WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid ion transport

  1. High security ion-lithium batteries with rapid recharge for the terrestrial transport and energy storage; Batteries de type ion-lithium de haute securite a recharge rapide pour le transport terrestre et le stockage d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghib, Karim; Dontigny, M.; Charest, P.; Guerfi, A.; Trotier, J.; Mathieu, M.C.; Zhu, W.; Petitclerc, M.; Veillette, R.; Serventi, A.; Hovington, P.; Lagace, M.; Trudeau, M.; Vijh, A.

    2010-09-15

    Electrical terrestrial transport is today a hub of innovation and growth for Hydro-Quebec. In the perspective of electrification of terrestrial transports, battery remains the critical factor of future success of rechargeable electrical vehicles. For nearly 20 years, Hydro-Quebec, via its research institute, has worked at developing battery material for the lithium-ion technology. Two types of Li-ion batteries have been developed: the energy battery and the power battery. [French] Le transport terrestre electrique est aujourd'hui un pole d'innovation et de croissance pour Hydro-Quebec. Dans la perspective de l'electrification des transports terrestres, la batterie demeure le facteur critique du succes futur des vehicules electriques rechargeables. Depuis pres de 20 ans, Hydro-Quebec, par le biais de son Institut de recherche, travaille au developpement de materiaux de batteries destinees a la technologie lithium-ion. Deux types de batteries Li-ion ont ete mises au point : la batterie d'energie et la batterie de puissance.

  2. Ion transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived

  3. Metal ion transporters and homeostasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, N

    1999-01-01

    Transition metals are essential for many metabolic processes and their homeostasis is crucial for life. Aberrations in the cellular metal ion concentrations may lead to cell death and severe diseases. Metal ion transporters play a major role in maintaining the correct concentrations of the various metal ions in the different cellular compartments. Recent studies of yeast mutants revealed key elements in metal ion homeostasis, including novel transport systems. Several of the proteins discover...

  4. Transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of using intense bursts of heavy ions to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated interest in the transport of intense unneutralized heavy ion beams by quadrupole or solenoid systems. This problem was examined in some detail, using numerical integration of the coupled envelope equations for the quadrupole case. The general relations which emerge are used to develop examples of high energy transport systems and as a basis for discussing the limitations imposed by a transport system on achievable intensities for initial acceleration

  5. Turbulent transport of energetic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannert, Tilman; Hauff, Thilo; Jenko, Frank; Guenter, Sibylle

    2006-01-01

    Approaching ITER operation, the issue of anomalous transport of fast particles becomes more and more important. This is partly because the ITER heating and current drive system relies heavily on neutral beam injection. Moreover burning plasmas are heated by fast fusion α particles.Fusion α particles are characterised by a fixed energy and an isotropic velocity distribution. Therefore they have gyroradii one magnitude larger than the thermal ions. The dependency of the particle diffusion of α test particles on the Kubo number K = VExBτc/λc (VExB mean E x B velocity, τc, λc correlation time and length of the turbulent potential) is presented. For different turbulent regimes, different dependency of the diffusion on the gyroradius is found. For large Kubo numbers, the transport is found to remain constant for gyroradii up to the correlation length of the potential, whereas it is drastically reduced in the small Kubo number regime.In the second part, a model for beam ions injected along the equilibrium magnetic field is described. The beam ions are treated gyrokinetically in a self-consistent way with the equilibrium distribution function taken as a shifted Maxwellian. The implications of such a model for the Vlasov equation, the field equations, and the calculation of moments and fluxes are discussed. Linear and nonlinear results, obtained with the gyrokinetic flux tube code GENE show the existence of a new instability driven by fast beam ions. The instability has a maximum growth rate at perpendicular wave numbers of kyρs ∼ 0.15 and depends mainly on the beam velocity and the density gradient of the beam ions. This instability leads to a replacement of bulk ion particle transport by fast ion particle transport, connected to a strongly enhanced heat flux. In the presence of this instability, the turbulent particle and heat transport is dominated by fast ions

  6. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  7. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  8. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenhut Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalites in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed.

  9. Resonant ion transport in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Jaeger, E.F.; Hedrick, C.L.; Tolliver, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    We use a model for the ELMO Bumpy Torus as a bumpy cylinder with a toroidally induced vertical drift imposed on the plasma. With this model we obtain the neoclassical plasma-transport coefficients for ions in both the banana and plateau resonant regimes. The problem of solving the linearized bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation is formulated as a variational principle, which is shown to be valid for both the banana and plateau regimes. We use limiting forms of this principle to obtain a continuous collisionality approximation to the energy-dependent flux. We then use this approximation to obtain analytic formulae for the particle- and energy-diffusion coefficients. These are shown to give excellent agreement with numerical results

  10. Ion heat transport studies in JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantica, P; Angioni, C; Baiocchi, B

    2011-01-01

    Detailed experimental studies of ion heat transport have been carried out in JET exploiting the upgrade of active charge exchange spectroscopy and the availability of multi-frequency ion cyclotron resonance heating with 3He minority. The determination of ion temperature gradient (ITG) threshold a...

  11. Parametric variations of ion transport in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.D.; Ernst, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is divided into three roughly independent sections. The first is a historical review of the twenty year history of experimental ion heat transport measurements from many tokamaks. The second is a study of ion heat transport in Ohmic TFTR plasmas which shows that χi ∼ χe ∼ 15χi neo . Thus, ion heat transport is demonstrated to be strongly anomalous even the absence of auxiliary heating. The third section describes the variation of χi with local ion temperature in TFTR during auxiliary heating, with emphasis on characterizing the differecens between transport in the L-mode and supershot regimes. The results are consistent with the conjecture that improved ion energy confinement in supershot plasmas is caused by a high ratio of T 1 /T e

  12. Theory of ion heat transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, Y.V.; Yurchenko, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments which have been carried out in several tokamaks to determine the ion thermal conductivity show that it is several times the value predicted by the neoclassical theory. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is proposed. When the finite width of a banana is taken into account, there are substantial increases in the heat fluxes which stem from the important contribution of superthermal ions to the transport. If the electron diffusive flux is zero, a systematic account of the ions with E>T leads to an ion heat flux with a finite banana width which is two to four times the neoclassical prediction. The effect of the anomalous nature of the electron flux on the ion heat transport is analyzed. An expression is derived for calculating the ion heat transport over the entire range of collision rates

  13. Light ion beam transport research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D.D.; Boller, J.R.; Cooperstein, G.

    1996-01-01

    Transport of light ion beams through low-pressure background gas is under investigation at NRL in support of the light-ion ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories. Scaling experiments and the field solver/orbit code ATHETA have been used to design and construct a focusing, extraction applied-B diode for transport experiments. An active anode source has been developed to provide a high proton fraction in the ion beam and a fast ion turn-on time. A very sensitive Zeeman diagnostic is being developed to determine the net current distribution in the beam/transport system. Both analytical and numerical techniques using several codes are being applied to transport modeling, leading to the capability of full system studies. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 10 refs

  14. Light ion beam transport research at NRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinshelwood, D D; Boller, J R; Cooperstein, G [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; and others

    1997-12-31

    Transport of light ion beams through low-pressure background gas is under investigation at NRL in support of the light-ion ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories. Scaling experiments and the field solver/orbit code ATHETA have been used to design and construct a focusing, extraction applied-B diode for transport experiments. An active anode source has been developed to provide a high proton fraction in the ion beam and a fast ion turn-on time. A very sensitive Zeeman diagnostic is being developed to determine the net current distribution in the beam/transport system. Both analytical and numerical techniques using several codes are being applied to transport modeling, leading to the capability of full system studies. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 10 refs.

  15. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect

  16. Suprathermal ion transport in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovet, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Suprathermal ions, which have an energy greater than the quasi-Maxwellian background plasma temperature, are present in many laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In fusion devices, they are generated by the fusion reactions and auxiliary heating. Controlling their transport is essential for the success of future fusion devices that could provide a clean, safe and abundant source of electric power to our society. In space, suprathermal ions include energetic solar particles and cosmic rays. The understanding of the acceleration and transport mechanisms of these particles is still incomplete. Basic plasma devices allow detailed measurements that are not accessible in astrophysical and fusion plasmas, due to the difficulty to access the former and the high temperatures of the latter. The basic toroidal device TORPEX offers an easy access for diagnostics, well characterized plasma scenarios and validated numerical simulations of its turbulence dynamics, making it the ideal platform for the investigation of suprathermal ion transport. This Thesis presents three-dimensional measurements of a suprathermal ion beam injected in turbulent TORPEX plasmas. The combination of uniquely resolved measurements and first principle numerical simulations reveals the general non-diffusive nature of the suprathermal ion transport. A precise characterization of their transport regime shows that, depending on their energies, suprathermal ions can experience either a super diffusive transport or a subdiffusive transport in the same background turbulence. The transport character is determined by the interaction of the suprathermal ion orbits with the turbulent plasma structures, which in turn depends on the ratio between the ion energy and the background plasma temperature. Time-resolved measurements reveal a clear difference in the intermittency of suprathermal ions time-traces depending on the transport regime they experience. Conditionally averaged measurements uncover the influence of

  17. Transport due to ion pressure gradient turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Turbulent transport due to the ion pressure gradient (or temperature drift) instability is thought to be significant when etasub(i)=d(ln Tsub(i))/d(ln n)>1. The invariance properties of the governing equations under scale transformations are used to discuss the characteristics of this turbulence. This approach not only clarifies the relationships between earlier treatments but also, in certain limits, completely determines the scaling properties of the fluctuations and the consequent thermal transport. (author)

  18. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2015-10-20

    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  19. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement

  20. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  1. Ion transport in turbulent edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-02-01

    Edge plasmas, such as the tokamak scrape-off layer, exist as a consequence of a balance between cross-field diffusion and parallel losses. The former is usually anomalous, and is widely thought to be driven by strong electrostatic turbulence. It is shown that the anomalous diffusion affects the parallel ion transport by giving rise to a new type of thermal force between different ion species. This force is parallel to the magnetic field, but arises entirely because of perpendicular gradients, and could be important for impurity retention in the tokamak divertor. (author)

  2. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  3. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  4. Purinergic signalling in epithelial ion transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    , including ion transport. In this review, I will first introduce the main components of the extracellular ATP signalling, which have become known as the purinergic signalling system. With more than 50 components or processes, just at cell membranes, it ranks as one of the most versatile signalling systems......-regulators of secretion. On an organ level, both receptor types can exert physiological functions and together with other partners in the purinergic signalling, integrated models for epithelial secretion and absorption are emerging....

  5. Self-pinched transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, P.F.; Neri, J.M.; Stephanakis, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Electron beams with substantial net currents have been routinely propagated in the self-pinched mode for the past two decades. However, as the physics of gas breakdown and beam neutralization is different for ion beams, previous predictions indicated insufficient net current for pinching so that ion beam self-pinched transport (SPT) was assumed impossible. Nevertheless, recent numerical simulations using the IPROP code have suggested that ion SPT is possible. These results have prompted initial experiments to investigate SPT of ion beams. A 100-kA, 1.2-MeV, 3-cm-radius proton beam, generated on the Gamble II pulsed-power accelerator at NRL, has been injected into helium in the 30- to 250-mTorr regime to study this phenomenon. Evidence of self-pinched ion beam transport was observed in the 35- to 80-mTorr SPT pressure window predicted by IPROP. Measured signals from a time- and space-resolved scattered proton diagnostic and a time-integrated Li(Cu) nuclear activation diagnostic, both of which measure protons striking a 10-cm diameter target 50 cm into the transport region, are significantly larger in this pressure window than expected for ballistic transport. These results are consistent with significant self-magnetic fields and self-pinching of the ion beam. On the other hand, time-integrated signals from these same two diagnostics are consistent with ballistic transport at pressures above and below the SPT window. Interferometric electron line-density measurements, acquired during beam injection into the helium gas, show insignificant ionization below 35 mTorr, a rapidly rising ionization fraction with pressure in the SPT window, and a plateau in ionization fraction at about 2% for pressures above 80 mTorr. These and other results are consistent with the physical picture for SPT. IPROP simulations, which closely model the Gamble II experimental conditions, produce results that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The advantages of SPT for

  6. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation.'' The forum will begin at 9:00 a.m. on both...

  7. Transportation of ions through cement based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation of ions, both anions and cations, through cement based materials is one of the important processes in their durability and as such has been studied very extensively. It has been studied from the point of view of the reinforcement corrosion, alkali-silica reaction, sulfate attack on cement and concrete, as well as in the context of the use of the cement based materials in the disposal of nuclear waste. In this paper the fundamental equations of diffusion, i.e. Fick's two equations, Nernst and Nernst-Planck equations have been collected. Attention has been drawn to the fact that Fick's two equations are valid for non-ionic diffusants and that for ions the relevant equations are those of Nernst and Nernst-Planck. The basic measurement techniques have also been commented upon

  8. Ion transport by the amphibian primary ureter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    putative ion transport mechanisms in the primary ureter of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl). Primary ureters isolated from axolotl larvae were perfused in vitro and single cells were impaled across the basal cell membrane with glass microelectrodes. In 42 cells the membrane potential......+] steps from 3 to 20 mmol/l and a hyperpolarization of Vm upon lowering [Na+] from 102 to 2 mmol/l, indicating the presence of luminal K+ and Na+ conductances. This study provides the first functional data on the vertebrate primary ureter. The data show that the primary ureter of axolotl larvae...

  9. Ion anomalous transport and feedback control. Final technical report, September 1, 1987 - August 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    This final report is comprised of the following six progress reports: Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1989; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, August 1991; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1993; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, May 1994; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, April 1995; and Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, December 1997

  10. Ion age transport: developing devices beyond electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2014-03-01

    There is more to current devices than conventional electronics. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry electronics seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule transport in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The transport of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. Transport in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective transport of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic transport through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic

  11. Heat and momentum transport of ion internal transport barrier plasmas on Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, K.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.

    2010-11-01

    The peaked ion-temperature profile with steep gradient so called ion internal transport barrier (ion ITB) was formed in the neutral beam heated plasmas on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and the high-ion-temperature regime of helical plasmas has been significantly extended. The ion thermal diffusivity in the ion ITB plasma decreases down to the neoclassical transport level. The heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) observed the smooth potential profile with negative radial electric field (ion root) in the core region where the ion thermal diffusivity decreases significantly. The large toroidal rotation was also observed in the ion ITB core and the transport of toroidal momentum was analyzed qualitatively. The decrease of momentum diffusivity with ion temperature increase was observed in the ion ITB core. The toroidal rotation driven by ion temperature gradient so called intrinsic rotation is also identified. (author)

  12. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied

  13. Sinusoidal voltage protocols for rapid characterisation of ion channel kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Kylie A; Hill, Adam P; Bardenet, Rémi; Cui, Yi; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Gavaghan, David J; de Boer, Teun P; Mirams, Gary R

    2018-03-24

    Ion current kinetics are commonly represented by current-voltage relationships, time constant-voltage relationships and subsequently mathematical models fitted to these. These experiments take substantial time, which means they are rarely performed in the same cell. Rather than traditional square-wave voltage clamps, we fitted a model to the current evoked by a novel sum-of-sinusoids voltage clamp that was only 8 s long. Short protocols that can be performed multiple times within a single cell will offer many new opportunities to measure how ion current kinetics are affected by changing conditions. The new model predicts the current under traditional square-wave protocols well, with better predictions of underlying currents than literature models. The current under a novel physiologically relevant series of action potential clamps is predicted extremely well. The short sinusoidal protocols allow a model to be fully fitted to individual cells, allowing us to examine cell-cell variability in current kinetics for the first time. Understanding the roles of ion currents is crucial to predict the action of pharmaceuticals and mutations in different scenarios, and thereby to guide clinical interventions in the heart, brain and other electrophysiological systems. Our ability to predict how ion currents contribute to cellular electrophysiology is in turn critically dependent on our characterisation of ion channel kinetics - the voltage-dependent rates of transition between open, closed and inactivated channel states. We present a new method for rapidly exploring and characterising ion channel kinetics, applying it to the hERG potassium channel as an example, with the aim of generating a quantitatively predictive representation of the ion current. We fitted a mathematical model to currents evoked by a novel 8 second sinusoidal voltage clamp in CHO cells overexpressing hERG1a. The model was then used to predict over 5 minutes of recordings in the same cell in response to

  14. Ion Transport by Ameloblasts during Amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckers, A L J J

    2017-03-01

    Hypomineralization of developing enamel is associated with changes in ameloblast modulation during the maturation stage. Modulation (or pH cycling) involves the cyclic transformation of ruffle-ended (RE) ameloblasts facing slightly acidic enamel into smooth-ended (SE) ameloblasts near pH-neutral enamel. The mechanism of ameloblast modulation is not clear. Failure of ameloblasts of Cftr-null and anion exchanger 2 ( Ae2)-null mice to transport Cl - into enamel acidifies enamel, prevents modulation, and reduces mineralization. It suggests that pH regulation is critical for modulation and for completion of enamel mineralization. This report presents a review of the major types of transmembrane molecules that ameloblasts express to transport calcium to form crystals and bicarbonates to regulate pH. The type of transporter depends on the developmental stage. Modulation is proposed to be driven by the pH of enamel fluid and the compositional and/or physicochemical changes that result from increased acidity, which may turn RE ameloblasts into SE mode. Amelogenins delay outgrowth of crystals and keep the intercrystalline space open for diffusion of mineral ions into complete depth of enamel. Modulation enables stepwise removal of amelogenins from the crystal surface, their degradation, and removal from the enamel. Removal of matrix allows slow expansion of crystals. Modulation also reduces the stress that ameloblasts experience when exposed to high acid levels generated by mineral formation or by increased intracellular Ca 2+ . By cyclically interrupting Ca 2+ transport by RE ameloblasts and their transformation into SE ameloblasts, proton production ceases shortly and enables the ameloblasts to recover. Modulation also improves enamel crystal quality by selectively dissolving immature Ca 2+ -poor crystals, removing impurities as Mg 2+ and carbonates, and recrystallizing into more acid-resistant crystals.

  15. Rapid Thermal annealing of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenack, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior and the supression mechanisms of the residual defects of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation, were investigated. The samples were annealed with the aid of a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system at temperature range from 850 to 1200 0 C, and annealing time up to 120 s. Random and aligned Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used to analyse the samples. Similarities in the recrystallization behavior for layers implanted with ions of the same chemical groups such as As or Sb; Ge, Sn or Pb, In or Ga, are observed. The results show that the effective supression of resisual defects of the recrystallired layers is vinculated to the redistribution of impurities via thermal diffusion. (author) [pt

  16. Rapid thermal and swift heavy ion induced annealing of Co ion implanted GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.; Pandey, A. C.; Gerlach, J. W.; Rauschenbach, B.; Karl, H.; Kanjilal, D.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    Thin epitaxial GaN films grown on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with 180 keV Co ions at three different fluences. As-implanted samples were characterized with secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to obtain the Co depth profiles and the maximum Co concentrations. As-implanted samples were annealed applying two different techniques: rapid thermal annealing and annealing by swift heavy ion irradiation. Rapid thermal annealing was done at two temperatures: 1150 deg. C for 20 s and 700 deg. C for 5 min. 200 MeV Ag ions at two fluences were used for annealing by irradiation. Crystalline structure of the pristine, as-implanted, and annealed samples was investigated using x-ray diffraction, and the results were compared. Improvement of the crystalline quality was observed for rapid thermal annealed samples at the higher annealing temperature as confirmed with rocking curve measurements. The results indicate the presence of Co clusters in these annealed samples. Swift heavy ion irradiation with the parameters chosen for this study did not lead to a significant annealing

  17. Numerical Simulation of Ion Transport in a Nano-Electrospray Ion Source at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bajic, Steve; John, Benzi; Emerson, David R.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding ion transport properties from the ion source to the mass spectrometer (MS) is essential for optimizing device performance. Numerical simulation helps in understanding of ion transport properties and, furthermore, facilitates instrument design. In contrast to previously reported numerical studies, ion transport simulations in a continuous injection mode whilst considering realistic space-charge effects have been carried out. The flow field was solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, and a particle-in-cell (PIC) method was applied to solve a time-dependent electric field with local charge density. A series of ion transport simulations were carried out at different cone gas flow rates, ion source currents, and capillary voltages. A force evaluation analysis reveals that the electric force, the drag force, and the Brownian force are the three dominant forces acting on the ions. Both the experimental and simulation results indicate that cone gas flow rates of ≤250 slph (standard liter per hour) are important for high ion transmission efficiency, as higher cone gas flow rates reduce the ion signal significantly. The simulation results also show that the ion transmission efficiency reduces exponentially with an increased ion source current. Additionally, the ion loss due to space-charge effects has been found to be predominant at a higher ion source current, a lower capillary voltage, and a stronger cone gas counterflow. The interaction of the ion driving force, ion opposing force, and ion dispersion is discussed to illustrate ion transport mechanism in the ion source at atmospheric pressure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. δf simulation of ion neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.; Murakami, S.

    1999-07-01

    Ion neoclassical transport with finite orbit width dynamics is calculated over whole poloidal cross section by using accurate δf method which employs an improved like-particle collision operator and an accurate weighting scheme to solve drift kinetic equation. Ion thermal transport near magnetic axis shows a great reduction from its conventional neoclassical level due to non-standard orbit topology, like that of previous δf simulation. On other hand, the direct particle loss from confinement region may strongly increase ion energy transport near the edge. It is found that ion parallel flow near the axis is also largely reduced due to non-standard orbit topology. In the presence of steep density gradient, ion thermal conductivity is significantly reduced, and an ion particle flux is driven by self-collision alone. (author)

  19. Mass transport and chloride ion complexes in occluded cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Nishikata, A.; Haruyama, S.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the transport and the concentration of ions in a model occluded cell are traced during galvanostatic anodic polarization of a mild steel and a stainless steel. Apparent transport numbers of anions and cations, which were estimated from chemical analysis of solution, were different from those calculated from known mobility data. At the initial stage of the polarization, the transport number of chloride ion was almost unity, and then decreased gradually. For the mild steel, the concentration of total chloride ion accumulated in the occluded compartment increased with the anodic charge passed, and the amount of chloride ion complexed with cations also increased. The chloride complex was estimated as FeCl + . For SUS304 stainless steel, the total chloride ion increased, however, the free chloride ion, which responded to an Ag/AgCl electrode remained approximately 2 mol/dm 3 . Therefore, most of the chloride ions transferred into the occluded cell formed complex ions, such as CrCl n 3-n . The number of chloride ion coordinated to ferrous and chromic ions was estimated from the data fo mass transport for the case of the mild steel and the stainless steel. (author) 9 refs., 14 figs

  20. Vacuum system control for the Heavy Ion Transport Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Hseuh, H.C.; Robinson, T.; Skelton, R.; Wong, V.

    1987-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS, 807 m in circumference, and the Tandem Van de Graaff are now joined together by a transport line, 600 m in length. This now allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to fully stripped sulfur (M = 32) to be transported into the AGS and accelerated to 15 GeV/A. With the addition of a booster between the Tandem and the AGS in the near future, heavy ions such as gold (M = 200) can be accelerated to 30 Z/A GeV/A. This paper describes the HITL (Heavy Ion Transport Line) vacuum control system design and implementation

  1. Naked-eye sensor for rapid determination of mercury ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wu, Dapeng; Yan, Xiaohui; Guan, Yafeng

    2013-11-15

    A naked-eye paper sensor for rapid determination of trace mercury ion in water samples was designed and demonstrated. The mercury-sensing rhodamine B thiolactone was immobilized in silica matrices and the silica matrices were impregnated firmly and uniformly in the filter paper. As water samples flow through the filter paper, the membrane color will change from white to purple red, which could be observed obviously with naked eye, when concentration of mercury ions equals to or exceeds 10nM, the maximum residue level in drinking water recommended by U.S. EPA. The color change can also be recorded by a flatbed scanner and then digitized, reducing the detection limit of Hg(2+) down to 1.2 nM. Moreover, this method is extremely specific for Hg(2+) and shows a high tolerance ratio of interferent coexisting ions. The presence of Na(+) (2 mM), K(+) (2 mM), Fe(3+) (0.1 mM), Zn(2+) (0.1 mM), Mg(2+) (0.1 mM), Ni(2+) (50 μM), Co(2+) (50 μM), Cd(2+) (50 μM), Pb(2+) (50 μM), Cu(2+) (50 μM) and Ag(+) (3.5 μM) did not interfere with the detection of Hg(2+) (25 nM). Finally, the present method was applied in the detection of Hg(2+) in mineral water, tap water and pond water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavior of electron and ion transport in discharges with an internal transport barrier in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C.M.; Staebler, G.M.; Rettig, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    We report results of experiments to further determine the underlying physics behind the formation and development of internal transport barriers (ITB) in the DIII-D tokamak. The initial ITB formation occurs when the neutral beam heating power exceeds a threshold value during the early stages of the current ramp in low-density discharges. This region of reduced transport, made accessible by suppression of long-wavelength turbulence by sheared flows, is most evident in the ion temperature and impurity rotation profiles. In some cases, reduced transport is also observed in the electron temperature and density profiles. If the power is near the threshold, the barrier remains stationary and encloses only a small fraction of the plasma volume. If, however, the power is increased, the transport barrier expands to encompass a larger fraction of the plasma volume. The dynamic behavior of the transport barrier during the growth phase exhibits rapid transport events that are associated with both broadening of the profiles and reductions in turbulence and associated transport. In some, but not all, cases, these events are correlated with the safety factor q passing through integer values. The final state following this evolution is a plasma exhibiting ion thermal transport at or below neoclassical levels. Typically, the electron thermal transport remains anomalously high. Recent experimental results are reported in which rf electron heating was applied to plasmas with an ion ITB, thereby increasing both the electron and ion transport. Although the results are partially in agreement with the usual E-vector x B-vector shear suppression hypothesis, the results still leave questions that must be addressed in future experiments. (author)

  3. Behavior of electron and ion transport in discharges with an internal transport barrier in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C.M.; Staebler, G.M.; Rettig, C.L.

    1998-12-01

    The authors report results of experiments to further determine the underlying physics behind the formation and development of internal transport barriers (ITB) in the DIII-D tokamak. The initial ITB formation occurs when the neutral beam heating power exceeds a threshold value during the early stages of the current ramp in low-density discharges. This region of reduced transport, made accessible by suppression of long-wavelength turbulence by sheared flows, is most evident in the ion temperature and impurity rotation profiles. In some cases, reduced transport is also observed in the electron temperature and density profiles. If the power is near the threshold, the barrier remains stationary and enclosed only a small fraction of the plasma volume. If, however, the power is increased, the transport barrier expands to encompass a larger fraction of the plasma volume. The dynamic behavior of the transport barrier during the growth phase exhibits rapid transport events that are associated with both broadening of the profiles and reductions in turbulence and associated transport. In some, but not all, cases, these events are correlated with the safety factor q passing through integer values. The final state following this evolution is a plasma exhibiting ion thermal transport at or below neoclassical levels. Typically, the electron thermal transport remains anomalously high. Recent experimental results are reported in which rf electron heating was applied to plasmas with an ion ITB, thereby increasing both the electron and ion transport. Although the results are partially in agreement with the usual rvec E x rvec B shear suppression hypothesis, the results still leave questions that must be addressed in future experiments

  4. Mathematical Model of Ion Transport in Electrodialysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Rohman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of ion transport in electrodialysis process is reviewed and their basics concept is discussed. Three scales of ion transport reviewed are: 1 ion transport in the membrane, where two approaches are used, the irreversible thermodynamics and modeling of the membrane material; 2 ion transport in a three-layer system composed of a membrane with two adjoining diffusion layers; and 3 coupling with hydraulic flow system in an electrodialysis 2D and 3D cell, where the differential equation of convectivediffusion is used. Most of the work carried out in the past implemented NP equations since relatively easily coupled with other equations describing hydrodynamic conditions and ion transport in the surrounding solutions, chemical reactions in the solutions and the membrane, boundary and other conditions. However, it is limited to point ionic transport in homogenous and uniformly - grainy phases of structure. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 21 January 2008, Accepted: 10 March 2008][How to Cite: F.S. Rohman, N. Aziz (2008. Mathematical Model of Ion Transport in Electrodialysis Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3(1-3: 3-8. doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7122.3-8][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7122.3-8 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7122 ] 

  5. Transport theory of dissipative heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norenberg, W.

    1979-01-01

    The lectures present the formulation of a transport theory, the derivation of a practicable transport equation (Fokker-Planck equation) and the evaluation of transport coefficients for dissipative (or deeply inelastic) heavy-ion collisions. The applicability of the theoretical concept is tested with remarkable success in the analyses of various experimental information (mass transfer, angular-momentum dissipation and energy loss). Some critical remarks on the present situation of transport theories are added. Future developments are outlined. (author)

  6. Resolving Rapid Variation in Energy for Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haut, Terry Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Ahrens, Cory Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Jonko, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Till, Andrew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division

    2016-08-23

    Resolving the rapid variation in energy in neutron and thermal radiation transport is needed for the predictive simulation capability in high-energy density physics applications. Energy variation is difficult to resolve due to rapid variations in cross sections and opacities caused by quantized energy levels in the nuclei and electron clouds. In recent work, we have developed a new technique to simultaneously capture slow and rapid variations in the opacities and the solution using homogenization theory, which is similar to multiband (MB) and to the finite-element with discontiguous support (FEDS) method, but does not require closure information. We demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of the method for a variety of problems. We are researching how to extend the method to problems with multiple materials and the same material but with different temperatures and densities. In this highlight, we briefly describe homogenization theory and some results.

  7. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  8. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  9. Transport of heavy ions through matter within ion optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, T.

    1991-04-01

    In this thesis for the first time higher-order ion-optical calculations were connected with the whole phase-space changes of the heavy ions in passing through matter. With the developed programs and the newly proposed analytical methods atomic and nuclear interactions of the heavy ions within ion optical systems can be described realistically. The results of this thesis were applied to the conception of the fragment separator (FRS) and to the planning and preparation of experiments at the new GSI accelerator facility. Especially for the description of the ion-optical combination of FRS and the storage ring ESR the developed programs and methods proved to be necessary. A part of the applied theories on the atomic stopping could be confirmed in the framework of this thesis in an experiment with the high-resolving spectrometer SPEC at GANIL. The method of the isotopically pure separation of projectile fragments by means of magnetic analysis and the electronic energy loss could be also experimentally successfully tested at several energies (60-400 MeV/u). Furthermore in this thesis also application-related problems regarding a tumor therapy with heavy ions were solved. A concept for a medical separator (BMS) was developed, which separates light diagnosis beams isotopically purely and beyond improves the energy sharpness by means of an especially shaped (monoenergetic) stopper so that an in-situ range determination is possible with an accuracy of about one millimeter. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Investigations of Atomic Transport Induced by Heavy Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Thomas Clyde

    The mechanisms of atomic transport induced by ion irradiation generally fall into the categories of anisotropic or isotropic processes. Typical examples of these are recoil implantation and cascade mixing, respectively. We have measured the interaction of these processes in the mixing of Ti/SiO(,2)/Si, Cr/SiO(,2)/Si and Ni/SiO(,2)/Si multi-layers irradiated with Xe at fluences of 0.01 - 10 x 10('15)cm('-2). The fluence dependence of net metal transport into the underlying layers was measured with different thicknesses of SiO(,2) and different sample temperatures during irradiation (-196 to 500C). There is a linear dependence at low fluences. At high fluences, a square-root behavior predominates. For thin SiO(,2) layers (primary recoils is quite pronounced since the gross mixing is small. A significant correlation exists between the mixing and the energy deposited through elastic collisions F(,D ). Several models are examined in an attempt to describe the transport process in Ni/SiO(,2). It is likely that injection of Ni by secondary recoil implantation is primarily responsible for getting Ni into the SiO(,2). Secondary recoil injection is thought to scale with F(,D). Trends in the mixing rates indicate that the dominant mechanism for Ti and Cr could be the same as for Ni. The processes of atomic transport and phase formation clearly fail to be separable at higher temperatures. A positive correlation with chemical reactivity emerges at higher irradiation temperatures. The temperature at which rapid mixing occurs is not much below that for spontaneous thermal reaction. Less Ni is retained in the SiO(,2) at high irradiation temperatures. Ni incorporated in the SiO(,2) by low temperature irradiation is not expelled during a consecutive high temperature irradiation. The Ni remains trapped within larger clusters during a sequential 500C irradiation. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

  11. Neutralization principles for the Extraction and Transport of Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Riege, H

    2000-01-01

    The strict application of conventional extraction techniques of ion beams from a plasma source is characterized by a natural intensity limit determined by space charge.The extracted current may be enhanced far beyond this limit by neutralizing the space charge of the extracted ions in the first extraction gap of the source with electrons injected from the opposite side. The transverse and longitudinal emittances of a neutralized ion beam, hence its brightness, are preserved. Results of beam compensation experiments, which have been carried out with a laser ion source, are resumed for proposing a general scheme of neutralizing ion sources and their adjacent low-energy beam transport channels with electron beams. Many technical applications of high-mass ion beam neutralization technology may be identified: the enhancement of ion source output for injection into high-intensity, low-and high-energy accelerators, or ion thrusters in space technology, for the neutral beams needed for plasma heating of magnetic conf...

  12. Rapid Passenger Transport in North America in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of outstanding transport innovations maylead to monumental reconstruction in large urbanised regionssuch as North America. The decisive factor in this is the introductionofTransrapid, a new rapid transport technology basedon the principle of magnetic levitation (Maglev.This paper uses the urban network of North America Eastof the 1 O(Jh meridian, together with the smaller region of California,to demonstrate the advantages of innovative transporttechnology as the optimal link between road and air transport.Despite requiring less energy input, achieving better adaptationto the topography of the country, causing less noise and beingsubject to less wear and tear, Transrapid achieves almost twicethe speed of conventional trains.

  13. Structure, Ion Transport, and Rheology of Nanoparticle Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho; Lu, Yingying; Dobosz, Kerianne M.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-01-01

    particles into medium and high dielectric constant liquids yields electrolytes with unique structure and transport properties. We find that electrostatic repulsion imparted by ion dissociation can be tuned to control the dispersion state and rheology through

  14. Transport due to ion temperature gradient mode vortex turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.P.; Weiland, J.

    1991-01-01

    The ion energy transport due to an ensemble of nonlinear vortices is calculated in the test particle approximation for a strongly turbulent plasma. A diffusion coefficient proportional to the root of the stationary turbulence level is obtained. (au)

  15. A new approach for understanding ion transport in glasses; example ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    †Department of Physics, Government College for Women, Chintamani 563 125, India .... Our attention here is focused on understanding how ion transport takes ...... Almond D P, West A R and Grant R J 1982 Solid State Commun. 44. 1277.

  16. Ion sampling and transport in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative accuracy and high sensitivity in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) depend on consistent and efficient extraction and transport of analyte ions from an inductively coupled plasma to a mass analyzer, where they are sorted and detected. In this review we examine the fundamental physical processes that control ion sampling and transport in ICP-MS and compare the results of theory and computerized models with experimental efforts to characterize the flow of ions through plasma mass spectrometers' vacuum interfaces. We trace the flow of ions from their generation in the plasma, into the sampling cone, through the supersonic expansion in the first vacuum stage, through the skimmer, and into the ion optics that deliver the ions to the mass analyzer. At each stage we consider idealized behavior and departures from ideal behavior that affect the performance of ICP-MS as an analytical tool.

  17. Simulation of Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion-Fusion Drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs

  18. SIMULATION OF CHAMBER TRANSPORT FOR HEAVY-ION FUSION DRIVERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W M; Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Welch, D R

    2004-01-01

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs

  19. Ion transport Modeling in a Bipolar Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2010-01-01

    The COL(Carbonate-based Oxidative Leaching) process is an environmentally-friendly technique for collecting only uranium from spent fuel with oxidation leaching/ precipitation of carbonate solution. The bipolar membrane used for the electrolyte circulation of the salt used in the COL process is a special form of ion exchange membrane which combines CEM(cation exchange membrane) and AEM(anion exchange membrane). After arranging positive ion exchange layer toward negative terminal and positive ion exchange layer toward positive terminal, then supply electricity, water molecules are decomposed into protons and hydroxyl ions by a strong electric field in the transition region inside bipolar membrane.1) In this study, a theoretical approach to increase the efficiency of Na + and NO3 - ion collecting device using bipolar membrane was taken and simulating using the COMSOL program was tried. The details of results are also discussed

  20. Twin boundary-assisted lithium-ion transport

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin; Gan, Liyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Li, Qianqian; Yuan, Yifei; Mashayek, Farzad; Wang, Hongtao; Klie, Robert F.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    With the increased need for high-rate Li-ion batteries, it has become apparent that new electrode materials with enhanced Li-ion transport should be designed. Interfaces, such as twin boundaries (TBs), offer new opportunities to navigate the ionic

  1. Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A; Meinild, A K

    1999-01-01

    the Lp of control oocytes. Passive Na+ transport (Na+ leak) was obtained from the blocker-sensitive Na+ currents in the absence of substrates (glucose and GABA). 2. Passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were blocked by phlorizin with the same sensitivity (inhibitory constant (Ki), 3-5 micro......1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from......M). When Na+ was replaced with Li+, phlorizin also inhibited Li+ and water transport, but with a lower affinity (Ki, 100 microM). When Na+ was replaced by choline, which is not transported, the SGLT1 Lp was indistinguishable from that in Na+ or Li+, but in this case water transport was less sensitive...

  2. PHITS-a particle and heavy ion transport code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nose, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the recent development of the multi-purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS. In particular, we discuss in detail the development of two new models, JAM and JQMD, for high energy particle interactions, incorporated in PHITS, and show comparisons between model calculations and experiments for the validations of these models. The paper presents three applications of the code including spallation neutron source, heavy ion therapy and space radiation. The results and examples shown indicate PHITS has great ability of carrying out the radiation transport analysis of almost all particles including heavy ions within a wide energy range

  3. Optimizing beam transport in rapidly compressing beams on the neutralized drift compression experiment – II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton D. Stepanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II is an induction linac that generates intense pulses of 1.2 MeV helium ions for heating matter to extreme conditions. Here, we present recent results on optimizing beam transport. The NDCX-II beamline includes a 1-m-long drift section downstream of the last transport solenoid, which is filled with charge-neutralizing plasma that enables rapid longitudinal compression of an intense ion beam against space-charge forces. The transport section on NDCX-II consists of 28 solenoids. Finding optimal field settings for a group of solenoids requires knowledge of the envelope parameters of the beam. Imaging the beam on the scintillator gives the radius of the beam, but the envelope angle is not measured directly. We demonstrate how the parameters of the beam envelope (radius, envelop angle, and emittance can be reconstructed from a series of images taken by varying the B-field strengths of a solenoid upstream of the scintillator. We use this technique to evaluate emittance at several points in the NDCX-II beamline and for optimizing the trajectory of the beam at the entry of the plasma-filled drift section. Keywords: Charged-particle beams, Induction accelerators, Beam dynamics, Beam emittance, Ion beam diagnostics, PACS Codes: 41.75.-i, 41.85.Ja, 52.59.Sa, 52.59.Wd, 29.27.Eg

  4. Generation and transport of laser accelerated ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Peter; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kornilov, Vladimir; Spaedtke, Peter [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Currently the LIGHT- Project (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport) is performed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH Darmstadt. Within this project, intense proton beams are generated by laser acceleration, using the TNSA mechanism. After the laser acceleration the protons are transported through the beam pipe by a pulsed power solenoid. To study the transport a VORPAL 3D simulation is compared with CST simulation. A criterion as a function of beam parameters was worked out, to rate the importance of space charge. Furthermore, an exemplary comparison of the solenoid with a magnetic quadrupole-triplet was carried out. In the further course of the LIGHT-Project, it is planned to generate ion beams with higher kinetic energies, using ultra-thin targets. The acceleration processes that can appear are: RPA (Radiation Pressure Acceleration) and BOA (Break-Out Afterburner). Therefore the transport of an ion distribution will be studied, as it emerges from a RPA acceleration.

  5. Transport of negative hydrogen and deuterium ions in RF-driven ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutser, R; Wuenderlich, D; Fantz, U

    2010-01-01

    Negative hydrogen ion sources are major components of neutral beam injection systems for plasma heating in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. In order to fulfill the requirements of the ITER neutral beam injection, a high-performance, large-area RF-driven ion source for negative ions is being developed at the MPI fuer Plasmaphysik. Negative hydrogen ions are mainly generated on a converter surface by impinging neutral particles and positive ions under the influence of magnetic fields and the plasma sheath potential. The 3D transport code TrajAn has been applied in order to obtain the total and spatially resolved extraction probabilities for H - and D - ions under identical plasma parameters and the realistic magnetic field topology of the ion source. A comparison of the isotopes shows a lower total extraction probability in the case of deuterium ions, caused by a different transport effect. The transport calculation shows that distortions of the spatial distributions of ion birth and extraction by the magnetic electron suppression field are present for both negative hydrogen and deuterium ions.

  6. [Anomalous ion transport and feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The slab branch of the ITG mode was produced by a d.c. ion acceleration heating scheme and definitively identified in CLM under the previous DOE grant. A transit-time rf heating scheme was used to produce a more Maxwellian ion population to produce and identify a more predictable slab ITG mode. These experiments are partly based on some theoretical work on the substantial effects of anisotropy in η i on the slab mode. The progress under the present DOE grant are described below

  7. Parallel Transport Quantum Logic Gates with Trapped Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clercq, Ludwig E; Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2016-02-26

    We demonstrate single-qubit operations by transporting a beryllium ion with a controlled velocity through a stationary laser beam. We use these to perform coherent sequences of quantum operations, and to perform parallel quantum logic gates on two ions in different processing zones of a multiplexed ion trap chip using a single recycled laser beam. For the latter, we demonstrate individually addressed single-qubit gates by local control of the speed of each ion. The fidelities we observe are consistent with operations performed using standard methods involving static ions and pulsed laser fields. This work therefore provides a path to scalable ion trap quantum computing with reduced requirements on the optical control complexity.

  8. Twin boundary-assisted lithium-ion transport

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2015-01-14

    With the increased need for high-rate Li-ion batteries, it has become apparent that new electrode materials with enhanced Li-ion transport should be designed. Interfaces, such as twin boundaries (TBs), offer new opportunities to navigate the ionic transport within nanoscale materials. Here, we demonstrate the effects of TBs on the Li-ion transport properties in single crystalline SnO2 nanowires. It is shown that the TB-assisted lithiation pathways are remarkably different from the previously reported lithiation behavior in SnO2 nanowires without TBs. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy study combined with direct atomic-scale imaging of the initial lithiation stage of the TB-SnO2 nanowires prove that the lithium ions prefer to intercalate in the vicinity of the (101¯) TB, which acts as conduit for lithium-ion diffusion inside the nanowires. The density functional theory modeling shows that it is energetically preferred for lithium ions to accumulate near the TB compared to perfect neighboring lattice area. These findings may lead to the design of new electrode materials that incorporate TBs as efficient lithium pathways, and eventually, the development of next generation rechargeable batteries that surpass the rate performance of the current commercial Li-ion batteries.

  9. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation

  10. Ion transport in circulatory and/or septic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayeed, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    This review surveys investigations of membrane ion transport in animals in hemorrhagic, endotoxic, or bacteremic shock. The focus of the review is on ion transport studies in the skeletal muscle and liver. Skeletal muscle Na + -K + transport alterations have been shown during the induction of shock via hemorrhage, endotoxin, or live Gram-negative bacteria in the rodent, canine, and primate species. These alterations include impairment of active cellular K + accumulation, increased permeability to 24 Na + and Cl - , and membrane depolarization. The ion transport alterations in the skeletal muscle are compatible with movement of extracellular fluid into the intracellular compartment. Such fluid movements can potentially lead to decreases in circulating plasma volume and thus to circulatory deficits in shock. Studies in the liver of rats subjected to hemorrhagic or endotoxic shock indicated the failure of electrogenic Na + pump. Although the hepatic cellular membrane permeability to Na + relative to permeability to K + appeared unaltered in hemorrhagic shock, endotoxic shock caused an increase in permeability to Na + . Hepatic cellular 45 Ca + regulation also appeared to be adversely affected during endotoxic shock. Alterations in hepatic Na + -K + transport and Ca + regulation could contribute to impairment in hepatic glucose production during shock. Although mechanisms of altered membrane ion transport during shock states remain unknown, such changes could occur prior to any substantial loss of cellular metabolic energy

  11. Exchange of charges between fast ions and neutral atoms; Change de charges entre ions rapides et atomes neutres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In this paper, we summarize the most significant theoretical and experimental results obtained so far on the exchange of charges between fast ions and neutral atoms. (author) [French] Dans l'expose qui suit, nous resumons les resultats theoriques et experimentaux interessants obtenus jusqu'a nos jours dans le domaine de l'echange de charges entre ions rapides et atomes neutres. (auteur)

  12. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.; Clark, R.E.; Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb +1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  13. Transport of secondary electrons and reactive species in ion tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2015-08-01

    The transport of reactive species brought about by ions traversing tissue-like medium is analysed analytically. Secondary electrons ejected by ions are capable of ionizing other molecules; the transport of these generations of electrons is studied using the random walk approximation until these electrons remain ballistic. Then, the distribution of solvated electrons produced as a result of interaction of low-energy electrons with water molecules is obtained. The radial distribution of energy loss by ions and secondary electrons to the medium yields the initial radial dose distribution, which can be used as initial conditions for the predicted shock waves. The formation, diffusion, and chemical evolution of hydroxyl radicals in liquid water are studied as well. COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy.

  14. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  15. Dust particle diffusion in ion beam transport region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, N.; Okajima, Y.; Romero, C. F.; Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Graduate school of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Dust particles of μm size produced by a monoplasmatron ion source are observed by a laser light scattering. The scattered light signal from an incident laser at 532 nm wavelength indicates when and where a particle passes through the ion beam transport region. As the result, dusts with the size more than 10 μm are found to be distributed in the center of the ion beam, while dusts with the size less than 10 μm size are distributed along the edge of the ion beam. Floating potential and electron temperature at beam transport region are measured by an electrostatic probe. This observation can be explained by a charge up model of the dust in the plasma boundary region.

  16. Numerical assessment of the ion turbulent thermal transport scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Manfredi, G.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence were carried out to investigate the parametric dependence of the ion thermal transport on the reduced gyroradius and on the local safety factor. Whereas the simulations show a clear proportionality of the conductivity to the gyroradius, the dependence on the safety factor cannot be represented as a simple power law like the one exhibited by the empirical scaling laws. (author)

  17. Realistic modeling of chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Transport of intense heavy-ion beams to an inertial-fusion target after final focus is simulated here using a realistic computer model. It is found that passing the beam through a rarefied plasma layer before it enters the fusion chamber can largely neutralize the beam space charge and lead to a usable focal spot for a range of ion species and input conditions

  18. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2012-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity

  19. Estimates of Ionospheric Transport and Ion Loss at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, T. E.; Hamil, O.; Houston, S.; Bougher, S.; Ma, Y.; Brain, D.; Ledvina, S.

    2017-10-01

    Ion loss from the topside ionosphere of Mars associated with the solar wind interaction makes an important contribution to the loss of volatiles from this planet. Data from NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission combined with theoretical modeling are now helping us to understand the processes involved in the ion loss process. Given the complexity of the solar wind interaction, motivation exists for considering a simple approach to this problem and for understanding how the loss rates might scale with solar wind conditions and solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance. This paper reviews the processes involved in the ionospheric dynamics. Simple analytical and semiempirical expressions for ion flow speeds and ion loss are derived. In agreement with more sophisticated models and with purely empirical studies, it is found that the oxygen loss rate from ion transport is about 5% (i.e., global O ion loss rate of Qion ≈ 4 × 1024 s-1) of the total oxygen loss rate. The ion loss is found to approximately scale as the square root of the solar ionizing photon flux and also as the square root of the solar wind dynamic pressure. Typical ion flow speeds are found to be about 1 km/s in the topside ionosphere near an altitude of 300 km on the dayside. Not surprisingly, the plasma flow speed is found to increase with altitude due to the decreasing ion-neutral collision frequency.

