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Sample records for rapid intravenous bolus

  1. Insulin pulsatility after the intravenous glucose bolus

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    Nedeljković-Beleslin Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether sudden change in blood glucose concentration in healthy subject would produce insulin secretory pattern similar to one in type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D. DESIGN: The concept of the study was to 'reset' the pancreas and empty the stored insulin pool, so that subtle derangements of the pulsatile insulin secretion could be studied. METHODS: The study group included 6 control and 7 T2D subjects. For insulin and glucose determination, blood was sampled for 60 minutes with 2 minutes inter-sample interval. To increase blood glucose an intravenous glucose bolus was given (0.3 g/kg body weight. RESULTS: The average glucose level in the T2D group was significantly higher, but the average insulin concentration was not different between the groups. Insulin half-life, pulse amplitude, number of pulses and interpulse interval did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the sudden increase in blood glucose causes insulin secretory pattern to become similar in the healthy and in the T2D subjects. However, the defect in the insulin secretion or glucose sensing inherent to β-cell exists, as the insufficient quantity of insulin is secreted in response to the increased glucose level.

  2. Clinical outcomes of intracoronary eptifibatide bolus only versus intracoronary bolus and intravenous infusion of eptifibatide in primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

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    Soon, Dinna; Ho, Hee Hwa; Loh, Kwok Kong; Ooi, Yau Wei; Foo, David; Jafary, Fahim H; Ong, Paul Jau

    2012-03-01

    Intracoronary bolus of eptifibatide during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been shown to result in higher local platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy with improved microvascular perfusion. It is unclear whether intracoronary administration of eptifibatide in a larger patient population results in favourable clinical outcomes. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of two regimens of intracoronary eptifibatide (bolus only versus bolus followed by intravenous infusion) in patients undergoing primary PCI for ST-elevation MI. They were divided into two groups: Group A (n=67) who received fixed-dose intracoronary eptifibatide bolus only and Group B (n=88) who received intracoronary bolus and continuous intravenous infusion of eptifibatide for 18 h. The preliminary findings from our registry showed that both regimens were associated with good angiographic outcomes, few bleeding events and low in-hospital major adverse cardiac events. A large prospective randomized, multi-centre trial is needed to confirm our observation.

  3. Placental transfer of etomidate in pregnant ewes after an intravenous bolus dose and continuous infusion.

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    Fresno, Laura; Andaluz, Anna; Moll, Xavier; Cristofol, Carles; Arboix, Margarida; García, Félix

    2008-03-01

    Etomidate (ETO) is a short-acting intravenous (IV) anaesthetic characterised by cardiopulmonary stability and favourable pharmacokinetics. Although ETO has been used satisfactorily in obstetrical anaesthesia, little is known about placental transfer and the drug's pharmacokinetics in the fetus. Placental transfer in pregnant ewes has been evaluated following the administration of an IV bolus of 1mg/kg ETO; and after a 1-h infusion of 100 microg/kg min(-1) ETO preceded by an IV bolus of 1mg/kg. In ewes, ETO concentration and AUC were higher than those found in fetuses. After the ETO bolus dose, the fetus:ewe AUC ratio was 0.45+/-0.32, and the mean residence time (MRT) was 20+/-7 min for dams and 22+/-3 min for the fetuses. After ETO infusion, the AUC ratio was 0.37+/-0.08, and MRT was 46+/-12 min for ewes and 46+/-22 min for fetuses. Although ETO crosses the placenta very rapidly and reaches the fetus in high amounts, a certain placental barrier effect limits its transfer. There is no evidence of cumulative effects of the drug in the fetus as fetal ETO elimination was as rapid as in the dam.

  4. Single bolus intravenous regadenoson injection versus central venous infusion of adenosine for maximum coronary hyperaemia in fractional flow reserve measurement.

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    van Nunen, Lokien X; Lenders, Guy D; Schampaert, Stéphanie; van 't Veer, Marcel; Wijnbergen, Inge; Brueren, Guus R G; Tonino, Pim A L; Pijls, Nico H J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the hyperaemic effect of a single bolus regadenoson injection to a central venous adenosine infusion for inducing hyperaemia in the measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). One hundred patients scheduled for FFR measurement were enrolled. FFR was first measured by IV adenosine (140 µg/kg/min), thereafter by IV bolus regadenoson injection (400 µg), followed by another measurement by IV adenosine and bolus injection of regadenoson. The regadenoson injections were randomised to central or peripheral intravenous. Hyperaemic response and duration of steady state maximum hyperaemia were studied, central versus peripheral venous regadenoson injections were compared, and safety and reproducibility of repeated injections were investigated. Mean age was 66±8 years, 75% of the patients were male. The target stenosis was located in the LM, LAD, LCX, and RCA in 7%, 54%, 20% and 19%, respectively. There was no difference in FFR measured by adenosine or by regadenoson (ΔFFR=0.00±0.01, r=0.994, pregadenoson was variable (10-600 s). No serious side effects of either drug were observed. Maximum coronary hyperaemia can be achieved easily, rapidly, and safely by one single intravenous bolus of regadenoson administered either centrally or peripherally. Repeated regadenoson injections are safe. The hyperaemic plateau is variable. Clinical Trial Registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/ show/study/NCT01809743?term=NCT01809743&rank=1 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809743).

  5. Intensive care nurses' self-reported practice of intravenous fluid bolus therapy.

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    Eastwood, Glenn M; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Paton, Emily; Glassford, Neil J; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Guijun; Tanaka, Aiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-12-01

    To describe self-reported practice of fluid bolus therapy by intensive care nurses. Multi-choice questionnaire of intensive care nurses conducted in July, 2014. Major university tertiary referral centre. 141 (64%) intensive care nurses responded. The majority of respondents identified 4% albumin as the commonest fluid bolus type and stated a fluid bolus was 250ml; however fluid bolus volume varied from 100ml to 1000ml. Hypotension was identified as the primary physiological trigger for a fluid bolus. In the hour following a fluid bolus for hypotension almost half of respondents expected an 'increase in mean arterial pressure of 0-10mmHg'; for oliguria, >60% expected an 'increase in urinary output of '0.5-1ml/kg/hour'; for low CVP, 50% expected 'an increase in CVP of 3-4mmHg'; and, for tachycardia, 45% expected a 'decrease in heart rate of 11-20beats/minute'. Finally, 7-10% of respondents were 'unsure' about the physiological response to a fluid bolus. Most respondents identified fluid bolus therapy to be at least 250ml of 4% albumin given as quickly as possible; however, volumes from 100 to 1000ml were also accepted. There was much uncertainty about the expected physiological response to fluid bolus therapy according to indication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors Influencing ACT After Intravenous Bolus Administration of 100 IU/kg of Unfractionated Heparin During Cardiac Catheterization in Children.

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    Muster, Ileana; Haas, Thorsten; Quandt, Daniel; Kretschmar, Oliver; Knirsch, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Anticoagulation using intravenous bolus administration of unfractionated heparin (UFH) aims to prevent thromboembolic complications in children undergoing cardiac catheterization (CC). Optimal UFH dosage is needed to reduce bleeding complications. We analyzed the effect of bolus UFH on activated clotting time (ACT) in children undergoing CC focusing on age-dependent, anesthesia-related, or disease-related influencing factors. This retrospective single-center study of 183 pediatric patients receiving UFH during CC analyzed ACT measured at the end of CC. After bolus administration of 100 IU UFH/kg body weight, ACT values between 105 and 488 seconds were reached. Seventy-two percent were within target level of 160 to 240 seconds. Age-dependent differences were not obtained ( P = .407). The ACT values were lower due to hemodilution (total fluid and crystalloid administration during CC, both P ACT values but occurred more frequently in children between 1 month and 1 year of age (91%). In conclusion, with a bolus of 100 IU UFH/kg, an ACT target level of 160 to 240 seconds can be achieved during CC in children in 72%, which is influenced by hemodilution and anticoagulant and antiplatelet premedication but not by age.

  7. Alfaxalone for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing field castration: continuous infusion compared with intravenous boluses.

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    Deutsch, Julia; Ekiri, Abel; de Vries, Annemarie

    2017-07-01

    To compare alfaxalone as continuous intravenous (IV) infusion with intermittent IV injections for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing castration. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A group of 33 entire male Welsh ponies undergoing field castration. After preanaesthetic medication with IV detomidine (10 μg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.05 mg kg-1), anaesthesia was induced with IV diazepam (0.05 mg kg-1) followed by alfaxalone (1 mg kg-1). After random allocation, anaesthesia was maintained with either IV alfaxalone 2 mg kg-1 hour-1 (group A; n = 16) or saline administered at equal volume (group S; n = 17). When necessary, additional alfaxalone (0.2 mg kg-1) was administered IV. Ponies were breathing room air. Using simple descriptive scales, surgical conditions and anaesthesia recovery were scored. Total amount of alfaxalone, ponies requiring additional alfaxalone and time to administration, time from induction to end of infusion and end of infusion to standing were noted. Indirect arterial blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rates, end-expiratory carbon dioxide partial pressure and arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. Data were analysed using Student t, Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests, where appropriate (p < 0.05). Total amount of alfaxalone administered after induction of anaesthesia (0.75 ± 0.27 versus 0.17 ± 0.23 mg kg-1; p < 0.0001) and time to standing (14.8 ± 4 versus 11.6 ± 4 minutes; p = 0.044) were higher in group A compared to group S. Ponies requiring additional alfaxalone boluses [four (group A) versus seven (group S)] and other measured variables were similar between groups; five ponies required oxygen supplementation [three (group A) versus two (group S)]. Continuous IV infusion and intermittent administration of alfaxalone provided similar anaesthesia quality and surgical conditions in ponies undergoing field castration. Less alfaxalone is required

  8. The Impact of Warmed Intravenous Contrast Material on the Bolus Geometry of Coronary CT Angiography Applications

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    Hazirolan, Tuncay; Turkbey, Baris; Akpinar, Erhan; Canyigit, Murat; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Peynircioglu, Bora; Balkanci, Z. Dicle; Akata, Deniz; Balkanci, Ferhun [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2009-04-15

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of administration of warmed contrast material (CM) on the bolus geometry and enhancement as depicted on coronary CT angiography. A total of 64 patients (42 men, 22 women; mean age, 56 years) were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 included 32 patients administered CM (Omnipaque [Iohexol] 350 mg I/ mL; Nycomed, Princeton, NJ) saline solutions kept in an incubator at a constant temperature (37 .deg. C). Group 2 included 32 patients administered the CM saline solutions kept at constant room temperature (24 .deg. C). Cardiac CT scans were performed with a dual source computed tomography (DSCT) scanner. For each group, region of interest curves were plotted inside the ascending aorta, main pulmonary artery and descending aorta on test bolus images. Using enhancement values, time/enhancement diagrams were produced for each vessel. On diagrams, basal Hounsfield unit (HU) values were subtracted from sequentially obtained values. A value of 100 HU was accepted as a cut-off value for the beginning of opacification. The time to peak, the time required to reach 100 HU opacification, maximum enhancement and duration of enhancement above 100 HU were noted. DSCT angiography studies were evaluated for coronary vessel enhancement. Maximum enhancement values in the ascending aorta, descending aorta and main pulmonary artery were significantly higher in group 1 subjects. In the ascending aorta, the median time required to reach 100 HU opacification during the test bolus analysis was significantly shorter for group 2 subjects than for group 1 subjects. In the ascending aorta, the descending aorta and main pulmonary artery, for group 1 subjects, the bolus geometry curve shifted to the left and upwards as compared with the bolus geometry curve for group 2 subjects. The use of warmed CM yields higher enhancement values and a shorter time to reach maximum enhancement duration, resulting in a shift of the bolus geometry curve to the

  9. Intravenous Bolus versus Continuous Infusion of Famotidine or Ranitidine on 24 H Intragastric Acidity in Fasting Healthy Volunteers

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    ABR Thomson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of H2-receptor antagonists may be clinically indicated to maintain intragastric pH above 4 to reduce acute gastric mucosal lesions or to treat patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Eight fasting healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive ranitidine infusion alone (150 mg/day, ranitidine infusion plus 50 mg bolus injection of ranitidine (total of 200 mg/day, famotidine infusion alone (40 mg/day or famotidine infusion plus 40 mg bolus injection of famotidine (total of 80 mg/day. Gastric fluid contents were aspirated for 24 h and collected as half-hourly samples in which pH measurements were made. Measures analyzed were mean and median pH, percentage pH at or below 3, 4 or 5 for the 24 h period, daytime, evening and nighttime. The data for each of the variables were analyzed as a Latin square crossover design of variance therapy; base pH before treatment administration in each crossover phase was employed as the covariant. Significant differential treatment means were tested by Newman-Keul’s multiple range test at the 5% level of significance. The mean and median evening pH were higher after famotidine than after ranitidine infusion, but all other pH readings were similar when using these doses. The addition of an initial loading bolus of 50 mg ranitidine to the ranitidine infusion did not result in any added differences in pH, whereas the addition of an initial loading bolus of 40 mg famotidine to the famotidine infusion resulted in a higher 24 h median pH, as well as a lower percentage of pH values of 4 or below, 16.6% versus 28.5%, P<0.05. However, the loading doses of ranitidine and famotidine were not equivalent in potency, and studies are needed to compare the potency of equivalent doses of ranitidine and famotidine when given by bolus plus infusion. Also the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be explored further in the type of individuals potentially requiring intravenous H2-receptor antagonists.

  10. Intravenous contrast material administration at high-pitch dual-source CT pulmonary angiography: Test bolus versus bolus-tracking technique

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    Kerl, J. Matthias, E-mail: matthias.kerl@gmail.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Lehnert, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.lehnert@kgu.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Schell, Boris, E-mail: boris.schell@googlemail.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bodelle, Boris, E-mail: Boris.bodelle@kgu.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Beeres, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Beeres@kgu.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Jacobi, Volkmar, E-mail: v.jacobi@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bauer, Ralf W., E-mail: ralfwbauer@aol.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare test bolus and bolus tracking for the determination of scan delay of high-pitch dual-source CT pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism using 50 ml of contrast material. Materials and methods: Data of 80 consecutive patients referred for CT pulmonary angiography were evaluated. All scans were performed on a 128-channel dual-source CT scanner with a high-pitch protocol (pitch 3.0, 100 kV, 180 mA s). Contrast enhancement was achieved by injecting 50 ml of iomeprol followed by a saline chaser of 50 ml injected at a rate of 4 ml/s. The scan delay was determined using either the test bolus (n = 40) or bolus tracking (n = 40) technique. Test bolus required another 15 ml CM to determine time to peak enhancement of the contrast bolus within the pulmonary trunk. Attenuation profiles in the pulmonary trunk and on segmental level as well as in the ascending aorta were measured to evaluate the timing techniques. Additionally, overall image quality was evaluated. Results: In all patients an adequate and homogeneous contrast enhancement of more than 250 HU was achieved in the pulmonary arteries. No statistically significant difference between test bolus and bolus tracking was found regarding attenuation of the pulmonary arteries or overall image quality. However, using bolus tracking 15 ml CM less was injected. Conclusion: A homogeneous opacification of the pulmonary arteries and sufficient image quality can be achieved with both the bolus tracking and test bolus techniques with significant lower contrast doses compared to conventional contrast material injection protocols.

  11. Lack of a hypotensive effect with rapid administration of a new aqueous formulation of intravenous amiodarone.

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    Somberg, John C; Timar, Sandor; Bailin, Steven J; Lakatos, Ferenc; Haffajee, Charles I; Tarjan, Jeno; Paladino, Walter P; Sarosi, Istvan; Kerin, Nicholas Z; Borbola, Jozsef; Bridges, Duane E; Molnar, Janos

    2004-03-01

    Hypotension is the most frequent adverse event reported with intravenous amiodarone. Hypotension has been attributed to the vasoactive solvents of the standard formulation (Cordarone IV) and is not dose related, but related to the rate of infusion. Drug labeling calls for intravenous amiodarone to be administered over 10 minutes. A new aqueous formulation of amiodarone (Amio-Aqueous) does not contain vasoactive excipients and may be administered safely by rapid administration without hypotension. This hypothesis was tested using combined data of 4 clinical trials; each assessed the development of hypotension prospectively. Hypotension was defined as a 25% decrease in systolic blood pressure (BP), with the development of a systolic BP of amiodarone formulation, because Cordarone cannot be administered by rapid bolus owing to excipient-related hypotension.

  12. [Optimal way of administration of high dose intravenous furosemide - continuous infusion or bolus?].

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    Gallusová, Jana; Halačová, Milada; Cerný, Dalibor

    2014-10-01

    Furosemide is a loop diuretic used in states of volume overload. The need for high doses is due to its reduced efficacy caused by lower concentration of furosemide achieved at the site of action in the renal tubule lumen and adaptation mechanisms. High doses have been associated with the development of ionic dysbalance, direct toxicity and intravascular volume fluctuations. The way of furosemide administration (intermitent versus continuously) to influence efficacy and safety is contradictory evaluated in EBM. The aim of this study is to analyze the available data for evaluation of the efficacy and safety of intermittent versus continuous dose regimens. A systematic search on PubMed from 1990 to 2013 using the keywords - furosemide, loop diuretic, bolus, continuous infusion, efficacy, safety, heart failure, ICU, critical care. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic knowledge of furosemide create a theoretical assumption for the preference of continuous infusions before intermittent boluses. Assessement of available studies, however, yet in clinical practice did not proof the advantage of one over the other route of administration.

  13. GH receptor signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in human subjects following exposure to an intravenous GH bolus

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    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Jessen, Niels; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2006-01-01

    was measured by in vitro phosphorylation of PI. STAT5 DNA binding activity was assessed with EMSA, and the expression of IGF-I and SOCS mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR. GH induced a 52% increase in circulating FFA levels with peak values after 155 min (P = 0.03). Tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT5...... = 3) min after an intravenous bolus of GH (0.5 mg) vs. saline in conjunction with serum sampling in six healthy males after an overnight fast. Expression of the following signal proteins were assayed by Western blotting: STAT5/p-STAT5, MAPK, and Akt/PKB. IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity...... was detected in muscle and fat of all subjects after GH. Activation of MAPK was observed in several lysates but without GH dependency. Neither PKB/Akt nor PI 3-kinase activity was affected by GH. GH-induced STAT5 DNA binding and expression of IGF-I mRNA were detected in fat, whereas expression of SOCS-1 and -3...

  14. Effect of admission oral diuretic dose on response to continuous versus bolus intravenous diuretics in acute heart failure: an analysis from diuretic optimization strategies in acute heart failure.

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    Shah, Ravi V; McNulty, Steven; O'Connor, Christopher M; Felker, G Michael; Braunwald, Eugene; Givertz, Michael M

    2012-12-01

    Results from the DOSE-AHF study suggest that an initial continuous infusion of loop diuretics is not superior to bolus dosing with regard to clinical endpoints in acute heart failure. We hypothesized that outpatient furosemide dose was associated with congestion and poorer renal function and explored the hypothesis that a continuous infusion may be more effective in patients on higher outpatient diuretic doses. The DOSE-AHF study randomized 308 patients within 24 hours of admission to high versus low initial intravenous diuretic dose given as either a continuous infusion or bolus. We compared baseline characteristics and assessed associations between mode of administration (bolus vs continuous) and outcomes in patients receiving high-dose (≥120 mg furosemide equivalent, n = 177) versus low-dose (diuretics. Patients on higher doses of furosemide were less frequently on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (P = .01) and had worse renal function and more advanced symptoms. There was a significant interaction between outpatient dose and mode of therapy (P = .01) with respect to net fluid loss at 72 hours after adjusting for creatinine and intensification strategy. Admission diuretic dose was associated with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization at 60 days (adjusted hazard ratio 1.08 per 20-mg increment in dose, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, P = .03). In acute heart failure, patients on higher diuretic doses have greater disease severity and may benefit from an initial bolus strategy. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Admission Oral Diuretic Dose on Response to Continuous versus Bolus Intravenous Diuretics in Acute Heart Failure: An Analysis from DOSE-AHF

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    Shah, Ravi V.; McNulty, Steven; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Felker, G. Michael; Braunwald, Eugene; Givertz, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from the Diuretic Optimization Strategies in Acute Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) study suggest that an initial continuous infusion of loop diuretics is not superior to bolus dosing with regard to clinical endpoints in AHF. We hypothesized that outpatient furosemide dose was associated with congestion and poorer renal function, and explored the hypothesis that a continuous infusion may be more effective in patients on higher outpatient diuretic doses. Methods DOSE-AHF randomized 308 patients within 24 hours of admission to high vs. low initial intravenous diuretic dose given as either a continuous infusion or bolus. We compared baseline characteristics and assessed associations between mode of administration (bolus vs. continuous) and outcomes in patients receiving high-dose (≥120 mg furosemide equivalent, n=177) versus low-dose (diuretics. Results Patients on higher doses of furosemide were less frequently on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (P=.01), and had worse renal function and more advanced symptoms. There was a significant interaction between outpatient dose and mode of therapy (P=0.01) with respect to net fluid loss at 72 hours after adjusting for creatinine and intensification strategy. Admission diuretic dose was associated with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization at 60 days (adjusted HR=1.08 per 20-mg increment in dose, 95% CI 1.01–1.16, P=.03). Conclusions In acute HF, patients on higher diuretic doses have greater disease severity, and may benefit from an initial bolus strategy. PMID:23194486

  16. Randomized controlled trial of high dose bolus versus continuous intravenous infusion pantoprazole as an adjunct therapy to therapeutic endoscopy in massive bleeding peptic ulcer.

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    Yamada, Sirikan; Wongwanakul, Pallapa

    2012-03-01

    After therapeutic endoscopy is performed in high-risk patients with peptic ulcer bleeding, rebleeding occurs in about 25 to 30%. High dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPI) have been recommended for the use in high-risk patients to prevent rebleeding following successful therapeutic endoscopy. Compare the efficacy between pantoprazole high dose bolus injections and continuous intravenous infusion to prevent rebleeding in peptic ulcer patients after initial hemostasis is achieved by the therapeutic endoscopy. A clinical block randomized control trial was conducted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital in massive peptic ulcer bleeding patients. All patients underwent endoscopic diagnosis and treatment within six hours of admission. Hemostasis was achieved by therapeutic endoscopy in 28 patients who received 80 mg pantoprazole as a loading dose before intervention. They were randomized into two groups. The first group was given a high dose of pantoprazole, 40 mg bolus injections twice daily for seven days (n = 13). The second group was given continuous intravenous infusion of pantoprazole, 8 mg per hour for the first three days, followed with a 40 mg bolus injection twice daily similar to the first group from day 4 until day 7 (n = 15). After the seventh day, both groups were given 20 mg of oral pantoprazole once daily for two months. The data was analyzed by Fisher's exact test to compare the frequency of rebleeding within seven days after therapeutic endoscopy. The frequency of recurrent bleeding between the high dose pantoprazole bolus injection group and the continuous intravenous infusion group was not significantly different, 30.8% and 33.3% respectively (p = 1.0). Three patients in the high dose bolus group and five in the continuous infusion group underwent surgery (p = 0.68). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups by volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, or mortality. In the present study, both PPI drug

  17. Optimization of initial propofol bolus dose for EEG Narcotrend Index-guided transition from sevoflurane induction to intravenous anesthesia in children.

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    Dennhardt, Nils; Boethig, Dietmar; Beck, Christiane; Heiderich, Sebastian; Boehne, Martin; Leffler, Andreas; Schultz, Barbara; Sümpelmann, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Sevoflurane induction followed by intravenous anesthesia is a widely used technique to combine the benefits of an easier and less traumatic venipuncture after sevoflurane inhalation with a recovery with less agitation, nausea, and vomiting after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). Combination of two different anesthetics may lead to unwanted burst suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during the transition phase. The objective of this prospective clinical observational study was to identify the optimal initial propofol bolus dose for a smooth transition from sevoflurane induction to TIVA using the EEG Narcotrend Index (NI). Fifty children aged 1-8 years scheduled for elective pediatric surgery were studied. After sevoflurane induction and establishing of an intravenous access, a propofol bolus dose range 0-5 mg·kg-1 was administered at the attending anesthetist's discretion to maintain a NI between 20 and 64, and sevoflurane was stopped. Anesthesia was continued as TIVA with a propofol infusion dose of 15 mg·kg-1 ·h-1 for the first 15 min, followed by stepwise reduction according to McFarlan's pediatric infusion regime, and remifentanil 0.25 μg·kg-1 ·min-1 . Endtidal concentration of sevoflurane, NI, and hemodynamic data were recorded during the whole study period using a standardized case report form. Propofol plasma concentrations were calculated using the paedfusor dataset and a TIVA simulation program. Median endtidal concentration of sevoflurane at the time of administration of the propofol bolus was 5.1 [IQR 4.7-5.9] Vol%. The median propofol bolus dose was 1.2 [IQR 0.9-2.5] mg·kg-1 and median NI thereafter was 33 [IQR 23-40]. Nine children presented with a NI 13-20 and three children with burst suppression in the EEG (NI 0-12); all of them received an initial propofol bolus dose >2 mg·kg-1 . Regression equation demonstrated that NI 20-64 was achieved with a 95% probability when using a propofol bolus dose of 1 mg·kg-1 after sevoflurane

  18. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin and its metabolite in swine administered with an intravenous bolus injection and a single gavage.

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    Wang, X; Tao, Y F; Huang, L L; Chen, D M; Yin, S Z; Ihsan, A; Zhou, W; Su, S J; Liu, Z L; Pan, Y H; Yuan, Z H

    2012-06-01

    Tulathromycin is a macrolide antimicrobial agent proposed for therapeutic use in treatment of porcine and bovine respiratory disease. In this study, the absolute bioavailability of tulathromycin solution was investigated in pigs. Eight pigs, with body weight of 20.5 ± 1.6 kg, were given a single dose of tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) in a crossover design. The plasma concentrations of tulathromycin and its metabolite were determined by LC-MS/MS method, and the pharmacokinetic parameters of tulathromycin were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. After p.o. administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) was 0.20 ± 0.05 μg/mL at 3.75 ± 0.71 h. The terminal half-life (t(1/2λz) ) in plasma was 78.7 ± 6.75 h, and plasma clearance (Cl/F) was 1.14 ± 0.28 L/h/kg. After i.v. injection, plasma clearance (Cl) was 0.580 ± 0.170 L/h/kg, the volume of distribution (Vz) was 64.3 ± 21.2 L/kg, and the t(1/2λz) was 76.5 ± 13.4 h. In conclusion, an analytical method for the quantification of tulathromycin and its metabolite in plasma in swine was developed and validated. Following p.o. administration to pigs at 2.5 mg/kg b.w., tulathromycin was rapidly absorbed and the systemic bioavailability was 51.1 ± 10.2. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Simple and rapid quantification of serotonin transporter binding using [11C]DASB bolus plus constant infusion.

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    Gryglewski, G; Rischka, L; Philippe, C; Hahn, A; James, G M; Klebermass, E; Hienert, M; Silberbauer, L; Vanicek, T; Kautzky, A; Berroterán-Infante, N; Nics, L; Traub-Weidinger, T; Mitterhauser, M; Wadsak, W; Hacker, M; Kasper, S; Lanzenberger, R

    2017-04-01

    In-vivo quantification of serotonin transporters (SERT) in human brain has been a mainstay of molecular imaging in the field of neuropsychiatric disorders and helped to explore the underpinnings of several medical conditions, therapeutic and environmental influences. The emergence of PET/MR hybrid systems and the heterogeneity of SERT binding call for the development of efficient methods making the investigation of larger or vulnerable populations with limited scanner time and simultaneous changes in molecular and functional measures possible. We propose [11C]DASB bolus plus constant infusion for these applications and validate it against standard analyses of dynamic PET data. [11C]DASB bolus/infusion optimization was performed on data acquired after [11C]DASB bolus in 8 healthy subjects. Subsequently, 16 subjects underwent one scan using [11C]DASB bolus plus constant infusion with Kbol 160-179min and one scan after [11C]DASB bolus for inter-method reliability analysis. Arterial blood sampling and metabolite analysis were performed for all scans. Distribution volumes (VT) were obtained using Logan plots for bolus scans and ratios between tissue and plasma parent activity for bolus plus infusion scans for different time spans of the scan (VT-70 for 60-70min after start of tracer infusion, VT-90 for 75-90min, VT-120 for 100-120min) in 9 subjects. Omitting blood data, binding potentials (BPND) obtained using multilinear reference tissue modeling (MRTM2) and cerebellar gray matter as reference region were compared in 11 subjects. A Kbol of 160min was observed to be optimal for rapid equilibration in thalamus and striatum. VT-70 showed good intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of 0.61-0.70 for thalamus, striatal regions and olfactory cortex with bias ≤5.1% compared to bolus scans. ICCs increased to 0.72-0.78 for VT-90 and 0.77-0.93 for VT-120 in these regions. BPND-90 had negligible bias ≤2.5%, low variability ≤7.9% and ICCs of 0.74-0.87; BPND-120 had ICCs

  20. Bolus matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, Marine; Velde, van de Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This review article focuses on design of food structure, characterisation of oral processing by boli characterisation and dynamic texture perception. Knowledge of the food properties governing bolus formation and bolus properties determining temporal changes in texture perception is of major

  1. An additional bolus of rapid-acting insulin to normalise postprandial cardiovascular risk factors following a high-carbohydrate high-fat meal in patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, MD; Walker, M. (Mark); Ajjan, RA; Birch, KM; Gonzalez, JT; West, DJ

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate an additional rapid-acting insulin bolus on postprandial lipaemia, inflammation and pro-coagulation following high-carbohydrate high-fat feeding in people with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 10 males with type 1 diabetes [HbA1c 52.5 ± 5.9 mmol/mol (7.0% ± 0.5%)] underwent three conditions: (1) a low-fat (LF) meal with normal bolus insulin, (2), a high-fat (HF) meal with normal bolus insulin and (3) a high-fat meal with normal bolus insulin with an additional 30% insulin...

  2. Bolus administration of intravenous lidocaine reduces pain after an elective caesarean section: Findings from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Hasanzadeh Kiabi, Farshad; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Khademloo, Mohammad; Nazari, Zeinab; Sanagou, Masoumeh; Ghobadi, Maedeh; Fooladi, Ensieh

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether a bolus dose of lidocaine during the induction of general anaesthesia would reduce postoperative pain over 24 h. Level of satisfaction with pain control at 48 h after surgery and Apgar score were also examined. A total of 100 women aged 20-35 years, who were candidates for elective caesarean section (CS) were randomised to receive either 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine or placebo during the induction of general anaesthesia. Results showed that lidocaine decreased pain intensity over 24 h after surgery (p information regarding the efficacy of a bolus dose of lidocaine in patients undergoing caesarean section (CS). In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial the use of a bolus dose of 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine 2%, compared with placebo, during the induction of general anaesthesia for elective CS resulted in a significant decrease in postoperative pain score as well as decreased postoperative morphine consumption over 24 h. Lidocaine use was not associated with any side effect in participants and newborns. • This study provides the first evidence that a bolus dose of lidocaine may be a safe and simple alternative therapeutic intervention for enhanced postoperative recovery in terms of pain and postoperative opioid consumption. Future studies are needed to examine pain reducing effect of perioperative bolus dose of lidocaine after CS under spinal or epidural anesthesia.

  3. Intravenous theophylline rapidly decreases post-lumbar puncture headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Ufuk; Ünal-Artık, H Aybüke; İnan, Leven E; Yoldaş, Tahir

    2016-09-01

    When managing therapy for the post-lumbar puncture headaches (PLPHs), an efficacious, fast-acting, practical and safe method is preferred. Invasive methods have known complications and oral medications might be problematic when nausea and vomiting occurs with severe headaches. The aim of this study was to highlight the brief initial time for a remarkable decrease of PLPH pain levels after the administration of IV theophylline infusion. We observed that IV theophylline infusion has a rapid and marked effect on decreasing pain in PLPHs. At 30 min of theophylline infusion, mean VAS levels were decreased by 47.1 % and at 60 min of infusion, the decrease of pain was 61.9 %. We conclude that IV theophylline infusion is a rapidly effective, noninvasive, practical and low-cost way to treat PLPHs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight both the efficacy and the speed of the effect of pain relief in PLPHs.

