesses the basic property of transverse fields that they propagate with no source terms at all. This difference is shown to be importantly consequential in some previously unremarked circumstances; and it explains why the G\\"oppert-Mayer gauge transformation does not provide the security that might be expected of full gauge equivalence.

  16. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  17. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues.

  18. A self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm based on dimension by dimension improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu REN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of step length plays an important role in convergence speed and precision of Cuckoo search algorithm. In the paper, a self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm based on dimensional improvement is provided. First, since the step in the original self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm is not updated when the current position of the nest is in the optimal position, simple modification of the step is made for the update. Second, evaluation strategy based on dimension by dimension update is introduced to the modified self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm. The experimental results show that the algorithm can balance the contradiction between the global convergence ability and the precision of optimization. Moreover, the proposed algorithm has better convergence speed.

  19. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  20. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  1. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-07-15

    The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year. The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites). Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China, Malawi, the Philippines, and Brazil. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS). The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions. The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the

  2. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  3. Epinephrine auto-injector needle length: what is the ideal length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, T Ted; Lieberman, Phil

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature on the clinical effects of the needle length of epinephrine (adrenaline) auto-injectors. Epinephrine has maximal pharmacodynamic effect within 10 min of intramuscular administration into the thigh. Prefilled epinephrine auto-injectors are designed for simplicity of use and safety. Auto-injectors are primarily used by patients in an unsupervised setting in cases of anaphylaxis. There are weight-appropriate doses of epinephrine available with auto-injectors that are prefilled, to prevent dosing errors, with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.50 mg amounts. In addition, needle lengths vary from 1.17 to 2.50 cm. The recommended needle lengths differ between adults and pediatric patients. In addition, the needle lengths differ between devices as well. There are concerns that the needle length may be too short in select obese patients. Yet, there are also concerns that the needle length may be too long in some patients. Factors that affect the depth of the injection, and therefore the pharmacokinetics of the drug, include not only the needle length but also the BMI, obesity, compression of soft tissue, and propulsion. Epinephrine auto-injectors have different needle lengths. Using the right device with appropriate needle length based on BMI, obesity, and employing the proper technique can improve the outcome in an anaphylactic event.

  4. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  5. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2001-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  6. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  7. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  8. Mechanical and metabolic determinants of the preferred step width in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, J M; Kram, R; Kuo, A D

    2001-10-07

    We studied the selection of preferred step width in human walking by measuring mechanical and metabolic costs as a function of experimentally manipulated step width (0.00-0.45L, as a fraction of leg length L). We estimated mechanical costs from individual limb external mechanical work and metabolic costs using open circuit respirometry. The mechanical and metabolic costs both increased substantially (54 and 45%, respectively) for widths greater than the preferred value (0.15-0.45L) and with step width squared (R(2) = 0.91 and 0.83, respectively). As predicted by a three-dimensional model of walking mechanics, the increases in these costs appear to be a result of the mechanical work required for redirecting the centre of mass velocity during the transition between single stance phases (step-to-step transition costs). The metabolic cost for steps narrower than preferred (0.10-0.00L) increased by 8%, which was probably as a result of the added cost of moving the swing leg laterally in order to avoid the stance leg (lateral limb swing cost). Trade-offs between the step-to-step transition and lateral limb swing costs resulted in a minimum metabolic cost at a step width of 0.12L, which is not significantly different from foot width (0.11L) or the preferred step width (0.13L). Humans appear to prefer a step width that minimizes metabolic cost.

  9. Steps towards an evolutionary physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide range of examples, enigmas, and paradoxes lead one's imagination on an exquisite dance. Among the applications are: songs and shapes of nature, oscillatory reactions, orientors, goal functions and configurations of processes, and "dissipative structures and the city". Ecodynamics is a new science, which proposes a cross-fertilization between Charles Darwin and Ilya Prigogine. As an enigma in thermodynamics, Entropy forms ...

  10. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism.

  11. Preimages for Step-Reduced SHA-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Kazumaro; Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present preimage attacks on up to 43-step SHA-256 (around 67% of the total 64 steps) and 46-step SHA-512 (around 57.5% of the total 80 steps), which significantly increases the number of attacked steps compared to the best previously published preimage attack working for 24 steps....... The time complexities are 2^251.9, 2^509 for finding pseudo-preimages and 2^254.9, 2^511.5 compression function operations for full preimages. The memory requirements are modest, around 2^6 words for 43-step SHA-256 and 46-step SHA-512. The pseudo-preimage attack also applies to 43-step SHA-224 and SHA-384....... Our attack is a meet-in-the-middle attack that uses a range of novel techniques to split the function into two independent parts that can be computed separately and then matched in a birthday-style phase....

  12. Rapid cycling genomic selection in a multiparental tropical maize population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is th...

  13. Mechanical and metabolic determinants of the preferred step width in human walking.

    OpenAIRE

    Donelan, J. M.; Kram, R.; Kuo, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the selection of preferred step width in human walking by measuring mechanical and metabolic costs as a function of experimentally manipulated step width (0.00-0.45L, as a fraction of leg length L). We estimated mechanical costs from individual limb external mechanical work and metabolic costs using open circuit respirometry. The mechanical and metabolic costs both increased substantially (54 and 45%, respectively) for widths greater than the preferred value (0.15-0.45L) and with s...

  14. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  15. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  16. Rapid Clozapine Titration in Patients with Treatment Refractory Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Özdemir, Armağan; Sağlam, Nazife Gamze Usta; Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Tomruk, Nesrin; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in patients with schizophrenia in hospital settings. We conducted a retrospective two-center cohort study to compare the safety and effectiveness of clozapine with different titration rates in treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia. In the first center, clozapine was started at 25-50 mg followed by 50-100 mg as needed every 6 h on day 1, followed by increases of 50-100 mg/day. In the second center, titration was slower; clozapine initiated with 12.5-50 mg on day 1 followed by increases of 25-50 mg/day. The number of days between starting of clozapine until discharge was shorter in the rapid titration group (22.4 ± 8.72 vs 27.0 ± 10.5, p = 0.1). Number of days of total hospital stay were significantly shorter in the rapid titration group (29.6 ± 10.6 vs 41.2 ± 14.8, p = 0.002). Hypotension was more common in the rapid titration group and one patient had suspected myocarditis. Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective. The length of stay following initiation of clozapine was shorter in the rapid-titration group, although this was not statistically significant. However starting clozapine earlier together with rapid titration has significantly shortened the length of hospital stay in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia.

  17. A Method for Determining Skeletal Lengths from DXA Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelman Ignac

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal ratios and bone lengths are widely used in anthropology and forensic pathology and hip axis length is a useful predictor of fracture. The aim of this study was to show that skeletal ratios, such as length of femur to height, could be accurately measured from a DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry image. Methods 90 normal Caucasian females, 18–80 years old, with whole body DXA data were used as subjects. Two methods, linear pixel count (LPC and reticule and ruler (RET were used to measure skeletal sizes on DXA images and compared with real clinical measures from 20 subjects and 20 x-rays of the femur and tibia taken in 2003. Results Although both methods were highly correlated, the LPC inter- and intra-observer error was lower at 1.6% compared to that of RET at 2.3%. Both methods correlated positively with real clinical measures, with LPC having a marginally stronger correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.94; r2 = 0.84; average r2 = 0.89 than RET (r2 = 0.86; r2 = 0.84; average r2 = 0.85 with X-rays and real measures respectively. Also, the time taken to use LPC was half that of RET at 5 minutes per scan. Conclusion Skeletal ratios can be accurately and precisely measured from DXA total body scan images. The LPC method is easy to use and relatively rapid. This new phenotype will be useful for osteoporosis research for individuals or large-scale epidemiological or genetic studies.

  18. Is cervical length associated with maternal characteristics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, A. J.; van Os, M. A.; Kleinrouweler, C. E.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Haak, M. C.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pajkrt, E.; Kazemier, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Women with a mid-trimester short cervical length (CL) are at increased risk for preterm delivery. Consequently, CL measurement is a potential screening tool to identify women at risk for preterm birth. Our objective was to assess possible associations between CL and maternal characteristics. A

  19. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, Oleksandr V.; Azimi, Hamed; Scharber, Markus; Morana, Mauro; Blom, Paul W. M.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  20. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accordingly, selection should favour a longer 'race' to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. ... Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065, India; School of Ecology and Conservation, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 ...