  20. Ion transport in sub-5-nm graphene nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Myung E.; Aluru, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene nanopore is a promising device for single molecule sensing, including DNA bases, as its single atom thickness provides high spatial resolution. To attain high sensitivity, the size of the molecule should be comparable to the pore diameter. However, when the pore diameter approaches the size of the molecule, ion properties and dynamics may deviate from the bulk values and continuum analysis may not be accurate. In this paper, we investigate the static and dynamic properties of ions with and without an external voltage drop in sub-5-nm graphene nanopores using molecular dynamics simulations. Ion concentration in graphene nanopores sharply drops from the bulk concentration when the pore radius is smaller than 0.9 nm. Ion mobility in the pore is also smaller than bulk ion mobility due to the layered liquid structure in the pore-axial direction. Our results show that a continuum analysis can be appropriate when the pore radius is larger than 0.9 nm if pore conductivity is properly defined. Since many applications of graphene nanopores, such as DNA and protein sensing, involve ion transport, the results presented here will be useful not only in understanding the behavior of ion transport but also in designing bio-molecular sensors

  1. THE EFFECTS OF SICKLING ON ION TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosteson, D. C.; Carlsen, E.; Dunham, E. T.

    1955-01-01

    The conversion of red cells of patients with sickle cell anemia (S-S) from biconcave disk to sickle shape by removal of oxygen was found to increase the fraction of medium trapped in cells packed by centrifugation from 0.036 (S.E. 0.003) to 0.106 (S.E. 0.004). The fraction of water in the cells (corrected for trapped medium) was not affected by this shape transformation. Cation transport, however, was changed profoundly. S-S cells incubated in N2 rather than O2 showed net K loss with acceleration of both influx and outflux. That this change in K transport was due to the process of sickling was indicated by (1) the persistence of the effect in the absence of plasma, (2) the absence of the effect in hypoxic S-S cells in which sickling was inhibited by alkali or carbon monoxide, (3) the reversal of the effect when sickling was reversed by exposure to O2, and (4) the independence of the effect from such potentially important factors as age of the cell population. The acceleration of K transport by sickling is probably mediated by modification of the cell surface rather than the cell interior since concentrated sickle hemoglobin solutions in O2 or N2 did not show selective affinity for K. In molecular terms, the effect of sickling on K transport can be explained by presuming that the shape change (1) opens pathways for the free diffusion of K, and (2) accelerates K transport by a non-diffusion carrier process. The evidence for the former mechanism included (a) dependence of K influx into sickled cells on the concentration of K in the medium, and (b) increase in the total cation content of sickled cells with increasing pH. Observations suggestive of a carrier process included (a) the failure of sickled cell K concentration to become equal to external K concentration even after 48 hours, (b) the deviation of the flux ratio from that characteristic of diffusion, and (c) the dependence of K influx on glycolysis. PMID:13252234

  2. Transport and error sensitivity in a heavy-ion recirculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-05-01

    An envelope code has been developed to facilitate the design of a recirculating accelerator for a heavy-ion fusion reactor. A novel feature of the model is the treatment of the beam charge density as a Lagrangian fluid in the axial direction. Transport results for a preliminary recirculator design are presented, and sensitivity of the transport to errors in the magnet strength is discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Application of ion mobility spectrometer for rapid drug detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuemei, Zhu; Jian, Zheng [The Third Research Inst. of Ministry of Public Security, Shanghai (China); Yongjie, Lv; Yangqin, Chen [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Optical and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, East China Normal Univ., Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15

    A {sup 63}Ni source-based high resolution ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was developed and applied to drug detection. The drugs included opium, morphine, heroin, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA, ketamine and cannabis. Their ion mobility spectra were acquired, ion types were derived and reduced mobilities were calculated, which are in good agreement with the data reported in literatures. The results indicate that the IMS can detect effectively a variety of drugs, especially for the amphetamine derivatives. And the reduced mobility standard database of drugs was established. (authors)

  4. Application of ion mobility spectrometer for rapid drug detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuemei; Zheng Jian; Lv Yongjie; Chen Yangqin

    2007-01-01

    A 63 Ni source-based high resolution ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was developed and applied to drug detection. The drugs included opium, morphine, heroin, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA, ketamine and cannabis. Their ion mobility spectra were acquired, ion types were derived and reduced mobilities were calculated, which are in good agreement with the data reported in literatures. The results indicate that the IMS can detect effectively a variety of drugs, especially for the amphetamine derivatives. And the reduced mobility standard database of drugs was established. (authors)

  5. Ion transport in deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Initial assessment of the ability of deep-sea clays to contain nuclear waste is optimistic. Yet, the investigators have no delusions about the complexity of the natural geochemical system and the perturbations that may result from emplacement of thermally-hot waste cannisters. Even though they may never be able to predict the exact nature of all these perturbations, containment of the nuclides by the waste form/cannister system until most of the heat has decayed, and burial of the waste to a sufficient depth that the altered zone can be treated as a black box source of dissolved nuclides to the enclosing unperturbed sediment, encourage them to believe that ion migration in the deep seabed can be modeled accurately and that our preliminary estimates of migration rates are likely to be reasonably realistic

  6. Particle and heavy ion transport code system; PHITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Intermediate and high energy nuclear data are strongly required in design study of many facilities such as accelerator-driven systems, intense pulse spallation neutron sources, and also in medical and space technology. There is, however, few evaluated nuclear data of intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions. Therefore, we have to use some models or systematics for the cross sections, which are essential ingredients of high energy particle and heavy ion transport code to estimate neutron yield, heat deposition and many other quantities of the transport phenomena in materials. We have developed general purpose particle and heavy ion transport Monte Carlo code system, PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System), based on the NMTC/JAM code by the collaboration of Tohoku University, JAERI and RIST. The PHITS has three important ingredients which enable us to calculate (1) high energy nuclear reactions up to 200 GeV, (2) heavy ion collision and its transport in material, (3) low energy neutron transport based on the evaluated nuclear data. In the PHITS, the cross sections of high energy nuclear reactions are obtained by JAM model. JAM (Jet AA Microscopic Transport Model) is a hadronic cascade model, which explicitly treats all established hadronic states including resonances and all hadron-hadron cross sections parametrized based on the resonance model and string model by fitting the available experimental data. The PHITS can describe the transport of heavy ions and their collisions by making use of JQMD and SPAR code. The JQMD (JAERI Quantum Molecular Dynamics) is a simulation code for nucleus nucleus collisions based on the molecular dynamics. The SPAR code is widely used to calculate the stopping powers and ranges for charged particles and heavy ions. The PHITS has included some part of MCNP4C code, by which the transport of low energy neutron, photon and electron based on the evaluated nuclear data can be described. Furthermore, the high energy nuclear

  7. Electric Field Mediated Ion Transport Through Charged Mesoporous Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuhl, R.; de Lint, W.B.S.; Keizer, Klaas; van den Berg, Albert; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Burganos, Vasilis N.; Noble, Richard D.; Asaeda, Masashi; Ayral, Andre; LeRoux, Johann D.

    2003-01-01

    The transport of ions from aqueous solutions through a stacked Au/alpha-alumina/gamma-alumina/Au membrane under the influence of a dc potential difference is reported. The membrane shows high cation permselectivity at ionic strengths of ~1 mM at pH 4.3-6.5, which is associated with a combination of

  8. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-05-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  9. Ion transport restriction in mechanically strained separator membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannarella, John; Arnold, Craig B.

    2013-03-01

    We use AC impedance methods to investigate the effect of mechanical deformation on ion transport in commercial separator membranes and lithium-ion cells as a whole. A Bruggeman type power law relationship is found to provide an accurate correlation between porosity and tortuosity of deformed separators, which allows the impedance of a separator membrane to be predicted as a function of deformation. By using mechanical compression to vary the porosity of the separator membranes during impedance measurements it is possible to determine both the α and γ parameters from the modified Bruggeman relation for individual separator membranes. From impedance testing of compressed pouch cells it is found that separator deformation accounts for the majority of the transport restrictions arising from compressive stress in a lithium-ion cell. Finally, a charge state dependent increase in the impedance associated with charge transfer is observed with increasing cell compression.

  10. Radial transport of storm time ring current ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Radial transport of energetic ions for the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms is investigated with data from the medium energy particle analyzer (MEPA) on the Charge Composition Explorer spacecraft, which monitored protons, helium ions, and the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen group, which is mostly dominated by oxygen ions. From a study of four geomagnetic storms, we show that the flux increase of these ions in the inner ring current region can be accounted for by an inward displacement of the ring current population by 0.5 to 3.5 R(E). There is a general trend that a larger inward displacement occurs at higher L shells than at lower ones. These results are in agreement with previous findings. The radially injected population consists of the prestorm population modified by substorm injections which occur on a much shorter time scale than that for a storm main phase. It is also found that the inward displacement is relatively independent of ion mass and energy, suggesting that the radial transport of these energetic ions is effected primarily by convective motion from a large electric field or by diffusion resulting from magnetic field fluctuations.

  11. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q fi ) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes

  12. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He + and mixed p, H 2+ , H 3+ beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was designed to perform

  13. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  14. The influence of collisional and anomalous radial diffusion on parallel ion transport in edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The orderings in the kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core of a tokamak do not allow a balance between parallel ion streaming and radial diffusion, and are, therefore, inappropriate in the plasma edge. Different orderings are required in the edge region where radial transport across the steep gradients associated with the scrape-off layer is large enough to balance the rapid parallel flow caused by conditions close to collecting surfaces (such as the Bohm sheath condition). In the present work, we derive and solve novel kinetic equations, allowing for such a balance, and construct distinctive transport laws for impure, collisional, edge plasmas in which the perpendicular transport is (i) due to Coulomb collisions of ions with heavy impurities, or (ii) governed by anomalous diffusion driven by electrostatic turbulence. In both the collisional and anomalous radial transport cases, we find that one single diffusion coefficient determines the radial transport of particles, momentum and heat. The parallel transport laws and parallel thermal force in the scrape-off layer assume an unconventional form, in which the relative ion-impurity flow is driven by a combination of the conventional parallel gradients, and new (i) collisional or (ii) anomalous terms involving products of radial derivatives of the temperature and density with the radial shear of the parallel velocity. Thus, in the presence of anomalous radial diffusion, the parallel ion transport cannot be entirely classical, as usually assumed in numerical edge computations. The underlying physical reason is the appearance of a novel type of parallel thermal force resulting from the combined action of anomalous diffusion and radial temperature and velocity gradients. In highly sheared flows the new terms can modify impurity penetration into the core plasma

  15. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease.

  16. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease

  17. Physics of gas breakdown for ion beam transport in gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Rose, D.V.; Hubbard, R.F.; Lampe, M.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.; Slinker, S.P.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.; Welch, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed analysis, experiments, and computer simulations are producing a new understanding of gas breakdown during intense ion beam transport in neutral gas. Charge neutralization of beam micro clumps is shown to limit the net clump potentials to a non-zero value π min , which can lead to divergence growth and axial energy spreading. At pressures approx-gt 1 Torr, plasma shielding should substantially reduce this effect Current neutralization has been studied in experiments on the GAMBLE II accelerator. The importance of fast electrons (knockons and runaways) has been established in IPROP simulations, which are in agreement with the experiments. For light ion fusion parameters with pressures approx-gt 1 Torr, very small net current fractions (much-lt 1%) appear feasible, permitting ballistic transport in gas. Self-pinched requires higher net current fractions (≥ 2%) and preliminary IPROP code results indicate that this appears achievable for small-radius intense beams in lower pressure gases (approx-gt Torr). Several self-pinched transport concepts look promising. The importance of these results for both light ion fusion and heavy ion fusion is discussed

  18. A rapid method for the separation and estimation of uranium in geological materials using ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Satya; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Ion Chromatography is an elegant analytical technique which was primarily developed for the analysis of anionic species and over the years it has been used successfully to analyse various elements in different matrices. In this work the potential of Ion Chromatography has been used for the rapid separation and estimation of uranium in hydrogeochemical and other geological materials

  19. Light-induced modification of plant plasma membrane ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, I; Deeken, R; Hedrich, R; Roelfsema, M R G

    2010-09-01

    Light is not only the driving force for electron and ion transport in the thylakoid membrane, but also regulates ion transport in various other membranes of plant cells. Light-dependent changes in ion transport at the plasma membrane and associated membrane potential changes have been studied intensively over the last century. These studies, with various species and cell types, revealed that apart from regulation by chloroplasts, plasma membrane transport can be controlled by phytochromes, phototropins or channel rhodopsins. In this review, we compare light-dependent plasma membrane responses of unicellular algae (Eremosphaera and Chlamydomonas), with those of a multicellular alga (Chara), liverworts (Conocephalum), mosses (Physcomitrella) and several angiosperm cell types. Light-dependent plasma membrane responses of Eremosphaera and Chara are characterised by the dominant role of K(+) channels during membrane potential changes. In most other species, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of plasma membrane anion channels represents a general light-triggered event. Cell type-specific responses are likely to have evolved by modification of this general response or through the development of additional light-dependent signalling pathways. Future research to elucidate these light-activated signalling chains is likely to benefit from the recent identification of S-type anion channel genes and proteins capable of regulating these channels.

  20. Internal Transport Barrier Driven by Redistribution of Energetic Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Ruskov, E.; Petty, C.C.; Greenfield, C.M.; Nazikian, R.; Budny, R.

    2004-01-01

    Alfven instabilities excited by energetic ions are used as a means to reduce the central magnetic shear in a tokamak via redistribution of energetic ions. When the central magnetic shear is low enough, ballooning modes become stable for any plasma pressure gradient and an internal transport barrier (ITB) with a steep pressure gradient can exist. This mechanism can sustain a steady-state ITB as demonstrated by experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak. It can also produce a shear in toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. Possible application of this technique to use the energetic alpha particles for improvement of burning plasma performance is discussed

  1. Shear flow effects on ion thermal transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Dong, J.Q.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1995-03-01

    From various laboratory and numerical experiments, there is clear evidence that under certain conditions the presence of sheared flows in a tokamak plasma can significantly reduce the ion thermal transport. In the presence of plasma fluctuations driven by the ion temperature gradient, the flows of energy and momentum parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are coupled with each other. This coupling manifests itself as significant off-diagonal coupling coefficients that give rise to new terms for anomalous transport. The authors derive from the gyrokinetic equation a set of velocity moment equations that describe the interaction among plasma turbulent fluctuations, the temperature gradient, the toroidal velocity shear, and the poloidal flow in a tokamak plasma. Four coupled equations for the amplitudes of the state variables radially extended over the transport region by toroidicity induced coupling are derived. The equations show bifurcations from the low confinement mode without sheared flows to high confinement mode with substantially reduced transport due to strong shear flows. Also discussed is the reduced version with three state variables. In the presence of sheared flows, the radially extended coupled toroidal modes driven by the ion temperature gradient disintegrate into smaller, less elongated vortices. Such a transition to smaller spatial correlation lengths changes the transport from Bohm-like to gyrobohm-like. The properties of these equations are analyzed. The conditions for the improved confined regime are obtained as a function of the momentum-energy deposition rates and profiles. The appearance of a transport barrier is a consequence of the present theory

  2. Nitrogen transport during ion nitriding of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parascandola, S.

    2001-09-01

    The work is structured as follows: In Chapter 2 fundamental transport concepts and phenomena and approaches to transport modeling are introduced. In Chapter 3 details are presented concerning the material under investigation, the material modification process, and the ion beam analytical techniques. In Chapter 4 experimental and modeling results are presented and discussed. Issues that are directly addressed include: The structural nature of the nitrogen enriched layer. The diffusion mechanism of nitrogen. The role of potential incorporation and release mechanisms. The evolution of the thickness of the nitrogen enriched layer. The role of the surface oxide layer. (orig.)

  3. Rapid vertical trace gas transport by an isolated midlatitude thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, Thomas; Schulte, Peter; Alheit, Reiner; Schlager, Hans

    1995-11-01

    During the cloud dynamics and chemistry field experiment CLEOPATRA in the summer of 1992 in southern Germany, the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) (German Aerospace Research Establishment) research aircraft Falcon traversed four times the anvil of a severe, isolated thunderstorm. The first two traverses were at 8 km altitude and close to the anvil cloud base, while the second two traverses were at 10 km. During the 8-km traverse, measured ozone mixing ratios dropped by 13 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) from the ambient cloud free environment to the anvil cloud, while water vapor increased by 0.3 g kg-1. At the 10-km traverses, ozone dropped by 25 ppbv, while water vapor increased by 0.18 g kg-1. Three-dimensional numerical thunderstorm simulations were performed to understand the cause of these changes. The simulations included the transport of two chemical inert tracers. Ozone was assumed to be one of them. The initial ozone profile was composed from an ozone routine sounding and the in situ Falcon measurements prior to the thunderstorm development. The second tracer is typical for a surface released pollutant with a nonzero, constant value in the boundary layer but zero above it. The redistribution of both tracers by the storm is calculated and compared with the observations. For the anvil penetration at 10 km, the calculated difference in ozone mixing ratios is 21 ppbv, while for water vapor an increase of 0.25 g kg-1 was found, in good agreement with the observations. To validate the model results, the radar reflectivity was calculated from simulated fields of cloud water, rain, graupel, hail, and snow and ice crystals and compared with observed values. With respect to maximum reflectivity values and spatial scales, again, excellent agreement was achieved. It is concluded that the rapid transport from the boundary layer directly into the anvil level is the most likely cause of the observed ozone decrease and water vapor increase

  4. Development of particle and heavy ion transport code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) is 3 dimension general purpose Monte Carlo simulation codes for description of transport and reaction of particle and heavy ion in materials. It is developed on the basis of NMTC/JAM for design and safety of J-PARC. What is PHITS, it's physical process, physical models and development process of PHITC code are described. For examples of application, evaluation of neutron optics, cancer treatment by heavy particle ray and cosmic radiation are stated. JAM and JQMD model are used as the physical model. Neutron motion in six polar magnetic field and gravitational field, PHITC simulation of trace of C 12 beam and secondary neutron track of small model of cancer treatment device in HIMAC and neutron flux in Space Shuttle are explained. (S.Y.)

  5. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Minford, Eric [Laurys Station, PA; Waldron, William Emil [Whitehall, PA

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  6. Transport of radioactive ions in soil by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    An electrokinetic approach is being evaluated for in situ soil remediation at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The work discussed in this paper involves the development of a new method to monitor the movement of the radioactive ions within the soil during the electrokinetic process. A closed cell and a gamma counter were used to provide iii situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results show that for an applied potential of 200 V over approximately 200 hr, 137 Cs and 60 60 were transported a distance of 4 to 5 in. The monitoring technique demonstrated the feasibility of using electrokinetics for soil separation applications

  7. Object oriented programming in simulation of ions transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenyong; Wang Tongquan; Xiao Yabin; Dai Hongyi; Chen Yuzhong

    2001-01-01

    Using Object Oriented Programming (OOP) method can make our program more reliable and easier to read, debug, maintain and upgrade. This paper compared FORTRAN90-the language widely used in science computing with C ++ --An Object Oriented Language, and the conclusion was made that although FORTRAN90 have many deficiencies, it can be used in Object Oriented programming. Then OOP method was used in programming of Monte Carlo simulation of ions transport and the general process of OOP was given

  8. Intestinal ion transport in rats with spontaneous arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübcke, R; Barbezat, G O

    1988-08-01

    1. Ion balance, intestinal ion transport in vivo with luminal Ringer, and direct voltage clamping in vivo with luminal Ringer and sodium-free choline-Ringer were studied in young (40 days old) and adult (120 days old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive controls (Wistar-Kyoto rats, WKY). 2. Faecal sodium output was significantly higher in SHR compared with WKY in both young (+67%) and adult (+43%) rats. 3. Small-intestinal sodium absorption was equal in young SHR and WKY, but significantly greater net sodium absorption was found in the ileum of adult SHR. In contrast, net sodium absorption was reduced from the colon of both young and adult SHR. 4. In adult SHR, the colonic transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and the transepithelial potential difference (PD) were significantly higher, whereas the transepithelial membrane resistance (Rm) was significantly lower than in WKY. There was an identical drop in Isc in both strains when luminal sodium was replaced by choline. These data cannot be explained by increased electrogenic cation (sodium) absorption in the SHR, but would favour chloride secretion. 5. It is suggested that in SHR membrane electrolyte transport abnormalities may also be present in the epithelial cells of the small and large intestine, as have been demonstrated already in blood cells by several investigators. The SHR may become an interesting experimental animal model for the study of generalized ion transport disorders.

  9. High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Prost

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the U.S. program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2  μC/m over long pulse durations (4  μs in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo, and electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K^{+} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius for which the transverse phase space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (≈80% is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  10. Transport of energetic ions by low-n magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1992-10-01

    The stochastic transport of MeV ions induced by low-n magnetic perturbations is studied, focussing chiefly on the stochastic mechanism operative for passing particles in low frequency perturbations. Beginning with a single-harmonic form for the perturbing field, it iii first shown numerically and analytically that the stochastic threshold of energetic particles can be much lower than that of the magnetic field, contrary to earlier expectations, so that MHD perturbations could cause appreciable loss of energetic ions without destroying the bulk confinement. The analytic theory is then extended in a number of directions, to darity the relation of the present stochaistic mechanism to instances already found, to allow for more complex perturbations, and to consider the more general relationship between the stochasticity of magnetic fields, and that of particles of differing energies (and pitch angles) moving in those fields. It is shown that the stochastic threshold is in general a nonmonotonic function of energy, whose form can to some extent be tailored to achieve desired goals (e.g., burn control or ash removal) by a judicious choice of the perturbation. Illustrative perturbations are exhibited which are stochastic for low but not for high-energy ions, for high but not for low-energy ions, and for intermediate-energy ions, but not for low or high energy. The second possibility is the behavior needed for burn control; the third provides a possible mechanism for ash removal

  11. Computational simulation of lithium ion transport through polymer nanocomposite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, P.; Sandi, G.; Kizilel, R.; Stevens, D.

    2003-01-01

    We think of membranes as simple devices to facilitate filtration. In fact, membranes play a role in chemical, biological, and engineering processes such as catalysis, separation, and sensing by control of molecular transport and recognition. Critical factors that influence membrane discrimination properties include composition, pore size (as well as homogeneity), chemical functionalization, and electrical transport properties. There is increasing interest in using nanomaterials for the production of novel membranes due to the unique selectivity that can be achieved. Clay-polymer nanocomposites show particular promise due to their ease of manufacture (large sheets), their rigidity (self supporting), and their excellent mechanical properties. However, the process of lithium ion transport through the clay-polymer nanocomposite and mechanisms of pore size selection are poorly understood at the ionic and molecular level. In addition, manufacturing of clay-polymer nanocomposite membranes with desirable properties has proved challenging. We have built a general membrane-modeling tool (simulation system) to assist in developing improved membranes for selection, electromigration, and other electrochemical applications. Of particular interest are the recently formulated clay-polymer membranes. The transport mechanisms of the lithium ions membranes are not well understood and, therefore, they make an interesting test case for the model. In order to validate the model, we synthesized polymer nanocomposites membranes.

  12. Ion Transport through Diffusion Layer Controlled by Charge Mosaic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic transport behaviors in near interface of the membranes were studied using commercial anion and cation exchange membrane and charge mosaic membrane. Current-voltage curve gave the limiting current density that indicates the ceiling of conventional flux. From chronopotentiometry above the limiting current density, the transition time was estimated. The thickness of boundary layer was derived with conjunction with the conventional limiting current density and the transition time from steady state flux. On the other hand, the charge mosaic membrane was introduced in order to examine the ion transport on the membrane surface in detail. The concentration profile was discussed by the kinetic transport number with regard to the water dissociation (splitting on the membrane surface.

  13. Asymmetric ion transport through ion-channel-mimetic solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-12-17

    Both scientists and engineers are interested in the design and fabrication of synthetic nanofluidic architectures that mimic the gating functions of biological ion channels. The effort to build such structures requires interdisciplinary efforts at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology. Biological ion channels and synthetic nanofluidic devices have some structural and chemical similarities, and therefore, they share some common features in regulating the traverse ionic flow. In the past decade, researchers have identified two asymmetric ion transport phenomena in synthetic nanofluidic structures, the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. The rectified ionic current is a diode-like current-voltage response that occurs when switching the voltage bias. This phenomenon indicates a preferential direction of transport in the nanofluidic system. The net diffusion current occurs as a direct product of charge selectivity and is generated from the asymmetric diffusion through charged nanofluidic channels. These new ion transport phenomena and the elaborate structures that occur in biology have inspired us to build functional nanofluidic devices for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this Account, we review our recent progress in the design and fabrication of biomimetic solid-state nanofluidic devices with asymmetric ion transport behavior. We demonstrate the origin of the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. We also identify several influential factors and discuss how to build these asymmetric features into nanofluidic systems by controlling (1) nanopore geometry, (2) surface charge distribution, (3) chemical composition, (4) channel wall wettability, (5) environmental pH, (6) electrolyte concentration gradient, and (7) ion mobility. In the case of the first four features, we build these asymmetric features directly into the nanofluidic structures. With the final three, we construct

  14. Current neutralization in ballistic transport of light ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, R.F.; Slinker, S.P.; Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.; Ottinger, P.

    1992-01-01

    Intense light ion beams are being considered as drivers to ignite fusion targets in the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). Ballistic transport of these beams from the diode to the target is possible only if the beam current is almost completely neutralized by plasma currents. This paper summarizes related work on relativistic electron beam and heavy ion beam propagation and describes a simple simulation model (DYNAPROP) which has been modified to treat light ion beam propagation. DYNAPROP uses an envelope equation to treat beam dynamics and uses rate equations to describe plasma and conductivity generation. The model has been applied both to the high current, 30 MeV Li +3 beams for LMF as well as low current, 1.2 MeV proton beams which are currently being studied on GAMBLE B at the Naval Research Laboratory. The predicted ratio of net currents to beam current is ∼0.1--0.2 for the GAMBLE experiment and ∼0.01 for LMF. The implications of these results for LMF and the GAMBLE experiments art discussed in some detail. The simple resistive model in DYNAPROP has well-known limitations in the 1 torr regime which arise primarily from the neglect of plasma electron transport. Alternative methods for treating the plasma response are discussed

  15. Particle modeling of transport of α-ray generated ion clusters in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Lizhu; Nanbu, Kenichi; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    A particle model is developed using the test-particle Monte Carlo method to study the transport properties of α-ray generated ion clusters in a flow of air. An efficient ion-molecule collision model is proposed to simulate the collisions between ion and air molecule. The simulations are performed for a steady state of ion transport in a circular pipe. In the steady state, generation of ions is balanced with such losses of ions as absorption of the measuring sensor or pipe wall and disappearance by positive-negative ion recombination. The calculated ion current to the measuring sensor agrees well with the previous measured data. (author)

  16. On fast-ion transport and burn control in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wising, F.

    1994-01-01

    Fast ions, generated by e.g. neutral beam injection (NBI), radio frequency (RF) heating or nuclear reactions, play an important role in all large tokamaks. Several issues related to fast ions and burning fusion plasmas are addressed in this thesis. Firstly, a new model of sawtooth oscillations is developed which explains the recent observations that q 0 remains below unity during the entire sawtooth cycle. The model features full reconnection in two current layers and provides a self-consistent description of the plasma states before and after the sawtooth crash. It is applied to the redistribution of fast NBI-ions in JET and comparisons are made with global as well as line-of-sight integrated D-D neutron measurements. Both the new model and the classical Kadomtsev model are found to be in agreement with the measurements. A simplified redistribution model is developed and applied to the redistribution of tritons and thermal ions, again giving reasonable agreement with D-T/D-D neutron measurements. Using a separate method, earlier results on expulsion of NBI-ions are confirmed. Secondly, a numerical study has been carried out of the coupled nonlinear evolution of alpha-particle driven kinetic Alfven wave turbulence and associated alpha transport. The saturated fluctuation spectrum consists of two peaks and results from nonlinear ion Compton scattering-induced transfer of energy from longer to shorter wavelengths. An analytical solution of the saturated spectrum, and estimates of the anomalous alpha diffusion coefficient, are given. The final paper addresses the problem of determining whether an initial temperature profile, established by e.g. auxiliary heating, will evolve to thermonuclear burn or quench under the influence of alpha particle heating and thermal conduction. Explicit burn criteria are presented and the beneficial effects of density and temperature peaking are discussed. 110 refs

  17. Energetic O+ and H+ Ions in the Plasma Sheet: Implications for the Transport of Ionospheric Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, S.; Nose, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study statistically examines the characteristics of energetic ions in the plasma sheet using the Geotail/Energetic Particle and Ion Composition data. An emphasis is placed on the O+ ions, and the characteristics of the H+ ions are used as references. The following is a summary of the results. (1) The average O+ energy is lower during solar maximum and higher during solar minimum. A similar tendency is also found for the average H+ energy, but only for geomagnetically active times; (2) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities are several times higher during solar maximum than during solar minimum; (3) The average H+ and O+ energies and the O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities all increase with geomagnetic activity. The differences among different solar phases not only persist but also increase with increasing geomagnetic activity; (4) Whereas the average H+ energy increases toward Earth, the average O+ energy decreases toward Earth. The average energy increases toward dusk for both the H+ and O+ ions; (5) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities increase toward Earth during all solar phases, but most clearly during solar maximum. These results suggest that the solar illumination enhances the ionospheric outflow more effectively with increasing geomagnetic activity and that a significant portion of the O+ ions is transported directly from the ionosphere to the near ]Earth region rather than through the distant tail.

  18. Heavy ion transport in the core of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odstrcil, Tomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Puetterich, Thomas; Angioni, Clemente; Bilato, Roberto; Gude, Anja; Vezinet, Didier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Mazon, Didier [CEA, IRFM F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    High impurity concentration in the core of the future fusion reactors can lead to the serious degradation of the achievable fusion gain. Therefore, a better understanding of the underlying impurity transport processes is necessary for higher performance, more efficient power exhaust and avoidance of impurity accumulation. Radial impurity transport is mainly driven by neoclassical and turbulent particle fluxes. Both these components show substantial variation depending on the poloidal angle. Consequently, an asymmetry in the poloidal distribution of impurities leads to significant changes in the radial impurity flow and the total content of the plasma core. The aim of this contribution is to experimentally verify a model describing the poloidal asymmetry of heavy impurities using measurements from ASDEX Upgrade. The observed asymmetries are caused mainly by the centrifugal force and poloidal electric force created by the fast particles produced by intensive ion-cyclotron heating. Finally, a change in the radial transport of the tungsten ions will be presented in the case of large inboard and outboard impurity accumulation.

  19. Electron and ion beam transport to fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.R.; Baker, L.; Miller, P.A.; Mix, L.P.; Olsen, J.N.; Poukey, J.W.; Wright, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    ICF reactors have been proposed which incorporate a gas-filled chamber to reduce x-ray and debris loading of the first wall. Focused beams of either electrons or ions must be transported efficiently for 2-4 m to a centrally located fusion target. Laser-initiated current-carrying plasma discharge channels provide the guiding magnetic field and the charge- and current-neutralizing medium required for beam propagation. Computational studies of plasma channel formation in air using a 1-D MHD model with multigroup radiation diffusion have provided a good comparison with the expansions velocity and time dependent refractivity profile determined by holographic interferometry. Trajectory calculations have identified a beam expansion mechanism which combines with the usual ohmic dissipation to reduce somewhat the transported beam fluence for electrons. Additional trajectory calculations have been performed for both electrons and light ions to predict the limits on the particle current density which can be delivered to a central target by overlapping the many independently-generated beams. Critical features of the use of plasma channels for transport and overlap of charged particle beams are being tested experimentally with up to twelve electron beams from the Proto II accelerator

  20. Physics of electron and lithium-ion transport in electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Musheng; Xu Bo; Ouyang Chuying

    2016-01-01

    The physics of ionic and electrical conduction at electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are briefly summarized here, besides, we review the current research on ionic and electrical conduction in electrode material incorporating experimental and simulation studies. Commercial LIBs have been widely used in portable electronic devices and are now developed for large-scale applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and stationary distributed power stations. However, due to the physical limits of the materials, the overall performance of today’s LIBs does not meet all the requirements for future applications, and the transport problem has been one of the main barriers to further improvement. The electron and Li-ion transport behaviors are important in determining the rate capacity of LIBs. (topical review)

  1. Development of general-purpose particle and heavy ion transport monte carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Niita, Koji

    2002-01-01

    The high-energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which has been developed at JAERI, was improved for the high-energy heavy ion transport calculation by incorporating the JQMD code, the SPAR code and the Shen formula. The new NMTC/JAM named PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) is the first general-purpose heavy ion transport Monte Carlo code over the incident energies from several MeV/nucleon to several GeV/nucleon. (author)

  2. Ion turbulence and thermal transport in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, H.C.; Boyd, T.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In the interaction of high-intensity lasers with target plasmas the transport of thermal energy from the region in which the radiation is absorbed, to the cold dense plasma in the interior of the target, is an issue of central importance. The role of ion turbulence as a flux limiter is addressed with particular regard to recent experiments in which target plasmas were irradiated by 1.06 μm neodymium laser light at irradiances of 10 15 W cm - 2 and greater. Saturation levels of the ion-acoustic turbulence driven by a combination of a suprathermal electron current and a heat flux are calculated on the basis of perturbed orbit theory. The levels of turbulence are found to be markedly lower than those commonly estimated from simple trapping arguments and too low to explain the thermal flux inhibition observed in the experiments used as a basis for the model. (author)

  3. New Trends in Cancer Therapy: Targeting Ion Channels and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Arcangeli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression and activity of different channel types mark and regulate specific stages of cancer establishment and progression. Blocking channel activity impairs the growth of some tumors, both in vitro and in vivo, which opens a new field for pharmaceutical research. However, ion channel blockers may produce serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias. For instance, Kv11.1 (hERG1 channels are aberrantly expressed in several human cancers, in which they control different aspects of the neoplastic cell behaviour. hERG1 blockers tend to inhibit cancer growth. However they also retard the cardiac repolarization, thus lengthening the electrocardiographic QT interval, which can lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Several possibilities exist to produce less harmful compounds, such as developing specific drugs that bind hERG1 channels in the open state or disassemble the ion channel/integrin complex which appears to be crucial in certain stages of neoplastic progression. The potential approaches to improve the efficacy and safety of ion channel targeting in oncology include: (1 targeting specific conformational channel states; (2 finding ever more specific inhibitors, including peptide toxins, for channel subtypes mainly expressed in well-identified tumors; (3 using specific ligands to convey traceable or cytotoxic compounds; (4 developing channel blocking antibodies; (5 designing new molecular tools to decrease channel expression in selected cancer types. Similar concepts apply to ion transporters such as the Na+/K+ pump and the Na+/H+ exchanger. Pharmacological targeting of these transporters is also currently being considered in anti-neoplastic therapy.

  4. Radioprotector modifying influence upon the ion transport ATPase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoretsky, A.I.; Egorova, E.G.; Ananieva, T.V.; Kulikova, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of aminothiol and biogenic amine radioprotectors (β-mercaptoethylamine, AET, serotonin, dopamine, histamine) on the basic ion transport enzymes, such as Na, K-ATP ase and Mg, Ca-ATPase activities were investigated in the tissues of numerous organs, with different radiosensitivity in the wistar rats. Experimental results showed that intraperitoneal injection of the used radioprotectors caused preliminary inhibition of the Na, K-ATPase activity in tissues from organs with different radioresistance, but had no influence on the Mg, Ca-ATPase activity in membranes of erythrocytes and rat brain cells. (2 tabs.)

  5. Rapidly patterning micro/nano devices by directly assembling ions and nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Na Liu; Feifei Wang; Lianqing Liu; Haibo Yu; Shaorong Xie; Jun Wang; Yuechao Wang; Gwo-Bin Lee; Wen J. Li

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of components are key steps in micro/nano device manufacturing. In this article, we report an optically controlled assembly method that can rapidly pattern micro/nano devices by directly assembling ions and nanomaterials without expensive physical masks and complex etching processes. Utilizing this controllable process, different types of device components (e.g., metallic and semiconductor) can be fabricated and assembled in 10?30?seconds, which is far more rapid an...

  6. PHYSIOLOGY OF ION TRANSPORT ACROSS THE TONOPLAST OF HIGHER PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Pantoja, Omar

    1996-06-01

    The vacuole of plant cells plays an important role in the homeostasis of the cell. It is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH, sequestration of toxic ions and xenobiotics, regulation of cell turgor, storage of amino acids, sugars and CO2 in the form of malate, and possibly as a source for elevating cytoplasmic calcium. All these activities are driven by two primary active transport mechanisms present in the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). These two mechanisms employ high-energy metabolites to pump protons into the vacuole, establishing a proton electrochemical potential that mediates the transport of a diverse range of solutes. Within the past few years, great advances at the molecular and functional levels have been made on the characterization and identification of these mechanisms. The aim of this review is to summarize these studies in the context of the physiology of the plant cell.

  7. Solution of the Boltzmann equation for primary light ions and the transport of their fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kempe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Boltzmann equation for the transport of pencil beams of light ions in semi-infinite uniform media has been calculated. The equation is solved for the practically important generalized 3D case of Gaussian incident primary light ion beams of arbitrary mean square radius, mean square angular spread, and covariance. The transport of the associated fragments in three dimensions is derived based on the known transport of the primary particles, taking the mean square angular spread of their production processes, as well as their energy loss and multiple scattering, into account. The analytical pencil and broad beam depth fluence and absorbed dose distributions are accurately expressed using recently derived analytical energy and range formulas. The contributions from low and high linear energy transfer (LET dose components were separately identified using analytical expressions. The analytical results are compared with SHIELD-HIT Monte Carlo (MC calculations and found to be in very good agreement. The pencil beam fluence and absorbed dose distributions of the primary particles are mainly influenced by an exponential loss of the primary ions combined with an increasing lateral spread due to multiple scattering and energy loss with increasing penetration depth. The associated fluence of heavy fragments is concentrated at small radii and so is the LET and absorbed dose distribution. Their transport is also characterized by the buildup of a slowing down spectrum which is quite similar to that of the primaries but with a wider energy and angular spread at increasing penetration depths. The range of the fragments is shorter or longer depending on their nuclear mass to charge ratio relative to that of the primary ions. The absorbed dose of the heavier fragments is fairly similar to that of the primary ions and also influenced by a rapidly increasing energy loss towards the end of their ranges. The present analytical solution of the Boltzmann equation

  8. Neoclassical transport of energetic beam ions in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Osamu

    2000-01-01

    The neoclassical (collisional) transport of energetic ions is investigated by the global neoclassical transport simulation in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The steady state distributions of energetic ions are evaluated assuming an energetic particle source by NBI heating (tangentally injected). Significant radial transport of energetic ions can be seen due to the radial motion of trapped particles in the velocity region below near critical velocity. Our simulation results show relatively good agreements with the experimental results of fast particle measurements in the LHD. This suggests an important role of neoclassical transport in the radial transport process of energetic ions in heliotrons. (author)

  9. Electron transport effects in ion induced electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: adubus@ulb.ac.be; Pauly, N. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Roesler, M. [Karl-Pokern-Str. 12, D-12587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Ion induced electron emission (IIEE) is usually described as a three-step process, i.e. electron excitation by the incident projectile, electron transport (and multiplication) and electron escape through the potential barrier at the surface. In many cases, the first step of the process has been carefully described. The second step of the process, i.e. electron transport and multiplication, has often been treated in a very rough way, a simple decreasing exponential law being sometimes used. It is precisely the aim of the present work to show the importance of a correct description of electron transport and multiplication in a theoretical calculation of IIEE. A short overview of the electron transport models developed for IIEE is given in this work. The so-called 'Infinite medium slowing-down model' often used in recent works is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, the importance of considering correctly the semi-infinite character of the medium and the boundary condition at the vacuum-medium interface is discussed. Quantities like the electron escape depth are also briefly discussed. This evaluation has been performed in the particular case of protons (25keV

  10. The ion-sensitive field effect transistor in rapid acid-base titrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Bergveld, Piet; van Veen-Blaauw, A.M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) are used as the pH sensor in rapid acid—base titrations. Titration speeds at least five times greater than those with glass electrodes are possible for accuracies better than ±1%.

  11. Energetic ion driven Alfven eigenmodes in Large Helical Device plasmas with three-dimensional magnetic structure and their impact on energetic ion transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K; Yamamoto, S; Nakajima, N; Ohdachi, S; Sakakibara, S; Osakabe, M; Murakami, S; Watanabe, K Y; Goto, M; Kawahata, K; Kolesnichenko, Ya I; Masuzaki, S; Morita, S; Narihara, K; Narushima, Y; Takeiri, Y; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Yamada, H; Yamada, I; Yamazaki, K

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Helical Device (LHD), energetic ion driven Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) and their impact on energetic ion transport have been studied. The magnetic configuration of the LHD is three-dimensional and has negative magnetic shear over a whole plasma radius in the low beta regime. These features introduce the characteristic structures of the shear Alfven spectrum. In particular, a core-localized type of toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) is most likely because the TAE gap frequency rapidly increases towards the plasma edge. Moreover, helicity-induced AEs (HAEs) can be generated through a toroidal mode coupling as well as poloidal one in the three-dimensional configuration. The following experimental results have been obtained in LHD plasmas heated by tangential neutral beam injection: (1) observation of core-localized TAEs having odd as well as even parity, (2) eigenmode transition of the core-localized TAE to global AEs (GAEs), which phenomenon is very similar to that in a reversed shear tokamak, (3) observation of HAEs of which the frequency is about eight times higher than the TAE gap frequency, (4) enhanced radial transport/loss of energetic ions caused by bursting TAEs in a relatively high beta regime, and (5) seed formation of internal transport barriers induced by TAE-induced energetic ion transport. These results will be important and interesting information for AE physics in toroidal plasmas

  12. The Role of Kinetic Alfven Waves in Plasma Transport in an Ion-scale Flux Rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, B.; Li, W.; Wang, C.; Dai, L.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic flux ropes, if generated by multiply X-line reconnections, would be born as a crater type one, meaning the plasma density within is relatively high. They will then evolve into typical flux ropes as plasma are transported away along the magnetic field lines [Zhang et al., 2010]. In this study, we report an ion-scale flux rope observed by MMS on November 28, 2016, which is accompanied by strong kinetic Alfven waves (KAW). The related wave parallel electric field can effectively accelerate electrons inside the flux rope by Landau resonance, resulting into a significant decrease of the electron at 90° pitch angle. The change of electron pitch angle distribution would cause the rapid plasma transport along the magnetic field lines, and help the flux rope evolve into a strong magnetic core in a short time. This wave-particle interaction would be a candidate mechanism to explain the rareness of crater flux ropes in reality.

  13. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I; Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L; Weyssow, B

    2011-01-01

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  14. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-08-15

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  15. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.; Isliker, H.; Vogiannou, A.; Vlahos, L.; Weyssow, B.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  16. Cross Sections and Transport Properties of BR- Ions in AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Raspopovic, Zoran; Petrovic, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    We have used a combination of a simple semi-analytic theory - Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT) and exact Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to develop Br- in Ar momentum transfer cross section based on the available data for reduced mobility at the temperature T = 300 K over the range 10 Td higher energies based on behavior of similar ions in similar gases and by the addition of the total detachment cross section that was used from the threshold around 7.7 eV. Relatively complete set was derived which can be used in modeling of plasmas by both hybrid, particle in cell (PIC) and fluid codes. A good agreement between calculated and measured ion mobilities and longitudinal diffusion coefficients is an independent proof of the validity of the cross sections that were derived for the negative ion mobility data. In addition to transport coefficients we have also calculated the net rate coefficients of elastic scattering and detachment. Author acknowledge Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Proj. Nos. 171037 and 410011.

  17. Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples - RaPToRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, S.; Barrios, M.; Sangster, C.

    2005-10-01

    Some ICF neutron activation diagnostics require quick retrieval of the activated sample. Minimizing retrieval times is particularly important when the half-life of the activated material is on the order of the transport time or the degree of radioactivity is close to the background counting level. These restrictions exist in current experiments performed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, thus motivating the development of the RaPToRS system. The system has been designed to minimize transportation time while requiring no human intervention during transport or counting. These factors will be important if the system is to be used at the NIF where radiological hazards will be present during post activation. The sample carrier is pneumatically transported via a 4 inch ID PVC pipe to a remote location in excess of 100 meters from the activation site at a speed of approximately 7 m/s. It arrives at an end station where it is dismounted robotically from the carrier and removed from its hermetic package. The sample is then placed by the robot in a counting station. This system is currently being developed to measure back-to-back gamma rays produced by positron annihilation which were emitted by activated graphite. Funded in part by the U.S. DOE under sub contract with LLE at the University of Rochester.

  18. Neoclassical transport of energetic minority tail ions generated by ion-cyclotron resonance heating in tokamak geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Hammett, G.W.; Goldston, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Neoclassical transport of energetic minority tail ions, which are generated by high powered electromagnetic waves of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) at the fundamental harmonic resonance, is studied analytically in tokamak geometry. The effect of Coulomb collisions on the tail ion transport is investigated in the present work. The total tail ion transport will be the sum of the present collision-driven transport and the wave-driven transport, which is due to the ICRF-wave scattering of the tail particles as reported in the literature. The transport coefficients have been calculated kinetically, and it is found that the large tail ion viscosity, driven by the localized ICRF-heating and Coulomb slowing-down collisions, induces purely convective particle transport of the tail species, while the energy transport is both convective and diffusive. The rate of radial particle transport is shown to be usually small, but the rate of radial energy transport is larger and may not be negligible compared to the Coulomb slowing-down rate. 18 refs., 2 figs

  19. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K + and Cl - conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca 2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchange systems

  20. Electron density measurements during ion beam transport on Gamble II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    High-sensitivity laser interferometry was used to measure the electron density created when an intense proton beam (100 kA, 1 MeV, 50 ns) from the Gamble II generator was transported through low-pressure gas as part of a project investigating Self-Pinched Transport (SPT) of intense ion beams. This measurement is non-perturbing and sufficiently quantitative to allow benchmarking of codes (particularly IPROP) used to model beam-gas interaction and ion-beam transport. Very high phase sensitivity is required for this measurement. For example, a 100-kA, 1-MeV, 10-cm-radius proton beam with uniform current density has a line-integrated proton density equal to n b L = 3 x 10 13 cm -2 . An equal electron line-density, n e L = n b L, (expected for transport in vacuum) will be detected as a phase shift of the 1.064 microm laser beam of only 0.05degree, or an optical path change of 1.4 x 10 -4 waves (about the size of a hydrogen atom). The time-history of the line-integrated electron density, measured across a diameter of the transport chamber at 43 cm from the input aperture, starts with the proton arrival time and decays differently depending on the gas pressure. The gas conditions included vacuum (10 -4 Torr air), 30 to 220 mTorr He, and 1 Torr air. The measured densities vary by three orders of magnitude, from 10 13 to 10 16 cm -2 for the range of gas pressures investigated. In vacuum, the measured electron densities indicate only co-moving electrons (n e L approximately n b L). In He, when the gas pressure is sufficient for ionization by beam particles and SPT is observed, n e L increases to about 10 n b L. At even higher pressures where electrons contribute to ionization, even higher electron densities are observed with an ionization fraction of about 2%. The diagnostic technique as used on the SPT experiment will be described and a summary of the results will be given. The measurements are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions from the IPROP code

  1. Transport of Zn(OH)4(-2) ions across a polyolefin microporous membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Ivan; Vanysek, Peter; Trojanek, Antonin

    1993-04-01

    Transport of ZN(OH)4(2-) ions through modified microporous polypropylene membranes (Celgard 3401, 350140) was studied using polarography and conductometry. Soluble Nafion as an ion exchange modifying agent was applied to the membrane by several techniques. The influence of Nafion and a surfactant on transport of zinc ions through the membrane was studied. A relationship between membrane impedance and the rate of Zn(OH)4(2-) transport was found. The found correlation between conductivity, ion permeability and Nafion coverage suggests a suitable technique of membrane preparation to obtain desired zinc ion barrier properties.