  4. A Phase 1, Single-center, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study in Healthy Subjects to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, Clinical Effects, and Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Intravenous Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (ABP-700) after a Single Ascending Bolus Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struys, Michel M R F; Valk, Beatrijs I; Eleveld, Douglas J; Absalom, Anthony R; Meyer, Peter; Meier, Sascha; den Daas, Izaak; Chou, Thomas; van Amsterdam, Kai; Campagna, Jason A; Sweeney, Steven P

    2017-07-01

    Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (ABP-700) is a new "soft" etomidate analog. The primary objectives of this first-in-human study were to describe the safety and efficacy of ABP-700 and to determine its maximum tolerated dose. Secondary objectives were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of ABP-700 and its primary metabolite (cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl acid), to assess the clinical effects of ABP-700, and to investigate the dose-response and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships. Sixty subjects were divided into 10 cohorts and received an increasing, single bolus of either ABP-700 or placebo. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory evaluations, infusion-site reactions, continuous monitoring of vital signs, physical examination, adverse event monitoring, and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing. Clinical effects were assessed with modified observer's assessment of alertness/sedation and Bispectral Index monitoring. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Stopping criteria were met at 1.00 mg/kg dose. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events were dose-dependent and comprised involuntary muscle movement, tachycardia, and ventilatory effects. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation evoked a physiologic cortisol response in all subjects, no different from placebo. Pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model described the data well. A rapid onset of anesthesia/sedation after bolus administration and also a rapid recovery were observed. A quantitative concentration-effect relationship was described for the modified observer's assessment of alertness/sedation and Bispectral Index. This first-in-human study of ABP-700 shows that ABP-700 was safe and well tolerated after single-bolus injections up to 1.00 mg/kg. Bolus doses of 0.25 and 0.35 mg/kg were found to provide the most beneficial clinical effect versus side-effect profile.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of perfluorobutane following intravenous bolus injection and continuous infusion of sonazoid in healthy volunteers and in patients with reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Kristin Eitrem; Johansen, Per Wiik; Johnson, Judith A; Johansen, Bjørn; Uran, Steinar; Skotland, Tore

    2008-03-01

    The ultrasound contrast agent Sonazoidtrade mark was administered as an i.v. bolus injection of 0.6 microL microbubbles/kg body weight or as a continuous infusion over 30 min at a rate of 1.2 microL microbubbles/kg body weight to healthy volunteers and patients with reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity. Expired air and blood samples were collected from 32 subjects and perfluorobutane (PFB) gas was analyzed using validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry methods. Blood concentrations of PFB declined biphasicly with a distribution half-life (t(0.5 to 15)) of 2 to 3 min and an elimination half-life (t(15 to 120)) of 30 to 45 min. Area under the curve (AUC) values in patients with impaired gas diffusion were significantly larger than those in healthy volunteers. The exhalation kinetics were somewhat variable with a PFB elimination half-life (t(15 to 120)) of 28 to 111 min. Clearance of PFB was independent of study population and mode of administration. There were no deaths and no serious adverse events that resulted in the withdrawal of a subject from the study. With the exception that arthralgia predominated in healthy volunteers, healthy volunteers and diseased subjects did not show a different adverse event profile whether Sonazoid was administered as a bolus injection or as an infusion. Assessment of laboratory parameters (serum biochemistry, haematology and urinalysis), vital signs, oxygen saturation and electrocardiograms (ECGs) showed no changes which caused safety concern. (E-mail: Kristin.Landmark@ge.com).

  6. Pharmacology of desmin (low molecular weight dermatan sulphate) in healthy volunteers following intravenous bolus administration of different dosages (200, 400, 800 mg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, A G; Milani, M R; Manotti, C; Zamboni, V; Palazzini, E; Barbanti, M

    1995-08-01

    Eight healthy volunteers (6 males, 2 females, mean age 31.6 yrs), were administered--on three separate days--200, 400 and 800 mg of a new low molecular weight Dermatan sulphate (Desmin), given as a single i.v. bolus (2 min.) injection. Before each administration and 10, 20, 30 min., 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 hours after, blood samples were drawn and the following coagulative assays performed: aPTT (activated Partial Thromboplastin Time), TT (Thrombin Time), anti Xa (Xa Factor inhibition), Heptest, Stachrom D.S.. Furthermore, a kinetic analysis was performed on the activity curves calculated on the Heptest and Stachrom data. Plasma peak values and half lives of the parameters checked showed a clear dose-effect relationship. aPTT and TT showed very short-lasting variations and the inhibition of Factor Xa was moderate, but significant. The most evident and specific effects of Desmin were those on Heptest and Stachrom D.S.: both tests were influenced in a clear-cut and dose-dependent way, mainly as a consequence of the action of Desmin on HCII, with partially different kinetic patterns. A series of in vitro experiments proved an anti Xa effect of Desmin, mediated by antithrombin III, well above the possible interference of the small (< 1%) heparin contaminants in Desmin. An even more marked anti Xa activity was seen in the in vivo study, an observation so far unrecognized for this type of drug: some possible interpretations of this fact are discussed.

  7. Rapid Intravenous Rehydration to Correct Dehydration and Resolve Vomiting in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoush AZARFAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of rapid intravenous rehydration to resolve vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency department in a tertiary care center in Tabriz, North-West of Iran. The study participants' were 150 children with acute gastroenteritis and vomiting who were moderately dehydrated, had not responded to oral rehydration therapy and without any electrolyte abnormalities. 20–30 cc/kg of a crystalloid solution was given intravenously over 2 hours and the control group was admitted in the emergency department (ED for a standard 24 hour hydration. Effectiveness of rapid intravenous rehydration in the resolution of vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis was evaluated. Results: In 63 children of the intervention group (out of 75 vomiting was resolved after rapid IV rehydration and they were discharged. Among them, 12 that did not tolerate oral fluids were admitted. In the control group, 62 patients' vomiting was resolved in the first 4 hours after admission, and there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding resolution of vomiting. Conclusions: Rapid intravenous rehydration in children with moderate dehydration and vomiting due to gastroenteritis is effective in reducing admission rates in the ED. ÖZET: Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, akut gastroenteritli çocuklarda, hızlı intravenöz rehidratasyon tedavisinin kusma üzerine etkisini değerlendirmektir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu randomize kontrollü çalışma İran'ın Kuzeybatısındaki Tebriz ilinde üçüncü basamak çocuk acil servisinde gerçekleştirildi. Çalışmaya orta derecede dehidrate, elektrolit anormalliği olmayan ve oral rehidrasyon tedavisine yanıt vermemiş akut gastroenteritli 150 çocuk katıldı. İki saat içinde intravenöz yolla 20–30 cc/kg kristaloid çözelti verildi ve kontrol grubu standart

  8. Rapid Intravenous Rehydration Therapy in Children With Acute Gastroenteritis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaimah, Fatihi Hassan Soliman; Mohammad, Hala Mohammad Fathi

    2016-02-01

    Rapid intravenous (IV) rehydration is commonly used for the management of pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department. The current practice shows wide variation in the volume and rate of rapid IV hydration. The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of rapid IV rehydration compared with standard method in children with gastroenteritis. MEDLINE (1946-2014), EMBASE (1974-2014), and CENTRAL via the Cochrane Library (Issue 8, 2014) were systematically searched to identify eligible studies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of rapid IV rehydration in children with gastroenteritis. A total of 1513 articles were retrieved, and our inclusion criteria were met by 3 studies, with a total of 464 participants. The percentage of children who were successfully rehydrated and tolerated oral fluids at 2 to 4 hours after starting IV fluid therapy ranged from 69% to 100% in both rapid IV rehydration and standard method. Time to discharge ranged from 2 to 6 hours (rapid rehydration) versus 2 to 5 hours (standard rehydration). Emergency department revisits ranged from 3% to 16% (rapid rehydration) versus 5% to 14% (standard). Summarized results suggested that rapid IV rehydration may be associated with longer time-to-discharge and higher readmission rates. The new evidence fails to demonstrate superiority of large-volume (60 mL/kg/h) over standard (20 mL/kg/h) IV rehydration. Standard volume IV rehydration for 1 to 4 hours followed by oral hydration or maintenance IV fluids seems sufficient for most children with gastroenteritis requiring IV fluid administration. However, more evidence is needed to establish an optimal IV rehydration regimen.

  9. Vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) administered as rapid intravenous infusion for first-line treatment in untreated multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, CM; Sonneveld, P; van der Holt, B; Baars, JW; Biesma, DH; Cornellissen, JJ; Croockewit, AJ; Dekker, AW; Fibbe, WE; Lowenberg, B; Kooy, MV; van Oers, MHJ; Richel, DJ; Vellenga, E; Verhoef, GEG; Wijermans, PW; Wittebol, S; Lokhorst, HM

    We examined the feasibility of achieving a rapid response in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma by administering vincristine 0.4mg and doxorubicin 9 mg/m(2) as a rapid intravenous infusion for 4d together with intermittent high-dose dexamethasone 40 mg (VAD) for remission induction

  10. Vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) administered as rapid intravenous infusion for first-line treatment in untreated multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, C. M.; Sonneveld, P.; van der Holt, B.; Baars, J. W.; Biesma, D. H.; Cornellissen, J. J.; Croockewit, A. J.; Dekker, A. W.; Fibbe, W. E.; Löwenberg, B.; van Marwijk Kooy, M.; van Oers, M. H.; Richel, D. J.; Schouten, H. C.; Vellenga, E.; Verhoef, G. E.; Wijermans, P. W.; Wittebol, S.; Lokhorst, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the feasibility of achieving a rapid response in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma by administering vincristine 0.4 mg and doxorubicin 9 mg/m2 as a rapid intravenous infusion for 4 d together with intermittent high-dose dexamethasone 40 mg (VAD) for remission induction

  11. Estudos hemodinâmicos e da função endotelial em porcas saudáveis após injeção em bolus endovenoso de azul de metileno Hemodynamic and vascular endothelium function studies in healthy pigs after intravenous bolus infusion of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Menardi

    2006-10-01

    vasoplegia, não se esperando que a inibição da guanilatociclase tenha algum efeito. CONCLUSÃO: A infusão em bolus endovenoso in vivo na dose investigada (3 mg/kg não causou alterações hemodinâmicas e comprometimento da liberação in vitro de NO.OBJECTIVE: Clinical benefit of methylene blue (MB treating NO-induced vasoplegia has been reported in sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS in cardiac surgery and anaphylactic shock, but its safety is sometimes questioned, mainly regarding its hemodynamic effects and the possibility of causing endothelium dysfunction. To examine the nitric oxide plasma levels and cardiovascular effects of the infusion of MB in vivo and its effects on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent in vitro vascular relaxation. METHODS: The study protocol included two experimental groups of female pigs: Group I (Control - the animals (n=6 did not receive MB; Group II (MB - the animals received 3 mg/kg of MB intravenous bolus infusion. After fifteen minutes of hemodynamic parameter recording the animals were sacrificed by exsanguination, and in vitro studies were conducted using segments of coronary, hepatic, superior mesenteric and renal arteries, to determine the effect of MB on the arterial endothelium function with regard to NO release. Nitric oxide plasma levels (NOx were measured in each of the experimental groups. RESULTS: The results obtained in the present investigation were: 1 intravenous infusion of MB (3.0 mg/kg caused no hemodynamic changes; 2 absolute and percent plasma NOx values did not differ between the experimental groups; and 3 in vitro study of vascular relaxation showed no significant difference between groups. These results show that MB intravenous infusion seems to be safe. This finding agrees with data from clinical experiments where MB was used to treat vasoplegic syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and anaphylaxis. These results were not unexpected

  12. Rapid and durable response to intravenous immunoglobulin in delayed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Brandon Z; Shatzel, Joseph J; Sendowski, Merav

    2017-04-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) results in platelet consumption and a virulent thrombotic state, which generally responds to cessation of heparin and initiation of anticoagulation. Rarely, delayed HIT can occur and/or persist after heparin is discontinued. A 47-year-old male developed delayed HIT with severe thrombocytopenia and thrombosis after cardiac surgery. Thrombocytopenia developed and persisted after heparin cessation and did not improve despite sequential use of argatroban followed by bivalirudin. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) was well tolerated and resulted in rapid resolution of thrombocytopenia. There are few case reports on the management of delayed HIT with severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia. The risk for thrombosis and bleeding in the setting of an undefined time course increases uncertainty in management. This case, along with others accumulating in the literature, suggest that IVIg may be effective in treating delayed HIT with persistent thrombocytopenia. © 2016 AABB.

  13. Anemia management: development of a rapid-access anemia and intravenous iron service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Radia,1 Ibrahim Momoh,2 Richard Dillon,1 Yvonne Francis,1 Laura Cameron,1 Toni-Lee Fagg,1 Hannah Overland,1 Susan Robinson,1 Claire N Harrison11Haematology Department, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Bupa Home Healthcare, Harlow, UKAbstract: This article describes the initiation and evolution of the Rapid-Access Anemia Clinic (RAAC at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, London, UK. This clinic was set up to provide diagnosis and treatment, and to coordinate investigative procedures, where necessary, into the underlying causes of anemia. Initially piloted with anemic preoperative orthopedic patients, the clinic now treats a wide range of conditions, deriving from both internal and external referrals. Treatment includes dietary advice, supplementation with iron, vitamin B12 and folate, and blood transfusion. Most patients at the RAAC need iron replacement, the majority of which require intravenous (IV iron. Therefore the first-line IV iron-administration protocol is carefully considered to ensure viability of the service and patient satisfaction. Four IV irons available in the UK are discussed, with explanation of the benefits and drawbacks of each product and the reasoning behind the IV iron choice at different stages of the RAAC's development. Costs to the service, affected by IV iron price and administration regimen, are considered, as well as the product's contraindications. Finally, the authors reflect on the success of the RAAC and how it has improved patients' quality-of-treatment experience, in addition to benefiting the hospital and National Health Service in achieving specific health-care mandates and directives. Drawing from the authors' experiences, recommendations are given to assist others in setting up and providing a successful rapid-access anemia service or similar facility.Keywords: hemoglobin, iron deficiency, ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, iron dextran, iron isomaltoside

  14. Peri-operative management of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus undergoing non-cardiac surgery using liraglutide, glucose-insulin-potassium infusion or intravenous insulin bolus regimens: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, J A W; van Steen, S C J; Thiel, B; Godfried, M B; Houweling, P L; Hollmann, M W; H DeVries, J; Preckel, B; Hermanides, J

    2017-12-12

    In this open-label multicentre randomised controlled trial, we investigated three peri-operative treatment strategies to lower glucose and reduce the need for rescue insulin in patients aged 18-75 years with type-2 diabetes mellitus undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Patients were randomly allocated using a web-based randomisation program to premedication with liraglutide (liraglutide group), glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (insulin infusion group) or insulin bolus regimen (insulin bolus group), targeting a glucose operative nausea in the liraglutide group, of which two had severe nausea, compared with no patients in the insulin infusion and insulin bolus groups (p = 0.007). The pre-operative administration of liraglutide stabilised peri-operative plasma glucose levels and reduced peri-operative insulin requirements, at the expense of increased pre-operative nausea rates. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Intracoronary Compared to Intravenous Bolus Abciximab during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients Reduces 30-day Mortality and Target Vessel Revascularization: A Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan; Abildgaard, Ulrik; Galloe, Anders

    2011-01-01

    patients who underwent pPCI and had indication for abciximab to either IV or IC bolus followed by a 12-hour IV infusion. Primary end-points at 30 days were target vessel revascularization (TVR), recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or death, and the composite of the three. Secondary end-points were...... bleeding complications. Results: The two groups (IV n = 170;IC n = 185) were similar with respect to baseline characteristics. Mortality at 30 days was 5.3% in the IV group compared to only 1.1% in the IC group (P = 0.02). TVR was performed in 9.4% in the IV group compared to 3.8% in the IC group (P = 0...... bleedings (IV 14.1% vs. IC 9.7%; P = 0.20). Conclusion: IC administration of bolus abciximab in STEMI patients undergoing pPCI reduces 30-day mortality and TVR and tends to reduce MI, compared to IV-bolus. (J Interven Cardiol 2011;24:105-111)....

  16. Intravenous augmentation treatment and lung density in severe α1 antitrypsin deficiency (RAPID)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Kenneth R; Burdon, Jonathan G W; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    transplantation, lobectomy, or lung volume-reduction surgery, or had selective IgA deficiency. We randomly assigned patients (1:1; done by Accovion) using a computerised pseudorandom number generator (block size of four) with centre stratification to receive A1PI intravenously 60 mg/kg per week or placebo for 24...... months, analysed by modified intention to treat (patients needed at least one evaluable lung density measurement). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00261833. A 2-year open-label extension study was also completed (NCT00670007). FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2006, and Nov 3, 2010...

  17. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  18. Optical tracking of contrast medium bolus to optimize bolus shape and timing in dynamic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisa, Fabian; Brauweiler, Robert; Peetz, Alexander; Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is the optimal synchronization of scan start and duration with contrast medium administration in order to optimize image contrast and to reduce the amount of contrast medium. We present a new optically based approach, which was developed to investigate and optimize bolus timing and shape. The time-concentration curve of an intravenously injected test bolus of a dye is measured in peripheral vessels with an optical sensor prior to the diagnostic CT scan. The curves can be used to assess bolus shapes as a function of injection protocols and to determine contrast medium arrival times. Preliminary results for phantom and animal experiments showed the expected linear behavior between dye concentration and absorption. The kinetics of the dye was compared to iodinated contrast medium and was found to be in good agreement. The contrast enhancement curves were reliably detected in three mice with individual bolus shapes and delay times of 2.1, 3.5 and 6.1 s, respectively. The optical sensor appears to be a promising approach to optimize injection protocols and contrast enhancement timing and is applicable to all modalities without implying any additional radiation dose. Clinical tests are still necessary.

  19. Rapidly Progrediating Aortic Valve Infective Endocarditis in an Intravenous Drug User Treated by Antibiotics and Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkia S. Swedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 22-year old male, a self-confessed recreational drug user who developed cardiogenic shock because of severe destruction of the aortic valve by rapidly progressive aortic valve endocarditis. The disease progression was acute; in a matter of days, the clinical manifestations were life-threatening necessitating urgent aortic valve replacement surgery. Cultivation revealed Streptococcus viridans as the microbial agent. Subsequent recovery with antibiotic treatment was without complication. This case report shows that immediately performed transoesophageal echocardiography and early consultation with a cardiac surgeon has fundamental importance in diagnosis and management of acute infective endocarditis in haemodynamically instable patients.

  20. Rapid EEG desynchronization and EMG activation induced by intravenous cocaine in freely moving rats: a peripheral, nondopamine neural triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Smirnov, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    Many important physiological, behavioral, and psychoemotional effects of intravenous (IV) cocaine (COC) are too fast and transient compared with pharmacokinetic predictions, suggesting a possible involvement of peripheral neural mechanisms in their triggering. In the present study, we examined changes in cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and neck electromyogram (EMG) induced in freely moving rats by IV COC administration at low, reinforcing doses (0.25-1.0 mg/kg) and compared them with those induced by an auditory stimulus and IV COC methiodide, which cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. We found that COC induces rapid, strong, and prolonged EEG desynchronization, associated with decrease in alpha and increase in beta and gamma activities, and EMG activation and that both begin within 2-6 s following the start of a 10-s injection; immediate components of this effect were dose independent. The rapid COC-induced changes in EEG and EMG resembled those induced by an auditory stimulus; the latter effects had shorter onset latencies and durations and were fully blocked during urethane anesthesia. Although urethane anesthesia completely blocked COC-induced EMG activation and rapid components of EEG response, COC still induced EEG desynchronization that was much weaker, greatly delayed (approximately 60 s), and associated with tonic decreases in delta and increases in alpha, beta, and gamma activities. Surprisingly, IV saline delivered during slow-wave sleep (but not quite wakefulness) also induced a transient EEG desynchronization but without changes in EMG activity; these effects were also fully blocked during anesthesia. Peripherally acting COC methiodide fully mimicked rapid EEG and EMG effects of regular COC, but the effects at an equimolar dose were less prolonged than those with regular COC. These data suggest that in awake animals IV COC, like somato-sensory stimuli, induces cortical activation and a subsequent motor response via its action on peripheral neural

  1. Evaluation of captive bolus applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C K; McDougall, J A; Chan, K W; Luk, K H

    1990-01-01

    Three square (L, M, MS) and one rectangular (HN) applicators with captive boluses were provided by the Clini-Therm Corporation for evaluation. Surface cooling is achieved by attaching a mineral oil captive bolus to the built in water-circulating tubes at the aperture of the applicators. These applicators were tested on a phantom with a 2-cm fat slab over 10-cm-thick muscle. Surface and sagittal heating patterns were obtained using a thermograph. All captive-bolus applicators have heating patterns similar to that of the regular Clini-Therm applicators. Due to hot spots at the edges of the applicators where the E fields terminate, these modified applicators should not be placed in direct contact with patients when boluses are not used. Tests with Clini-Therm regular water bolus instead of the captive oil bolus indicated that the orientation of water flow should be parallel to the E field to minimize perturbation of the heating patterns. Thermal conduction studies showed that the captive bolus reacts too slowly for skin temperature control. The modified captive bolus applicators did not improve the performance of the system.

  2. Bolus vs. continuous feeding to optimize anabolism in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Teresa A; Fiorotto, Marta L; Suryawan, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Neonates with feeding difficulties can be fed by orogastric tube, using either continuous or bolus delivery. This review reports on recent findings that bolus is advantageous compared to continuous feeding in supporting optimal protein anabolism. Whether bolus or continuous feeding is more beneficial has been controversial, largely due to limitations inherent in clinical studies, such as the presence of confounding variables and the inability to use invasive approaches. Recent studies using the piglet as a model of the human neonate showed that, compared to continuous feeding, bolus feeding enhances protein synthesis and promotes greater protein deposition. The increase in protein synthesis occurs in muscles of varying fiber type and in visceral tissues whereas muscle protein degradation is largely insensitive to feeding pattern. This higher protein synthesis rate is enabled by the rapid and profound increases in circulating amino acids and insulin that occur following a bolus feed, which activate the intracellular signaling pathways leading to mRNA translation. Recent findings indicate that bolus feeding enhances protein synthesis more than continuous feeding and promotes greater protein anabolism. The difference in response is attributable to the pulsatile pattern of amino acid-induced and insulin-induced translation initiation induced only by bolus feeding.

  3. Core temperature cooling in healthy volunteers after rapid intravenous infusion of cold and room temperature saline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracy M; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David

    2008-02-01

    .8 degrees F) cooling but did not induce a therapeutic plane of hypothermia. This change in core temperature was not accompanied by significant changes in skin temperature. These data suggest that a reduction in core temperature of about 1 degrees C (1.8 degrees F) can be achieved in healthy humans before a thermoregulatory response is triggered and that rapid infusion of cold intravenous fluids is insufficient by itself to overcome this response. The clinically relevant control arm of room temperature saline solution also resulted in mild core cooling.

  4. Closed-Loop Feedback Computer-Controlled Phenylephrine for Maintenance of Blood Pressure During Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Trial Comparing Automated Boluses Versus Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan Kee, Warwick D; Tam, Yuk-Ho; Khaw, Kim S; Ng, Floria F; Lee, Shara W Y

    2017-07-01

    We previously described the use of closed-loop feedback computer-controlled infusion of phenylephrine for maintaining blood pressure (BP) during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. In this study, we report a modified system in which phenylephrine is delivered by intermittent boluses rather than infusion. We hypothesized that the use of computer-controlled boluses would result in more precise control of BP compared with infusions. Two hundred fourteen healthy patients having spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery were randomized to have their systolic BP maintained by phenylephrine administered by computer-controlled continuous infusion or computer-controlled intermittent boluses. From induction of anesthesia until the time of uterine incision, a noninvasive BP monitor was set to cycle at 1-minute intervals. In the infusion group, the infusion rate was automatically adjusted after each BP measurement using a previously described algorithm. In the bolus group, the algorithm was modified so that the mass of drug that would have been delivered over 1 minute was instead injected as a rapid intravenous bolus after each BP measurement. The precision of BP control was assessed using performance error calculations and compared between groups, with the primary outcome defined as median absolute performance error, and the latter being a measure of inaccuracy showing an average of the magnitudes of the differences of measured BP values above or below the target values. The precision of BP control was greater, as shown by smaller values for median absolute performance error, in the bolus group (median 4.38 [quartiles 3.22, 6.25] %) versus the infusion group (5.39 [4.12, 7.04] %, P = .008). In the bolus group, phenylephrine consumption was smaller; this was associated with smaller values for median performance error compared with the continuous infusion group (P computer-controlled phenylephrine was delivered using intermittent boluses rather than continuous

  5. Dosimetric characterization of 3D printed bolus at different infill percentage for external photon beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Rosalinda; Ciardo, Delia; Pansini, Floriana; Bazani, Alessia; Comi, Stefania; Spoto, Ruggero; Noris, Samuele; Cattani, Federica; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto; Vavassori, Andrea; Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    3D printing is rapidly evolving and further assessment of materials and technique is required for clinical applications. We evaluated 3D printed boluses with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactide (PLA) at different infill percentage. A low-cost 3D printer was used. The influence of the air inclusion within the 3D printed boluses was assessed thoroughly both with treatment planning system (TPS) and with physical measurements. For each bolus, two treatment plans were calculated with Monte Carlo algorithm, considering the computed tomography (CT) scan of the 3D printed bolus or modelling the 3D printed bolus as a virtual bolus structure with a homogeneous density. Depth dose measurements were performed with Gafchromic films. High infill percentage corresponds to high density and high homogeneity within bolus material. The approximation of the bolus in the TPS as a homogeneous material is satisfying for infill percentages greater than 20%. Measurements performed with PLA boluses are more comparable to the TPS calculated profiles. For boluses printed at 40% and 60% infill, the discrepancies between calculated and measured dose distribution are within 5%. 3D printing technology allows modulating the shift of the build-up region by tuning the infill percentage of the 3D printed bolus in order to improve superficial target coverage. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10 at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48 mg (median, IQR within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.

  7. [Intravenous rehydration for diarrheal dehydration of eutrophic children: survey of protocols provided at Colombian medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Iván Darío; Ramos, Esteban; Bernal, Carlos; Cuéllar, Olga Juliana; Cornejo, José William

    2011-01-01

    In all cases of severe dehydration from diarrhea, WHO recommends rapid rehydration. If oral rehydration in children is contraindicated, intravenous rehydration is recommended for immediate administration. However, methods of intravenous rehydration appear to be inadequately addressed in the medical schools of Colombia. Current approaches to oral rehydration were summarized, and instructors were informed concerning current WHO recommendations. A survey was designed for pediatric instructors in Colombian medical schools. Direct questions about rehydration methods were included as well as presentation of theoretical clinical situations with dehydrated children. The survey also asked for the conditions necessary for intravenous rehydration and method of administration (volume, solution, concentration and speed of infusion). Forty-one surveys were included (82% of medical schools in Colombia). Inadequate contraindications for oral rehydration therapy were made in 41%. Rapid and slow intravenous rehydration was recommended in 71% and 29%, respectively; 57% recommended fluid bolus to rehydrate. Adequate volumes were recommended by less than half of the respondents and adequate sodium concentration was recommended by 85%. In 56% of medical schools, glucose was not included in solutions and 66% use Ringer lactate. Normal saline solution, dextrose solution with electrolytes and polyelectrolytes solutions are also used. Misconceptions are common concerning the contraindications to oral rehydration therapy. One-third of medical schools promote a slow therapy despite the superiority of the rapid therapy. Uniformity for rapid therapy schemes is lacking. Bolus rehydration is commonly advocated despite the fact that this method is unsupported by the literature. Concepts about rehydration must be updated in medical schools and a national guide for intravenous rehydration is recommended.

  8. Electronic bolus design impacts on administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, F; Umstätter, C; Gilaverte, S; Prado, O R; Silva, C J A; Monteiro, A L G

    2014-06-01

    Electronic identification of animals has become increasingly important worldwide to improve and ensure traceability. In warm and hot climates, such as Brazil, boluses can have advantages over ear tags as the internal devices reduce the risks of ear tag losses, tissue damage, and lesions on the ear. Electronic boluses, however, are often perceived as having negative characteristics, including reported difficulties of administration in small ruminants. This paper describes the factors associated with bolus design that affect the swallowing of a bolus in sheep. Other factors that might influence bolus swallowing time have also been considered. In addition, the effect of bolus design on its performance was evaluated. A total of 56 Suffolk ewes were used to assess the ease of administration and retention of 3 types of electronic ruminal boluses (mini, 11.5 × 58.0 mm and 21.7 g; small, 14.8 × 48.5 mm and 29.5 g; standard, 19.3 × 69.8 mm and 74.4 g) during a whole productive year, including pregnancy and lamb suckling. Ewe age (5.6 ± 2.3 yr) and weight (85.07 ± 8.2 kg BW) were recorded, as well as time for bolus swallowing. The deglutition of the bolus and any resulting blockages in the esophagus were monitored by visual observations. Retention and readability of the boluses were regularly monitored for d 1, wk 1, mo 1, and every mo until 1 yr. Time for bolus swallowing differed substantially with bolus type and was greater (P 0.05). The bolus o.d. and length were positively correlated with swallowing time (P electronic boluses showed 100% retention rate, and at 12 mo, bolus retention was 100%, 94.5%, and 100% for mini, small, and standard boluses, respectively (P > 0.05). At 12 mo, all boluses showed 100% readability, except for small boluses, which had a readability of 94.5%. In conclusion, bolus design affected swallowing time and bolus readability. A reduction in boluses length and o.d. needs to be carried out to provide ease of administration and for boluses to

  9. Intravenous labetalol in severe hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Palu, C.; Pessina, A. C.; Semplicini, A.; Hlede, M.; Morandin, F.; Palatini, P.; Sperti, G.; Rossi, G. P.

    1982-01-01

    1 Labetalol was administered by intravenous infusion or by the combination of intravenous bolus injection plus infusion to 15 patients with severe essential hypertension and to one with phaeochromocytoma. 2 With the infusion alone the reduction of arterial pressure was slow to develop and limited in degree, but with the combination of the bolus injection plus the infusion the reduction in pressure was more prompt, more pronounced and longer lasting. Apart from an uncomplicated syncopal attack in one patient, no serious side — effects were encountered. 3 Subsequent treatment with oral labetalol usually required the addition of a diuretic to control the blood pressure probably due to sodium and fluid retention during treatment with labetalol alone. PMID:7093106

  10. Intra-arrest hypothermia: both cold liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbons and cold intravenous saline rapidly achieve hypothermia, but only cold liquid ventilation improves resumption of spontaneous circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riter, Henry G; Brooks, Leonard A; Pretorius, Andrew M; Ackermann, Laynez W; Kerber, Richard E

    2009-05-01

    Rapid intra-arrest induction of hypothermia using total liquid ventilation (TLV) with cold perfluorocarbons improves resuscitation outcome from ventricular fibrillation (VF). Cold saline intravenous infusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a simpler method of inducing hypothermia. We compared these 2 methods of rapid hypothermia induction for cardiac resuscitation. Three groups of swine were studied: cold preoxygenated TLV (TLV, n=8), cold intravenous saline infusion (S, n=8), and control (C, n=8). VF was electrically induced. Beginning at 8 min of VF, TLV and S animals received 3 min of cold TLV or rapid cold saline infusion. After 11 min of VF, all groups received standard air ventilation and closed chest massage. Defibrillation was attempted after 3 min of CPR (14 min of VF). The end point was resumption of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Pulmonary arterial (PA) temperature decreased after 1 min of CPR from 37.2 degrees C to 32.2 degrees C in S and from 37.1 degrees C to 34.8 degrees C in TLV (S or TLV vs. C pcold saline infusion and cold TLV, but ROSC was higher than control only in cold TLV animals, probably due to better CPP and pO(2). The method by which hypothermia is achieved influences ROSC.

  11. Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    returning to normal after treatment.4 The complication rate is 2 per 1000 infested children per year, I being maximal when the worm burden exceeds 100,2 Obstruction of the intestine by a bolus of worms, biliary ascariasis,3.6 pancreatitis and acute appendicitis are the commonest complications necessitating sur-.

  12. Bolus characteristics based on Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaoming

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed contrast bolus propagation model is essential for optimizing bolus-chasing Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA. Bolus characteristics were studied using bolus-timing datasets from Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA for adaptive controller design and validation. Methods MRA bolus-timing datasets of the aorta in thirty patients were analyzed by a program developed with MATLAB. Bolus characteristics, such as peak position, dispersion and bolus velocity, were studied. The bolus profile was fit to a convolution function, which would serve as a mathematical model of bolus propagation in future controller design. Results The maximum speed of the bolus in the aorta ranged from 5–13 cm/s and the dwell time ranged from 7–13 seconds. Bolus characteristics were well described by the proposed propagation model, which included the exact functional relationships between the parameters and aortic location. Conclusion The convolution function describes bolus dynamics reasonably well and could be used to implement the adaptive controller design.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose intravenous melatonin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    This crossover study investigated the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of high-dose intravenous melatonin. Volunteers participated in 3 identical study sessions, receiving an intravenous bolus of 10 mg melatonin, 100 mg melatonin, and placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0, 6...

  14. Rapid response to intravenous vitamin K may obviate the need to transfuse prothrombin complex concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Tanmay; Tavares, Maria F; Sweeney, Joseph D

    2017-08-01

    Patients on warfarin who present with bleeding or who require an urgent procedure are commonly treated with intravenous (IV) vitamin K, which is supplemented with repletion of the vitamin K factors using either plasma or a prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). In some such cases, use of vitamin K alone could be adequate to achieve acceptable hemostasis. An algorithm emphasizing the use of vitamin K alone in patients presenting with non-life-threatening bleeding was encouraged, with repeat testing of the international normalized ratio (INR) within 5 hours. Depending on the INR result, patients received no factor repletion or plasma or PCC, as judged by the physician. Leftover samples from a separate cohort of patients with supratherapeutic INRs (INR > 4.0) were studied for clotting factor evaluation. A total of 46 pre- and postinfusion INRs were evaluable from 41 patients. Median INR decreased from 5.8 to 2.5, with a median dose of 5 mg after a median time of 4.0 hours postinfusion. A total of 27 of 46 (59%) postinfusion samples showed an INR of 2.5 or less. Samples from patients with the highest INR showed the greatest decline in INR. Samples from supratherapeutic INR patients showed very high Factor VIII:C (200%) and a normal activated partial thromboplastin time in 23 of 50 (46%). Use of IV vitamin K as sole therapy for urgent partial reversal of warfarin for non-life-threatening bleeding may provide adequate hemostasis within 5 hours, avoiding the need for clotting factor repletion. © 2017 AABB.