  1. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between sonographic renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal length (RL) in normal adult Nigerian. Study design: The RL and RPT of 309 normal subjects within the age range of 18 – 80years were measured sonographically and prospectively. Correlation was performed between ...

  2. Path length resolved optical Doppler flowmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Wax, Adam; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    The readings in laser Doppler perfusion monitoring are affected by the optical properties of the tissue in which the microvasculature is embedded, through their effect on the optical path lengths. Thus for a constant perfusion, the LDF output signal is affected by the variance in individual photon

  3. On some queue length controlled stochastic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Abolnikov

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the input, output and queueing processes in a general controlled single-server bulk queueing system. It is supposed that inter-arrival time, service time, batch size of arriving units and the capacity of the server depend on the queue length.

  4. Indicators for Cervical Length in Twin Pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Frederik J. R.; Schuit, Ewoud; Liem, Sophie M. S.; Lim, Arianne C.; Duvekot, Johannes; Scheepers, Liesbeth C. J.; Woiski, Mallory M.; Franssen, Maureen M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bijvanck, Bas Nij; Bekedam, Dick J.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical length (CL) is associated with the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in multiple pregnancies. However, the position of CL within the pathophysiological pathway of PTB is unclear, and it is unknown which factors are predictive for CL. This study aims to investigate whether in twin

  5. Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Tiefenback, Michael G. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.

  6. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols...

  7. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    . Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age...

  8. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosa rugosa is an excellent ornamental plant with important ecological, economical and medicinal values in China. Polymorphism amplifications of the genomic DNA of 5 wild R. rugosa accessions and 25 cultivars that originated from China with fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism molecular markers were ...

  9. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    synthetic stellar population model, gives strong evidence that the Galactic thin disk density scale length, hR, ... be preferred to investigate the stellar distribution, specially at large distances from the. Sun. In this paper, we present ... city gradient according to age metallicity and age scale height relations. In the model, the key ...

  10. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  11. Length, protein–protein interactions, and complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, T.; Frenkel, D.; Gupta, V.; Deem, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein–protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they

  12. Analytical calculation of chain length in ferrofluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Verdet coefficient (constant), particle diameter, viscosity of the carrier fluid, particle density, magnetization and shear rate. The formulated relation of chain length is supported by error analysis to yield the uncertainty in the result. The maximum uncertainty in four sets of data is found as ∼0.75. Keywords. Ferrofluid; chain ...

  13. Relationship between morphological and amplified fragment length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker based genetic diversity, to estimate mid parent heterosis and to correlate the estimated parental genetic diversity with heterosis chilli. Five CMS B - lines and 30 testers were used for morphological and AFLP marker genetic divergence analysis.

  14. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  15. Twin correlations of telomere length metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL va...

  16. Wave length dependence of photomorphogenesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1954-01-01

    Light of various spectral regions (at low or high intensities) supplemented a short day (SD) in white light, or was used alone at high intensity. Two types of relation of wave length to photoperiodic reaction were found: Crucifers were sensitive to blue and infrared (even SD exposure promoted

  17. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  18. Phenotypic Relationships Between Gestation Length And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic Relationships Between Gestation Length And Preweaning Litter Traits In Rabbits. ... size at birth(LSB), litter size at 21 days (LS21), litter weight at 21 days(LW21), litter weight at birth (LWAB), and still birth number(SBN) when subjected to multiple regression analysis revealed non-significant t-test value with GL.

  19. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  20. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications.

  1. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  2. Direct computation of length-N DHT from three adjacent length-N/3 DHT coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Lu; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A fast direct method for obtaining the length-N discrete Hartley transform (DHT) coefficients from three adjacent length-N/3 DHT coefficients is presented. The proposed method reduces significantly the number of arithmetic operations compared to the traditional approach. Furthermore, it is easy to implement.

  3. Important step towards the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The TI2 tunnel, one of the two tunnels that will transfer protons from the SPS to the LHC, broke through into the LEP/LHC ring on 15 May. TI2 will carry clockwise-moving protons from under the Laboratory's West Area to Point 2, future home of the ALICE experiment. It is coming up to 16:00 on 15 May and a group of some 50 people, fully kitted out in boots, helmets, and masks is intently watching a point on the wall in front of them. They are down in the LEP/LHC tunnel waiting for civil engineers to excavate the last few centimetres separating them from the TI2 transfer tunnel. The noise of machines begins, and just five minutes later the wall comes tumbling down. The excavator breaks through right on target, bringing a two-year project to a happy conclusion. Later, the survey team published the outstanding result that the tunnel junction was made within 6 millimetres of target. TI2 measures 2648 metres in length and three metres in diameter. Around 32,000 cubic metres of rock have been excavated to make it, so...

  4. Aptamer Selection Express: A Novel Method for Rapid Single-Step Selection and Sensing of Aptamers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fan, Maomian; Roper, Shelly; Andrews, Carrie; Allman, Amity; Bruno, John; Kiel, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    ...). This process has been used to select aptamers against different types of targets (Bacillus anthracis spores, Bacillus thuringiensis spores, MS-2 bacteriophage, ovalbumin, and botulinum neurotoxin...

  5. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrie R Wheeler; Kristi L Holmes

    2017-01-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information...

  6. Single-step rapid assembly of DNA origami nanostructures for addressable nanoscale bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Yanming; Zeng, Dongdong; Chao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    (within only 10-20 min), exhibiting extraordinarily high cooperativity that is often observed in assembly of natural molecular machines in cells (e.g. ribosome). By exploiting the high specificity of DNA-based self-assembly, we can precisely anchor proteins on these DNA origami nanostructures with sub-10...

  7. Moving Toward Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step in a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Sample, Tony; Wohlgemuth, John; Zhou, Wei; Bosco, Nick; Althaus, Joerg; Phillips, Nancy; Deceglie, Michael; Flueckiger, Chris; Hacke, Peter; Miller, David; Kempe, Michael; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Kondo, Michio

    2015-12-07

    Some may say that PV modules are moving toward being a simple commodity, but most major PV customers ask: 'How can I minimize chances of a module recall?' Or, 'How can I quantify the added value of a 'premium' module?' Or, 'How can I assess the value of an old PV system that I'm thinking of purchasing?' These are all questions that PVQAT (the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force) and partner organizations are working to answer. Defining standard methods for ensuring minimal acceptable quality of PV modules, differentiating modules that provide added value in the toughest of environments, and creating a process (e.g. through IECRE [1]) that can follow a PV system from design through installation and operation are tough tasks, but having standard approaches for these will increase confidence, reduce costs, and be a critical foundation of a mature PV industry. This paper summarizes current needs for new tests, some challenges for defining those tests, and some of the key efforts toward development of international standards, emphasizing that meaningful quantification of reliability (as in defining a service life prediction) must be done in the context of a specific product with design parameters defined through a quality management system.

  8. Single-step rapid assembly of DNA origami nanostructures for addressable nanoscale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanming; Zeng, Dongdong; Chao, Jie; Jin, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Huajie; Li, Di; Ma, Hongwei; Huang, Qing; Gothelf, Kurt V; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-01-16

    Self-assembled DNA origami nanostructures have shown great promise for bottom-up construction of complex objects with nanoscale addressability. Here we show that DNA origami-based 1D nanoribbons and nanotubes are one-pot assembled with controllable sizes and nanoscale addressability with high speed (within only 10-20 min), exhibiting extraordinarily high cooperativity that is often observed in assembly of natural molecular machines in cells (e.g. ribosome). By exploiting the high specificity of DNA-based self-assembly, we can precisely anchor proteins on these DNA origami nanostructures with sub-10 nm resolution and at the single-molecule level. We attach a pair of enzymes (horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase) at the inner side of DNA nanotubes and observe high coupling efficiency of enzyme cascade within this confined nanospace. Hence, DNA nanostructures with such unprecedented properties shed new light on the design of nanoscale bioreactors and nanomedicine and provide an artificial system for studying enzyme activities and cascade in highly organized and crowded cell-mimicking environments.