  2. Permeating disciplines: Overcoming barriers between molecular simulations and classical structure-function approaches in biological ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Delemotte, Lucie; Hellmich, Ute A; Rothberg, Brad S

    2018-04-01

    Ion translocation across biological barriers is a fundamental requirement for life. In many cases, controlling this process-for example with neuroactive drugs-demands an understanding of rapid and reversible structural changes in membrane-embedded proteins, including ion channels and transporters. Classical approaches to electrophysiology and structural biology have provided valuable insights into several such proteins over macroscopic, often discontinuous scales of space and time. Integrating these observations into meaningful mechanistic models now relies increasingly on computational methods, particularly molecular dynamics simulations, while surfacing important challenges in data management and conceptual alignment. Here, we seek to provide contemporary context, concrete examples, and a look to the future for bridging disciplinary gaps in biological ion transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E.H.; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2006-01-01

    transport similar to rat proximal tubule. Na+ recirculation is required for truly isotonic transport. The tonicity of the absorbate and the recirculation flux depend critically on ion permeabilities of interspace basement membrane. Conclusion: Our model based on solute-solvent coupling in lateral space......Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species......: Na+, K+, Cl and an intracellular non-diffusible anion. Unknown model variables are solute concentrations, electrical potentials, volumes and hydrostatic pressures in cell and lis, and transepithelial potential. We used data mainly from rat proximal tubule to model epithelial cells and interspace...

  4. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Coppi, B. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics)

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  5. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Coppi, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics

    1992-08-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  6. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.; Coppi, B.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity χ i have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode (η i mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal η i mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal η i mode, and that the observed reduction of χ i (r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the χ i . It is shown the new formula fits well the observed χ i (r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula

  7. Rapid Measurement of Neutron Dose Rate for Transport Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    A newly available neutron dose equivalent remmeter with improved sensitivity and energy response has been put into service at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This instrument is being used to expedite measurement of the Transport Index and as an ALARA tool to identify locations where slightly elevated neutron dose equivalent rates exist. The meter is capable of measuring dose rates as low as 0.2 μSv per hour (20 μrem per hour). Tests of the angular response and energy response of the instrument are reported. Calculations of the theoretical instrument response made using MCNPtrademark are reported for materials typical of those being shipped

  8. Solenoidal Fields for Ion Beam Transport and Focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward P.; Leitner, Matthaeus

    2007-11-01

    In this report we calculate time-independent fields of solenoidal magnets that are suitable for ion beam transport and focusing. There are many excellent Electricity and Magnetism textbooks that present the formalism for magnetic field calculations and apply it to simple geometries [1-1], but they do not include enough relevant detail to be used for designing a charged particle transport system. This requires accurate estimates of fringe field aberrations, misaligned and tilted fields, peak fields in wire coils and iron, external fields, and more. Specialized books on magnet design, technology, and numerical computations [1-2] provide such information, and some of that is presented here. The AIP Conference Proceedings of the US Particle Accelerator Schools [1-3] contain extensive discussions of design and technology of magnets for ion beams - except for solenoids. This lack may be due to the fact that solenoids have been used primarily to transport and focus particles of relatively low momenta, e.g. electrons of less than 50 MeV and protons or H- of less than 1.0 MeV, although this situation may be changing with the commercial availability of superconducting solenoids with up to 20T bore field [1-4]. Internal reports from federal laboratories and industry treat solenoid design in detail for specific applications. The present report is intended to be a resource for the design of ion beam drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy [1-5] and Warm Dense Matter experiments [1-6], although it should also be useful for a broader range of applications. The field produced by specified currents and material magnetization can always be evaluated by solving Maxwell's equations numerically, but it is also desirable to have reasonably accurate, simple formulas for conceptual system design and fast-running beam dynamics codes, as well as for general understanding. Most of this report is devoted to such formulas, but an introduction to the Tosca{copyright} code [1-7] and some

  9. Solenoidal Fields for Ion Beam Transport and Focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward P.; Leitner, Matthaeus

    2007-01-01

    In this report we calculate time-independent fields of solenoidal magnets that are suitable for ion beam transport and focusing. There are many excellent Electricity and Magnetism textbooks that present the formalism for magnetic field calculations and apply it to simple geometries (1-1), but they do not include enough relevant detail to be used for designing a charged particle transport system. This requires accurate estimates of fringe field aberrations, misaligned and tilted fields, peak fields in wire coils and iron, external fields, and more. Specialized books on magnet design, technology, and numerical computations (1-2) provide such information, and some of that is presented here. The AIP Conference Proceedings of the US Particle Accelerator Schools (1-3) contain extensive discussions of design and technology of magnets for ion beams - except for solenoids. This lack may be due to the fact that solenoids have been used primarily to transport and focus particles of relatively low momenta, e.g. electrons of less than 50 MeV and protons or H- of less than 1.0 MeV, although this situation may be changing with the commercial availability of superconducting solenoids with up to 20T bore field (1-4). Internal reports from federal laboratories and industry treat solenoid design in detail for specific applications. The present report is intended to be a resource for the design of ion beam drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy (1-5) and Warm Dense Matter experiments (1-6), although it should also be useful for a broader range of applications. The field produced by specified currents and material magnetization can always be evaluated by solving Maxwell's equations numerically, but it is also desirable to have reasonably accurate, simple formulas for conceptual system design and fast-running beam dynamics codes, as well as for general understanding. Most of this report is devoted to such formulas, but an introduction to the Tosca(copyright) code (1-7) and some numerical

  10. Structure, Ion Transport, and Rheology of Nanoparticle Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho

    2014-07-08

    Above a critical surface chemistry-dependent particle loading associated with nanoscale interparticle spacing, ligand-ligand interactions-both electrostatic and steric-come into play and govern the structure and dynamics of charged oligomer-functionalized nanoparticle suspensions. We report in particular on the structure, ion transport, and rheology of suspensions of nanoparticle salts created by cofunctionalization of silica particles with tethered sulfonate salts and oligomers. Dispersion of the hairy ionic particles into medium and high dielectric constant liquids yields electrolytes with unique structure and transport properties. We find that electrostatic repulsion imparted by ion dissociation can be tuned to control the dispersion state and rheology through counterion size (i.e., Li+, Na+, and K+) and dielectric properties of the dispersing medium. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) structure factors and the mechanical modulus shows that when the interparticle spacing approaches nanometer dimensions, weakly entangled anchored ligands experience strong and long-lived topological constraints analogous to those normally found in well-entangled polymeric fluids. This finding provides insight into the molecular origins of the surprisingly similar rubbery plateau moduli observed in hairy nanoparticle suspensions and entangled polymers of the same chemistry as the tethered ligands. Additionally, we find that a time-composition superposition (TCS) principle exists for the suspensions, which can be used to substantially extend the observation time over which dynamics are observed in jammed, soft glassy suspensions. Application of TCS reveals dynamical similarities between the suspensions and entangled solutions of linear polymer chains; i.e., a hairy particle trapped in a cage appears to exhibit analogous dynamics to a long polymer chain confined to a tube. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. STM and transport measurements of highly charged ion modified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, J.M.; Grube, H.; Perrella, A.C.; Gillaspy, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Careful measurements of highly charged ions (HCIs) colliding with gases and surfaces have provided glimpses of intense electronic interactions, but a comprehensive model for the interaction mechanisms, time scales, and resultant nano-features that bridges materials systems is yet to be realized. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, new apparatus is now connected to the HCI beamline to allow preparation of clean, atomically flat surfaces of single crystals, e.g. gold, tungsten and silicon, and deposition and patterning of thin films, e.g. high resistivity oxides, ferromagnetic metals, normal metals and superconductors. Experiments reported here focus on the electronic and morphological structure of HCI induced nano-features. Current activities are focused on using in situ scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on Au(1 1 1) and (separately) ex situ transport measurements to study electronic properties within HCI modified magnetic multilayer systems. Specifically, we are fabricating magnetic multilayers similar to magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) (important in advanced magnetic field sensors and superconducting Josephson junction devices) and using HCIs to adjust critical electronic properties. The electrical response of the tunnel junction to HCIs provides a novel approach to performing HCI-induced nanostructure ensemble measurements

  12. Ion transport and phase transformation in thin film intercalation electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunde, Fabian; Nowak, Susann; Muerter, Juliane; Hadjixenophontos, Efi; Berkemeier, Frank; Schmitz, Guido [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialwissenschaft

    2017-11-15

    Thin film battery electrodes of the olivine structure LiFePO{sub 4} and the spinel phase LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} are deposited through ion-beam sputtering. The intercalation kinetics is studied by cyclo-voltammetry using variation of the cycling rate over 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. The well-defined layer geometry allows a detailed quantitative analysis. It is shown that LiFePO{sub 4} clearly undergoes phase separation during intercalation, although the material is nano-confined and very high charging rates are applied. We present a modified Randles-Sevcik evaluation adapted to phase-separating systems. Both the charging current and the overpotential depend on the film thickness in a systematic way. The analysis yields evidence that the grain boundaries are important short circuit paths for fast transport. They increase the electrochemical active area with increasing layer thickness. Evidence is obtained that the grain boundaries in LiFePO{sub 4} have the character of an ion-conductor of vanishing electronic conductivity.

  13. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2012-07-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity and the associated energy penalty. To utilize this technology more effectively, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of the fundamental processes of oxygen transport and fuel conversion in the immediate vicinity of the membrane. In this paper, a numerical model that spatially resolves the gas flow, transport and reactions is presented. The model incorporates detailed gas phase chemistry and transport. The model is used to express the oxygen permeation flux in terms of the oxygen concentrations at the membrane surface given data on the bulk concentration, which is necessary for cases when mass transfer limitations on the permeate side are important and for reactive flow modeling. The simulation results show the dependence of oxygen transport and fuel conversion on the geometry and flow parameters including the membrane temperature, feed and sweep gas flow, oxygen concentration in the feed and fuel concentration in the sweep gas. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Visible laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles prepared by droplet rapid drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mao-Xu; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Xing, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Geng-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl nanoparticles were firstly prepared by heat induced explosion on silicon wafer. ► We found that laser induced ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are more prominent. ► We found that water adsorption can efficiently enhance laser induced ion emissions. ► The ultra-photothermal effect in NaCl nanoparticles was observed and explained. - Abstract: A novel convenient way for the formation of sodium chloride (NaCl) nanoparticles on silicon wafer is proposed by using a droplet rapid drying method. The laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles with and without water treatment is demonstrated by using a laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, with laser intensity well below the plasma formation threshold. It is found that the positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are obviously higher than that from microsize NaCl particles under soft 532 nm laser irradiations, and water adsorption can efficiently enhance the ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles. The initial kinetic energies of the emitted ions are estimated as 16–17 eV. The synergy of the ultra-thermal effect in nanomaterials, the defect-mediated multiphoton processes, and the existence of intermediate states in NaCl-water interfaces are suggested as the mechanisms.

  15. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  16. Rapid Multiplex Small DNA Sequencing on the MinION Nanopore Sequencing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Real-time sequencing of short DNA reads has a wide variety of clinical and research applications including screening for mutations, target sequences and aneuploidy. We recently demonstrated that MinION, a nanopore-based DNA sequencing device the size of a USB drive, could be used for short-read DNA sequencing. In this study, an ultra-rapid multiplex library preparation and sequencing method for the MinION is presented and applied to accurately test normal diploid and aneuploidy samples’ genomic DNA in under three hours, including library preparation and sequencing. This novel method shows great promise as a clinical diagnostic test for applications requiring rapid short-read DNA sequencing.

  17. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  18. Mixing and matching Bevalac programs: Rapid-switching of ions and other operations highlights: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothrop, F.; Alonso, J.; Krebs, G.; Miller, R.; Stevenson, R.

    1987-03-01

    Rapid switching of ion, energy, and beam line has been accomplished on a routine basis; typical transfer time is 1 to 2 minutes in worst case situations. Operational efficiency has been improved by substantial reduction of inter-experiment tune time and improved optics in the external beam area installed in 1985. A comparison of current research efficiency and previous year efficiency is given. It is shown that compatibility and productivity for two simultaneous, independent research programs are not mutually exclusive

  19. Rapid determination of trace level copper in tea infusion samples by solid contact ion selective electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Birinci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new solid contact copper selective electrode with a poly (vinyl chloride (PVC membrane consisting of o-xylylenebis(N,N-diisobutyldithiocarbamate as ionophore has been prepared. The main novelties of constructed ion selective electrode concept are the enhanced robustness, cheapness, and fastness due to the use of solid contacts. The electrode exhibits a rapid (< 10 seconds and near-Nernstian response to Cu2+ activity from 10−1 to 10−6 mol/L at the pH range of 4.0–6.0. No serious interference from common ions was found. The electrode characterizes by high potential stability, reproducibility, and full repeatability. The electrode was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Cu(II ions with EDTA and for the direct assay of tea infusion samples by means of the calibration graph technique. The results compared favorably with those obtained by the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS.

  20. TUTORIAL: Focused-ion-beam-based rapid prototyping of nanoscale magnetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizroev, S.; Litvinov, D.

    2004-03-01

    In this tutorial, focused-ion-beam (FIB)-based fabrication is considered from a very unconventional angle. FIB is considered not as a fabrication tool that can be used for mass production of electronic devices, similar to optical and E-beam—based lithography, but rather as a powerful tool to rapidly fabricate individual nanoscale magnetic devices for prototyping future electronic applications. Among the effects of FIB-based fabrication of magnetic devices, the influence of Ga+-ion implantation on magnetic properties is presented. With help of magnetic force microscopy (MFM), it is shown that there is a critical doze of ions that a magnetic material can be exposed to without experiencing a change in the magnetic properties. Exploiting FIB from such an unconventional perspective is especially favourable today when the future of so many novel technologies depends on the ability to rapidly fabricate prototype nanoscale magnetic devices. As one of the most illustrative examples, the multi-billion-dollar data storage industry is analysed as the technology field that strongly benefited from implementing FIB in the above-described role. The essential role of FIB in the most recent trend of the industry towards perpendicular magnetic recording is presented. Moreover, other emerging and fast-growing technologies are considered as examples of nanoscale technologies whose future could strongly depend on the implementation of FIB in the role of a nanoscale fabrication tool for rapid prototyping. Among the other described technologies are 'ballistic' magnetoresistance, patterned magnetic media, magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM), and magnetic force microscopy.

  1. Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for rapid melt and resolidification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinnett, R.W.; McIntyre, D.C.; Buchheit, R.G.; Greenly, J.B.; Thompson, M.O.

    1994-01-01

    The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--250 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling us to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This technique uses high energy, pulsed (≤100 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. Depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (10 9 10 10 K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. We have conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, nanocrystaline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning

  2. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarizes current data concerning Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows choosing specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX, and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between non-selective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is discussed and

  3. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim eVolkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarises current data concerning Na+ and K+ concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows to choose specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between nonselective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is

  4. A multiscale-compatible approach in modeling ionic transport in the electrolyte of (Lithium ion) batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, A.; Grazioli, D.; Geers, M.G.D.; Danilov, D.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach in modeling the ionic transport in the electrolyte of Li-ion batteries is here resented. Diffusion and migration processes govern the transport of ions in solution in the absence of onvection. In the porous electrode theory [1] it is common to model these processes via mass balance

  5. Barodiffusion phenomena at active transport of na+ and K+ ions through the cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapijchuk, G.V.; Chalyi, A.V.; Nurishchenko, N.Je.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound as the significant motive force of barodiffusion phenomena at the processes of active transport of Na + and K + ions through the cell membrane is considered. The dependence of membrane potential is theoretically estimated at active transport of natrium and potassium ions on the ultrasound intensity and pressure overfall between external and internal medium of the cell.

  6. Hierarchically porous carbon with high-speed ion transport channels for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haoyuan; Li, Qingwei; Guo, Jianhui; Song, Aixin; Gong, Chunhong; Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Jingwei

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchically porous carbons (HPC) are considered as promising electrode materials for supercapacitors, due to their outstanding charge/discharge cycling stabilities and high power densities. However, HPC possess a relatively low ion diffusion rate inside the materials, which challenges their application for high performance supercapacitor. Thus tunnel-shaped carbon pores with a size of tens of nanometers were constructed by inducing the self-assembly of lithocholic acid with ammonium chloride, thereby providing high-speed channels for internal ion diffusion. The as-formed one-dimensional pores are beneficial to the activation process by KOH, providing a large specific surface area, and then facilitate rapid transport of electrolyte ions from macropores to the microporous surfaces. Therefore, the HPC achieve an outstanding gravimetric capacitance of 284 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 and a remarkable capacity retention of 64.8% when the current density increases by 1000 times to 100 A g-1.

  7. Multigroup Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck approach for ion transport in amorphous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, N.D.; Prinja, A.K.; Dunham, G.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2001-07-01

    We present a MGMC approach for the transport of arbitrary mass ions having energies up to a few MeV. Specifically, we consider interactions with target atoms through Coulomb mediated elastic nuclear and inelastic electronic collisions and restrict considerations to ion implantation and energy deposition of primary ions in amorphous media. (orig.)

  8. Lateral charge transport from heavy-ion tracks in integrated circuit chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Nevill, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    A 256K DRAM has been used to study the lateral transport of charge (electron-hole pairs) induced by direct ionization from heavy-ion tracks in an IC. The qualitative charge transport has been simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code in cylindrical coordinates. The experimental bit-map data clearly show the manifestation of lateral charge transport in the creation of adjacent multiple-bit errors from a single heavy-ion track. The heavy-ion data further demonstrate the occurrence of multiple-bit errors from single ion tracks with sufficient stopping power. The qualitative numerical simulation results suggest that electric-field-funnel-aided (drift) collection accounts for single error generated by an ion passing through a charge-collecting junction, while multiple errors from a single ion track are due to lateral diffusion of ion-generated charge.

  9. Beam-transport study of an isocentric rotating ion gantry with minimum number of quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Marius; Griesmayer, Erich; Seemann, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    A beam-transport study of an isocentric gantry for ion therapy is presented. The gantry is designed with the number of quadrupoles down to the theoretical minimum, which is the feature published for the first time in this paper. This feature has been achieved without compromising the ion-optical functions of the beam-transport system that is capable of handling non-symmetric beams (beams with different emittances in vertical and horizontal plane), pencil-beam scanning, double-achromatic optics and beam-size control. Ion-optical properties of the beam-transport system are described, discussed and illustrated by computer simulations performed by the TRANSPORT-code

  10. Velocity dependence of transient hyperfine field at Pt ions rapidly recoiling through magnetized Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, C.G.; Bolotin, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The velocity-dependence of the transient hyperfine magnetic field acting at nuclei of 196 Pt ions rapidly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe was investigated at a number of recoil velocities. The state of interest (2 1 + ) was populated by Coulomb excitation using beams of 80- and 120-MeV 32 S and 150- and 220-MeV 58 Ni ions. The 2 1 + →0 1 + γ-ray angular distribution precession measurements were carried out in coincidence with backscattered projectiles. From these results, the strength of the transient field acting on Pt ions recoiling through magnetized Fe with average velocities in the extended range 2.14<=v/vsub(o)<=4.82 (vsub(o) = c/137) was found to be consistent with a linear velocity dependence and to be incompatible with the specific vsup(0.45+-0.18) dependence which has been previously reported to account well for all ions in the mass range from oxygen through samarium. This seemingly singular behaviour for Pt and other ions in the Pt mass vicinity is discussed

  11. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. A synthetic ion transporter that disrupts autophagy and induces apoptosis by perturbing cellular chloride concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Nathalie; Park, Seong-Hyun; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Yoon Pyo; Park, Jinhong; Howe, Ethan N. W.; Hiscock, Jennifer R.; Karagiannidis, Louise E.; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Namkung, Wan; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Gale, Philip A.; Shin, Injae

    2017-07-01

    Perturbations in cellular chloride concentrations can affect cellular pH and autophagy and lead to the onset of apoptosis. With this in mind, synthetic ion transporters have been used to disturb cellular ion homeostasis and thereby induce cell death; however, it is not clear whether synthetic ion transporters can also be used to disrupt autophagy. Here, we show that squaramide-based ion transporters enhance the transport of chloride anions in liposomal models and promote sodium chloride influx into the cytosol. Liposomal and cellular transport activity of the squaramides is shown to correlate with cell death activity, which is attributed to caspase-dependent apoptosis. One ion transporter was also shown to cause additional changes in lysosomal pH, which leads to impairment of lysosomal enzyme activity and disruption of autophagic processes. This disruption is independent of the initiation of apoptosis by the ion transporter. This study provides the first experimental evidence that synthetic ion transporters can disrupt both autophagy and induce apoptosis.

  13. Rapid transporter regulation prevents substrate flow traffic jams in boron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotta, Naoyuki; Duncan, Susan; Tanaka, Mayuki; Sato, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient uptake by roots often involves substrate-dependent regulated nutrient transporters. For robust uptake, the system requires a regulatory circuit within cells and a collective, coordinated behaviour across the tissue. A paradigm for such systems is boron uptake, known for its directional transport and homeostasis, as boron is essential for plant growth but toxic at high concentrations. In Arabidopsis thaliana, boron uptake occurs via diffusion facilitators (NIPs) and exporters (BORs), each presenting distinct polarity. Intriguingly, although boron soil concentrations are homogenous and stable, both transporters manifest strikingly swift boron-dependent regulation. Through mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that slower regulation of these transporters leads to physiologically detrimental oscillatory behaviour. Cells become periodically exposed to potentially cytotoxic boron levels, and nutrient throughput to the xylem becomes hampered. We conclude that, while maintaining homeostasis, swift transporter regulation within a polarised tissue context is critical to prevent intrinsic traffic-jam like behaviour of nutrient flow. PMID:28870285

  14. ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    NUMBER (Include area code) 30 June 2017 Briefing Charts 26 May 2017 - 30 June 2017 ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS ...Robert Martin N/A ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS Robert Martin1, Jonathan Tran2 1AIR FORCE...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. PA# 17394 1 / 13 OUTLINE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 TRANSPORT 3 DYNAMIC SYSTEM 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

  15. Nano and Mesoscale Ion and Water Transport in Perfluorosulfonic AcidMembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Nano- and Mesoscale Ion and Water Transport in Perfluorosulfonic-Acid Membranes A. R. Crothers a,b , C. J. Radke a,b , A. Z. Weber a a...Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Water and aqueous cations transport along multiple length scales in perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes. Molecular interactions...as a function of hydration. A resistor network upscales the nanoscale properties to predict effective membrane ion and water transport and their

  16. Rapid localization of carbon 14-labeled molecules in biological samples by ion mass microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindie, E.; Escaig, F.; Coulomb, B.; Lebreton, C.; Galle, P.

    1989-01-01

    We report here on the ability of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to provide rapid imaging of the intracellular distribution of 14 C-labeled molecules. The validity of this method, using mass discrimination of carbon 14 atoms, was assessed by imaging the distribution of two molecules of well-known metabolism, [ 14 C]-thymidine and [ 14 C]-uridine, incorporated by human fibroblasts in culture. As expected, 14 C ion images showed the presence of [ 14 C]-thymidine in the nucleus of dividing cells, whereas [ 14 C]-uridine was present in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus of all cells, with a large concentration in the nucleoli. The time required to obtain the distribution images with the SMI 300 microscope was less than 6 min, whereas microautoradiography, the classical method for mapping the tissue distribution of 14 C-labeled molecules, usually requires exposure times of several months. Secondary ion mass spectrometry using in situ mass discrimination is proposed here as a very sensitive method which permits rapid imaging of the subcellular distribution of molecules labeled with carbon 14

  17. Ion transport analysis of a high beta-poloidal JT-60U discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Tajima, T.; Dong, J.-Q.; Kim, J.-Y.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The high beta-poloidal discharge number 17110 in JT-60U (JT-60 Team, IAEA, Vienna, 1993) that developes an internal transport barrier is analysed for the transport of ion energy and momentum. First, the classical ion temperature gradient stability properties are calculated in the absence of sheared plasma flows to establish the L-mode transport level prior to the emergence of the transport barrier. Then the evolving toroidal and poloidal velocity profiles reported by Koide et al (1994 Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 3662) are used to show how the sheared mass flows control the stability and transport. Coupled energy-momentum transport equations predict the creation of a transport barrier. The balance of the steep ion temperature gradient against the magnetic shear and sheared mass flow is calculated for the profiles in the 17110 discharge. (Author)

  18. Transport of heavy ions in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvazian, A.; Shahbandari Gouchani, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we have investigated the interaction of heavy ions (U) with a target (Au). In inertial confinement fusion method Interaction between heavy ion beam and target was simulated, Numerical analysis of the Boltzmann Fokker Planck equation used in order to optimize the material of the target and Energy deposition of ion beam to electrons and ions of target and The thickness of the target were calculated.

  19. Carrier transfer and magneto-transport in single modulation-doped V-grooved quantum wire modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.H.; Chen Zhanghai; Wang, F.Z.; Shen, S.C.; Tan, H.H.; Fu, L.; Fraser, M.; Jagadish, C.

    2006-01-01

    A single Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/GaAs V-grooved quantum wire modified by selective ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing was investigated by using spatially resolved micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy and magneto-resistance measurements. The results of spatially resolved photoluminescence indicate that the ion-implantation-induced quantum well intermixing significantly raises the electronic sub-band energies in the side quantum wells (SQWs) and vertical quantum wells, and a more efficient accumulation of electrons in the quantum wires is achieved. Processes of real space carrier transfer from the SQW to the quantum wire was experimentally observed, and showed the blocking effect of carrier transfer due to the existence of the necking quantum well region. Furthermore, magneto-transport investigation on the ion-implanted quantum wire samples shows the quasi-one-dimensional intrinsic motion of electrons, which is important for the design and the optimization of one-dimensional electronic devices

  20. Divalent Metal Ion Transport across Large Biological Ion Channels and Their Effect on Conductance and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Giménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological characterization of large protein channels, usually displaying multi-ionic transport and weak ion selectivity, is commonly performed at physiological conditions (moderate gradients of KCl solutions at decimolar concentrations buffered at neutral pH. We extend here the characterization of the OmpF porin, a wide channel of the outer membrane of E. coli, by studying the effect of salts of divalent cations on the transport properties of the channel. The regulation of divalent cations concentration is essential in cell metabolism and understanding their effects is of key importance, not only in the channels specifically designed to control their passage but also in other multiionic channels. In particular, in porin channels like OmpF, divalent cations modulate the efficiency of molecules having antimicrobial activity. Taking advantage of the fact that the OmpF channel atomic structure has been resolved both in water and in MgCl2 aqueous solutions, we analyze the single channel conductance and the channel selectivity inversion aiming to separate the role of the electrolyte itself, and the counterion accumulation induced by the protein channel charges and other factors (binding, steric effects, etc. that being of minor importance in salts of monovalent cations become crucial in the case of divalent cations.

  1. Ion Transport in Organic Electrolyte Solution through the Pore Channels of Anodic Nanoporous Alumina Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsuka, Tomokazu; Koyamada, Kohei; Maruyama, Shohei; Miyazaki, Kohei; Abe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion transport in organic electrolyte solution in macro- and meso-pores was focused. • Anodic nanoporous alumina membrane was used as a porous material. • The specific ion conductivities drastically decreased in macro- and meso-pores. - Abstract: For the development of high energy density lithium-ion batteries with the high rate performance, the enhancement of the ion transport in the electrolyte solutions impregnated in the porous electrodes is a key. To study the ion transport in porous electrodes, anodic nanoporous alumina (APA) self-standing membranes with macro- or meso-pores were used as model porous materials. These membranes had nearly spherical pore channels of discrete 20–68 nm in diameters. By using the geometric shape of the pores, we attempted to evaluate the specific ion conductivities of the organic electrolyte solution dissolving lithium salt simply. AC impedance spectroscopy measurement of a four-electrode cell with membranes showed one depressed semi-circle in the Nyquist plots and this semi-circle can be assigned as the ion transport resistance in the pores. The specific ion conductivities evaluated from the ion transport resistances and the geometric parameters showed very small values, even in the macro-pores, as compared with that of the bulk electrolyte solution.

  2. Isolation of ionospheres from ion transport systems and their role in energy transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamoo, A E; Goldstein, D A

    1977-01-01

    In the past twenty-five years cell membrane transport has been studied from the point of view of kinetics and the biochemical correlation of enzyme function with that of transport. Artificial lipid bilayers have been used as a model for cell membrane transport. Antibiotics, such as valinomycin have also been studied as models of ion-transport mediators. Much effort has been invested on the study of model compounds as the possible molecular bases of transport. Information derived from the study of model systems throughout the years has been valuable and worthwhile. However, if the aim is to elucidate the mechanism of cell membrane transport, the time has come to merge the two lines of research into one and to shift emphasis from the study of model systems to the study of isolated transport machine components before and after reconstitution of its components into model membranes. These studies should be augmented at all times with the biochemical correlates of the transport proteins. A review is presented of the new avenues employed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of active transport. The new avenues are those of isolation of ion-transport mediators (ionophores) from membrane transport proteins. Reconstitution of ionophores and the various membrane transport proteins into artificial systems such as bilayers and vesicles presents a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanism of active transport. More importantly, the new approach provides the first glimpse of evidence for a reasonable investigation of energy transduction from ATP hydrolysis to transport of an ion.

  3. The Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger, Catalase, Alleviates Ion Transport Dysfunction in Murine Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kim E.; McCole, Declan F.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H2O2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H2O2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H2O. Mice were administered either pegylated-catalase or saline at day −1, 0 and +1 of DSS treatment. Ion transport responses to the Ca2+-dependent agonist, carbachol (CCh), or the cAMP-dependent agonist, forskolin, were measured across distal colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Parameters of DSS-induced inflammation (loss in body weight, decreased colon length, altered stool consistency), were only partially alleviated by catalase while histology was only minimally improved. However, catalase significantly reversed the DSS-induced reduction in baseline ion transport as well as colonic Isc responses to CCh. However, ion transport responses to forskolin were not significantly restored. Catalase also reduced activation of ERK MAP kinase in the setting of colitis, and increased expression of the Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter, NKCC1, consistent with restoration of ion transport function. Ex vivo treatment of inflamed colonic mucosae with catalase also partially restored ion transport function. Therefore, catalase partially prevents, and rescues, the loss of ion transport properties in DSS colitis even in the setting of unresolved tissue inflammation. These findings indicate a prominent role for ROS in ion transport dysfunction in colitis and may suggest novel strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diarrhea. PMID:27543846

  4. Hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase, alleviates ion transport dysfunction in murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kim E; McCole, Declan F

    2016-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhoea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H 2 O 2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H 2 O 2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H 2 O. Mice were administered either pegylated catalase or saline at day -1, 0 and +1 of DSS treatment. Ion transport responses to the Ca 2+ -dependent agonist, carbachol (CCh), or the cAMP-dependent agonist, forskolin, were measured across distal colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Parameters of DSS-induced inflammation (loss in body weight, decreased colon length, altered stool consistency), were only partially alleviated by catalase while histology was only minimally improved. However, catalase significantly reversed the DSS-induced reduction in baseline ion transport as well as colonic I sc responses to CCh. However, ion transport responses to forskolin were not significantly restored. Catalase also reduced activation of ERK MAP kinase in the setting of colitis, and increased expression of the Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporter, NKCC1, consistent with restoration of ion transport function. Ex vivo treatment of inflamed colonic mucosae with catalase also partially restored ion transport function. Therefore, catalase partially prevents, and rescues, the loss of ion transport properties in DSS colitis even in the setting of unresolved tissue inflammation. These findings indicate a prominent role for ROS in ion transport dysfunction in colitis and may suggest novel strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diarrhoea. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Rapid self-heating and internal temperature sensing of lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Tian, Hua; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-heating lithium-ion battery (SHLB) structure provided a practical solution to the poor performance at subzero temperatures. • We report an improved SHLB that heats from −20 °C to 0 °C in 12.5 seconds, or 56% more rapidly, while consuming 24% less energy than previously reported. • The nickel foil heating element embedded inside a SHLB cell plays a dominant role in rapid self-heating. • The embedded nickel foil can simultaneously perform as an internal temperature sensor (ITS). • 2-sheet design self-heats faster than 1-sheet design due to more uniform internal temperature distribution. - Abstract: The recently discovered self-heating lithium-ion battery structure provided a practical solution to the poor performance at subzero temperatures that has hampered battery technology for decades. Here we report an improved self-heating lithium-ion battery (SHLB) that heats from −20 °C to 0 °C in 12.5 seconds, or 56% more rapidly, while consuming 24% less energy than that reported previously. We reveal that a nickel foil heating element embedded inside a SHLB cell plays a dominant role in self-heating and we experimentally demonstrate that a 2-sheet design can achieve dramatically accelerated self-heating due to more uniform internal temperature distribution. We also report, for the first time, that this embedded nickel foil can simultaneously perform as an internal temperature sensor (ITS) due to the perfectly linear relationship between the foil’s electrical resistance and temperature.

  6. Rapid change of ion energy distribution and floating potential at L/H transition in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Okano, F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid changes of the main ion energy distribution at transitions from L-to-H, H-to-L and during ELMs are studied with the time of flight neutral measurement in the JFT-2M tokamak. The change of the main ion energy distribution after sawtooth crash during an L-mode phase is also studied. The change of the ion energy distribution just after sawtooth crash is the same as that at L/H-transition. The floating potential measured in the SOL also shows the rapid jump to more positive just after the sawtooth crash (at the same time of the change of an ion energy distribution). This shows the increase of ion outflux in the SOL and might correspond to the change of the ion energy distribution. This may be the reason why most of H-modes are triggered by a sawtooth. (author)

  7. Rapid and Convenient Separation of Chitooligosaccharides by Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiao; Lu, Wei-Peng; Wang, Jianing; Gao, Yunhua; Guo, Yanchuan

    2017-12-01

    Pervious methods for separation of highly purified chitooligosaccharides was time-consuming and labor-intensive, which limited the large-scale production. This study developed a convenient ion-exchange chromatography using the ÄKTA™ avant 150 chromatographic system. Five fractions were automatically collected under detecting the absorption at 210 nm. The fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. It proved that they primarily comprised chitobiose, chitotriose, chitotetraose, chitopentaose, and chitohexaose, respectively, with chromatographic purities over 90%. The separation process was rapid, convenient and could be monitored on-line, which would be benefit for the mass production of chitooligosaccharides.

  8. A Deterministic Electron, Photon, Proton and Heavy Ion Radiation Transport Suite for the Study of the Jovian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William

    2011-01-01

    A deterministic suite of radiation transport codes, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), which describe the transport of electrons, photons, protons, and heavy ions in condensed media is used to simulate exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons, protons and carbon-oxygen-sulfur (C-O-S) trapped heavy ions in the Jovian radiation environment. The particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron and photon deterministic transport algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light particle and heavy ion deterministic transport algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means for the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, proton and heavy ion radiation exposure assessments in complex space structures. In this paper, the radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), the 105 days at Europa mission fluence energy spectra provided by JPL is used to produce the corresponding dose-depth curve in silicon behind an aluminum shield of 100 mils ( 0.7 g/sq cm). The transport suite can also accept ray-traced thickness files from a computer-aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point. In that regard, using a low-fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe, the transport suite was verified by comparing with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for orbits JOI--J35 of the Galileo extended mission (1996-2001). For the upcoming EJSM mission with a potential launch date of 2020, the transport suite is used to compute

  9. Copper-base alloys processed by rapid solidification and ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.V.; Elvidge, C.J.; Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Henriksen, O.

    1985-01-01

    Alloys of Cu-Sn and Cu-B have been processed by both melt spinning and ion implantation. In some instances (e.g. Cu-Sn alloys) rapidly solidified ribbons have been subjected to further implantation. This paper describes the similarities and differences in structure of materials subjected to a dynamic and contained process. For example in Cu-B alloys (up to 2wt% Boron) extended solubility is found in implanted alloys which is not present to the same degree in rapidly solidified alloys of the same composition. Likewise the range and nature of the reversible martensitic transformation is different in both cases as examined by electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. (orig.)

  10. Modulation of ion transport across rat distal colon by cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDiener

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the actions of stimulation of endogenous production of H2S by cysteine, the substrate for the two H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionin-beta-synthase and cystathionin-gamma-lyase, on ion transport across rat distal colon. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc induced by cysteine were measured in Ussing chambers. Free cysteine caused a concentration-dependent, transient fall in Isc, which was sensitive to amino-oxyacetate and beta-cyano-L-alanine, i.e. inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes. In contrast, Na cysteinate evoked a biphasic change in Isc, i.e. an initial fall followed by a secondary increase, which was also reduced by these enzyme inhibitors. All responses were dependent on the presence of Cl- and inhibited by bumetanide, suggesting that free cysteine induces an inhibition of transcellular Cl- secretion, whereas Na cysteinate – after a transient inhibitory phase – activates anion secretion. The assumed reason for this discrepancy is a fall in the cytosolic pH induced by free cysteine, but not by Na cysteinate, as observed in isolated colonic crypts loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF. Intracellular acidification is known to inhibit epithelial K+ channels. Indeed, after preinhibition of basolateral K+ channels with tetrapentylammonium or Ba2+, the negative Isc induced by free cysteine was reduced significantly. In consequence, stimulation of endogenous H2S production by Na cysteinate causes, after a short inhibitory response, a delayed activation of anion secretion, which is missing in the case of free cysteine, probably due to the cytosolic acidification. In contrast, diallyl trisulfide, which is intracellularly converted to H2S, only evoked a monophasic increase in Isc without the initial fall observed with Na cysteinate. Consequently, time course and amount of produced H2S seem to strongly influence the functional response of the colonic epithelium evoked by this gasotransmitter.

  11. Analysis of the ion energy transport in ohmic discharges in the ASDEX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmet, E.E.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Herrmann, W.; Stroth, U.

    1996-10-01

    An analysis of the local ion energy transport is performed for more than one hundred well documented ohmic ASDEX discharges. These are characterized by three different confinement regimes: the linear ohmic confinement (LOC), the saturated ohmic confinement (SOC) and the improved ohmic confinement (IOC). All three are covered by this study. To identify the most important local transport mechanism of the ion heat, the ion power balance equation is analyzed. Two methods are used: straightforward calculation with experimental data only, and a comparison of measured and calculated profiles of the ion temperature and the ion heat conductivity, respectively. A discussion of the power balance shows that conductive losses dominate the ion energy transport in all ohmic discharges of ASDEX. Only inside the q=1-surface losses due to sawtooth activity play a role, while at the edge convective fluxes and CX-losses influence the ion energy transport. Both methods lead to the result that both the ion temperature and the ion heat conductivity are consistent with predictions of the neoclassical theory. Enhanced heat losses as suggested by theories eg. on the basis of η i modes can be excluded. (orig.)

  12. Ion transport mechanisms in lamellar phases of salt-doped PS–PEO block copolymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan

    2017-10-23

    We use a multiscale simulation strategy to elucidate, at an atomistic level, the mechanisms underlying ion transport in the lamellar phase of polystyrene–polyethylene oxide (PS–PEO) block copolymer (BCP) electrolytes doped with LiPF6 salts. Explicitly, we compare the results obtained for ion transport in the microphase separated block copolymer melts to those for salt-doped PEO homopolymer melts. In addition, we also present results for dynamics of the ions individually in the PEO and PS domains of the BCP melt, and locally as a function of the distance from the lamellar interfaces. When compared to the PEO homopolymer melt, ions were found to exhibit slower dynamics in both the block copolymer (overall) and in the PEO phase of the BCP melt. Such results are shown to arise from the effects of slower polymer segmental dynamics in the BCP melt and the coordination characteristics of the ions. Polymer backbone-ion residence times analyzed as a function of distance from the interface indicate that ions have a larger residence time near the interface compared to that near the bulk of lamella, and demonstrates the influence of the glassy PS blocks and microphase segregation on the ion transport properties. Ion transport mechanisms in BCP melts reveal that there exist five distinct mechanisms for ion transport along the backbone of the chain and exhibit qualitative differences from the behavior in homopolymer melts. We also present results as a function of salt concentration which show that the mean-squared displacements of the ions decrease with increasing salt concentration, and that the ion residence times near the polymer backbone increase with increasing salt concentration.

  13. Ion transport mechanisms in lamellar phases of salt-doped PS–PEO block copolymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan; Mogurampelly, Santosh; Ganesan, Venkat

    2017-01-01

    We use a multiscale simulation strategy to elucidate, at an atomistic level, the mechanisms underlying ion transport in the lamellar phase of polystyrene–polyethylene oxide (PS–PEO) block copolymer (BCP) electrolytes doped with LiPF6 salts. Explicitly, we compare the results obtained for ion transport in the microphase separated block copolymer melts to those for salt-doped PEO homopolymer melts. In addition, we also present results for dynamics of the ions individually in the PEO and PS domains of the BCP melt, and locally as a function of the distance from the lamellar interfaces. When compared to the PEO homopolymer melt, ions were found to exhibit slower dynamics in both the block copolymer (overall) and in the PEO phase of the BCP melt. Such results are shown to arise from the effects of slower polymer segmental dynamics in the BCP melt and the coordination characteristics of the ions. Polymer backbone-ion residence times analyzed as a function of distance from the interface indicate that ions have a larger residence time near the interface compared to that near the bulk of lamella, and demonstrates the influence of the glassy PS blocks and microphase segregation on the ion transport properties. Ion transport mechanisms in BCP melts reveal that there exist five distinct mechanisms for ion transport along the backbone of the chain and exhibit qualitative differences from the behavior in homopolymer melts. We also present results as a function of salt concentration which show that the mean-squared displacements of the ions decrease with increasing salt concentration, and that the ion residence times near the polymer backbone increase with increasing salt concentration.

  14. Integrated heat transport simulation of high ion temperature plasma of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Sakai, A.

    2014-10-01

    A first dynamical simulation of high ion temperature plasma with carbon pellet injection of LHD is performed by the integrated simulation GNET-TD + TASK3D. NBI heating deposition of time evolving plasma is evaluated by the 5D drift kinetic equation solver, GNET-TD and the heat transport of multi-ion species plasma (e, H, He, C) is studied by the integrated transport simulation code, TASK3D. Achievement of high ion temperature plasma is attributed to the 1) increase of heating power per ion due to the temporal increase of effective charge, 2) reduction of effective neoclassical transport with impurities, 3) reduction of turbulence transport. The reduction of turbulence transport is most significant contribution to achieve the high ion temperature and the reduction of the turbulent transport from the L-mode plasma (normal hydrogen plasma) is evaluated to be a factor about five by using integrated heat transport simulation code. Applying the Z effective dependent turbulent reduction model we obtain a similar time behavior of ion temperature after the C pellet injection with the experimental results. (author)

  15. Transport coefficients of gaseous ions in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealton, J. H.; Mason, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    A general theory of ion mobility formulated by Kihara (1953) is extended to ion diffusion and to mixtures of neutral gases. The theory assumes that only binary collisions between ions and neutral particles need to be taken into account and that the velocity distribution function of the neutral particles is Maxwellian. These assumptions make it possible to use a linearized Boltzmann equation. Questions of mobility are considered along with aspects of diffusion and deviations from Fick's law of diffusion.

  16. Nanofiber Ion-Exchange Membranes for the Rapid Uptake and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithinart Chitpong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid (PAA and poly(itaconic acid (PIA to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd, productivity, and recovery of Cd(II from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s. Analysis of breakthrough curves indicated that the mass flow rate increased rapidly at constant applied pressure after membranes approached equilibrium load capacity for Cd(II, apparently due to a collapse of the polymer chains on the membrane surface, leading to an increased porosity. This mechanism is supported by hydrodynamic radius (Rh measurements for PAA and PIA obtained from dynamic light scattering, which show that Rh values decrease upon Cd(II binding. Volumetric productivity was high for the nanofiber membranes, and reached 0.55 mg Cd/g/min. The use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as regeneration reagent was effective in fully recovering Cd(II from the membranes. Ion-exchange capacities were constant over five cycles of binding-regeneration.

  17. Comparisons of theoretically predicted transport from ion temperature gradient instabilities to L-mode tokamak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Wong, H.V.; Lyster, P.L.; Berk, H.L.; Denton, R.; Miner, W.H.; Valanju, P.

    1991-12-01

    The theoretical transport from kinetic micro-instabilities driven by ion temperature gradients is a sheared slab is compared to experimentally inferred transport in L-mode tokamaks. Low noise gyrokinetic simulation techniques are used to obtain the ion thermal transport coefficient X. This X is much smaller than in experiments, and so cannot explain L-mode confinement. Previous predictions based on fluid models gave much greater X than experiments. Linear and nonlinear comparisons with the fluid model show that it greatly overestimates transport for experimental parameters. In addition, disagreements among previous analytic and simulation calculations of X in the fluid model are reconciled

  18. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelkovic, Z.; Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N.; König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T.; Neidherr, D.; Schmidt, S.; Steinmann, J.; Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G.

    2015-01-01

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency

  19. Ion transporters involved in acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.; Jensen, V.K.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoclasts possess a large amount of ion transporters, which participate in bone resorption; of these, the vacuolar-adenosine trisphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 acidify the resorption lacuna. However, whether other ion transporters participate in this process is ......, including carbonic anhydrase II, the NHEs, and potassium-chloride cotransporters, are all involved in resorption but do not seem to directly be involved in acidification of the lysosomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9......Osteoclasts possess a large amount of ion transporters, which participate in bone resorption; of these, the vacuolar-adenosine trisphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 acidify the resorption lacuna. However, whether other ion transporters participate in this process...

  20. Beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for ion beam transport line used in applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Arkhipov, A.V.; Illes, A.; Bodnar, K.; Illes, Z.; Havancsak, K.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam transport line for applied research on U-400 cyclotron, beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for condensed matter studies are described. The main features of Windows-based real time program are considered

  1. Surface oxygen vacancy and oxygen permeation flux limits of perovskite ion transport membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Anton; Dimitrakopoulos, Georgios; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The mechanisms and quantitative models for how oxygen is separated from air using ion transport membranes (ITMs) are not well understood, largely due to the experimental complexity for determining surface exchange reactions

  2. A deterministic electron, photon, proton and heavy ion transport suite for the study of the Jovian moon Europa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E.; Norman, Ryan B.

    2011-01-01

    A Langley research center (LaRC) developed deterministic suite of radiation transport codes describing the propagation of electron, photon, proton and heavy ion in condensed media is used to simulate the exposure from the spectral distribution of the aforementioned particles in the Jovian radiation environment. Based on the measurements by the Galileo probe (1995-2003) heavy ion counter (HIC), the choice of trapped heavy ions is limited to carbon, oxygen and sulfur (COS). The deterministic particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron photon algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light heavy ion algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means to the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, photon, proton and heavy ion exposure assessment in a complex space structure. In this paper, the reference radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron and proton spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) Galileo interim radiation electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter system mission (EJSM), the JPL provided Europa mission fluence spectrum, is used to produce the corresponding depth dose curve in silicon behind a default aluminum shield of 100 mils (∼0.7 g/cm 2 ). The transport suite can also accept a geometry describing ray traced thickness file from a computer aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point within the interior of the vehicle. In that regard, using a low fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe generated by the authors, the transport suite was verified versus Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for orbits JOI-J35 of the Galileo probe

  3. Transport theory of dissipative heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.

    1979-03-01

    The lectures present the formulation of a transport theory, the derivation of a practicable transport equation (Fokker-Planck equation) and the evaluation of transport coefficients for dissipative (or deeply inelastic) heavyion collisions. The applicability of the theoretical concept is tested with remarkable success in the analyses of various experimental informations (mass transfer, angular-momentum dissipation and energy loss). Some critical remarks on the present situation of transport theories are added. Future developments are outlined. (orig.) [de

  4. Transport of Alkali Metal Ions through a Liquid Membrane System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crown-6, [K(MF18C6)](picrate) was determined by X-ray crystallography and showed that each potassium ion is eight-coordinate; each K+ ion is coordinated to the six oxygen atoms of the crown, to the phenolate oxygen atom and to one of the ...