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following a two-stage intravenous infusion in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Lykke; Foster, David J.R.; Upton, Richard N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following administration of an intravenous (i.v.) infusion. To date, the population kinetics of buprenorphine has been described for bolus administration only.......The aim of this investigation was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following administration of an intravenous (i.v.) infusion. To date, the population kinetics of buprenorphine has been described for bolus administration only....

  16. Similar insulin secretory response to a gastric inhibitory polypeptide bolus injection at euglycemia in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Siepmann, Nina

    2003-01-01

    control subjects were studied with (1) a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and (2) an intravenous bolus injection of 20 pmol GIP/kg BW with blood samples drawn over 30 minutes for determination of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP. Statistical analysis applied repeated-measures analysis......Insulin secretion following the intravenous infusion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished in patients with type 2 diabetes and at least a subgroup of their first-degree relatives at hyperglycemic clamp conditions. Therefore, we studied the effects of an intravenous bolus...... administration of GIP at normoglycemic conditions in the fasting state. Ten healthy control subjects were studied with an intravenous bolus administration of placebo, and of 7, 20, and 60 pmol GIP/kg body weight (BW), respectively. Forty-five first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched...

  17. Comparison of Bolus Phenylephrine, Ephedrine and Mephentermine for Maintenance of Arterial Pressure during Spinal Anesth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bhattarai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypotension is common following spinal anesthesia. Various vasopressors have been indicated to prevent it. The study compares three such agents namely phenylephrine, ephedrine and mephentermine. METHODS: The study included 90 patients undergoing elective and emergency cesarean section who developed hypotension following subarachnoid blockade. Parturient were randomly divided into three groups each group had 30 patients. Group P received bolus of Phenylephrine 25 microgram, where as group E received Ephedrine 5mg and Group M received Mephentermine 6mg. RESULTS: It was found that rise of blood pressure was significantly higher in case of phenylephrine group in first six minutes, after the bolus, there was significant reduction in the heart rate in phenylephrine group, but there was tachycardia following administration of bolus ephedrine and mephenteramine. Neonatal APGAR score were similar in all three groups. CONCLUSIONS: All three drugs maintained hemodynamics within 20 percent of the baseline values on intravenous administration. Keywords: APGAR, ephedrine, hypotension, mephentermine, phenylephrine, spinal anesthesia.

  18. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2–6 s) increased (30–70 μM or 6–14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (−20–40 μM or 5–10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  19. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-09-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2-6 s) increased (30-70 μM or 6-14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (-20-40 μM or 5-10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  20. Valproate protein binding following rapid intravenous administration of high doses of valproic acid in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S; Faught, E; Limdi, N A

    2007-08-01

    To characterize protein binding in patients with epilepsy who achieve transient high (>150 mg/L) total plasma concentrations following rapid valproate infusion at very high doses. Patients with epilepsy (n = 40) were administered 20 or 30 mg/kg loading doses (6 or 10 mg/kg/min) of undiluted valproate sodium injection. Total and unbound valproic acid (VPA) concentrations were used to assess VPA binding to plasma albumin. One- and two-binding site models were explored in a nonlinear mixed effects population analysis framework. The relative importance of weight, age, sex, race and enzyme-inducing comedications on the binding site association constant (K) was examined using the likelihood ratio test. Intersubject and intrasubject variabilities were characterized using exponential or proportional error models. Optimal characterization of the data was achieved using the one-binding site model. Population binding parameter estimates (standard error) for number of binding sites (N) and K were 1.98 (0.0865) and 15.5 [2.28 (1/mM)], respectively. No significant covariates were identified for VPA protein binding. The intersubject and intrasubject coefficients of variation were 32% and 14%, respectively. A one-binding site model without any significant covariates for binding constants optimally described VPA protein binding. As the estimated dissociation constant (1/K, 64.5 microm or 9.3 mg/L) was within the therapeutic range (5-15 mg/L) for unbound VPA concentrations, protein binding was nonlinear. Although the range of unbound fraction and VPA concentrations were much higher than previous studies, the dissociation constant was consistent with historical data in normal healthy adults and epilepsy patients receiving lower doses.

  1. Intravenous Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  2. Intravenous and inhalation toxicokinetics of sarin stereoisomers in atropinized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, H E; Langenberg, J P; Trap, H C; van der Wiel, H J; Helmich, R B; van Helden, H P; Benschop, H P

    2000-12-15

    We report the first toxicokinetic studies of (+/-)-sarin. The toxicokinetics of the stereoisomers of this nerve agent were studied in anesthetized, atropinized, and restrained guinea pigs after intravenous bolus administration of a dose corresponding to 0.8 LD50 and after nose-only exposure to vapor concentrations yielding 0.4 and 0.8 LCt50 in an 8-min exposure time. During exposure the respiratory minute volume and frequency were monitored. Blood samples were taken for gas chromatographic analysis of the nerve agent stereoisomers and for measurement of the activity of blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In all experiments, the concentration of (+)-sarin was below the detection limit (sarin, after an intravenous bolus was adequately described with a two-exponential equation. (-)-Sarin is distributed ca. 10-fold faster than C(-)P(-)-soman, whereas its elimination proceeds almost 10-fold slower. During nose-only exposure to 0.4 and 0.8 LCt50 of (+/-)-sarin in 8 min, (-)-sarin appeared to be rapidly absorbed. The blood AChE activity decreased during the exposure period to ca. 15 and 70% of control activity, respectively. There were no effects on the respiratory parameters. A significant nonlinearity of the toxicokinetics with dose was observed for the respiratory experiments. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Bolus guide: a novel insulin bolus dosing decision support tool based on selection of carbohydrate ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Gali; Yodfat, Ofer; HaCohen, Arava; Feigin, Paul; Rubin, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Optimal continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy emphasizes the relationship between insulin dose and carbohydrate consumption. One widely used tool (bolus calculator) requires the user to enter discrete carbohydrate values; however, many patients might not estimate carbohydrates accurately. This study assessed carbohydrate estimation accuracy in type 1 diabetes CSII users and compared simulated blood glucose (BG) outcomes using the bolus calculator and the "bolus guide," an alternative system based on ranges of carbohydrate load. Patients (n = 60) estimated the carbohydrate load of a representative sample of meals of known carbohydrate value. The estimated error distribution [coefficient of variation (CV)] was the basis for a computer simulation (n = 1.6 million observations) of insulin recommendations for the bolus guide and bolus calculator, translated into outcome blood glucose (OBG) ranges (201 mg/dl). Patients (n = 30) completed questionnaires assessing satisfaction with the bolus guide. The CV of typical meals ranged from 27.9% to 44.5%. The percentage of simulated OBG for the calculator and the bolus guide in the 200 mg/dl range. The mean and median scores of all bolus guide satisfaction items and ease of learning and use were 4.17 and 4.2, respectively (of 5.0). The bolus guide recommendation based on carbohydrate range selection is substantially similar to the calculator based on carbohydrate point estimation and appears to be highly accepted by type 1 diabetes insulin pump users. 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Rapid detection of coronary artery stenoses with real-time perfusion echocardiography during regadenoson stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Thomas R; Adolphson, Mary; High, Robin R; Smith, Lynette M; Olson, Joan; Erdkamp, Michelle; Xie, Feng; O'Leary, Edward; Wong, Benjamin F; Eifert-Rain, Susan; Hagen, Mary E; Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Mulvagh, Sharon L

    2011-11-01

    Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography permits the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities during stress echocardiography, which may improve the accuracy of the test in detecting coronary artery stenoses. We hypothesized that this technique could be used after a bolus injection of the selective A2A receptor agonist regadenoson to rapidly and safely detect coronary artery stenoses. In 100 patients referred for quantitative coronary angiography, real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed during a continuous intravenous infusion of 3% Definity at baseline and at 2-minute intervals for up to 6 minutes after a regadenoson bolus injection (400 μg). Myocardial perfusion was assessed by examination of myocardial contrast replenishment after brief high mechanical index impulses. A perfusion defect was defined as a delay (>2 seconds) in myocardial contrast replenishment in 2 contiguous segments. Wall motion was also analyzed. The overall sensitivity/specificity/accuracy for myocardial perfusion analysis in detecting a >50% diameter stenosis was 80%/74%/78%, whereas for wall motion analysis it was 60%/72%/66% (Pregadenoson bolus (Pregadenoson bolus injection. Regadenoson real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography appears to be a feasible, safe, and rapid noninvasive method for the detection of significant coronary artery stenoses.

  5. Safety and efficacy of rapid (1,000 mg in 1 hr) intravenous iron dextran for treatment of maternal iron deficient anemia of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lee; Smith, Samuel; Gilstrop, Marisa; Derman, Richard; Auerbach, Sarah; London, Nicola; Lenowitz, Steven; Bahrain, Huzefa; McClintock, Jessica; Auerbach, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Maternal iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Oral iron is recommended to reverse anemia, but has gastrointestinal toxicity and frequent non-adherence. Intravenous (IV) iron is reserved for intolerance of, or unresponsiveness to, oral therapy, malabsorption, and severe anemia (1% with hemoglobin [Hgb] levels iron dextran (LMWID) over 60 min, LMWID is an attractive option. This study demonstrated safety and efficacy of rapid IV infusion of 1,000 mg LMWID to gravidas with moderate to severe IDA. An observational treatment study of 1,000 mg LMWID administered over 1 hr for IDA in 189 consecutive, unselected second and third trimester gravidas after oral iron failure was conducted. All received a test dose of 25 mg LMWID and were monitored for AEs during the 60-min infusion. No premedication was administered unless more than one drug allergy or asthma was present in which case IV methylprednisolone was administered. All were followed through pregnancy and delivery. Monitored parameters included Hgb, mean corpuscular volume, serum ferritin, and percent transferrin saturation. About 189 subjects received 1,000 mg LMWID. No serious AEs occurred. About 2% experienced transient infusion reactions. Hgb improved by 1-1.9 g/dL in 82% and ≥2 g/dL in 24%. Second trimester treatment was not associated with greater Hgb improvement than third trimester treatment. Anemia resolved in 95%. Administration of a single large dose of IV LMWID was effective, safe, and convenient. Am. J. Hematol. 91:590-593, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Changes in food bolus texture during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Sachie; Goto, Takaharu; Fujimoto, Keiko; Watanabe, Megumi; Nagao, Kan; Nakamichi, Atsuko; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the changes that occur in bolus texture from intake to swallowing during the mastication process for four types of food materials and to identify how texture is related to the number of chews. We recruited 15 young Japanese participants for this study. The subjects were asked to spit the food bolus just before swallowing when eating four different foods: cracker, boiled rice, hard gelatine gel, and soft gelatine gel. Three physical properties (hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) were measured in the bolus after being chewed for 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of the normal number of chews. Occlusal force and pressure as well as stimulated whole saliva volume were also measured. Extensive variation in the number of chews existed between subjects, but minimal intra-subject variation was observed. Hardness was observed to decrease, whereas cohesiveness and adhesiveness increased in a chew-dependent manner for the cracker, soft gelatine gel, and hard gelatine gel, but not boiled rice. Bolus texture appears to be largely related to the number of chews. Hardness also tended to be influenced by occlusion. The adhesiveness and hardness of the boiled rice were also greatly influenced by saliva volume and occlusal force, respectively. Hardness is an important rheological factor in food bolus texture and likely plays a significant role in determining the appropriate number of chews. Adhesiveness and cohesiveness appear to be secondary factors in this process. We propose a model of oral processing for application in determining the appropriate number of chews for an individual. Hardness appears to be an important rheological factor in food bolus texture, with adhesiveness and cohesiveness being secondary aspects. When food is hard or difficult to swallow, chewing behavior will likely be more influenced by the perception of bolus texture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Intravenous amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowey, P R; Marinchak, R A; Rials, S J; Filart, R A

    1997-05-01

    Intravenous amiodarone was approved in 1995 for the treatment of malignant and resistant ventricular arrhythmia. Although it is an "old drug," much has been learned recently about this complex drug and its application in a variety of cardiac arrhythmias. The objectives of this review were to summarize what is known about intravenous amiodarone, including its pharmacologic and electrophysiologic effects, to review its efficacy for the treatment of patients with highly malignant ventricular arrhythmia and to provide specific information about its clinical use for this and other indications. The studies that were reviewed were selected on the basis of time published (from 1983 to 1995) and the completeness of information provided regarding patient clinical characteristics, drug dosing and methods of evaluation, efficacy analyses, long-term follow-up and complications. The full data from the three controlled trials that formed the basis of the drug's approval are contained in published reports that were also extensively reviewed. Intravenous amiodarone has demonstrable efficacy for the treatment of frequently recurrent destabilizing ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, with suppression rates of 63% to 91% in uncontrolled trials. The three pivotal trials confirmed these findings and demonstrated a dose-response relation, with at least comparable efficacy to bretylium, a drug with a similar indication. The safety profile has also been well described; cardiovascular adverse effects are the most frequent, especially hypotension. Intravenous amiodarone is a useful addition to the drugs available for the treatment of patients with very severe ventricular arrhythmia. Its use in patients with other rhythm disorders appears promising, but final recommendations must await development of definitive data from ongoing clinical trials.

  8. Pharmacological Management of Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Mohammed Khayyat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Soft esophageal bolus impaction is an emergency that requires skilled endoscopic removal if persistent obstructive symptoms do not resolve spontaneously after careful observation. Expedited care of these patients is crucial to avoid respiratory and mechanical complications. Other possible options for management include medical agents used to manage it prior to performing endoscopy if access to endoscopy was not available or declined by the patient. Aim. To review the available pharmacological and other nonmedicinal options and their mechanism of relief for soft esophageal impaction. Method. Pubmed, Medline and Ovid were used for search of MESH terms pertinent including “foreign body, esophageal, esophageal bolus and medical” for pharmacological and non medicinial agents used for management of esophageal soft bolus impaction as well as manual review of the cross-references. Results. Several agents were identified including Buscopan, Glucagon, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and papaveretum. Non medicinal agents are water, effervescent agents, and papain. No evidence was found to suggest preference or effectiveness of use of a certain pharmacological agent compared to others. Buscopan, Glucagon, benzodiazepines, and nitrates were studied extensively and may be used in selected patients with caution. Use of papain is obsolete in management of soft bolus impaction.

  9. Bolus propagation in pig ureter in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron); E.A. Tauecchio

    1984-01-01

    textabstractPig ureters were made to propagate injected fluid boluses by electrical stimulation in vitro. The propagation velocity was determined from EMG measurements made at several points along the ureter. It was found that this velocity varied both along the ureter and as a function of time, and

  10. The comparison of bolus tracking and test bolus techniques for computed tomography thoracic angiography in healthy beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Cassel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography thoracic angiography studies were performed on five adult beagles using the bolus tracking (BT technique and the test bolus (TB technique, which were performed at least two weeks apart. For the BT technique, 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent was injected intravenously. Scans were initiated when the contrast in the aorta reached 150 Hounsfield units (HU. For the TB technique, the dogs received a test dose of 15% of 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent, followed by a series of low dose sequential scans. The full dose of the contrast agent was then administered and the scans were conducted at optimal times as identified from time attenuation curves. Mean attenuation in HU was measured in the aorta (Ao and right caudal pulmonary artery (rCPA. Additional observations included the study duration, milliAmpere (mA, computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI[vol] and dose length product (DLP. The attenuation in the Ao (BT = 660 52 HU ± 138 49 HU, TB = 469 82 HU ± 199 52 HU, p = 0.13 and in the rCPA (BT = 606 34 HU ± 143 37 HU, TB = 413 72 HU ± 174.99 HU, p = 0.28 did not differ significantly between the two techniques. The BT technique was conducted in a significantly shorter time period than the TB technique (p = 0.03. The mean mA for the BT technique was significantly lower than the TB technique (p = 0.03, as was the mean CTDI(vol (p = 0.001. The mean DLP did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p = 0.17. No preference was given to either technique when evaluating the Ao or rCPA but the BT technique was shown to be shorter in duration and resulted in less DLP than the TB technique.

  11. The comparison of bolus tracking and test bolus techniques for computed tomography thoracic angiography in healthy beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Cassel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography thoracic angiography studies were performed on five adult beagles using the bolus tracking (BT technique and the test bolus (TB technique, which were performed at least two weeks apart. For the BT technique, 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent was injected intravenously. Scans were initiated when the contrast in the aorta reached 150 Hounsfield units (HU. For the TB technique, the dogs received a test dose of 15% of 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent, followed by a series of low dose sequential scans. The full dose of the contrast agent was then administered and the scans were conducted at optimal times as identified from time attenuation curves. Mean attenuation in HU was measured in the aorta (Ao and right caudal pulmonary artery (rCPA. Additional observations included the study duration, milliAmpere (mA, computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI[vol] and dose length product (DLP. The attenuation in the Ao (BT = 660 52 HU ± 138 49 HU, TB = 469 82 HU ± 199 52 HU, p = 0.13 and in the rCPA (BT = 606 34 HU ± 143 37 HU, TB = 413 72 HU ± 174.99 HU, p = 0.28 did not differ significantly between the two techniques. The BT technique was conducted in a significantly shorter time period than the TB technique (p = 0.03. The mean mA for the BT technique was significantly lower than the TB technique (p = 0.03, as was the mean CTDI(vol (p = 0.001. The mean DLP did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p = 0.17. No preference was given to either technique when evaluating the Ao or rCPA but the BT technique was shown to be shorter in duration and resulted in less DLP than the TB technique.

  12. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. 520.88e Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88e Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains the equivalent of 400 milligrams of amoxicillin...

  13. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ziconotide (SNX-111), an intrathecal N-type calcium channel blocking analgesic, delivered by bolus and infusion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaksh, Tony L; de Kater, Annelies; Dean, Robin; Best, Brookie M; Miljanich, George P

    2012-01-01

      Ziconotide is a peptide that blocks N-type calcium channels and is antihyperalgesic after intrathecal (IT) delivery. We here characterize the spinal kinetics of IT bolus and infused ziconotide in dog.   Male beagle dogs (N= 5) were prepared with chronic IT lumbar injection and cerebrospinal fluid (LCSF) sampling catheters connected to vest-mounted pumps. Each dog received the following: 1) IT bolus ziconotide (10 µg + 1 µCi (3) H-inulin); 2) IT infusion for 48 hours of ziconotide (1 µg/100 µL/hour); 3) IT infusion for 48 hours of ziconotide (5 µg/100 µL/hour); and 4) intravenous injection of ziconotide (0.1 mg/kg). After IT bolus, LCSF ziconotide and inulin showed an initial peak and biphasic (distribution/elimination) clearance (ziconotide T(1/2-α/β) = 0.14 and 1.77 hours, and inulin T(1/2-α/β) = 0.16 and 3.88 hours, respectively). The LCSF : plasma ziconotide concentration ratio was 20,000:1 at 30 min and 30:1 at eight hours. IT infusion of 1 and then 5 µg/hour resulted in LCSF concentrations that peaked by eight hours and remained stable at 343 and 1380 ng/mL, respectively, to the end of the 48-hour infusions. Terminal elimination T(1/2) after termination of continuous infusion was 2.47 hours. Ziconotide LCSF : cisternal CSF : plasma concentration ratios after infusion of 1 and 5 µg/hour were 1:0.017:0.001 and 1:0.015:0.003, respectively. IT infusion of ziconotide at 1 µg/hour inhibited thermal skin twitch by 24 hours and produced modest trembling, ataxia, and decreased arousal. Effects continued through the 48-hour infusion period, increased in magnitude during the subsequent 5 µg/hour infusion periods, and disappeared after drug clearance.   After IT bolus or infusion, ziconotide displays linear kinetics that are consistent with a hydrophilic molecule of approximately 2500 Da that is cleared slightly more rapidly than inulin from the LCSF. Behavioral effects were dose dependent and reversible.

  14. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyu Hosotsubo

    Full Text Available Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy. The results indicated that Young's modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

  15. Normal swallowing acoustics across age, gender, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Scott R; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2011-12-01

    Cervical auscultation has been proposed as an augmentative procedure for the subjective clinical swallowing examination due to the tangible differences between normal and dysphagic swallowing sounds. However, the research is incomplete regarding cervical auscultation and swallowing acoustics in that the differences between the sounds of normal versus dysphagic swallowing have yet to be fully understood or quantified. The swallows of 96 reportedly healthy adults, balanced for gender and divided into younger, middle, and older age groups, were audio-recorded while ingesting several boluses of varying viscosity and volume. The audio signals were then analyzed to determine their temporal and acoustic characteristics. Results indicated increasing pharyngeal swallowing duration with increasing age, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. In addition, an increased duration to peak intensity with increasing age was found in one of our two analyses, as well as with some of the more viscous versus less viscous boluses. Men and older persons produced higher peak intensities and peak frequencies than women and younger persons. Thin liquids were produced with more intensity than honey or more viscous boluses, and with greater frequency than mechanical soft solids. Larger volumes resulted in greater peak frequency values. Some of the acoustic measurements appear to be more useful than others, including the duration of the acoustic swallowing signal and the within-subjects peak intensity variable. We noted that differences in swallowing acoustics were more related to changes in viscosity rather than volume. Finally, within-participant observations were more useful than between-participant observations.

  16. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.

  17. A study on developing customized bolus using 3D prints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sang Min; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jin Uk; Yeom, Du Seok [Dept. of Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%} and V{sub 95%} in treatment plan through Eclipse. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average 3.9 cm{sup 3} at the customized bolus. And it was average 29.6cm{sup 3} at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of branded 1 cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. The

  18. "The relationship between pharmacokinetic variables and pharmacodynamic profiles of bolus versus continuous infusion of furosemide in critically ill patients"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the pharmacokinetic variables of continuous infusion and intermittent bolus injection of furosemide and the possible relationship between its pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacodynamic profile among intensive care unit (ICU patients were studied. In this prospective, randomized, clinical trial, twelve patients received IV bolus of 20 mg of the drug during 3 hours period and, the drug dose was doubled, when the urine output was less than 1 ml/kg/h (group 1. The other nine patients received a continuous intravenous furosemide infusion at the rate of 0.1 mg/kg/h (group 2. The amount of furosemide in serum was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results showed a positive correlation between plasma clearance of furosemide and its diuretic activity (P=0.01. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Vd (l, CL (ml/min, Ke (min-1 and t½ (min in continuous infusion patients were not significantly differed from the bolus patients (P-values 0.5, 0.9, 0.9,0.9, respectively. Nevertheless the observed plasma clearance of drug in the continuous infusion group was clinically higher than bolus injection group and as a result the cumulative urine output per hour per mg of furosemide in a continuous infusion was observed to be higher than bolus(P=0.2. Changes in serum sodium and potassium were similar for both groups, but bolus injection patients were associated with higher potassium depletion (P=0.001. Therefore, continuous infusion seems to be better means of diuretic therapy in critically ill patients.

  19. Rapid opiate detoxification and antagonist induction under general anaesthesia or intravenous sedation is humane, sometimes essential and should always be an option. Three illustrative case reports involving diabetes and epilepsy and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Colin; de Jong, Catherine; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    When abstinence is an appropriate goal, controlled studies and systematic reviews confirm that rapid, antagonist-precipitated opiate withdrawal procedures are the most effective and cost effective methods of initiating abstinence, and naltrexone (NTX) maintenance. While 'rapid' withdrawal, better conceptualised as Rapid Antagonist Induction (RAI), can often be humanely achieved with modest sedation levels, we present three case histories to support our argument that for some patients, general anaesthesia (GA), or techniques of intravenous sedation (IVS) that approach GA, are essential for safety and success. This includes patients with intercurrent disease (e.g. epilepsy or insulin-dependent diabetes) but also those with severe withdrawal phobia after previous distressing experiences. We discuss the history of the procedure. The dangers of RAI under GA or IVS in experienced hands have been exaggerated and the appropriate expertise should be more easily available. Patients and clinicians readily accept risks of major surgery for the excessive intake of food that causes most obesity. Similar risk-acceptance exists in cosmetic surgery and obstetrics. The increasing use and effectiveness of long-acting implants or depot-injections of NTX for relapse-prevention have largely solved compliance problems that undermined the potential of oral NTX. Their ability to prevent opiate overdose in abstinent, non-tolerant patients also strengthens arguments both for offering RAI as a therapeutic option and for reducing psychological, professional and practical barriers to using it.

  20. Impaired bolus clearance in asymptomatic older adults during high-resolution impedance manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, C; Besanko, L; Kritas, S; Burgstad, C M; Thompson, A; Heddle, R; Fraser, R J L; Omari, T I

    2016-12-01

    Dysphagia becomes more common in old age. We performed high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) in asymptomatic healthy adults (including an older cohort >80 years) to assess HRIM findings in relation to bolus clearance. Esophageal HRIM was performed in a sitting posture in 45 healthy volunteers (n = 30 young control, mean age 37 ± 11 years and n = 15 older subjects aged 85 ± 4 years) using a 3.2-mm solid-state catheter (Solar GI system; MMS, Enschede, The Netherlands) with 25 pressure (1-cm spacing) and 12 impedance segments (2-cm intervals). Five swallows each of 5- and 10-mL liquid and viscous bolus were performed and analyzed using esophageal pressure topography metrics and Chicago classification criteria as well as pressure-flow parameters. Bolus transit was determined using standard impedance criteria. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Impaired bolus clearance occurred more frequently in asymptomatic older subjects compared with young controls (YC) during liquid (40 vs 18%, χ 2  = 4.935; p < 0.05) and viscous (60 vs 17%; χ 2  = 39.08; p < 0.001) swallowing. Longer peristaltic breaks (p < 0.05) and more rapid peristalsis (L: p < 0.004, V: p = 0.003) occurred in the older cohort, with reduced impedance-based clearance for both bolus consistencies (L: p < 0.05, V: p < 0.001). Decreased peristaltic vigor (distal contractile integral <450 mmHg/s/cm) was associated with reduced liquid clearance in both age groups (p < 0.001) and of viscous swallows in the older group (p < 0.001). Impedance ratio, a marker of bolus retention, was increased in older subjects during liquid (p = 0.002) and viscous (p < 0.001) swallowing. Impaired liquid and viscous bolus clearance, esophageal pressure topography, and pressure-flow changes were seen in asymptomatic older subjects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intravenous and inhalation toxicokinetics of sarin stereoisomers in atropinized guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, W.E.T.; Langenberg, J.P.; Trap, H.C.; Wiel, H.J. van der; Helmich, R.B.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    We report the first toxicokinetic studies of (±)-sarin. The toxicokinetics of the stereoisomers of this nerve agent were studied in anesthetized, atropinized, and restrained guinea pigs after intravenous bolus administration of a dose corresponding to 0.8 LD50 and after nose-only exposure to vapor

  2. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520.1720a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of...

  3. Vasopressin Bolus Protocol Compared to Desmopressin (DDAVP for Managing Acute, Postoperative Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anukrati Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Management of postoperative central diabetes insipidus (DI can be challenging from changes in volume status and serum sodium levels. We report a case successfully using a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol in managing hypovolemic shock in acute, postoperative, central DI. Case Report. Patient presented after bifrontal decompressive craniotomy for severe traumatic brain injury. He developed increased urine output resulting in hypovolemia and hypernatremia. He was resuscitated with intravenous fluids including a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol. This protocol consisted of 1 unit of vasopressin in 1 liter of 0.45% normal saline. This protocol was given in boluses based on the formula: urine output minus one hundred. Initial serum sodium was 148 mmol/L, and one-hour urine output was 1 liter. After 48 hours, he transitioned to 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP. Pre-DDAVP serum sodium was 149 mmol/L and one-hour urine output 320 cc. Comparing the bolus protocol to the DDAVP protocol, the average sodium was 143.8 ± 3.2 and 149.6 ± 3.2 mmol/L (p=0.0001, average urine output was 433.2 ± 354.4 and 422.3 ± 276.0 cc/hr (p=0.90, and average specific gravity was 1.019 ± 0.009 and 1.016 ± 0.01 (p=0.42, respectively. Conclusion. A protocol using dilute vasopressin bolus can be an alternative for managing acute, central DI postoperatively, particularly in setting of hypovolemic shock resulting in a consistent control of serum sodium.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and norketamine enantiomers after racemic or S-ketamine IV bolus administration in dogs during sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Noemi; Bektas, Rima N; Kutter, Annette P; Barbarossa, Andrea; Roncada, Paola; Hartnack, Sonja; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to measure plasma levels of R- and S-ketamine and their major metabolites R- and S-norketamine following single intravenous bolus administration of racemic or S-ketamine in sevoflurane anaesthetised dogs and to calculate the relevant pharmacokinetic profiles. Six adult healthy beagle dogs were used in the study. An intravenous bolus of 4mg/kg racemic ketamine (RS-KET) or 2mg/kg S-ketamine (S-KET) was administered, with a three-weeks washout period between treatments. Venous blood samples were collected at fixed times until 900min and R- and S-ketamine as well as R- and S-norketamine plasma levels determined by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Cardiovascular parameters were recorded during the anaesthesia until 240min. All dogs recovered well from anaesthesia. No statistical differences between groups were detected in any cardiovascular parameter. The pharmacokinetics of S-ketamine did not differ when injected intravenously alone or as part of the racemic mixture in dogs anaesthetised with sevoflurane. Following racemic ketamine, the area under the curve of R-norketamine was statistically higher than the one of S-norketamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intracoronary eptifibatide bolus administration during percutaneous coronary revascularization for acute coronary syndromes with evaluation of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy and platelet function: the Intracoronary Eptifibatide (ICE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibele, Albert J; Jennings, Lisa K; Tcheng, James E; Neva, Cathy; Earhart, Angela D; Gibson, C Michael

    2010-02-16

    Eptifibatide reduces major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intracoronary bolus administration of eptifibatide may result in higher levels of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy in the local coronary bed, disaggregate thrombus in the epicardial artery and microvasculature, and thereby improve coronary flow. Patients undergoing PCI for an acute coronary syndrome were randomized to either intracoronary or intravenous bolus administration of eptifibatide. The primary end point was the local glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy measured in the coronary sinus. There were no angiographic, electrophysiological, or other adverse findings attributable to intracoronary eptifibatide. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy was significantly greater with intracoronary versus intravenous administration: first bolus, 94+/-9% versus 51+/-15% (Peptifibatide during PCI in patients with acute coronary syndromes results in higher local platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor occupancy, which is associated with improved microvascular perfusion demonstrated by an improved cTFC.

  6. The challenge of mastication: preparing a bolus suitable for deglutition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishellany, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labas, Roland; Peyron, Marie-Agnès

    2006-04-01

    The main function of mastication is to transform a solid food into a bolus that can be swallowed safely. The bolus characteristics such as particles size or cohesiveness, are continuously sensed during mastication and they are important in initiating deglutition. This study examined the following question: What is the condition of the bolus just before swallowing? Ten subjects with normal dentition aged 37.5 +/- 3.7 years were asked to chew without swallowing six different foods (three nuts and three vegetables) while the number of cycles and the duration of the sequence were recorded. The particle size distribution shown by the expectorated food bolus just before swallowing was examined by image analysis. The results showed that, for a given food, the sizes of the bolus particles just before swallowing were comparable in all subjects. However, the number of cycles and duration of the sequence varied between subjects. Taken together these data strongly suggest that the granularity of the bolus before swallowing has to reach a predetermined state which is obtained by using an individual chewing strategy. This suggests that the bolus structure reflects a key factor for homeostasis and explains the large interindividual variability of the mastication physiologic parameters.

  7. [Treatment of iron deficiency by a bolus intravenous iron dextran in peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, Maxence; Cuny, Pascale; Lecouf, Angélique; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine whether a single dose of iron dextran can correct iron deficiency during a period of four months in peritoneal dialysis patients. This was a prospective observational study in peritoneal dialysis patients who had anemia (hemoglobiniron deficiency (ferritiniron or who could not tolerate oral iron were included in the study. At baseline, based on the iron deficiency estimation, a single dose of iron dextran was infused over four hours. Of 17 patients included, 12 completed the study. The mean iron dose infused was 742±150mg. No clinically significant adverse event was reported during the infusion. Four months after the iron dextran infusion there was a significant increase of the mean hemoglobin level (10.1±0.7g/dl vs 11.4±1.2g/dL, Piron infusion 10 patients had a blood ferritin level higher than 100μg/L and a transferrin saturation higher than 20%. There was no significant modification of the erythropoietin dose during the four months period. In patients treated by peritoneal dialysis, the anemia due to iron deficiency can be treated by a single infusion of iron dextran for a period of four months. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Noninvasive quantification of human brain antioxidant concentrations after an intravenous bolus of vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Until now, antioxidant based initiatives for preventing dementia have lacked a means to detect deficiency or measure pharmacologic effect in the human brain in situ. Objective: Our objective was to apply a novel method to measure key human brain antioxidant concentrations throughout the ...

  9. Ocular Dynamics of Bolus Ingestion of Eleis guineensis Sap (Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that ...