  9. Rapid single-step induction of functional neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingsha; Pak, Changhui; Han, Yan; Ahlenius, Henrik; Zhang, Zhenjie; Chanda, Soham; Marro, Samuele; Patzke, Christopher; Acuna, Claudio; Covy, Jason; Xu, Wei; Yang, Nan; Danko, Tamas; Chen, Lu; Wernig, Marius; Südhof, Thomas C

    2013-06-05

    Available methods for differentiating human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) into neurons are often cumbersome, slow, and variable. Alternatively, human fibroblasts can be directly converted into induced neuronal (iN) cells. However, with present techniques conversion is inefficient, synapse formation is limited, and only small amounts of neurons can be generated. Here, we show that human ESCs and iPSCs can be converted into functional iN cells with nearly 100% yield and purity in less than 2 weeks by forced expression of a single transcription factor. The resulting ES-iN or iPS-iN cells exhibit quantitatively reproducible properties independent of the cell line of origin, form mature pre- and postsynaptic specializations, and integrate into existing synaptic networks when transplanted into mouse brain. As illustrated by selected examples, our approach enables large-scale studies of human neurons for questions such as analyses of human diseases, examination of human-specific genes, and drug screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid single-step upconversion-linked immunosorbent assay for diclofenac

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Antonín; Peterek, M.; Farka, Z.; Mickert, M. J.; Prechtl, L.; Knopp, D.; Gorris, H H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 10 (2017), s. 4159-4165 ISSN 0026-3672 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015043 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bioconjugation * electrophoretic purification * immunoassay * luminescence Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.580, year: 2016

  11. Step-flow kinetics in nanowire growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C-Y; Tersoff, J; Reuter, M C; Stach, E A; Ross, F M

    2010-11-05

    Nanowire growth occurs by step flow at the wire-catalyst interface, with strikingly different step-flow kinetics for solid versus liquid catalysts. Here we report quantitative in situ measurements of step flow together with a kinetic model that reproduces the behavior. This allows us to identify the key parameters controlling step-flow growth, evaluate changes in the catalyst composition during growth, and identify the most favorable conditions for growing abrupt heterojunctions in nanowires.

  12. Effect of pulsatile blood flow on thrombosis potential with a step wall transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Scott C; Ajdari, Amin; Coskun, Ahmet U; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that thrombus can be formed at stagnation regions in blood flow. However, studies of thrombus formation have typically focused on steady state flow. We hypothesize that pulsating flow may reduce persistent stagnation at the sites of low shear stress by decreasing exposure time. In this study, a step-wall transition, which is commonly found on implantable devices, is used as a test bed causing a recirculation vortex. Stagnation at such a step is considered using computational fluid dynamics studies and flow visualization experiments. Parametric studies were performed with varying step height, pulsatility, and velocity. The percentage of time along the wall with shear stresses below a threshold for thrombosis and the total length of wall that maintains contact with stagnant flow throughout the cardiac cycle are calculated. Persistent stagnation occurs at the corner of a step-wall transition in all cases and is observed to decrease with a decrease in step height, an increase in mean velocity, and an increase in pulsatility. Under steady flow conditions, a flow reattachment point resulting from recirculation is observed with expanding steps, whereas a flow separation point is observed with contracting steps. Pulsatility decreases persistent stagnation at the flow separation point with contracting steps, whereas it completely eliminates persistent stagnation at the flow reattachment point with expanding steps. The results of this work conclusively show that stagnation can be reduced by increasing pulsatility and flow velocity and by decreasing step height.

  13. Step-Wise Migration : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardede, Elda; McCann, Philip; Venhorst, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study multiple internal migration trajectories in Indonesia, with special attention to step-wise migration. Step-wise migration involves moves with smaller steps from village to nearby small town, to larger town, and then to big cities rather than a direct move from

  14. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means, in...

  15. The Complexity of One-Step Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of one-step equations from a cognitive load theory perspective uncovers variation within one-step equations. The complexity of one-step equations arises from the element interactivity across the operational and relational lines. The higher the number of operational and relational lines, the greater the complexity of the equations.…

  16. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Iran, and North Korea. For these countries, you may skip Steps 7 through 11 and go directly to Step 12..., Iran, and North Korea), prohibited activities of U.S. persons in support of proliferation of weapons of... the United States, review Steps 27 through 29 concerning Shipper's Export Declarations to be filed...

  17. Interactive Cognitive-Motor Step Training Improves Cognitive Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoene, Daniel; Valenzuela, Trinidad; Toson, Barbara; Delbaere, Kim; Severino, Connie; Garcia, Jaime; Davies, Thomas A; Russell, Frances; Smith, Stuart T; Lord, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    ...) without major cognitive impairment. Participants in the intervention group (IG) played four stepping games that required them to divide attention, inhibit irrelevant stimuli, switch between tasks, rotate objects and make rapid decisions...

  18. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  19. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  20. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  1. 48 CFR 52.214-25 - Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step Two of Two-Step... Clauses 52.214-25 Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-6(t), insert the following provision: Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding (APR 1985) (a) This invitation for bids is issued to initiate...

  2. Effects of Chunking and Line Length on Reading Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Stacey A.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that both chunking and shorter line lengths have positive effects on reading efficiency but that high line length variability has a stronger negative effect. Suggests that, because chunking increases line length variability, it can interfere with reading. (FL)

  3. Generation of Length Distribution, Length Diagram, Fibrogram, and Statistical Characteristics by Weight of Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azzouz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.

  4. Tubulin glycylation controls primary cilia length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadadhar, Sudarshan; Dadi, Hala; Bodakuntla, Satish; Schnitzler, Anne; Bièche, Ivan; Rusconi, Filippo; Janke, Carsten

    2017-09-04

    As essential components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, microtubules fulfill a variety of functions that can be temporally and spatially controlled by tubulin posttranslational modifications. Tubulin glycylation has so far been mostly found on motile cilia and flagella, where it is involved in the stabilization of the axoneme. In contrast, barely anything is known about the role of glycylation in primary cilia because of limitations in detecting this modification in these organelles. We thus developed novel glycylation-specific antibodies with which we detected glycylation in many primary cilia. Glycylation accumulates in primary cilia in a length-dependent manner, and depletion or overexpression of glycylating enzymes modulates the length of primary cilia in cultured cells. This strongly suggests that glycylation is essential for the homeostasis of primary cilia, which has important implications for human disorders related to primary cilia dysfunctions, such as ciliopathies and certain types of cancer. © 2017 Gadadhar et al.

  5. Length-scale dependent phonon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Gyaneshwar

    2014-01-01

    This book presents  a comprehensive description of phonons and their interactions in systems with different dimensions and length scales. Internationally-recognized leaders describe theories and measurements of phonon interactions  in relation to the design of materials with exotic properties such as metamaterials, nano-mechanical systems, next-generation electronic, photonic, and acoustic devices, energy harvesting, optical information storage, and applications of phonon lasers in a variety of fields. The emergence of techniques for control of semiconductor properties and geometry has enabled engineers to design structures in which functionality is derived from controlling electron behavior. As manufacturing techniques have greatly expanded the list of available materials and the range of attainable length scales, similar opportunities now exist for designing devices whose functionality is derived from controlling phonon behavior. However, progress in this area is hampered by gaps in our knowledge of phono...

  6. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  7. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonay Toledo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement.

  8. A rapid and convergent synthesis of the integrastatin core

    KAUST Repository

    Tadross, Pamela M.

    2011-01-01

    The tetracyclic core of the integrastatin natural products has been prepared in a convergent and rapid manner. Our strategy relies upon a palladium(ii)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization to form the central [3.3.1]-dioxabicycle of the natural product core. Overall, the core has been completed in only 4 linear steps from known compounds. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Sonography, Renal length, Renal. Parenchymal Thickness, Renal Biopsy. Résumé. But: Pour determiner 1e rapport entre l'épaisseur parenchymal rénale sonographic (RPT) et la longueur rénale (RL) dans le nigérien normal (1' adulte. Conception D'Etude: Le RL et le RPT de 309 sujets normaux dans la marge ...