  5. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, WX; Dendooven, P; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaskyla, Finland. An open Ra-223 alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium.

  6. Ion-neutral transport through quadrupole interfaces of mass-spectrometer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugroot, M.; Groth, C.P.T.; Thomson, B.A.; Baranov, V.; Collings, B.A.; French, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The transport of free ions through highly under-expanded jet flows of neutral gases and in the presence of applied electric fields is investigated by continuum-based numerical simulations. In particular, numerical results are described which are relevant to ion flows occurring in quadrupole interfaces of mass spectrometer systems. A five-moment mathematical model and parallel multi-block numerical solution procedure is developed for predicting the ion transport. The model incorporates the effects of ion-neutral collision processes and is used in conjunction with a Navier-Stokes model and flow solver for the neutral gas to examine the key influences controlling the ion motion. The effects of the neutral gas flow, electric fields (both dc and rf), and flow field geometry on ion mobility are carefully assessed. The capability of controlling the charged particle motions through a combination of directed neutral flow and applied electric field is demonstrated for these high-speed, hypersonic, jet flows. (author)

  7. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  8. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengwa, R. J., E-mail: rjsengwa@rediffmail.com; Dhatarwal, Priyanka, E-mail: dhatarwalpriyanka@gmail.com; Choudhary, Shobhna, E-mail: shobhnachoudhary@rediffmail.com [Dielectric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur – 342 005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  9. Transport of a multiple ion species plasma in the Pfirsch--Schluter regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.

    1976-10-01

    The classical parallel friction coefficients, which relate the collisional friction forces to the flow of particles and heat along the magnetic field, are calculated for a multiple ion species plasma. In the short mean free path regime, the neoclassical Pfirsch--Schlueter transport coefficients for a toroidally confined multispecies plasma are computed in terms of the classical friction coefficients. The dependence of the neoclassical cross-field transport on the equilibration of the parallel ion temperature profiles is determined

  10. Solvent effect on the extraction and transport of lithium ions by polyethylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D; Sharma, U

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of lithium picrate, 2,4-dinitrophenolate and 2-nitrophenolate and their transport through membranes by di-, tri- and tetraethylene glycols as carriers are studied. Organic solvents considered as extractants and liquid membranes in terms of lithium ions extraction and transfer are arranged in the following series: methylene chloride ≥ dichloroethane ≥ chloroform ≥ carbon tetrachloride. Diethylene glycol proved the most effective solvent for lithium ions extraction and transport [ru

  11. Chamber-transport simulation results for heavy-ion fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W M; Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Welch, D R

    2004-01-01

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs

  12. The gyro-radius scaling of ion thermal transport from global numerical simulations of ITG turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Manfredi, G.

    1998-12-01

    A three-dimensional, fluid code is used to study the scaling of ion thermal transport caused by Ion-Temperature-Gradient-Driven (ITG) turbulence. The code includes toroidal effects and is capable of simulating the whole torus. It is found that both close to the ITG threshold and well above threshold, the thermal transport and the turbulence structures exhibit a gyro-Bohm scaling, at least for plasmas with moderate poloidal flow. (author)

  13. Rapid, directed transport of DC-SIGN clusters in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Weinreb, Violetta; Ridilla, Marc; Betts, Laurie; Patel, Pratik; de Silva, Aravinda M; Thompson, Nancy L; Jacobson, Ken

    2017-11-01

    C-type lectins, including dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), are all-purpose pathogen receptors that exist in nanoclusters in plasma membranes of dendritic cells. A small fraction of these clusters, obvious from the videos, can undergo rapid, directed transport in the plane of the plasma membrane at average speeds of more than 1 μm/s in both dendritic cells and MX DC-SIGN murine fibroblasts ectopically expressing DC-SIGN. Surprisingly, instantaneous speeds can be considerably greater. In MX DC-SIGN cells, many cluster trajectories are colinear with microtubules that reside close to the ventral membrane, and the microtubule-depolymerizing drug, nocodazole, markedly reduced the areal density of directed movement trajectories, suggesting a microtubule motor-driven transport mechanism; by contrast, latrunculin A, which affects the actin network, did not depress this movement. Rapid, retrograde movement of DC-SIGN may be an efficient mechanism for bringing bound pathogen on the leading edge and projections of dendritic cells to the perinuclear region for internalization and processing. Dengue virus bound to DC-SIGN on dendritic projections was rapidly transported toward the cell center. The existence of this movement within the plasma membrane points to an unexpected lateral transport mechanism in mammalian cells and challenges our current concepts of cortex-membrane interactions.

  14. Transport of negative ions across a double sheath with a virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdams, R; King, D B; Surrey, E; Holmes, A J T

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional analytical model of the sheath in a negative ion source, such as those proposed for heating and diagnostic beams on present and future fusion devices, has been developed. The model, which is collisionless, describes the transport of surface produced negative ions from a cathode, across the sheath to a plasma containing electrons, positive ions and negative ions. It accounts for the situation where the emitted flux of negative ions is greater than the space charge limit, where the electric field at the cathode is negative, and a virtual cathode is formed. It is shown that, in the presence of a virtual cathode, there is a maximum current density of negative ions that can be transported across the sheath into the plasma. Furthermore, for high rates of surface production the virtual cathode persists regardless of the negative bias applied to the cathode, so that the current density transported across the sheath is limited. This is a significant observation and implies that present negative ion sources may not be exploiting all of the surface production available. The model is used to calculate the transported negative ion flux in a number of examples. The limitations of the model and proposed future work are also discussed.

  15. The wondrous world of transport and acceleration of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebenlist, F.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the transport, bunching and acceleration of intense ion beams in periodic focusing channels is described. The aim is to show the feasibility of accelerating high current ion beams with a Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear ACcelerator (MEQALAC). 83 refs.; 51 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gaikwad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport of carbonate ions was explored through fiber supported solid membrane. A novel fiber supported solid membrane was prepared by chemical modification of cellulose fiber with citric acid, 2′2-bipyridine and magnesium carbonate. The factors affecting the permeability of carbonate ions such as immobilization of citric acid-magnesium metal ion -2′2-bipyridine complex (0 to 2.5 mmol/g range over cellulose fiber, carbon-ate ion concentration in source phase and NaOH concentration in receiving phase were investigated. Ki-netic of carbonate, sulfate, and nitrate ions was investigated through fiber supported solid membrane. Transport of carbonate ions with/without bubbling of CO2 (0 to 10 ml/min in source phase was explored from source to receiving phase. The novel idea is to explore the adsorptive transport of CO2 from source to receiving phase through cellulose fiber containing magnesium metal ion organic framework. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 25th November 2011; Revised: 17th December 2011; Accepted: 19th December 2011[How to Cite: A.G. Gaikwad. (2012. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 49– 57.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57 ] | View in 

  17. Strong dopant dependence of electric transport in ion-gated MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piatti, Erik; Chen, Qihong; Ye, Jianting

    2017-01-01

    We report modifications of the temperature-dependent transport properties of MoS2 thin flakes via field-driven ion intercalation in an electric double layer transistor. We find that intercalation with Li+ ions induces the onset of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Intercalation with K+ leads

  18. Silicon transport in sputter-deposited tantalum layers grown under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, P.; Hantzpergue, J.J.; Remy, J.C.; Roptin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tantalum was sputter deposited on (111) Si substrate under low-energy ion bombardment in order to study the effects of the ion energy on the silicon transport into the Ta layer. The Si substrate was heated up to 500 0 C during growth. For ion energies up to 180 eV silicon is not transported into tantalum and the growth temperature has no effect. An ion bombardment energy of 280 eV enhances the transport of silicon throughout the tantalum layer. Growth temperatures up to 300 0 C have no effect on the silicon transport which is mainly enhanced by the ion bombardment. For growth temperatures between 300 and 500 0 C, the silicon transport is also enhanced by the thermal diffusion. The experimental depth distribution of silicon is similar to the theoretical depth distribution calculated for the case of an interdiffusion. The ion-enhanced process of silicon transport is characterized by an activation energy of 0.4 eV. Silicon into the layers as-grown at 500 0 C is in both states, amorphous silicide and microcrystalline cubic silicon

  19. Transition flow ion transport via integral Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcie, T.E.

    1983-10-01

    A new approach is developed to solve the Integral Boltzmann Equation for the evolving velocity distribution of a source of ions, undergoing electrostatic acceleration through a neutral gas target. The theory is applicable to arbitrarily strong electric fields, any ion/neutral mass ratio greater than unity, and is not limited to spatially isotropic gas targets. A hard sphere collision model is used, with a provision for inelasticity. Both axial and radial velocity distributions are calculated for applications where precollision radial velocities are negligible, as is the case for ion beam extractions from high pressure sources. Theoretical predictions are tested through an experiment in which an atmospheric pressure ion source is coupled to a high vacuum energy analyser. Excellent agreement results for configurations in which the radial velocity remains small. Velocity distributions are applied to predicting the efficiency of coupling an atmospheric pressure ion source to a quadrupole mass spectrometer and results clearly indicate the most desirable extracting configuration. A method is devised to calculate ion-molecule hard sphere collision cross sections for easily fragmented organic ions

  20. Enhancing electron transport in Si:P delta-doped devices by rapid thermal anneal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K. E. J.; Augarten, Y.; Oberbeck, L.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2008-01-01

    We address the use of rapid thermal anneal (RTA) to enhance electron mobility and phase coherent transport in Si:P δ-doped devices encapsulated by low temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy while minimizing dopant diffusion. RTA temperatures of 500-700 deg. C were applied to δ-doped layers encapsulated at 250 deg. C. From 4.2 K magnetotransport measurements, we find that the improved crystal quality after RTA increases the mobility/mean free path by ∼40% and the phase coherence length by ∼25%. Our results suggest that the initial capping layer has near optimal crystal quality and transport improvement achieved by a RTA is limited

  1. Fred: a GPU-accelerated fast-Monte Carlo code for rapid treatment plan recalculation in ion beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Pioli, S.; Mairani, A.; Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Ciocca, M.; Battistoni, G.; Patera, V.

    2017-09-01

    Ion beam therapy is a rapidly growing technique for tumor radiation therapy. Ions allow for a high dose deposition in the tumor region, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. For this reason, the highest possible accuracy in the calculation of dose and its spatial distribution is required in treatment planning. On one hand, commonly used treatment planning software solutions adopt a simplified beam-body interaction model by remapping pre-calculated dose distributions into a 3D water-equivalent representation of the patient morphology. On the other hand, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which explicitly take into account all the details in the interaction of particles with human tissues, are considered to be the most reliable tool to address the complexity of mixed field irradiation in a heterogeneous environment. However, full MC calculations are not routinely used in clinical practice because they typically demand substantial computational resources. Therefore MC simulations are usually only used to check treatment plans for a restricted number of difficult cases. The advent of general-purpose programming GPU cards prompted the development of trimmed-down MC-based dose engines which can significantly reduce the time needed to recalculate a treatment plan with respect to standard MC codes in CPU hardware. In this work, we report on the development of fred, a new MC simulation platform for treatment planning in ion beam therapy. The code can transport particles through a 3D voxel grid using a class II MC algorithm. Both primary and secondary particles are tracked and their energy deposition is scored along the trajectory. Effective models for particle-medium interaction have been implemented, balancing accuracy in dose deposition with computational cost. Currently, the most refined module is the transport of proton beams in water: single pencil beam dose-depth distributions obtained with fred agree with those produced by standard MC codes within 1-2% of the

  2. Transport and acceleration of the high-current ion beam in magneto-isolated gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas', V.I.; Kornilov, E.A.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Fedorovskaya, O.V.; Tarakanov, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of transportation and acceleration of the high-current ion beam in the magneto-isolated gap has been demonstrated. Found the parameters of the system and beams (the magnetic field produced by the coils with opposing currents, the size of the system, and the parameters of the beams), under which the uniform acceleration of the high-current ion beam all along the gap length is realized. It is shown that the quality of the ion beam, during transport and acceleration, at the exit of the gap is acceptable for many technological applications.

  3. Metal ion transport quantified by ICP-MS in intact cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Julio A. Landero; Stiner, Cory A.; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L.; Heiny, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of ICP-MS to measure metal ion content in biological tissues offers a highly sensitive means to study metal-dependent physiological processes. Here we describe the application of ICP-MS to measure membrane transport of Rb and K ions by the Na,K-ATPase in mouse skeletal muscles and human red blood cells. The ICP-MS method provides greater precision and statistical power than possible with conventional tracer flux methods. The method is widely applicable to studies of other metal ion transporters and metal-dependent processes in a range of cell types and conditions. PMID:26838181

  4. Integral Transport Analysis Results for Ions Flowing Through Neutral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Gilbert; Santarius, John

    2017-10-01

    Results of a computational model for the flow of energetic ions and neutrals through a background neutral gas will be presented. The method models reactions as creating a new source of ions or neutrals if the energy or charge state of the resulting particle is changed. For a given source boundary condition, the creation and annihilation of the various species is formulated as a 1-D Volterra integral equation that can quickly be solved numerically by finite differences. The present work focuses on multiple-pass, 1-D ion flow through neutral gas and a nearly transparent, concentric anode and cathode pair in spherical, cylindrical, or linear geometry. This has been implemented as a computer code for atomic (3He, 3He +, 3He + +) and molecular (D, D2, D-, D +, D2 +, D3 +) ion and neutral species, and applied to modeling inertial-electrostatic connement (IEC) devices. The code yields detailed energy spectra of the various ions and energetic neutral species. Calculations for several University of Wisconsin IEC and ion implantation devices will be presented. Research supported by US Dept. of Homeland Security Grant 2015-DN-077-ARI095, Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG02-04ER54745, and the Grainger Foundation.

  5. Ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast of algae: lessons from land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Justine; Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2018-06-01

    Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast subcompartments. In secondarily evolved algae, three or four envelope membranes surround the chloroplast, making more complex the exchange of ions and metabolites. Despite the importance of transport proteins for the optimal functioning of the chloroplast in algae, and that many land plant homologues have been predicted, experimental evidence and molecular characterization are missing in most cases. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast from algae. The main aspects reviewed are localization and activity of the transport proteins from algae and/or of homologues from other organisms including land plants. Most chloroplast transporters were identified in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, reside in the envelope and participate in carbon acquisition and metabolism. Only a few identified algal transporters are located in the thylakoid membrane and play role in ion transport. The presence of genes for putative transporters in green algae, red algae, diatoms, glaucophytes and cryptophytes is discussed, and roles in the chloroplast are suggested. A deep knowledge in this field is required because algae represent a potential source of biomass and valuable metabolites for industry, medicine and agriculture.

  6. Temperature fields occurring in dielectric capillaries for the transport of of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanovich, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of computing the temperature fields occurring in dielectric capillaries of glass for the transport of accelerated charged particles. It is shown that on the transport of ion beams with a power of several watts the capillary is heated intensively, whereas heat stresses may approach the lower bound associated with a real strength of glass. (authors)

  7. An initial study on atmospheric pressure ion transport by laser ionization and electrostatic fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta Conde, Álvaro; Romero, Carolina; Boyero, Juan; Apiñaniz Aginako, Jon Imanol; Raposo Funcia, Cesar; Roso Franco, Luis; Padilla Moreno, Carlos Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Laser ionization of mixtures of gases at atmospheric pressure and the subsequent transport through electrostatic field is studied. A prototype is designed to perform the transport and detection of the ions. Relevance of the composition of the mixture of gases and ionization parameters is shown

  8. Ion Transport across Biological Membranes by Carborane-Capped Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelczak, Marcin P; Danks, Stephen P; Klipp, Robert C; Belic, Domagoj; Zaulet, Adnana; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Bradley, Dan F; Tsukuda, Tatsuya; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Abramson, Jonathan J; Brust, Mathias

    2017-12-26

    Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles (Au/carborane NPs, 2-3 nm) can act as artificial ion transporters across biological membranes. The particles themselves are large hydrophobic anions that have the ability to disperse in aqueous media and to partition over both sides of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Their presence therefore causes a membrane potential that is determined by the relative concentrations of particles on each side of the membrane according to the Nernst equation. The particles tend to adsorb to both sides of the membrane and can flip across if changes in membrane potential require their repartitioning. Such changes can be made either with a potentiostat in an electrochemical cell or by competition with another partitioning ion, for example, potassium in the presence of its specific transporter valinomycin. Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles have a ligand shell full of voids, which stem from the packing of near spherical ligands on a near spherical metal core. These voids are normally filled with sodium or potassium ions, and the charge is overcompensated by excess electrons in the metal core. The anionic particles are therefore able to take up and release a certain payload of cations and to adjust their net charge accordingly. It is demonstrated by potential-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy that polarized phospholipid membranes of vesicles can be depolarized by ion transport mediated by the particles. It is also shown that the particles act as alkali-ion-specific transporters across free-standing membranes under potentiostatic control. Magnesium ions are not transported.

  9. Creation and dynamical co-evolution of electron and ion channel transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    A wide variety of magnetic confinement devices have found transitions to an enhanced confinement regime. Simple dynamical models have been able to capture much of the dynamics of these barriers however an open question has been the disconnected nature of the electron thermal transport channel sometimes observed in the presence of a standard ('ion channel' barrier. By adding to simple barrier model an evolution equation for electron fluctuations we can investigate the interaction between the formation of the standard ion channel barrier and the somewhat less common electron channel barrier. Barrier formation in the electron channel is even more sensitive to the alignment of the various gradients making up the sheared radial electric field than the ion barrier is. Electron channel heat transport is found to significantly increase after the formation of the ion channel barrier but before the electron channel barrier is formed. This increased transport is important in the barrier evolution. (author)

  10. Plasma flow between equipotential electrodes in an ion current transport mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, A.M.; Morozov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with calculation of parameters in accelerator channel and near electrodes, when realizing ion current transport mode. Model on the basis of two-dimensional two-liquid nondissipative magnetohydrodynamics was formulated, and its solution for isomagnetic flow in smooth channel approximation was conducted. Change of parameters near anode surface was considered in detail. It is shown that regular joining of flow with equipotential electrodes without large near-electrode jumps is performed during ion current transport. Current distribution along accelerator length was calculated when determining ion intake through anode surface due to inertial-drift emission. It is shown that this mechanism can provide rather high current density in ion current transport. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  11. Rapid determination of ions by combined solid-phase extraction--diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, James S.; Arena, Matteo P.; Steiner, Steven A.; Porter, Marc D.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) for the rapid determination of selected ions. This new technique links the exhaustive concentration of an analyte by SPE onto a membrane disk surface for quantitative measurement with a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrometer. The concentration/measurement procedure is complete in approximately 1 min and can be performed almost anywhere. This method has been used to monitor iodine and iodide in spacecraft water in the 0.1-5.0 ppm range and silver(I) in the range of 5.0-1000 microg/l. Applications to the trace analysis of copper(II), nickel(II), iron(III) and chromium(VI) are described. Studies on the mechanism of extraction showed that impregnation of the disk with a surfactant as well as a complexing reagent results in uptake of additional water, which markedly improves the extraction efficiency.

  12. Rapid, quantitative and sensitive immunochromatographic assay based on stripping voltammetric detection of a metal ion label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Fang; Wang, Kaihua; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-10-10

    A novel, sensitive immunochromatographic electrochemical biosensor (IEB) which combines an immunochromatographic strip technique with an electrochemical detection technique is demonstrated. The IEB takes advantages of the speed and low-cost of the conventional immunochromatographic test kits and high-sensitivity of stripping voltammetry. Bismuth ions (Bi3+) have been coupled with the antibody through the bifunctional chelating agent diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). After immunoreactions, Bi3+ was released and quantified by anodic stripping voltammetry at a built-in single-use screen-printed electrode. As an example for the applications of such novel device, the detection of human chorionic gonadotronphin (HCG) in a specimen was performed. This biosensor provides a more user-friendly, rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive immunoassay for such analysis in specimens than currently available test kits.

  13. Quadrupole transport experiment with space charge dominated cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Warwick, A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the beam current transport limit in a long quadrupole-focussed transport channel in the space charge dominated region where the space charge defocussing force is almost as large as the average focussing force of the channel

  14. Endocrine regulation of ion transport in the avian lower intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverty, Gary; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Árnason, Sighvatur S.

    2006-01-01

    The lower intestine (colon and coprodeum) of the domestic fowl maintains a very active, transporting epithelium, with a microvillus brush border, columnar epithelial cells, and a variety of transport systems. The colon of normal or high salt-acclimated hens expresses sodium-linked glucose and amino...

  15. Evaluation of Ion Torrent sequencing technology for rapid clinical human leucocyte antigen typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Sandra G; Chong, Winnie; Brown, Colin J; Navarrete, Cristina V

    2018-06-05

    The development of techniques to define the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region has proven to be challenging due to its high level of polymorphism. Within a clinical laboratory, a technique for high-resolution HLA typing, which is rapid and cost effective is essential. NGS has provided a rapid, high-resolution HLA typing solution, which has reduced the number of HLA ambiguities seen with other typing methods. In this study, the One Lambda NXType NGS kit was tested on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. A total of 362 registry donors from four ethnic populations (Europeans, South Asians, Africans and Chinese) were NGS HLA typed across 9-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1,-DRB345 -DQB1 and -DPB1). Concordance rates of 91%-98% were obtained (for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1) when compared to historical PCR-SSO HLA types, and the identification of uncommon alleles such as A*24:07:01 and C*04:82 were observed. A turnaround time of four days was achieved for typing 44 samples. However, some limitations were observed; primer locations did not allow all ambiguities to be resolved for HLA Class II where Exon I and IV amplification are needed (HLA-DRB1*04:07:01/04:92, HLA-DRB1*09:01:02/*09:21 and HLA-DRB1*12:01:01/*12:10). This study has demonstrated high-resolution typing by NGS can be achieved in an acceptable turnaround time for a clinical laboratory; however, the Ion Torrent workflow has some technical limitations that should be addressed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Signature of rapid subauroral ion drifts in the high-latitude ionosphere structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, Y.I.; Khalipov, V.L.; Filippov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of fast subauroral ion drifts were studied for several cases where synchronous satellite measurements and ground-based ionospheric data from vertical and oblique-incidence sounding were available. Also some relevant data were analyzed concerning apparent irregularities drift velocity measurements by the multipoint spaced receiver at HF range (DI method). Changes of high-latitude ionosphere structure were investigated to identify the signature on the ionograms, and to provide a semiquantitative description of this phenomenon. It is shown that, above a particular station, the time development of the rapid subauroral ion drift band, or the ''polarization jet'' according to Galperin et al., 1973, 1974 in about 5-30 minutes leads to the formation of a trough which is narrow in latitude (approximately 100-200 km) but extended in longitude (several hours of MLT) and rather deep (N sub(emin)approximately 2.10 4 cm -3 in the electron density distribution in the F-region. Such narrow troughs can be observed in the evening sector superimposed on the undisturbed ionization density level, while in the near-midnight sector they contribute to the deepening of the preexisting, and much wider, main ionospheric through A qualitative scenario for the formation of the ''trough in the trough'' on the nightside, as a result of the increase of the loss processes related to rapid drift speed, is supported by ''synthetic'' ionograms deduced from numerical ray-tracing calculations for a model electron density distribution that is in reasonable accord with the observed vertical and oblique sounding ionograms and from satellite data

  17. Additional transport channel of carbon ions for biological research at the Nuclotron of JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, I.P.; Panasik, V.A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the construction of the 12 C +6 beam transport line for biomedical research at the Nuclotron accelerator complex, JINR. We have studied the scheme and modes of magneto-optical elements of the channel. The results of calculations of the investigated beam transport of carbon ions are presented. The algorithms to control the carbon ion beam in the transportation system are discussed. The choice of the magneto-optical system is motivated. The graphs of the beam envelopes in the channel are given. The scanning control beam functions are considered

  18. Additional transport channel of carbon ions for biological research at the Nuclotron of JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, I.P.; Panasik, V.A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the construction of the beam 12 C +6 transport line for biomedical research at the Nuclotron accelerator complex, JINR. We have studied the scheme and modes of magneto-optical elements of the channel. The results of calculations of the investigated beam transport of carbon ions are presented. The algorithms to control the carbon ion beam in the transportation system are discussed. The choice of the magneto-optical system is motivated. The graphs of the beam envelopes in the channel are given. The scanning control beam functions are considered

  19. Considerations from the viewpoint of neoclassical transport towards higher ion temperature heliotron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Matsuoka, S.; Funaba, H.; Ida, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The neoclassical (NC) transport analyses have been performed to elucidate the plausible approaches towards higher ion-temperature heliotron plasmas. Avoidance of the ripple transport is the key issue, for which the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field (E r ) can be utilized. The ion-root scenario and the electron-root scenario are expected to be effective according to the experimental situation (especially, the temperature ratio between ions and electrons). The impact of the ion mass on the neoclassical ambipolar E r is also investigated to reveal the easier realization of electron-root E r in heavier ion plasmas. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Selective transport of metal ions through cation exchange membrane in the presence of a complexing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingchia Huang; Jaukai Wang (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1993-01-01

    Selective transport of metal ions through a cation exchange membrane was studied in stirred batch dialyzer for the systems Ni[sup 2+]-Cu[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+]-Fe[sup 3+]. Oxalic acid, malonic acid, citric acid, glycine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were employed as the complexing agents added in the feed solution in order to increase the permselectivity of metal ions. The experimental results show that the selective transport behavior of metal ions depends on the valence and the concentration of metal ions, the stoichiometric ratio of complexing agent to metal ions, and the pH value of the feed solution, but is independent of the concentration of counterion in the stripping phase. A theoretical approach was formulated on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equation and interface quasi-equilibrium. Theoretical solutions obtained from numerical calculation were in agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Fast-ion transport and neutral beam current drive in ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2015-01-01

    The neutral beam current drive efficiency has been investigated in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak by replacing on-axis neutral beams with tangential off-axis beams. A clear modification of the radial fast-ion profiles is observed with a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic that measures centrally peaked profiles...... during on-axis injection and outwards shifted profiles during off-axis injection. Due to this change of the fast-ion population, a clear modification of the plasma current profile is predicted but not observed by a motional Stark effect diagnostic. The fast-ion transport caused by MHD activity has been...

  2. Chitin nanofibrils for rapid and efficient removal of metal ions from water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dagang; Zhu, Yi; Li, Zehui; Tian, Donglin; Chen, Lei; Chen, Peng

    2013-10-15

    Joint mechanical defibrillation was successfully used to downsize chitin micro-particles (CMP) into nanofibrils without changing its chemical or crystalline structure. The fine chitin nanofibrils (CNF) bearing width of about 50 nm and length of more than 1 μm were then developed as heavy metal ion sorbents. The uptake performance of CNF dependent on pH, ionic concentration, time, and temperature was investigated. Results show that fixation amount of Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), Cr(III) on CNF was up to 2.94, 2.30, 2.22, 2.06, 1.46, and 0.31 mmol/g, respectively, much higher than CMP due to high specific surface area and widely distributed pores of CNF. Adsorption kinetics of CMP and CNF followed pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich isotherm although CNF exhibited higher rate constant and sorption capacity than that of CMP. The defibrillated CNF is renewable, feasible, easily recyclable, and is thought as good candidate for heavy metal ion treatment due to their low sorption energy, rapid and efficient uptake capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lymphatic transport of exosomes as a rapid route of information dissemination to the lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Swetha; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Dixon, J Brandon

    2016-04-18

    It is well documented that cells secrete exosomes, which can transfer biomolecules that impact recipient cells' functionality in a variety of physiologic and disease processes. The role of lymphatic drainage and transport of exosomes is as yet unknown, although the lymphatics play critical roles in immunity and exosomes are in the ideal size-range for lymphatic transport. Through in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging we have shown that exosomes are rapidly transported within minutes from the periphery to the lymph node by lymphatics. Using an in vitro model of lymphatic uptake, we have shown that lymphatic endothelial cells actively enhanced lymphatic uptake and transport of exosomes to the luminal side of the vessel. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a differential distribution of exosomes in the draining lymph nodes that is dependent on the lymphatic flow. Lastly, through endpoint analysis of cellular distribution of exosomes in the node, we identified macrophages and B-cells as key players in exosome uptake. Together these results suggest that exosome transfer by lymphatic flow from the periphery to the lymph node could provide a mechanism for rapid exchange of infection-specific information that precedes the arrival of migrating cells, thus priming the node for a more effective immune response.

  4. Literature study of volatile radioiodine release from ion-exchange resins during transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.

    1991-02-01

    A transport package is currently being developed by Ontario Hydro to carry used filters and ion-exchange columns from the Pickering and Darlington Nuclear Generating Stations to the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station for disposal. The main reason that the transport package must be licensed is the possibility that volatile radionuclides being transported in the package might be released during transport accidents. Of particular concern is the iodine that might become volatile due to the degradation of the ion exchange resin. This report reviews the literature on the thermal and radiolytic degradation of ion exchange resins and provides calculations to estimate the fraction of volatile iodine as a function of time under postulated accident conditions

  5. Lithium-Ion Battery Online Rapid State-of-Power Estimation under Multiple Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to realize a rapid online estimation of the state-of-power (SOP with multiple constraints of a lithium-ion battery. Firstly, based on the improved first-order resistance-capacitance (RC model with one-state hysteresis, a linear state-space battery model is built; then, using the dual extended Kalman filtering (DEKF method, the battery parameters and states, including open-circuit voltage (OCV, are estimated. Secondly, by employing the estimated OCV as the observed value to build the second dual Kalman filters, the battery SOC is estimated. Thirdly, a novel rapid-calculating peak power/SOP method with multiple constraints is proposed in which, according to the bisection judgment method, the battery’s peak state is determined; then, one or two instantaneous peak powers are used to determine the peak power during T seconds. In addition, in the battery operating process, the actual constraint that the battery is under is analyzed specifically. Finally, three simplified versions of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS with inserted pulse experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed online SOP estimation method.

  6. Carbonate and Bicarbonate Ion Transport in Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    comparable assumptions, a similar equation can be derived starting with the Nernst -Planck equation . σ = ∑ σi = ∑ F2z2i RT (ε− ε0)q D0i 1 + δi Ci [1] Using Eq...an appropriate ion-membrane diffusion coefficient. Finally, an equation derived from the dusty fluid model can be used to calculate the ionic...Finally, an equation derived from the dusty fluid model can be used to calculate the ionic conductivity of the membrane in different counter ion forms

  7. Use of a krypton isotope for rapid ion changeover at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-inch cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, George A.; Nichols, Donald K.

    1989-01-01

    An isotope of krypton, Kr86, has been combined with a mix of Ar, Ne, and N ions at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source, at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory cyclotron, to provide rapid ion changeover in Single Event Phenomena (SEP) testing. The new technique has been proved out successfully by a recent Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test in which it was found that there was no measurable contamination from other isotopes.

  8. Ion current prediction model considering columnar recombination in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Susumu; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We present a reinforced ion current prediction model in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation. Although our previous model explained the qualitative trend of the measured ion current values, the absolute values of the theoretical curves were about two times as large as the measured values. In order to accurately predict the measured values, we reinforced our model by considering columnar recombination and turbulent diffusion, which affects columnar recombination. Our new model explained the considerable ion loss in the early stage of ion diffusion and narrowed the gap between the theoretical and measured values. The model also predicted suppression of ion loss due to columnar recombination by spraying a high-speed air flow near a contaminated surface. This suppression was experimentally investigated and confirmed. In conclusion, we quantitatively clarified the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and ion current in laminar flow and turbulent pipe flow. (author)

  9. Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmospherer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Carter

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model has been developed which is capable of simulating all phases of the life cycle of metallic ions, and results are described and interpreted herein for the typical case of Fe+ ions. This cycle begins with the initial deposition of metallics through meteor ablation and sputtering, followed by conversion of neutral Fe atoms to ions through photoionization and charge exchange with ambient ions. Global transport arising from daytime electric fields and poleward/ downward di.usion along geomagnetic field lines, localized transport and layer formation through de- scending convergent nulls in the thermospheric wind field, and finally annihilation by chemical neutralization and compound formation are treated. The model thus sheds new light on the interdependencies of the physical and chemical processes a.ecting atmospheric metallics. Model output analysis confirms the dominant role of both global and local transport to the ion's life cycle, showing that upward forcing from the equatorial electric field is critical to global movement, and that diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are responsible for the forma- tion of dense ion layers in the 90±250 km height region. It is demonstrated that the assumed combination of sources, chemical sinks, and transport mechanisms actually produces F-region densities and E-region layer densities similar to those observed. The model also shows that zonal and meridional winds and electric fields each play distinct roles in local transport, whereas the ion distribution is relatively insensitive to reasonable variations in meteoric deposition and chemical reaction rates.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  10. Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmospherer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Carter

    Full Text Available A numerical model has been developed which is capable of simulating all phases of the life cycle of metallic ions, and results are described and interpreted herein for the typical case of Fe+ ions. This cycle begins with the initial deposition of metallics through meteor ablation and sputtering, followed by conversion of neutral Fe atoms to ions through photoionization and charge exchange with ambient ions. Global transport arising from daytime electric fields and poleward/ downward di.usion along geomagnetic field lines, localized transport and layer formation through de- scending convergent nulls in the thermospheric wind field, and finally annihilation by chemical neutralization and compound formation are treated. The model thus sheds new light on the interdependencies of the physical and chemical processes a.ecting atmospheric metallics. Model output analysis confirms the dominant role of both global and local transport to the ion's life cycle, showing that upward forcing from the equatorial electric field is critical to global movement, and that diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are responsible for the forma- tion of dense ion layers in the 90±250 km height region. It is demonstrated that the assumed combination of sources, chemical sinks, and transport mechanisms actually produces F-region densities and E-region layer densities similar to those observed. The model also shows that zonal and meridional winds and electric fields each play distinct roles in local transport, whereas the ion distribution is relatively insensitive to reasonable variations in meteoric deposition and chemical reaction rates.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  11. Transport of ions in presence of induced electric field and electrostatic turbulence - Source of ions injected into ring current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladis, J. B.; Francis, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of ions from the polar ionosphere to the inner magnetosphere during stormtime conditions has been computed using a Monte Carlo diffusion code. The effect of the electrostatic turbulence assumed to be present during the substorm expansion phase was simulated by a process that accelerated the ions stochastically perpendicular to the magnetic field with a diffusion coefficient proportional to the energization rate of the ions by the induced electric field. This diffusion process was continued as the ions were convected from the plasma sheet boundary layer to the double-spiral injection boundary. Inward of the injection boundary, the ions were convected adiabatically. By using as input an O(+) flux of 2.8 x 10 to the 8th per sq cm per s (w greater than 10 eV) and an H(+) flux of 5.5 x 10 to the 8th per sq cm per s (w greater than 0.63 eV), the computed distribution functions of the ions in the ring current were found to be in good agreement, over a wide range in L (4 to 8), with measurements made with the ISEE-1 satellite during a storm. This O(+) flux and a large part of the H(+) flux are consistent with the DE satellite measurements of the polar ionospheric outflow during disturbed times.

  12. Mechanisms involved in the transport of mercuric ions in target tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury exists in the environment in various forms, all of which pose a risk to human health. Despite guidelines regulating the industrial release of mercury into the environment, humans continue to be exposed regularly to various forms of this metal via inhalation or ingestion. Following exposure, mercuric ions are taken up by and accumulate in numerous organs, including brain, intestine, kidney, liver, and placenta. In order to understand the toxicological effects of exposure to mercury, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that facilitate entry of mercuric ions into target cells must first be obtained. A number of mechanisms for the transport of mercuric ions into target cells and organs have been proposed in recent years. However, the ability of these mechanisms to transport mercuric ions and the regulatory features of these carriers have not been characterized completely. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current findings related to the mechanisms that may be involved in the transport of inorganic and organic forms of mercury in target tissues and organs. This review will describe mechanisms known to be involved in the transport of mercury and will also propose additional mechanisms that may potentially be involved in the transport of mercuric ions into target cells. PMID:27422290

  13. Energetic and frictional effects in the transport of ions in a cyclic peptide nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yongil; Song, Yeon Ho; Hwang, Hyeon Seok [Dept. of Chemistry and Institute for Molecular Science and Fusion Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Schatz, George C. [Dept. of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The effects of geometric restraints and frictional parameters on the energetics and dynamics of ion transport through a synthetic ion channel are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several different ions. To do so, potential of mean force profiles and position-dependent diffusion coefficients for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup −} transport through a simple cyclic peptide nanotube, which is composed of 4× cyclo[−(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln){sub 2−}] rings, are calculated via an adaptive biasing force MD simulation method and a Baysian inference/Monte Carlo algorithm. Among the restraints and parameters examined in this work, the radius parameter used in the flat-bottom half-harmonic restraint at the entrance and exit to channel has a great effect on the energetics of ion transport through the variation of entropy in the outside of the channel. The diffusivity profiles for the ions show a strong dependence on the damping coefficient, but the dependence on the coefficient becomes minimal inside the channel, indicating that the most important factor which affects the diffusivity of ions inside the channel is local interactions of ions with the structured channel water molecules through confinement.

  14. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.K.; Herberg, J.L.; Wu, Y.; Schwegler, E.; Mehta, A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  15. Mechanism for ion-induced mixing of GaAs-AlGaAs interfaces by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahen, K.B.; Rajeswaran, G.; Lee, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    A mechanism for the transient-enhanced interdiffusion of GaAs-AlGaAs interfaces during rapid thermal annealing of ion-implanted heterostructures is proposed. The model is based on the solution of the coupled diffusion equations involving the excess vacancies and the post-implantation Al distribution following ion implantation. Both initial distributions are obtained from the solution of a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of ion implantation into a heterostructure sample. In general, the model is valid for time frames within which impurity diffusion does not occur appreciably so that impurity-enhanced diffusion remains a weak effect

  16. A three-scale model for ionic solute transport in swelling clays incorporating ion-ion correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tien Dung; Moyne, Christian; Murad, Marcio A.

    2015-01-01

    A new three-scale model is proposed to describe the movement of ionic species of different valences in swelling clays characterized by three separate length scales (nano, micro, and macro) and two levels of porosity (nano- and micropores). At the finest (nano) scale the medium is treated as charged clay particles saturated by aqueous electrolyte solution containing monovalent and divalent ions forming the electrical double layer. A new constitutive law is constructed for the disjoining pressure based on the numerical resolution of non-local problem at the nanoscale which, in contrast to the Poisson-Boltzmann theory for point charge ions, is capable of capturing the short-range interactions between the ions due to their finite size. At the intermediate scale (microscale), the two-phase homogenized particle/electrolyte solution system is represented by swollen clay clusters (or aggregates) with the nanoscale disjoining pressure incorporated in a modified form of Terzaghi's effective principle. At the macroscale, the electro-chemical-mechanical couplings within clay clusters is homogenized with the ion transport in the bulk fluid lying in the micro pores. The resultant macroscopic picture is governed by a three-scale model wherein ion transport takes place in the bulk solution strongly coupled with the mechanics of the clay clusters which play the role of sources/sinks of mass to the bulk fluid associated with ion adsorption/desorption in the electrical double layer at the nanoscale. Within the context of the quasi-steady version of the multiscale model, wherein the electrolyte solution in the nanopores is assumed at instantaneous thermodynamic equilibrium with the bulk fluid in the micropores, we build-up numerically the ion-adsorption isotherms along with the constitutive law of the retardation coefficients of monovalent and divalent ions. In addition, the constitutive law for the macroscopic swelling pressure is reconstructed numerically showing patterns of

  17. An analytically-based method for rapid evaluation of MeV ion loss in tokamaks with low-n perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work has developed an analytic theory for the stochastic transport of passing MeV ions due to low-n magnetic perturbations, valid for frequencies from ω = 0 to ω ∼ ω TAE ∼ 100 kHz, and for modes with multiple harmonics and nontrivial radial structure, which predicts stochastic thresholds in agreement with guiding-center (GC) results. Obtaining GC results is time consuming, typically requiring hours of computer time to obtain loss results for a single point in parameter space. Along with earlier theory developed for the stochastic transport of trapped particles in such perturbations, this theory gives the basis for a far more rapid means of numerically assessing energetic ion loss in a given configuration, somewhat akin to the RIPLOS code for rapid evaluation of loss due to TF ripple. The authors present the details of implementing such a code, now being developed. The implementation also raises some further theoretical issues. The currently available stochastic thresholds for passing and trapped particles are not the same, and an analytic understanding of the transition between them awaits development

  18. 'What works' in reducing sexual harassment and sexual offences on public transport nationally and internationally: a rapid evidence assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gekoski, Anna; Gray, Jacqueline M.; Horvath, Miranda A. H.; Edwards, Sarah; Emirali, Aliye; Adler, Joanna R.

    2015-01-01

    In Britain, public transport is generally very safe and serious sexual assaults are rare. However, research has found that around 15% of women and girls have been subjected to unwanted sexual behaviour on the London transport network, the vast majority of which goes unreported (Transport for London [TfL], 2013a). This document reports the findings of a rapid evidence assessment, conducted on behalf go the British Transport Police, to identify the main initiatives that are being used to reduce...

  19. Quantifying Ion Transport in Polymers Using Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Wang, Shaoyang

    For polymers in energy systems, one of the most common means of quantifying ion transport is that of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, in which an alternating electric field is applied and the resultant impedance response is recorded. While useful, this approach misses subtle details in transient film swelling, effects of hydration or solvent shells around the transporting ion, and changes in mechanical properties of the polymer. Here we present electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCMD) monitoring as a means to quantify ion transport, dynamic swelling, and mechanical properties of polymers during electrochemical interrogation. We focus upon EQCMD characterization of the redox-active nitroxide radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA). Upon oxidation, PTMA becomes positively charged, which requires the transport of a complementary anion into the polymer for electroneutrality. By EQCMD, we quantify anion transport and resultant swelling upon oxidation, as well as decoupling of contributions attributed to the ion and the solvent. We explore the effect of different lithium electrolyte salts in which each salt gives different charge storage and mass transport behavior. This is attributed to varied polymer-dopant and dopant-solvent interactions. The work was supported by the Grant DE-SC0014006 funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  20. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain

  1. Transport description of intermediate processes in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.; Shivakumar, B.; Shapira, D.

    1986-01-01

    An extension of the diffusion model is proposed in order to describe the intermediate processes and the compound nucleus formation in heavy ion collisions. The model describes the intermediate processes and fusion in terms of the formation and the evolution of a long-lived dinuclear molecular complex (DMC) and its subsequent decay by fragmentation. The colliding ions can be trapped into the pocket of the entrance channel nucleus-nucleus potential and a DMC is formed. This DMC acts as a doorway state towards formation of a completely equilibrated compound nucleus (CN). It evolves through the exchange of nucleons to different dinuclear configurations. At each stage of its evolution, there is a finite probability for direct fragmentation into outgoing channels by thermal penetration over the barrier. The doorway states that do not fragment relax into a CN configuration and are identified as the fusion yield. 8 refs

  2. Nonlinear saturation of dissipative trapped ion instability and anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1977-04-01

    An expression for the turbulent collision frequency is derived by summing up the most dominant terms from each order in the perturbation expansion in order to obtain the nonlinear saturation level of the dissipative trapped ion instability. Numerical calculation shows that the anomalous diffusion coefficient at the saturated state is in good agreement with the result of Kadomtsev and Pogutse when the effect of the magnetic shear is taken into account. (auth.)

  3. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the additio...

  4. Ion mobility and transport barriers in the tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, H.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Valanju, P.M.

    1993-06-01

    The character of charged particle motion in an axisymmetric toroidal system with a constant radial electric field is investigated both analytically and numerically. Ion radial mobility caused by the combined effects of the radial electric field and charge exchange is found. A simple moment argument in the banana regime matches the simulation results well. Relation of present work and high confinement (H-mode) experiment is also discussed

  5. Cell Membrane Transport Mechanisms: Ion Channels and Electrical Properties of Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbacka, Julita; Choromańska, Anna; Rossowska, Joanna; Weżgowiec, Joanna; Saczko, Jolanta; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Cellular life strongly depends on the membrane ability to precisely control exchange of solutes between the internal and external (environmental) compartments. This barrier regulates which types of solutes can enter and leave the cell. Transmembrane transport involves complex mechanisms responsible for passive and active carriage of ions and small- and medium-size molecules. Transport mechanisms existing in the biological membranes highly determine proper cellular functions and contribute to drug transport. The present chapter deals with features and electrical properties of the cell membrane and addresses the questions how the cell membrane accomplishes transport functions and how transmembrane transport can be affected. Since dysfunctions of plasma membrane transporters very often are the cause of human diseases, we also report how specific transport mechanisms can be modulated or inhibited in order to enhance the therapeutic effect.

  6. Studies of heavy ion beam transport in a magnetic quadrupole channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabunde, J.; Reiser, M.; Schonlein, A.; Spadtke, P.; Struckmeier, J.

    1983-01-01

    In connection with the West German Heavy Ion Fusion Program the first stage (six periods) of a magnetic quadrupole channel (FODO type) to study the transport of intense ion beams was built at GSI. Different ion beams can be used and the variation of the brightness of these beams (hence of the tune depression sigma/sigma /SUB o/ ) is sufficiently large that regions of theoretically predicted instabilities can be covered. The initial studies are being carried out with a high-brightness beam of 190 keV Ar+ ions and currents of a few mA. Since the pulse length is > 0.5 ms and the pressure is between 10 -6 and 10 -7 torr partial space charge neutralization occurs. Clearing electrodes can be used to remove the electrons from the beam. Results of theoretical studies, measurements of charge neutralization effects and first results of transport experiments are reported

  7. Kinetic Simulation of Fast Electron Transport with Ionization Effects and Ion Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Bell, A. R.; Kingham, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of relativistic electrons and multi-MeV ions is central to ultra intense (> 1018Wcm-2) laser-solid interactions. The production of energetic particles by lasers has a number of potential applications ranging from Fast Ignition ICF to medicine. In terms of the relativistic (fast) electrons the areas of interest can be divided into three areas. Firstly there is the absorption of laser energy into fast electrons and MeV ions. Secondly there is the transport of fast electrons through the solid target. Finally there is a transduction stage, where the fast electron energy is imparted. This may range from being the electrostatic acceleration of ions at a plasma-vacuum interface, to the heating of a compressed core (as in Fast Ignitor ICF).We have used kinetic simulation codes to study the transport stage and electrostatic ion acceleration. (Author)

  8. Separation of some metal ions using coupled transport supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid membrane extraction processes has become very popular due to their superiority in many ways over other separation techniques. In coupled transport membranes the metal ions can be transported across the membrane against their concentration gradient under the influence of chemical potential difference. Liquid membranes consisting of a carrier-cum-diluent, supported in microporous polymeric hydrophobic films have been studied for transport of metal ions like U(VI), Cr(VI), Be(II), V(V), Ti(IV), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hf(IV), W(VI), and Co(II). The present paper presents basic data with respect to flux and permeabilities of these metal ions across membranes based on experimental results and theoretical equations, using different carriers and diluents and provides a brief reference to possibility of such membranes for large scale applications. (author)

  9. A reduced model for ion temperature gradient turbulent transport in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.

    2013-07-01

    A novel reduced model for ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulent transport in helical plasmas is presented. The model enables one to predict nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results from linear gyrokinetic analyses. It is shown from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the ITG turbulence in helical plasmas that the transport coefficient can be expressed as a function of the turbulent fluctuation level and the averaged zonal flow amplitude. Then, the reduced model for the turbulent ion heat diffusivity is derived by representing the nonlinear turbulent fluctuations and zonal flow amplitude in terms of the linear growth rate of the ITG instability and the linear response of the zonal flow potentials. It is confirmed that the reduced transport model results are in good agreement with those from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations for high ion temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. (author)

  10. Ion and solvent Transport in Polypyrrole: Experimental Test of Osmotic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Skaarup, Steen

    2005-01-01

    Ion and solvent transport in the conjugated polymer actuator material, polypyrrole, doped with the immobile anion dodecyl benzene sulphonate, has been investigated by simultaneous cyclic voltammetry and Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance measurements. The purpose was to elucidate the pre...... from almost pure cation transport to ca. equal amount of anion transport; exchanging Br- for Cl- ions has only negligible effect at lower concentrations at equal osmotic pressures. Ca. 4 H2O molecules are tightly bound to each Na+ ion at concentrations ... the precise nature of the mobile species during redox cycling, and to seek confirmation for the osmotic mechanism of actuation. Three testable aspects of the model were confirmed: The number of inserted H2O molecules decreases with electrolyte concentration; at the same time the mechanism gradually changes...