  10. Fabrication of malleable three-dimensional-printed customized bolus using three-dimensional scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Park

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D-printed customized bolus (3D bolus can be used for radiotherapy application to irregular surfaces. However, bolus fabrication based on computed tomography (CT scans is complicated and also delivers unwanted irradiation. Consequently, we fabricated a bolus using a 3D scanner and evaluated its efficacy. The head of an Alderson Rando phantom was scanned with a 3D scanner. The 3D surface data were exported and reconstructed with Geomagic Design X software. A 3D bolus of 5-mm thickness designed to fit onto the nose was printed with the use of rubber-like printing material, and a radiotherapy plan was developed. We successfully fabricated the customized 3D bolus, and further, a CT simulation indicated an acceptable fit of the 3D bolus to the nose. There was no air gap between the bolus and the phantom surface. The percent depth dose (PDD curve of the phantom with the 3D bolus showed an enhanced surface dose when compared with that of the phantom without the bolus. The PDD of the 3D bolus was comparable with that of a commercial superflab bolus. The radiotherapy plan considering the 3D bolus showed improved target coverage when compared with that without the bolus. Thus, we successfully fabricated a customized 3D bolus for an irregular surface using a 3D scanner instead of a CT scanner.

  11. Understanding bolus insulin dose timing: the characteristics and experiences of people with diabetes who take bolus insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborlane, William V; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M; Brod, Meryl; Nikolajsen, Annie; Sandberg, Anna; Peters, Anne L; Van Name, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Despite the increased popularity of newer, fast-acting bolus insulin treatment options that allow for more flexibility in the timing of bolus insulin dosing in recent years, relatively little is known about people with diabetes who administer bolus insulin at differing times in relation to their meals. The purpose of this study was to investigate bolus insulin dose timing in relation to meals among people with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes, as well as to better understand the characteristics and experiences of people who bolus dose at differing times. A web-based survey of adults with T1D and T2D treated with bolus insulin therapy in Germany, the UK, and USA was conducted. A total of 906 respondents completed the survey (39% T1D; 61% T2D). A majority of respondents reported bolus dosing before meals in the previous week (57.0%), followed by after meals (18.9%), with meals (12.7%), and at varying times (11.5%). Compared to respondents who dosed with or after meals, those who dosed before meals were significantly less likely to experience hypoglycemia (before, 55.7%; with, 72.8%; after, 68.7%; p insulin with or after meals. Key limitations of all self-report surveys include potential bias in responses and generalizability of findings. However, the study was designed to help mitigate these limitations. The findings have implications for clinicians and suggest opportunities for improving diabetes education and care.

  12. Inversion-based propofol dosing for intravenous induction of hypnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, F.; Ionescu, C.; Latronico, N.; Paltenghi, M.; Visioli, A.; Vivacqua, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we propose an inversion-based methodology for the computation of a feedforward action for the propofol intravenous administration during the induction of hypnosis in general anesthesia. In particular, the typical initial bolus is substituted with a command signal that is obtained by predefining a desired output and by applying an input-output inversion procedure. The robustness of the method has been tested by considering a set of patients with different model parameters, which is representative of a large population.

  13. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  14. Intravenous home hydration in pediatric patients following adenotonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert H; Kim, Helen

    2002-10-21

    To determine the feasibility, safety and efficacy of intravenous home hydration for pediatric postoperative adenotonsillectomy patients. Nonrandomized control trial of two groups of pediatric patients following adenotonsillectomy--one with (H) and one without postoperative home intravenous hydration (WH). A tertiary care, university-based children's hospital. Administration of 25 cm3 kg-1 of Lactated Ringer's solution once a day for 3 days via an intravenous catheter. Three of 22 patients in the (WH) group and none of the 25 patients in the (H) group required an emergency room admission for dehydration. Difficulty swallowing and activity level were found to be statistically different based on chi2-analysis (Phydration group (H) had a greater swallowing difficulty score (1.4) compared with the nonhydration (WH) group (0.06). The (H) group had a lower activity score (0.2) compared with the (WH) group. Other parameters such as duration of pain, the severity of pain, days until oral feeds could be taken without difficulty, degree of dysphagia, degree of neck, throat, tongue and ear pain were not statistically different between the two groups based on chi2-analysis (Phydration. Increased efficacy from intravenous hydration was not shown based on a number of parameters. Selected patients with a high likelihood to develop dehydration or medically intractable emesis may benefit from intravenous hydration and may avoid emergency room or hospital admission. Bolus infusions of 25 cm3 kg-1 of Lactated Ringer's solution by home care nursing can be implemented safely in pediatric patients.

  15. Intravenous therapy for women in labor: implementation of a practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, A; Carter, N; Tansil, N; McLean, A; Downer, V

    1999-03-01

    Intravenous therapy for women in labor has been routinely administered in many North American hospitals since the 1950s. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a change in intravenous therapy practice. The evaluation study, using a posttest, quasi-experimental design, examined the responses of women in labor and nurses to a questionnaire. Proxy prestudy cohort data were used for comparison of some patient outcomes. The convenience sample comprised 219 women admitted to the labor and delivery unit of a community hospital in Toronto, Ontario, between August and October 1997. Under the new intravenous therapy protocol, 26 percent of the women in labor did not receive intravenous therapy compared with 100 percent under the old protocol. The primary reasons for therapy were to enable administration of prescribed medication and bolus intravenous administration associated with epidural anesthesia. At the first after-delivery void, 61 percent of study women-65 percent of those who received intravenous therapy and 50 percent of those who received no intravenous therapy-tested negative for ketonuria. All 119 comments from nurses indicated comfort with their judgments related to the initiation of intravenous therapy. The change in the intravenous therapy protocol was supported by the study findings. Nurses should increase patient education about drinking and eating adequately throughout labor if appropriate, and resuming adequate fluid and food intake as quickly as possible after childbirth.

  16. Intravenous platelet blockade with cangrelor during PCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Deepak L.; Lincoff, A. Michael; Gibson, C. Michael; Stone, Gregg W.; McNulty, Steven; Montalescot, Gilles; Kleiman, Neal S.; Goodman, Shaun G.; White, Harvey D.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Pollack, Charles V.; Manoukian, Steven V.; Widimsky, Petr; Chew, Derek P.; Cura, Fernando; Manukov, Ivan; Tousek, Frantisek; Jafar, M. Zubair; Arneja, Jaspal; Skerjanec, Simona; Harrington, Robert A.; Bhatt, D. L.; Harrington, R. A.; Lincoff, A. M.; Pollack, C. V.; Gibson, C. M.; Stone, G. W.; Mahaffey, K. W.; Kleiman, N. S.; Montalescot, G.; White, H. D.; Goodman, S. G.; Greenbaum, A.; Simon, D.; Lee, D.; Feit, F.; Dauerman, H.; Gurbel, P.; Berger, P.; Makkar, R.; Becker, R. C.; Manoukian, S.; Jorgova, J.; Chew, D. P.; Storey, R.; Desmet, W.; Cura, F.; Herrmann, H.; Rizik, D.; DeServi, S.; Huber, K.; Jukema, W. J.; Knopf, W.; Steg, P. G.; Schunkert, H.; Widimsky, P.; Betriu, A.; Aylward, P.; Polonestsky, L.; Lima, V.; Kobulia, B.; Navickas, R.; Gasior, Z.; Vasilieva, E.; Bennett, J. M.; Kraiz, I.; Van de Werf, F.; Faxon, D.; Ohman, E. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Verheugt, F.; Weaver, W. D.; Califf, R. M.; Mehta, C.; Hamm, C. W.; Pepine, C. J.; Ware, J.; Wilson, M.; Gorham, C.; Maran, A.; McNulty, S.; Fasteson, D.; Ryan, G.; Bradsher, J.; Connolly, P.; Mehta, R.; Leonardi, S.; Brennan, M.; Patel, M.; Petersen, J.; Bushnel, C.; Jolicoeur, M.; Chan, M.; Dowd, L.; Skinner, P.; Lawrence, G.; Jordon, M.; Dickerson, S.; Meyer, M.; Hartford, S.; Garcia Escudero, Alejandro; Poy, Carlos; Miceli, Miguel; Pocovi, Antonio; Londero, Hugo; Baccaro, Jorge; Polonetsky, Leonid; Karotkin, Aliaksey; Shubau, Leanid; Maffini, Eduardo; Machado, Bruno; Airton, José; Lima, Valter; Martinez Filho, Eulogio; Herdy, Arthur; Tumelero, Rogerio; Precoma, Dalton; Botelho, Roberto; Saad, Jamil; Jatene, Jose; Vilas-Boas, Fabio; Godinho, Antonio; Perin, Marco; Caramori, Paulo; Castro, Iran; Grigorov, Mladen; Milkov, Plamen; Jorgova, Julia; Georgiev, Svetoslav; Rifai, Nizar; Doganov, Alexander; Petrov, Ivo; Hui, William; Lazzam, Charles; Reeves, Francois; Tanguay, Jean-Francois; Richter, Marek; Klimsa, Zdenek; Padour, Michal; Mrozek, Jan; Branny, Marian; Coufal, Zdenek; Simek, Stanislav; Rozsival, Vladimir; Pleva, Leos; Stasek, Josef; Kala, Petr; Groch, Ladislav; Kocka, Viktor; Shaburishvili, Tamaz; Khintibidze, Irakli; Chapidze, Gulnara; Mamatsashvili, Merab; Mohanan, Padinhare; Jain, Rajesh; Parikh, Keyur; Patel, Tejas; Kumar, Sampath; Mehta, Ashwani; Banker, Darshan; Krishna, Lanka; Gadkari, Milind; Joshi, Hasit; Hiremath, Shirish; Grinius, Virgilijus; Norkiene, Sigute; Petrauskiene, Birute; Michels, Rolf; Tjon, Melvin; de Swart, Hans; de Winter, Robbert; White, Harvey; Devlin, Gerard; Abernethey, Malcolm; Osiev, Alexander; Linev, Kirill; Kalinina, Svetlana; Baum, Svetlana; Kosmachova, Elena; Shogenov, Zaur; Markov, Valentin; Boldueva, Svetlana; Barbarash, Olga; Kostenko, Victor; Vasilieva, Elena; Gruzdev, Aleksey; Lusov, Victor; Dovgalevsky, Pavel; Azarin, Oleg; Chernov, Sergey; Smolenskaya, Olga; Duda, Alexey; Fridrich, Viliam; Hranai, Marian; Studencan, Martin; Kurray, Peter; Bennett, John; Blomerus, Pieter; Disler, Laurence; Engelbrecht, Johannes; Klug, Eric; Routier, Robert; Venter, Tjaart; van der Merwe, Nico; Becker, Anthony; Cha, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Han, Sang-Jin; Youn, Tae Jin; Hur, Seung-Ho; Seo, Hong Seog; Park, Hun-Sik; Rhim, Chong-Yun; Pyun, Wook-Bum; Choe, Hyunmin; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Eak-Kyun; Hernández, Felipe; Figueras, Jaume; Hernández, Rosana; López-Minguez, José Ramón; González Juanatey, José Ramón; Palop, Ramón López; Galeote, Guillermo; Chamnarnphol, Noppadol; Buddhari, Wacin; Sansanayudh, Nakarin; Kuanprasert, Srun; Penny, William; Lui, Charles; Grimmett, Garfield; Srinivasan, Venkatraman; Ariani, Kevin; Khan, Waqor; Blankenship, James; Cannon, Louis; Eisenberg, Steven; McLaurin, Brent; Mahoney, Paul; Greenberg, Jerry; Breall, Jeffrey; Chandna, Harish; Hockstad, Eric; Tolerico, Paul; Kao, John; Shroff, Adhir; Nseir, Georges; Greenbaum, Adam; Cohn, Joel; Gogia, Harinder; Nahhas, Ahed; Istfan, Pierre; Orlow, Steve; Spriggs, Douglas; Sklar, Joel; Paulus, Richard; Cochran, David; Smith, Robert; Ferrier, L. Norman; Scott, J. Christopher; Xenopoulos, Nicholaos; Mulumudi, Mahesh; Hoback, James; Ginete, Wilson; Ballard, William; Stella, Joseph; Voeltz, Michele; Staniloae, Cezar; Eaton, Gregory; Griffin, John; Kumar, Krishna; Ebrahimi, Ramin; O'Shaughnessy, Charles; Lundstrom, Lundstrom; Temizer, Dogan; Tam, Kenneth; Suarez, Jose; Raval, Amish; Kaufman, Jay; Brilakis, Emmanouil; Stillabower, Michael; Quealy, Kathleen; Nunez, Boris; Pow, Thomas; Samuels, Bruce; Argenal, Agustin; Srinivas, Vankeepuram; Rosenthal, Andrew; Tummala, Pradyumna; Myers, Paul; LaMarche, Nelson; Chan, Michael; Bach, Richard; Simon, Daniel; Kettelkamp, Richard; Helmy, Tarek; Schaer, Gary; Kosinski, Edward; Buchbinder, Maurice; Sharma, Mukesh; Goodwin, Mark; Horwitz, Phillip; Mann, J. Tift; Holmes, David; Angiolillo, Dominick; Rao, Sunil; Azrin, Michael; Gammon, Roger; Mavromatis, Kreton; Ahmed, Abdel; Kent, Kenneth; Zughaib, Marcel; Westcott, R. Jeffrey; Jain, Ash; Gruberg, Luis; LeGalley, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravenous cangrelor, a rapid-acting, reversible adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist, might reduce ischemic events during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 5362 patients who had not been

  17. Homicide by intravenous injection of naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, M E; Poklis, A; Mackell, M A

    1985-01-01

    A case of homicide by the intravenous injection of Energine, a petroleum distillate spot remover, is presented. This case is the only known homicide committed with naphtha. This elderly man had severe natural disease in addition to chest trauma sustained in the assault leading to death; however, the rapid injection of approximately 25 mL of Energine was the overwhelming cause of death.

  18. 21 CFR 520.445c - Chlortetracycline tablets and boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlortetracycline tablets and boluses. 520.445c Section 520.445c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) Related tolerances. See § 556.150 of this chapter. (d) National Academy of Sciences/National Research...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2345c - Tetracycline boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline boluses. 520.2345c Section 520.2345c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... animals for food within 14 days of treatment; use as sole source of tetracycline. (iii) National Academy...

  20. Physical Properties of Ethyl Methacrylate as a Bolus in Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atousa Montaseri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bolus is a soft and resilient material which is used for increasing skin dose or to even out the irregular patient contour. The main property of various materials used presently as bolus is the water-equivalent electron density. Ethyl methacrylate is used as a soft-liner in dentistry and its physical and chemical properties are proved to be nontoxic for human body. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of using this material as bolus in radiotherapy and also evaluating some parameters such as mass, electron densities, and transmission factors. Materials and Methods Computed tomography data from the sample material were acquired to assess mass and electron densities with various techniques (mA and kVp. Circular ROIs were delineated on CT DICOM images and densities were calculated using CT numbers. Transmission factors were calculated for 6 and 18 MV. Results Evaluation of our results are evident that showed that mass and electron densities of ethyl methacrylate are similar to those of water and soft tissue. Furthermore, transmission factors are close to those of water. Conclusion According to the results of this study and other properties such as flexibility and harmlessness, it seems that ethyl methacrylate is a suitable material to be used as bolus in radiotherapy.

  1. Impaired bolus transit across the esophagogastric junction in postfundoplication dysphagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, R. C. H.; Samsom, M.; Haverkamp, A.; Oors, J.; Hebbard, G. S.; Gooszen, H. G.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of fundoplication on liquid and solid bolus transit across the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) in relation to EGJ dynamics and dysphagia. Twelve patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) were studied before and after fundoplication. Concurrent

  2. 21 CFR 520.1450a - Morantel tartrate bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Morantel tartrate bolus. 520.1450a Section 520.1450a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... control of mature gastrointestinal nematode infections of cattle including stomach worms (Haemonchus spp...

  3. Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides | Wynne | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-three cases of obstruction due to a bolus of Ascaris worms are reviewed, The diagnosis was made on the basis either of a characteristic palpable mass or a characteristic radiographic appearance. In 67 cases conservative treatment was successful. Six patients came to surgery, 5 because of deterioration, There ...

  4. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the ...

  5. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  6. Comparison and evaluation between 3D-bolus and step-bolus, the assistive radiotherapy devices for the patients who had undergone modified radical mastectomy surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Won Seok; Park, Kwang Woo; Shin, Dong Bong; Kim, Jong Dae; Kim, Sei Joon; Ha, Jin Sook; Jeon, Mi Jin; Cho, Yoojin; Jung, Inho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to compare and evaluate between the efficiency of two respective devices, 3D-bolus and step-bolus when the devices were used for the treatment of patients whose chest walls were required to undergo the electron beam therapy after the surgical procedure of modified radical mastectomy, MRM. The treatment plan of reverse hockey stick method, using the photon beam and electron beam, had been set for six breast cancer patients and these 6 breast cancer patients were selected to be the subjects for this study. The prescribed dose of electron beam for anterior chest wall was set to be 180 cGy per treatment and both the 3D-bolus, produced using 3D printer(CubeX, 3D systems, USA) and the self-made conventional step-bolus were used respectively. The surface dose under 3D-bolus and step-bolus was measured at 5 measurement spots of iso-center, lateral, medial, superior and inferior point, using GAFCHROMIC EBT3 film (International specialty products, USA) and the measured value of dose at 5 spots was compared and analyzed. Also the respective treatment plan was devised, considering the adoption of 3D-bolus and stepbolus and the separate treatment results were compared to each other. The average surface dose was 179.17 cGy when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and 172.02 cGy when step-bolus was adopted. The average error rate against the prescribed dose of 180 cGy was -(minus) 0.47% when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and it was -(minus) 4.43% when step-bolus was adopted. It was turned out that the maximum error rate at the point of iso-center was 2.69%, in case of 3D-bolus adoption and it was 5,54% in case of step-bolus adoption. The maximum discrepancy in terms of treatment accuracy was revealed to be about 6% when step-bolus was adopted and to be about 3% when 3D-bolus was adopted. The difference in average target dose on chest wall between 3D-bolus treatment plan and step-bolus treatment plan was shown to be insignificant as the difference was only 0

  7. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B; Yang, M; Yan, Y; Rahimi, A; Chopra, R; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy.

  8. Basic Study on Visibility and Water Equivalency of a New Colorless Transparent Bolus for Electron Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daiki; Yamazaki, Shinichi; Honda, Emi; Suzuki, Eiji; Hommatsu, Kouji; Oshiba, Ryo; Sato, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Boluses used in electron radiotherapy need to have radiation field visibility and water equivalence. In this report, we have examined field visibility and water equivalence of a new colorless transparent bolus. We examined field visibility, water equivalence, and dose profile. Field visibility was evaluated by comparison to conventional bolus. Water equivalence was investigated by a measured fluence scaling factor. The dose profile was measured by using radiochromic film with the bolus and an ionization chamber in water. We confirmed that the irradiation field could clearly be seen through the transparent colorless bolus. The bolus did not cast a field edge as compared with the conventional bolus. The fluence scaling factor was less than 0.8% as compared to water. We confirmed that the colorless transparent bolus was treated as a water equivalent material. The percentage depth dose (PDD) measured by using radiochromic film with the bolus matched the PDD measured with an ionization chamber in water. R50 was less than 1 mm as compared to PDD measured with an ionization chamber. It was confirmed that the colorless transparent bolus can use to set up patient without losing visibility on flat ground planes. The fluence scaling factor and dose profile measured by using the bolus matched the results measured in water. Therefore, the new colorless transparent bolus has feasibility to improve patient setup efficiency and can improve calculation accuracy by using the fluence scaling factor.

  9. EFFECT OF BOLUS SIZE ON DEGLUTITION AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Diane M; Marks, Stanley L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2016-07-01

    Contrast videofluoroscopy is the gold standard procedure for evaluating dysphagia in humans, but quantitative measures vary depending on bolus size and consistency. We hypothesized that quantitative measures made during videofluoroscopy of swallowing in dogs would differ between bolus sizes and consistencies. Ten healthy adult dogs were enrolled a prospective, crossover experimental study and underwent contrast videofluoroscopy while swallowing liquid (5, 10, and 15 ml) and canned food (3, 8, and 12 g) boluses. Maximum pharyngeal contraction occurred significantly later with medium solid boluses than with medium liquid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.021 s (adjusted P = 0.042). Upper esophageal sphincter opening occurred significantly earlier with large solid boluses than with medium solid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.018 s (adjusted P = 0.025). Thoracic esophageal transit time was significantly longer with small solid boluses than with small liquid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.68 s (adjusted P = 0.004). Odds of primary esophageal peristalsis occurring were significantly (18.5 times) higher with large solid vs. large liquid boluses (adjusted P = 0.031). No other statistical comparisons reached significance. Based on these results, we recommend a standardized approach to videofluoscopy in dogs with determination of quantitative measures using medium liquid and soft food boluses to minimize effects of size. Furthermore, we conclude that measurements made on liquid swallows should not be directly compared to measurements made on soft food boluses. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. EFFECT OF SWALLOWED BOLUS VISCOSITY AND BODY POSITION ON ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT, CONTRACTION AND PERCEPTION OF TRANSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia DALMAZO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The esophagus has a different response in relation to the characteristics of a swallowed bolus. Bolus viscosity and body position may affect esophageal contraction and transit. Objectives To investigate the effect of bolus viscosity and body position on esophageal contraction, transit and perception. Methods Esophageal contraction, transit and perception of transit were evaluated in 26 asymptomatic volunteers, 13 men and 13 women aged 18-60 years, mean: 33.6 (12.2 years. Esophageal contraction (manometry and transit (impedance were measured with a solid state catheter with sensors located 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. Each volunteer swallowed in duplicate and in random sequence a 5 mL low viscous (LV liquid bolus of an isotonic drink with pH 3.3, and a 5 mL high viscous (HV paste bolus, which was prepared with 7.5 g of instant food thickener diluted in 50 mL of water (pH: 6.4. Results Total bolus transit time, in the sitting position, was longer with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus. Esophageal transit was longer in the supine position than in the sitting position. Bolus head advance time was longer with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus in both positions. Contraction esophageal amplitude was higher in the supine position than in the sitting position. The perception of bolus transit was more frequent with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus, without differences related to position. Conclusions The viscosity of the swallowed bolus and body position during swallows has an influence on esophageal contractions, transit and perception of transit.

  11. Continuous right thoracic paravertebral block following bolus initiation reduced postoperative pain after right-lobe hepatectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hexiang; Liao, Zhipin; Fang, Yan; Niu, Ben; Chen, Amber; Cao, Fei; Mei, Wei; Tian, Yuke

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that continuous right thoracic paravertebral block, following bolus initiation, decreases opioid consumption after right-lobe hepatectomy in patients receiving patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with sufentanil. Patients undergoing right-lobe hepatectomy with a right thoracic paravertebral catheter placed at T7 30 minutes before surgery were randomly assigned to receive through this catheter either a 10-mL bolus of 0.2% ropivacaine before emergence, followed by a continuous infusion of 6 mL/h for 24 hours (PVB group), or saline at the same scheme of administration (control group). All patients were started on patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with sufentanil in the postanesthesia care unit. The primary outcome measure was total sufentanil consumption during the first 24 postoperative hours. P = 0.05 was considered as significant. For the multiple comparisons of data at 5 different time points, the P value for the 0.05 level of significance was adjusted to 0.01. Sixty-six patients were assessed for eligibility, and a PVB catheter was successfully placed for 48 patients. Data were analyzed on 22 patients in group PVB and 22 patients in the control group. The cumulative sufentanil consumption in the PVB group (54.3 ± 12.1 μg) at 24 postoperative hours was more than 20% less than that of the control group (68.1 ± 9.9 μg) (P block, following bolus initiation, has an opioid-sparing effect on sufentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia for right-lobe hepatectomy patients and reduces numerical rating scale pain scores at rest and with coughing in the first 24 postoperative hours.

  12. Intravenous iron supplementation practices and short-term risk of cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit V Kshirsagar

    Full Text Available Intravenous iron supplementation is widespread in the hemodialysis population, but there is uncertainty about the safest dosing strategy. We compared the safety of different intravenous iron dosing practices on the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in a large population of hemodialysis patients.A retrospective cohort was created from the clinical database of a large dialysis provider (years 2004-2008 merged with administrative data from the United States Renal Data System. Dosing comparisons were (1 bolus (consecutive doses ≥ 100 mg exceeding 600 mg during one month versus maintenance (all other iron doses during the month; and (2 high (> 200 mg over 1 month versus low dose (≤ 200 mg over 1 month. We established a 6-month baseline period (to identify potential confounders and effect modifiers, a one-month iron exposure period, and a three-month follow-up period. Outcomes were myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular disease.117,050 patients contributed 776,203 unique iron exposure/follow-up periods. After adjustment, we found no significant associations of bolus dose versus maintenance, hazards ratio for composite outcome, 1.03 (95% C.I. 0.99, 1.07, or high dose versus low dose intravenous iron, hazards ratio for composite outcome, 0.99 (95% C.I. 0.96, 1.03. There were no consistent associations of either high or bolus dose versus low or maintenance respectively among pre-specified subgroups.Strategies favoring large doses of intravenous iron were not associated with increased short-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Investigation of the long-term safety of the various intravenous iron supplementation strategies may still be warranted.

  13. Benefits from intracoronary as compared to intravenous abciximab administration for STEMI patients undergoing primary angioplasty: a meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luca, G. De; Verdoia, M.; Suryapranata, H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjunctive abciximab administration has been demonstrated to reduce mortality and reinfarction in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) referred to invasive management. Standard abciximab regimen consists of an intravenous (IV) bolus followed by a 12-h IV infusion.

  14. Computer simulations suggest that acute correction of hyperglycaemia with an insulin bolus protocol might be useful in brain FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, R.; Brenner, W.; Apostolova, I.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Santer, R. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Center for Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Paediatrics; Silverman, D.H.S. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology

    2009-07-01

    FDG PET in hyperglycaemic subjects often suffers from limited statistical image quality, which may hamper visual and quantitative evaluation. In our study the following insulin bolus protocol is proposed for acute correction of hyperglycaemia (> 7.0 mmol/l) in brain FDG PET. (i) Intravenous bolus injection of short-acting insulin, one I.E. for each 0.6 mmol/l blood glucose above 7.0. (ii) If 20 min after insulin administration plasma glucose is {<=} 7.0 mmol/l, proceed to (iii). If insulin has not taken sufficient effect step back to (i). Compute insulin dose with the updated blood glucose level. (iii) Wait further 20 min before injection of FDG. (iv) Continuous supervision of the patient during the whole scanning procedure. The potential of this protocol for improvement of image quality in brain FDG PET in hyperglycaemic subjects was evaluated by computer simulations within the Sokoloff model. A plausibility check of the prediction of the computer simulations on the magnitude of the effect that might be achieved by correction of hyperglycaemia was performed by retrospective evaluation of the relation between blood glucose level and brain FDG uptake in 89 subjects in whom FDG PET had been performed for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The computer simulations suggested that acute correction of hyperglycaemia according to the proposed bolus insulin protocol might increase the FDG uptake of the brain by up to 80%. The magnitude of this effect was confirmed by the patient data. The proposed management protocol for acute correction of hyperglycaemia with insulin has the potential to significantly improve the statistical quality of brain FDG PET images. This should be confirmed in a prospective study in patients. (orig.)

  15. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

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    Anders Lyngvi Fougner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  16. Pain management in emergency department: intravenous morphine vs. intravenous acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Talebi Doluee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most common complaint in emergency department and there are several methods for its control. Among them, pharmaceutical methods are the most effective. Although intravenous morphine has been the most common choice for several years, it has some adverse effects. There are many researches about intravenous acetaminophen as an analgesic agent and it appears that it has good analgesic effects for various types of pain. We searched some electronic resources for clinical trials comparing analgesic effects of intravenous acetaminophen vs. intravenous morphine for acute pain treatment in emergency setting.In two clinical trials, the analgesic effect of intravenous acetaminophen has been compared with intravenous morphine for renal colic. The results revealed no significant difference between analgesic effects of two medications. Another clinical trial revealed that intravenous acetaminophen has acceptable analgesic effects on the post-cesarean section pain when combined with other analgesic medications. One study revealed that administration of intravenous acetaminophen compared to placebo before hysterectomy decreased consumption of morphine via patient-controlled analgesia pump and decreased the side effects. Similarly, another study revealed that the infusion of intravenous acetaminophen vs. placebo after orthopedic surgery decreased the consumption of morphine after the surgery. A clinical trial revealed intravenous acetaminophen provided a level of analgesia comparable to intravenous morphine in isolated limb trauma, while causing less side effects than morphine.It appears that intravenous acetaminophen has good analgesic effects for visceral, traumatic and postoperative pains compare with intravenous morphine.

  17. Management of severe hypertension in the postpartum period with intravenous hydralazine or labetalol: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil-De Gracia, Paulino; Ruiz, Esteban; López, Juan C; de Jaramillo, Ilka Alveo; Vega-Maleck, Juan C; Pinzón, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of intravenous labetalol and intravenous hydralazine for acutely lowering blood pressure in the puerperium. Randomized clinical trial. Critical care unit of gynecology and obstetrics department in the Complejo hospitalario "Dr. AAM" de la Caja de Seguro Social in Panama. Eighty-two women with severe hypertension during the postpartum period. Patients were randomized to receive hydralazine (5 mg as a slow bolus dose given intravenously, and repeated every 20 minutes to a maximum of five doses) or labetalol (20 mg in an intravenous bolus dose followed by 40 mg if not effective within 20 minutes, followed by 80 mg every 20 minutes to a maximum dose of 300 mg). The primary endpoint was the successful lowering of blood pressure. Secondary endpoints were maternal complications and side-effects. Forty-two women were enrolled in the hydralazine group and 40 in the labetalol group. Women were similar with respect to characteristics at randomization. No significant differences were observed for persistent severe hypertension or maternal side-effects. There was only one case of persistent severe hypertension in the labetalol group. There were no maternal deaths in any of the women studied. This randomized clinical trial shows that intravenous hydralazine and intravenous labetalol are effective and safe in the management of severe hypertension in the postpartum period.

  18. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. METHODS: We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. RESULTS: The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. CONCLUSIONS: A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  19. Retroperitoneal fibrosis with normal intravenous urogram.

    OpenAIRE

    Creagh, F M; Stone, T; Stephenson, T P; Lazarus, J H

    1985-01-01

    A 58 year old male presented with a two week history of low back pain and malaise. The intravenous urogram (IVU) at presentation was normal but within three months he had developed renal failure with bilateral ureteric obstruction on repeat IVU. Primary retroperitoneal fibrosis was confirmed at operation. This case demonstrates that retroperitoneal fibrosis may progress rapidly to renal failure within a few months of the first symptoms. In addition, the IVU may be normal in the early stages o...

  20. Combination of Infliximab and High-Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: Successful Treatment of an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Patmanidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a rare, severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction with average mortality 25–35%, especially among elderly multimorbid patients. Established therapeutic guidelines do not exist and controversies underlie many of the presently suggested treatment regimens. Herein we present the use of the recently described combination scheme of methylprednisolone (500 mg methylprednisolone bolus i.v. followed by infliximab (5 mg/kg i.v. and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg over 5 days to treat an elderly, 74-year-old female patient with TEN (SCORTEN 3 within the premises of a district hospital. Already from the second day of hospitalization the skin condition markedly stabilized and the patient's status improved rapidly thereafter. She was discharged after 19 days in stationary care in excellent general condition and remained without any sequels 9 months afterwards. The present paper further supports the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of the proposed combination modality for the treatment of elderly patients with TEN, a population susceptible to more severe TEN.

  1. Drinking regime evaluation with continuous ruminal monitoring boluses

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    Ondrej Hanušovský

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to continuously monitored drinking regime of 7 dairy cows of Holstein breed using boluses during 24 weeks of lactation in relation to the outside temperature and observed daily drinking regime with the impact of drinking on rumen temperature at University Experimental Farm in Oponice. Animals were fed once daily and milked 3 times per day. The bolus pH and temperature values implemented via esophagus were measured every 15 minutes (96 data points per day with accuracy ±0.1 ph and °C. Outside temperature by FREEMETEO meteorological server (48 times per day was measured. Outside temperature can affect the drinking regime of dairy cows. During lactation weeks with higher outside temperature higher average number of drinking events (ANDE was determined. The biggest difference between weeks in ANDE 18.33 % (p = 0.000 was found. Daily ANDE 9.25 ±1.85 and average daily temperature (ADT 19.03 ±5.19 °C were observed. The most of the drinking events (NDE concentrated to 4 main peaks (25.17 % during working hours (74.98 % was found. After the feed intake and milking the highest frequencies of NDE were observed. The highest average ruminal temperature after drinking (ARTAD during night before first feeding due to lower NDE in this time were found. Overall ARTAD 36.86 °C was observed. The most measured ruminal temperatures after drinking (RTAD (51.53 % in the interval 35–37 °C were found. This research proved that continuous ruminal monitoring with boluses is an appropriate tool for drinking regime evaluation and heat stress determination in herd of dairy cows.