  10. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Heidinger, B. J.; Blount, J.D.; Boner, W.; Griffiths, K.; Metcalfe, N.B.; Monaghan, P.

    2012-01-01

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either ...

  11. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....

  12. Effect of Stitch Length on Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Y, Gislason H, Svanes K, Israelsson LA. Mass closure technique : an experimental study on separation of wound edge. Eur J Surg. 2001;167(1): 60-63...challenged the surgical dogma of obtaining large fascial bites when closing abdominal wounds.2 This study used a novel experimental design with 2 different...patients in each group with a suture to wound length ratio of less than 4? It is remarkable how a simple change in technique re- sulted in such a

  13. Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    By this definition , roughness length, although defined at a specific point , substantially depends upon the morphology of the surface in some...circulations at Cape Canaveral have been conducted in situ using Doppler radar and cloud photogrammetry (Wakimoto and Atkins 1993); observations (Reed 1979...the sea-breeze front during CaPE. part I: single-Doppler, satellite, and cloud photogrammetry analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1092–1114. Wang, Q

  14. Firm-Specific Training and Contract Length.

    OpenAIRE

    Cantor, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Wages subject to continuous renegotiations provide inefficient incentives for the creation of firm-specific human capital if training requires both firm investment and worker effort. Noncontingent career-long, fixed-wage contracts do not induce efficient levels of training because they award all the quasi-rents from training to the firm, leaving no incentive for trainee effort. Intermediate-length, fixed-wage contracts with known expiration dates can improve training incentives. During the li...

  15. Phonemic vowel length contrasts in cerebellar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, H; Gräber, S; Hertrich, I; Daum, I

    1999-04-01

    Apraxia of speech and Broca's aphasia both affect voice onset time (VOT) whereas phonemic vowel length distinctions seem to be preserved. Assuming a close cooperation of anterior perisylvian language zones and the cerebellum with respect to speech timing, a similar profile of segment durations must be expected in ataxic dysarthria. In order to test this hypothesis, patients with cerebellar atrophy or cerebellar ischemia were asked to produce sentence utterances including either one of the German lexial items "Rate" (/ra:t(h)e/, 'installment'), "Ratte" (/rat(h)e/, 'rat'), "Gram" (/gra:m/, 'grief'), "Gramm" (/gram/, 'gramm'), "Taten" (/t(h)atn/, 'actions'), or "Daten" (/datn/, 'data'). At the acoustic signal, the duration of the target vowels /a/ and /a:/ as well as the VOT of the word-initial alveolar stops /d/ and /t/ were determined. In addition, a master tape comprising the target words from patients and controls in randomized order was played to three listeners for perceptual evaluation. In accordance with a previous study, first, the cerebellar subjects presented with a reduced categorical separation of the VOT of voiced and unvoiced stop consonants. Second, vowel length distinctions were only compromised in case of the minimal pair "Gram"/"Gramm." In contrast to "Rate"/"Ratte", production of the former lexical items requires coordination of several orofacial structures. Disruption of vowel length contrasts would, thus, depend upon the complexity of the underlying articulatory pattern. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  18. Lower limb loading during knee up in step aerobics: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażkiewicz Michalina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Step aerobics is a form of aerobic power distinguished from other types of aerobic exercise by its use of an elevated platform. The purpose of this study was to examine how the aerobic exercise “knee up” affects kinematic and kinetic parameters and, above all, the length of the muscle contractions.

  19. High-accuracy interferometric measurements of flatness and parallelism of a step gauge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, OA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used method in the calibration of step gauges is the coordinate measuring machine (CMM), equipped with a laser interferometer for the highest accuracy. This paper describes a modification to a length-bar measuring machine...

  20. A Predictive Model for USMLE Step 1 Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Christin; Hutchinson, David; Peppler, Richard

    2016-09-07

    The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 plays a pivotal role in one's residency application. While prior literature has investigated which factors influence performance on the examination, the authors sought to include factors such as performance on a well-used question bank and financial need to develop a predictive model. After obtaining institutional review board approval, the authors surveyed two consecutive second-year medical school classes and correlated the data to the students' Step 1 and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) scores. The survey included questions such as how many days they studied per week, how many days they studied in total, which resources they used, how they performed on question banks, group studying habits, and whether they were receiving financial aid. The authors also assessed whether the students received only A letter grades during the first year of medical school. The authors used SPSS® Statistics V22.0 (IBM® Corporation, NY, USA ) and included one-way analysis of covariance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression for statistical analysis. Eighty-one students completed the survey with an average Step 1 score of 240.5 and with an average study time of 39.5 days. The Step 1 Scores significantly correlated with the CBSE taken immediately preceding the dedicated study period (r=0.711, P=CBSE=the three-digit score of the CBSE taken prior to the dedicated study period. Academic performance and financial need may predict Step 1 scores. Interestingly, the number of days studied did not have a correlation with scores, suggesting that increased length of study may not ameliorate poor grades.

  1. Investigation on entrance length for electroosmotic flow in circular and noncircular cross section nanochannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakub, Tuan Norjihan Tuan; Yunas, Jumril; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2017-09-01

    Characteristics of bulk electroosmotic flow in nanochannel are different to microchannel because the electric double layer (EDL) becomes comparable to the channel height. This work presents a numerical investigation on the entrance length of pure electroosmotic flow inside 3D rectangular, cylinder and triangular nanochannel with same channel length. The electric field is fixed at 250 kV/cm for all models. A finite element analysis has been performed to solve the governing equation for laminar flow under the influenced of an electric field. The entry length estimation for fully developed electroosmotic laminar flow in a circular and noncircular cross sections are compared by evaluating the electroosmotic velocity magnitude and flow profiles at the centre line cut plane inside the nanochannel. The entrance length in nanochannel is found shorter in a smaller depth flow in rectangular, cylinder and triangular channels. While the triangular nanochannel has the shortest entry length for fully developed laminar flow compare to other cross section shape models. The effect of a step change in ζ-potential on the channel wall surface to the electroosmotic flow entrance length is also presented.

  2. Sensitivity of a thermodynamic sea ice model with leads to time step size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of sea ice models, developed to study the physics of the growth and melt of ice at the ocean surface and the variations in ice extent, depend on the size of the time step. Thus, to study longer-term variations within a reasonable computer budget, a model with a scheme allowing longer time steps has been constructed. However, the results produced by the model can definitely depend on the length of the time step. The sensitivity of a model to time-step size can be reduced by appropriate approaches. The present investigation is concerned with experiments which use a formulation of a lead parameterization that can be considered as a first step toward the development of a lead parameterization suitable for a use in long-term climate studies.

  3. Two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing hulls with open and pressurized air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of hydrodynamic discrete sources is applied for two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing surfaces. The water surface deformations, wetted hull lengths, and pressure distribution are calculated at given hull attitude and Froude number. Pressurized air cavities that improve hydrodynamic performance can also be modeled with the current method. Presented results include validation examples, parametric calculations of a single-step hull, effect of trim tabs, and performance of an infinite series of periodic stepped surfaces. It is shown that transverse steps can lead to higher lift-drag ratio, although at reduced lift capability, in comparison with a stepless hull. Performance of a multi-step configuration is sensitive to the wave pattern between hulls, which depends on Froude number and relative hull spacing.