  11. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the free-streaming of particles in the kinetic theory drive the system out of equi- ... For collisions at RHIC and LHC, a transport model may involve four main com- ...... Further, there are many important conceptual issues such as imple-.

  12. A Hierarchy of Transport Approximations for High Energy Heavy (HZE) Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.; Hamidullah, Farhat; Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of high energy heavy (HZE) ions through bulk materials is studied neglecting energy dependence of the nuclear cross sections. A three term perturbation expansion appears to be adequate for most practical applications for which penetration depths are less than 30 g per sq cm of material. The differential energy flux is found for monoenergetic beams and for realistic ion beam spectral distributions. An approximate formalism is given to estimate higher-order terms.

  13. Rapid prototyping of magnetic tunnel junctions with focused ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Anders; Thornell, Greger; Nguyen, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Submicron-sized magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) are most often fabricated by time-consuming and expensive e-beam lithography. From a research and development perspective, a short lead time is one of the major concerns. Here, a rapid process scheme for fabrication of micrometre size MTJs with focused ion beam processes is presented. The magnetic properties of the fabricated junctions are investigated in terms of magnetic domain structure, tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) and coercivity, with extra attention given to the effect of Ga implantation from the ion beam. In particular, the effect of the implantation on the minimum junction size and the magnetization of the sensing layer are studied. In the latter case, magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, with the object-oriented micromagnetic framework (OOMMF), are used to study the magnetization reversal. The fabricated junctions show considerable coercivity both along their hard and easy axes. Interestingly, the sensing layer exhibits two remanent states: one with a single and one with a double domain. The hard axis TMR loop has kinks at about ±20 mT which is attributed to a non-uniform lateral coercivity, where the rim of the junctions, which is subjected to Ga implantation from the flank of the ion beam, is more coercive than the unirradiated centre. The width of the coercive rim is estimated to be 160 nm from the hard axis TMR loop. The easy axis TMR loop shows more coercivity than an unirradiated junction and, this too, is found to stem from the coercive rim, as seen from the simulations. It is concluded that the process scheme has three major advantages. Firstly, it has a high lateral and depth resolution—the depth resolution is enhanced by end point detection—and is capable of making junctions of sizes down towards the limit set by the width of the irradiated rim. Secondly, the most delicate process steps are performed in the unbroken vacuum enabling the use of materials prone to

  14. Rapid Water Transport by Long-Lasting Modon Eddy Pairs in the Southern Midlatitude Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Miller, Peter I.

    2017-12-01

    Water in the ocean is generally carried with the mean flow, mixed by eddies, or transported westward by coherent eddies at speeds close to the long baroclinic Rossby wave speed. Modons (dipole eddy pairs) are a theoretically predicted exception to this behavior, which can carry water to the east or west at speeds much larger than the Rossby wave speed, leading to unusual transports of heat, nutrients, and carbon. We provide the first observational evidence of such rapidly moving modons propagating over large distances. These modons are found in the midlatitude oceans around Australia, with one also seen in the South Atlantic west of the Agulhas region. They can travel at more than 10 times the Rossby wave speed of 1-2 cm s-1 and typically persist for about 6 months carrying their unusual water mass properties with them, before splitting into individual vortices, which can persist for many months longer.

  15. Driving a Bus in India: A Study of Indore Bus Rapid Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha K. RASTOGI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indore is a typical tier-2 town in the central province of India, fast becoming a regional commercial hub in an economically booming state. The city has a population of over 2 million with no significant public transport. Among the multiple options available, the city started implementing a dedicated corridor based Bus Rapid Transport System (BRTS. The project was jointly mooted by the central, state, and city authorities. However, the system encountered a range of problems, including conflicts and pulls between multiple implementing agencies, delays in delivery of hardware and constructions, land acquisition and compensation, vested interests, public interest litigations, and court orders. The paper analyses the BRTS, introduced in Indore in the midst of 2013, from multiple party perspectives with an underlying search for public policy and public management insights. The broad results indicate feasibility and desirability of the project; however, real problems emerge in public and public perception management.

  16. Rapid urbanization and the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Not only is Jakarta the largest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia, it is the also one of the most dynamic, though beset with most of the urban problems experienced in twenty-first century Southeast Asia. Batavia, colonial capital of the Netherland Indies in the first half of the 20th century was a small urban area of approximately 150,000 residents. In the second half, Batavia became Jakarta, the 28 million megacity capital of independent Indonesia. Among many urban problems, one major problem plagued Jakarta in the last two decades is traffic congestions. This paper discusses the extent to which rapid urbanization in Jakarta has contributed to the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta. The development of MRT could be viable solutions to alleviate the acute traffic jams in Jakarta. Jakarta will need to implement other innovative sustainable transportation policies including promoting active live through more walking and bicycling, carpool matching services, shuttle services, telecommuting and downzoning in downtown areas.

  17. The molecular mechanism of ion-dependent gating in secondary transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Zhao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available LeuT-like fold Na-dependent secondary active transporters form a large family of integral membrane proteins that transport various substrates against their concentration gradient across lipid membranes, using the free energy stored in the downhill concentration gradient of sodium ions. These transporters play an active role in synaptic transmission, the delivery of key nutrients, and the maintenance of osmotic pressure inside the cell. It is generally believed that binding of an ion and/or a substrate drives the conformational dynamics of the transporter. However, the exact mechanism for converting ion binding into useful work has yet to be established. Using a multi-dimensional path sampling (string-method followed by all-atom free energy simulations, we established the principal thermodynamic and kinetic components governing the ion-dependent conformational dynamics of a LeuT-like fold transporter, the sodium/benzyl-hydantoin symporter Mhp1, for an entire conformational cycle. We found that inward-facing and outward-facing states of Mhp1 display nearly the same free energies with an ion absent from the Na2 site conserved across the LeuT-like fold transporters. The barrier separating an apo-state from inward-facing or outward-facing states of the transporter is very low, suggesting stochastic gating in the absence of ion/substrate bound. In contrast, the binding of a Na2 ion shifts the free energy stabilizing the outward-facing state and promoting substrate binding. Our results indicate that ion binding to the Na2 site may also play a key role in the intracellular thin gate dynamics modulation by altering its interactions with the transmembrane helix 5 (TM5. The Potential of Mean Force (PMF computations for a substrate entrance displays two energy minima that correspond to the locations of the main binding site S1 and proposed allosteric S2 binding site. However, it was found that substrate's binds to the site S1 ∼5 kcal/mol more favorable

  18. P.I.A.F.E project: long distance transport of low energy exotic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibart, V.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the PIAFE project is the long distance (400 m) transport of a low energy radioactive ion beam from the ILL (Institut Laue Langevin) to the ISN (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires) of Grenoble (France). The production, extraction, ionization and mass separation of ions is performed by the ILL, while the transformation of ions into multicharged ions, their stripping and acceleration is carried out at the ISN. Theoretical and experimental studies for a simple an original guidance solution have shown that such a long transport, even delicate, should not encounter any major difficulty. The main objectives of this thesis is the technical realization of a 18 m section of this transport line. The problem of supports and focalizing elements alignment has been solved together with the other problems such as: the central trajectory deviation due to alignment defects and to the Earth's magnetic field; the particle losses due to charge exchange with the residual gas and the emittance increase by Coulomb scattering. It has been demonstrated that a 90% transmission can be obtained using a 25 keV energy and a 10 -7 mbar vacuum. Experimental measurements using a rubidium ion source have allowed to validate a theoretical model of emittance increase due to the residual gas-ions interactions. The increase of emittance with respect to the pressure has been measured using four residual gases of different mass. (J.S.). 29 refs., 61 figs., 19 tabs., 8 photos., 4 appends

  19. Ion beam transport and focus for LMF using an achromatic solenoidal lens system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    The light ion LMF (Laboratory Microfusion Facility) requires an ion beam transport length for bunching and standoff to be about four meters from the diode to the target. The baseline LMF transport scheme uses an achromatic two lens system consisting of the diode (a self-field lens) and a solenoidal lens. Charge and current neutralization are provided by a background gas. A detailed analysis of this system is presented here. The effects of additional magnetic fields are examined, including those produced by non-zero net currents, applied B effects near the diode, and diamagnetic effects in the solenoidal lens. Instabilities are analyzed including the filamentation instability, the two-stream instability (beam ions, plasma electrons), the plasma two-stream instability (plasma electrons, plasma ions), and the ion acoustic instability. Scattering in the foil and gas are shown to be negligible. Gas breakdown processes are analyzed in detail, including ion impact ionization, electron avalanching, and ohmic heating. Special diode requirements are examined, including voltage accuracy, energy spread, and aiming tolerances. The neutral gas and gas pressure are chosen to satisfy several constraints, one being that the net current must be small, and another being that the filamentation instability should be avoided. With the present choice of 1 Torr He, it is concluded that the complete achromatic lens system appears to be viable, simple, and efficient transport and focusing system for LMF

  20. Ion thermal conductivity and convective energy transport in JET hot-ion regimes and H-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibone, F.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Local transport in a recent series of JET experiments has been studied using interpretive codes. Auxiliary heating, mainly via neutral beam injection, was applied on low-density target plasmas confined in the double-null X-point configuration. This has produced two-component plasmas with high ion temperature and neutron yield and, above a threshold density, H-modes characterised by peak density and power deposition profiles. H-mode confinement was also obtained for the first time with 25 MW auxiliary power, of which 10 MW was from ion cyclotron resonance heating. We have used profile measurements of electron temperature T e from electron cyclotron emission and LIDAR Thomson scattering, ion temperature T i from charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (during NBI), electron density n e from LIDAR and Abel-inverted interferometer measurements. Only sparse information is, however, available to date concerning radial profiles of effective ionic charge and radiation losses. Deuterium depletion due to high impurity levels is an important effect in these discharges, and our interpretation of thermal ion energy content, neutron yield and ion particle fluxes needs to be confirmed using measured Z eff -profiles. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  1. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  2. Ion transport by gating voltage to nanopores produced via metal-assisted chemical etching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Inomata, Naoki; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we report a simple and low-cost way to create nanopores that can be employed for various applications in nanofluidics. Nano sized Ag particles in the range from 1 to 20 nm are formed on a silicon substrate with a de-wetting method. Then the silicon nanopores with an approximate 15 nm average diameter and 200 μm height are successfully produced by the metal-assisted chemical etching method. In addition, electrically driven ion transport in the nanopores is demonstrated for nanofluidic applications. Ion transport through the nanopores is observed and could be controlled by an application of a gating voltage to the nanopores.

  3. Modeling of charge transport in ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Anton V; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus; Zozoulenko, Igor V

    2014-06-17

    Spatiotemporal control of the complex chemical microenvironment is of great importance to many fields within life science. One way to facilitate such control is to construct delivery circuits, comprising arrays of dispensing outlets, for ions and charged biomolecules based on ionic transistors. This allows for addressability of ionic signals, which opens up for spatiotemporally controlled delivery in a highly complex manner. One class of ionic transistors, the ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs), is especially attractive for these applications because these transistors are functional at physiological conditions and have been employed to modulate the delivery of neurotransmitters to regulate signaling in neuronal cells. Further, the first integrated complementary ionic circuits were recently developed on the basis of these ionic transistors. However, a detailed understanding of the device physics of these transistors is still lacking and hampers further development of components and circuits. Here, we report on the modeling of IBJTs using Poisson's and Nernst-Planck equations and the finite element method. A two-dimensional model of the device is employed that successfully reproduces the main characteristics of the measurement data. On the basis of the detailed concentration and potential profiles provided by the model, the different modes of operation of the transistor are analyzed as well as the transitions between the different modes. The model correctly predicts the measured threshold voltage, which is explained in terms of membrane potentials. All in all, the results provide the basis for a detailed understanding of IBJT operation. This new knowledge is employed to discuss potential improvements of ion bipolar junction transistors in terms of miniaturization and device parameters.

  4. Universal method for effusive-flow characterization target ion source/vapor transport systems for radioactive ion beam generation (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, J.-C.; Liu, Y.; Cole, J. A.; Williams, C.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the use of accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for exploring reactions important in understanding the structure of the nucleus and nuclear astrophysical phenomena has motivated the construction of facilities dedicated to their production and acceleration. Many facilities utilize the isotope-separator-on-line (ISOL) method in which species of interest are generated within a solid or liquid target matrix. Experimentally useful RIBs are often difficult to generate by this technique because of the times required for diffusion from the interior of the target material, and to effusively transport the species of interest to the ion source following diffusion release in relation to its lifetime. Therefore, these delay times must be minimized. We have developed an experimental method that can be used to determine effusive-flow times of arbitrary geometry target/vapor transport systems. The technique utilizes a fast valve to measure effusive-flow times as short as 0.1 ms for any chemically active or inactive species through any target system, independent of size, geometry and materials of construction. In this report, we provide a theoretical basis for effusive flow through arbitrary geometry vapor transport systems, describe a universal experimental apparatus for measuring effusive-flow times, and provide time spectra for noble gases through prototype RIB target/vapor-transport systems

  5. Electrical Resistance and Transport Numbers of Ion-Exchange Membranes Used in Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a recently developed method to decontaminate heavy metal polluted soil using ion-exchange membranes. In this method one side of the ion-exchange membrane is in direct contact with the polluted soil. It is of great importance to know if this contact with the soil...... different electrodialytic soil remediation experiments. The experiments showed that after the use in electrodialytic soil remediation, the ion-exchange membranes had transport numbers in the same magnitude as new membranes. The electrical resistance for six membranes did not differ from that of new...

  6. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  7. The Role of Dopant Ions on Charge Injection and Transport in Electrochemically Doped Quantum Dot Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsdottir, Solrun; van der Stam, Ward; Kirkwood, Nicholas; Evers, Wiel H; Houtepen, Arjan J

    2018-05-16

    Control over the charge density is very important for implementation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals into various optoelectronic applications. A promising approach to dope nanocrystal assemblies is charge injection by electrochemistry, in which the charge compensating electrolyte ions can be regarded as external dopant ions. To gain insight into the doping mechanism and the role of the external dopant ions, we investigate charge injection in ZnO nanocrystal assemblies for a large series of charge compensating electrolyte ions with spectroelectrochemical and electrochemical transistor measurements. We show that charge injection is limited by the diffusion of cations in the nanocrystal films as their diffusion coefficient are found to be ∼7 orders of magnitude lower than those of electrons. We further show that the rate of charge injection depends strongly on the cation size and cation concentration. Strikingly, the onset of electron injection varies up to 0.4 V, depending on the size of the electrolyte cation. For the small ions Li + and Na + the onset is at significantly less negative potentials. For larger ions (K + , quaternary ammonium ions) the onset is always at the same, more negative potential, suggesting that intercalation may take place for Li + and Na + . Finally, we show that the nature of the charge compensating cation does not affect the source-drain electronic conductivity and mobility, indicating that shallow donor levels from intercalating ions fully hybridize with the quantum confined energy levels and that the reorganization energy due to intercalating ions does not strongly affect electron transport in these nanocrystal assemblies.

  8. Status of the SNS H- ion source and low-energy beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-01-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H - ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that will satisfy the operational needs through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. The ion source was derived from the SSC ion source, and many of its original features have been improved to achieve reliable operation at 6% duty factor, producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. The LEBT utilizes purely electrostatic focusing and includes static beam-steering elements and a pre-chopper. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on relevant commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ accelerator. Perspectives for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks

  9. Relationship between ion transport and the failure behavior of epoxy resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Zhou, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •An epoxy resin-Q345 system with a sandwich structure was prepared. •Cl − ions permeated into epoxy resin coating prior to K + ions. •Free volume size and PAL increased when the coating was immersed into the solution. -- Abstract: An epoxy resin coating with a sandwich structure was prepared to investigate ion transport behavior in the coating. The macro- and micro- appearance of the coating immersed in 5 wt.% KCl solutions was observed by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The electrochemical property of the coating was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and change of free volume after immersion was characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results indicated that Cl − ions permeated into the coating prior to K + ions, the free volume size and positron annihilation lifetime of the coating increased during immersion

  10. Transport of intense particle beams with application to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.L.; Chambers, F.W.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Briggs, R.J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    An attractive feature of the high energy (> GeV) heavy ion beam approach to inertial fusion, as compared with other particle beam systems, is the relative simplicity involved in the transport and focusing of energy on the target inside a reactor chamber. While this focusing could be done in vacuum by conventional methods with multiple beams, there are significant advantages in reactor design if one can operate at gas pressures around one torr. In this paper we summarize the results of our studies of heavy ion beam transport in gases. With good enough charge and current neutralization, one could get a ballistically-converging beam envelope down to a few millimeters over a 10 meter path inside the chamber. Problems of beam filamentation place important restrictions on this approach. We also discuss transport in a self-focused mode, where a relatively stable pressure window is predicted similar to the observed window for electron beam transport

  11. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  12. Heavy ion beam transport through liquid lithium first wall ICF reactor cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    This analysis addresses the critical issue of the final transport of a heavy ion beam in an inertial confinement fusion reactor. The beam must traverse the reaction chamber from the final focusing lens to the target without being disrupted. This requirement has a strong impact on the reactor design. It is essential to the development of ICF fusion reactor technology, that the restrictions placed on the reactor engineering parameters by final beam transport consideration be understood early on

  13. Ion Transport and Structure in Polymer Electrolytes with Applications in Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati

    When mixed with lithium salts, polymers that contain more than one chemical group, such as block copolymers and endgroup-functionalized polymers, are promising electrolyte materials for next-generation lithium batteries. One chemical group can provide good ion solvation and transport properties, while the other chemical group can provide secondary properties that improve the performance characteristics of the battery. Secondary properties of interest include non-flammability for safer lithium ion batteries and high mechanical modulus for dendrite resistance in high energy density lithium metal batteries. Block copolymers and other materials with multiple chemical groups tend to exhibit nanoscale heterogeneity and can undergo microphase separation, which impacts the ion transport properties. In block copolymers that microphase separate, ordered self-assembled structures occur on longer length scales. Understanding the interplay between structure at different length scales, salt concentration, and ion transport is important for improving the performance of multifunctional polymer electrolytes. In this dissertation, two electrolyte materials are characterized: mixtures of endgroup-functionalized, short chain perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt, and mixtures of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS- b-PEO; SEO) and LiTFSI. The PFPE/LiTFSI electrolytes are liquids in which the PFPE backbone provides non-flammability, and the endgroups resemble small molecules that solvate ions. In these electrolytes, the ion transport properties and nanoscale heterogeneity (length scale 1 nm) are characterized as a function of endgroup using electrochemical techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and wide angle X-ray scattering. Endgroups, especially those containing PEO segments, have a large impact on ionic conductivity, in part because the salt distribution is not homogenous; we find that salt partitions

  14. Fast-ion transport studies using FIDA spectroscopy at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    A good confinement of fast-ions, i.e. ions with energies above the thermal energy, is essential for the success of fusion devices as it determines, amongst others, the plasma performance and the heating and current drive efficiencies. In case of a turbulent or magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) active background plasma, various mechanisms have to be considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of the fast-ions: the slowing down and radial diffusion by Coulomb collisions on electrons and ions, the effect of potential fluctuations and the effect of perturbations of the magnetic field structure. These can lead to a broadening of the fast-ion distribution function which is not yet completely understood. At the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade, the fast-ions are generated by heating sources such as neutral beam injection (NBI). Their transport properties can be studied by a fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy diagnostic which has been built in the framework of this thesis. Through charge exchange reactions with neutrals, fast-ions can receive a bound electron and emit Balmer alpha line radiation. This so-called FIDA radiation can be measured with large Doppler shifts and is localized along the NBI path where a high density of neutrals is present. The FIDA diagnostic uses radially distributed lines of sight that intersect, in the horizontal and in the vertical plane, the path of a 2.5 MW NBI heating source. Thereby different parts of the fast-ion phase space above 25 keV can be analyzed. To interpret the FIDA radiation quantitatively, a forward modelling code has been implemented, tested and further developed. The code calculates, based on theoretical fast-ion distribution functions, synthetic FIDA spectra that can be compared to the measurement. In MHD-quiescent plasmas, the possible effect of turbulence on the fast-ion transport has been investigated with the FIDA diagnostic. The measurements obtained under different experimental conditions, such as during on- and

  15. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  16. Rapid heating evaporation of Pb(NO3)2. Evidence for heterogeneous ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radus, T.P.; Udseth, H.R.; Friedman, L.

    1979-01-01

    A mass spectrometric investigation of the lead nitrate system is reported in which the lead nitrate was evaporated from a probe filament that was heated as rapidly as 5000 0 C/s. Both electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) source techniques were used in this study. Fragment ions and decomposition products were observed under EI conditions. Under CI conditions solvated fragment ions and protonated solvated molecular ions were detected. Temperature measurements of rates of evaporation were made by monitoring the resistance of the probe filament as it was heated. Activation energies calculated by using these temperature coefficients of evaporation rates indicate that evaporations under CI conditions are assisted by heterogeneous ion-molecule reactions

  17. Angular neutron transport investigation in the HZETRN free-space ion and nucleon transport and shielding computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Wilson, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the high charge and energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN for angular transport of neutrons is considered. For this paper, only light ion transport, He 4 and lighter, will be analyzed using a pure solar proton source. The angular transport calculator is the ANISN/PC program which is being controlled by the HZETRN program. The neutron flux values are compared for straight-ahead transport and angular transport in one dimension. The shield material is aluminum and the target material is water. The thickness of these materials is varied; however, only the largest model calculated is reported which is 50 gm/cm 2 of aluminum and 100 gm/cm 2 of water. The flux from the ANISN/PC calculation is about two orders of magnitude lower than the flux from HZETRN for very low energy neutrons. It is only a magnitude lower for the neutrons in the 10 to 20 MeV range in the aluminum and two orders lower in the water. The major reason for this difference is in the transport modes: straight-ahead versus angular. The angular treatment allows a longer path length than the straight-ahead approximation. Another reason is the different cross section sets used by the ANISN/PC-BUGLE-80 mode and the HZETRN mode. The next step is to investigate further the differences between the two codes and isolate the differences to just the angular versus straight-ahead transport mode. Then, create a better coupling between the angular neutron transport and the charged particle transport

  18. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  19. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  20. Fluorescence-based rapid measurement of sphingosine-1-phosphate transport activity in erythrocytes[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Otsuka, Masato; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Nishi, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is present in the blood plasma and acts as a pivotal intercellular signal transmitter in the immune system by recruiting lymphocytes from the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues. The plasma S1P concentration is maintained by the supply of S1P from erythrocytes. Previously, we showed that S1P release from erythrocytes is mediated by an ATP-dependent transporter. In this study, we attempted to establish a rapid and reliable method for measuring the S1P transport activity in erythrocytes by using a fluorescent S1P analog, 7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD)-labeled S1P. NBD-S1P was released from erythrocytes in a time-dependent manner. The NBD-S1P release was reduced after exposure to glyburide, which is an inhibitor of the S1P transporter in erythrocytes. Moreover, the release of NBD-S1P and S1P from erythrocytes was competitively inhibited by intracellular S1P and NBD-S1P, respectively. These results showed that the erythrocyte S1P transporter exports NBD-S1P. We optimized the sample-preparation conditions and lipid extraction to increase the sensitivity of the assay. Furthermore, we successfully measured NBD-S1P release without lipid extraction by decreasing the concentration of BSA in the assay buffer to 0.1%. This method will be useful for the high-throughput screening of S1P transporter inhibitors using conventional fluorometers. PMID:27655910

  1. Ion transport properties of lithium ionic liquids and their ion gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobukawa, Hitoshi; Tokuda, Hiroyuki; Susan, Md. Abu Bin Hasan; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    A new series of lithium ionic liquids were prepared by introducing of two electron-withdrawing trifluoroacetyl groups in borate salts containing two methoxy-oligo(ethylene oxide) groups in the structures. Successive substitution reactions of oligo-ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and trifluroacetic acid from LiBH 4 yielded the lithium salts, which were clear and colorless liquids at room temperature. The fundamental physicochemical properties, such as density, thermal property, viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficients, and electrochemical stability, were measured. The lithium ionic liquids had self-dissociation ability and conducted ions even in the absence of organic solvents. New polymer electrolytes, named 'ion gels', were prepared by radical cross-linking reactions of a poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide)tri-acrylate macromonomer in the presence the lithium ionic liquid. An increase in the glass transition temperatures (T g ) of the ion gels was very small even with increasing lithium ionic liquid concentration, and the T g 's were lower than that of the ionic liquid itself. The ionic conductivity of the ion gels surpassed that of the lithium ionic liquid in the bulk at certain compositions

  2. Rapid ammonia gas transport accounts for futile transmembrane cycling under NH3/NH4+ toxicity in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-12-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4(+) cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4(+) toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4(+)) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope (13)N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4(+) ion. Influx of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+), which exceeded 200 µmol g(-1) h(-1), was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4(+)), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g(-1) h(-1)). Efflux of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+) responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions.

  3. Simulation study of energetic ion transport due to Alfven eigenmodes in LHD plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Yasushi; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Osakabe, Masaki; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Spong, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of holes and clumps in an energetic ion energy spectrum associated with Alfven eigenmodes was examined using the neutral particle analyzer (NPA) on the LHD shot no.47645. The difference in slowing-down times between the holes and clumps suggested that the energetic ions were transported over 10% of the plasma minor radius. The spatial profile and frequency of the Alfven eigenmodes were analyzed with the AE3D code. The phase space structures of the energetic ions on the NPA line-of-sight were investigated with Poincare plots, where an oscillating Alfven eigenmode was employed for earth plot. The phase space regions trapped by the Alfven eigenmodes appeared as islands in the Poincare plots. The radial width of the islands corresponded to the transport distance of the energetic ions. Since island width depends on Alfven eigenmode amplitude, it was found that Alfven eigenmodes with amplitude δB r /B - 10 -3 transported energetic ions over 10% of the minor radius. (author)

  4. Beam-transport system for high-resolution heavy-ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Kashy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A method is given to adjust a beam-transport system to the requirements of high-energy resolution heavy-ion spectroscopy. The results of a test experiment performed on a MP tandem with a 12 C beam are shown. A drastic improvement in energy resolution is obtained for a kinematical factor K=1/p dp/dtheta=0.12 [fr

  5. Multicomponent ion transport in a mono and bilayer cation-exchange membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a model for bilayer cation-exchange membranes used in the chlor-alkali process. The ion transport inside the membrane is modeled with the Nernst–Planck equation. A logistic function is used at the boundary between the two layers of the bilayer membrane to describe the change in

  6. Nernst-Planck modeling of multicomponent ion transport in a Nafion membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    A mathematical model of multicomponent ion transport through a cation-exchange membrane is developed based on the Nernst–Planck equation. A correlation for the non-linear potential gradient is derived from current density relation with fluxes. The boundary conditions are determined with the Donnan

  7. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-01-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt b...

  8. Electronic transport in helium-ion-beam etched encapsulated graphene nanoribbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.; Hlawacek, Gregor; Goswami, S.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the etching of and electronic transport in nanoribbons of graphene sandwiched between atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The etching of ribbons of varying width was achieved with a focused beam of 30 keV He+ ions. Using in-situ electrical measurements, we

  9. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  10. Effects of nitrogen seeding on core ion thermal transport in JET ILW L-mode plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Citrin, J.; Giroud, C.; Lerche, E.; Sozzi, C.; Taylor, D.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; JET Contributors,

    2018-01-01

    A set of experiments was carried out in JET ILW (Joint European Torus with ITER-Like Wall) L-mode plasmas in order to study the effects of light impurities on core ion thermal transport. N was puffed into some discharges and its profile was measured by active Charge Exchange diagnostics, while ICRH

  11. Effect of acute hyperglycemia on erythrocyte membrane ion transport in offspring of hypertensive parents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchánková, G.; Vlasáková, Z.; Zicha, Josef; Vokurková, Martina; Dobešová, Zdenka; Pelikánová, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2003), s. 1325-1330 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1638; GA MZd NB6682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ion transport * hypertension * insulin resistance Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.572, year: 2003

  12. Heavy ion inertial fusion: interface between target gain, accelerator phase space and reactor beam transport revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.; Mark, J.W.K.; Yu, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Recently revised estimates of target gain have added additional optimistic inputs to the interface between targets, accelerators and fusion chamber beam transport. But it remains valid that neutralization of the beams in the fusion chamber is useful if ion charge state Z > 1 or if > 1 kA per beamlet is to be propagated. Some engineering and economic considerations favor higher currents

  13. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Foulke-Abel (Jennifer); J. In (Julie); Yin, J. (Jianyi); N.C. Zachos (Nicholas C.); O. Kovbasnjuk (Olga); M.K. Estes (Mary K.); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); M. Donowitz (Mark)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims Human intestinal crypt-derived enteroids are a model of intestinal ion transport that require validation by comparison with cell culture and animal models. We used human small intestinal enteroids to study neutral Na+ absorption and stimulated fluid and anion secretion

  14. Fast-ion transport induced by Alfvén eigenmodes in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Classen, I.G.J.; Geiger, B.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of diagnostics has allowed detailed measurements of the Alfvén eigenmode (AE) spatial structure and subsequent fast-ion transport in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak [1]. Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) and toroidal induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) have been driven u...

  15. Role of external torque in the formation of ion thermal internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Diamond, P. H.

    2012-04-01

    We present an analytic study of the impact of external torque on the formation of ion internal transport barriers (ITBs). A simple analytic relation representing the effect of low external torque on transport bifurcations is derived based on a two field transport model of pressure and toroidal momentum density. It is found that the application of an external torque can either facilitate or hamper bifurcation in heat flux driven plasmas depending on its sign relative to the direction of intrinsic torque. The ratio between radially integrated momentum (i.e., external torque) density to power input is shown to be a key macroscopic control parameter governing the characteristics of bifurcation.

  16. Electric Field-Controlled Ion Transport In TiO2 Nanochannel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Jing, Wenheng; Li, Shuaiqiang; Shen, Hao; Xing, Weihong

    2015-06-03

    On the basis of biological ion channels, we constructed TiO2 membranes with rigid channels of 2.3 nm to mimic biomembranes with flexible channels; an external electric field was employed to regulate ion transport in the confined channels at a high ionic strength in the absence of electrical double layer overlap. Results show that transport rates for both Na+ and Mg2+ were decreased irrespective of the direction of the electric field. Furthermore, a voltage-gated selective ion channel was formed, the Mg2+ channel closed at -2 V, and a reversed relative electric field gradient was at the same order of the concentration gradient, whereas the Na+ with smaller Stokes radius and lower valence was less sensitive to the electric field and thus preferentially occupied and passed the channel. Thus, when an external electric field is applied, membranes with larger nanochannels have promising applications in selective separation of mixture salts at a high concentration.

  17. Effect of Neoclassical Transport Optimization on Energetic Ion Confinement in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Sasao, M.

    2004-01-01

    Confinement of energetic ions from neutral beam injection heating is investigated by changing the magnetic field configuration of the Large Helical Device from a classical heliotron configuration to an optimized neoclassical transport configuration to a level typical of ''advanced stellarators.'' The experimental results show the highest count rate of fast neutral particles not in the optimized configuration but in the inward-shifted one. The GNET simulation results show a relatively good agreement with the experimental results, and they also show a lower energy loss rate in the optimized configuration. This contradiction can be explained by the radial profile of the energetic ions. The relatively good agreement between experimental and simulation results suggest that ripple transport (neoclassical) dominates the energetic ion confinement and that the optimization process is effective in improving confinement in helical systems

  18. Fully-kinetic Ion Simulation of Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Daniel; Lau, Calvin; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Tajima, Toshiki; TAE Team

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the nature of particle and energy transport in field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is a crucial step towards an FRC-based fusion reactor. The C-2U device at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) achieved macroscopically stable plasmas and electron energy confinement time which scaled favorably with electron temperature. This success led to experimental and theoretical investigation of turbulence in C-2U, including gyrokinetic ion simulations with the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC). A primary objective of TAE's new C-2W device is to explore transport scaling in an extended parameter regime. In concert with the C-2W experimental campaign, numerical efforts have also been extended in A New Code (ANC) to use fully-kinetic (FK) ions and a Vlasov-Poisson field solver. Global FK ion simulations are presented. Future code development is also discussed.

  19. Connection of a He-jet recoil transport system to an ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, G.A.

    1977-02-01

    In an effort to make non-gaseous fission products available for on-line separation and study with the TRISTAN facility, an investigation of the operational characteristics of a He-jet recoil transport system and a TRISTAN-type ion source was conducted after interfacing them with a skimmer. So that experimental results could be understood and controlled, studies of the dynamics of choked flow in a capillary and of the transport characteristics were made. Satisfactory performance of the He-jet system was obtained, but large temperature and pressure gradients thwarted early attempts to efficiently couple the He-jet to the ion source. The pressure-related difficulties have been overcome by employing a skimmer to remove extraneous gases before injection of the activities into the ion source, but efforts to conquer the temperature-related problems continue

  20. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  1. Towards a heavy-ion transport capability in the MARS15 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Gudima, K.K.; Mashnik, S.G.; Rakhno, I.L.; Striganov, S.

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet the challenges of new accelerator and space projects and further improve modelling of radiation effects in microscopic objects, heavy-ion interaction and transport physics have been recently incorporated into the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. A brief description of new modules is given in comparison with experimental data. The MARS Monte Carlo code is widely used in numerous accelerator, detector, shielding and cosmic ray applications. The needs of the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, Large Hadron Collider, Rare Isotope Accelerator and NASA projects have recently induced adding heavy-ion interaction and transport physics to the MARS15 code. The key modules of the new implementation are described below along with their comparisons to experimental data.

  2. Modeling of ion transport through a porous separator in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Wei, L.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we develop a two-dimensional, transient model to investigate the mechanisms of ion-transport through a porous separator in VRFBs and their effects on battery performance. Commercial-available separators with pore sizes of around 45 nm are particularly investigated and effects of key separator design parameters and operation modes are explored. We reveal that: i) the transport mechanism of vanadium-ion crossover through available separators is predominated by convection; ii) reducing the pore size below 15 nm effectively minimizes the convection-driven vanadium-ion crossover, while further reduction in migration- and diffusion-driven vanadium-ion crossover can be achieved only when the pore size is reduced to the level close to the sizes of vanadium ions; and iii) operation modes that can affect the pressure at the separator/electrode interface, such as the electrolyte flow rate, exert a significant influence on the vanadium-ion crossover rate through the available separators, indicating that it is critically important to equalize the pressure on each half-cell of a power pack in practical applications.

  3. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  4. Ion transport through biological membranes an integrated theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Michael C

    1975-01-01

    This book illustrates some of the ways physics and mathematics have been, and are being, used to elucidate the underlying mechan­ isms of passive ion movement through biological membranes in general, and the membranes of excltable cells in particular. I have made no effort to be comprehensive in my introduction of biological material and the reader interested in a brief account of single cell electro­ physlology from a physically-oriented biologists viewpoint will find the chapters by Woodbury (1965) an excellent introduction. Part I is introductory in nature, exploring the basic electrical properties of inexcitable and excitable cell plasma membranes. Cable theory is utilized to illustrate the function of the non-decrementing action potential as a signaling mechanism for the long range trans­ mission of information in the nervous system, and to gain some in­ sight into the gross behaviour of neurons. The detailed analysis of Hodgkin and Huxley on the squid giant axon membrane ionic conductance properties...

  5. Design and characterization of a neutralized-transport experiment for heavy-ion fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Henestroza

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final-focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit spots on the target with radii of about 2 mm. For the heavy-ion-fusion power-plant scenarios presently favored in the U.S., a substantial fraction of the ion-beam space charge must be neutralized during this final transport. The most effective neutralization technique found in numerical simulations is to pass each beam through a low-density plasma after the final focusing. To provide quantitative comparisons of these theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the neutralized-transport experiment. The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam, while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed quadrupoles, permits the study of magnet tuning, as well as the effects of phase-space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, the converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present initial results from the experiment.

  6. Ion transport studies in lithium phospho-molybdate glasses containing Cl{sup −} ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, V.C. Veeranna [Department of Physics, Government College for Women, Chintamani (India); Chethana, B.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Reddy, C. Narayana, E-mail: nivetejareddy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharani' s Science College for Women, Bangalore (India)

    2013-07-01

    Highlights: • Addition of LiCl creates more conducting channels for Li{sup +} ion movement. • The decrease in E{sub dc} with increasing LiCl concentration could be due to Li{sup +} ions present in the columbic wells surrounded by Cl{sup −} ions are expected to be shallow. • Examined the power law fits using both two term and three term equation with fixed and floated parameters. -- Abstract: Ion conducting glasses in xLiCl–20Li{sub 2}O–(80−x) [0.80P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–0.20MoO{sub 3}] glass system have been prepared over a wide range of composition (X = 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mol%). The electrical conductivity and dielectric relaxation of these glasses were analyzed using impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz–10 MHz and in the temperature range of 313–353 K. D.c. activation energies extracted from Arrhenius plots using regression analysis, decreases with increasing LiCl mol%. A.c. conductivity data has been fitted to both single and double power law equation with both fixed and variable parameters. The increased conductivity in the present glass system has been correlated with the volume increasing effect and the coordination changes that occur due to structural modification resulting in the creation of non-bridging oxygens (NBO's) of the type O-Mo-O{sup −} bonds in the glass network. Dielectric relaxation mechanism in these glasses is analyzed using Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts (KWW) stretched exponential function and stretched exponent (β) is found to be insensitive to temperature.

  7. Ion transport studies in lithium phospho-molybdate glasses containing Cl− ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, V.C. Veeranna; Chethana, B.K.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of LiCl creates more conducting channels for Li + ion movement. • The decrease in E dc with increasing LiCl concentration could be due to Li + ions present in the columbic wells surrounded by Cl − ions are expected to be shallow. • Examined the power law fits using both two term and three term equation with fixed and floated parameters. -- Abstract: Ion conducting glasses in xLiCl–20Li 2 O–(80−x) [0.80P 2 O 5 –0.20MoO 3 ] glass system have been prepared over a wide range of composition (X = 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mol%). The electrical conductivity and dielectric relaxation of these glasses were analyzed using impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz–10 MHz and in the temperature range of 313–353 K. D.c. activation energies extracted from Arrhenius plots using regression analysis, decreases with increasing LiCl mol%. A.c. conductivity data has been fitted to both single and double power law equation with both fixed and variable parameters. The increased conductivity in the present glass system has been correlated with the volume increasing effect and the coordination changes that occur due to structural modification resulting in the creation of non-bridging oxygens (NBO's) of the type O-Mo-O − bonds in the glass network. Dielectric relaxation mechanism in these glasses is analyzed using Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts (KWW) stretched exponential function and stretched exponent (β) is found to be insensitive to temperature

  8. Fast-ion transport in the presence of magnetic reconnection induced by sawtooth oscillations in ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, B.; M. García-Muñoz,; Dux, R.; Ryter, F.; Tardini, G.; Orte, L. B.; Classen, I.G.J.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Igochine, V.; McDermott, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of beam-generated fast ions has been investigated experimentally at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak in the presence of sawtooth crashes. After sawtooth crashes, phase space resolved fast-ion D-alpha measurements show a significant reduction of the central fast-ion density-more than

  9. Diagnostics of discharge channels for neutralized chamber transport in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, C.; Penache, D.; Tauschwitz, A.; Rosmej, F.B.; Neff, S.; Birkner, R.; Constantin, C.; Knobloch, R.; Presura, R.; Yu, S.S.; Sharp, W.M.; Ponce, D.M.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    2002-01-01

    The final beam transport in the reactor chamber for heavy ion fusion in preformed plasma channels offers many attractive advantages compared to other transport modes. In the past few years, experiments at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) accelerator facility have addressed the creation and investigation of discharge plasmas, designed for the transport of intense ion beams. Stable, self-standing channels of 50 cm length with currents up to 55 kA were initiated in low-pressure ammonia gas by a CO 2 -laser pulse along the channel axis before the discharge is triggered. The channels were characterized by several plasma diagnostics including interferometry and spectroscopy. We also present first experiments on laser-guided intersecting discharges

  10. Regulation of the glutamine transporter SN1 by extracellular pH and intracellular sodium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeer, A.; Broeer, S.; Setiawan, I.; Lang, F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: SN1 has recently been identified as one of the major glutamine transporters in hepatocytes and brain astrocytes. It appears to be the molecular correlate of the system N amino acid transporter. Two different transport mechanisms have been proposed for this transporter. Either an electroneutral mechanism, in which glutamine uptake is coupled to an exchange of 1Na + and 1H + , or an electrogenic mechanism coupled to the exchange of 2Na + against 1H + . This study was performed to solve the discrepancies and to investigate the reversibility of the transporter. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes glutamine uptake activity increased strongly with increasing pH. In agreement with the pH-dependence we found that uptake of glutamine was accompanied by an alkalization of the cytosol, indicating that SN1 mediates Glutamine/H + -Antiport. Uptake of glutamine into oocytes was Na + -dependent. Analysis of the Na + -dependence of glutamine transport and Flux studies using 22 Na + indicated that two or more sodium ions were cotransported together with glutamine. However, at the same time intracellular Na + was exchanged against extracellular Na + . Taken together with the results of the pH-dependence it is proposed that SN1 mediates a Na + /Na + -exchange and a Na + /H + -exchange, both being coupled to the transport of glutamine. In agreement with this mechanism we found that acidic pH caused a reversal of the transporter. To investigate the source of the glutamine-induced inward currents, we compared inward currents generated by the 1Na + /glutamine cotransporter ATA1 with those generated by SN1. Currents induced by glutamine uptake in SN1 expressing oocytes were only a fraction of the currents induced by glutamine in ATA1 expressing oocytes, indicating that they were not generated by a stoichiometric uptake of ions. It is concluded that SN1 is tightly regulated by pH and intracellular Na + -ions and is capable of mediating glutamine uptake and release

  11. Power dependence of ion thermal diffusivity at the internal transport barrier in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ide, Shunsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-09-01

    The formation properties of an internal transport barrier (ITB) were investigated in a weak positive magnetic shear plasma by changing the neutral beam heating power. The ion thermal diffusivity in the core region shows L-mode state, weak ITB, and strong ITB, depending upon the heating power. Two features of ITB formation were experimentally confirmed. Weak ITB was formed in spite of the absence of an apparent transition in an ion temperature profile. On the other hand, strong ITB appeared after an apparent transition from the weak ITB. In addition, the ion thermal diffusivity at the ITB is correlated to the radial electric field shear. In the case of the weak ITB, ion thermal diffusivity decreased gradually with increases in the radial electric field shear. There exists a threshold in the radial electric field shear, which allows for a change in state from that of weak to strong ITBs. (author)

  12. Modeling of Low Frequency MHD Induced Beam Ion Transport In NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Medley, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    Beam ion transport in the presence of low frequency MHD activity in National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) plasma is modeled numerically and analyzed theoretically in order to understand basic underlying physical mechanisms responsible for the observed fast ion redistribution and losses. Numerical modeling of the beam ions flux into the NPA in NSTX shows that after the onset of low frequency MHD activity high energy part of beam ion distribution, E b > 40keV, is redistributed radially due to stochastic diffusion. Such diffusion is caused by high order harmonics of the transit frequency resonance overlap in the phase space. Large drift orbit radial width induces such high order resonances. Characteristic confinement time is deduced from the measured NPA energy spectrum and is typically ∼ 4msec. Considered MHD activity may induce losses on the order of 10% at the internal magnetic field perturbation (delta)B/B = Ο (10 -3 ), which is comparable to the prompt orbit losses

  13. Innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection based on ionized air transport technology (2). CFD-simulated and experimental ion transport efficiencies for uranium-attached pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Aoyama, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    An innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection has been developed. This apparatus measures an ion current resulting from air ionization by alpha particles. Ions generated in the measurement chamber of about 1 m 3 in volume are transported by airflow to a sensor and measured. This paper presents computational estimation of ion transport efficiencies for two pipes with different lengths, the inner surfaces of which were covered with a thin layer of uranium. These ion transport efficiencies were compared with those experimentally obtained for the purpose of our model validation. Good agreement was observed between transport efficiencies from simulations and those experimentally estimated. Dependence of the transport efficiencies on the region of uranium coating was also examined, based on which anticipated errors arising from unclear positions of contamination are also discussed. (author)

  14. Experimental study of the transport limits of intense heavy ion beams in the HCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, L.R.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Dugan, C.C.; Faltens, A.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Haber, I.

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high space-charge intensity (line charge density up to ∼ 0.2 (micro)C/m) over long pulse durations (4 (micro)s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. The experiment also contributes to the practical baseline knowledge of intense beam manipulations necessary for the design, construction and operation of a heavy ion driver for inertial fusion. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and beam steering, matching, image charges, halo, electron cloud effects, and longitudinal bunch control. We first present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K + ion beam transported through the first ten electrostatic transport quadrupoles, measured with optical beam-imaging and double-slit phase-space diagnostics. This includes studies at two different radial fill factors (60% and 80%), for which the beam transverse distribution was characterized in detail. Additionally, beam energy measurements will be shown. We then discuss the first results of beam transport through four pulsed room-temperature magnetic quadrupoles (located downstream of the electrostatic quadrupoles), where the beam dynamics become more sensitive to the presence of secondary electrons

  15. The two Na+ sites in the human serotonin transporter play distinct roles in the ion coupling and electrogenicity of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H; Henry, L Keith

    2014-01-17

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na(+)-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca(2+) (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na(+) for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca(2+) and Na(+) illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca(2+) promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na(+)-binding sites.

  16. The Two Na+ Sites in the Human Serotonin Transporter Play Distinct Roles in the Ion Coupling and Electrogenicity of Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H.; Henry, L. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na+, Cl−, and K+ gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na+-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca2+ (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na+ for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca2+ and Na+ illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca2+ promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na+-binding sites. PMID:24293367

  17. Observation of enhanced radial transport of energetic ion due to energetic particle mode destabilized by helically-trapped energetic ion in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Kawase, H.; Nishitani, T.; Seki, R.; Osakabe, M.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-04-01

    A deuterium experiment was initiated to achieve higher-temperature and higher-density plasmas in March 2017 in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The central ion temperature notably increases compared with that in hydrogen experiments. However, an energetic particle mode called the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange (EIC) mode is often excited by intensive perpendicular neutral beam injections on high ion-temperature discharges. The mode leads to significant decrease of the ion temperature or to limiting the sustainment of the high ion-temperature state. To understand the effect of EIC on the energetic ion confinement, the radial transport of energetic ions is studied by means of the neutron flux monitor and vertical neutron camera newly installed on the LHD. Decreases of the line-integrated neutron profile in core channels show that helically-trapped energetic ions are lost from the plasma.

  18. Rapid radiochemical ion-exchange separation of iodine from tellurium: a novel radioiodine-132 generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrao, A

    1975-01-01

    Tellurium ions form a soluble cationic complex with thiourea in acid medium. The cationic tellurium-thiourea species is strongly absorbed on a cationic ion exchanger. The retention of tellurium on the resin enables many interesting separation schemes for tellurium from various ions. With special interest, the separation of iodine from tellurium was studied. An efficient and convenient iodine-132 generator is described, in which the radio-iodine is eluted with water or 9 g/1 NaCl, when desired.

  19. A rapid radiochemical ion-exchange separation of iodine from tellurium: a novel radioiodine-132 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.