  2. Effect of Intra-Arterial and Intravenous Nimodipine Therapy of Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockel, Konstantin; Diedler, Jennifer; Steiner, Jochen; Birkenhauer, Ulrich; Ernemann, Ulrike; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2017-05-01

    For the treatment and prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the vasodilating agent nimodipine (NDP) is widely employed. This study investigates the effect of NDP on cerebrovascular autoregulation, assessed by pressure reactivity index (PRx), and brain tissue oxygenation (pbrO2) when given continuously intravenously as an intra-arterial bolus or during continuous intra-arterial therapy. Computerized continuous neuromonitoring data (intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP], pbrO2, PRx) of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively evaluated. The effect of NDP on all parameters was compared when applied intra-arterially for the treatment of severe macrovasospasm leading to perfusion deficits as either bolus treatment (n = 111 in 37 patients) or continuous infusion (n = 20 patients) to patients without or with only mild macrovasospasm who received either intravenous NDP or no NDP at all. Compared with patients without treatment, the intravenous application of NDP was associated with a significantly higher PRx. Autoregulation was strongly and long lastingly affected (high PRx) in continuous intra-arterial NDP infusion, accompanied by a sustained improvement of pbrO2. Intra-arterial bolus NDP application resulted as well in a significant increase of pbrO2 and PRx; the induced effect, however, was transient and subsided within 6 hours. Intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, and CPP were not affected during the monitoring period. The pharmacologically induced alteration of the cerebrovascular autoregulation by NDP correlates with changes of pbrO2 and indicates a beneficial effect on cerebral blood flow if CPP is maintained. This effect is limited to a few hours after bolus treatment and milder for intravenous compared with intra-arterial application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The management of acute oesophageal obstruction from a food bolus. Can we be more conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikoudas, A; Kochillas, X; Kelleher, R J; Mills, R

    2005-07-01

    The objective was to assess the number of patients with acute oesophageal bolus obstruction that resolves spontaneously and to aid the identification of the best practice. This prospective and retrospective case series study at a teaching hospital and a district general hospital in Scotland, UK, involved 37 patients with acute oesophageal obstruction from a food bolus who were observed for 24 h from the beginning of symptoms. The bolus passed spontaneously in 54% of the patients during the observational period. A short observational period following the admission of patients with acute food bolus obstruction is reasonable as it may reduce exposure to surgical morbidity and decrease inpatient stay.

  4. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia using remifentanil in the parturient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, F; De Franceschi, E; Veyckemans, F; Lavand'homme, P

    2001-02-01

    To show the use of the short acting opioid remifentanil for labour analgesia when epidural analgesia is considered to be contraindicated. After Ethics Committee approval and informed consent, six patients (36-40 wk gestation), in whom epidural analgesia was considered contraindicated (women refusing regional analgesia, presenting with coagulation or platelet abnormalities or sepsis) benefited from patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with remifentanil. The Abbott Lifecare patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump with remifentanil 50 microg x ml(-1) was set to deliver remifentanil continuous background infusion of 0.05 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) and 25 microg boluses with a five minutes lockout period. The PCIA was started when the parturients experienced regular painful contractions (cervical dilatation of at least 4 cm) and stopped just before delivery (cervix fully dilated). Maternal monitoring included non-invasive blood pressure measurements, heart rate, percutaneous arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation and respiratory rate. Percutaneous fetal heart rate was continuously monitored. All patients remained alert or sleepy but easily arousable and were satisfied with their analgesia. No particular side effects have been noticed. Apgar scores were between 6 and 10. Remifentanil PCIA combining low continuous background infusion and small bolus doses is an alternative when epidural analgesia in labour is contraindicated. Under careful anesthesia monitoring, the technique seems to be safe for both mother and baby, at least when delivery occurs at or near the normal term of pregnancy.

  5. Changes in body composition, hematologic parameters, and serum biochemistry after rapid intravenous infusion or oral intake of 2 liters of 0.9% saline solution in young healthy volunteers: randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; Valente, Ana C; Oliveira, Sergio S; Hartmann, Arthur; Slhessarenko, Natasha

    2012-12-01

    The perioperative infusion of 2 L of saline is associated with weight gain and decreased serum albumin and hematocrit. We hypothesized that these parameters would respond differently to oral administration and intravenous infusion of saline solution. This was a crossover study that included 10 healthy young men (ages 18-26 years). At two times, 8 weeks apart, the participants were randomized to receive 2 L of 0.9% saline over 1 h by intravenous (IV) administration to a forearm vein or by oral intake. The participants were weighed and body masses were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed with a single-frequency device using tetrapolar distal limb electrodes. Blood samples were collected 1 h after the administration period for laboratory assays: hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood glucose, serum electrolytes, albumin, creatinine, osmolality. There was an increase in body weight (p<0.01), total body water (p<0.01), and lean body mass (p<0.01) after the experiment in both groups, with no difference between them. The volume of urine output was similar in the two experiments. The hemoglobin (oral group from 14.4±0.8 g/dl to 13.8±0.8 g/dl; IV group from 14.4±0.6 g/dl to 12.6±0.6 g/dl) and hematocrit (oral group from 43.2±1.8% to 43.2±2.8%; IV group from 43.6±2.2% to 40.0±2.6%) significantly decreased (p<0.01) with IV saline. Serum albumin remained stable after oral intake but significantly decreased (p=0.04) after IV infusion. Oral intake of 2 L of 0.9% saline results in minimal variations in serum albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit when compared to IV infusion of the same volume.

  6. Intravenous lipid emulsion in the management of amlodipine overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Calvin J; Sareh, Houtan; Hayes, Bryan D; Gonzales, Jeffrey P

    2013-11-01

    To report a case of amlodipine overdose successfully treated with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). A 47-year-old, 110 kg female ingested at least 350 mg of amlodipine with an unknown amount of ethanol. Initial blood pressure was 103/57 mm Hg, mean arterial pressure (MAP) 72 mm Hg, and heart rate 113 beats per minute. In the early clinical course, activated charcoal, intravenous fluid, and calcium boluses were administered. Worsening hypotension prompted a 100 mL bolus of 20% ILE. Stable hemodynamics were maintained for 2 hours. Subsequently, profound hypotension and shock developed (MAP 38 mm Hg), which failed to fully respond to 3 vasopressor agents, calcium, and glucagon. With continuing shock despite optimized vasopressors, an infusion of 2,300 mL 20% ILE was administered over 4.5 hours (20.9 mL/kg infusion total). By completion of the infusion, 2 vasopressors were tapered off and MAP remained above 70 mm Hg; within 12 hours, no further interventions were required. Possible adverse events of ILE, lipemia and hypoxia, were experienced but quickly resolved. The patient survived to hospital discharge within 8 days. Toxicity of amlodipine presents similar to distributive shock as both are due to marked peripheral vasodilation. There are numerous interventions in the management of amlodipine overdose, despite which many patients continue to suffer life-threatening shock as observed with this patient. ILE has been used with promising preliminary results as salvage therapy in case reports of other lipophilic molecules. This is the first report of lone amlodipine overdose treated with ILE. ILE is a novel antidote for overdoses of lipophilic substances and demonstrated efficacy in this case of amlodipine overdose without the use of hyperinsulinemic euglycemia.

  7. Bolus-dependent dosimetric effect of positioning errors for tangential scalp radiotherapy with helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Eric, E-mail: eclobb2@gmail.com

    2014-04-01

    The dosimetric effect of errors in patient position is studied on-phantom as a function of simulated bolus thickness to assess the need for bolus utilization in scalp radiotherapy with tomotherapy. A treatment plan is generated on a cylindrical phantom, mimicking a radiotherapy technique for the scalp utilizing primarily tangential beamlets. A planning target volume with embedded scalplike clinical target volumes (CTVs) is planned to a uniform dose of 200 cGy. Translational errors in phantom position are introduced in 1-mm increments and dose is recomputed from the original sinogram. For each error the maximum dose, minimum dose, clinical target dose homogeneity index (HI), and dose-volume histogram (DVH) are presented for simulated bolus thicknesses from 0 to 10 mm. Baseline HI values for all bolus thicknesses were in the 5.5 to 7.0 range, increasing to a maximum of 18.0 to 30.5 for the largest positioning errors when 0 to 2 mm of bolus is used. Utilizing 5 mm of bolus resulted in a maximum HI value of 9.5 for the largest positioning errors. Using 0 to 2 mm of bolus resulted in minimum and maximum dose values of 85% to 94% and 118% to 125% of the prescription dose, respectively. When using 5 mm of bolus these values were 98.5% and 109.5%. DVHs showed minimal changes in CTV dose coverage when using 5 mm of bolus, even for the largest positioning errors. CTV dose homogeneity becomes increasingly sensitive to errors in patient position as bolus thickness decreases when treating the scalp with primarily tangential beamlets. Performing a radial expansion of the scalp CTV into 5 mm of bolus material minimizes dosimetric sensitivity to errors in patient position as large as 5 mm and is therefore recommended.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of (14) C-ortho-phenylphenol following intravenous administration in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Emma; Brooks, James D; Routh, Patricia A; Chittenden, Jason T; Baynes, Ronald E

    2017-04-01

    Workers in the USA are exposed to industrial formulations, which may be toxic. These formulations often contain preservatives or biocides such as ortho-phenylphenol (OPP). There are limited data describing OPP following intravenous administration to assess truly the clearance of this chemical in humans and other species. In vivo experiments were conducted in pigs to determine related pharmacokinetic parameters. (14) C-OPP was administered as an intravenous bolus dose. Blood, feces, urine and tissue samples were collected for analysis by liquid scintillation. Data were analyzed using non-compartmental and compartmental pharmacokinetic model approaches. These data fitted a three-compartment model and showed that the half-life of (14) C-OPP following the intravenous bolus in pigs was 46.26 ± 10.01 h. The kidneys play a crucial role in clearance of (14) C-OPP with a large percentage of the dose being found in the urine (70.3 ± 6.9% dose). Comparisons with other species suggest that (14) C-OPP clearance in pigs (2.48 ml h(-1)  kg(-1) ) is less than that in humans (18.87 ml h(-1)  kg(-1) ) and rats (35.51 ml h(-1)  kg(-1) ). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Assessment of bolus transit with intraluminal impedance measurement in patients with esophageal motility disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, A.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Oors, J.; Siersema, P. D.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical management of patients with non-obstructive dysphagia is notoriously difficult. Esophageal impedance measurement can be used to measure esophageal bolus transit without the use of radiation exposure to patients. However, validation of measurement of bolus transit with impedance

  10. Assessment of bolus transit with intraluminal impedance measurement in patients with esophageal motility disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, A.; Bredenoord, A.J.; Oors, J.; Siersema, P.D.; Smout, A.J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical management of patients with non-obstructive dysphagia is notoriously difficult. Esophageal impedance measurement can be used to measure esophageal bolus transit without the use of radiation exposure to patients. However, validation of measurement of bolus transit with

  11. A Bolus Calculator Based on Continuous-Discrete Unscented Kalman Filtering for Type 1 Diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Aradóttir, Tinna Björk; Hagdrup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    after or 30 minutes after the beginning of the meal). We implement a continuous-discrete unscented Kalman filter to estimate the states and insulin sensitivity. These estimates are used in a bolus calculator. The numerical results demonstrate that administering the meal bolus 15 minutes after mealtime...

  12. Secretion of trophic gut peptides is not different in bolus- and continuously fed piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, J. B.; Stoll, B.; Hartmann, B.; Holst, J. J.; Reeds, P. J.; Burrin, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    In neonates, bolus feeding is associated with greater rates of intestinal growth than is continuous feeding. We tested whether the concentrations and secretion rates of trophic gut peptides are higher in bolus-fed than in continuously fed piglets. Five 21-d-old piglets were surgically implanted with

  13. Swallowing Mechanics Associated with Artificial Airways, Bolus Properties, and Penetration-Aspiration Status in Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Angela M.; Rowley, Christopher B.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Pearson, William G., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Artificial airway procedures such as intubation and Sare common in the treatment of traumatic injuries, and bolus modifications may be implemented to help manage swallowing disorders. This study assessed artificial airway status, bolus properties (volume and viscosity), and the occurrence of laryngeal penetration and/or aspiration in…

  14. A single food bolus stimulates albumin synthesis in growing piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, K; Smolders, HC; Meesterburrie, J; de Sain-van der Velden, M; Voorbij, HAM; Okken, A; Reijngoud, DJ; Kulik, W

    Background: A stable isotope tracer method to quantify the synthesis of proteins of hepatic origin in response to feeding is described. The response of albumin synthesis on one mixed meal in a piglet model was investigated and the intragastric and intravenous administration modes of C-13-valine were

  15. An improved bolus configuration for commercial multielement ultrasound and microwave hyperthermia systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, C J; Stauffer, P R; Bozzo, D

    1994-09-01

    A simple modification is presented for two commercially available hyperthermia applicators which dramatically improves the regulation and dynamic control of the temperature at the bolus/tissue interface. This alteration requires the addition of a variable speed pump, bubble trap, simple heat exchanger, and a few minor changes to the existing system. With this modified design, the water within the bolus is directly circulated and temperature controlled. The convective nature of the circulating system ensures uniform temperature throughout the extended bolus and increases the thermal energy transfer at the bolus/tissue interface. This modification also provides significantly improved flexibility in controlling the treatment temperature distributions since the bolus/tissue interface temperature can now be dynamically varied during a treatment, in addition to adjusting the applicator power output and frequency.

  16. Inferring the effects of saliva on liquid bolus flow using computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andrew; Affoo, Rebecca; Rogus-Pulia, Nicole; Nicosia, Mark; Inamoto, Yoko; Saitoh, Eiichi; Green, Sheldon; Fels, Sidney

    2017-10-01

    Computer simulation of liquid bolus flow is used to test the assumption that a slip boundary condition approximates a healthy swallow due to the presence of saliva lubricating the bolus. Six dynamic, 320-row area detector CT (ADCT) sequences of normal subjects swallowing thin, nectar, and honey-thick liquids are used in this work. The aerodigestive tract is segmented from the images in order to create a dynamic 3D geometry, which is subsequently used to drive a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulation of the bolus. The results show that the no-slip simulation, approximating no-lubrication, provides a closer match to the ADCT bolus images than the slip simulation, particularly in the oral phase. This finding suggests that the role of saliva in swallowing liquid boluses is not to lubricate the aerodigestive tract, and that there is another reason for its importance in normal swallowing of liquids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuous intravenous anaesthesia with sufentanil and midazolam in medetomidine premedicated New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedenqvist Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaesthesia in rabbits is associated with a high mortality rate, compared to that in cats and dogs. Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA with drugs that provide cardiovascular stability and are rapidly metabolised could be of benefit for use in rabbits. The aim was to evaluate cardiorespiratory effects of TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam in eight New Zealand White rabbits. Subcutaneous premedication with medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg BW was followed by IV administration of a mixture of 2.5 μg/mL sufentanil and 0.45 mg/mL midazolam at a rate of 0.3 mL/kg BW/h for anaesthetic induction. Additionally, intravenous boluses of 0.1 mL of the mixture were administered every 20 s until the righting reflex was lost. Following endotracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained for 60 min with an infusion rate adjusted to supress the pedal withdrawal reflex. Air and oxygen (1:2 were delivered at 3 L/min. Physiological variables were recorded before induction and at predefined time points during and after anaesthesia. Results Righting and pedal withdrawal reflexes were lost within 3 and 5 min, respectively. Doses of sufentanil and midazolam were 0.48 μg/kg BW and 0.09 mg/kg BW for induction, and 0.72 μg/kg BW/h and 0.13 mg/kg BW/h for maintenance. Apnoea occurred in two rabbits. Induction of anaesthesia caused a significant increase in heart rate, cardiac output and arterial CO2 partial pressure and a decrease in mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate and pH. Mean time from stopping the infusion to endotracheal extubation was 5 min, and to return of the righting reflex 7 min. Anaesthesia was characterized by induction and recovery without excitation, with muscle relaxation, and absence of the pedal withdrawal reflex. Conclusions TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam provided smooth induction and recovery of anaesthesia in rabbits but with marked hypotension and respiratory depression, requiring mechanical ventilation. Further evaluation is needed

  18. Insulin bolusing software: the potential to optimize health outcomes in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Hogan, John; Gill, Elizabeth; Wright, Nancy; Deeb, Larry C

    2013-05-01

    Insulin bolusing calculators alleviate the burden of having to calculate insulin bolus doses for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Three important pieces of information are needed: a blood glucose monitoring (BGM) result, carbohydrates to be consumed, and the amount of insulin bolus delivered. The purpose of this study was to describe insulin pump adherence behaviors associated with the use of bolus calculators in youth who use Medtronic insulin pumps. Data were downloaded from the MiniMed Paradigm insulin pumps (Medtronic) of 31 youth with T1DM. Areas of adherence that were evaluated included fundamental insulin pump adherence behaviors (e.g., BGM, carbohydrate entry, and insulin bolusing), decisions about Wizard® recommendations, and three Wizard steps: BGM result-carbohydrate input-insulin bolus. On average, patients conducted BGM ≥4 times/day on 69% of days, inputted carbohydrates ≥3 times/day on 63% of days, and insulin bolused ≥3 times/day on 85% of days. Participants generally followed Wizard recommendations. Finally, participants completed all three Wizard steps (BGM, carbohydrate input, insulin bolus) within 30 min for an average of 29% of boluses. Almost 3% of boluses that were preceded by Wizard use were delivered without conducting BGM or inputting carbohydrates. There was substantial variability in insulin pump adherence behaviors (e.g., days when no BGM occurred, reliance on basal insulin). Interventions targeting insulin pump adherence behaviors have the potential to optimize diabetes health outcomes and glycemic control. Improving insulin pump software reports is one promising avenue for improving adherence. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  20. Optimal composition of intravenous lipids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal composition of intravenous lipids. The composition of an intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion is of great importance in parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy, as most of its effects depend on the kind of fatty acids included and their respective ratio to each other. Today´s lipid emulsions may include four classes of different fatty ...

  1. Intravenous application of HI-6 salts (dichloride and dimethansulphonate) in pigs: comparison with pharmacokinetics profile after intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdarova Karasova, Jana; Zemek, Filip; Kunes, Martin; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Chladek, Jaroslav; Jun, Daniel; Bures, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Oxime HI-6 is an acetylcholinesterase reactivator therapeutically efficient against nerve agents. Because of their physico-chemical properties, oximes are typically applied intramuscularly (i.m.). This route of administration has also some disadvantages, and alternative strategies ought to be examined. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles of two HI-6 salts after their intravenous (i.v.) administration, and compare the results with the known pharmacokinetics after i.m. administration. Pigs were administered with HI-6 salts (i.v), either HI-6 dichloride (10.71 mg/kg) or molar equivalent HI-6 dimethansulphonate (13.59 mg/kg). Doses of the HI-6 salts corresponded with a standard HI-6 dichloride dose in one autoinjector (500 mg) and were recalculated for one kilogram of body weight. The main pharmacokinetic parameters are comparable after i.v. and i.m. HI-6 administration. The compared pharmacokinetic parameters were half-life, terminal rate constant, mean residence time of the molecule in the body, clearance, and the apparent volume in the terminal phase. The bioavailability after i.m. administration was comparable with that of i.v.; these results suggest that the oxime is well released from the muscle depot. Significant differences were found in parameters Cmax and Tmax which are important in cases of emergency when rapidity and bioavailability are paramount for the success of treatment. I.v. administration should solve the problem of rapid clearance. Infusion or bolus administration may be considered as a logical subsequent step in oxime treatment strategy. The main advantage is in maintenance of an effective therapeutic plasma concentration, a more easily achievable effective therapeutic concentration, and fewer local adverse reactions.

  2. Modeling the retention of rumen boluses for the electronic identification of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carné, S; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J; Salama, A A K

    2011-02-01

    We constructed a regression model to estimate the retention of electronic boluses in goats. With this aim, 2,482 boluses were administered to goats from dairy (Murciano-Granadina, n=1,326; French Alpine, n=381) and meat (Blanca de Rasquera, n=532) breeds. A total of 19 bolus types made of materials (ceramic, plastic tubes filled with concrete or silicone, and ballasts) differing in their specific gravity (SG) were used, thereby obtaining a wide variation in bolus features: diameter (9 to 22 mm), length (37 to 84 mm), weight (5 to 111 g), volume (2.6 to 26 mL), and SG (1.0 to 5.5). Each bolus contained a half-duplex glass encapsulated transponder (32 × 3.8mm) and was administered using adapted balling guns. Murciano-Granadina and Blanca de Rasquera goats also wore 2 visual plastic ear tags: V1 (double flag, 5.1g) and V2 (flag-button, 4.2g). No data on ear tags in French Alpine goats was available. Bolus and ear tag retention [(retained/monitored) × 100] was recorded for at least 1 yr. Dynamic reading efficiency [(dynamic reading/static reading) × 100] was also evaluated from 1,496 bolus readings. No administration incidences or apparent negative behavior or performance effects were observed for any bolus type. Static reading efficiency of retained boluses was 100%, except for the prototypes with metal ballasts, which yielded a 93.3% reading efficiency. Retention of metal-ballasted boluses was confirmed using x-ray equipment. Excluding ballasted boluses, a 99.5% dynamic reading efficiency was obtained. Ear tag losses were 6.5% for V1 and 3.7% for V2, ranging from 3.2 to 7.8% depending on ear tag type and goat breed. Bolus retention varied (0 to 100%) according to their physical features. Obtained data allowed the fitting of a logistic model of bolus retention rate according to bolus volume and weight (R(2) = 0.98); the SG was implicitly considered. Estimated weight and SG to produce medium- (15 mL) and standard-sized (22 mL) boluses for 99.95% retention rate in

  3. Retroperitoneal fibrosis with normal intravenous urogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, F. M.; Stone, T.; Stephenson, T. P.; Lazarus, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 58 year old male presented with a two week history of low back pain and malaise. The intravenous urogram (IVU) at presentation was normal but within three months he had developed renal failure with bilateral ureteric obstruction on repeat IVU. Primary retroperitoneal fibrosis was confirmed at operation. This case demonstrates that retroperitoneal fibrosis may progress rapidly to renal failure within a few months of the first symptoms. In addition, the IVU may be normal in the early stages of the illness. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3983053

  4. Intravenous Lipids for Preterm Infants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan S. A. Salama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW are born at a time when the fetus is undergoing rapid intrauterine brain and body growth. Continuation of this growth in the first several weeks postnatally during the time these infants are on ventilator support and receiving critical care is often a challenge. These infants are usually highly stressed and at risk for catabolism. Parenteral nutrition is needed in these infants because most cannot meet the majority of their nutritional needs using the enteral route. Despite adoption of a more aggressive approach with amino acid infusions, there still appears to be a reluctance to use early intravenous lipids. This is based on several dogmas that suggest that lipid infusions may be associated with the development or exacerbation of lung disease, displace bilirubin from albumin, exacerbate sepsis, and cause CNS injury and thrombocytopena. Several recent reviews have focused on intravenous nutrition for premature neonate, but very little exists that provides a comprehensive review of intravenous lipid for very low birth and other critically ill neonates. Here, we would like to provide a brief basic overview, of lipid biochemistry and metabolism of lipids, especially as they pertain to the preterm infant, discuss the origin of some of the current clinical practices, and provide a review of the literature, that can be used as a basis for revising clinical care, and provide some clarity in this controversial area, where clinical care is often based more on tradition and dogma than science.

  5. The use of Coca-Cola in the management of bolus obstruction in benign oesophageal stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, N. D.; Rees, M.

    1993-01-01

    Oesophageal stricture is a complication of oesophageal reflux and may itself be complicated by bolus obstruction. We reviewed the records of patients presenting with dysphagia and who were found to have benign oesophageal strictures. We studied the outcome of bolus obstruction in 13 episodes affecting eight patients. In six episodes Coca-Cola was administered on the day before endoscopy, and in all these patients the bolus had cleared. In seven episodes nothing was administered before endoscopy, and in all seven a bolus was evident at endoscopy. In five of these seven the bolus was removed piecemeal and in each of these instances the endoscope had to be passed between two and five times. In the remaining two instances the procedure was abandoned and the patients returned to the ward for the administration of Coca-Cola. At subsequent endoscopy these patients were found to be clear of any bolus. These results suggest that the administration of Coca-Cola (or other aerated drinks) may clear a bolus in the acutely obstructed oesophagus. PMID:8476194

  6. Videoendoscopic evaluation of food bolus preparation: A comparison between normal adult dentates and older adult dentates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Kohei; Nohara, Kanji; Fukatsu, Hikari; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Fujii, Nami; Sasao, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2017-02-01

    Food bolus preparation plays an important role in swallowing food. The ability to carry out oral functions varies with age, and the same might be true of the ability to prepare food boluses. Previously developed methods for assessing food bolus preparation were not able to evaluate swallowed boluses; that is, the boluses were spat out before they were swallowed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate food bolus preparation in older adults using videoendoscopy, and to compare the food bolus preparation abilities of older adults and younger healthy adults. The participants were 30 older adults and 30 younger healthy adults. None of the participants showed any symptoms of dysphagia or eating difficulties. In each examination, an endoscope was inserted into the nasal passage, and the participant was instructed to eat cooked rice. The grinding, mixing and aggregation of each bolus was graded from 0 to 2, with higher numbers indicating more marked grinding, mixing and aggregation. We simultaneously investigated the number of chewing cycles. The older adults showed higher grinding scores and lower mixing scores than the younger healthy adults. However, neither of these differences was significant. In contrast, the older adults showed significantly lower aggregation scores and carried out a significantly greater number of chewing cycles than the younger healthy adults. Using videoendoscopy, we found that older adults showed lower aggregation scores and carried out a greater number of chewing cycles than younger healthy adults. These results suggest that older adults are less able to prepare food boluses than younger healthy adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 226-231. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Kinetic analysis of the metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 tracer [18F]FPEB in bolus and bolus-plus-constant-infusion studies in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jenna M; Lim, Keunpoong; Labaree, David; Lin, Shu-fei; McCarthy, Timothy J; Seibyl, John P; Tamagnan, Gilles; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E; Ding, Yu-Shin; Morris, Evan D

    2013-01-01

    [18F]FPEB is a positron emission tomography tracer which, in preclinical studies, has shown high specificity and selectivity toward the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). It possesses the potential to be used in human studies to evaluate mGluR5 function in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and Fragile X syndrome. To define optimal scan methodology, healthy human subjects were scanned for 6 hours following either a bolus injection (n=5) or bolus-plus-constant-infusion (n=5) of [18F]FPEB. Arterial blood samples were collected and parent fraction measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the metabolite-corrected plasma input function. Time activity curves were extracted from 13 regions and fitted by various models to estimate VT and BPND. [18F]FPEB was well fitted by the two-tissue compartment model, MA1 (t*=30), and MRTM (using cerebellum white matter as a reference). Highest VT values were observed in the anterior cingulate and caudate, and lowest VT values were observed in the cerebellum and pallidum. For kinetic modeling studies, VT and BPND were estimated from bolus or bolus-plus-constant-infusion scans as short as 90 minutes. Bolus-plus-constant-infusion of [18F]FPEB reduced intersubject variability in VT and allowed equilibrium analysis to be completed with a 30-minute scan, acquired 90–120 minutes after the start of injection. PMID:23250105

  8. Ticagrelor and Eptifibatide Bolus Versus Ticagrelor and Eptifibatide Bolus With 2-Hour Infusion in High-Risk Acute Coronary Syndromes Patients Undergoing Early Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Moazez J; Alli, Oluseun; Al Solaiman, Firas; Brott, Brigitta C; Sasse, Mark; Leesar, Tara; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Leesar, Massoud A

    2017-06-13

    In patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) with a potent P2Y12 inhibitor, ticagrelor, was inferior to tirofiban infusion at 2 hours, indicating that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are still needed. Ticagrelor and eptifibatide bolus only may maximally inhibit platelet aggregation and decrease bleeding, but IPA with ticagrelor and eptifibatide bolus versus 2-hour infusion is unknown. A total of 70 P2Y12-naïve patients, with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, were randomized to ticagrelor and eptifibatide bolus (group 1) versus ticagrelor and eptifibatide bolus with 2-hour infusion (group 2). Levels of IPA with ADP, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, collagen, and high on-treatment platelet reactivity were measured by light transmission aggregometry at baseline and at 2, 6, and 24 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention in both groups. The primary end point, IPA with ADP 20 μmol/L at 2 hours, was 99.59±0.43% in group 1 versus 99.88±1.0% in group 2 (Peptifibatide bolus maximally inhibited platelet aggregation at 2 hours, which was associated with no significant hemoglobin drop after percutaneous coronary intervention. This obviates the need for eptifibatide 2-hour infusion and might decrease bleeding complications. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01919723. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Utilization of a 3D printer to fabricate boluses used for electron therapy of skin lesions of the eye canthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowiak, Magdalena; Jezierska, Karolina; Boehlke, Marek; Więcko, Marzena; Łukowiak, Adam; Podraza, Wojciech; Lewocki, Mirosław; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Falco, Michał

    2017-01-01

    This work describes the use of 3D printing technology to create individualized boluses for patients treated with electron beam therapy for skin lesions of the eye canthi. It aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-printed over manually fabricated paraffin boluses. The study involved 11 patients for whom the construction of individual boluses were required. CT scans of the fabricated 3D-printed boluses and paraffin boluses were acquired and superimposed onto patient CT scans to compare their fitting, bolus homogeneity, and underlying dose distribution. To quantify the level of matching, multiple metrics were utilized. Matching Level Index (ML) values ranged from 0 to 100%, where 100% indicated a perfect fit between the reference bolus (planned in treatment planning system) and 3D-printed and paraffin bolus. The average ML (± 1 SD) of the 3D-printed boluses was 95.1 ± 2.1%, compared to 46.0 ± 10.1% for the manually fabricated paraffin bolus. Correspondingly, mean doses were closer to the prescribed doses, and dose spreads were less for the dose distributions from the 3D-printed boluses, as compared to those for the manually fabricated paraffin boluses. It was concluded that 3D-printing technology is a viable method for fabricating boluses for small eye lesions and provides boluses superior to our boluses manually fabricated from paraffin sheets. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Intracoronary versus Intravenous eptifibatide during percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanati, Hamid Reza; Zahedmehr, Ali; Firouzi, Ata; Farrashi, Melody; Amin, Kamyar; Peighambari, Mohammad Mehdi; Shakerian, Farshad; Kiani, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Although aspirin and clopidogrel seem to be quite enough during low risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the combination may need some reinforcement in complex situations such as primary PCI. By modifying the route and also the duration of administration, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors might be a viable option. The aim of this study is to compare the benefits and disadvantages of three different methods of administration of eptifibatide in primary PCI population. Primary PCI candidates were randomized in three groups on which three different methods of administration of eptifibitide were tested: intravenous bolus injection followed by 12-h infusion (IV-IV), intracoronary bolus injection followed by intravenous infusion (IC-IV) and, only intracoronary bolus injection (IC). 99 patients were included in the present study. There was no significant difference among the three groups regarding all cause in hospital and one month mortality (p value = 0.99), re-myocardial infarction (p value = 0.89), post-PCI TIMI flow grade 3 (p value = 0.97), ST segment resolution (p value = 0.77) and peak troponin levels (p value = 0.82). The comparison of vascular access and major bleeding complications were not possible due to low events rate. By modifying the route of administration of eptifibitide, the clinical effect might be preserved without increasing the short-term mortality and procedural failure.

  11. Efficacy study of Styplon Vet Bolus as supportive therapy in management of hemorrhagic conditions of ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Ravikumar

    Full Text Available On-field trial was conducted in dairy animals to evaluate efficacy of Styplon Vet Bolus (M/s Himalaya Drug Company, Banglore, India as supportive therapy in management of hemorrhagic conditions (Hematuria, hemoagalectia, bleeding wounds, uterine bleeding and epistaxis of ruminants. Styplon Vet 1-2 boli twice daily was administered to cows and buffaloes, and ½ bolus twice daily for sheep till they recover clinically. The results indicated that Styplon Vet Bolus is a safe and effective styptic in ruminants. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 470-471

  12. Intravenous carbon dioxide as an echocardiographic contrast agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Meltzer (Richard); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIntravenous carbon dioxide (CO2) was employed to cause echocardiographic contrast in 40 patients. One to 3 cc of medically pure CO2 were agitated with 5 to 8 cc of 5% dextrose in water and rapidly injected into an upper extremity vein. Contrast was obtained in all patients. In 33

  13. Bolus arrival time and cerebral blood flow responses to hypercarbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Manus J; Faraco, Carlos C; Strother, Megan K; Chappell, Michael A; Rane, Swati; Dethrage, Lindsey M; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Siero, Jeroen C W

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how cerebral blood flow and bolus arrival time (BAT) measures derived from arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI data change for different hypercarbic gas stimuli. Pseudocontinuous ASL (pCASL) was applied (3.0T; spatial resolution=4 × 4 × 7 mm(3); repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=3,600/11 ms) sequentially in healthy volunteers (n=12; age=30±4 years) for separate experiments in which (i) normocarbic normoxia (i.e., room air), hypercarbic normoxia (i.e., 5% CO₂/21% O₂/74% N2), and hypercarbic hyperoxia (i.e., carbogen: 5% CO₂/95% O₂) gas was administered (12 L/minute). Cerebral blood flow and BAT changes were quantified using models that account for macrovascular signal and partial volume effects in all gray matter and regionally in cerebellar, temporal, occipital, frontal, and parietal lobes. Regional reductions in BAT of 4.6% to 7.7% and 3.3% to 6.6% were found in response to hypercarbic normoxia and hypercarbic hyperoxia, respectively. Cerebral blood flow increased by 8.2% to 27.8% and 3.5% to 19.8% for hypercarbic normoxia and hypercarbic hyperoxia, respectively. These findings indicate that changes in BAT values may bias functional ASL data and thus should be considered when choosing appropriate experimental parameters in calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging or ASL cerebrovascular reactivity experiments that use hypercarbic gas stimuli.