  4. Algal biomass conversion to bioethanol - a step-by-step assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Razif; Yip, Jason W S; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Ghani, Wan A W A K; Cherrington, Tamara; Danquah, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in global population and the ongoing development of countries such as China and India have contributed to a rapid increase in worldwide energy demand. Fossil fuels such as oil and gas are finite resources, and their current rate of consumption cannot be sustained. This, coupled with fossil fuels' role as pollutants and their contribution to global warming, has led to increased interest in alternative sources of energy production. Bioethanol, presently produced from energy crops, is one such promising alternative future energy source and much research is underway in optimizing its production. The economic and temporal constraints that crop feedstocks pose are the main downfalls in terms of the commercial viability of bioethanol production. As an alternative to crop feedstocks, significant research efforts have been put into utilizing algal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Whilst the overall process can vary, the conversion of biomass to bioethanol usually contains the following steps: (i) pretreatment of feedstock; (ii) hydrolysis; and (iii) fermentation of bioethanol. This paper reviews different technologies utilized in the pretreatment and fermentation steps, and critically assesses their applicability to bioethanol production from algal biomass. Two different established fermentation routes, single-stage fermentation and two-stage gasification/fermentation processes, are discussed. The viability of algal biomass as an alternative feedstock has been assessed adequately, and further research optimisation must be guided toward the development of cost-effective scalable methods to produce high bioethanol yield under optimum economy. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  6. Quantitative determinants of aerobic glycolysis identify flux through the enzyme GAPDH as a limiting step

    OpenAIRE

    Shestov, Alexander A; Liu, Xiaojing; Ser, Zheng; Cluntun, Ahmad A; Hung, Yin P; Huang, Lei; Kim, Dongsung; Le, Anne; Yellen, Gary; Albeck, John G; Locasale, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Cells generate energy from a sugar called glucose via a process called glycolysis. This process involves many enzymes that catalyze 10 different chemical reactions, and it essentially converts glucose step-by-step into a simpler chemical called pyruvate. Pyruvate is then normally transported into structures within the cell called mitochondria, where it is further broken down using oxygen to release more energy. However, in cells that are rapidly dividing, pyruvate is converted in...

  7. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tao; Liu, Di; Li, Zhiheng

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs) and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs) plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected) sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantl...

  8. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Rapid determination of total phenols in seawater by 4-aminoantipyrine colorimetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Bhangale, V.P.

    A rapid and efficient 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) colorimetric method without any cleanup step to determine total phenols in seawater is described. Efficiency of the method for seawater using external addition of phenol concentrations with working...

  11. DHS Internship Summary-Crystal Assembly at Different Length Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, L

    2009-08-06

    I was part of a project in which in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor growth and dissolution of atomic and colloidal crystals. At both length scales, the chemical environment of the system greatly altered crystal growth and dissolution. Calcium phosphate was used as a model system for atomic crystals. A dissolution-reprecipitation reaction was observed in this first system, involving the conversion of brushite (DCPD) to octacalcium phosphate (OCP). In the second system, polymeric colloidal crystals were dissolved in an ionic solvent, revealing the underlying structure of the crystal. The dissolved crystal was then regrown through an evaporative step method. Recently, we have also found that colloids can be reversibly deposited in situ onto an ITO (indium tin oxide) substrate via an electrochemistry setup. The overall goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control crystallization and order, so that these might be controlled during material synthesis. Controlled assembly of materials over a range of length scales from molecules to nanoparticles to colloids is critical for designing new materials. In particular, developing materials for sensor applications with tailorable properties and long range order is important. In this work, we examine two of these length scales: small molecule crystallization of calcium phosphate (whose crystal phases include DCPD, OCP, and HAP) and colloidal crystallization of Poly(methyl methacrylate) beads. Atomic Force Microscopy is ideal for this line of work because it allows for the possibility of observing non-conducting samples in fluid during growth with high resolution ({approx} 10 nm). In fact, during atomic crystal growth one can observe changes in atomic steps, and with colloidal crystals, one can monitor the individual building blocks of the crystal. Colloids and atoms crystallize under the influence of different forces acting at different length scales as seen in Table 1

  12. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  13. Efficient One-Step Fusion PCR Based on Dual-Asymmetric Primers and Two-Step Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Jinjin; Thygesen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Gene splicing by fusion PCR is a versatile and widely used methodology, especially in synthetic biology. We here describe a rapid method for splicing two fragments by one-round fusion PCR with a dual-asymmetric primers and two-step annealing (ODT) method. During the process, the asymmetric...... produced with this method were successfully applied in seamless genome editing. The fusion of two fragments by this method takes less than 0.5 day. The method is expected to facilitate various kinds of complex genetic engineering projects with enhanced efficiency....

  14. Three-component laser velocimeter surveys of the flow over a backward-facing step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelgaard, Scott O.

    1991-01-01

    A three-component laser velocimeter is used to investigate the flow over a backward-facing step. The backward-facing step had an expansion ratio of 2, a boundary layer height to step height ratio of 0.34 and a Reynolds number based on step height of 19,000. Results from three-component velocimeter surveys of the flow over the backward-facing step are presented with comparisons of the current experiment with previous experiments and computational results. The present results compared well with previous experiments with the exception of the reattachment length. The short reattachment length was due to the short length of the channel downstream. The measurement of the lateral velocity component showed that there is a mean flow in and out of the centerline plane as high as 7 percent of the freestream velocity. However, the shear stresses show no correlation between the lateral fluctuations and the longitudinal and vertical fluctuations, indicating that the flow is 2D in terms of the turbulence quantities.

  15. Parallel optical-path-length-shifting digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Takamasa; Tahara, Tatsuki; Ito, Kenichi; Shimozato, Yuki; Kaneko, Atsushi; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    The authors propose an optical-path-length-shifting digital holography as a technique capable of single-shot recording of three-dimensional information of objects. With a single image sensor, the proposed technique can simultaneously record all of the holograms required for the in-line digital holography that reconstruct the image of an object from two intensity measurements at different planes. The technique can be optically implemented by using an optical-path-length-shifting array device located in the common path of the reference and object waves. The array device has periodic structure of two-step optical-path difference. The configuration of the array device of the proposed technique is simpler than the phase-shifting array device required for parallel phase-shifting digital holographies. Therefore, the optical system of the proposed technique is more suitable for the realization of a single-shot in-line digital holography system that removes the conjugate image from the reconstructed image. The authors conducted both a numerical simulation and a preliminary experiment of the proposed technique. The reconstructed images were quantitatively evaluated by using root mean squared error. In comparison to single-shot digital holography using the Fresnel transform alone, with the proposed technique the root mean squared errors of the technique were reduced to less than 1/6 in amplitude and 1/3 in phase. Also the results of the simulation and experiment agreed well with the images of an object. Thus the effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified.

  16. Telomere Length Dynamics and the Evolution of Cancer Genome Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kez Cleal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are progressively eroded during repeated rounds of cell division due to the end replication problem but also undergo additional more substantial stochastic shortening events. In most cases, shortened telomeres induce a cell-cycle arrest or trigger apoptosis, although for those cells that bypass such signals during tumour progression, a critical length threshold is reached at which telomere dysfunction may ensue. Dysfunction of the telomere nucleoprotein complex can expose free chromosome ends to the DNA double-strand break (DSB repair machinery, leading to telomere fusion with both telomeric and non-telomeric loci. The consequences of telomere fusions in promoting genome instability have long been appreciated through the breakage–fusion–bridge (BFB cycle mechanism, although recent studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies have uncovered evidence of involvement in a wider spectrum of genomic rearrangements including chromothripsis. A critical step in cancer progression is the transition of a clone to immortality, through the stabilisation of the telomere repeat array. This can be achieved via the reactivation of telomerase, or the induction of the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT pathway. Whilst telomere dysfunction may promote genome instability and tumour progression, by limiting the replicative potential of a cell and enforcing senescence, telomere shortening can act as a tumour suppressor mechanism. However, the burden of senescent cells has also been implicated as a driver of ageing and age-related pathology, and in the promotion of cancer through inflammatory signalling. Considering the critical role of telomere length in governing cancer biology, we review questions related to the prognostic value of studying the dynamics of telomere shortening and fusion, and discuss mechanisms and consequences of telomere-induced genome rearrangements.

  17. An efficient and more sustainable one-step continuous-flow multicomponent synthesis approach to chromene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and rapid one-step continuous-flow synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of chromene derivatives from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes, α-cyanomethylene compounds and naphthols. In this contribution, a one-step continuous-flow protocol in a continuous ...