    1975-01-01

    Tellurium ions form a soluble cationic complex with thiourea in acid medium. The cationic tellurium-thiourea species is strongly absorbed on a cationic ion exchanger. The retention of tellurium on the resin enables many interesting separation schemes for tellurium from various ions. With special interest, the separation of iodine from tellurium was studied. An efficient and convenient iodine-132 generator is described, in which the radio-iodine is eluted with water or 9 g/1 NaCL, when desired

  20. Dynein Clusters into Lipid Microdomains on Phagosomes to Drive Rapid Transport toward Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ashim; Pathak, Divya; Thakur, Shreyasi; Singh, Shampa; Dubey, Alok Kumar; Mallik, Roop

    2016-02-11

    Diverse cellular processes are driven by motor proteins that are recruited to and generate force on lipid membranes. Surprisingly little is known about how membranes control the force from motors and how this may impact specific cellular functions. Here, we show that dynein motors physically cluster into microdomains on the membrane of a phagosome as it matures inside cells. Such geometrical reorganization allows many dyneins within a cluster to generate cooperative force on a single microtubule. This results in rapid directed transport of the phagosome toward microtubule minus ends, likely promoting phagolysosome fusion and pathogen degradation. We show that lipophosphoglycan, the major molecule implicated in immune evasion of Leishmania donovani, inhibits phagosome motion by disrupting the clustering and therefore the cooperative force generation of dynein. These findings appear relevant to several pathogens that prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion by targeting lipid microdomains on phagosomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The theory and simulation of relativistic electron beam transport in the ion-focused regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, S.B.; Holloway, J.P.; Kammash, T.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Several recent experiments involving relativistic electron beam (REB) transport in plasma channels show two density regimes for efficient transport; a low-density regime known as the ion-focused regime (IFR) and a high-pressure regime. The results obtained in this paper use three separate models to explain the dependency of REB transport efficiency on the plasma density in the IFR. Conditions for efficient beam transport are determined by examining equilibrium solutions of the Vlasov--Maxwell equations under conditions relevant to IFR transport. The dynamic force balance required for efficient IFR transport is studied using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. These simulations provide new insight into the transient beam front physics as well as the dynamic approach to IFR equilibrium. Nonlinear solutions to the beam envelope are constructed to explain oscillations in the beam envelope observed in the PIC simulations but not contained in the Vlasov equilibrium analysis. A test particle analysis is also developed as a method to visualize equilibrium solutions of the Vlasov equation. This not only provides further insight into the transport mechanism but also illustrates the connections between the three theories used to describe IFR transport. Separately these models provide valuable information about transverse beam confinement; together they provide a clear physical understanding of REB transport in the IFR

  2. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  3. Simulation and modeling of the Gamble II self-pinched ion beam transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Progress in numerical simulations and modeling of the self-pinched ion beam transport experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is reviewed. In the experiment, a 1.2-MeV, 100-kA proton beam enters a 1-m long, transport region filled with a low pressure gas (30--250 mTorr helium, or 1 Torr air). The time-dependent velocity distribution function of the injected ion beam is determined from an orbit code that uses a pinch-reflex ion diode model and the measured voltage and current from this diode on the Gamble II generator at NRL. This distribution function is used as the beam input condition for numerical simulations carried out using the hybrid particle-in-cell code IPROP. Results of the simulations will be described, and detailed comparisons will be made with various measurements, including line-integrated electron-density, proton-fluence, and beam radial-profile measurements. As observed in the experiment, the simulations show evidence of self-pinching for helium pressures between 35 and 80 mTorr. Simulations and measurements in 1 Torr air show ballistic transport. The relevance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion will be discussed

  4. Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.

  5. Controlling the transport of an ion: classical and quantum mechanical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fürst, H A; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Singer, K; Goerz, M H; Koch, C P; Murphy, M; Montangero, S; Calarco, T

    2014-01-01

    The accurate transport of an ion over macroscopic distances represents a challenging control problem due to the different length and time scales that enter and the experimental limitations on the controls that need to be accounted for. Here, we investigate the performance of different control techniques for ion transport in state-of-the-art segmented miniaturized ion traps. We employ numerical optimization of classical trajectories and quantum wavepacket propagation as well as analytical solutions derived from invariant based inverse engineering and geometric optimal control. The applicability of each of the control methods depends on the length and time scales of the transport. Our comprehensive set of tools allows us make a number of observations. We find that accurate shuttling can be performed with operation times below the trap oscillation period. The maximum speed is limited by the maximum acceleration that can be exerted on the ion. When using controls obtained from classical dynamics for wavepacket propagation, wavepacket squeezing is the only quantum effect that comes into play for a large range of trapping parameters. We show that this can be corrected by a compensating force derived from invariant based inverse engineering, without a significant increase in the operation time. (paper)

  6. Net ion fluxes and ammonia excretion during transport of Rhamdia quelen juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Oliveira Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify net ion fluxes and ammonia excretion in silver catfish transported in plastic bags at three different loading densities: 221, 286 and 365g L-1 for 5h. A water sample was collected at the beginning and at the end of the transport for analysis of water parameters. There was a significant positive relationship between net ion effluxes and negative relationship between ammonia excretion and loading density, demonstrated by the following equations: Na+: y-24.5-0.27x, r2=0.99, Cl-: y=40.2-0.61x, r2=0.98, K+: y=8.0-27.6x, r2=0.94; ammonia excretion: y=-11.43+0.017x, r2=0.95, where y: net ion flux (mmol kg-1 h-1 or ammonia excretion (mg kg-1h-1 and x: loading density (g. Therefore, the increase of loading density increases net ion loss, but reduces ammonia excretion during the transport of silver catfish, indicating the possibility of ammonia accumulation

  7. Assessment of respiratory and ion transport potential of Penaeus japonicus gills in response to environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. ABDEL-MOHSEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to pinpoint the respiratory and ion transport potential of gills of Penaeus japonicus living in Abu-Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Our results revealed clear histological impairments in gill structure. These alterations were mainly represented by the presence of large vacuoles in gill axis and gill lamellae. In addition, narrow, disrupted gill lamellae with wavy cuticle and shrunk pillar cells were detected. Moreover, some cells clearly showed pyknosis. Gill ultrastructure also showed abnormal chromatin condensation inside the nucleus. Obvious alterations in the typical shape and structure of mitochondria were observed. Noticeably, the main characteristics of ion regulating gill epithelium were absent thus suggesting a low ion transport activity of P. japonicus gills. Statistically, this was further proved by the significantly higher activity levels of respiratory enzymes, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH compared to those of the ion transport enzymes, namely, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA in gills and haemolymph. SDH activity levels were higher than the corresponding levels of LDH in gills and its own level in haemolymph, indicating a contradictory effect of pollution on respiratory enzyme activity levels.

  8. Dynamic model of ion and water transport in ionic polymer-metal composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zicai Zhu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of electro-mechanical transduction of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs, the transport of ion and water molecule plays an important role. In this paper, the theoretical transport models of IPMCs are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis on the recent developments in the latest decade. The models can be divided into three classes, thermodynamics of irreversible process model, frictional model and Nernst-Planck (NP equation model. To some extent the three models can be transformed into each other, but their differences are also obvious arising from the various mechanisms that considered in different models. The transport of ion and water molecule in IPMCs is compared with that in membrane electrode assembly and electrodialysis membrane to identify and clarify the fundamental transport mechanisms in IPMCs. And an improved transport model is proposed and simplified for numerical analysis. The model considers the convection effect rather than the diffusion as the major transport mechanism, and both the self-diffusion and the electroosmosis drag are accounted for in the water flux equation.

  9. Ion Transport in Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelium, Capan-1 Cells, Is Regulated by Secretin, VIP, Acetylcholine, and Purinergic Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular, puriner...... transport in human pancreatic duct epithelium, Capan-1 cells, is regulated by secretin, VIP, acetylcholine, adenosine, and purinergic P2 receptors; and this human model has a good potential for studies of physiology and pathophysiology of pancreatic duct ion transport....

  10. Ion transport property studies on PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Angesh; Agrawal, R C; Mahipal, Y K

    2009-01-01

    The ion transport property studies on Ag + ion conducting PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes, (1 - x)[90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ] : xPVP, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 (wt%), are reported. SPE films were caste using a novel hot-press technique instead of the traditional solution cast method. The conventional solid polymeric electrolyte (SPE) film, (90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ), also prepared by the hot-press method and identified as the highest conducting composition at room temperature on the basis of PEO-AgNO 3 -salt concentration dependent conductivity studies, was used as the first-phase polymer electrolyte host into which PVP were dispersed as second-phase dispersoid. A two-fold conductivity enhancement from that of the PEO host could be achieved at room temperature for PVP blended SPE film composition: 98(90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ) : 2PVP. This has been referred to as optimum conducting composition (OCC). The formation of SPE membranes and material characterizations were done with the help of the XRD and DSC techniques. The ion transport mechanism in this SPE OCC has been characterized with the help of basic ionic parameters, namely ionic conductivity (σ), ionic mobility (μ), mobile ion concentration (n) and ionic transference number (t ion ). Solid-state polymeric batteries were fabricated using OCC as electrolyte and the cell-potential discharge characteristics were studied under different load conditions.

  11. Ion Binding Energies Determining Functional Transport of ClC Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Guo, Xu; Zou, Xian-Wu; Sang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    The ClC-type proteins, a large family of chloride transport proteins ubiquitously expressed in biological organisms, have been extensively studied for decades. Biological function of ClC proteins can be reflected by analyzing the binding situation of Cl- ions. We investigate ion binding properties of ClC-ec1 protein with the atomic molecular dynamics simulation approach. The calculated electrostatic binding energy results indicate that Cl- at the central binding site Scen has more binding stability than the internal binding site Sint. Quantitative comparison between the latest experimental heat release data isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and our calculated results demonstrates that chloride ions prefer to bind at Scen than Sint in the wild-type ClC-ec1 structure and prefer to bind at Sext and Scen than Sint in mutant E148A/E148Q structures. Even though the chloride ions make less contribution to heat release when binding to Sint and are relatively unstable in the Cl- pathway, they are still part contributors for the Cl- functional transport. This work provides a guide rule to estimate the importance of Cl- at the binding sites and how chloride ions have influences on the function of ClC proteins.

  12. Heavy-ion transport codes for radiotherapy and radioprotection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancusi, Davide

    2006-06-01

    Simulation of the transport of heavy ions in matter is a field of nuclear science that has recently received attention in view of its importance for some relevant applications. Accelerated heavy ions can, for example, be used to treat cancers (heavy-ion radiotherapy) and show some superior qualities with respect to more conventional treatment systems, like photons (x-rays) or protons. Furthermore, long-term manned space missions (like a possible future mission to Mars) pose the challenge to protect astronauts and equipment on board against the harmful space radiation environment, where heavy ions can be responsible for a significant share of the exposure risk. The high accuracy expected from a transport algorithm (especially in the case of radiotherapy) and the large amount of semi-empirical knowledge necessary to even state the transport problem properly rule out any analytical approach; the alternative is to resort to numerical simulations in order to build treatment-planning systems for cancer or to aid space engineers in shielding design. This thesis is focused on the description of HIBRAC, a one-dimensional deterministic code optimised for radiotherapy, and PHITS (Particle and Heavy- Ion Transport System), a general-purpose three-dimensional Monte-Carlo code. The structure of both codes is outlined and some relevant results are presented. In the case of PHITS, we also report the first results of an ongoing comprehensive benchmarking program for the main components of the code; we present the comparison of partial charge-changing cross sections for a 400 MeV/n 40 Ar beam impinging on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium, copper, tin and lead targets

  13. Heavy-ion transport codes for radiotherapy and radioprotection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancusi, Davide

    2006-06-15

    Simulation of the transport of heavy ions in matter is a field of nuclear science that has recently received attention in view of its importance for some relevant applications. Accelerated heavy ions can, for example, be used to treat cancers (heavy-ion radiotherapy) and show some superior qualities with respect to more conventional treatment systems, like photons (x-rays) or protons. Furthermore, long-term manned space missions (like a possible future mission to Mars) pose the challenge to protect astronauts and equipment on board against the harmful space radiation environment, where heavy ions can be responsible for a significant share of the exposure risk. The high accuracy expected from a transport algorithm (especially in the case of radiotherapy) and the large amount of semi-empirical knowledge necessary to even state the transport problem properly rule out any analytical approach; the alternative is to resort to numerical simulations in order to build treatment-planning systems for cancer or to aid space engineers in shielding design. This thesis is focused on the description of HIBRAC, a one-dimensional deterministic code optimised for radiotherapy, and PHITS (Particle and Heavy- Ion Transport System), a general-purpose three-dimensional Monte-Carlo code. The structure of both codes is outlined and some relevant results are presented. In the case of PHITS, we also report the first results of an ongoing comprehensive benchmarking program for the main components of the code; we present the comparison of partial charge-changing cross sections for a 400 MeV/n {sup 40}Ar beam impinging on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium, copper, tin and lead targets.

  14. Bounds on heat transport in rapidly rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, Ian; Whitehead, Jared P

    2015-01-01

    The heat transport in rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection is considered in the limit of rapid rotation (small Ekman number E) and strong thermal forcing (large Rayleigh number Ra). The analysis proceeds from a set of asymptotically reduced equations appropriate for rotationally constrained dynamics; the conjectured range of validity for these equations is Ra ≲ E −8/5 . A rigorous bound on heat transport of Nu ⩽ 20.56Ra 3 E 4 is derived in the limit of infinite Prandtl number using the background method. We demonstrate that the exponent in this bound cannot be improved on using a piece-wise monotonic background temperature profile like the one used here. This is true for finite Prandtl numbers as well, i.e. Nu ≲ Ra 3 is the best upper bound for this particular setup of the background method. The feature that obstructs the availability of a better bound in this case is the appearance of small-scale thermal plumes emanating from (or entering) the thermal boundary layer. The derived upper bound is consistent with, although significantly higher than the observed behaviour in simulations of the reduced equations, which find at most Nu ∼ Ra 2 E 8/3 . (paper)

  15. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in PDMS by surface patterning of perfluorinated ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong-Ak; Han, Jongyoon [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Batista, Candy [Roxbury Community College, 1234 Columbus Ave., Roxbury Crossing, MA 02120 (United States); Sarpeshkar, Rahul [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a simple and rapid fabrication method for a microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which has become the de facto standard material in BioMEMS. Instead of integrating a Nafion sheet film between two layers of a PDMS device in a traditional ''sandwich format,'' we pattern a perfluorinated ion-exchange resin such as a Nafion resin on a glass substrate using a reversibly bonded PDMS microchannel to generate an ion-selective membrane between the fuel-cell electrodes. After this patterning step, the assembly of the microfluidic fuel cell is accomplished by simple oxygen plasma bonding between the PDMS chip and the glass substrate. In an example implementation, the planar PEM microfluidic fuel cell generates an open circuit voltage of 600-800 mV and delivers a maximum current output of nearly 4 {mu}A. To enhance the power output of the fuel cell we utilize self-assembled colloidal arrays as a support matrix for the Nafion resin. Such arrays allow us to increase the thickness of the ion-selective membrane to 20 {mu}m and increase the current output by 166%. Our novel fabrication method enables rapid prototyping of microfluidic fuel cells to study various ion-exchange resins for the polymer electrolyte membrane. Our work will facilitate the development of miniature, implantable, on-chip power sources for biomedical applications. (author)

  16. New scope covered by PHITS. Particle and heavy ion transport code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Niita, Koji; Iwase, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    PHITS is a general high energy transport calculation code from hadron to heavy ions, which embedded in NMTC-JAM with JQMD code. Outline of PHITS and many application examples are stated. PHITS has been used by the shielding calculations of J-PARC, GSI, RIA and Big-RIPS and the good results were reported. The evaluation of exposure dose of astronauts, airmen, proton and heavy ion therapy, and estimation of error frequency of semiconductor software are explained as the application examples. Relation between the event generator and Monte Carlo method and the future are described. (S.Y.)

  17. The enduring legacy of the “constant-field equation” in membrane ion transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In 1943, David Goldman published a seminal paper in The Journal of General Physiology that reported a concise expression for the membrane current as a function of ion concentrations and voltage. This body of work was, and still is, the theoretical pillar used to interpret the relationship between a cell’s membrane potential and its external and/or internal ionic composition. Here, we describe from an historical perspective the theory underlying the constant-field equation and its application to membrane ion transport. PMID:28931632

  18. The Role of Dopant Ions on Charge Injection and Transport in Electrochemically Doped Quantum Dot Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Control over the charge density is very important for implementation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals into various optoelectronic applications. A promising approach to dope nanocrystal assemblies is charge injection by electrochemistry, in which the charge compensating electrolyte ions can be regarded as external dopant ions. To gain insight into the doping mechanism and the role of the external dopant ions, we investigate charge injection in ZnO nanocrystal assemblies for a large series of charge compensating electrolyte ions with spectroelectrochemical and electrochemical transistor measurements. We show that charge injection is limited by the diffusion of cations in the nanocrystal films as their diffusion coefficient are found to be ∼7 orders of magnitude lower than those of electrons. We further show that the rate of charge injection depends strongly on the cation size and cation concentration. Strikingly, the onset of electron injection varies up to 0.4 V, depending on the size of the electrolyte cation. For the small ions Li+ and Na+ the onset is at significantly less negative potentials. For larger ions (K+, quaternary ammonium ions) the onset is always at the same, more negative potential, suggesting that intercalation may take place for Li+ and Na+. Finally, we show that the nature of the charge compensating cation does not affect the source-drain electronic conductivity and mobility, indicating that shallow donor levels from intercalating ions fully hybridize with the quantum confined energy levels and that the reorganization energy due to intercalating ions does not strongly affect electron transport in these nanocrystal assemblies. PMID:29718666

  19. Early vertebrate origin and diversification of small transmembrane regulators of cellular ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Kirchner, Henriette; Lundell, Leonidas S; Zelenin, Pavel V; Zierath, Juleen R; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2017-07-15

    Small transmembrane proteins such as FXYDs, which interact with Na + ,K + -ATPase, and the micropeptides that interact with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase play fundamental roles in regulation of ion transport in vertebrates. Uncertain evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships among these regulators of ion transport have led to inconsistencies in their classification across vertebrate species, thus hampering comparative studies of their functions. We discovered the first FXYD homologue in sea lamprey, a basal jawless vertebrate, which suggests small transmembrane regulators of ion transport emerged early in the vertebrate lineage. We also identified 13 gene subfamilies of FXYDs and propose a revised, phylogeny-based FXYD classification that is consistent across vertebrate species. These findings provide an improved framework for investigating physiological and pathophysiological functions of small transmembrane regulators of ion transport. Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na + ,K + -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin and DWORF, which regulate the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies. Here we discovered that sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of extant jawless vertebrates (Cyclostomata), expresses an FXYD homologue, which strongly suggests that FXYDs predate the emergence of fishes and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analysis and conservation of local chromosome context, we determined that FXYDs markedly diversified in the lineages leading to cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) and bony

  20. Alleviation of rapid, futile ammonium cycling at the plasma membrane by potassium reveals K+-sensitive and -insensitive components of NH4+ transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Mark W; Britto, Dev T; Balkos, Konstantine D; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2008-01-01

    Futile plasma membrane cycling of ammonium (NH4+) is characteristic of low-affinity NH4+ transport, and has been proposed to be a critical factor in NH4+ toxicity. Using unidirectional flux analysis with the positron-emitting tracer 13N in intact seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), it is shown that rapid, futile NH4+ cycling is alleviated by elevated K+ supply, and that low-affinity NH4+ transport is mediated by a K+-sensitive component, and by a second component that is independent of K+. At low external [K+] (0.1 mM), NH4+ influx (at an external [NH4+] of 10 mM) of 92 micromol g(-1) h(-1) was observed, with an efflux:influx ratio of 0.75, indicative of rapid, futile NH4+ cycling. Elevating K+ supply into the low-affinity K+ transport range (1.5-40 mM) reduced both influx and efflux of NH4+ by as much as 75%, and substantially reduced the efflux:influx ratio. The reduction of NH4+ fluxes was achieved rapidly upon exposure to elevated K+, within 1 min for influx and within 5 min for efflux. The channel inhibitor La3+ decreased high-capacity NH4+ influx only at low K+ concentrations, suggesting that the K+-sensitive component of NH4+ influx may be mediated by non-selective cation channels. Using respiratory measurements and current models of ion flux energetics, the energy cost of concomitant NH4+ and K+ transport at the root plasma membrane, and its consequences for plant growth are discussed. The study presents the first demonstration of the parallel operation of K+-sensitive and -insensitive NH4+ flux mechanisms in plants.

  1. The role of volume-sensitive ion transport systems in regulation of epithelial transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Schettino, T; Marshall, W S

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on using the knowledge on volume-sensitive transport systems in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells and NIH-3T3 cells to elucidate osmotic regulation of salt transport in epithelia. Using the intestine of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) (an absorptive epithelium of the type...... on the apical side and the Na+/K+ ATPase, NKCC1 and a K+ channel on the basolateral side. Osmotic control of Cl- secretion across the operculum epithelium includes: (i) hyperosmotic shrinkage activation of NKCC1 via PKC, MLCK, p38, OSR1 and SPAK; (ii) deactivation of NKCC by hypotonic cell swelling...

  2. Acceleration ion focusing (IFR) and transport experiments with the recirculating linear accelerator (RLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Puokey, J.W.; Bennett, L.F.; Wagner, J.S.; Olson, W.R.; George, M.; Turman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Struve, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    The focusing and transport of intense relativistic electron beams in the Sandia Laboratories Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) is accomplished with the aid of an ion focusing channel (IFR). We report here experiments evaluating the beam generation in the injector and its subsequent acceleration and transport through the first post-accelerating cavity. Two injectors and one type of post-accelerating cavity were studied. Beams of 6-20 kA current were injected and successfully transported and accelerated through the cavity. The transport efficiencies were 90% - 100%, and the beam Gaussian profile (4 MeV injector) and radius (5 mm) remained the same through acceleration. We describe the RLA, present the experimental results and compare them with numerical simulations. (Author) 3 refs., 7 figs

  3. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  4. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Masaaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Collaborative Research, Anan National College of Technology, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan); Choi, Wookjin; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukuda, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Sugimoto, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Gunma, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  5. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-05-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q=15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q=4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q=6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix. (orig.)

  6. Ultrahigh vacuum system of the heavy ion transport line at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuh, H.C.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.; Stattel, P.; Skelton, R.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy ions with an energy up to 8 MeV/A for S +16 and 1 MeV/A for Au +34 from the 16 MV Tandem will be injected into the AGS for further acceleration to less than or equal to 15 GeV/A. A 600-meter beam transport line between the Tandem and the AGS has been designed and is under construction. This paper describes the design of the vacuum system of this transport line and the performance of the prototype vacuum sectors

  7. Evolution of thermal ion transport barriers in reversed shear/ optimised shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, I.; Garbet, X.; Moreau, D.; Bush, C.E.; Budny, R.V.; Gohil, P.; Kinsey, J.E.; Talyor, T.S.; Litaudon, X.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the magnetic and ExB rotation shears on the thermal ion transport in advanced tokamak scenarios are analyzed through the predictive modelling of the evolution of internal transport barriers. Such a modelling is performed with an experimentally validated L-mode thermal diffusivity completed with a semi-empirical shear correction which is based on simple theoretical arguments from turbulence studies. A multi-machine test of the model on relevant discharges from the ITER Data Base (TFTR, DIII-D and JET) is presented. (author)

  8. Experimental investigations of plasma lens focusing and plasma channel transport of heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschwitz, T.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Reginato, L.; Leemans, W.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1995-04-01

    Final focusing of ion beams and propagation in a reactor chamber are crucial questions for heavy ion beam driven Fusion. An alternative solution to ballistic quadrupole focusing, as it is proposed in most reactor studies today, is the utilization of the magnetic field produced by a high current plasma discharge. This plasma lens focusing concept relaxes the requirements for low emittance and energy spread of the driver beam significantly and allows to separate the issues of focusing, which can be accomplished outside the reactor chamber, and of beam transport inside the reactor. For focusing a tapered wall-stabilized discharge is proposed, a concept successfully demonstrated at GSI, Germany. For beam transport a laser pre-ionized channel can be used

  9. Program for calculating multi-component high-intense ion beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarinov, N.Yu.; Prejzendorf, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The CANAL program for calculating transport of high-intense beams containing ions with different charges in a channel consisting of dipole magnets and quadrupole lenses is described. The equations determined by the method of distribution function momenta and describing coordinate variations of the local mass centres and r.m.s. transverse sizes of beams with different charges form the basis of the calculation. The program is adapted for the CDC-6500 and SM-4 computers. The program functioning is organized in the interactive mode permitting to vary the parameters of any channel element and quickly choose the optimum version in the course of calculation. The calculation time for the CDC-6500 computer for the 30-40 m channel at the integration step of 1 cm is about 1 min. The program is used for calculating the channel for the uranium ion beam injection from the collective accelerator into the heavy-ion synchrotron

  10. Transport through dissipative trapped electron mode and toroidal ion temperature gradient mode in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.; Hasselberg, G.; Waelbroeck, F.; Weiland, J.

    1987-12-01

    A self-consistent transport code is used to evaluate how plasma confinement in tokamaks is influenced by the microturbulent fields which are excited by the dissipative trapped electron (DTE) instability. As shown previously, the saturation theory on which the code is based has been developed from first principles. The toroidal coupling resulting from the ion magnetic drifts is neglected; arguments are presented to justify this approximation. The numerical results reproduce well the neo-Alcator scaling law observed experimentally - e.g. in TEXTOR - in non detached ohmic discharges, the confinement degradation which results when auxiliary heating is applied, as well as a large number of other experimental observations. We also assess the possible impact of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode on energy confinement by estimating the ion thermal flux with the help of the mixing length approximation. (orig./GG)

  11. Membrane Anchoring and Ion-Entry Dynamics in P-type ATPase Copper Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Christina; Sitsel, Oleg; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Cu(+)-specific P-type ATPase membrane protein transporters regulate cellular copper levels. The lack of crystal structures in Cu(+)-binding states has limited our understanding of how ion entry and binding are achieved. Here, we characterize the molecular basis of Cu(+) entry using molecular-dynamics...... simulations, structural modeling, and in vitro and in vivo functional assays. Protein structural rearrangements resulting in the exposure of positive charges to bulk solvent rather than to lipid phosphates indicate a direct molecular role of the putative docking platform in Cu(+) delivery. Mutational analyses...... and simulations in the presence and absence of Cu(+) predict that the ion-entry path involves two ion-binding sites: one transient Met148-Cys382 site and one intramembranous site formed by trigonal coordination to Cys384, Asn689, and Met717. The results reconcile earlier biochemical and x-ray absorption data...

  12. Branchial osmoregulation in the euryhaline bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas: a molecular analysis of ion transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Beau D; Cramp, Rebecca L; Wilson, Jonathan M; Campbell, Hamish A; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-09-01

    Bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, are one of only a few species of elasmobranchs that live in both marine and freshwater environments. Osmoregulation in euryhaline elasmobranchs is achieved through the control and integration of various organs (kidney, rectal gland and liver) in response to changes in environmental salinity. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms of ion transport in the gills of euryhaline elasmobranchs and how they are affected by osmoregulatory challenges. This study was conducted to gain insight into the branchial ion and acid-base regulatory mechanisms of C. leucas by identifying putative ion transporters and determining whether their expression is influenced by environmental salinity. We hypothesised that expression levels of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) pump, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA) and anion exchanger pendrin (PDN) would be upregulated in freshwater (FW) C. leucas. Immunohistochemistry was used to localise all four ion transporters in gills of bull sharks captured in both FW and estuarine/seawater (EST/SW) environments. NHE3 immunoreactivity occurred in the apical region of cells with basolateral NKA expression whereas PDN was apically expressed in cells that also exhibited basolateral VHA immunoreactivity. In accordance with our hypotheses, quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression of NHE3 and NKA was significantly upregulated in gills of FW-captured C. leucas relative to EST/SW-captured animals. These data suggest that NHE3 and NKA together may be important in mediating branchial Na(+) uptake in freshwater environments, whereas PDN and VHA might contribute to Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) transport in marine and freshwater bull shark gills.

  13. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  14. Spectroscopic and transport studies of Cu 2 ion doped in (40–x ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preparation of (40 – )Li2O–LiF–60Bi2O3 glassy system and spectroscopic and transport studies of this system are reported. IR results show that this glass consists of [BiO3] units and indicate formation of Bi–F bonds with the addition of LiF. From the ESR spectra of Cu2+ ion, the effective values are found to vary ...

  15. Selectivity improvement of positive photoionization ion mobility spectrometry for rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides by switching dopant concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Jia; Wang, Bin; Wang, Shuang; Li, Haiyang; Chen, Jinyuan

    2018-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) opened a potential avenue for the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), though an improved selectivity of stand-alone IMS was still in high demand. In this study, a stand-alone positive photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (PP-IMS) apparatus was constructed for the rapid detection of OPPs with acetone as dopant. The photoionization of acetone molecules was induced by the ultraviolet irradiation to produce the reactant ions (Ac) 2 H + , which were employed to ionize the OPPs including fenthion, imidan, phosphamidon, dursban, dimethoate and isocarbophos via the proton transfer reaction. Due to the difference in proton affinity, the tested OPPs exhibited the different dopant-dependent manners. Based on this observation, the switching of dopant concentration was implemented to improve the selectivity of PP-IMS for OPPs detection. For instance, a mixture of fenthion, dursban and dimethoate was tested. By switching the concentration of doped acetone from 0.07 to 2.33 to 19.94mgL -1 , the ion peaks of fenthion and dursban were inhibited in succession, achieving the selective detection of dimethoate at last. In addition, another mixture of imidan and phosphamidon was initially detected by PP-IMS with a dose of 0.07mgL -1 acetone, indicating that their ion peaks were severely overlapped; when the concentration of doped acetone was switched to 19.94mgL -1 , the inhibition of imidan signals promised the accurate identification of phosphamidon in mixture. Finally, the PP-IMS in combination of switching dopant concentration was applied to detect the mixed fenthion, dursban and dimethoate in Chinese cabbage, demonstrating the applicability of proposed method to real samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Rapid and Accurate Sequencing of Enterovirus Genomes Using MinION Nanopore Sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Ke, Yue Hua; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Ke Qiang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Xin Xin; Dong, Xiao Ping; Xu, Wen Bo; Ma, Xue Jun

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of an enterovirus genome sequence is very important in epidemiological investigation to identify transmission patterns and ascertain the extent of an outbreak. The MinION sequencer is increasingly used to sequence various viral pathogens in many clinical situations because of its long reads, portability, real-time accessibility of sequenced data, and very low initial costs. However, information is lacking on MinION sequencing of enterovirus genomes. In this proof-of-concept study using Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) strains as examples, we established an amplicon-based whole genome sequencing method using MinION. We explored the accuracy, minimum sequencing time, discrimination and high-throughput sequencing ability of MinION, and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing. Within the first minute (min) of sequencing, the accuracy of MinION was 98.5% for the single EV71 strain and 94.12%-97.33% for 10 genetically-related CA16 strains. In as little as 14 min, 99% identity was reached for the single EV71 strain, and in 17 min (on average), 99% identity was achieved for 10 CA16 strains in a single run. MinION is suitable for whole genome sequencing of enteroviruses with sufficient accuracy and fine discrimination and has the potential as a fast, reliable and convenient method for routine use. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling of ion thermal transport in ergodic region of collisionless toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

    2009-09-01

    In recent tokamak experiments it has been found that so-called diffusion theory based on the 'diffusion of magnetic field lines' overestimates the radial energy transport in the ergodic region of the collisionless plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), though the RMPs induce chaotic behavior of the magnetic field lines. The result implies that the modelling of the transport should be reconsidered for low collisionality cases. A computer simulation study of transport in the ergodic region is required for understanding fundamental properties of collisionless ergodized-plasmas, estimating the transport coefficients, and reconstructing the modelling of the transport. In this paper, we report the simulation study of thermal transport in the ergodic region under the assumption of neglecting effects of an electric field, impurities and neutrals. Because of the simulations neglecting interactions with different particle-species and saving the computational time, we treat ions (protons) in our numerical-study of the transport. We find that the thermal diffusivity in the ergodic region is extremely small compared to the one predicted by the theory of field-line diffusion and that the diffusivity depends on both the collision frequency and the strength of RMPs even for the collisionless ergodized-plasma. (author)

  18. The beam bunching and transport system of the Argonne positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Bogaty, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new positive ion injector (PII) is currently under construction at Argonne that will replace the existing 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as an injector into ATLAS. It consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance-ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a superconducting linac optimized for very slow (β ≤ .007 c) ions. This combination can potentially produce even higher quality heavy-ion beams than are currently available from the tandem since the emittance growth within the linac is largely determined by the quality of the bunching and beam transport. The system we have implemented uses a two-stage bunching system, composed of a 4-harmonic gridded buncher located on the ECR high-voltage platform and a room temperature spiral-loaded buncher of novel design. A sinusoidal beam chopper is used for removal of tails. The beam transport is designed to provide mass resolution of M/ΔM > 250 and a doubly-isochronous beamline is used to minimize time spread due to path length differences. 4 refs., 2 figs

  19. The beam bunching and transport system of the Argonne positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Bogaty, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new positive ion injector (PII) is currently under construction at Argonne that will replace the existing 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as an injector into ATLAS. It consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance-ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a superconducting linac optimized for very slow (..beta.. less than or equal to .007 c) ions. This combination can potentially produce even higher quality heavy-ion beams than are currently available from the tandem since the emittance growth within the linac is largely determined by the quality of the bunching and beam transport. The system we have implemented uses a two-stage bunching system, composed of a 4-harmonic gridded buncher located on the ECR high-voltage platform and a room temperature spiral-loaded buncher of novel design. A sinusoidal beam chopper is used for removal of tails. The beam transport is designed to provide mass resolution of M/..delta..M > 250 and a doubly-isochronous beamline is used to minimize time spread due to path length differences. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Coupled ion binding and structural transitions along the transport cycle of glutamate transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Verdon, Grégory; Oh, SeCheol; Serio, Ryan N; Boudker, Olga

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Molecules of glutamate can carry messages between cells in the brain, and these signals are essential for thought and memory. Glutamate molecules can also act as signals to build new connections between brain cells and to prune away unnecessary ones. However, too much glutamate outside of the cells kills the brain tissue and can lead to devastating brain diseases. In a healthy brain, special pumps called glutamate transporters move these molecules back into the brain cells, where...

  1. Modeling of multi-species ion transport in cement-based materials for radioactive waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, X.Y.; Li, K.F.; Dangla, P.

    2015-01-01

    Through the conservations of heat and ions mass, a thermo-hydro-ionic model is established for radionuclide ions transport in cement-based porous barrier materials in radwaste disposal. This model is applied to the design and the safety assessment of a high-integrity container (HIC) used for near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radwaste. Five working cases are investigated in the safety assessment considering the internal nuclide ion release, internal heating and pressure accumulation, and external leaching. Comparative analysis shows that leaching increases concrete porosity from external side of container, internal heating of 10 K increase can considerably accelerate the nuclide transport process, and the internal pressure increases the transport rate to limited extent. It is shown that each increment of 10 mm in wall thickness will reduce the radioactivity release by 1.5 to 2 times. Together with the mechanical resistance of HIC under impact actions, the thickness of 100 mm is finally retained for design

  2. Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampère spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClements, K. G.; Hole, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampère spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m 2 s –1 or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.

  3. Transmural expression of ion channels and transporters in human nondiseased and end-stage failing hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Christ, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    The cardiac action potential is primarily shaped by the orchestrated function of several different types of ion channels and transporters. One of the regional differences believed to play a major role in the progression and stability of the action potential is the transmural gradient of electrica...... cardiac ion channels and transporters which may in part explain the increased susceptibility to arrhythmia in end-state failing hearts....... activity across the ventricular wall. An altered balance in the ionic currents across the free wall is assumed to be a substrate for arrhythmia. A large fraction of patients with heart failure experience ventricular arrhythmia. However, the underlying substrate of these functional changes is not well......-established as expression analyses of human heart failure (HF) are sparse. We have investigated steady-state RNA levels by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of ion channels, transporters, connexin 43, and miR-1 in 11 end-stage HF and seven nonfailing (NF) hearts. The quantifications were performed on endo-, mid...

  4. Impact of thermodynamic properties and heat loss on ignition of transportation fuels in rapid compression machines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2018-01-30

    Rapid compression machines (RCM) are extensively used to study autoignition of a wide variety of fuels at engine relevant conditions. Fuels ranging from pure species to full boiling range gasoline and diesel can be studied in an RCM to develop a better understanding of autoignition kinetics in low to intermediate temperature ranges. In an RCM, autoignition is achieved by compressing a fuel/oxidizer mixture to higher pressure and temperature, thereby initiating chemical reactions promoting ignition. During these experiments, the pressure is continuously monitored and is used to deduce significant events such as the end of compression and the onset of ignition. The pressure profile is also used to assess the temperature evolution of the gas mixture with time using the adiabatic core hypothesis and the heat capacity ratio of the gas mixture. In such RCM studies, real transportation fuels containing many components are often represented by simpler surrogate fuels. While simpler surrogates such as primary reference fuels (PRFs) and ternary primary reference fuel (TPRFs) can match research and motor octane number of transportation fuels, they may not accurately replicate thermodynamic properties (including heat capacity ratio). This non-conformity could exhibit significant discrepancies in the end of compression temperature, thereby affecting ignition delay (τign) measurements. Another aspect of RCMs that can affect τign measurement is post compression heat loss, which depends on various RCM parameters including geometry, extent of insulation, pre-heating temperature etc. To, better understand the effects of these non-chemical kinetic parameters on τign, thermodynamic properties of a number of FACE G gasoline surrogates were calculated and simulated in a multi-zone RCM model. The problem was further investigated using a variance based analysis and individual sensitivities were calculated. This study highlights the effects on τign due to thermodynamic properties of

  5. Impact of thermodynamic properties and heat loss on ignition of transportation fuels in rapid compression machines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Hantouche, Mireille; Khurshid, Muneeb; Mohamed, Samah; Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Farooq, Aamir; Roberts, William L.; Knio, Omar; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Rapid compression machines (RCM) are extensively used to study autoignition of a wide variety of fuels at engine relevant conditions. Fuels ranging from pure species to full boiling range gasoline and diesel can be studied in an RCM to develop a better understanding of autoignition kinetics in low to intermediate temperature ranges. In an RCM, autoignition is achieved by compressing a fuel/oxidizer mixture to higher pressure and temperature, thereby initiating chemical reactions promoting ignition. During these experiments, the pressure is continuously monitored and is used to deduce significant events such as the end of compression and the onset of ignition. The pressure profile is also used to assess the temperature evolution of the gas mixture with time using the adiabatic core hypothesis and the heat capacity ratio of the gas mixture. In such RCM studies, real transportation fuels containing many components are often represented by simpler surrogate fuels. While simpler surrogates such as primary reference fuels (PRFs) and ternary primary reference fuel (TPRFs) can match research and motor octane number of transportation fuels, they may not accurately replicate thermodynamic properties (including heat capacity ratio). This non-conformity could exhibit significant discrepancies in the end of compression temperature, thereby affecting ignition delay (τign) measurements. Another aspect of RCMs that can affect τign measurement is post compression heat loss, which depends on various RCM parameters including geometry, extent of insulation, pre-heating temperature etc. To, better understand the effects of these non-chemical kinetic parameters on τign, thermodynamic properties of a number of FACE G gasoline surrogates were calculated and simulated in a multi-zone RCM model. The problem was further investigated using a variance based analysis and individual sensitivities were calculated. This study highlights the effects on τign due to thermodynamic properties of

  6. Simulation studies of the ion beam transport system in a compact electrostatic accelerator-based D-D neutron generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Basanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of an ion beam transport mechanism contributes to the production of a good quality ion beam with a higher current and better beam emittance. The simulation of an ion beam provides the basis for optimizing the extraction system and the acceleration gap for the ion source. In order to extract an ion beam from an ion source, a carefully designed electrode system for the required beam energy must be used. In our case, a self-extracted penning ion source is used for ion generation, extraction and acceleration with a single accelerating gap for the production of neutrons. The characteristics of the ion beam extracted from this ion source were investigated using computer code SIMION 8.0. The ion trajectories from different locations of the plasma region were investigated. The simulation process provided a good platform for a study on optimizing the extraction and focusing system of the ion beam transported to the required target position without any losses and provided an estimation of beam emittance.

  7. Theory of Ion and Water Transport in Reverse-Osmosis Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Y. S.; Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a theory for ion and water transport through reverse-osmosis (RO) membranes based on a Maxwell-Stefan framework combined with hydrodynamic theory for the reduced motion of particles in thin pores. We take into account all driving forces and frictions both on the fluid (water) and on the ions including ion-fluid friction and ion-wall friction. By including the acid-base characteristic of the carbonic acid system, the boric acid system, H3O+/OH- , and the membrane charge, we locally determine p H , the effective charge of the membrane, and the dissociation degree of carbonic acid and boric acid. We present calculation results for an experiment with fixed feed concentration, where effluent composition is a self-consistent function of fluxes through the membrane. A comparison with experimental results from literature for fluid flow vs pressure, and for salt and boron rejection, shows that our theory agrees very well with the available data. Our model is based on realistic assumptions for the effective size of the ions and makes use of a typical pore size of a commercial RO membrane.

  8. Low-energy ion beam extraction and transport: Experiment--computer comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaedtke, P.; Brown, I.; Fojas, P.

    1994-01-01

    Ion beam formation at low energy (∼1 keV or so) is more difficult to accomplish than at high energy because of beam blowup by space-charge forces in the uncompensated region within the extractor, an effect which is yet more pronounced for heavy ions and for high beam current density. For the same reasons, the extracted ion beam is more strongly subject to space charge blowup than higher energy beams if it is not space-charge neutralized to a high degree. A version of vacuum arc ion source with an extractor that produces low-energy metal ion beams at relatively high current (∼0.5--10 kV at up to ∼100 mA) using a multi-aperture, accel--decel extractor configuration has been created. The experimentally observed beam extraction characteristics of this source is compared with those predicted using the AXCEL-INP code, and the implied downstream beam transport with theoretical expectations. It is concluded that the low-energy extractor performance is in reasonable agreement with the code, and that good downstream space charge neutralization is obtained. Here, the code and the experimental results are described, and the features that contribute to good low-energy performance are discussed

  9. Alfv?nic Instabilities and Fast Ion Transport in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zeeland, M; Heidbrink, W; Nazikian, R; Austin, M; Berk, H; Gorelenkov, N; Holcomb, C; Kramer, G; Lohr, J; Luo, Y; Makowski, M; McKee, G; Petty, C; Prater, R; Solomon, W; White, R

    2008-10-14

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including Toroidicity and Ellipticity induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are typically studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. During this same time period Fast-Ion D{sub {alpha}} (FIDA) spectroscopy shows that the central fast ion profile is flattened, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. To simulate the observed neutral beam ion redistribution, NOVA calculations of the 3D eigenmode structures are matched with experimental measurements and used in combination with the ORBIT guiding center following code. For fixed frequency eigenmodes, it is found that ORBIT calculations cannot explain the observed beam ion transport with experimentally measured mode amplitudes. Possible explanations are considered including recent simulation results incorporating eigenmodes with time dependent frequencies.

  10. Transport and emittance study for 18 GHz superconducting-ECR ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Kibayashi, M; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A

    2012-02-01

    As the upgrade program of the azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron is at the cyclotron facility of the RCNP, Osaka University for the improvement of the quality, stability, and intensity of accelerated beams, an 18 GHz superconducting (SC) ECR ion source has been installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions, especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by RCNP AVF cyclotron. The production development of several ions such as B, O, N, Ne, Ar, Ni, Kr, and Xe has been performed by Yorita et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311(2008); 81, 02A332 (2010)]. Further studies for the beam transport have been done in order to improve the beam current more for injection of cyclotron. The effect of field leakage of AVF main coil is not negligible and additional steering magnet has been installed and then beam transmission has been improved. The emittance monitor has also been developed for the purpose of investigating correlation between emittance of beam from ECR ion sources and injection efficiency. The monitor consists with BPM82 with rotating wire for fast measurement for efficient study.

  11. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy-ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q = 15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q = 4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q = 6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix

  12. Transport of ions through a (6,6) carbon nanotube under electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Xu, Zhen; Zhou, Zhe-Wei; Hu, Guo-Hui

    2014-11-01

    The transport of water and ions through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is crucial in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Previous investigation indicated that the ions can hardly pass through (6,6) CNTs due to their hydrated shells. In the present study, utilizing molecular dynamics simulation, it is shown that the energy barrier mainly originating from the hydrated water molecules could be overcome by applying an electric field large enough in the CNT axis direction. Potential of mean force is calculated to show the reduction of energy barrier when the electric field is present for (Na+, K+, Cl-) ions. Consequently, ionic flux through (6,6) CNTs can be found once the electric field becomes larger than a threshold value. The variation of the coordination numbers of ions at different locations from the bulk to the center of the CNT is also explored to elaborate this dynamic process. The thresholds of the electric field are different for Na+, K+, and Cl- due to their characteristics. This consequence might be potentially applied in ion selectivity in the future.

  13. Alfvenic Instabilities and Fast Ion Transport in the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, M.; Heidbrink, W.; Nazikian, R.; Austin, M.; Berk, H.; Gorelenkov, N.; Holcomb, C.; Kramer, G.; Lohr, J.; Luo, Y.; Makowski, M.; McKee, G.; Petty, C.; Prater, R.; Solomon, W.; White, R.

    2008-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including Toroidicity and Ellipticity induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are typically studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. During this same time period Fast-Ion D α (FIDA) spectroscopy shows that the central fast ion profile is flattened, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. To simulate the observed neutral beam ion redistribution, NOVA calculations of the 3D eigenmode structures are matched with experimental measurements and used in combination with the ORBIT guiding center following code. For fixed frequency eigenmodes, it is found that ORBIT calculations cannot explain the observed beam ion transport with experimentally measured mode amplitudes. Possible explanations are considered including recent simulation results incorporating eigenmodes with time dependent frequencies

  14. Monte Carlo modelling of impurity ion transport for a limiter source/sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.; Farrell, C.; Hoskins, S.; Wood, L.

    1988-01-01

    In relating the impurity influx Φ I (0) (atoms per second) into a plasma from the edge to the central impurity ion density n I (0) (ions·m -3 ), it is necessary to know the value of τ I SOL , the average dwell time of impurity ions in the scrape-off layer. It is usually assumed that τ I SOL =L c /c s , the hydrogenic dwell time, where L c is the limiter connection length and c s is the hydrogenic ion acoustic speed. Monte Carlo ion transport results are reported here which show that, for a wall (uniform) influx, τ I SOL is longer than L c /c s , while for a limiter influx it is shorter. Thus for a limiter influx n I (0) is predicted to be smaller than the reference value. Impurities released from the limiter form ever large 'clouds' of successively higher ionization stages. These are reproduced by the Monte Carlo code as are the cloud shapes for a localized impurity injection far from the limiter. (author). 23 refs, 18 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Charge Energy Transport in Hopping Systems with Rapidly Decreasing Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Organic Electronics Group Technion Team

    2014-03-01

    An accurate description of the carrier hopping topology in the energy domain of hopping systems incorporating a rapidly decreasing density of states and the subsequent energetic position of these systems' so called effective conduction band is crucial for rationalizing and quantifying these systems' thermo-electric properties, doping related phenomena and carrier gradient effects such as the emergence of the General Einstein Relation under degenerate conditions. Additionally, as will be shown, the 'mobile' carriers propagating through the system can have excess energies reaching 0.3eV above the system quasi-Fermi energy. Hence, since these mobile carriers are most prone to reach systems interfaces and interact with oppositely charged carriers, their excess energy should be considered in determining the efficiencies of energy dependent processes such as carrier recombination and exciton dissociation. In light of the stated motivations, a comprehensive numerical and analytical study of the topology of hopping in the energetic density of such systems (i.e. the statistics regarding which energy values carriers visit most and in what manner) was implemented and the main statistical features of the hopping process that determine the position in energy of the system's effective conduction band were distilled. The obtained results also help shed light on yet to be elucidated discrepancies between predictions given by the widely employed transport energy concept and Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. The Taylor-Proudman column in a rapidly-rotating compressible fluid I. energy transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical study is made of the steady flow of a compressible fluid in a rapidly rotating finite cylinder. Flow is generated by imposing mechanical and/or thermal disturbances at the rotating endwall disks. Both the Ekman and Rossby numbers are small. An examination is made of the energy budget for a control volume in the Ekman boundary layer. A combination of physical variables, which is termed the energy flux content, consisting of temperature and modified angular momentum, emerges to be relevant. The distinguishing features of a compressible fluid, in contrast to those of an incompressible fluid, are noted. A plausible argument is given to explain the difficulty in achieving the Taylor-Proudman column in a compressible rotating fluid. For the Taylor-Proudman column to be sustained, in the interior, it is shown that the net energy transport between the solid disk wall and the interior fluid should vanish. Physical rationalizations are facilitated by resorting to the concept of the afore-stated energy flux content.