  14. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with the rapid infusion of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Christopher P; Wu, Jeffrey; Baer, Alexander B

    2002-06-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with rapidly progressing extremity pain, edema, and ecchymosis after envenomation by a copperhead. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) was infused. Six vials were placed in 250 mL of normal saline solution, and the infusion was gradually increased. Fifty minutes after beginning, the infusion was increased to 640 mL/h. Within minutes of the rate increase, the patient experienced full-body urticaria, facial edema, voice change, and tachycardia. The infusion was stopped. Hydroxyzine pamoate, famotidine, methylprednisolone, and a 1-L bolus of normal saline solution were administered intravenously. The symptoms abated, and the remaining FabAV was infused at a slower rate without return of this reaction. This immediate hypersensitivity reaction was most likely a rate-related anaphylactoid reaction that has not been previously reported with FabAV.[Holstege CP, Wu J, Baer AB. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with the rapid infusion of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine). Ann Emerg Med. June 2002;39:677-679.

  15. Push versus gravity for intermittent bolus gavage tube feeding of premature and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jennifer A; Summan, Ravinder; Badawi, Nadia; Foster, Jann P

    2012-11-14

    Many small, sick and premature infants are unable to coordinate sucking, swallowing and breathing, and therefore, require gavage feeding. In gavage feeding, milk feeds are delivered through a tube passed via the nose or mouth into the stomach. Intermittent bolus milk feeds may be administered using a syringe to gently push milk into the infant's stomach (push feed). Alternatively, milk can be poured into a syringe attached to the tube and allowed to drip in by gravity (gravity feed). To determine whether the use of push compared with gravity gavage feeding results in a more rapid establishment of full gavage feeds without increasing adverse events in preterm or low birth weight, infants who require intermittent bolus gavage feeding. We searched the following electronic databases to locate randomised controlled or quasi-randomised trials: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2012, Issue 5), MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (from 1980 to May 2012), and CINAHL (from 1982 to May 2012). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing push versus gravity intermittent gavage tube feeding in premature or low birth weight, or both, infants. We assessed the methodology of trials regarding blinding of randomisation and outcome measurement. We evaluated treatment effect with a fixed-effect model using risk ratio (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data; and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We analysed outcomes measured as count data, for example frequency of apnoea, bradycardia and episodes of pulse oximeter oxygen (SpO(2)) desaturation, by comparing rates of events and the rate ratio. We evaluated heterogeneity to help determine the suitability of pooling results. Only one small cross-over trial met the criteria for inclusion

  16. Muscle power during intravenous sedation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nobuyuki Matsuura

    2017-01-01

    .... Midazolam and propofol are commonly used for intravenous sedation. Although there have been many researches on the effects of midazolam and propofol on vital function and the recovery profile, little is known about muscle power...

  17. Acute intraoperative effect of intravenous amiodarone on right ventricular function in patients undergoing valvular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denault, André Y; Beaulieu, Yanick; Couture, Pierre; Haddad, Francois; Shi, Yanfen; Pagé, Pierre; Levesque, Sylvie; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lambert, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Amiodarone is commonly used in the acute care setting. However the acute hemodynamic and echocardiographic effect of intravenous amiodarone administered intraoperatively on right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic function using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has not been described. The study design was a randomized controlled trial in elective cardiac surgical patients undergoing valvular surgery. Patients received an intravenous loading dose of 300 mg of either amiodarone or placebo in the operating room, followed by an infusion of 15 mg/kg for two days. Hemodynamic profiles, echocardiographic measurement of RV and left ventricular (LV) dimensions, Doppler interrogation of tricuspid and mitral valve, hepatic and pulmonary venous flow combined with tissue Doppler imaging of the tricuspid and mitral valve annulus were obtained before and after bolus. Although more patients in the placebo group had chronic obstructive lung disease (14 vs 6, p=0.05) and diabetes (14 vs 5; p=0.0244), there was no difference in terms of baseline hemodynamic, 2D and Doppler variables. After bolus, a significant increase in pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index (pAcute administration of amiodarone is associated with alteration in RV diastolic properties and has minimal negative inotropic effect on RV systolic function in cardiac surgical patients with valvular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  18. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT-Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantscheff, Peter, E-mail: jantscheff@tumorbio.uni-freiburg.de [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Esser, Norbert [ProQinase GmbH, Breisacher Str. 117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Geipel, Andreas; Woias, Peter [Laboratory for Design of Microsystems, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ziroli, Vittorio [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Goldschmidtboing, Frank [Laboratory for Design of Microsystems, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Massing, Ulrich [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-06-17

    The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24), spleen (3/24), kidney (4/24), liver (5/24), and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively). Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals) showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes). Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4), lung (3/6) or lumbar spine (0/2), as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s) to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented.

  19. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT‑Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Woias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24, spleen (3/24, kidney (4/24, liver (5/24, and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively. Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes. Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4, lung (3/6 or lumbar spine (0/2, as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented.

  20. Continuous versus bolus thermodilution cardiac output measurements--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic, T; von Segesser, L K; Tönz, M; Leskosek, B; Seifert, B; Jenni, R; Turina, M

    1995-05-01

    To compare the methods for continuous and bolus thermodilution cardiac output measurements. In vivo and in vitro experimental studies. Surgical research division in a university hospital. Eight calves and flow bench model. Data were collected in vivo from eight calves instrumented with pulmonary artery catheters, which allowed both continuous and bolus thermodilution measurements. The pulmonary artery catheter was placed through the external jugular vein. All in vitro measurements were performed using a flow bench model. A total of 232 bolus and continuous thermodilution measurements were analysed in vivo to determine the degree of agreement between the two methods. The absolute measurement bias was 0.14 L/min with 95% confidence limits ranging from -0.83 to 1.15 L/min. In vitro analysis of 576 measurements at six different temperature points (range 31 degrees to 41 degrees C), using clinically relevant flows (2 to 9 L/min), showed overestimation of flow values using continuous and bolus thermodilution methods. However, the continuous method showed better accuracy by a lower degree of overestimation. Systematic error was 9.7 +/- 8.4 (SD) % for continuous and 11.1 +/- 6.3% for the bolus method (p thermal filament of the pulmonary catheter impaired the accuracy of continuous measurement without affecting results from bolus measurements (systematic error -26.8 +/- 8.2% for continuous and -5.2 +/- 4.1% for bolus thermodilution). Continuous thermodilution cardiac output measurement provided higher accuracy and greater resistance to thermal noise than standard bolus measurements. The correct placement of the catheter is essential for precise measurements.

  1. Intravenous amiodarone: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M S

    1996-06-01

    To review the clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous amiodarone. Articles were identified through a computer search of the English-language literature using MEDLINE (KR Information OnDisc) and the search term amiodarone. Additional articles were identified through examination of the bibliographies of the articles initially retrieved. Relevant or representative animal studies, clinical trials, and case reports were selected for evaluation. Particular emphasis was placed on studies pertaining to the use of intravenous amiodarone in treatment-refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF) and hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT). The literature was assessed for adequate description of patients, study methodologies (e.g., study design, number of patients), and outcomes. Amiodarone is an unusual class III antiarrhythmic that produces each of the four main types of antiarrhythmic action in addition to other effects, such as vasodilatory, selective antithyroid, and other activities that may be therapeutically relevant. Amiodarone pharmacokinetics demonstrate extensive interpatient variability and are characterized by wide tissue distribution (steady-state volume of distribution 40-84 L/kg), slow total body clearance (90-158 mL/h/kg), long terminal elimination half-life (20-47 d), and extensive hepatic metabolism. The onset of maximal antiarrhythmic effect is a function of both amiodarone dosage and time. The high plasma concentrations achieved with intravenous dosing do not fully replicate the electrophysiologic effects observed following long-term oral administration, particularly with respect to class III activity. Available data suggest that intravenous amiodarone is associated with an efficacy rate of 50% or more in treatment-refractory VT/VF, and has a relatively rapid (2-24 h) onset of action. The drug is relatively well tolerated, but close hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and hepatic function

  2. The efficacy of intravenous indomethacin in prevention of postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigerstedt, I; Tammisto, T; Neuvonen, P J

    1991-08-01

    Since intravenous prophylactic anti-inflammatory agents have been suggested to reduce or even replace opiates in postoperative pain therapy, we studied the demand for morphine in 45 patients recovering from abdominal surgery who had received a baseline infusion of either indomethacin, morphine or saline placebo. When extubated after inhalational anaesthesia, each patient received an i.v. bolus of either 0.5 mg.kg-1 indomethacin, 0.07 mg.kg-1 morphine or saline placebo. Thereafter a 20-h infusion of the same test analgesic was started, either 0.1 mg.kg-1.h-1 indomethacin, 0.03 mg.kg-1.h-1 morphine or saline placebo. For additional analgesia, a patient-controlled analgesia device (PCA) delivering 5-mg boluses of morphine was used. For the first 5 postoperative hours, significantly more (P less than 0.05) PCA morphine was needed in the indomethacin group (35 mg) than in the morphine group (24 mg), while the placebo group demanded mean 30 mg. For equal analgesia (measured by VAS and VRS) between 5-20 h, similar amounts (mean 23 and 19 mg) of PCA morphine were required in the indomethacin and morphine groups, in contrast to the placebo group (mean 40 mg) (P less than 0.001). Morphine infusion increased the total consumption of morphine by 25% as compared to placebo. We conclude that, following abdominal surgery, the analgesic effect of indomethacin infusion became apparent after the first 5 postoperative hours, thereafter reducing the demand for PCA morphine by about 40%. Continuous morphine infusion diminishes the postoperative demand for PCA morphine, but also increases the total morphine consumption.

  3. Cost comparison of insulin glargine with insulin detemir in a basal-bolus regime with mealtime insulin aspart in type 2 diabetes in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dippel, Franz-Werner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the treatment costs of insulin glargine (IG; Lantus® to detemir (ID; Levemir®, both combined with bolus insulin aspart (NovoRapid® in type 2 diabetes (T2D in Germany. Methods: Cost comparison was based on data of a 1-year randomised controlled trial [1]. IG was administered once daily and ID once (57% of patients or twice daily (43% according to treatment response. At the end of the trial, mean daily basal insulin doses were 0.59 U/kg (IG and 0.82 U/kg (ID. Aspart doses were 0.32 U/kg (IG and 0.36 U/kg (ID. Costs were calculated from the German statutory health insurance (SHI perspective using official 2008 prices. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test robustness of the results. Results: Annual basal and bolus insulin costs per patient were € 1,473 (IG and € 1,940 (ID. The cost of lancets and blood glucose test strips were € 1,125 (IG and € 1,286 (ID. Annual costs for needles were € 393 (IG and € 449 (ID. The total annual cost per patient of administering IG was € 2,991 compared with € 3,675 for ID, translating into a 19% annual cost difference of € 684/patient. Base case results were robust to varying assumptions for insulin dose, insulin price, change in weight and proportion of ID once daily administrations. Conclusion: IG and ID basal-bolus regimes have comparative safety and efficacy, based on the Hollander study, IG however may represent a significantly more cost saving option for T2D patients in Germany requiring basal-bolus insulin analogue therapy with potential annual cost savings of € 684/patient compared to ID.

  4. Bolus Injection Versus Infusion of Furosemide in Kidney Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorrodi, Afshar; Mohammadipoor Anvari, Hassan; Kakaei, Farzad; Solymanzadeh, Farzin; Khanlari, Esmaeil; Bagheri, Amin

    2017-03-16

    Furosemide is commonly administered to increase the urinary output in patients with transplanted kidneys. This study compared the two administration routes of furosemide (bolus versus infusion) in kidney transplanted patients. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation in 2015 in a hospital in Tabriz, Iran, were included in this clinical trial. They were divided into two groups: bolus (120 mg stat) and infusion (4 mg/minute) groups. The primary outcome was urine onset time. Secondary outcomes were urine output volume, vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate), and electrolyte level (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium and potassium). After arterial and venous anastomoses, arterial clamp removal time and diuresis onset were recorded. Finally, theurinary output volumes of both groups were measured with regular urine bags for an hour after anastomosis. Then it was repeated each three hours for 24 hours, and eventually two and three days thereafter. Finally, all data were statistically analyzed. Around 72% of the patients were men (mean age of 37.15 ± 14.67 years). Urine output was higher in bolus group but it was not statistically significant. Diuresis duration was measured after arterial declamping and its averages were 5.41 ± 3.7 minutes and 9.36 ± 7.65 minutes in bolus and infusion groups, respectively (P = .040). Furosemide bolus injection and infusion had no significant effect on creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium and potassium. Furosemide bolus injection can reduce diuresis onset time compared to furosemide infusion.

  5. Fentanyl bolus induces muscle tremors in sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, S K; Spielmann, N; Weiss, M; Mauch, J Y

    2016-08-01

    Intravenous fentanyl (10 mcg/kg) or saline (control) was randomly administered to 10 healthy sevoflurane-mono-anaesthetized piglets. Trembling was assessed by two blinded observers using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a simple ordinal scale at baseline and 5 min (T5) after drug administration. If no trembling was observed at that time point, the opposite treatment was administered and piglets were re-evaluated after another 5 min (T10). Four out of five piglets showed trembling after fentanyl (T5), while none given saline showed any trembling. With fentanyl the VAS scores were significantly higher at T5 compared either with baseline or with the control treatment. Control animals received fentanyl after the 5 min evaluation and all piglets showed clear trembling afterwards. The median time after fentanyl administration until first muscle tremors was 51 (20-840) s. In summary, nine out of 10 sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets showed muscle tremors after intravenous fentanyl. Tremors subsided over time and no specific treatment was necessary. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in systemic lupus erythematosus following intravenous methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagalavan, L; Kan, F K

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An 18 year old male student, newly diagnosed to have SLE, developed neurological symptoms two days after completing intravenous methylprednisolone. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed features consistent with a diagnosis of probable cerebral toxoplasmosis. He responded dramatically to antitoxoplasma therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature that presents a newly diagnosed SLE patient who rapidly developed cerebral toxoplasmosis following administration of intravenous methylprednisolone. Our case illustrates that this drug is potentially fatal and the importance of differentiating cerebral infection from neuropsychiatric lupus.

  7. Intravenous immunoglobulins for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, JinSong; Dong, JianCheng; Li, Youping; Ni, Hengjian; Jiang, Kui; Shi, Li Li; Wang, GuoHua

    2017-07-04

    Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, with an estimated incidence of 50 per 100,000 persons. People with epilepsy may present with various types of immunological abnormalities, such as low serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels, lack of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and identification of certain types of antibodies. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment may represent a valuable approach and its efficacy has important implications for epilepsy management. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2011. To examine the effects of IVIg on the frequency and duration of seizures, quality of life and adverse effects when used as monotherapy or as add-on treatment for people with epilepsy. For the latest update, we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (2 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (2 February 2017), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 2 February 2017), Web of Science (1898 to 2 February 2017), ISRCTN registry (2 February 2017), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP, 2 February 2017), the US National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov (2 February 2017), and reference lists of articles. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of IVIg as monotherapy or add-on treatment in people with epilepsy. Two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. Outcomes included percentage of people rendered seizure-free, 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, adverse effects, treatment withdrawal and quality of life. We included one study (61 participants). The included study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial which compared the treatment efficacy of IVIg as an add-on with a placebo add-on in patients with refractory epilepsy. There was no significant difference between

  8. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol with or without 2% benzyl alcohol following a single induction dose administered intravenously in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffenhagen, Gregg M; Rezende, Marlis L; Gustafson, Daniel L; Hansen, Ryan J; Lunghofer, Paul J; Mama, Khursheed R

    2015-09-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol with or without 2% benzyl alcohol administered intravenously (IV) as a single induction dose in cats. Prospective experimental study. Six healthy adult cats, three female intact, three male castrated, weighing 4.8 ± 1.8 kg. Cats received 8 mg kg(-1) IV of propofol (P) or propofol with 2% benzyl alcohol (P28) using a randomized crossover design. Venous blood samples were collected at predetermined time points to 24 hours after drug administration to determine drug plasma concentrations. Physiologic and behavioral variables were also recorded. Propofol and benzyl alcohol concentrations were determined using high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were described using a 2-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were analyzed using repeated measures anova (p cats (33%), and by 30 minutes for the remaining four cats. Propofol pharmacokinetics, with or without 2% benzyl alcohol, were characterized by rapid distribution, a long elimination phase, and a large volume of distribution. No differences were noted between treatments with the exception of clearance from the second compartment (CLD2), which was 23.6 and 38.8 mL kg(-1)  minute(-1) in the P and P28 treatments, respectively. Physiologic and behavioral variables were not different between treatments with the exception of heart rate at 4 hours post administration. The addition of 2% benzyl alcohol as a preservative minimally altered the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol 1% emulsion when administered as a single IV bolus in this group of cats. These data support the cautious use of propofol with 2% benzyl alcohol for induction of anesthesia in healthy cats. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  9. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of elinogrel: results of the platelet function substudy from the intravenous and oral administration of elinogrel to evaluate tolerability and efficacy in nonurgent percutaneous coronary intervention patients (INNOVATE-PCI) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Welsh, Robert C; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Conley, Pamela B; McClure, Matthew W; Stephens, Gillian; Kochman, Janusz; Jennings, Lisa K; Gurbel, Paul A; Wójcik, Jarosław; Dabrowski, Marek; Saucedo, Jorge F; Stumpf, Juergen; Buerke, Michael; Broderick, Samuel; Harrington, Robert A; Rao, Sunil V

    2012-06-01

    Elinogrel is the only selective, competitive and reversible platelet P2Y(12) inhibitor available in both intravenous (IV) and oral formulations. This substudy of the Intravenous and Oral Administration of Elinogrel to Evaluate Tolerability and Efficacy in Nonurgent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention patients (INNOVATE-PCI) trial evaluated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of two dosing regimens of IV followed by oral elinogrel (120 mg IV plus 100 mg oral twice daily; 120 mg IV plus 150 mg oral twice daily) versus standard clopidogrel therapy (300-600 mg oral loading dose plus 75 mg oral maintenance dose) in 56 patients undergoing nonurgent PCI. At time of randomization, 71.4% (40/56) of patients were using maintenance clopidogrel therapy. In the acute phase, an IV bolus of elinogrel achieved more rapid and potent antiplatelet effects compared with clopidogrel, which were sustained during the transition from the IV to the oral formulation in the first 24 hours of the peri-PCI period. During chronic therapy, elinogrel achieved similar levels of platelet reactivity compared with clopidogrel before the next oral dose and, although platelet reactivity was lower with elinogrel up to 6 hours after daily oral maintenance dosing, these differences were not statistically significant. These pharmacodynamic effects matched the pharmacokinetic profile of elinogrel. There were no differences in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects between the two elinogrel dosing regimens. Compared with clopidogrel, the combination of IV and oral elinogrel achieves more rapid and enhanced antiplatelet effects that were sustained through the transition to oral elinogrel in the peri-PCI period, but these were not significant during chronic dosing in this pilot investigation. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00751231.

  10. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Kim, Jung-In

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique. We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are 200, 300, 400, 500 and 650 cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields. Treatment plans were used to investigate the effect of unwanted air gaps under bolus on the dose distribution of the whole breast. The commercial Super-Flex bolus and 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) bolus were applied to investigate the skin dose of the breast with the MOSFET measurement. Two boluses of 3 and 5 mm thicknesses were selected. There was a good agreement between the dose distribution for a virtual bolus generated by the TPS and PLA bolus. The difference in dose distribution between the virtual bolus and Super-Flex bolus was significant within the bolus and breast due to unwanted air gaps. The average differences between calculated and measured doses in a 200 and 300 cc with PLA bolus were not significant, which were -0.7% and -0.6% for 3mm, and -1.1% and -1.1% for 5 mm, respectively. With the Super-Flex bolus, however, significant dose differences were observed (-5.1% and -3.2% for 3mm, and -6.3% and -4.2% for 5 mm). The 3D-printed solid bolus can reduce the uncertainty of the daily setup and help to overcome the dose discrepancy by unwanted air gaps in the breast cancer radiation therapy.

  11. Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Rhesus monkeys are an animal model for human accommodation and presbyopia and consistent and repeatable methods are needed to stimulate and measure accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Accommodation has typically been pharmacologically stimulated with topical pilocarpine or carbachol iontophoresis. Intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine has recently been shown to produce more natural, rapid and reproducible accommodative responses compared to topical pilocarpine. Here, i.v. pilocarpine was compared to carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation. Experiments were performed under anaesthesia on five previously iridectomized monkeys aged 10-16 years. In three monkeys, accommodation was stimulated with carbachol iontophoresis in five successive experiments and refraction measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer. In separate experiments, accommodation was stimulated using a 5 mg/kg bolus of i.v. pilocarpine given over 30 s followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/hr for 5.5 min in three successive experiments with the same monkeys as well as in single experiments with two additional monkeys. Refraction was measured continuously using photorefraction with baseline and accommodated refraction also measured with the Hartinger. In subsequent i.v. pilocarpine experiments with each monkey, accommodative changes in lens equatorial diameter were measured in real-time with video-image analysis. Maximum accommodation of three monkeys with carbachol iontophoresis (five repeats) was (mean ± SD; range) 14.0 ± 3.5; 9.9-20.3 D and with i.v. pilocarpine stimulation (three repeats) was 11.1 ± 1.1; 9.9-13.0 D. The average of the standard deviations of maximum accommodation from each monkey was 0.8 ± 0.3 D from carbachol iontophoresis and 0.3 ± 0.2 from i.v. pilocarpine. The average latency to the start of the response after carbachol iontophoresis was 2.5 ± 3.9; 0.0-12.0 min with a time constant of 12.7 ± 9.5; 2.3-29.2 min. The average

  12. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma or intravenous lobular capillary hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghekiere, Olivier; Galant, Christine; Berg, Bruno Vande [Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    Lobular capillary hemangioma is a vascular neoplasm that commonly occurs as a cutaneous tumor. When it involves the skin and mucosal surfaces, ulceration and suppuration may occur, hence the classic term of pyogenic granuloma. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma is a rare solitary form of lobular capillary hemangioma that usually occurs in the veins of the neck and upper extremities. We report the ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a pyogenic intravenous granuloma localized in the right cephalic vein. The imaging and pathological findings and the differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  13. T1 mapping for myocardial extracellular volume measurement by CMR: bolus only versus primed infusion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Steven K; Sado, Daniel M; Fontana, Marianna; Banypersad, Sanjay M; Maestrini, Viviana; Flett, Andrew S; Piechnik, Stefan K; Robson, Matthew D; Hausenloy, Derek J; Sheikh, Amir M; Hawkins, Philip N; Moon, James C

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the contrast "bolus only" T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for measuring myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV). Myocardial ECV can be measured with T1 mapping before and after contrast agent if the contrast agent distribution between blood/myocardium is at equilibrium. Equilibrium distribution can be achieved with a primed contrast infusion (equilibrium contrast-CMR [EQ-CMR]) or might be approximated by the dynamic equilibration achieved by delayed post-bolus measurement. This bolus only approach is highly attractive, but currently limited data support its use. We compared the bolus only technique with 2 independent standards: collagen volume fraction (CVF) from myocardial biopsy in aortic stenosis (AS); and the infusion technique in 5 representative conditions. One hundred forty-seven subjects were studied: healthy volunteers (n = 50); hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 25); severe AS (n = 22); amyloid (n = 20); and chronic myocardial infarction (n = 30). Bolus only (at 15 min) and infusion ECV measurements were performed and compared. In 18 subjects with severe AS the results were compared with histological CVF. The ECV by both techniques correlated with histological CVF (n = 18, r² = 0.69, p infarction), Bland-Altman analysis indicates the bolus only technique has a consistent and increasing offset, giving a higher value for ECVs above 0.4 (mean difference ± limit of agreement for ECV 0.4 = 0.040 ± 0.075, p T1 mapping-derived ECV measurement is sufficient for ECV measurement across a range of cardiac diseases, and this approach is histologically validated in AS. However, when ECV is >0.4, the bolus only technique consistently measures ECV higher compared with infusion. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endoscopic evaluation of food bolus formation and its relationship with the number of chewing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, H; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Tanaka, N; Matsuno, K; Sakai, T

    2015-08-01

    It is known that solid food is transported to the pharynx actively in parallel to it being crushed by chewing and mixed with saliva in the oral cavity. Therefore, food bolus formation should be considered to take place from the oral cavity to the pharynx. In previous studies, the chewed food was evaluated after the food had been removed from the oral cavity. However, it has been pointed out that spitting food out of the oral cavity interferes with natural food bolus formation. Therefore, we observed food boluses immediately before swallowing using an endoscope to establish a method to evaluate the food bolus-forming function, and simultaneously performed endoscopic evaluation of food bolus formation and its relationship with the number of chewing cycles. The subject was inserted the endoscope nasally and instructed to eat two coloured samples of boiled rice simultaneously in two ingestion conditions ('as usual' and 'chewing well'). The condition of the food bolus was graded into three categories for each item of grinding, mixing and aggregation and scored 2, 1 and 0. The score of aggregation was high under both ingestion conditions. The scores of grinding and mixing tended to be higher in subjects with a high number of chewing cycles, and the score of aggregation was high regardless of the number of chewing cycles. It was suggested that food has to be aggregated, even though the number of chewing cycles is low and the food is not ground or mixed for a food bolus to reach the swallowing threshold. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Must the use of bolus in radiotherapy of cutaneous cancers be changed; Doit-on changer la technique d'utilisation des bolus en radiotherapie des cancers cutanes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, J.; Sors, A.; Gros-Dagnac, H.; Franceries, X. [UMR 825 ' imagerie cerebrale et handicaps neurologiques' , Inserm, Toulouse (France); Laprie, A.; Moyal, E.; Delannes, M. [Service de radiotherapie, institut Claudius-Regaud (CLCC), Toulouse (France); Kerjean, P.; Kerjean, J.C. [Kerjean Biotechnologies, La Dagueniere (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which firstly analyzed the dose bias induced by the presence of air between the patient's skin and the bolus plate in the case of cutaneous cancers which are complex regarding their locations. Then, practical solutions for bolus modifications are studied in order to minimize this phenomenon and to quantify the dose bias in comparison with a conventional treatment. Finally, a new type of deformable bolus is proposed which better fits the patient contours. Short communication

  16. Use of glucagon in relieving esophageal food bolus impaction in the era of eosinophilic esophageal infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmapuram, Jayaram; Oosterveen, Scott; Grim, Rodney

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal food bolus impaction may require an urgent endoscopy. Glucagon is often administered to promote spontaneous passage of the food bolus. Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia, and food impaction is often the presenting symptom. Our study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of glucagon in relieving esophageal foreign body obstruction in general and in the setting of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration (EEI). A retrospective chart review was performed using the ICD codes and the emergency department database of adult patients presenting with symptoms of esophageal food bolus impaction from July 2004 to October 2010. Response to glucagon was defined as symptomatic relief of obstruction prior to endoscopic intervention. A total of 213 episodes of esophageal food bolus obstruction in 192 patients were identified during the study period. Glucagon was given in 125 cases of which 41 had a response (32.8 %). A total of 170 episodes had an Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed either during the impaction event or at a later date. Of the 60 patients' biopsies, 45 had received glucagon (17 with EEI, 28 without EEI). None of the 17 episodes with EEI as compared to 8 of the 28 without EEI responded to glucagon (0 % vs. 28.5 %, p = 0.017). Glucagon is effective in about one third of patients with esophageal food bolus impaction, which is consistent with historical data. Patients with EEI appear less likely to respond to glucagon.

  17. Factors influencing bolus dwell times in healthy older adults assessed endoscopically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Susan G; Maslan, Jonathan; Stuart, Andrew; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wilhelm, Erika; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Williamson, Jeff; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Scant data exist on normal bolus dwell time assessed during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The purpose of this study was to examine bolus dwell time in healthy older adults. Because it has been previously reported that some healthy older adults aspirate, we also sought to determine if bolus dwell time varied as a function of aspiration status. Prospective. Seventy-six healthy volunteers from the seventh, eighth, and ninth decades of life participated. Dwell times were analyzed via FEES as a function of pharyngeal location, liquid type, delivery method, purée type, viscosity, age, and gender. Longer dwell times were evidenced with the eldest participants, straw delivery, and the smallest volume. Adults in the ninth decade were 4.8 (P = .01) and 3.8 (P = .02) times more likely to have longer dwell times at the vallecula and 7.1 (P = .002) and 3.8 (P = 0.02) at the pyriform sinus than those in the seventh and eighth decades, respectively. Longer dwell times at the vallecula and pyriform sinuses were 2 and 2.38 times (P times (P dwell times than larger volumes. Bolus dwell times did not significantly differ as a function of aspiration status. Advanced age, straw delivery, and small volumes yielded longer dwell times. These variables should be considered before diagnosing an abnormal bolus dwell time in elder patients. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javor, D.; Wressnegger, A.; Unterhumer, S.; Kollndorfer, K.; Nolz, R.; Beitzke, D.; Loewe, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. (orig.)

  19. The impact of mastication, salivation and food bolus formation on salt release during bread consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Carole; Grass, Manon; Septier, Chantal; Bertrand, Dominique; Salles, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Health authorities recommend higher fibre and lower salt content in bread products. However, these basic ingredients of bread composition are multifunctional, and important changes in their content influence the texture, flavour and acceptability of the product. This study was designed to investigate the link between oral processing, bolus formation and sodium release during the consumption of four different breads that varied in composition and structure. Chewing behaviour was determined by surface electromyography, and salivation was quantified from the water content of the boluses collected. The kinetics of bread degradation during food bolus formation was characterised by measuring the bolus heterogeneity by texture image analysis, and sodium release into the saliva was quantified. Mastication and salivation varied between products and between subjects, thus highlighting different bolus formation strategies. In vivo salt release was mainly explained by mastication parameters. The initial slope of sodium release increased when the chewing muscles' activity increased, and the maximum sodium concentration was reached later when more masticatory cycles were required to reach the swallowing point.

  20. Impacts of palatal coverage on bolus formation during mastication and swallowing and subsequent adaptive changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Furuya, J; Tamada, Y; Kondo, H

    2013-10-01

    Palatal coverage is often required for elderly edentulous patients with complete dentures. The purpose of this study was to clarify impacts of palatal coverage on bolus formation and subsequent adaptive changes. Subjects were 18 healthy young dentulous adults who wore 1·5-mm-thick palatal plates. Subjects were asked to feed 12 g of bicoloured rice as usual, and the bolus formation by mastication and swallowing in the pharynx was observed using a nasal videoendoscopy. The bolus formation index (BFI), number of mastication strokes until swallowing, visual analogue scale about swallowing easiness and masticatory performance using colour-changeable gum were measured under three conditions: before placement of the palatal plate (day 0), immediately after placement (day 1) and after 7 days of wearing the plate (day 7). BFI and visual analogue scale on day 1 were significantly lower than those on day 0, but those on day 7 significantly recovered to the level of day 0. The number of mastication strokes did not change from day 0 to day 1, however, that on day 7 was significantly higher. Masticatory performance on days 1 and 7 was significantly lower than that on day 0. Although palatal coverage inhibits bolus formation during feeding, subjects increased the number of mastication strokes until swallowing threshold as they adapted to palatal coverage over time. This adaptive change was due to compensate for the lowered masticatory performance to achieve bolus formation for comfortable swallowing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Retrocaval ureter: the importance of intravenous urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Radhiana; Aziz, Azian Abd; Mohamed, Siti Kamariah Che

    2011-10-01

    Retrocaval ureter is a rare cause of hydronephrosis. Its rarity and non-specific presentation pose a challenge to surgeons and radiologists in making the correct diagnosis. Differentiation from other causes of urinary tract obstruction, especially the more common urolithiasis, is important for successful surgical management. Current practice has seen multislice computed tomography (MSCT) rapidly replaces intravenous urography (IVU) in the assessment of patients with hydronephrosis due to suspected urolithiasis, especially ureterolithiasis. However, MSCT, without adequate opacification of the entire ureter, may allow the physician to overlook a retrocaval ureter as the cause of hydronephrosis. High-resolution IVU images can demonstrate the typical appearance that leads to the accurate diagnosis of a retrocaval ureter. We reported a case that illustrates this scenario and highlights the importance of IVU in the assessment of a complex congenital disorder involving the urinary tract.

  2. Clinical application of 3D-printed-step-bolus in post-total-mastectomy electron conformal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangwoo; Park, Sungjin; Jeon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jinhyun; Kim, Jun Won; Cho, Yoon Jin; Jang, Won-Seok; Keum, Yo Sup; Lee, Ik Jae

    2017-04-11

    The 3D-printed boluses were used during the radiation therapy of the chest wall in six patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). We measured the in-vivo skin doses while both conventional and 3D-printed boluses were placed on the chest wall and compared the mean doses delivered to the ipsilateral lung and the heart. The homogeneity and conformity of the dose distribution in the chest wall for both types of boluses were also evaluated. The uniformity index on the chest skin was improved when the 3D-printed boluses were used, with the overall average skin dose being closer to the prescribed one in the former case (-0.47% versus -4.43%). On comparing the dose-volume histogram (DVH), it was found that the 3D-printed boluses resulted in a reduction in the mean dose to the ipsilateral lung by up to 20%. The precision of dose delivery was improved by 3% with the 3D-printed boluses; in contrast, the conventional step bolus resulted in a precision level of 5%. In conclusion, the use of the 3D-printed boluses resulted in better dose homogeneity and conformity to the chest wall as well as the sparing of the normal organs, especially the lung. This suggested that their routine use on the chest wall as a therapeutic approach during post-mastectomy radiation therapy offers numerous advantages over conventional step boluses.