  18. Gene length as a biological timer to establish temporal transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, Killeen S; Magnuson, Brian; Paulsen, Michelle T; Lu, Brian; Bedi, Karan; Ljungman, Mats

    2017-02-01

    Transcriptional timing is inherently influenced by gene length, thus providing a mechanism for temporal regulation of gene expression. While gene size has been shown to be important for the expression timing of specific genes during early development, whether it plays a role in the timing of other global gene expression programs has not been extensively explored. Here, we investigate the role of gene length during the early transcriptional response of human fibroblasts to serum stimulation. Using the nascent sequencing techniques Bru-seq and BruUV-seq, we identified immediate genome-wide transcriptional changes following serum stimulation that were linked to rapid activation of enhancer elements. We identified 873 significantly induced and 209 significantly repressed genes. Variations in gene size allowed for a large group of genes to be simultaneously activated but produce full-length RNAs at different times. The median length of the group of serum-induced genes was significantly larger than the median length of all expressed genes, housekeeping genes, and serum-repressed genes. These gene length relationships were also observed in corresponding mouse orthologs, suggesting that relative gene size is evolutionarily conserved. The sizes of transcription factor and microRNA genes immediately induced after serum stimulation varied dramatically, setting up a cascade mechanism for temporal expression arising from a single activation event. The retention and expansion of large intronic sequences during evolution have likely played important roles in fine-tuning the temporal expression of target genes in various cellular response programs.

  19. Towards Single-Step Biofabrication of Organs on a Chip via 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Yenilmez, Bekir; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-09-01

    Organ-on-a-chip engineering employs microfabrication of living tissues within microscale fluid channels to create constructs that closely mimic human organs. With the advent of 3D printing, we predict that single-step fabrication of these devices will enable rapid design and cost-effective iterations in the development stage, facilitating rapid innovation in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyperuniformity disorder length spectroscopy for extended particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    The concept of a hyperuniformity disorder length h was recently introduced for analyzing volume fraction fluctuations for a set of measuring windows [Chieco et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 032909 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032909]. This length permits a direct connection to the nature of disorder in the spatial configuration of the particles and provides a way to diagnose the degree of hyperuniformity in terms of the scaling of h and its value in comparison with established bounds. Here, this approach is generalized for extended particles, which are larger than the image resolution and can lie partially inside and partially outside the measuring windows. The starting point is an expression for the relative volume fraction variance in terms of four distinct volumes: that of the particle, the measuring window, the mean-squared overlap between particle and region, and the region over which particles have nonzero overlap with the measuring window. After establishing limiting behaviors for the relative variance, computational methods are developed for both continuum and pixelated particles. Exact results are presented for particles of special shape and for measuring windows of special shape, for which the equations are tractable. Comparison is made for other particle shapes, using simulated Poisson patterns. And the effects of polydispersity and image errors are discussed. For small measuring windows, both particle shape and spatial arrangement affect the form of the variance. For large regions, the variance scaling depends only on arrangement but particle shape sets the numerical proportionality. The combined understanding permit the measured variance to be translated to the spectrum of hyperuniformity lengths versus region size, as the quantifier of spatial arrangement. This program is demonstrated for a system of nonoverlapping particles at a series of increasing packing fractions as well as for an Einstein pattern of particles with several different extended shapes.

  1. The Value of Step-by-Step Risk Assessment for Unmanned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    The new European legislation expected in 2018 or 2019 will introduce a step-by-step process for conducting risk assessments for unmanned aircraft flight operations. This is a relatively simple approach to a very complex challenge. This work compares this step-by-step process to high fidelity risk...

  2. Convergence of step-by-step methods for non-linear integro-differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarsky, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    The theory of consistent step-by-step methods for solving Volterra integral equations is extended to nonsingular Volterra integro-differential equations. It is shown that standard step-by-step algorithms for these more general equations are convergent. Several numerical examples are included.

  3. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step-by-step dr......Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...... presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary...

  4. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  5. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  6. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gh.; Adam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1-16 (2012)] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule), mesoscopic (Simpson rule), and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision). Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  7. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  8. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. In vivo optical path lengths and path length resolved doppler shifts of multiply scattered light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2010-11-01

    In laser Doppler measurements, perfusion values averaged over different and basically unknown path lengths are recorded. To facilitate quantitative path length resolved perfusion measurements, we developed a phase modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatially separated fibers for illumination and detection. The goal of this study is to measure in vivo optical path lengths and path length resolved Doppler shifts and to compare these with conventional laser Doppler perfusion measurements. With a phase modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we performed path length resolved perfusion measurements on human skin and its variations to external stimuli and compared these with conventional laser Doppler perfusion measurements. The method was evaluated in three human subjects on the dorsal side of the forearm to establish inter-individual within-site variations. Measurements were performed at three different locations of one individual for observing intra-individual inter-site variations resulting from the heterogeneity of the tissue, both in the static matrix and in the microvascular architecture of the skin. In all measurements, perfusion was simultaneously measured with a conventional laser Doppler perfusion monitor. In this study, we show the first results of path length resolved perfusion measurements in skin and its variations to occlusion and Capsicum cream provocation. From our data, we deduced the Doppler shifted fraction of photons, which is related to the blood volume, and the path length dependent average Doppler shift, which is related to the mean velocities of red blood cells. The Doppler shifted fraction of photons is decreased from 28% to 18% during occlusion and increases to 41% when capsicum cream was applied to the skin. Inter- and intra-individual inter-site measurements demonstrated variations in optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler shifts. The Doppler shifted fraction of photons measured on the fingertip is about 38

  10. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  11. 7 CFR 28.307 - Bale of different staple lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bale of different staple lengths. 28.307 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.307 Bale of different staple lengths. Whenever the length of staple of cotton taken from one part of a bale is different from that taken from another part of the same bale, the...

  12. Multigrid, Fractional-Step Computation Of Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Rosenfeld, Moshe

    1996-01-01

    Speed of computer code solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations of flow of incompressible fluid by fractional-step method increased significantly by use of multigrid procedures. In method, equations solved on general nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate grid, using volume fluxes. At each time step, computations performed in two fractional steps. In first step, equations of conservation of momentum solved by use of gradient of pressure from previous time step via explicit approximate-factorization method, yielding approximate flow field that does not satisfy equation of conservation of mass. In second step, discrete Poisson-like equation with Neumann-type boundary conditions, formed by combining equations of conservation of momentum and mass, solved iteratively.

  13. Angstrom-range optical path-length measurement with a high-speed scanning heterodyne optical interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A

    2003-05-01

    A highly accurate method of optical path-length measurement is introduced by use of a scanning heterodyne optical interferometer with no moving parts. The instrument has demonstrated the potential to measure optical path length at angstrom resolution over continuous thickness in the micrometer range. This optical path length can be used to calculate the thickness of any material if the refractive index is known or to measure the refractive index of the material if the thickness is known. The instrument uses a single acousto-optic device in an in-line ultra-stable reflective geometry to implement rapid scanning in the microsecond domain for thickness measurements of the test medium.

  14. Step-Up and Step-Down Photoresponses in Blepharisma(Physology)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuomi, Matsuoka; Koji, Taneda; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University

    1992-01-01

    The cells of Blepharisma responded to a step-up in light intensity (step-up response) by ciliary reversal, while the cells showed a temporal repression of ciliary reversal which was accompanied by swimming acceleration when light intensity was suddenly decreased (step-down response). The step-up response occurred only in anterior fragments obtained by bisection of the cells, while the step-down response occurred in both of fragments. The topographical difference in photosensitivity indicates ...

  15. Local monitoring of atomic steps on GaAs(001) surface under oxidation, wet removal of oxides and thermal smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhundov, I.O.; Kazantsev, D.M. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Alperovich, V.L., E-mail: alper@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sheglov, D.V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kozhukhov, A.S.; Latyshev, A.V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Specific atomic steps are monitored on the structured GaAs surface by ex situ AFM. • Oxidation and wet oxide removal keep the position and shape of atomic steps intact. • Thermal surface smoothing is studied on the structured GaAs surface. • The deviation from equilibrium towards growth during smoothing is revealed. • The step length smoothing kinetics is described by Monte Carlo simulation. - Abstract: The GaAs(001) step-terraced surface relief is studied under oxidation, wet oxide removal and thermal smoothing by ex situ atomic force microscopy with local monitoring of specific atomic steps using lithographic marks for surface area localization. Oxidation in the air and wet oxide removal lead to the formation of monatomic dips on terraces, while atomic steps keep their position and shape. Monitoring step mean position under thermal smoothing allows us to determine the deviation from equilibrium. The experimental smoothing kinetics is well described by Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Lian He

    Full Text Available The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species - the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon. The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3'-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the 'replication slippage' of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study.