  17. Coulombic interactions during advection-dominated transport of ions in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Stolze, Lucien; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    bench-scale experiments and numerical simulations. The investigation aims at quantifying the key role of small-scale electrostatic interactions in flow-through systems, especially when advection is the dominant mass-transfer process. Considering dilute solutions of strong electrolytes (e.g., MgCl2......Solute transport of charged species in porous media is significantly affected by the electrochemical migration term resulting from the charge-induced interactions among dissolved ions and with solid surfaces. Therefore, the characterization of such Coulombic interactions and their effect...... on multicomponent ionic transport is of critical importance for assessing the fate of charged solutes in porous media. In this work we present a detailed investigation of the electrochemical effects during conservative multicomponent ionic transport in homogeneous and heterogeneous domains by means of laboratory...

  18. Sawtooth-free Ohmic discharges in ASDEX and the aspects of neoclassical ion transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroth, U.; Fussmann, G.; Krieger, K.; Mertens, V.; Wagner, F.; Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Buechse, R.; Giannone, L.; Herrmann, H.; Simmet, E.; Steuer, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    Sawtooth-free Ohmic discharges can serve as a model case for a quiescent Tokamak plasma. We report on the properties and the global parameters of these discharges observed in ASDEX and make comments on the mechanism which seems to be responsible for the stabilization of the sawtooth instability. Stationary Ohmic discharge were used to investigate particle, impurity and energy transport in the absence of the sawtooth instability. Particular emphasis has been devoted to a comparison with the predictions of neoclassical theories. We find that the ion energy transport is on the level predicted by neoclassical theory and can explain particle and impurity transport with neoclassical inward drift velocities and diffusion coefficients with the same small anomalous contribution. In the central region of the plasma, where the power flux is low, very small values were found for the electron heat conductivity. (orig.)

  19. A novel ion transport membrane reactor for fundamental investigations of oxygen permeation and oxy-combustion under reactive flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchen, Patrick; Apo, Daniel J.; Hunt, Anton; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors present an attractive technology for combined air separation and fuel conversion in applications such as syngas production, oxidative coupling or oxy-combustion, with the promise of lower capital and operating

  20. Effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of Ti3C2 MXene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdiyorov, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of Li and Na ion adsorption on the electronic transport in Ti 3 C 2 MXene is studied. • Fluorinated, oxidized and hydroxylated surfaces are considered. • Enhanced charge transport is obtained for fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. • Electronic transmission is reduced in the oxidized sample. • The pristine and oxidized MXene samples are found to be sensitive to the ions adsorption. - Abstract: MXenes are found to be promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate the possibility of using these novel low dimensional materials for metal-ion batteries. Herein, we use density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of the MXene, Ti 3 C 2 . Oxygen, hydroxyl and fluorine terminated species are considered and the obtained results are compared with the ones for the pristine MXene. We found that the ion adsorption results in reduced electronic transport in the pristine MXene: depending on the type of the ions and the bias voltage, the current in the system can be reduced by more than 30%. On the other hand, transport properties of the oxygen terminated sample can be improved by the ion adsorption: for both types of ions the current in the system can be increased by more than a factor of 4. However, the electronic transport is less affected by the ions in fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. These two samples show enhanced electronic transport as compared to the pristine MXene. The obtained results are explained in terms of electron localization in the system.

  1. Radial transport of high-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere observed by Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, K.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is known that proton is main contributor of the ring current and oxygen ions can make significant contribution during major magnetic storms. Ions are supplied to the ring current by radial transport from the plasma sheet. Convective transport of lower-energy protons and diffusive transport of higher-energy protons were reported to contribute to the storm-time and quiet-time ring current respectively [e.g., Gkioulidou et al., 2016]. However, supply mechanisms of the oxygen ions are not clear. To characterize the supply of oxygen ions to the ring current during magnetic storms, we studied the properties of energetic proton and oxygen ion phase space densities (PSDs) for specific magnetic moment (μ) during the April 23-25, 2013, geomagnetic storm observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. We here report on radial transport of high-energy (μ ≥ 0.5 keV/nT) oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere during the late main phase of the magnetic storm. Since protons show little change during this period, this oxygen radial transport is inferred to cause the development of the late main phase. Enhancement of poloidal magnetic fluctuations is simultaneously observed. We estimated azimuthal mode number ≤5 by using cross wavelet analysis with ground-based observation of IMAGE ground magnetometers. The fluctuations can resonate with drift and bounce motions of the oxygen ions. The results suggest that combination of the drift and drift-bounce resonances is responsible for the radial transport of high-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere. We also report on the radial transport of the high-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere during other magnetic storms.

  2. The transport characteristics of passing fast ions produced by nonlocal overlapping of drift island surfaces and magnetic island surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jinjia; Gong, Xueyu, E-mail: gongxueyu-usc@163.com; Xiang, Dong; Huang, Qianhong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Yu, Jun [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The structure of the drift-island surface of passing fast ions (PFIs) is investigated in the presence of the resonant interaction with a magnetic island. Two overlapping regions of the drift-island surface and the magnetic island surface are found, one corresponding to local overlapping region and the other to non-local one. Here, the word “nonlocal” denotes that the resonances in the core plasma can have effects on the PFIs near the plasma boundary, while the “local” represents that the PFIs just near the resonant location are influenced. The nonlocal overlapping constructs a transport path along which the PFIs can become losses. There are three kinds of drift-island surfaces to join in forming the transport paths. A pitch angle region, which is called pitch angle gap, is found near the plasma boundary, where the drift-island surface cannot be formed and few PFIs are lost. The pitch-angle selective features of PFI losses are obtained by analyzing the three kinds of drift-island surfaces. The coupling between the crowd drift island surfaces and the collision can induce the prompt losses of PFIs and rapidly slowing down of PFI energy. The time of the prompt losses and the slowing down rate are calculated. Qualitatively, the theoretical results are in well agreement with the experimental observations in ASDEX Upgrade [M. García-Muñoz et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, L10 (2007)].

  3. Formation of shallow junctions for VLSI by ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, several techniques were studied to form shallow junctions in silicon by ion implantation. These include ion implantation through thin layers of silicon dioxide and ion implantation through a thick polycrystalline silicon layer. These techniques can be used to reduce the junction depth. Their main disadvantage is dopant loss in the surface layer. As an alternative, preamorphization of the Si substrate prior to boron implantation to reduce boron channeling was investigated. The disadvantage of preamorphization is the radiation damage introduced into the Si substrate using the implant. Preamorphization by silicon self-implantation has been studied before. The goal of this study was to test Ge as an alternative amorphizing agent. It was found that good-quality p + -n junctions can be formed by both boron and BF 2 ion implantation into Ge-preamorphized Si provided that the preamorphization conditions are optimized. If the amorphous crystalline interface is sufficiently close to the surface, it is possible to completely remove the end-of-range damage. If these defects are not removed and are left in the depletion region, they can result in poor-quality, leaky junctions

  4. Rapid label-free profiling of oral cancer biomarker proteins using nano-UPLC-Q-TOF ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Ala F; Williams, Brad J; Yaworksy, Dustin C; Patel, Vyomesh; Rusling, James F

    2016-03-01

    It has become quite clear that single cancer biomarkers cannot in general provide high sensitivity and specificity for reliable clinical cancer diagnostics. This paper explores the feasibility of rapid detection of multiple biomarker proteins in model oral cancer samples using label-free protein relative quantitation. MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics offer a rapid alternative that bypasses the need for stable isotope containing compounds to chemically bind and label proteins. Total protein content in oral cancer cell culture conditioned media was precipitated, subjected to proteolytic digestion, and then analyzed using a nano-UPLC (where UPLC is ultra-performance liquid chromatography) coupled to a hybrid Q-Tof ion-mobility mass spectrometry (MS). Rapid, simultaneous identification and quantification of multiple possible cancer biomarker proteins was achieved. In a comparative study between cancer and noncancer samples, approximately 952 proteins were identified using a high-throughput 1D ion mobility assisted data independent acquisition (IM-DIA) approach. As we previously demonstrated that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were readily detected in oral cancer cell conditioned media(1), we targeted these biomarker proteins to validate our approach. Target biomarker protein IL-8 was found between 3.5 and 8.8 fmol, while VEGF-A was found at 1.45 fmol in the cancer cell media. Overall, our data suggest that the nano-UPLC-IM-DIA bioassay is a feasible approach to identify and quantify proteins in complex samples without the need for stable isotope labeling. These results have significant implications for rapid tumor diagnostics and prognostics by monitoring proteins such as IL-8 and VEGF-A implicated in cancer development and progression. The analysis in tissue or plasma is not possible at this time, but the subsequent work would be needed for validation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Benchmarking Heavy Ion Transport Codes FLUKA, HETC-HEDS MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State University; Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Heilbronn, Lawrence H. [University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    2013-06-07

    Powerful accelerators such as spallation neutron sources, muon-collider/neutrino facilities, and rare isotope beam facilities must be designed with the consideration that they handle the beam power reliably and safely, and they must be optimized to yield maximum performance relative to their design requirements. The simulation codes used for design purposes must produce reliable results. If not, component and facility designs can become costly, have limited lifetime and usefulness, and could even be unsafe. The objective of this proposal is to assess the performance of the currently available codes PHITS, FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and HETC-HEDS that could be used for design simulations involving heavy ion transport. We plan to access their performance by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data of benchmark quality. Quantitative knowledge of the biases and the uncertainties of the simulations is essential as this potentially impacts the safe, reliable and cost effective design of any future radioactive ion beam facility. Further benchmarking of heavy-ion transport codes was one of the actions recommended in the Report of the 2003 RIA R&D Workshop".

  6. Simulation of Electron and Ion Transport in Methane-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangkyu; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Chung, Suk Ho

    2010-11-01

    The spatial distribution of charged species in a methane-air counterflow diffusion flame is simulated with a detailed ion chemistry. The electric field induced by the distribution of charged species is calculated and compared to that obtained invoking the ambipolar diffusion assumption. The two calculations showed identical profiles for charged species and electric field. The profiles of ion mole fractions show two peaks: one near the maximum temperature and a second peak on the oxidizer side. The major ions near the maximum temperature are electron, C2H3O+ and H3O+. CHO3- and H3O+ contribute to the second peak. These profiles are quite different from those adopting a simplified three-step mechanism based solely on E-, CHO+ and H3O+, which shows only a single peak. Reaction pathway analyses showed that near the flame region, the proton is transferred by the path of CHO+ -> H3O+ -> C2H3O+ -> CHO+ in a circulating manner. In the second peak, CHO3- is produced though the pathway of E- -> O- -> OH- -> CHO3-. The sensitivity of the charged species profiles to transport properties is investigated, and it is found that the variation of charged species profiles near peak temperature is relatively small, while on the oxidizer side, it is quite sensitive to transport properties.

  7. Fast-ion transport during repetitive burst phenomena of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, M.; Isobe, M.; Yamamoto, S.

    2008-10-01

    Alfven instabilities induced fast-ion losses have been directly observed for the first time by a newly developed scintillator lost ion probe (SLIP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The SLIP can measure the pitch angle and gyro radius of escaped fast ions toward loss region. Neutral beam driven Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) are excited under the reactor relevant conditions: the ratio of fast ion (beam) speed υ b and Alfven speed υ A is more than 0.3 - 4.0. The beta value for fast ions is considered roughly to be ∼10%. Non-linear phenomena related to Alfven instabilities are observed under such conditions. During repetitive Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) bursts, synchronized fast ion losses are observed by SLIP. From the orbit calculation the measured fast ion with pitch angle of 130 degrees and beam energy of 150 keV surely pass through the locations of TAE gaps. The orbit analysis found that the observed fast ions interact strongly with the excited TAEs. This result becomes the first experimental evidence of radial transport of fast ions predicted theoretically during TAE activities. In addition, from the correlation between stored energy degradation and fast-ion loss rate, it is found that fast-ion losses induced by TAE activities with low toroidal mode numbers categorize two phenomena without and with fast- ion loss enhancements, which indicate the fast-ion redistribution and loss. (author)

  8. Space-charge limits on the transport of ion beams in a long alternating gradient system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiefenback, M.G.

    1986-11-01

    We have experimentally studied the space-charge-dominated transport of ion beams in an alternating-gradient channel, without acceleration. We parameterize the focusing strength in terms of the zero-current ''betatron'' oscillation phase advance rate, σ 0 (degrees per focusing period). We have investigated the conditions for ''stability'', defined as the constancy of the total current and phase space area of the beam during transport. We find that the beam may be transported with neither loss of current nor growth in phase area if σ 0 0 . In this regime, the space-charge repulsive force can counter 98-99% of the externally applied focusing field, and the oscillation frequency of the beam particles can be depressed by self-forces to almost a factor of 10 below the zero-current value, limited only by the optical quality of our ion source. For σ 0 > 90 0 , we find that collective interactions bound the maintainable density of the beam, and we present a simple, semi-empirical characterization for stability, within our ability to distinguish the growth rate from zero in our apparatus. Our channel comprises 87 quadrupole lenses, 5 of which are used to prepare the beam for injection into the non-azimuthally-symmetric focusing channel

  9. FINAL REPORT:Observation and Simulations of Transport of Molecules and Ions Across Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MURAD, SOHAIL [University of Illinois at Chicago; JAMESON, CYNTHIA J [University of Illinois at Chicago

    2013-10-22

    During the this new grant we developed a robust methodology for investigating a wide range of properties of phospho-lipid bilayers. The approach developed is unique because despite using periodic boundary conditions, we can simulate an entire experiment or process in detail. For example, we can follow the entire permeation process in a lipid-membrane. This includes transport from the bulk aqueous phase to the lipid surface; permeation into the lipid; transport inside the lipid; and transport out of the lipid to the bulk aqueous phase again. We studied the transport of small gases in both the lipid itself and in model protein channels. In addition, we have examined the transport of nanocrystals through the lipid membrane, with the main goal of understanding the mechanical behavior of lipids under stress including water and ion leakage and lipid flip flop. Finally we have also examined in detail the deformation of lipids when under the influence of external fields, both mechanical and electrostatic (currently in progress). The important observations and conclusions from our studies are described in the main text of the report

  10. Ion transport properties of mechanically stable symmetric ABCBA pentablock copolymers with quaternary ammonium functionalized midblock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertem, S. Piril [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Caire, Benjamin R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Tsai, Tsung-Han [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Zeng, Di [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Vandiver, Melissa A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Kusoglu, Ahmet [Energy Conversion Group, Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California 94720; Seifert, Soenke [Energy Conversion Group, Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California 94720; Hayward, Ryan C. [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Weber, Adam Z. [Energy Conversion Group, Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California 94720; Herring, Andrew M. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Coughlin, E. Bryan [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Liberatore, Matthew W. [Department of Chemical Engineering Department, University of Toledo, 2801 W Bancroft Street MS305 Toledo Ohio 43606

    2017-02-07

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a promising class of materials for applications that require selective ion transport, such as fuel cells, water purification, and electrolysis devices. Studies of structure–morphology–property relationships of ion-exchange membranes revealed that block copolymers exhibit improved ion conductivity and mechanical properties due to their microphase-separated morphologies with well-defined ionic domains. While most studies focused on symmetric diblock or triblock copolymers, here, the first example of a midblock quaternized pentablock AEM is presented. A symmetric ABCBA pentablock copolymer was functionalized to obtain a midblock brominated polymer. Solution cast films were then quaternized to obtain AEMs with resulting ion exchange capacities (IEC) ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 mmol/g. Despite the relatively low IEC, the polymers were highly conductive (up to 60 mS/cm Br2 at 90 8C and 95%RH) with low water absorption (<25 wt %) and maintained adequate mechanical properties in both dry and hydrated conditions. Xray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed formation of cylindrical non-ionic domains in a connected ionic phase.

  11. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Duylinh; Fawole, Kristen; Gunceler, Deniz; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes.

  12. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-08-17

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes.

  13. Ion transport studies on the PLT tokamak during neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Cavallo, A.; Cohen, S.

    1983-12-01

    Radial transport of ions during co- and counter-neutral beam heating in the PLT tokamak has been studied, using molybdenum and scandium ions as tracer elements. The time evolution of the radial profiles of several ionization stages of both elements, injected by laser blowoff during the neutral beam heating, were measured under three significantly different beam-plasma combinations. No noticeable differences in the radial profiles attributable to the beam direction were observed. However, a given injected amount resulted in considerably larger interior concentrations of the tracer element in the counter-beam heating cases, suggesting larger penetration of the plasma periphery. Computer simulation with the MIST code suggests a net inward drift of the order 10 3 cm/sec superposed to a diffusion coefficient of the order 10 4 cm 2 /sec for both scandium and molybdenum ions. Injection of larger amounts of the tracer element, sufficient to cause measurable central electron temperature changes, resulted in dramatic changes in ion-state distributions, making some appear peaked in the center while others disappeared. This effect could be produced with both co- and counter-beam heating, but with lesser amounts in the latter case. It is interpreted as rearrangement of the ionization balance, rather than any preferential accumulation of the injected element

  14. Impurity ion transport studies on the PLT tokamak during neutral-beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Cavallo, A.; Cohen, S.

    1984-01-01

    Radial transport of medium- and high-Z ions during co- and counter-neutral-beam heating in the PLT tokamak is studied, using molybdenum and scandium ions as tracer elements. The time evolution of the radial profiles of several ionization stages of both elements, injected by laser blowoff during the neutral-beam heating, is measured under three significantly different beam-plasma combinations. No noticeable differences in the radial profiles attributable to the beam direction are observed. However, a given injected amount resulted in considerably larger interior concentrations of the tracer element in the counter-beam heating cases, suggesting larger penetration of the plasma periphery. Computer simulation with the MIST code suggests a net inward drift of the order 10 3 cm.s -1 superposed to a diffusion coefficient of the order 10 4 cm 2 .s -1 for both scandium and molybdenum ions. Injection of larger amounts of the tracer element, sufficient to cause measurable central electron temperature changes, resulted in dramatic changes in ion-state distributions, making some appear peaked in the centre while others disappeared. This effect could be produced with both co- and counter-beam heating, but with lesser amounts in the latter case. It is interpreted as rearrangement of the ionization balance, rather than any preferential accumulation of the injected element. (author)

  15. Electroless formation of hybrid lithium anodes for fast interfacial ion transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Duylinh; Fawole, Kristen; Archer, Lynden A. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Tu, Zhengyuan [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Gunceler, Deniz [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Sundararaman, Ravishankar [Material Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. A Rapid Screen Technique for Estimating Nanoparticle Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying the mobility of engineered nanoparticles in hydrologic pathways from point of release to human or ecological receptors is essential for assessing environmental exposures. Column transport experiments are a widely used technique to estimate the transport parameters of ...

  17. Performance test results of ion beam transport for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, M R; Mattoo, S K [Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428, Gujarat (India); Uhlemann, R, E-mail: mukti@ipr.res.i [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute fur Energieforschung IEF-4, Plasmaphysik D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    A neutral beam injector is built at IPR to heat the plasma of SST-1 and its upgrade. It delivers a maximum beam power of 1.7 MW for 55 kV Hydrogen beam or 80 kV Deuterium beam. At lower beam voltage, the delivered power falls to 500 kW at 30 kV Hydrogen beam which is adequate to heat SST-1 plasma ions to {approx} 1 keV. Process of acceleration of ions to the required beam voltage, conversion of ions to neutrals and removal of un-neutralized ions and the beam diagnostic systems occupy a large space. The consequence is that linear extent of the neutral beam injector is at least a few meters. Also, port access provides a very narrow duct. Even a very good injector design and fabrication practices keep beam divergence at a very low but finite value. The result is beam transport becomes an important issue. Since a wide area beam is constructed by hundreds of beam lets, it becomes essential they be focused in such a way that beam transport loss is minimized. Horizontal and vertical focal lengths are two parameters, in addition to beam divergence, which give a description of the beam transport. We have obtained these two parameters for our injector by using beam transport code; making several hundred simulation runs by varying optical parameters of the beam. The selected parameters set has been translated into the engineering features of the extractor grid set of the ion source. Aperture displacement technique is used to secure the horizontal beam focusing at 5.4 m. Combination of both aperture displacement and inclining of two grid halves to {approx} 17 mrad are secured for vertical beam focusing at 7 m from earth grid of the ion source. The gaps between the design, engineered and performance tested values usually arise due to lack of exercising control over fabrication processes or due to inaccuracies in the assumption made in the model calculations of beam optics and beam transport. This has been the case with several injectors, notably with JET injector. To overcome

  18. Copper-transporting P-type ATPases use a unique ion-release pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Mattle, Daniel; Sitsel, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in cells are typically regulated by PIB-type ATPases. The first structure of the class, a Cu(+)-ATPase from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA), outlined a copper transport pathway across the membrane, which was inferred to be occluded. Here we show by molecular dynamics simulations...... that extracellular water solvated the transmembrane (TM) domain, results indicative of a Cu(+)-release pathway. Furthermore, a new LpCopA crystal structure determined at 2.8-Å resolution, trapped in the preceding E2P state, delineated the same passage, and site-directed-mutagenesis activity assays support...... a functional role for the conduit. The structural similarities between the TM domains of the two conformations suggest that Cu(+)-ATPases couple dephosphorylation and ion extrusion differently than do the well-characterized PII-type ATPases. The ion pathway explains why certain Menkes' and Wilson's disease...

  19. Transport properties of gaseous ions over a wide energy range. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, H.W.; Thackston, M.G.; McDaniel, E.W.; Mason, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper updates and extends in scope our two previous papers entitled ''Transport Properties of Gaseous Ions over a Wide Energy Range.'' The references to the earlier publications (referred to as ''Part I'' and ''Part II'') are I, H. W. Ellis, R. Y. Pai, E. W. McDonald, E. A. Mason, and L. A. Viehland, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 17, 177--210 (19876); and II, H. W. Ellis, E. W. McDaniel, D. L. Albritton, L. A. Veihland, S. L. Lin, and E. A. Mason, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 22, 179--217 (1978). Parts I and II contained compilations of experimental data on ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients (both longitudinal and transverse) for ions in neutral gase (almost exclusively at room temperature) in an externally applied electric field

  20. Lens ion transport: from basic concepts to regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamere, Nicholas A.; Tamiya, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1960s, studies by George Duncan explained many of the basic principles that underlie lens ion homeostasis. The experiments pointed to a permeability barrier close to the surface of the lens and illustrated the requirement for continuous Na,K-ATPase-mediated active sodium extrusion. Without active sodium extrusion, lens sodium and calcium content increases resulting in lens swelling and deterioration of transparency. Later, Duncan's laboratory discovered functional muscarinic and purinergic receptors at the surface of the lens. Recent studies using intact lens suggest purinergic receptors might be involved in short-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase in the epithelium. Purinergic receptor agonists ATP and UTP selectively activate certain Src family tyrosine kinases and stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity. This might represent part of a control mechanism capable of adjusting, perhaps fine tuning, lens ion transport machinery. PMID:18614168

  1. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Lühr, Armin

    2014-01-01

    . We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction......Abstract. Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT simulates the transport of ions through matter. Since SHIELD-HIT08 we added numerous features that improves speed, usability and underlying physics and thereby the user experience. The “-A” fork of SHIELD-HIT also aims to attach SHIELD....... It supports native formats compatible with the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP. Stopping power files follow ICRU standard and are generated using the libdEdx library, which allows the user to choose from a multitude of stopping power tables. Results: SHIELD-HIT12A runs on Linux and Windows platforms...

  2. Studies on rapid ion-exchange separation of the transplutonium elements with mineral acid-methanol mixed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1989-03-01

    In order to study properties of short-lived transplutonium nuclides synthesized by heavy-ion bombardment, three methods for rapid separation of tri-valent transplutonium elements by ion-exchange chromatography with mineral acid-methanol mixed media at elevated temperature were investigated. The first separation method was anion-exchange chromatography with nitric acid-methanol mixed media. The second method was anion-exchange choromatography with dilute hydrochloric acid-methanol mixed media. The third method was improved cation-exchange chromatography with single-column operation using the mixed media of hydrochloric acid and methanol. The separation methods developed were found applicable to studies on synthesis of the trans-plutonium nuclides, 250 Fm (T 1/2 :30 min), 244,245,246 Cf (T 1/2 :20 min, 46 min and 35.7 h, respectively) from the 16 O + 238 U and 12 C + 242 Pu reactions, and on the decay property of 245 Cf. Attempts to search for new actinide nuclides, such as 240 U and neutron deficient nuclides of Am, Cm and Bk, were made by a quick purification. The separation system was also applied to the rapid and effective separation of Nd, Am and Cm from spent nuclear fuel samples, for burn-up determination. (J.P.N.) 242 refs

  3. Temperature modulates the effects of ocean acidification on intestinal ion transport in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Yong-An Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid–base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for four weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1,200 and 2,200 μatm covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C and summer maximum temperature (18°C, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3, Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC1, pendrin-like Cl-/HCO3- exchanger (SLC26a6, V-type H+-ATPase subunit a (VHA and Cl- channel 3 (CLC3 in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal HCO3- secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood HCO3- levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans.

  4. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Ruskov, E; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N; Medley, S S; Berk, H L; Harvey, R W

    2006-01-01

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ∼2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50-100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (∼<3 MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed

  5. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W W [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Ruskov, E [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Fredrickson, E D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Gorelenkov, N [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Medley, S S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Berk, H L [University of Texas, Austin, Texas (United States); Harvey, R W [CompX, Del Mar, California (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at {approx}2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50-100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power ({approx}<3 MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed.

  6. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W W,Heidbrink; E,Ruskov; E D,Fredrickson; N,Gorelenkov; S S,Medley; H L,Berk; R W,Harvey

    2006-09-01

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ~2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50–100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10–20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (≤3MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed.

  7. Rapid transport of CCL11 across the blood-brain barrier: regional variation and importance of blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Michelle A; Morofuji, Yoichi; Owen, Joshua B; Banks, William A

    2014-06-01

    Increased blood levels of the eotaxin chemokine C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11) in aging were recently shown to negatively regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. How circulating CCL11 could affect the central nervous system (CNS) is not clear, but one possibility is that it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we show that CCL11 undergoes bidirectional transport across the BBB. Transport of CCL11 from blood into whole brain (influx) showed biphasic kinetics, with a slow phase preceding a rapid phase of uptake. We found that the slow phase was explained by binding of CCL11 to cellular components in blood, whereas the rapid uptake phase was mediated by direct interactions with the BBB. CCL11, even at high doses, did not cause BBB disruption. All brain regions except striatum showed a delayed rapid-uptake phase. Striatum had only an early rapid-uptake phase, which was the fastest of any brain region. We also observed a slow but saturable transport system for CCL11 from brain to blood. C-C motif ligand 3 (CCR3), an important receptor for CCL11, did not facilitate CCL11 transport across the BBB, although high concentrations of a CCR3 inhibitor increased brain uptake without causing BBB disruption. Our results indicate that CCL11 in the circulation can access many regions of the brain outside of the neurogenic niche via transport across the BBB. This suggests that blood-borne CCL11 may have important physiologic functions in the CNS and implicates the BBB as an important regulator of physiologic versus pathologic effects of this chemokine.

  8. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D.; Volmer, Dietrich A.; Gill, Chris G.; Krogh, Erik T.

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H]-) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba2+ have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba]+ precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH]+ and [BaOH]+). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  9. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D; Volmer, Dietrich A; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H](-)) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba(2+) have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba](+) precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH](+) and [BaOH](+)). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  10. Beam instability during high-current heavy-ion beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Someya, T.; Kawata, S.; Nakajima, M.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    In driver system for heavy ion inertial fusion, beam dynamics is investigated by particle-in-cell simulations during final beam bunching. The particle simulations predict that the beam is transported with the localized transverse charge distribution induced by the strong space charge effect. The calculation results also show that the emittance growth during the longitudinal bunch compression for various particle distributions at the initial conditions and with two types of transverse focusing model, which are a continuous focusing and an alternating gradient focusing lattice configurations. (author)

  11. Regulation of ion transport via apical purinergic receptors in intact rabbit airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Pedersen, Peter Steen

    2005-01-01

    and unidirectional Cl- fluxes decreased significantly. The results suggest that nucleotides released to the airway surface liquid exert an autocrine regulation of epithelial NaCl absorption mainly by inhibiting the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and paracellular anion conductance via a P2Y......We investigated purinergic receptors involved in ion transport regulation in the intact rabbit nasal airway epithelium. Stimulation of apical membrane P2Y receptors with ATP or UTP (200 microM) induced transient increases in short-circuit current (Isc) of 13 and 6% followed by sustained inhibitions...

  12. Ion transport in roots of cotton seedlings under the effect of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasymov, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It has been found that small doses (0.1 to 0.5kR) increase the ion transport (K + and Na + ) in seedling roots, and relatively high radiation doses (25 to 100 kR) markedly decrease it. ATPase activity varied with the dose. Mgsup(++)-, Na + - and K + -activated ATPases were more sensitive than a background ATPase. It is suggested that high radiation doses destroy the work of the sodium-potassium pump of cotton root cells inhibiting the activity of the transfer ATPase

  13. Colonic epithelial ion transport is not affected in patients with diverticulosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip S; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colonic diverticular disease is a bothersome condition with an unresolved pathogenesis. It is unknown whether a neuroepithelial dysfunction is present. The aim of the study was two-fold; (1) to investigate colonic epithelial ion transport in patients with diverticulosis and (2) to adapt...... a miniaturized Modified Ussing Air-Suction (MUAS) chamber for colonic endoscopic biopsies. METHODS: Biopsies were obtained from the sigmoid part of the colon. 86 patients were included. All patients were referred for colonoscopy on suspicion of neoplasia and they were without pathological findings at colonoscopy...... with diverticulosis and that the MUAS chamber can be adapted for studies of human colonic endoscopic biopsies. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null...

  14. Noninvasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique (MIFE) for the study of the regulation of root membrane transport by cyclic nucleotides

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñ ez, Natalia Maria; Shabala, Lana; Gehring, Christoph A; Shabala, Sergey Nikolayevich

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ion permeability and subsequently intracellular ion concentrations play a crucial role in intracellular and intercellular communication and, as such, confer a broad array of developmental and adaptive responses in plants. These changes are mediated by the activity of plasma-membrane based transport proteins many of which are controlled by cyclic nucleotides and/or other signaling molecules. The MIFE technique for noninvasive microelectrode ion flux measuring allows concurrent quantification of net fluxes of several ions with high spatial (μm range) and temporal (ca. 5 s) resolution, making it a powerful tool to study various aspects of downstream signaling events in plant cells. This chapter details basic protocols enabling the application of the MIFE technique to study regulation of root membrane transport in general and cyclic nucleotide mediated transport in particular. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  15. Formation of core transport barrier and CH-Mode by ion Bernstein wave heating in PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Gettelfinger, G.; Hatcher, R.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.

    1995-01-01

    Observation of core transport barrier formation (for particles, ion and electron energies, and toroidal momentum) by ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) in PBX-M plasma is reported. The formation of a transport barrier leads to a strong peaking and significant increase of the core pressure (70%) and toroidal momentum (20%), and has been termed the core-high confinement mode (CH-Mode). This formation of a transport barrier is consistent, in terms of the expected barrier location as well as the required threshold power, with a theoretical model based on the poloidal sheared flow generation by the ion Bernstein wave power. The use of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) induced sheared flow as a tool to control plasma pressure and bootstrap current profiles shows a favorable scaling for the use in future reactor grade tokamak plasmas

  16. Noninvasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique (MIFE) for the study of the regulation of root membrane transport by cyclic nucleotides

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñez, Natalia Maria

    2013-09-03

    Changes in ion permeability and subsequently intracellular ion concentrations play a crucial role in intracellular and intercellular communication and, as such, confer a broad array of developmental and adaptive responses in plants. These changes are mediated by the activity of plasma-membrane based transport proteins many of which are controlled by cyclic nucleotides and/or other signaling molecules. The MIFE technique for noninvasive microelectrode ion flux measuring allows concurrent quantification of net fluxes of several ions with high spatial (μm range) and temporal (ca. 5 s) resolution, making it a powerful tool to study various aspects of downstream signaling events in plant cells. This chapter details basic protocols enabling the application of the MIFE technique to study regulation of root membrane transport in general and cyclic nucleotide mediated transport in particular. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  17. Characterization of ion heat conduction in JET and ASDEX Upgrade plasmas with and without internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, R C [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM/FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Baranov, Y [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Garbet, X [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Hawkes, N [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Peeters, A G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Challis, C [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Baar, M de [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafyisica Rijnhuizen, Association EURATO-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Giroud, C [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafyisica Rijnhuizen, Association EURATO-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Joffrin, E [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Mantsinen, M [Helsinki University of Technology, Association-EURATOM Tekes, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Mazon, D [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Meister, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Suttrop, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zastrow, K-D [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-01

    In ASDEX Upgrade and JET, the ion temperature profiles can be described by R/L{sub Ti} which exhibits only little variations, both locally, when comparing different discharges, and radially over a wide range of the poloidal cross-section. Considering a change of the local ion heat flux of more than a factor of two, this behaviour indicates some degree of profile stiffness. In JET, covering a large ion temperature range from 1 to 25 keV, the normalized ion temperature gradient, R/L{sub Ti}, shows a dependence on the electron to ion temperature ratio or toroidal rotational shear. In particular, in hot ion plasmas, produced predominantly by neutral beam heating at low densities, in which large T{sub i}/T{sub e} is coupled to strong toroidal rotation, the effect of the two quantities cannot be distinguished. Both in ASDEX Upgrade and JET, plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), including the PEP mode in JET, are characterized by a significant increase of R/L{sub Ti} above the value of L- and H-mode plasmas. In agreement with previous ASDEX Upgrade results, no increase of the ion heat transport in reversed magnetic shear ITB plasmas is found in JET when raising the electron heating. Evidence is presented that magnetic shear directly influences R/L{sub Ti}, namely decreasing the ion heat transport when going from weakly positive to negative magnetic shear.

  18. Electron and ion heat transport with lower hybrid current drive and neutral beam injection heating in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeldner, F.X.; Pereverzev, G.V.; Bartiromo, R.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Leuterer, F.; Murmann, H.D.; Staebler, A.; Steuer, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    Transport code calculations were made for experiments with the combined operation of lower hybrid current drive and heating and of neutral beam injection heating on ASDEX. Peaking or flattening of the electron temperature profile are mainly explained by modifications of the MHD induced electron heat transport. They originate from current profile changes due to lower hybrid and neutral beam current drive and to contributions from the bootstrap current. Ion heat transport cannot be described by one single model for all heating scenarios. The ion heat conductivity is reduced during lower hybrid heated phases with respect to Ohmic and neutral beam heating. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  19. Control of alpha-particle transport by ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper control of radial alpha-particle transport by using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. Spatially inhomogeneous ICRF wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transports of alpha particles at the speed of order v α ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 )ρ p , where R RF is the ICRF wave power density, n α is the alpha-particle density, ε 0 is the alpha-particle birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha-particle flux are discussed

  20. Control of alpha particle transport by spatially inhomogeneous ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.

    1990-02-01

    Control of the radial alpha particle transport by using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. It is shown that spatially inhomogeneous ICRF-wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transport of alpha particles at the speed of order υ alpha ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 ) ρ p , where P RF is the ICRF-wave power density, n α is the alpha density, ε 0 is the alpha birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to ITER plasmas is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha particle flux are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs

  1. An in vitro transport model for rapid screening and predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Xiao; Mei, Chao; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Qi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop a simple in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation model for elementarily and rapidly predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at BBB and further evaluating whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects them across BBB. The model was mainly composed of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs), glass contraption, and micropore membrane. First, we evaluated the model by morphological observation. Second, the restriction effects of paracellular transport were verified by measuring marker probes transport, and monitoring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and leakage. Finally, protein expression and activity of P-gp were confirmed by carrying out Western blot analysis and polarized transport of rhodamine-123 (Rho123) in rBMECs. The rBMECs retained both endothelial cells and BBB features. The rBMECs model reproducibly attained approximately 130 Ω cm² on the steady-state TEER value, and displayed a barrier function to marker probes transport by decreasing the permeability. Protein band of 170 kDa manifested the existence of P-gp in the rBMECs, and the findings of cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease of Rho123 efflux confirmed the presence of P-gp activity. A simple, rapid, and convenient in vitro BBB permeation model was successfully established and applied to evaluate the BBB transport profiles of three natural flavonoids: quercetin, naringenin, and rutin.

  2. Transport mechanisms in low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-InP formed by rapid thermal annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Leistiko, Otto

    1993-01-01

    process is related to interdiffusion and compound formation between the metal elements and the InP. The onset of low specific contact resistance is characterized by a change in the dominant transport mechanism; from predominantly a combination of thermionic emission and field emission to purely thermionic......Thermionic emission across a very small effective Schottky barrier (0-0.2 eV) are reported as being the dominant transport process mechanism in very low-resistance ohmic contacts for conventional AuZn(Ni) metallization systems top-InP formed by rapid thermal annealing. The barrier modulation...

  3. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xue-Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441, and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P Ca3.1 (1-EBIO and KATP (minoxidil channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na, K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO, and KATP (minoxidil channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal.

  5. Use of positive ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for rapid identification of a bile alcohol glucuronide isolated from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, B.; Salen, G.; Tint, G.S.; Shefer, S.; Benz, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    The identification of a major biliary and plasma bile alcohol glucuronide, 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 25-tetrol-3-0-beta-D-glucuronide, present in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) patients, was investigated by positive ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The spectrum was characterized by abundant ions formed by attachment of a proton, [M + H]+, or of alkali ions, [M + Na]+ and [M + 39K]+, to the glucuronide salt. These ions allowed an unambiguous deduction of the molecular weight of the sample. It is suggested that FAB-MS could be used in the rapid diagnosis of CTX

  6. Modulation and Functional Role of the Orientations of the N- and P-Domains of Cu+ -Transporting ATPase along the Ion Transport Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dan; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Zhang, Fengli; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-08-18

    Ion transport of different P-type ATPases is regulated similarly through the interplay of multiple protein domains. In the presence of ATP, binding of a cation to the ion binding site in the transmembrane helices leads to the phosphorylation of the P-domain, allowing ion transfer across the membrane. The details of the mechanism, however, are not clear. Here, we report the modulation of the orientation between the N- and P-domains of Cu(+)-transporting ATPase along the ion transport cycle using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in solution. On the basis of residual dipolar coupling measurements, it is found that the interdomain orientation (relative openness) of the N- and P-domains is distinctly modulated depending on the specific state of the N- and P-domains along the ion translocation cycle. The two domains' relative position in the apo state is semiopen, whereas it becomes closed upon binding of ATP to the N-domain. After phosphorylation of the P-domain and the release of ADP, the opening, however, becomes the widest among all the states. We reason such wide opening resulting from the departure of ADP prepares the N- and P-domains to accommodate the A-domain for interaction and, hence, promote ion transport and allow dephosphorylation of the P-domain. Such wide interdomain opening is abolished when an Asn to Asp mutation is introduced into the conserved DXXK motif located in the hinge region of the N- and P-domains of Cu(+)-ATPase, suggesting the indispensible role of the N- and P-interdomain orientation during ion transportation. Our results shed new light on the structural and mechanistic details of P-type ATPase function at large.

  7. Polyamines control of cation transport across plant membranes: implications for ion homeostasis and abiotic stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are unique polycationic metabolites, controlling a variety of vital functions in plants, including growth and stress responses. Over the last two decades a bulk of data was accumulated providing explicit evidence that polyamines play an essential role in regulating plant membrane transport. The most straightforward example is a blockage of the two major vacuolar cation channels, namely slow (SV) and fast (FV) activating ones, by the micromolar concentrations of polyamines. This effect is direct and fully reversible, with a potency descending in a sequence Spm(4+) > Spd(3+) > Put(2+). On the contrary, effects of polyamines on the plasma membrane (PM) cation and K(+)-selective channels are hardly dependent on polyamine species, display a relatively low affinity, and are likely to be indirect. Polyamines also affect vacuolar and PM H(+) pumps and Ca(2+) pump of the PM. On the other hand, catabolization of polyamines generates H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals. Export of polyamines to the apoplast and their oxidation there by available amine oxidases results in the induction of a novel ion conductance and confers Ca(2+) influx across the PM. This mechanism, initially established for plant responses to pathogen attack (including a hypersensitive response), has been recently shown to mediate plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this review we summarize the effects of polyamines and their catabolites on cation transport in plants and discuss the implications of these effects for ion homeostasis, signaling, and plant adaptive responses to environment.

  8. Numerical simulations of self-pinched transport of intense ion beams in low-pressure gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.; Olson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The self-pinched transport of intense ion beams in low-pressure background gases is studied using numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. The simulations are carried out in a parameter regime that is similar to proton beam experiments being fielded on the Gamble II pulsed power generator [J. D. Shipman, Jr., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 243 (1971)] at the Naval Research Laboratory. Simulation parameter variations provide information on scaling with background gas species, gas pressure, beam current, beam energy, injection angles, and boundaries. The simulation results compare well with simple analytic scaling arguments for the gas pressure at which the effective net current should peak and with estimates for the required confinement current. The analysis indicates that the self-pinched transport of intense proton beams produced on Gamble II (1.5 MeV, 100 kA, 3 cm radius) is expected to occur at gas pressures between 30 and 80 mTorr of He or between 3 and 10 mTorr of Ar. The significance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion is discussed. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Numerical simulation of advective-dispersive multisolute transport with sorption, ion exchange and equilibrium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, F.M.; Voss, C.I.; Rubin, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    A model was developed that can simulate the effect of certain chemical and sorption reactions simultaneously among solutes involved in advective-dispersive transport through porous media. The model is based on a methodology that utilizes physical-chemical relationships in the development of the basic solute mass-balance equations; however, the form of these equations allows their solution to be obtained by methods that do not depend on the chemical processes. The chemical environment is governed by the condition of local chemical equilibrium, and may be defined either by the linear sorption of a single species and two soluble complexation reactions which also involve that species, or binary ion exchange and one complexation reaction involving a common ion. Partial differential equations that describe solute mass balance entirely in the liquid phase are developed for each tenad (a chemical entity whose total mass is independent of the reaction process) in terms of their total dissolved concentration. These equations are solved numerically in two dimensions through the modification of an existing groundwater flow/transport computer code. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Improved formulas for trapped-ion anomalous transport in tokamaks without and with shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardei, F.; Wimmel, H.K.

    1980-12-01

    More refined numerical calculations of trapped-ion anomalous transport in a 2-D slab, trapped-fluid model suggest an anomalous diffusion coefficient D approx. 3.5 x 10 -2 delta 0 a 2 νsub(i)sup(e)sup(f)sup(f) for a tokamak plasma without shear. This supersedes earlier results. The new formula is independently confirmed by two different analytical calculations. One of them uses a similarity analysis of unabridged Kadomtsev-Pogutse-type trapped-fluid equations and the multiperiodic spatial structure of the saturated trapped-ion wave found in both the earlier and the recent numerical calculations. The other calculation yields a class of exact nonlinear solutions of the trapped-fluid equations. The new shearless result is used to derive the anomalous diffusion with shear effect by a method described in an earlier paper. The new transport formulas have been numerically evaluated for several tokamaks in an IPP report, where the results are shown in graph form. (orig.)

  11. Membrane potential and ion transport in lung epithelial type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The alveolar type II pneumocyte is critically important to the function and maintenance of pulmonary epithelium. To investigate the nature of the response of type II cells to membrane injury, and describe a possible mechanism by which these cells regulate surfactant secretion, the membrane potential of isolated rabbit type II cells was characterized. This evaluation was accomplished by measurements of the accumulation of the membrane potential probes: [ 3 H]triphenylmethylphosphonium ([ 3 H]TPMP + ), rubidium 86, and the fluorescent dye DiOC 5 . A compartmental analysis of probe uptake into mitochondrial, cytoplasmic, and non-membrane potential dependent stores was made through the use of selective membrane depolarizations with carbonycyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). These techniques and population analysis with flow cytometry, permitted the accurate evaluation of type II cell membrane potential under control conditions and under conditions which stimulated cell activity. Further analysis of ion transport by cells exposed to radiation or adrenergic stimulation revealed a common increase in Na + /K + ATPase activity, and an increase in sodium influx across the plasma membrane. This sodium influx was found to be a critical step in the initiation of surfactant secretion. It is concluded that radiation exposure as well as other pulmonary toxicants can directly affect the membrane potential and ionic regulation of type II cells. Ion transport, particularly of sodium, plays an important role in the regulation of type II cell function

  12. Influence of ion transport on discharge propagation of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Weizhuo; Koji, Fukagata

    2017-11-01

    A numerical study has been conducted to understand the streamer formation and propagation of nanosecond pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge of positive polarity. First we compared the result of different grid configuration to investigate the influence of x and y direction grid spacing on the streamer propagation. The streamer propagation is sensitive to y grid spacing especially at the dielectric surface. The streamer propagation velocity can reach 0.2 cm/ns when the voltage magnitude is 12 kV. A narrow gap was found between the streamer and dielectric barrier, where the plasma density is several orders of magnitude smaller than the streamer region. Analyses on the ion transport in the gap and streamer regions show the different ion transport mechanisms in the two different region. In the gap region, the diffusion of electron toward the dielectric layer decreases the seed electron in the beginning of voltage pulse, resulting that ionization avalanche does not occur. The streamer region is not significantly affected by the diffusion flux toward the dielectric layer, so that ionization avalanche takes place and leads to dramatic increase of plasma density.

  13. Ischemia - reperfusion induced changes in levels of ion transport proteins in gerbil brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehotsky, J.; Racay, P.; Kaplan, P.; Mezesova, V.; Raeymaekers, L.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative Western blotting was used to asses the levels of ion transport proteins in gerbil brain in control and in animals after ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). The gene products of plasma membrane Ca 2+ pump (PMCA) were detected in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. However, they showed a distinct distribution pattern. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins 3 ) receptor and reticular Ca 2+ pump are the most abundant in cerebellum and hippocampus. The IRI leads to a selective decrease in content of PMCA and InsP 3 receptor I isoforms. The levels of α 3 isoform of Na + pump and reticular proteins: Ca 2+ pump and calreticulin remained constant. InsP 3 receptor and organellar Ca 2+ (SERCA) are the most abundant in cerebellum and hippocampus. Ischemia and reperfusion up to 10 days leads to a signal decrease of PMCA immuno-signal. We suppose that alteration of number of ion transport proteins, can contribute to changes which participate or follow the delayed death of neurons in hippocampus. (authors)

  14. The Effusive-Flow Properties of Target/Vapor-Transport Systems for Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Liu, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive atoms produced by the ISOL technique must diffuse from a target, effusively flow to an ion source, be ionized, be extracted, and be accelerated to research energies in a time commensurate with the lifetime of the species of interest. We have developed a fast valve system (closing time ~100 us) that can be used to accurately measure the effusion times of chemically active or inactive species through arbitrary geometry and size vapor transport systems with and without target material in the reservoir. The effusive flow times are characteristic of the system and thus serve as figures of merit for assessing the quality of a given vapor transport system as well as for assessing the permeability properties of a given target design. This article presents effusive flow data for noble gases flowing through a target reservoir and ion source system routinely used to generate radioactive species at the HRIBF with and without disks of 6 times and 10 times compressed Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Foam (RVCF) with...