  3. Mercury poisoning through intravenous administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiuying; Liu, Zilong; Chen, Xiaorui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Metallic mercury poisoning through intravenous injection is rare, especially for a homicide attempt. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease are challenging. Patient concerns: A 34-year-old male presented with pyrexia, chill, fatigue, body aches, and pain of the dorsal aspect of right foot. Another case is that of a 29-year-old male who committed suicide by injecting himself metallic mercury 15 g intravenously and presented with dizzy, dyspnea, fatigue, sweatiness, and waist soreness. Diagnosis: The patient's condition in case 1 was deteriorated after initial treatment. Imaging studies revealed multiple high-density spots throughout the body especially in the lungs. On further questioning, the patient's girlfriend acknowledged that she injected him about 40 g mercury intravenously 11 days ago. The diagnosis was then confirmed with a urinary mercury concentration of 4828 mg/L. Interventions: Surgical excision, continuous blood purification, plasma exchange, alveolar lavage, and chelation were performed successively in case 1. Blood irrigation and chelation therapy were performed in case 2. Outcomes: The laboratory test results and organ function of the patient in case 1 gradually returned to normal. However, in case 2, the patient's dyspnea was getting worse and he finally died due to toxic encephalopathy and respiratory failure. Lessons: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical for intravenous mercury poisoning. It should be concerned about the combined use of chelation agents and other treatments, such as surgical excision, hemodialysis and plasma exchange in clinical settings. PMID:29145289

  4. Drugs given by intravenous infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhoek, Adrianus

    1983-01-01

    Nowadays for a large number of patients admitted to a hospital intravenous infusion of fluids is an important part of their treatment. These fluids serve as a correction of the fluid and/or electrolyte balance, as a carrier for drugs, as a substitute to oral nutrition or to compensate the loss of

  5. [Postoperative pain relief by patient controlled analgesia using intravenous pentazocine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, N; Yajima, C; Chinzei, M; Nagase, M; Nishitateno, K

    1995-02-01

    Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) by intravenous pentazocine was performed to determine its efficacy and the dose required for the pain relief after gynecological or obstetric operations. After obtaining informed consent, studies were performed on 28 female patients (ASA I, II: Mean age 38.1 years: Mean weight, 53.8 kg) who had received gynecological or obstetric operations with lower abdominal incision. Anesthesia given was nitrous oxide and isoflurane combined with epidural anesthesia with 1% mepivacaine used only during the operation. Six patients had cesarian section under spinal anesthesia. No patients received opioid during anesthesia. PCA was performed with a Graseby PCA pump. Lockout time was 8 minutes and the bolus dose was 3 mg. In all the patients, satisfactory pain relief was obtained and no other analgesic was necessary. Mean initial dose was 169.4 micrograms.kg-1 and the mean doses used for following each 6 hours until 24 hours were 409.7, 368.6, 279.3 and 211.1 micrograms.kg-1 respectively. Evaluation of PCA by the patients after the procedure showed excellent (13 patients) good (12) and passable (3) analgesia. No significant complication was observed except temporary nausea in two patients. Satisfactory postoperative pain relief could be obtained by relatively small doses of pentazocine and adverse reactions related especially to sigma receptor could be avoided.

  6. The Use of Intravenous Neostigmine in Palliation of Severe Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neostigmine is a parasympathomimetic drug that acts as a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Clinically it is used in patients with acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO or Ogilvie’s syndrome, which is a gastrointestinal motility disorder characterized by marked dilatation of the colon in the absence of mechanical obstruction, postoperative ileus, urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, and in anesthesia to reverse the effects of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Both bolus and infusion are noted to be effective and lead to prompt evacuation of flatus or stool with a reduction in abdominal distention on physical examination. Median duration is noted to be 4–30 minutes in some trials. Here we present our experience of using 2 mg of intravenous neostigmine to help relieve the severe abdominal distention and ileus in a patient with severe fecal impaction when all conservative measures had been futile. The most frequent side effect of the drug is abdominal pain/cramping, which was noted in our patient as well. Other complications include bradycardia which is very infrequently symptomatic to require atropine. Overall, the drug is a simple, safe, and effective strategy; and as pointed out in the previous studies, the drug appears to be underused in patients who do not have a true contraindication to its use.

  7. Comparison of Insulin Detemir and Insulin Glargine for Hospitalized Patients on a Basal-Bolus Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondra Davis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether insulin detemir is equivalent to insulin glargine in controlling hyperglycemia for the adult hospitalized patient on a basal-bolus treatment regimen. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at two acute care hospitals within the same health system. Patients from both facilities who were initiated on a basal-bolus subcutaneous insulin regimen were included in the study. The basal-bolus regimen consisted of three components: basal, bolus, and corrective insulin with only the data from the first seven days analyzed. Once the basal-bolus protocol was initiated, all previous glycemic agents were discontinued. The target glycemic goal of the study was 100–180 mg/dL. RESULTS: In both groups, 50% of the patients had achieved the target glycemic control goal (100–180 mg/dL by day 2 (p = 0.3. However, on the seventh or last day of basal-bolus treatment, whichever came first, 36.36% of patients receiving insulin detemir (n = 88 achieved the blood glucose reading goal compared to 52.00% in patients receiving insulin glargine (n = 100 (p = 0.03. This corresponded to an adjusted odds ratio of 2.12 (1.08 to 4.15, p = 0.03. The adjusting variables were provider type, whether the patient was hospitalized within 30 days prior and diagnosis of stroke. The mean blood glucose readings for the insulin glargine and the insulin detemir groups while on basal-bolus therapy were 200 mg/dL and 215 mg/dL, respectively (p = 0.05. The total number of blood glucose readings less than 70 mg/dL and less than 45 mg/dL was very low and there were no differences in number of episodes with hypoglycemia between the two groups. CONCLUSION: There was not a statistical difference between the two groups at 2 days, however there was on the seventh day or the last day of basal-bolus treatment. There were nonsignificant hypoglycemia events between basal insulin groups and the results for the last or seventh day

  8. Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at

  9. Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at

  10. Study Protocol. ECSSIT – Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon® Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon® 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Alan A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4–10 minutes therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. Methods and design A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml. A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. Discussion It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management

  11. Review, historical context, and clarifications of the NINDS rt-PA stroke trials exclusion criteria: Part 1: rapidly improving stroke symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Steven R; Khatri, Pooja; Broderick, Joseph P; Grotta, James C; Kasner, Scott E; Kim, Doojin; Meyer, Brett C; Panagos, Peter; Romano, Jose; Scott, Phillip

    2013-09-01

    Since Food and Drug Administration approval of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) for treatment of acute ischemic stroke in 1996, it has become clear that several criteria used for exclusion from therapy were not based on actual data or operationally defined for use in clinical practice. All eligibility criteria from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) recombinant tPA Stroke Study were adopted within the alteplase package insert as contraindications/warnings. Many clinicians have expressed the need for clarification and better definition of these treatment criteria. A group of investigators who also practice as stroke physicians convened a collaborative endeavor to work toward developing more clinically meaningful and consensus-driven exclusion criteria for intravenous tPA. The first of these exclusion criteria chosen was rapidly improving stroke symptoms (RISS). We reviewed and clarified the historical context and intention with the original investigators, held e-mail discussions, convened an in-person RISS Summit, and obtained the understanding of experienced stroke physicians broadly. Historically, the intent of this exclusion criterion within the NINDS recombinant tPA Stroke Trial was to avoid treatment of transient ischemic attacks-who would have recovered completely without treatment. There was unanimous consensus that, in the absence of other contraindications, patients who experience improvement of any degree, but have a persisting neurological deficit that is potentially disabling, should be treated with intravenous tPA. This statement is supported from the methods established for the original NINDS trial, on the basis of detailed discussions and interviews with the former NINDS trialists. It was agreed that improvement should only be monitored for the extent of time needed to prepare and administer the intravenous tPA bolus/infusion. An explicit operational definition of RISS was developed by consensus to

  12. [Intravenous remifentanyl for labor analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, D; Serrano, M L; Corral, E M; García del Valle, S

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous remifentanil may be the preferred analgesic when regional techniques are contraindicated. To perform a systematic review on the use of remifentanil for analgesia in labor. We searched MEDLINE (January 1995-August 2007) for studies on obstetric analgesia with remifentanil. We found 32 references representing the use of remifentanil in 257 women in labor. In most cases, patients reported relief of pain and a high level of satisfaction, with no severe side effects in mothers or neonates. When compared with meperidine and nitrous oxide in clinical trials, remifentanil provided better analgesia with fewer adverse effects. Analgesia with intravenous remifentanil is more effective and safer than other alternatives to regional analgesic techniques in obstetrics. Nevertheless, the optimum system for infusing the drug must b e established and further studies of maternal and fetal safety should be carried out.

  13. Inferior vena cava diameter change after intravenous furosemide in patients diagnosed with acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernodrinski, Stefan; Lucas, Brian P; Athavale, Ambarish; Candotti, Carolina; Margeta, Bosko; Katz, Ariel; Kumapley, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of the inferior vena cava (IVC) diameters may improve decision-making for patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure. Nevertheless, little is known about how the IVC is affected by loop diuretics. We sought to determine if bolus infusions of intravenous furosemide affect IVC diameters measured by hand-carried ultrasonography. We conducted a prospective cohort study at a public teaching hospital from September 2009 through June 2010. Physician investigators performed IVC ultrasonography on a convenience sample of 70 hospitalized adults who were prescribed intravenous furosemide for the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure. Participants' median baseline IVC diameter was 2.38 cm (interquartile range, 1.91-2.55 cm). At 1-2 hours after furosemide, IVC diameters decreased an average of 0.21 cm (95% CI, 0.13-0.29 cm) and remained significantly below baseline at 2-3 hours after furosemide by an average of 0.15 cm (95% CI, 0.07-0.22 cm). IVC diameters of adults diagnosed with acute decompensated heart failure become measurably smaller after single doses of intravenous furosemide. Whether this represents a true change in volume status has not been studied. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Continuous indomethacin infusion may be less effective than bolus infusions for ductal closure in very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, NKS; Jagroep, FK; Jaarsma, AS; Elzenga, NJ; Bos, AF

    The effectiveness of continuous indomethacin (INDO) infusion versus bolus infusions for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was investigated. The study design was an open-label case series (continuous INDO) with historic controls matched for gestational age (bolus INDO). Ductal closure rates

  15. Effect of bolus hardness on the chewing pattern and activation of masticatory muscles in subjects with normal dental occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piancino, Maria Grazia; Bracco, Pietro; Vallelonga, Teresa; Merlo, Andrea; Farina, Dario

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of bolus hardness on the kinematic of mastication and jaw-elevator muscle activity in subjects with normal dental occlusion and function. The mandibular motion and the surface EMG envelope of the masseter and temporalis anterior muscles were assessed in twelve subjects during mastication of a soft and hard bolus of the same size. When chewing the hard bolus, the chewing pattern in the frontal plane was significantly higher and wider, with smaller closure angle and higher peak velocity than when chewing the soft bolus. EMG peak amplitude of both the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was higher for the side of the bolus but the contralateral side increased its activity significantly more than the ipsilateral side when the hardness of the bolus increased (for the masseter, mean+/-SD: 130.4+/-108.1% increase for the contralateral side and 29.6+/-26.9% for the ipsilateral side). Moreover, the peak EMG activity for both muscles occurred more distant from the closure point with hard bolus. The increased activity of the contralateral side may help maintaining the mandibular equilibrium, with indirect participation to the power stroke generated by the chewing-side masseter. The results provide kinematic and EMG adaptations to bolus hardness in healthy subjects and can be used as normative data in the development of methods for early diagnosis of impaired chewing function.

  16. Intravenous Antiepileptic Drugs in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vlasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Launching four intravenous antiepileptic drugs: valproate (Depakene and Convulex, lacosamide (Vimpat, and levetiracetam (Keppra – into the Russian market has significantly broadened the possibilities of rendering care to patients in seizure emergency situations. The chemi- cal structure, mechanisms of action, indications/contraindications, clinical effectiveness and tolerability, advantages/disadvantages, and adverse events of using these drugs in urgent and elective neurology are discussed. 

  17. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale GJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gregory J Dale,1 Stephanie Phillips,2 Gregory L Falk3 1Westmead Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 3Concord Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract: This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286 or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487. Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients. Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. Keywords: analgesia, local anesthetics, intravenous infusions, pharmacokinetics

  18. Comparison between Intracoronary Abciximab and Intravenous Eptifibatide Administration during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Safi, Morteza; Vakili, Hosein; Saadat, Habibollah; Karimi, Esfandiar; Bagheri, Ramin Khameneh

    2013-07-01

    Administration of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors is an effective adjunctive treatment strategy during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Recent data suggest that an intracoronary administration of these drugs can increase the efficacy of PPCI. This study was done to find any potential difference in terms of efficacy of administering intracoronary Abciximab vs. intravenous Eptifibatide in primary PPCI. A total of 40 STEMI patients who underwent PPCI within 12 hours of symptom onset were randomized to either an intracoronary Abciximab (0.25 μg/kg) bolus or two boluses of intravenous Eptifibatide (0.180 μg/kg) each 10 minutes. The primary end points were enzymatic infarct size, myocardial reperfusion measured as ST-segment resolution (STR), and post-procedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grade flow of the infarct-related artery. The secondary end points were intra-procedural adverse effect (arrhythmia) and no-reflow phenomenon, in-hospital mortality, reinfarction, hemorrhage, and post-procedural global systolic function. Post-procedural TIMI grade 3 flow was achieved in 95% and 90% of the intracoronary Abciximab and intravenous Eptifibatide groups, respectively (p value = 0.61). The infarct size, as assessed by the area under the curve of creatine phosphokinase-MB in the first 48 hours after PPCI (μmol/L/hr), was similar between the intracoronary Abciximab and intravenous Eptifibatide groups: 6591 (interquartile range [IQR], 3006.0 to 11112.0) versus 7,294 (IQR, 3795.5 to 11803.5); p value = 0.59. Complete STR was achieved in 55% and 45% of the intracoronary Abciximab and intravenous Eptifibatide groups, respectively (p value = 0.87). No deaths, urgent revascularizations, reinfarctions, or TIMI major bleeding events were observed in either group. The intracoronary administration of Abciximab was not superior to the intravenous administration of Eptifibatide in the STEMI

  19. Comparison between Intracoronary Abciximab and Intravenous Eptifibatide Administration during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadHasan Namazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Administration of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors is an effective adjunctive treatment strategy during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Recent data suggest that an intracoronary administration of these drugs can increase the efficacy of PPCI. This study was done to find any potential difference in terms of efficacy of administering intracoronary Abciximab vs. intravenous Eptifibatide in primary PPCI.Methods: A total of 40 STEMI patients who underwent PPCI within 12 hours of symptom onset were randomized to either an intracoronary Abciximab (0.25 µg/kg bolus or two boluses of intravenous Eptifibatide (0.180 µg/kg each 10 minutes. The primary end points were enzymatic infarct size, myocardial reperfusion measured as ST-segment resolution (STR, and post-procedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI grade flow of the infarct-related artery. The secondary end points were intra-procedural adverse effect (arrhythmia and no-reflow phenomenon, in-hospital mortality, reinfarction, hemorrhage, and post-procedural global systolic function.Results: Post-procedural TIMI grade 3 flow was achieved in 95% and 90% of the intracoronary Abciximab and intravenous Eptifibatide groups, respectively (p value = 0.61. The infarct size, as assessed by the area under the curve of creatine phosphokinase-MB in the first 48 hours after PPCI (µmol/L/hr , was similar between the intracoronary Abciximab and intravenous Eptifibatide groups: 6591 (interquartile range [IQR], 3006.0 to 11112.0 versus 7,294 (IQR, 3795.5 to 11803.5; p value = 0.59. Complete STR was achieved in 55% and 45% of the intracoronary Abciximab and intravenous Eptifibatide groups, respectively (p value = 0.87. No deaths, urgent revascularizations, reinfarctions, or TIMI major bleeding events were observed in either group.Conclusion: The intracoronary administration of Abciximab was not superior to the intravenous

  20. Tolerance to continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion can be reversed by pulsatile bolus infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetla, H. W.; Staal, M. J.; van Laar, T.

    Study design: Pilot study. Objective: To study the effect of pulsatile bolus infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) on daily ITB dose, in patients showing dose increases, probably due to tolerance. Setting: Department of neurology and neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, the

  1. Prediction of aortic enhancement on coronary CTA images using a test bolus of diluted contrast material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Imada, Naoyuki; Sato, Tomoyasu; Yamagami, Takuji; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Awai, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare test bolus techniques using undiluted or diluted contrast material for their ability to predict aortic enhancement on coronary computed tomographic angiography (c-CTA) images. We divided 200 consecutive patients who underwent c-CTA on a 64-MDCT scanner into two groups. In group A (n = 100), we used a test bolus of undiluted contrast material and in group B (n = 100), the contrast material was diluted. The injection volume was body weight × 0.2 (contrast material 100%) in group A and body weight × 0.7 (contrast material 30%, saline 70%) in group B. We then compared the CT number in the ascending aorta on c-CTA images obtained with undiluted and diluted contrast media to the CT number on c-CTA images. The mean CT number in the ascending aorta was significantly higher in group B than group A (217.1 vs. 157.4 HU, P images and on images acquired with the test bolus using undiluted or diluted test bolus (P enhancement before c-CTA scanning. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot study to monitor body temperature of dairy cows with a rumen bolus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, A.H.; Goense, D.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Roest, H.I.J.

    2008-01-01

    A bolus containing a mote (temperature sensor, processor and radio) was placed in the rumen of a fistulated cow to monitor body temperature. Rumen temperature was measured every minute and stored in the internal buffer of the mote. The measured temperature was also transmitted to a base station by

  3. Effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled aerosol boluses in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, M.J.; Bennett, W.D.; Dewitt, P.; Seal, E.; Strong, A.A.

    1990-12-06

    Acute exposure of humans to low levels of ozone are known to cause decreases FVC and increases sRaw. These alterations in lung function do not, however, elucidate the potential for acute small airways responses. In the study the authors employed a test of aerosol dispersion to examine the potential effects of ozone on small airways in humans. Twenty-two healthy non-smoking male volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for one hour while exercising at 20 l/min/m{sup 2} (BSA). Prior to and immediately following exposure, tests of spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75) and plethysmography (Raw and sRaw) were performed. Subjects also performed an aerosol dispersion test before and after exposure. Each test involved a subject inhaling five to seven breaths of a 300 ml bolus of a 0.5 micrometers triphenyl phosphate (TPP) aerosol injected into a 2 liters tidal volume. The bolus was injected into the tidal breath at three different depths: at depth A the bolus was injected after 1.6 liters of clean air was inhaled from FRC; at depth B after 1.2 liters; and at depth C after 1.2 liters but with inhalation beginning from RV. The primary measure of bolus dispersion was the expired half-width (HW).

  4. Use of an automated bolus calculator in MDI-treated type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Meldgaard, Merete; Serifovski, Nermin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of flexible intensive insulin therapy (FIIT) and an automated bolus calculator (ABC) in a Danish type 1 diabetes population treated with multiple daily injections. Furthermore, to test the feasibility of teaching FIIT in a 3-h structured course....

  5. Effects of Fenbendazole Slow-Release (sr) bolus on productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... live-weight gain were monitored. Faecal worm egg counts were significantly lower in the bolus treated group than in the control group (p<0.01). Live-weight gains, PCV and albumin did not differ significantly between the two groups. Haemonchus sp. and Cooperia sp. were the dominant genera identified on faecal culture.

  6. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than continuous feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding by orogastric tube, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common for infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To determine the impact of different feeding modalities on muscle protein anabolism, neonatal pigs (5-7 day old) received a balanced enteral formula e...

  7. Soft-robotic esophageal swallowing as a clinically-inspired bolus rheometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, Steven; Allen, Jacqueline; (Peter Xu, Weiliang; Cheng, Leo K.

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of viscosity and peristaltic transport parameters on manometric pressure signatures, a reproducible swallowing process is required. Due to inter- and intra-subject variability from swallow to swallow, the human body does not represent an optimal mechanism for such an investigation. A smooth and continuous swallowing soft-robot has been developed to produce biomimetic swallowing trajectories, and is proposed to operate as a bench-top bolus rheometric investigation method. The method compares conventional viscometry and pressure signature findings from robotic swallowing experiments. The robotic aspect of experimentation involved 450 biomimetic swallows (10 repetitions of 45 unique experiments). The method examined swallowing transport in three dimensions: bolus formulation, peristaltic wavelength, and peristaltic velocity, each of which are known to contribute to safe and effective swallowing in vivo. It is found that the pressure gradients and magnitudes are commensurate with clinical reports on biological swallowing, on the order of 100 mmHg peak, however, the relationship between viscosity and pressure signatures is less clear. Bolus transport cannot be predicted as a function of bolus viscosity alone. Traditional viscometric data at 50 s-1, as used in clinical practice, may not be a strong indicator of swallow effort, safety, or efficacy in vivo.

  8. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  9. Pharmacokinetics of rocuronium after bolus and continuous infusion during halothane anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, E.P; Mirakhur, R.K; Maddineni, V.R; Wierda, J.MKH; Proost, Hans

    We have studied the pharmacokinetics of a single bolus of rocuronium (Org 9426), followed by an infusion, in eight patients during anaesthesia with halothane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Neuromuscular block was monitored using train-of-four (TOF) stimulation and recording the force of contraction of

  10. The effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled aerosol boluses in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, M.J.; Bennett, W.D.; DeWitt, P.; Seal, E.; Strong, A.A.; Gerrity, T.R. (Clinical Research Branch, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute exposure of humans to low levels of ozone are known to cause decreases in FVC and increases in SRaw. These alterations in lung function do not, however, elucidate the potential for acute small airway responses. In this study we employed a test of aerosol dispersion to examine the potential effects of ozone on small airways in humans. Twenty-two healthy nonsmoking male volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for 1 h while exercising at 20 L/min/m2 body surface area. Before and immediately after exposure, tests of spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75) and plethysmography (Raw and SRaw) were performed. Subjects also performed an aerosol dispersion test before and after exposure. Each test involved a subject inhaling five to seven breaths of a 300-ml bolus of a 0.5 micron triphenyl phosphate aerosol injected into a 2-L tidal volume. The bolus was injected into the tidal breath at three different depths: at Depth A the bolus was injected after 1.6 L of clean air were inhaled from FRC, at Depth B after 1.2 L, and at Depth C after 1.2 L but with inhalation beginning from RV. The primary measure of bolus dispersion was the expired half-width (HW). Secondary measures were the ratio (expressed as percent) of peak exhaled aerosol concentration to peak inhaled concentration (PR), shift in the median bolus volume between inspiration and expiration (VS), and percent of total aerosol recovered (RC). Changes in pulmonary function after ozone exposure were consistent with previous findings.

  11. Split-bolus single scan CTA for evaluation of mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Patricia C; Cabral, Fernanda C; Sahin, Azize; Camacho, Andrés; Brook, Alexander; Brook, Olga R

    2017-10-06

    To evaluate split-bolus single scan CTA protocol for evaluation of acute mesenteric ischemia. In this HIPAA-compliant IRB-approved study, consecutive patients evaluated for mesenteric ischemia between 11/2015 and 10/2016 were included. Patients scanned prior to 4/2016 were scanned with multiphasic CTA protocol and after with split-bolus single scan CTA. Objective and subjective evaluation was performed by three board-certified readers. Findings were correlated to composite clinical reference outcome. Eighty patients were included: 40 with split-bolus and 40 with multiphasic CTA protocol with similar age (60.3 ± 16.2 years vs. 64.7 ± 17.0 years, p = 0.19) and BMI (28.0 ± 6.7 vs. 27.0 ± 8.7, p = 0.56). SMA attenuation was higher in multiphasic protocol compared to split-bolus protocol (336.5 ± 97.5 HU vs. 258.0 ± 67.3 HU, p mesenteric ischemia in each group. There was no difference in the diagnostic confidence of the readers for evaluation of the mesenteric vessels and bowel ischemia. There were no missed cases of mesenteric ischemia in either group. Mean effective dose was 42% lower in the split-bolus group, p mesenteric ischemia is clinically feasible with confident and accurate diagnostic ability, while reducing number of images and decreasing radiation exposure to the patient.

  12. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C

    2006-06-01

    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient ( 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for control cows, with H having less blood Se (P < 0.04) than B or C cows. Calves from bolused cows had greater blood Se than calves from control cows (P = 0.01). Supplementation via a long-acting trace mineral bolus was successful in

  13. COMPARISON OF SINGLE BOLUS DOSE OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE WITH BOLUS PLUS CONTINUOUS INFUSION OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE ON CHARACTERISTIC OF SPINAL ANAESTHESIA WITH HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar Ashokkumar Rupareliya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This was a prospective randomised double-blind study to compare the single bolus dose of I.V. dexmedetomidine (0.5 mcg/kg diluted in 10 mL normal saline given slowly before spinal anaesthesia followed by continuous infusion of I.V. dexmedetomidine at the rate of 0.2 mcg/kg/hr. with only single bolus dose of I.V. dexmedetomidine (0.5 mcg/kg diluted in 10 mL normal saline given slowly over 10 mins. before spinal anaesthesia to find out the better technique, which has all the desired effects like prolongation of sensory and motor block and prolong postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects like hypotension and bradycardia. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 elective surgical patients posted for below umbilical abdominal surgeries and lower limb surgeries with ASA grade I and II with age, weight and height between 20-70 years, 40-70 kg and 150 to 170 cm respectively were selected. Patient was randomly allotted in two group of 30 patients. Patients in both the groups received I.V. dexmedetomidine bolus at the rate of 0.5 mcg/kg diluted in 10 mL normal saline slowly over 10 mins. using infusion pump prior to spinal anaesthesia with 3 mL 0.5% bupivacaine. After spinal anaesthesia, patient in Group D received infusion of dexmedetomidine at the rate of 0.2 mcg/kg/hr. (100 mcg dexmedetomidine diluted in 50 mL normal saline, i.e. 2 mcg/mL by infusion pump till the end of surgery. In Group N, patient received infusion of 50 mL normal saline at predetermined rate till end of surgery. The onset of sensory and motor block, duration of sensory and motor block, haemodynamic stability and quality of surgical anaesthesia, intraoperative complications, postoperative analgesia and side effects were recorded. RESULTS Our study concluded that I.V. supplementation of bolus followed by continuous infusion of Inj. Dexmedetomidine prolong the duration of sensory and motor block induced with spinal bupivacaine 0.5% hyperbaric. It provides the stable haemodynamic

  14. The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium following intravenous and oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, J V; Kendall, M J; Flinn, R M; Thornhill, D P; Welling, P G

    1979-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac were examined following single rapid intravenous injection and also following single oral doses to healthy female volunteers. After intravenous injection plasma levels of diclofenac fell rapidly and were below the limits of detection at 5.5 h postdosing. Individual drug profiles were described by a triexponential function and mean half-lives of the three exponential phases were 0.05, 0.26 and 1.1 h. After oral doses of enteric-coated tablets, the lag time between dosing and the appearance of drug in plasma varied between 1.0 and 4.5 h. However once drug absorption had commenced similar plasma drug profiles were obtained in different individuals. Peak plasma diclofenac levels ranged from 1.4 to 3.0 microgram . ml-1. The mean terminal drug half-life in plasma was 1.8 h after oral doses. This value was not significantly greater than the value of 1.1 h following intravenous doses. Fifty percent of orally dosed diclofenac did not reach the systemic circulation due, predominantly, to first-pass metabolism.

  15. Intravenous acetylsalicylic acid, magnesium and their combination in experimental arterial thrombosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglsang, J; Ravn, H B; Toft, G E; Thorwest, M; Husted, S E; Hjortdal, V E

    1999-09-01

    Intravenous acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and magnesium (Mg) both possess antiplatelet properties and are thus potential inhibitors of the formation of arterial thrombi. Their effect on the dynamic aspects of arterial thrombus formation was investigated following intravenous administration of both substances alone and in combination. A blinded, placebo-controlled, in-vivo study was performed in 71 rats. Thrombus formation was induced by a standardized arteriotomy in the right femoral artery with inversion of the vessel wall during subsequent closure. Thrombus formation was recorded on video tapes and analysed off-line for 30 min. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 20 mg bolus of ASA followed by 0.3 mmol/h Mg (ASA/Mg group); NaCl followed by 0.3 mmol/h Mg (Mg group); 20 mg bolus of ASA followed by NaCl (ASA group); or NaCl throughout the experiment (control group). In the ASA-treated groups, serum levels of thromboxane B2 were reduced significantly, and the Mg-treated groups reached a serum level of Mg just above 2.0 mmol/l. No significant differences were observed in initial or maximum thrombus area or in mean thrombus area during the study period. In the ASA/Mg group, a trend towards reduced thrombus formation was observed (P = 0.06). In the same group, seven of 22 animals developed an occlusive thrombus (P < 0.01), an unexpected adverse event possibly related to the combined administration of ASA and Mg.

  16. Rapid insulin-mediated increase in microvascular glycocalyx accessibility in skeletal muscle may contribute to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskens, Bart J M; Mooij, Hans L; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Roos, Jozef M A; Cobelens, Johanna E; Vink, Hans; Vanteeffelen, Jurgen W G E

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that insulin-mediated recruitment of microvascular blood volume is associated with insulin sensitivity. We hypothesize that insulin rapidly stimulates penetration of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma into the glycocalyx and thereby promotes insulin-mediated glucose uptake by increasing intracapillary blood volume. Experiments were performed in rats; the role of the glycocalyx was assessed by enzymatic degradation using a bolus of hyaluronidase. First, the effect of insulin on glycocalyx accessibility was assessed by measuring the depth of penetration of RBCs into the glycocalyx in microvessels of the gastrocnemius muscle with Sidestream Dark-field imaging. Secondly, peripheral insulin sensitivity was determined using intravenous insulin tolerance tests (IVITT). In addition, in a smaller set of experiments, intravital microscopy of capillary hemodynamics in cremaster muscle and histological analysis of the distribution of fluorescently labeled 40 kDa dextrans (D40) in hindlimb muscle was used to evaluate insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume. Insulin increased glycocalyx penetration of RBCs by 0.34±0.44 µm (Pglucose disposal compared to control rats. Insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume were reflected by a rapid increase in capillary tube hematocrit from 21.1±10.1% to 29.0±9.8% (Pblood in muscle, and this is associated with an increased blood volume in individual capillaries. Hyaluronidase treatment of the glycocalyx abolishes the effects of insulin on capillary blood volume and impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal.

  17. Intravenous Laser Therapy in Young Children with Thermal Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Bocharov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the laboratory and clinical effects of combined intravenous laser therapy in young children with thermalinjuries in the acute period of burn disease.Subjects and methods. Forty children whose mean age was 2.67±0.35 years were examined; thermal injuries accounted for 25.05±1.01% of the total body surface area; of them degrees IIIaIIIb was 19.04±0.85%. A comparison group (n=15 received conventional therapy without taking into account and correcting baseline and current hemostasiological disorders. On day 1, a study group (n=25 had programmed anticoagulant therapy and intravenous laser therapy at different radiation frequencies with a Mustang 20002+ laser therapy apparatus (patent for invention No. 2482894 in addition to the conventional therapy. The laser therapy cycle was 6 to 16 sessions. The investigators estimated and compared the following examined parameters: white blood cell count; leukocytic index of intoxication; plasma average mass molecules at a wavelength of 254 nm; toxogenic granularity of neutrophils; wound exudate discharge time; surgical plasty area; and hospitalization time.Results. The positive laboratory and clinical effects of the performed combined intravenous laser therapy in the combined therapy of burn disease in young children were comparatively shown in the study group patients. The significant decrease in the level of an inflammatory response and endogenous intoxication led to a rapider burn wound cleansing, active epithelization, and reduced surgical plasty volumes.Conclusion. Combined intravenous laser therapy signif icantly exerts antiinflammatory and detoxifying effects in young children with 40% thermal injuries in the acute period of burn disease. Abolishing a systemic inflammatory response by combined intravenous laser therapy initiated early regenerative processes in the burn wound and caused reductions in surgical plasty volumes and hospitalization time, which optimizes ther

  18. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus. Contexto Durante a deglutição o bolo estimula os receptores sensoriais da boca, faringe, laringe e esôfago. Os alimentos doces e sem gosto são mais aceitáveis para a deglutição do que os alimentos amargos, que tem gosto desagradável para a maioria dos indivíduos. A hipótese destes autores era que a ingestão de um bolo amargo pode alterar o trânsito oral

  19. Oral versus intravenous rehydration therapy in severe gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, J; Ghavami, F; Nowrouzi, Z; Fouladvand, B; Malek, M; Rezaeian, M; Emami, M

    1985-01-01

    A controlled, randomised trial comparing the results of oral rehydration therapy with those of intravenous fluid treatment in 470 children with severe gastroenteritis was undertaken. The oral rehydration therapy was divided into two phases--a rehydration phase that used high sodium isotonic fluid at 40 ml/kg per hour and a maintenance phase using low sodium isotonic fluid (sodium 40, potassium 30, bicarbonate 25, chloride 45, and dextrose 130 mmol/l). The results indicate that oral rehydration treatment, used according to this protocol, is successful in treating severe diarrhoea and dehydration, and has considerable advantages over intravenous fluid therapy in reducing complications associated with the treatment of hypernatraemia, in promoting rapid correction of hypokalaemia and acidosis, in decreasing the duration of diarrhoea, and in promoting a greater weight gain at hospital discharge. PMID:3901934

  20. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Shiqin [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Moran, Kathryn [Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Robar, James L. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues.