  17. Prediction of ovulation in women using a rapid progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.; Coults, J.R.T. (Glasgow Univ. (UK))

    1982-02-01

    A rapid (3-h) radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone has been developed and used successfully to predict the time of ovulation in women undergoing artificial insemination. The results obtained using progesterone levels to date the stage of the cycle were analysed retrospectively by (1) estimation of the length of the ensuing luteal phases and comparison of these with luteal phase lengths of a control group (2) comparison of the dating using progesterone levels with retrospective determination of LH values and (3) by analysis of the dating in cycles in which conception occurred.

  18. Venus Length-of-Day Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Campbell, D. B.; Peale, S. J.; Ghigo, F. D.

    2012-10-01

    Since 2004 we have been monitoring the instantaneous spin state of Venus with the goals of measuring the precession of the rotation axis and of quantifying daily, seasonal, and secular changes in length-of-day. We use the Goldstone and Green Bank Telescopes for these observations. The spin period of Venus is thought to be set by a delicate balance between solid-body tides and atmospheric torques that must vary as insolation and orbital parameters change [Bills 2005]. Our measurements to date reveal length-of-day (LOD) variations of 50 ppm. None of the models can be reconciled with the Magellan 500-day-average spin period of 243.0185 +/- 0.0001 days [Davies et al 1992], nor with a 16-year-average estimate of 243.023 +/- 0.002 days [Mueller et al 2012], nor with any other constant spin period. With our nominal solution we can rule out a constant spin period with over 99.9% confidence. When allowances are made for uncertainties in spin axis orientation and instantaneous spin measurement epochs, the confidence is reduced but remains higher than 99%. We attribute the LOD variations primarily to angular momentum exchange between the atmosphere and solid planet. Because there are so few constraints on the internal dynamical structure of the Venusian atmosphere, a time history of atmospheric angular momentum changes can be used to address questions related to the dynamics of the atmosphere, including its super-rotation, and climatic variations.

  19. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  20. Multiple-Path-Length Optical Absorbance Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An optical absorbance cell that offers a selection of multiple optical path lengths has been developed as part of a portable spectrometric instrument that measures absorption spectra of small samples of water and that costs less than does a conventional, non-portable laboratory spectrometer. The instrument is intended, more specifically, for use in studying colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in seawater, especially in coastal regions. Accurate characterization of CDOM is necessary for building bio-optical mathematical models of seawater. The multiple path lengths of the absorption cell afford a wide range of sensitivity needed for measuring the optical absorbances associated with the wide range of concentrations of CDOM observed in nature. The instrument operates in the wavelength range of 370 to 725 nm. The major subsystems of the instrument (see figure) include a color-balanced light source; the absorption cell; a peristaltic pump; a high-precision, low-noise fiber optic spectrometer; and a laptop or other personal computer. A fiber-optic cable transmits light from the source to the absorption cell. Other optical fibers transmit light from the absorption cell to the spectrometer,

  1. Asymmetrical Generalization of Length in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of rats in Experiment 1 were required to escape from a square pool by swimming to 1 of 2 submerged platforms that were situated beside the centers of 2 opposite walls. To help rats find a platform, black panels of equal width were pasted to the middle of the walls that were adjacent to the platforms. The width of the 2 panels was 50 cm for Group 50, and 100 cm for Group 100. Test trials were then conducted in the same pool, but with the platforms removed and with a 50-cm panel on 1 wall and a 100-cm panel on the opposite wall. Group 50 expressed a stronger preference for the 100-cm than the 50-cm panel during the test, whereas Group 100 expressed a similar preference for both panels. Thus the degree of generalization from the short to the long panel was greater than from the long to the short panel. Experiments 2 and 3 pointed to the same conclusion. They were of a similar design to Experiment 1, except that the lengths of the panels for the 2 groups were 25 and 50 cm in Experiment 2, and 25 and 100 cm in Experiment 3. The results are explained by assuming the original training results in the walls without black panels entering into inhibitory associations. This inhibition is then assumed to generalize more to the short than the long test panels and thereby result in an asymmetry in the gradients of generalization between the different lengths. PMID:25915754

  2. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  3. [Cervical length in predicting preterm labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gómez, Servando Germán; García-Morales, Martha Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is the birth occurring between 20-37 weeks gestation. Is responsible for 75% of neonatal mortality in infants without congenital malformations. To determine the prognostic factor of cervical length measurement in threatened preterm labor, in patients treated at a hospital in Veracruz, Mexico. Observational, prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study performed at the Obstetrics and Perinatology services of the Hospital General de Zona Núm. 71, IMSS, from May to December 2007. patients admitted to the obstetrics service with a diagnosis of preterm labor of 22 to 36 weeks, single gestation. history of premature rupture of membranes, uterine malformation, stillbirth, pregnancies of fetuses with birth defects, carriers of cerclage and a history of cervical cone biopsy. The cervicometry was performed with 7-9 MHz vaginal transducer; increased risk of preterm delivery were considered in patients with cervical length 25 mm and > or = 38 weeks gestation also agreed (true negatives). The sensitivity to correctly predict preterm delivery was 71%, specificity of 98%, positive predictive value of 91% and negative predictive value of 94%, so the cervicometry is considered a useful tool for treatment and monitoring of preterm delivery.

  4. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  5. Smart Steps to Sustainability 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart Steps to Sustainability provides small business owners and managers with practical advice and tools to implementsustainable and environmentally-preferable business practices that go beyond compliance.

  6. The experiment to detect equivalent optical path difference in independent double aperture interference light path based on step scanning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Chen, Xin-yang; Zheng, Lixin; Ding, Yuanyuan

    2014-11-01

    Fringe test is the method which can detect the relative optical path difference in optical synthetic aperture telescope array. To get to the interference fringes, the two beams of light in the meeting point must be within the coherence length. Step scanning method is within its coherence length, selecting a specific step, changing one-way's optical path of both by changing position of micro displacement actuator. At the same time, every fringe pattern can be recorded. The process of fringe patterns is from appearing to clear to disappearing. Firstly, a particular pixel is selected. Then, we keep tract of the intensity of every picture in the same position. From the intensity change, the best position of relative optical path difference can be made sure. The best position of relative optical path difference is also the position of the clearest fringe. The wavelength of the infrared source is 1290nm and the bandwidth is 63.6nm. In this experiment, the coherence length of infrared source is detected by cube reflection experiment. The coherence length is 30μm by data collection and data processing, and that result of 30μm is less different from the 26μm of theoretical calculated. In order to further test the relative optical path of optical synthetic aperture using step scanning method, the infrared source is placed into optical route of optical synthesis aperture telescope double aperture. The precision position of actuator can be obtained when the fringe is the clearest. By the experiment, we found that the actuating step affects the degree of precision of equivalent optical path. The smaller step size, the more accurate position. But the smaller the step length, means that more steps within the coherence length measurement and the longer time.

  7. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  8. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  9. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  10. A New Universal Gas Breakdown Theory for Classical Length Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Amanda Mae

    While Paschen's law is commonly used to predict breakdown voltage, it fails at microscale gaps when field emission becomes important. Accurate breakdown voltage predictions at microscale are even more important as electronic device dimensions decrease. Developing analytic models to accurately predict breakdown at microscale is vital for understanding the underlying physics occurring within the system and to either prevent or produce a discharge, depending on the application. We first take a pre-existing breakdown model coupling field emission and Townsend breakdown and perform a matched asymptotic analysis to obtain analytic equations for breakdown voltage in argon at atmospheric pressure. Next, we extend this model to generalize for gas and further explore the independent contributions of field emission and Townsend discharge. Finally, we present analytic expressions for breakdown voltage valid for any gas at any pressure, and discuss the modified Paschen minimum at microscale. The presented models agree well with numerical simulations and experimental data when using the field enhancement factor as a fitting parameter. The work presented in this thesis is a first step in unifying gas breakdown across length scales and breakdown mechanisms. Future work will aim to incorporate other breakdown mechanisms, such as quantum effects and space charge, to provide a more complete unified model for gas breakdown.