  15. Effect of Ion Concentration Changes in the Limited Extracellular Spaces on Sarcolemmal Ion Transport and Ca2+ Turnover in a Model of Human Ventricular Cardiomyocyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabcová, D.; Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2013), s. 24271-24292 E-ISSN 1422-0067 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT14301 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : human heart * cardiac cell * t-tubule * intercellular clefts * calcium * ion transport * computer model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.339, year: 2013

  16. Plasma lens focusing and plasma channel transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschwitz, A.; Yu, S.S.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    The final focus lens in an ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion reactor is important since it sets limiting requirements for the quality of the driver beam. Improvements of the focusing capabilities can facilitate the construction of the driver significantly. A focusing system that is of interest both for heavy ion and for light ion drivers is an adiabatic, current carrying plasma lens. This lens is characterized by the fact that it can slowly (adiabatically) reduce the envelope radius of a beam over several betatron oscillations by increasing the focusing magnetic field along a tapered high current discharge. A reduction of the beam diameter by a factor of 3 to 5 seems feasible with this focusing scheme. Such a lens can be used for an ignition test facility where it can be directly coupled to the fusion target. For use in a repetitively working reactor chamber the lens has to be located outside of the reactor and the tightly focused but strongly divergent beam must be confined in a high current transport channel from the end of the lens into the immediate vicinity of the target. Laser preionization of a background gas is an efficient means to direct and stabilize such a channel. Experiments have been started to test both, the principle of adiabatic focusing, and the stability of laser preionized high current discharge channels. (author). 4 figs., 7 refs

  17. Transport properties of gaseous ions over a wide energy range, IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehland, L.A.; Mason, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper updates three previous papers entitled open-quotes Transport Properties of Gaseous Ions over a Wide Energy Range.close quotes. These papers referred to as Parts I, II, and III, were by H.W.Ellis, P.Y. Pai, E.W. McDaniel, E.A. Mason, and L.A. Viehland, S.L. Lin, M.G. Thackston. Part IV contains compilations of experimental data on ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients (both longitudinal and transverse) for ions in neutral gases in an externally applied electrostatic field, at various gas temperatures; the data are tabulated as a function of the ionic energy parameter E/N, where E is the electric field strength and N is the number density of the neutral gas. Part IV also contains a locator key to ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients compiled in Parts I-IV. The coverage of the literature extends into 1994. The criteria for selection of the data are; (1) the measurements must cover a reasonably wide range of E/N; (2) the identity of the ions must be well established; and (3) the accuracy of the data must be good. 26 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Plasma lens focusing and plasma channel transport for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauschwitz, A; Yu, S S; Bangerter, R O [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    The final focus lens in an ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion reactor is important since it sets limiting requirements for the quality of the driver beam. Improvements of the focusing capabilities can facilitate the construction of the driver significantly. A focusing system that is of interest both for heavy ion and for light ion drivers is an adiabatic, current carrying plasma lens. This lens is characterized by the fact that it can slowly (adiabatically) reduce the envelope radius of a beam over several betatron oscillations by increasing the focusing magnetic field along a tapered high current discharge. A reduction of the beam diameter by a factor of 3 to 5 seems feasible with this focusing scheme. Such a lens can be used for an ignition test facility where it can be directly coupled to the fusion target. For use in a repetitively working reactor chamber the lens has to be located outside of the reactor and the tightly focused but strongly divergent beam must be confined in a high current transport channel from the end of the lens into the immediate vicinity of the target. Laser preionization of a background gas is an efficient means to direct and stabilize such a channel. Experiments have been started to test both, the principle of adiabatic focusing, and the stability of laser preionized high current discharge channels. (author). 4 figs., 7 refs.

  19. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delferriere, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-01-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D + extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D + ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H + beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements

  20. Block Copolymer Electrolytes: Thermodynamics, Ion Transport, and Use in Solid- State Lithium/Sulfur Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Alexander Andrew

    Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes containing an ion-conducting block and a modulus-strengthening block are of interest for applications in solid-state lithium metal batteries. These materials can self-assemble into well-defined microstructures, creating conducting channels that facilitate ion transport. The overall objective of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the behavior of salt-containing block copolymers, and evaluate their potential for use in solid-state lithium/sulfur batteries. Anionically synthesized polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt were used as a model system. This thesis investigates the model system on several levels: from fundamental thermodynamic studies to bulk characterization and finally device assembly and testing. First, the thermodynamics of neat and salt-containing block copolymers was studied. The addition of salt to these materials is necessary to make them conductive, however even small amounts of salt can have significant effects on their phase behavior, and consequently their iontransport and mechanical properties. As a result, the effect of salt addition on block copolymer thermodynamics has been the subject of significant interest over the last decade. A comprehensive study of the thermodynamics of block copolymer/salt mixtures over a wide range of molecular weights, compositions, salt concentrations and temperatures was conducted. Next, the effect of molecular weight on ion transport in both homopolymer and copolymer electrolytes were studied over a wide range of chain lengths. Homopolymer electrolytes show an inverse relationship between conductivity and chain length, with a plateau in the infinite molecular weight limit. This is due to the presence of two mechanisms of ion conduction in homopolymers; the first mechanism is a result of the segmental motion of the chains surrounding the salt ions, 2 creating a liquid

  1. Intense ion beam transport in magnetic quadrupoles: Experiments on electron and gas effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Molvik, A.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Kireef Covo, M.; Lund, S.M.; Prost, L.; Vay, J-L.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion induction linacs for inertial fusion energy and high-energy density physics have an economic incentive to minimize the clearance between the beam edge and the aperture wall. This increases the risk from electron clouds and gas desorbed from walls. We have measured electron and gas emission from 1 MeV K + incident on surfaces near grazing incidence on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. Electron emission coefficients reach values >100, whereas gas desorption coefficients are near 10 4 . Mitigation techniques are being studied: A bead-blasted rough surface reduces electron emission by a factor of 10 and gas desorption by a factor of 2. We also discuss the results of beam transport (of 0.03-0.18 A K + ) through four pulsed room-temperature magnetic quadrupoles in the HCX at LBNL. Diagnostics are installed on HCX, between and within quadrupole magnets, to measure the beam halo loss, net charge and expelled ions, from which we infer gas density, electron trapping, and the effects of mitigation techniques. A coordinated theory and computational effort has made significant progress towards a self-consistent model of positive-ion beam and electron dynamics. We are beginning to compare experimental and theoretical results

  2. Electron and ion transport equations in computational weakly-ionized plasmadynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, Bernard; Macheret, Sergey O.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2014-01-01

    A new set of ion and electron transport equations is proposed to simulate steady or unsteady quasi-neutral or non-neutral multicomponent weakly-ionized plasmas through the drift–diffusion approximation. The proposed set of equations is advantaged over the conventional one by being considerably less stiff in quasi-neutral regions because it can be integrated in conjunction with a potential equation based on Ohm's law rather than Gauss's law. The present approach is advantaged over previous attempts at recasting the system by being applicable to plasmas with several types of positive ions and negative ions and by not requiring changes to the boundary conditions. Several test cases of plasmas enclosed by dielectrics and of glow discharges between electrodes show that the proposed equations yield the same solution as the standard equations but require 10 to 100 times fewer iterations to reach convergence whenever a quasi-neutral region forms. Further, several grid convergence studies indicate that the present approach exhibits a higher resolution (and hence requires fewer nodes to reach a given level of accuracy) when ambipolar diffusion is present. Because the proposed equations are not intrinsically linked to specific discretization or integration schemes and exhibit substantial advantages with no apparent disadvantage, they are generally recommended as a substitute to the fluid models in which the electric field is obtained from Gauss's law as long as the plasma remains weakly-ionized and unmagnetized

  3. Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.

  4. Quasi-equilibrium analysis of the ion-pair mediated membrane transport of low-permeability drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to gain a mechanistic understanding of ion-pair mediated membrane transport of low-permeability drugs. Quasi-equilibrium mass transport analyses were developed to describe the ion-pair mediated octanol-buffer partitioning and hydrophobic membrane permeation of the model basic drug phenformin. Three lipophilic counterions were employed: p-toluenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNAP). Association constants and intrinsic octanol-buffer partition coefficients (Log P(AB)) of the ion-pairs were obtained by fitting a transport model to double reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus counterion concentration. All three counterions enhanced the lipophilicity of phenformin, with HNAP providing the greatest increase in Log P(AB), 3.7 units over phenformin alone. HNAP also enhanced the apparent membrane permeability of phenformin, 27-fold in the PAMPA model, and 4.9-fold across Caco-2 cell monolayers. As predicted from a quasi-equilibrium analysis of ion-pair mediated membrane transport, an order of magnitude increase in phenformin flux was observed per log increase in counterion concentration, such that log-log plots of phenformin flux versus HNAP concentration gave linear relationships. These results provide increased understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ion-pair mediated membrane transport, emphasizing the potential of this approach to enable oral delivery of low-permeability drugs.

  5. Trapped-ion quantum simulation of excitation transport: Disordered, noisy, and long-range connected quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Hauke, P.

    2018-02-01

    The transport of excitations governs fundamental properties of matter. Particularly rich physics emerges in the interplay between disorder and environmental noise, even in small systems such as photosynthetic biomolecules. Counterintuitively, noise can enhance coherent quantum transport, which has been proposed as a mechanism behind the high transport efficiencies observed in photosynthetic complexes. This effect has been called "environment-assisted quantum transport". Here, we propose a quantum simulation of the excitation transport in an open quantum network, taking advantage of the high controllability of current trapped-ion experiments. Our scheme allows for the controlled study of various different aspects of the excitation transfer, ranging from the influence of static disorder and interaction range, over the effect of Markovian and non-Markovian dephasing, to the impact of a continuous insertion of excitations. Our paper discusses experimental error sources and realistic parameters, showing that it can be implemented in state-of-the-art ion-chain experiments.

  6. Microelectrode array measurement of potassium ion channel remodeling on the field action potential duration in rapid atrial pacing rabbits model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Yan, Huang; Wugeti, Najina; Guo, Yujun; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Mei; Guo, Xingui; Jiao, Changan; Xu, Wenli; Li, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) arises from abnormalities in atrial structure and electrical activity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) is a real-time, nondestructive measurement of the resting and action potential signal, from myocardial cells, to the peripheral circuit of electrophysiological activity. This study examined the field action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) by MEA in rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in the right atrium of rabbits. In addition, this study also investigated the effect of potassium ion channel blockers on fAPD. 40 New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the control, 2) potassium ion channel blocker (TEA, 4-Ap and BaCl2), and 3) amiodarone groups. The hearts were quickly removed and right atrial appendage sectioned (slice thickness 500 μm). Each slice was perfused with Tyrode's solution and continuously stimulated for 30 minutes. Sections from the control group were superfused with Tyrode's solution for 10 minutes, while the blocker groups and amiodarone were both treated with their respective compounds for 10 minutes each. The fAPD of RAA and action field action potential morphology were measured using MEA. In non-pace (control) groups, fAPD was 188.33 ± 18.29 ms after Tyrode's solution superfusion, and 173.91 ± 6.83 ms after RAP. In pace/potassium ion channel groups, TEA and BaCl2 superfusion prolonged atrial field action potential (fAPD) (control vs blocker: 176.67 ± 8.66 ms vs 196.11 ± 10.76 ms, 182.22 ± 12.87 ms vs 191.11 ± 13.09 ms with TEA and BaCl2 superfusion, respectively, P action potential in animal heart slices. After superfusing potassium ion channel blockers, fAPD was prolonged. These results suggest that Ito, IKur and IK1 remodel and mediate RAP-induced atrial electrical remodeling. Amiodarone alter potassium ion channel activity (Ito, IKur, IK1 and IKs), shortening fAPD.

  7. Properties of ion implanted epitaxial CoSi2/Si(1 0 0) after rapid thermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Q.T.; Kluth, P.; Xu, J.; Kappius, L.; Zastrow, U.; Wang, Z.L.; Mantl, S.

    2000-01-01

    Epitaxial CoSi 2 layers were grown on Si(1 0 0) using molecular beam allotaxy. Boron ion implantations and rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) were performed. During oxidation, SiO 2 formed on the surface of the CoSi 2 layers, and the silicides was pushed into the substrate. The diffusion of boron was slightly retarded during oxidation for the specimen with a 20 nm epitaxial CoSi 2 capping layer as compared to the specimen without CoSi 2 capping layer. The electrical measurements showed that the silicide has good Schottky contacts with the boron doped silicon layer after RTO. A nanometer silicide patterning process, based on local oxidation of silicide (LOCOSI) layer, was also investigated. It shows two back-to-back Schottky diodes between the two separated parts of the silicide

  8. Rapid analysis of malathion in blood using head space-solid phase microextraction and selected ion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namera, A; Yashiki, M; Nagasawa, N; Iwasaki, Y; Kojima, T

    1997-08-04

    A simple and rapid method for analysis of malathion in blood was developed using head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry/ electron impact ionization-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/EI-SIM). A vial containing a blood sample, ammonium sulphate, sulphuric acid and fenitrothion as an internal standard, was heated at 90 degrees C for 15 min. The extraction fiber of the SPME was exposed for 5 min in the head space of the vial. The compounds absorbed on the fiber were detached by exposing the fibre in the injection port of GC-MS. A straight calibration curve was obtained between malathion concentrations of 2.5 to 50.0 micrograms g-1 in blood. No interfering substances were found, and the time for analysis was 40 min for one sample.

  9. Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.

  10. Transport of carbon ion test particles and hydrogen recycling in the plasma of the Columbia tokamak ''HBT'' [High Beta Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian-Hua.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon impurity ion transport is studied in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT), using a carbon tipped probe which is inserted into the plasma (n e ∼ 1 - 5 x 10 14 (cm -3 ), T e ∼ 4 - 10 (eV), B t ∼ 0.2 - 0.4(T)). Carbon impurity light, mainly the strong lines of C II (4267A, emitted by the C + ions) and C III (4647A, emitted by the C ++ ions), is formed by the ablation or sputtering of plasma ions and by the discharge of the carbon probe itself. The diffusion transport of the carbon ions is modeled by measuring the space-and-time dependent spectral light emission of the carbon ions with a collimated optical beam and photomultiplier. The point of emission can be observed in such a way as to sample regions along and transverse to the toroidal magnetic field. The carbon ion diffusion coefficients are obtained by fitting the data to a diffusion transport model. It is found that the diffusion of the carbon ions is ''classical'' and is controlled by the high collisionality of the HBT plasma; the diffusion is a two-dimensional problem and the expected dependence on the charge of the impurity ion is observed. The measurement of the spatial distribution of the H α emissivity was obtained by inverting the light signals from a 4-channel polychromator, the data were used to calculate the minor-radial influx, the density, and the recycling time of neutral hydrogen atoms or molecules. The calculation shows that the particle recycling time τ p is comparable with the plasma energy confinement time τ E ; therefore, the recycling of the hot plasma ions with the cold neutrals from the walls is one of the main mechanisms for loss of plasma energy

  11. Elucidating the Performance Limitations of Lithium-ion Batteries due to Species and Charge Transport through Five Characteristic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangming; Peng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Underutilization due to performance limitations imposed by species and charge transports is one of the key issues that persist with various lithium-ion batteries. To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed. The first group contains three characteristic time parameters, namely: (1) te, which characterizes the Li-ion transport rate in the electrolyte phase, (2) ts, characterizing the lithium diffusion rate in the solid active materials, and (3) tc, describing the local Li-ion depletion rate in electrolyte phase at the electrolyte/electrode interface due to electrochemical reactions. The second group contains two electric resistance parameters: Re and Rs, which represent respectively, the equivalent ionic transport resistance and the effective electronic transport resistance in the electrode. Electrochemical modeling and simulations to the discharge process of LiCoO2 cells reveal that: (1) if te, ts and tc are on the same order of magnitude, the species transports may not cause any performance limitations to the battery; (2) the underlying mechanisms of performance limitations due to thick electrode, high-rate operation, and large-sized active material particles as well as effects of charge transports are revealed. The findings may be used as quantitative guidelines in the development and design of more advanced Li-ion batteries. PMID:27599870

  12. P.I.A.F.E project: long distance transport of low energy exotic ions; Projet P.I.A.F.E: transport d`ions exotiques de basse energie sur longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nibart, V.

    1996-01-17

    The aim of the PIAFE project is the long distance (400 m) transport of a low energy radioactive ion beam from the ILL (Institut Laue Langevin) to the ISN (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires) of Grenoble (France). The production, extraction, ionization and mass separation of ions is performed by the ILL, while the transformation of ions into multicharged ions, their stripping and acceleration is carried out at the ISN. Theoretical and experimental studies for a simple an original guidance solution have shown that such a long transport, even delicate, should not encounter any major difficulty. The main objectives of this thesis is the technical realization of a 18 m section of this transport line. The problem of supports and focalizing elements alignment has been solved together with the other problems such as: the central trajectory deviation due to alignment defects and to the Earth`s magnetic field; the particle losses due to charge exchange with the residual gas and the emittance increase by Coulomb scattering. It has been demonstrated that a 90% transmission can be obtained using a 25 keV energy and a 10{sup -7} mbar vacuum. Experimental measurements using a rubidium ion source have allowed to validate a theoretical model of emittance increase due to the residual gas-ions interactions. The increase of emittance with respect to the pressure has been measured using four residual gases of different mass. (J.S.). 29 refs., 61 figs., 19 tabs., 8 photos., 4 appends.

  13. PHITS: Particle and heavy ion transport code system, version 2.23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Iwase, Hiroshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2010-10-01

    A Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System PHITS has been developed under the collaboration of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), RIST (Research Organization for Information Science and Technology) and KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization). PHITS can deal with the transport of all particles (nucleons, nuclei, mesons, photons, and electrons) over wide energy ranges, using several nuclear reaction models and nuclear data libraries. Geometrical configuration of the simulation can be set with GG (General Geometry) or CG (Combinatorial Geometry). Various quantities such as heat deposition, track length and production yields can be deduced from the simulation, using implemented estimator functions called 'tally'. The code also has a function to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries, using a code ANGEL. Because of these features, PHITS has been widely used for various purposes such as designs of accelerator shielding, radiation therapy and space exploration. Recently PHITS introduces an event generator for particle transport parts in the low energy region. Thus, PHITS was completely rewritten for the introduction of the event generator for neutron-induced reactions in energy region less than 20 MeV. Furthermore, several new tallis were incorporated for estimation of the relative biological effects. This document provides a manual of the new PHITS. (author)

  14. Expression of biomineralization-related ion transport genes in Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinder, Luke; Wheeler, Glen; Schroeder, Declan; von Dassow, Peter; Riebesell, Ulf; Brownlee, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Biomineralization in the marine phytoplankton Emiliania huxleyi is a stringently controlled intracellular process. The molecular basis of coccolith production is still relatively unknown although its importance in global biogeochemical cycles and varying sensitivity to increased pCO₂ levels has been well documented. This study looks into the role of several candidate Ca²⁺, H⁺ and inorganic carbon transport genes in E. huxleyi, using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Differential gene expression analysis was investigated in two isogenic pairs of calcifying and non-calcifying strains of E. huxleyi and cultures grown at various Ca²⁺ concentrations to alter calcite production. We show that calcification correlated to the consistent upregulation of a putative HCO₃⁻ transporter belonging to the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family, a Ca²⁺/H⁺ exchanger belonging to the CAX family of exchangers and a vacuolar H⁺-ATPase. We also show that the coccolith-associated protein, GPA is downregulated in calcifying cells. The data provide strong evidence that these genes play key roles in E. huxleyi biomineralization. Based on the gene expression data and the current literature a working model for biomineralization-related ion transport in coccolithophores is presented. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The obtaining and properties of asymmetric ion transport membrane for separating of oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, A. A.; Kulbakin, I. V.

    2018-04-01

    The bilayer oxygen-permeable membrane, consisting of a thin-film dense composite based on Co3O4 - 36 wt. % Bi2O3, and of a porous ceramic substrate of Co2SiO4, was synthesized and characterized. The way for obtaining of porous ceramic based on cobalt silicate was found, while the microstructure and the mechanical properties of porous ceramic were studied. Layered casting with post-pressing was used to cover the surface of porous support of Co2SiO4 by the Co3O4 - 36 wt. % Bi2O3 - based film. Transport properties of the asymmetric membrane have been studied, the kinetic features of oxygen transport have been established, and the characteristic thickness of the membrane has been estimated. The methods to prevent the high-temperature creep of ion transport membranes based on solid/molten oxides, which are the promising ones for obtaining of pure oxygen from air, are proposed and discussed.

  16. Cisterna magna microdialysis of 22Na to evaluate ion transport and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuckey, N.W.; Fowler, A.G.; Johanson, C.E.; Nashold, J.R.; Epstein, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Microdialysis is used in vivo for measuring compounds in brain interstitial fluid. The authors describe another application of this technique to the central nervous system, namely microprobe dialysis in the cisterna magna to study the dynamics of ion transport and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) formation in the rat. The choroid plexus is the major source of CSF, which is produced by active transport of Na from blood into the cerebral ventricles. Formation of CSF is directly proportional to the blood-to-CSF transport of Na. By injecting 22 Na into the systemic circulation and quantifying its movement into CSF by microdialysis, one can reliably estimate alterations in the rate of CSF formation. The sensitivity of this system was determined by administering acetazolamide, a standard inhibitor of CSF production. Because acetazolamide is known to decrease CSF formation by 40% to 50%, the cisternal microdialysis system in animals treated with this drug should detect a corresponding decrease in the amount of 22 Na dialyzed. This hypothesis is supported by the 22 Na uptake curves for control versus treated animals: that is, by the acetazolamide-induced average diminution of about 45% in both the rate and extent of tracer accession to dialysate. Bumetanide, a loop diuretic, reduced by 30% the 22 Na entry into dialysate. Microprobe dialysis of fluid in the cisterna magna is thus a minimally invasive and economical method for evaluating effects of drugs and hormones on the choroid plexus-CSF system

  17. Particle and heavy ion transport code system, PHITS, version 2.52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Niita, Koji; Iwase, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Furuta, Takuya; Sihver, Lembit

    2013-01-01

    An upgraded version of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS2.52, was developed and released to the public. The new version has been greatly improved from the previously released version, PHITS2.24, in terms of not only the code itself but also the contents of its package, such as the attached data libraries. In the new version, a higher accuracy of simulation was achieved by implementing several latest nuclear reaction models. The reliability of the simulation was improved by modifying both the algorithms for the electron-, positron-, and photon-transport simulations and the procedure for calculating the statistical uncertainties of the tally results. Estimation of the time evolution of radioactivity became feasible by incorporating the activation calculation program DCHAIN-SP into the new package. The efficiency of the simulation was also improved as a result of the implementation of shared-memory parallelization and the optimization of several time-consuming algorithms. Furthermore, a number of new user-support tools and functions that help users to intuitively and effectively perform PHITS simulations were developed and incorporated. Due to these improvements, PHITS is now a more powerful tool for particle transport simulation applicable to various research and development fields, such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. (author)

  18. Transport analysis of rf drift-velocity filter employing crossed DC and AC electric fields for ion swarm experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, K.; Takebe, M.

    1995-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the RF drift-velocity filter developed to separate a mixture of gaseous ions are examined theoretically. The solutions of the appropriate transport equations provide an analytical formula for the transmission efficiency of the filter in terms of the mobility and diffusion coefficient of the ions, the electric field strength, the RF frequency and the filter dimension. Using the experimental transport data for Li + /Xe and Cs + /Xe, the formula was tested and it was found that it adequately accounts for the degree of ion separation achieved by the filter at high gas pressures. The variation of the profiles of the arrival time spectra for Li + , Na + and Cs + ions in CO 2 , obtained by drift-tube experiments, also supports this analysis. 4 refs., 10 figs

  19. Alkylsulfonates as probes of uncoupling protein transport mechanism. Ion pair transport demonstrates that direct H(+) translocation by UCP1 is not necessary for uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jabůrek, M.; Vařecha, M.; Ježek, Petr; Garlid, K. D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 34 (2001), s. 31897-31905 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106 Grant - others:NIH(US) DK56273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : mitochondrial uncoupling proteins * alkylsulfonates * ion pair transport Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 7.258, year: 2001

  20. Validation of Ion TorrentTM Inherited Disease Panel with the PGMTM Sequencing Platform for Rapid and Comprehensive Mutation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer E. Mustafa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quick and accurate molecular testing is necessary for the better management of many inherited diseases. Recent technological advances in various next generation sequencing (NGS platforms, such as target panel-based sequencing, has enabled comprehensive, quick, and precise interrogation of many genetic variations. As a result, these technologies have become a valuable tool for gene discovery and for clinical diagnostics. The AmpliSeq Inherited Disease Panel (IDP consists of 328 genes underlying more than 700 inherited diseases. Here, we aimed to assess the performance of the IDP as a sensitive and rapid comprehensive gene panel testing. A total of 88 patients with inherited diseases and causal mutations that were previously identified by Sanger sequencing were randomly selected for assessing the performance of the IDP. The IDP successfully detected 93.1% of the mutations in our validation cohort, achieving high overall gene coverage (98%. The sensitivity for detecting single nucleotide variants (SNVs and short Indels was 97.3% and 69.2%, respectively. IDP, when coupled with Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM, delivers comprehensive and rapid sequencing for genes that are responsible for various inherited diseases. Our validation results suggest the suitability of this panel for use as a first-line screening test after applying the necessary clinical validation.

  1. Biomimetic hydrogels gate transport of calcium ions across cell culture inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanen, Christian N; Wilson, A Nolan; Wilson, Ann M; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Control of the in vitro spatiotemporal availability of calcium ions is one means by which the microenvironments of hematopoietic stem cells grown in culture may be reproduced. The effects of cross-linking density on the diffusivity of calcium ions through cell culture compatible poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [poly(HEMA)]-based bioactive hydrogels possessing 1.0 mol% 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), 5 mol% N,N-(dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA) and ca. 17 mol% n-butyl acrylate (n-BA) have been investigated to determine if varying cross-link density is a viable approach to controlling transport of calcium across hydrogel membranes. Cross-linking density was varied by changing the composition of cross-linker, tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate (TEGDA). The hydrogel membranes were formed by sandwich casting onto the external surface of track-etched polycarbonate membranes (T = 10 μm, φ = 0.4 μm pores) of cell culture inserts, polymerized in place by UV light irradiation and immersed in buffered (0.025 HEPES, pH 7.4) 0.10 M calcium chloride solution. The transport of calcium ions across the hydrogel membrane was monitored using a calcium ion selective electrode set within the insert. Degree of hydration (21.6 ± 1.0%) and void fraction were found to be constant across all cross-linking densities. Diffusion coefficients, determined using time-lag analysis, were shown to be strongly dependent on and to exponentially decrease with increasing cross-linking density. Compared to that found in buffer (2.0-2.5 × 10⁻⁶ cm²/s), diffusion coefficients ranged from 1.40 × 10⁻⁶ cm²/s to 1.80 × 10⁻⁷ cm²/s and tortuosity values ranged from 1.7 to 10.0 for the 1 and 12 mol% TEGDA cross-linked hydrogels respectively. Changes in tortuosity arising from variations in cross-link density were found to be the primary modality for controlling diffusivity through novel n-BA containing poly(HEMA)-based bioactive hydrogels.

  2. Simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol assembled Au substrate and its recognition mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xian-Qing; Liang, Hai-Qing [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Cao, Zhong, E-mail: zhongcao2004@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Xiao, Qing [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Xiao, Zhong-Liang, E-mail: xiaozhongliang@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Song, Liu-Bin [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Chen, Dan [Hunan Airbluer Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd., Changsha 410014 (China); Wang, Fu-Liang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-01

    A simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol (1-UDT) assembled Au substrate (Au/1-UDT) has been well constructed. 1-UDT was for the purpose of generating self-assembled monolayer on gold surface to recognize Hg{sup 2+} in aqueous solution, which had a working concentration range of 1.0 × 10{sup −} {sup 8}–1.0 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1}, with a Nernst response slope of 28.83 ± 0.4 mV/-pC, a detection limit of 4.5 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1}, and a good selectivity over the other tested cations. Also, the Au/1-UDT possessed good reproducibility, stability, and short response time. The recovery obtained for the determination of mercury ion in practical tremella samples was in the range of 99.8–103.4%. Combined electrochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with quantum chemical computation, the probable recognition mechanism of the electrode for selective recognition of Hg{sup 2+} has been investigated. The covalent bond formed between mercury and sulfur is stronger than the one between gold and sulfur and thus prevents the adsorption of 1-UDT molecules on the gold surface. The quantum chemical computation with density functional theory further demonstrates that the strong interaction between the mercury atom and the sulfur atom on the gold surface leads to the gold sulfur bond ruptured and the gold mercury metallophilic interaction. - Highlights: • A simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode has been well constructed. • The Au/1-UDT electrode for sensing Hg{sup 2+} has a sensitivity of 28.83 ± 0.4 mV/− pC. • The ISE method has a detection limit of Hg{sup 2+} down to 4.5 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1}. • A mechanism with density functional theory for recognition of Hg{sup 2+} is developed. • The quantum chemical computation demonstrates Au-Hg metallophilic interaction.

  3. Colonic epithelial ion transport is not affected in patients with diverticulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilotta Maria C

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colonic diverticular disease is a bothersome condition with an unresolved pathogenesis. It is unknown whether a neuroepithelial dysfunction is present. The aim of the study was two-fold; (1 to investigate colonic epithelial ion transport in patients with diverticulosis and (2 to adapt a miniaturized Modified Ussing Air-Suction (MUAS chamber for colonic endoscopic biopsies. Methods Biopsies were obtained from the sigmoid part of the colon. 86 patients were included. All patients were referred for colonoscopy on suspicion of neoplasia and they were without pathological findings at colonoscopy (controls except for diverticulosis in 22 (D-patients. Biopsies were mounted in MUAS chambers with an exposed area of 5 mm2. Electrical responses to various stimulators and inhibitors of ion transport were investigated together with histological examination. The MUAS chamber was easy to use and reproducible data were obtained. Results Median basal short circuit current (SCC was 43.8 μA·cm-2 (0.8 – 199 for controls and 59.3 μA·cm-2 (3.0 – 177.2 for D-patients. Slope conductance was 77.0 mS·cm-2 (18.6 – 204.0 equal to 13 Ω·cm2 for controls and 96.6 mS·cm-2 (8.4 – 191.4 equal to 10.3 Ω·cm2 for D-patients. Stimulation with serotonin, theophylline, forskolin and carbachol induced increases in SCC in a range of 4.9 – 18.6 μA·cm-2, while inhibition with indomethacin, bumetanide, ouabain and amiloride decreased SCC in a range of 6.5 – 27.4 μA·cm-2, and all with no significant differences between controls and D-patients. Histological examinations showed intact epithelium and lamina propria before and after mounting for both types of patients. Conclusion We conclude that epithelial ion transport is not significantly altered in patients with diverticulosis and that the MUAS chamber can be adapted for studies of human colonic endoscopic biopsies.

  4. Rapid release of 42K or 86Rb from two distinct transport sites on the Na,K-pump in the presence of Pi or vanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbush, B. III

    1987-01-01

    The rate of 86Rb or 42 K release from an occluded form of the phosphorylated Na+ pump has been studied using a rapid filtration apparatus described previously. The rate constant of release is 5-15 s-1, and 42 K and 86Rb dissociate at approximately the same rate. Mg2+ is required for deocclusion in the presence of Pi at a site which has the same affinity as the site involved in stabilization of E2(K) with ATP; we propose that Na,K-ATPase has only one site for Mg2+, that the affinity of this site for Mg2+ is increased by Pi binding and decreased by ATP binding, and that Mg2+ is bound and released in the normal transport cycle. In the presence of K+, Cs+, Rb+, or Tl+, the release of two distinct 86Rb ions can be observed, the slow release from one site (''s'' site) being blocked by occupancy of the site vacated by the other (''f'', fast site). By a sequence of incubations, labeled 86Rb can be placed at either site, and the rate of dissociation monitored individually; in the absence of K+, dissociation from the s site proceeds after a lag in which the f site is vacated. The results are consistent with a ''flickering-gate'' model of deocclusion to the extracellular pump face, in which the site is exposed to the medium only long enough for a single ion to be released. When deocclusion to the intracellular face is promoted with ATP, ions are released from both sites at the same rate, presumably because the E2----E1 conformational change is rate-limiting. Unlabeled ions co-occluded with 86Rb increase the ATP-stimulated rate of release in the order Rb+ less than Tl+ less than Cs+ less than K+; since the same rank order is observed when dissociation from the s site is monitored in the presence of these ions and MgPi we propose that the latter process proceeds toward the intracellular pump face

  5. Ion transport in thin cell electrodeposition: modelling three-ion electrolytes in dense branched morphology under constant voltage and current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, G. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States) and Laboratorio de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: marshalg@mail.retina.ar; Molina, F.V. [INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soba, A. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-05-30

    Electrochemical deposition (ECD) and spatially coupled bipolar electrochemistry (SCBE) experiments in thin-layer cells are known to produce complex ion transport patterns concomitantly with the growth of dendrite-like structures. Here we present a macroscopic model of ECD and SCBE with a three-ion electrolyte in conditions of dense branched morphology. The model describes ion transport and deposit growth through the one-dimensional Nernst-Planck equations for ion transport, the Poisson equation for the electric field and, for ECD, a growth law for deposit evolution. We present numerical simulations for typical electrochemical deposition experiments: dense branched morphology in ECD and the incubation period in SCBE. In ECD the model predicts cation, anion and proton concentration profiles, electric field variations and deposit growth speed, that are in qualitative agreement with experiments; the predicted evolution and collision of the deposit and proton fronts reveal a time scaling close to those observed in experiments. In SCBE, the model predicts that the inverse of the incubation time scales linearly with the applied voltage. Such behaviour was observed in experiments.

  6. Product ion filtering with rapid polarity switching for the detection of all fumonisins and AAL-toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Justin B; Kelman, Megan J; Qi, Tianyu F; Seifert, Keith A; Sumarah, Mark W

    2015-11-30

    Fumonisins and AAL-toxins are structurally similar mycotoxins that contaminate agricultural crops and foodstuffs. Traditional analytical screening methods are designed to target the known compounds for which standards are available but there is clear evidence that many other derivatives exist and could be toxic. A fast, semi-targeted method for the detection of all known fumonisins, AAL-toxins and related emerging toxins is required. Strains of Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria arborescens and Aspergillus welwitschiae were grown on their associated crops (maize, tomatoes, and grapes, respectively). Extracts were first analyzed in negative mode using product ion filtering to detect the tricarballylic ester product ion that is common to fumonisins and AAL-toxins (m/z 157.0142). During the same liquid chromatography (LC) run, rapid polarity switching was then used to collect positive mode tandem mass spectrometric (MS(2) ) data for characterization of the detected compounds. Fumonisin B1 , B2 , B3 and B4 were detected on Fusarium contaminated maize, AAL-toxins TA, TB, TD, TE were detected on Alternaria inoculated tomatoes and fumonisin B2 , B4 and B6 on Aspergillus contaminated grapes. Additionally, over 100 structurally related compounds possessing a tricarballylic ester were detected from the mould inoculated plant material. These included a hydroxyl-FB1 from F. verticillioides inoculated maize, keto derivatives of AAL-toxins from A. arborescens inoculated tomatoes, and two previously unreported classes of non-aminated fumonisins from Asp. welwitschiae contaminated grapes. A semi-targeted method for the detection of all fumonisins and AAL-toxins in foodstuffs was developed. The use of the distinctive tricarballylic ester product anion for detection combined with rapid polarity switching and positive mode MS(2) is an effective strategy for differentiating between known isomers such as FB1 and FB6 . This analytical tool is also effective for the identification of

  7. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  8. Charge transport mechanism in p-type copper ion containing triazine thiolate metallopolymer thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Deepak; Roy, Amit; Anjaneyulu, P.; Kandaiah, Sakthivel; Pinjare, Sampatrao L.

    2017-10-01

    The charge transport mechanism in copper ions containing 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-trithiolate (CuTCA) based polymer device in sandwich (Ag/CuTCA/Cu) geometry is studied. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the metallopolymer CuTCA device have shown a transition in the charge transport mechanism from Ohmic to Space-charge limited conduction when temperature and voltage are varied. The carriers in CuTCA devices exhibit hopping transport, in which carriers hop from one site to the other. The hole mobility in this polymer device is found to be dependent on electric field E ( μpα√{E } ) and temperature, which suggests that the polymer has inherent disorder. The electric-field coefficient γ and zero-field mobility μ0 are temperature dependent. The values of mobility and activation energies are estimated from temperature (90-140 K) dependent charge transport studies and found to be in the range of 1 × 10-11-8 × 10-12 m2/(V s) and 16.5 meV, respectively. Temperature dependent electric-field coefficient γ is in the order of 17.8 × 10-4 (m/V)1/2, and the value of zero-field mobility μ0 is in the order of 1.2 × 10-11 m2/(V s) at 140 K. A constant phase element (Q) is used to model the device parameters, which are extracted using the Impedance spectroscopy technique. The bandgap of the polymer is estimated to be 2.6 eV from UV-Vis reflectance spectra.

  9. Intense heavy-ion beam transport with electric and magnetic quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Hopkins, H.S.

    1995-08-01

    As part of the small induction recirculator development at LLNL, the authors are testing an injector and transport line that delivers 4 micros beams of potassium with repetition rates up to 10 Hz at a nominal current of 2 mA. The normalized K-V equivalent emittance of the beams is near 0.02 π mm-mrad and is mostly determined by the temperature of the source (0.1 eV). K + ions generated at 80 keV in a Pierce diode are matched to an alternating gradient transport line by seven electric quadrupoles. Two additional quads have been modified to serve as two-axis steerers. The matching section is followed by a transport section comprised of seven permanent magnet quadrupoles. Matching to this section is achieved by adjusting the voltages on the electric quadrupoles to voltages calculated by an envelope matching code. Measurements of beam envelope parameters are made at the matching section entrance and exit as well as at the end of the permanent magnet transport section. Beam current waveforms along the experiment are compared with results from a one-dimension longitudinal dynamics code. Initial experiments show particle loss occurring at the beam head as a result of overtaking. The apparatus is also being used for the development of non or minimally intercepting diagnostics for future recirculator experiments. These include capacitive monitors for determining beam line-charge density and position in the recirculator; flying wire scanners for beam position; and gated TV scanners for measuring beam profiles and emittance

  10. Fast ion stabilization of the ion temperature gradient driven modes in the Joint European Torus hybrid-scenario plasmas: a trigger mechanism for internal transport barrier formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, M; Zocco, A [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F, E-mail: Michele.Romanelli@ccfe.ac.u [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Understanding and modelling turbulent transport in thermonuclear fusion plasmas are crucial for designing and optimizing the operational scenarios of future fusion reactors. In this context, plasmas exhibiting state transitions, such as the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB), are particularly interesting since they can shed light on transport physics and offer the opportunity to test different turbulence suppression models. In this paper, we focus on the modelling of ITB formation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [1] hybrid-scenario plasmas, where, due to the monotonic safety factor profile, magnetic shear stabilization cannot be invoked to explain the transition. The turbulence suppression mechanism investigated here relies on the increase in the plasma pressure gradient in the presence of a minority of energetic ions. Microstability analysis of the ion temperature gradient driven modes (ITG) in the presence of a fast-hydrogen minority shows that energetic ions accelerated by the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system (hydrogen, n{sub H,fast}/n{sub D,thermal} up to 10%, T{sub H,fast}/T{sub D,thermal} up to 30) can increase the pressure gradient enough to stabilize the ITG modes driven by the gradient of the thermal ions (deuterium). Numerical analysis shows that, by increasing the temperature of the energetic ions, electrostatic ITG modes are gradually replaced by nearly electrostatic modes with tearing parity at progressively longer wavelengths. The growth rate of the microtearing modes is found to be lower than that of the ITG modes and comparable to the local E x B-velocity shearing rate. The above mechanism is proposed as a possible trigger for the formation of ITBs in this type of discharges.

  11. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashleigh L; Doris, Sean E; Li, Longjun; Hughes, Mark A; Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A; Helms, Brett A

    2017-05-24

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device's active materials when they enter the membrane's pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane's ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium-sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development.

  12. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device’s active materials when they enter the membrane’s pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane’s ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium–sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development. PMID:28573201

  13. New insights into gill ionocyte and ion transporter function in euryhaline and diadromous fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Junya; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Teleost fishes are able to acclimatize to seawater by secreting excess NaCl by means of specialized “ionocytes” in the gill epithelium. Antibodies against Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) have been used since 1996 as a marker for identifying branchial ionocytes. Immunohistochemistry of NKA by itself and in combination with Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter and CFTR Cl− channel provided convincing evidence that ionocytes are functional during seawater acclimation, and also revealed morphological variations in ionocytes among teleost species. Recent development of antibodies to freshwater- and seawater-specific isoforms of the NKA alpha-subunit has allowed functional distinction of ion absorptive and secretory ionocytes in Atlantic salmon. Cutaneous ionocytes of tilapia embryos serve as a model for branchial ionocytes, allowing identification of 4 types: two involved in ion uptake, one responsible for salt secretion and one with unknown function. Combining molecular genetics, advanced imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry will rapidly advance our understanding of both the unity and diversity of ionocyte function and regulation in fish osmoregulation.

  14. Azimuthal anisotropy in heavy-ion collisions using non-extensive statistics in Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.; Tiwari, S.K.; Younus, M.; Sahoo, R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major goals in heavy-ion physics is to understand the properties of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), a deconfined hot and dense state of quarks and gluons existed shortly after the Big Bang. In the present scenario, the high-energy particle accelerators are able to reach energies where this extremely dense nuclear matter can be probed for a short time. Here, we follow our earlier works which use non-extensive statistics in Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE). We represent the initial distribution of particles with the help of Tsallis power law distribution parameterized by the nonextensive parameter q and the Tsallis temperature T, remembering the fact that their origin is due to hard scatterings. We use the initial distribution (f in ) with Relaxation Time Approximation (RTA) of the BTE and calculate the final distribution (f fin ). Then we calculate ν 2 of the system using the final distribution in the definition of ν2

  15. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.

    1983-03-01

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10 - 7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/ 2 /2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  16. Ion transporters for fluid reabsorption in the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, J M; Dalponte, M; Janssen, S; Bunick, D; Nakai, M

    2006-10-01

    Testicular fluid is highly condensed during its passage through the epididymal region in the avian species. In the present study, major ion transporters that are responsible for condensation mainly by water resorption in the reproductive tract as identified in the mammalian epididymis were localized within the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymis by immunohistochemistry. The results show that the efferent ductule epithelium expressed sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and that the connecting ductule and epididymal duct epithelia expressed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and CAII. These data suggest that a model proposed for reabsorption in mammalian efferent ductules can be applied to avian efferent ductules.

  17. Mechanisms of material removal and mass transport in focused ion beam nanopore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kallol, E-mail: das7@illinois.edu; Johnson, Harley T., E-mail: htj@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Laboratory, MC-236, 104 South Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Despite the widespread use of focused ion beam (FIB) processing as a material removal method for applications ranging from electron microscope sample preparation to nanopore processing for DNA sequencing, the basic material removal mechanisms of FIB processing are not well understood. We present the first complete atomistic simulation of high-flux FIB using large-scale parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanopore fabrication in freestanding thin films. We focus on the root mechanisms of material removal and rearrangement and describe the role of explosive boiling in forming nanopores. FIB nanopore fabrication is typically understood to occur via sputter erosion. This can be shown to be the case in low flux systems, where individual ion impacts are sufficiently separated in time that they may be considered as independent events. But our detailed MD simulations show that in high flux FIB processing, above a threshold level at which thermal effects become significant, the primary mechanism of material removal changes to a significantly accelerated, thermally dominated process. Under these conditions, the target is heated by the ion beam faster than heat is conducted away by the material, leading quickly to melting, and then continued heating to nearly the material critical temperature. This leads to explosive boiling of the target material with spontaneous bubble formation and coalescence. Mass is rapidly rearranged at the atomistic scale, and material removal occurs orders of magnitude faster than would occur by simple sputtering. While the phenomenology is demonstrated computationally in silicon, it can be expected to occur at lower beam fluxes in other cases where thermal conduction is suppressed due to material properties, geometry, or ambient thermal conditions.

  18. Performance of a shallow-focus applied-magnetic-field diode for ion-beam-transport experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, F.C.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Rose, D.V. [JAYCOR, Vienna (Vatican City State, Holy See); Jones, T.G.; Oliver, B.V.

    1997-12-31

    An applied-magnetic-field ion diode to study the transport of intense ion beams for light-ion inertial confinement fusion is being operated on the Gamble II generator at NRL. A Large-area (145-cm{sup 2}), shallow-focusing diode is used to provide the ion beam required for self-pinched transport (SPT) experiments. Experiments have demonstrated focusing at 70 cm for 1.2-MV, 40-kA protons. Beyond the focus, the beam hollows out consistent with 20--30 mrad microdivergence. The effect of the counter-pulse B-field on altering the ion-beam trajectories and improving the focus has been diagnosed with a multiple-pinhole-camera using radiachromic film. This diagnostic is also used to determine the radial and azimuthal uniformity of ion emission at the anode for different B-field conditions. Increasing the diode voltage to 1.5 MV and optimizing the ion current are planned before initiating SPT experiments. Experiments to measure the spatial beam profile at focus, i.e., the SPT channel entrance, are in progress. Results are presented.

  19. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-09-21

    Substrates able to rectify transport of ions based on charge and/or size are ubiquitous in biological systems. Electrolytes and interphases that selectively transport electrochemically active ions are likewise of broad interest in all electrical energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode and stabilize metal deposition by fundamental mechanisms. We report that 20- to 300-nm-thick, single-ion-conducting membranes deposited at the anode enable electrolytes with the highest combination of cation transference number, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical stability reported. By means of direct visualization we find that single-ion membranes also reduce dendritic deposition of Li in liquids. Galvanostatic measurements further show that the electrolytes facilitate long (3 mAh) recharge of full Li/LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells with high cathode loadings (3 mAh cm−2/19.9 mg cm−2) and at high current densities (3 mA cm−2).

  20. Comparison of heavy-ion transport simulations: Collision integral in a box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xun; Wang, Yong-Jia; Colonna, Maria; Danielewicz, Pawel; Ono, Akira; Tsang, Manyee Betty; Wolter, Hermann; Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Cozma, Dan; Feng, Zhao-Qing; Das Gupta, Subal; Ikeno, Natsumi; Ko, Che-Ming; Li, Bao-An; Li, Qing-Feng; Li, Zhu-Xia; Mallik, Swagata; Nara, Yasushi; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Ohnishi, Akira; Oliinychenko, Dmytro; Papa, Massimo; Petersen, Hannah; Su, Jun; Song, Taesoo; Weil, Janus; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Simulations by transport codes are indispensable to extract valuable physical information from heavy-ion collisions. In order to understand the origins of discrepancies among different widely used transport codes, we compare 15 such codes under controlled conditions of a system confined to a box with periodic boundary, initialized with Fermi-Dirac distributions at saturation density and temperatures of either 0 or 5 MeV. In such calculations, one is able to check separately the different ingredients of a transport code. In this second publication of the code evaluation project, we only consider the two-body collision term; i.e., we perform cascade calculations. When the Pauli blocking is artificially suppressed, the collision rates are found to be consistent for most codes (to within 1 % or better) with analytical results, or completely controlled results of a basic cascade code. In orderto reach that goal, it was necessary to eliminate correlations within the same pair of colliding particles that can be present depending on the adopted collision prescription. In calculations with active Pauli blocking, the blocking probability was found to deviate from the expected reference values. The reason is found in substantial phase-space fluctuations and smearing tied to numerical algorithms and model assumptions in the representation of phase space. This results in the reduction of the blocking probability in most transport codes, so that the simulated system gradually evolves away from the Fermi-Dirac toward a Boltzmann distribution. Since the numerical fluctuations are weaker in the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck codes, the Fermi-Dirac statistics is maintained there for a longer time than in the quantum molecular dynamics codes. As a result of this investigation, we are able to make judgements about the most effective strategies in transport simulations for determining the collision probabilities and the Pauli blocking. Investigation in a similar vein of other ingredients