  11. Effects of anisosmotic stress on cardiac muscle cell length, diameter, area, and sarcomere length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, R.; Barnes, M. A.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of anisosmotic stress on adult mammalian cardiac muscle cell (cardiocyte) size. Cardiocyte size and sarcomere length were measured in cardiocytes isolated from 10 normal rats and 10 normal cats. Superfusate osmolarity was decreased from 300 +/- 6 to 130 +/- 5 mosM and increased to 630 +/- 8 mosM. Cardiocyte size and sarcomere length increased progressively when osmolarity was decreased, and there were no significant differences between cat and rat cardiocytes with respect to percent change in cardiocyte area or diameter; however, there were significant differences in cardiocyte length (2.8 +/- 0.3% in cat vs. 6.1 +/- 0.3% in rat, P cell size relation is useful in assessing the cardiocyte response to anisosmotic stress and may in future studies be useful in assessing changes in relative passive cardiocyte stiffness produced by pathological processes.

  12. SYNAPTIC TRANSLATION OF STRIATAL-ENRICHED TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE (STEP) AFTER β1-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR STIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaer; Zhang, Yang; Venkitaramani, Deepa V.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The β-adrenergic system is implicated in long-term synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system, a process that requires protein synthesis. To identify proteins that are translated in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation and the pathways that regulate this process, we investigated the effects of isoproterenol on the translation of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) in both cortico-striatal slices and primary neuronal cultures. Isoproterenol stimulation induced a rapid dose-dependent increase in STEP expression. Anisomycin blocked the increase in STEP expression while actinomycin D had no effect, suggesting a translation-dependent mechanism. Isoproterenol-induced STEP translation required activation of β1 receptors. Application of the MEK inhibitor SL327 blocked both isoproterenol-induced activation of pERK and subsequent STEP translation. Inhibitors of PI3K (LY294002) or mTOR (rapamycin) also completely blocked STEP translation. These results suggest that co-activation of both the ERK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways are required for STEP translation. As the substrates of STEP include ERK itself, these results suggest that STEP is translated upon β-adrenergic activation as part of a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:17623046

  13. Translation of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) after beta1-adrenergic receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaer; Zhang, Yang; Venkitaramani, Deepa V; Lombroso, Paul J

    2007-10-01

    The beta-adrenergic system is implicated in long-term synaptic plasticity in the CNS, a process that requires protein synthesis. To identify proteins that are translated in response to beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation and the pathways that regulate this process, we investigated the effects of isoproterenol on the translation of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) in both cortico-striatal slices and primary neuronal cultures. Isoproterenol stimulation induced a rapid dose-dependent increase in STEP expression. Anisomycin blocked the increase in STEP expression while actinomycin D had no effect, suggesting a translation-dependent mechanism. Isoproterenol-induced STEP translation required activation of beta1-receptors. Application of the MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor SL327 blocked both isoproterenol-induced activation of pERK and subsequent STEP translation. Inhibitors of PI3K (LY294002) or mTOR (rapamycin) also completely blocked STEP translation. These results suggest that co-activation of both the ERK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways are required for STEP translation. As one of the substrates of STEP includes ERK itself, these results suggest that STEP is translated upon beta-adrenergic activation as part of a negative feedback mechanism.

  14. Short Telomere Length and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madrid, Alexander Scheller; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short telomeres are associated with aging and have been associated with a high risk of ischemic heart disease in observational studies; however, the latter association could be due to residual confounding and/or reverse causation. We wanted to test the hypothesis that short telomeres...... are associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease using a Mendelian randomization approach free of reverse causation and of most confounding. METHODS: We genotyped 3 genetic variants in OBFC1 (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold containing 1), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), and TERC...... (telomerase RNA component), which code for proteins and RNA involved in telomere maintenance. We studied 105 055 individuals from Copenhagen; 17 235 of these individuals were diagnosed with ischemic heart disease between 1977 and 2013, and 66 618 had telomere length measured. For genetic studies, we further...

  15. The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL...... variation among adults. A number of studies have estimated the heritability of LTL, but none has assessed the heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition. METHODS: We examined the heritability of LTL dynamics based on a longitudinal evaluation (an average follow-up of 12 years) in 355 monozygotic and 297...... dizygotic same-sex twins (aged 19-64 years at baseline). RESULTS: Heritability of LTL at baseline was estimated at 64% (95% CI 39% to 83%) with 22% (95% CI 6% to 49%) of shared environmental effects. Heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition rate was estimated at 28% (95% CI 16% to 44%). Individually...

  16. Tolman's length and limiting supersaturation of vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseechkin, Nikolay V.

    2018-01-01

    The classical Kelvin formula for the equilibrium vapor pressure over a droplet of radius R is extended to small radii and vapor non-ideality, from where the limiting supersaturation condition is obtained by relating the point R = 0 to the value of limiting (spinodal) supersaturation of vapor. The analysis of different dependences of the Tolman length on radius, δ (R) , obeying this condition suggests that (i) the value of δ (0) is positive and the function δ (R) decreases with increasing radius; (ii) the curvature effect (the dependence of surface tension on radius) in the nucleation region is determined by the value of δ (0) . At the same time, this effect is weakly sensitive to the form of the function δ (R) and insensitive to its asymptotic value δ∞ .

  17. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results...... increased with the number of recording days and was minimum 10 % higher for 7 days compared to 4 days. The number of eating occasions per day and the number of reported food items per meal did not differ between 4 and 7 recording days. Conclusion: Reducing the recording period from 7 to 4 consecutive days...

  18. Penile erections: shape, angle, and length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, J

    1997-01-01

    A U.S. Census-matched sample of 1,484 men between 20 and 69 years old from archived data of the Kinsey Institute and current questionnaire plus documentary photo data from a new sample of 81 men between 21 and 67 years old were analyzed to generate a description of penile erections that might act as a useful information base for therapists and others. Estimates derived from Kinsey data on erections were found to provide a credible foundation of fact, with the current questionnaire and photo analysis implying the need for moderate increases in the Kinsey figures in three areas: (a) more n-curved (downward curved) erections, about 15% of the total; (b) more erection angles in the lower ranges, with at least one fourth below horizontal; and (c) a greater proportion of shorter erections, with lengths in the 4.5-5.75 in. range, representing about 40% of the total.

  19. Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlberger, Andreas; Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Guo, Er-Jia; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Onbasli, Mehmet C; Kim, Dong Hun; Ross, Caroline A; Jungfleisch, Matthias B; Hillebrands, Burkard; Nowak, Ulrich; Kläui, Mathias

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50  μm at room temperature and 50 K. Our results reveal a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found.

  20. Rapid Construction of Complex Plant RNA Virus Infectious cDNA Clones for Agroinfection Using a Yeast-E. coli-Agrobacterium Shuttle Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Danyang; Liu, Yong; Huang, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhenghe

    2017-11-07

    The availability of infectious full-length clone is indispensable for reverse genetics studies of virus biology, pathology and construction of viral vectors. However, for RNA viruses with large genome sizes or those exhibiting inherent cloning difficulties, procedure to generate biologically active circular DNA (cDNA) clones can be time-consuming or technically challenging. Here we have constructed a yeast- Escherichia coli - Agrobacterium shuttle vector that enables highly efficient homologous recombination in yeast for assembly of Agrobacterium compatible plant virus clones. Using this vector, we show that infectious cDNA clones of a plant negative-stranded RNA virus, sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus, can be rapidly assembled. In addition, one-step assembly of infectious clones of potato virus Y in yeast, either with or without intron, was readily achieved from as many as eight overlapping DNA fragments. More importantly, the recovered yeast plasmids can be transformed directly into Agrobacterium for inoculation, thereby obviating the E. coli cloning steps and associated toxicity issues. This method is rapid, highly efficient and cost-effective and should be readily applicable to a broad range of plant viruses.