  1. OPTIMAL REGIMENS OF THE BASAL-BOLUS INSULIN THERAPY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Galkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine peculiarities in regimens of the pump insulin therapy and to reveal the optimal basal-to-bolus insulin ratio that are necessary for achieving optimal glycemic control in adoles-cents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.  82 adolescents at the age of 14–18 with T1DM, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII from 5 months to 7.5 years were monitored with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system «Guar-dian Real Time» or CGM system, built in MiniMed Paradigm Revel System 722 (Medtronic Minimed, USA. Assessing the quality of glycaemic control was based on the level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. The results of CGM were reviewed and average for 3 days performances: total daily dose of insulin, dose of basal and bolus insulin, basal-to-bolus insulin ratio, carbohydrate content of the meal, expressed in BE, carbohydrate ratio, insulin sensitivity factor were determined. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups: group 1 – adolescents with the optimal/suboptimal glycemic control (n = 55, 2 – adolescents with long-standing poorly controlled T1DM (n = 27. Average total daily dose of basal insulin (U in a day, U per kg in a day in adolescents group 1 was significantly higher, com-pared with patients in group 2 (р = 0.043; р = 0.038 respectively. Patients in group 2 received more car-bohydrates with a meal intake and had higher doses of average total daily bolus insulin. The average ba-sal-to-bolus ratio from group 1 patients was 51/49%, compared with group 2 patients – 45/55% (р = 0.026.  An important condition for achieving optimal glycemic control is a high level of compliance and skills of adolescents. Optimal well-balanced basal-to-bolus insulin ratio in adolescents with T1DM on CSII, which can provide improvements in blood glucose management and reducing the risk of complications of the disease, is 51/49%. 

  2. Comparison of Three Different Helmet Bolus Device for Total Scalp Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Min; Kim, Jong Sik; Hong, Chae Seon; Ju, Sang Gyu; Park, Ju Young; Park, Su Yeon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the usefulness of Helmet bolus device using Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material in total scalp irradiation. Using Rando phantom, we applied Bolx-II (Action Products, USA), paraffin wax (Densply, USA), solid thermoplastic material (Med-Tec, USA) on the whole scalp to make helmet bolus device. Computed tomography (GE, Ultra Light Speed16) images were acquired at 5 mm thickness. Then, we set up the optimum treatment plan and analyzed the variation in density of each bolus (Philips, Pinnacle). To evaluate the dose distribution, Dose-homogeneity index (DHI, D{sub 90}/D{sub 10}) and Conformity index (CI, V{sub 95}/TV) of Clinical Target Volume (CTV) using Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH) and V{sub 20},V{sub 30} of normal brain tissues. we assessed the efficiency of production process by measuring total time taken to produce. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used to verify the accuracy. Density variation value of Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material turned out to be 0.952{+-}0.13 g/cm{sup 3}, 0.842{+-}0.17 g/cm{sup 3}, 0.908{+-}0.24 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. The DHI and CI of each helmet bolus device which used Bolx-II, paraffin wax, solid thermoplastic material were 0.89, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.86, 0.78, 0.74, respectively. The result of Bolx-II was the best. V{sub 20} and V{sub 30} of brain tissues were 11.50%, 10.80%, 10.07% and 7.62%, 7.40%, 7.31%, respectively. It took 30, 120, 90 minutes to produce. The measured TLD results were within {+-}7% of the planned values. The application of helmet bolus which used Bolx-II during total scalp irradiation not only improves homogeneity and conformity of Clinical Target Volume but also takes short time and the production method is simple. Thus, the helmet bolus which used Bolx-II is considered to be useful for the clinical trials.

  3. Intravenous fluid use in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givan, Gordon V; Diehl, Jason J

    2012-07-01

    Time allowing, euhydration can be achieved in the vast majority of individuals by drinking and eating normal beverages and meals. Important to the competitive athlete is prevention and treatment of dehydration and exercise-associated muscle cramps, as they are linked to a decline in athletic performance. Intravenous (IV) prehydration and rehydration has been proposed as an ergogenic aid to achieve euhydration more effectively and efficiently. PubMed database was searched in November 2011 for all English-language articles related to IV utilization in sport using the keywords intravenous, fluid requirements, rehydration, hydration, athlete, sport, exercise, volume expansion, and performance. Limited evidence exists for prehydration with IV fluids. Although anecdotal evidence does exist, at this time there are no high-level studies confirming that IV prehydration prevents dehydration or the onset of exercise-associated muscle cramps. Currently, there are no published studies describing IV fluid use during the course of an event, at intermission, or after the event as an ergogenic aid. The use of IV fluid may be beneficial for a subset of fluid-sensitive athletes; this should be reserved for high-level athletes with strong histories of symptoms in well-monitored settings. Volume expanders may also be beneficial for some athletes. IV fluids and plasma binders are not allowed in World Anti-Doping Agency-governed competitions. Routine IV therapy cannot be recommended as best practice for the majority of athletes.

  4. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  5. Multidrug intravenous anesthesia for children undergoing MRI: a comparison with general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrab, Ahmed A; Demian, Atef D; Atallah, Mohamed M

    2007-12-01

    We used a multidrug intravenous anesthesia regimen with midazolam, ketamine, and propofol to provide anesthesia for children during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This regimen was compared with general anesthesia in a randomized comparative study. Outcome measures were safety, side effects and recovery variables in addition to adverse events in relation to age strata. The children received either general anesthesia with propofol, vecuronium and isoflurane [general endotracheal anesthesia (GET) group; n=313] or intravenous anesthesia with midazolam, ketamine, and propofol [intravenous anesthesia (MKP) group; n=342]. Treatment assignment was randomized based on the date of the MRI. Physiological parameters were monitored during anesthesia and recovery. Desaturation (SpO2<93%), airway problems, and the need to repeat the scan were recorded. The discharge criteria were stable vital signs, return to baseline consciousness, absence of any side effects, and ability to ambulate. With the exception of two children (0.6%) in the MKP group, all enrolled children completed the scan. A significantly greater number (2.3%) required a repeat scan in the MKP group (P<0.05) and were sedated with a bolus dose of propofol. The total incidence of side effects was comparable between the MKP (7.7%) and GET groups (7.0%). Infants below the age of 1 year showed a significantly higher incidence of adverse events compared with the other age strata within each group. Within the MKP group, risk ratio was 0.40 and 0.26 when comparing infants aged below 1 year with the two older age strata, respectively. Recovery characteristics were comparable between both groups. Intravenous midazolam, ketamine and propofol provides safe and adequate anesthesia, comparable with that obtained from general endotracheal anesthesia, for most children during MRI.

  6. Intravenous anaesthesia in goats: A review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. Brighton Dzikiti

    2013-01-01

    .... Inhalation anaesthetic agents cause more significant dose-dependent cardiorespiratory depression than intravenous anaesthetic drugs, creating a need to use less of the inhalation anaesthetic agents...

  7. Seizures and stupor during intravenous mannose therapy in a patient with CDG syndrome type 1b (MPI-CDG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A Sebastian; Kappler, Matthias; Bonfert, Michaela; Borggraefe, Ingo; Schoen, Carola; Reiter, Karl

    2010-12-01

    MPI-CDG (formally called CDG 1b), caused by phosphomannose isomerase (MPI) deficiency, leads to hypoglycaemia, protein losing enteropathy, hepatopathy, and thrombotic events, whereas neurologic development remains unaffected. Dietary supplementation of mannose can reverse clinical symptoms by entering the N-glycosylation pathway downstream of MPI. When oral intake of mannose in patients with MPI-CDG is not possible, e.g. due to surgery, mannose has to be given intravenously. We report a patient with MPI-CDG on intravenous mannose therapy that showed severe depression of consciousness and seizures without apparent cause. EEG and cranial MRI findings were compatible with metabolic coma whereas extended laboratory examinations including repeated blood glucose measurements were normal. Importantly, an intravenous bolus of glucose immediately led to clinical recovery and EEG improvement. Mannose did not interfere with glucose measurement in our assay. We suggest that in patients with MPI-CDG, intravenous mannose infusion can lead to intracellular ATP deprivation due to several mechanisms: (1) in MPI deficiency, mannose 6-P cannot be isomerised to fructose 6-P and therefore is unavailable for glycolysis; (2) animal data has shown that accumulating intracellular mannose 6-P inhibits glycolysis; and (3) elevated intracellular mannose 6-P may induce an ATP wasting cycle of dephosphorylation and rephosphorylation ("honey bee effect"). The mannose-induced metabolic inhibition may be overcome by high-dose glucose treatment. We caution that, in patients with MPI-CDG, life-threatening central nervous system disturbances may occur with intravenous mannose treatment. These may be due to intracellular energy failure. Clinical symptoms of energy deficiency should be treated early and aggressively with intravenous glucose regardless of blood glucose levels.

  8. Optimum bolus wizard settings in insulin pumps in children with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A J B; Ostenfeld, A; Pipper, C B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate current insulin pump settings in an optimally regulated paediatric population using bolus wizard. METHODS: We used a retrospective study design to analyse data from 124 children on insulin pump therapy who had optimum HbA1c levels [.... Furthermore, duration of insulin pump treatment was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity factor and percentage bolus/basal was significantly associated with insulin to carbohydrate factor. Gender, diabetes duration and BMI were not associated with any of the calculation factors. CONCLUSION......: Optimum insulin pump settings at pump initiation depend on both insulin requirements and use of the pump. Settings need to be individualized because the standardized calculation factors are not constant for children. There is a need to develop specific age- and insulin dose-dependent calculation factors....

  9. Adductor Canal Block With Continuous Infusion Versus Intermittent Boluses and Morphine Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Baggesgaard, Jonas; Sørensen, Johan K

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on the assumption that relatively large volumes of local anesthetic optimize an adductor canal block (ACB), we theorized that an ACB administered as repeated boluses would improve analgesia without compromising mobility, compared with a continuous infusion. METHODS: We performed...... was total (postoperative day [POD], 0-2) opioid consumption (mg), administered as patient-controlled analgesia. Pain, ambulation, and quadriceps muscle strength were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: We randomized 110 patients, of whom 107 were analyzed. Total opioid consumption (POD, 0-2) was a median (range...... a randomized, blinded, controlled study, including patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty with spinal anesthesia. Patients received 0.2% ropivacaine via a catheter in the adductor canal administered as either repeated intermittent boluses (21 mL/3 h) or continuous infusion (7 mL/h). The primary outcome...

  10. Biologia de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) em Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    EA. Silva; PR, Reis; TMB. Carvalho; BF. Altoé

    2009-01-01

    Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook,) is an ornamental Asteraceae of great commercial value, and pests can affect adversely its cultivation. More than 20 species of arthropods cause economic damage on gerbera, among them the two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), considered a key pest for this and other ornamental plants. In this work, some life-cycle aspects of T. urticae on gerbera, considered important for the knowledge of its population dynamics and...

  11. Absorption, elimination and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of nimodipine in healthy beagle dogs receiving human intravenous and oral formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2016-06-01

    Nimodipine is an L-type calcium channel blocker and is used to treat vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its putative mechanism of action is relaxation of smooth muscle cells in cerebral arteries. In addition, nimodipine may have pleiotropic effects against vasospasm. Systemic hypotension is an adverse effect when patients are treated with oral or intravenous nimodipine. Intracranial administration of nimodipine formulations may produce higher concentration of nimodipine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than is possible to achieve orally or intravenously, while resulting in lower incidence of systemic hypotension. The aim of this study was to provide information on plasma and CSF levels of nimodipine in beagle dogs as a comparative data for development of experimental intracranial treatment modalities. Plasma levels of nimodipine were measured after current 30 and 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine (Nimotop(®) 30 mg tablets), a single intravenous bolus 0.72 mg/dog of nimodipine (Nimotop(®) 0.2 mg/ml infusion solution) and CSF levels after 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine. CSF/Plasma concentration ratio of nimodipine after oral administration of 60 mg at 1 h was 0.013 ± 0.0005. The mean terminal elimination half-life of nimodipine after i.v. bolus dose 0.72 mg was 1.8 h and mean plasma clearance was 40.3 and 3.4 l/h/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 22 %. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time of administration until the last measurable plasma concentration increased in a dose-proportional manner comparing the exposure parameters at oral doses of 30 and 60 mg. Individual variation in the kinetic profile of nimodipine was measured.

  12. Toxicokinetics of cotyledoside following intravenous administration to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotyledoside, a bufadienolide cardiac glycoside, was administered intravenously to sheep in 2 studies. In experiment 1, sheep (n = 4 received 0.0135 mg / kg daily on 5 consecutive days and in the 2nd experiment, sheep (n = 4 received 0.027 mg / kg as a single dose. Jugular blood was collected at different time intervals and kinetic parameters were determined. The data fitted a 1-compartmental model. In both experiments a short half-life (t1/2 and mean residence time (MRT, a relative small volume of distribution (Vdss and rapid clearance were calculated. In the 1st experiment, t1/2 and MRT increased significantly (P < 0.007 from Day (D 0 to D 4. It is suggested that the rapid decline in plasma cotyledoside concentrations in sheep denotes rapid distribution of cotyledoside to the tissues or extracellular spaces and possible accumulation at the biophase.

  13. [Intravenous immunoglobulin in postpolio syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbu, Elisabeth; Rekand, Tiina; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Strøm, Vegard; Opheim, Arve; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik; Aarli, Johan A

    2004-09-23

    Postpolio syndrome is characterised by new muscular weakness, pain, and fatigue several decades after the acute polio, and affects approximately 1/4 of patients with previous paralytic polio. A 47-year-old woman with a previous history of acute poliomyelitis developed progressive muscular weakness in her left arm and right leg with muscular pain and fatigue. Clinical examination, MRI, and electromyography gave no other explanation to her progressive muscular weakness and fatigue than postpolio syndrome. She was treated with 400 mg/kg immunoglobulin intravenously for five consecutive days. At follow-up two and three months later, she had a considerable increase in isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension and flexion on the right side, and experienced less fatigue. This case suggests that stabilisation of an autoimmune dysfunction may be a therapeutic option in postpolio syndrome.

  14. Cerebral arterial bolus arrival time is prolonged in multiple sclerosis and associated with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paling, David; Thade Petersen, Esben; Tozer, Daniel J; Altmann, Daniel R; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Kapoor, Raju; Miller, David H; Golay, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the overall cerebral hemodynamics have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, their cause and significance is unknown. While potential venous causes have been examined, arterial causes have not. In this study, a multiple delay time arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging sequence at 3T was used to quantify the arterial hemodynamic parameter bolus arrival time (BAT) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and deep gray matter in 33 controls and 35 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Bolus arrival time was prolonged in MS in NAWM (1.0±0.2 versus 0.9±0.2 seconds, P=0.031) and deep gray matter (0.90±0.18 versus 0.80±0.14 seconds, P=0.001) and CBF was increased in NAWM (14±4 versus 10±2 mL/100 g/min, P=0.001). Prolonged BAT in NAWM (P=0.042) and deep gray matter (P=0.01) were associated with higher expanded disability status score. This study demonstrates alteration in cerebral arterial hemodynamics in MS. One possible cause may be widespread inflammation. Bolus arrival time was longer in patients with greater disability independent of atrophy and T2 lesion load, suggesting alterations in cerebral arterial hemodynamics may be a marker of clinically relevant pathology.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, after one bolus oral administration in buffaloes calves: Preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo breeding system has a great economic importance in South-America, principally in marginal or sub-tropical lands. The therapeutic recommendations applied to a single ruminant species are extrapolated to others but important differences among those were recognized. Marbofloxacin bolus is indicated in the treatment of neonatal gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli, in calves (25-50kg. The aim of this study was determined the pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin after oral administration, as bolus, following the label approved recommendations to cattle. One bolus (50 mg was administered in two clinically healthy buffaloes (two days-old, 48-50kg. Plasma concentrations of the marbofloxacin were determined by a HPLC/u.v. method. After oral administration, the values obtained were: tmax=0.5-6h, Cmax= 1.19-0.04μg/mL, AUCt=1.57-0.38μg·h/mL and MRTt= 3.34-6.92h, for calves 1 and 2 respectively. Fluoroquinolones act by concentration dependant killing mechanism, so high plasma concentration initially is important. For this reason, the recommended dose of 1mg/kg is inadequate in buffaloes.

  16. Videoendoscopic measurement of food bolus formation for quantitative evaluation of masticatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Risako; Furuya, Junichi; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2011-07-01

    In the field of prosthodontics, many methods for evaluating the masticatory function involve ejection of the food bolus from the mouth. In addition, these methods could not evaluate mastication and swallowing function comprehensively. The present study aimed to quantitatively evaluate masticatory functions during a series of masticatory and swallowing movements by using videoendoscopy. Subjects are ten healthy dentulous adults without dysphagia. The test foods used were 2-colored (green and white) molded rice and uirou (rice cake). The test foods were consumed under the restriction on the number of mastication (10, 15, 20, and 30), and under the instruction to "chew normally" or "chew well". The masticatory function was evaluated by observing the food bolus in the oropharynx with a videoendoscope. The bolus formation index (BFI), in terms of the degree of mixing of the green and white parts, was quantitatively determined using an image measurement software. The BFI of the rice and uirou increased significantly with increase in the number of mastication times (pmasticatory function during a series of masticatory and swallowing movements. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Custom bolus of hydrogel: dosimetric characterization, clinical use and placement uncertainties; Bolus de compensación personalizado de hidrogel: Caracterización radiológica, uso clínico e incertidumbre de colocación

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-García, H.; Antón, D.; Miguel, D.; Ángel del Castillo, D.; Alonso, D.; De Frutos, J.; Pérez, C.

    2017-11-01

    When using electron beams over irregular surfaces it shows remarkable dose heterogeneity in target tissue, the use of a hydrogel bolus by Varihesive® ConvaTec as a custom bolus is proposed to compensate this effect. Radiological characterization is carried out comparing hydrogel with water by a CT study and by measuring percentage depth dose for electron beams. The dosimetric impact due to the uncertainty of bolus placement is quantitatively evaluated and it is concluded that the use of hydrogel is an acceptable solution as compensation bolus with radiological properties similar to water. [Spanish] La incidencia de un campo de electrones en una superficie irregular produce distribuciones heterogéneas de dosis. En este trabajo se propone el uso de un bolus personalizado de hidrogel Varihesive® de ConvaTec para compensar dichas irregularidades. El hidrogel se caracteriza radiológicamente comparándolo con agua mediante una adquisición TC y se obtiene el porcentaje de dosis en profundidad para campos de electrones. Se evalúa cuantitativamente el impacto dosimétrico debido a la incertidumbre de colocación y se concluye que el uso de hidrogel resulta una solución aceptable como bolus de compensación con propiedades radiológicas similares al agua.

  18. Electrical characterization of bolus material as phantom for use in electrical impedance and computed tomography fusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvind Kaur Grewal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are widely used in medical imaging to predict image quality prior to clinical imaging. This paper discusses the possible use of bolus material, as a conductivity phantom, for validation and interpretation of electrical impedance tomography (EIT images. Bolus is commonly used in radiation therapy to mimic tissue. When irradiated, it has radiological characteristics similar to tissue. With increased research interest in CT/EIT fusion imaging there is a need to find a material which has both the absorption coefficient and electrical conductivity similar to biological tissues. In the present study the electrical properties, specifically resistivity, of various commercially available bolus materials were characterized by comparing their frequency response with that of in-vivo connective adipose tissue. It was determined that the resistivity of Gelatin Bolus is similar to in-vivo tissue in the frequency range 10 kHz to 1MHz and therefore has potential to be used in EIT/CT fusion imaging studies.

  19. Development of a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for the quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfakih Khaled

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual-bolus protocol enables accurate quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF by first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. However, despite the advantages and increasing demand for the dual-bolus method for accurate quantification of MBF, thus far, it has not been widely used in the field of quantitative perfusion CMR. The main reasons for this are that the setup for the dual-bolus method is complex and requires a state-of-the-art injector and there is also a lack of post processing software. As a solution to one of these problems, we have devised a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for use in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to show the setup and feasibility of the universal dual-bolus injection scheme. Methods The universal dual-bolus injection scheme was tested using multiple combinations of different contrast agents, contrast agent dose, power injectors, perfusion sequences, and CMR scanners. This included 3 different contrast agents (Gd-DO3A-butrol, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, 4 different doses (0.025 mmol/kg, 0.05 mmol/kg, 0.075 mmol/kg and 0.1 mmol/kg, 2 different types of injectors (with and without "pause" function, 5 different sequences (turbo field echo (TFE, balanced TFE, k-space and time (k-t accelerated TFE, k-t accelerated balanced TFE, turbo fast low-angle shot and 3 different CMR scanners from 2 different manufacturers. The relation between the time width of dilute contrast agent bolus curve and cardiac output was obtained to determine the optimal predefined pause duration between dilute and neat contrast agent injection. Results 161 dual-bolus perfusion scans were performed. Three non-injector-related technical errors were observed (1.9%. No injector-related errors were observed. The dual-bolus scheme worked well in all the combinations of parameters if the optimal predefined pause was used. Linear regression analysis showed that the optimal duration for the predefined

  20. Intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis in neonates on artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of the prophylactic use of intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 21 pairs of ventilated neonates weighing more than 1 500 g, Each infant received 0.4 g/kglday of intravenous Ig or a similar volume of placebo daily for 5 days. Criteria used to assess the ...

  1. Comparison of serum bisphenol A concentrations in mice exposed to bisphenol A through the diet versus oral bolus exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieli, Paizlee T; Jašarevic, Eldin; Warzak, Denise A; Mao, Jiude; Ellersieck, Mark R; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Collet, Séverine H; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2011-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced endocrine-disrupting chemical. Diet is a primary route of exposure, but internal exposure (serum concentrations) in animals and humans has been measured only after single oral bolus administration. We compared serum concentrations of BPA over a 24-hr period after oral bolus administration or ad libitum feeding in mice and assessed for buildup with dietary exposure. Adult female mice were administered [dimethyl-d6]-BPA (BPA-d6) as a single oral bolus (20 mg/kg body weight) or fed a diet containing 100 mg BPA-d6/kg feed weight ad libitum for 1 week. Serum concentrations were analyzed using isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and compared between exposure groups over the first 23 hr and after 7 days of dietary exposure. Maximum concentration (Cmax) for BPA-d6 during the first 24 hr was reached at 1 hr and 6 hr for oral bolus and diet groups, respectively. Relative BPA-d6 bioavailability (unconjugated BPA-d6) was higher in diet-exposed mice than in the bolus group despite a relative lower absorption, a phenomenon consistent with an inhibitory effect of food on first-pass hepatic metabolism. In mice with ongoing dietary exposure, unconjugated BPA-d6 was higher on day 7 than on day 1. This is the first report of serum BPA concentrations in an animal model exposed to this chemical via the diet. Although bolus administration of BPA-d6 led to peak concentrations within 1 hr, Cmax for diet-exposed mice was delayed for several hours. However, bolus administration underestimates bioavailable serum BPA concentrations in animals-and presumably humans-than would result from dietary exposure. Exposure via diet is a more natural continuous exposure route than oral bolus exposure and is thus a better predictor of BPA concentrations in chronically exposed animals and humans.

  2. Comparison of Serum Bisphenol A Concentrations in Mice Exposed to Bisphenol A through the Diet versus Oral Bolus Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced endocrine-disrupting chemical. Diet is a primary route of exposure, but internal exposure (serum concentrations) in animals and humans has been measured only after single oral bolus administration. Objective: We compared serum concentrations of BPA over a 24-hr period after oral bolus administration or ad libitum feeding in mice and assessed for buildup with dietary exposure. Methods: Adult female mice were administered [dimethyl-d 6]-BPA (BP...

  3. Effects of different strategies of mineral supplementation (marine algae alone or combined with rumen boluses) in organic dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Orjales, I; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, R; Miranda, M

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of marine algae supplementation alone or in combination with a regular mineral supplement (rumen boluses) to improve the mineral status in organic dairy cattle and their effect on the milk mineral composition, milk production, composition (% of fat and protein) and quality (SCC). Thirty-two Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the algae (A), boluses (B), algae+boluses (AB) and control group (C). For the algae groups (A, AB), a supplement composed of Sea Lettuce (80%), Japanese Wireweed (17.5%) and Furbelows (2.5%) was formulated to be given to the cows at the rate of 100 g/animal per day (A1) for the length of 4 weeks. In the second half of the experiment (weeks 5-8), the algae mixture was reformulated and the proportion of Furbelows was increased from 2.5% to 5.0% with a subsequent decrease of Lettuce to 77.5% (A2). In the boluses group (B), each cow received 2 boluses after calving. Blood (serum) and milk samples were collected at 2 and 4 week intervals, respectively, and analysed for trace element concentrations by ICP-MS. Information related to the milk composition and SCC during a 305-day lactation for each animal were obtained from the Dairy Records Management System. The supplementation with algae, boluses or the combination of both treatments showed a statistically significant effect on the iodine (algae), selenium (boluses) and cobalt (algae+boluses) status of the animals. In milk, treatments had a statistical significant increase on iodine, and a tendency to increase selenium concentrations. The assayed algae mixture combined with another source of selenium could be an effective tool to improve the mineral status in serum and milk. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Viscera and Muscle Protein Synthesis in Neonatal Pigs Is Increased More by Intermittent Bolus than Continuous Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kadi, Samer W.; Gazzaneo, María C.; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A.; Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; Srivastava, Neeraj; Kimball, Scot R.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Fiorotto, Marta L.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Continuous and intermittent bolus orogastric feedings are strategies used in infants unable to tolerate normal feeds. METHODS To determine the effects of feeding modality on protein synthesis in different tissues, neonatal pigs received a balanced formula by orogastric tube either as an intermittent bolus feed every 4 h or as a continuous infusion, or were fasted overnight. RESULTS Compared to fasting, protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, masseter, and soleus muscles, left ventricle, liver, pancreas, jejunum, and kidney increased in bolus and continuously fed pigs, but the greatest increase occurred after a bolus meal. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC2), the proline-rich AKT substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40), eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E binding protein (4EBP1) and rp S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation in all tissues and the proportion of ribosomal protein S4 in liver polysomes were enhanced 90 minutes following the bolus meal, but not immediately before the meal or during continuous feeding. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and eIF2α phosphorylation were unaffected by feeding. CONCLUSION These results suggest that intermittent bolus feeding increases protein synthesis in muscles of different fiber types and visceral tissues to a greater extent than continuous feeding by stimulating translation initiation. PMID:23736770

  5. Viscera and muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than by continuous feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kadi, Samer W; Gazzaneo, María C; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A; Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; Srivastava, Neeraj; Kimball, Scot R; Nguyen, Hanh V; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2013-08-01

    Continuous and intermittent bolus orogastric feedings are strategies used in infants unable to tolerate normal feeds. To determine the effects of feeding modality on protein synthesis in different tissues, neonatal pigs received a balanced formula by orogastric tube as an intermittent bolus feed every 4 h or as a continuous infusion, or were fasted overnight. As compared with fasting, protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, masseter, and soleus muscles; left ventricle; liver; pancreas; jejunum; and kidney increased in bolus- and continuously fed pigs, but the greatest increase occurred after a bolus meal. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC2), the proline-rich AKT substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40), eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E binding protein (4EBP1), and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation in all tissues, and the proportion of ribosomal protein S4 in liver polysomes were enhanced 90 min following the bolus meal but not immediately before the meal or during continuous feeding. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and eIF2α phosphorylation were unaffected by feeding. These results suggest that intermittent bolus feeding increases protein synthesis in muscles of different fiber types and visceral tissues to a greater extent than continuous feeding by stimulating translation initiation.

  6. Effect of carbohydrate counting using bolus calculators on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Eijiro; Okada, Shuichi; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Bastie, Claire C; Tagaya, Yuko; Osaki, Aya; Shimoda, Yoko; Shibusawa, Ryo; Saito, Tsugumichi; Ozawa, Atsushi; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the long-term efficacy of insulin pump therapy for type 1 diabetes patients when carried out using carbohydrate counting with bolus calculators for 1 year. A total of 22 type 1 diabetes patients who had just started continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were examined and divided into two groups: one that was educated about carbohydrate counting using bolus calculators (n = 14); and another that did not use bolus calculators (n = 8). After 1 year, the hemoglobin A1c levels of the patient group that used bolus calculators decreased persistently and significantly (P = 0.0297), whereas those of the other group did not. The bodyweight, total daily dose of insulin and bolus percentage of both groups did not change. Carbohydrate counting using bolus calculators is necessary to achieve optimal and persistent glycemic control in patients undergoing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. The effect of dobutamine and bolus crystalloid fluids on the cardiovascular function of isoflurane-anaesthetised horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, C M; Raisis, A L; Hosgood, G; Secombe, C J; Lester, G D

    2017-05-01

    Cardiac output does not always increase with dobutamine administration in anaesthetised horses and information on peripheral perfusion is lacking. To determine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) dobutamine infusion with and without a concurrent 20 mL/kg bodyweight (bwt) bolus of crystalloid fluids on the cardiovascular function of acepromazine premedicated, hypotensive, isoflurane-anaesthetised horses. Randomised, cross-over experiment. A total of 6 horses aged 5-13 years, weighing 464-578 kg were premedicated with acepromazine 0.02 mg/kg bwt and then sedated with xylazine 0.8 mg/kg bwt i.v. Anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 2.2 mg/kg bwt and diazepam 0.08 mg/kg bwt i.v. and maintained with isoflurane, adjusted to achieve a target mean arterial pressure (MAP) (60 mmHg ± 5%) 60 min post-induction of anaesthesia (T0). One of 2 treatments was then given. In treatment D, dobutamine was initially infused at 0.5 μg/kg bwt/min and adjusted to achieve a target MAP (80 mmHg ± 5%) within 30 min of infusion initiation. In treatment D+F dobutamine was administered as described for treatment D, with 20 mL/kg bwt Hartmann's solution infused i.v. over 20 min. Cardiac index (CI), haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), arterial oxygen content (CaO2 ), oxygen delivery index (DO2 I) and bilateral femoral arterial blood flow (FBF) were recorded at T0, 30 min following dobutamine initiation (T1) and 15 min following dobutamine cessation (T2). Data were analysed using a mixed-effect linear model (P<0.05 considered significant). A significant increase in DO2 I (P = 0.008, T0/T1), CaO2 (P = 0.0002, T0/T1) and [Hb] (P<0.0001, T0/T1) and in CaO2 (P = 0.0005, T1/T2) and [Hb] (P = 0.002,T1/T2) occurred during treatment D. A significant increase in FBF (P = 0.005, upper limb; P = 0.042 lower limb, T0/T1) occurred during treatment D+F. Significant differences between treatments were recorded at T1 ([Hb] P = 0.0001, CaO2 P = 0.0003) and T2 ([Hb] P = 0.013). There was no change in CI during

  8. Intravenous artesunate for severe malaria in travelers, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoller, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe...... malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self...... of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure....

  9. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Froehle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  10. Clinical and biochemical features of some intravenous iron complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Abashin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most anemia cases associated with iron deficiency. There are various therapeutic approaches to compensate iron deficiency. In some cases,a rapid restore of body iron is required, which is only possible with intravenous administration. Now a number of intravenous iron preparations are available, and each of them has not only advantages. Considering the drugs side effects, there was a need for drugs with high efficiency, low immunogenicity, and minimal toxicity. One of the decisions was to create preparations based on maltose and isomaltose. Such new intravenous iron preparations are ferric carboxymaltose and iron isomaltoside. Currently, there are no available clinical data that isomaltose and maltose preparations differ significantly with respect to adverse reactions associated with their immunogenicity. Based on study results isomaltose preparations in patients with dextran sensibilization should be used with caution. This is not completely exclude the possibility that both of these drugs can be an immune response trigger with a different specificity than the one on dextran develops. Preparations based on maltose, sucrose and gluconate were neutral in immunoprecipitation assay with dextran-reactive antibodies that determines their preference for patients with dextran sensibilisation. Other important properties of ferric carboxymaltose are: convenience of application and lack of oxidative stress that are determined by the slow iron release.

  11. Flow rates through intravenous access devices: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoyratty, Saleem I; Gajendragadkar, Pushpaj R; Polisetty, Kiran; Ward, Sue; Skinner, Tim; Gajendragadkar, Parag R

    2016-06-01

    Fluid administration using intravenous (IV) access devices is required in many settings. There are a lack of quantitative data comparing traditional cannulas and modern access devices. We aimed to investigate flow rates through modern intravenous access devices using an in vitro system. This is an experimental study. Rates of flow of intravenous fluids (crystalloid and colloid) were measured through various access devices using a uroflowmeter. Standardized conditions and repeat measurements ensured validity. Fluid was administered with or without the addition of a pressure bag and needle-free valve. Increasing the size of cannulas improved flow. Fourteen-gauge cannulas had significantly higher mean flow rates compared to 14G central venous lines in all conditions (136% higher with no pressure bag/valve; 95% CI, +130% to +152%; P Flow rates in IV devices can be maximized by pressure bag use and removal of needle-free valves. The rapid infusion catheter and emergency infusion catheter allow some increase in flow over a 14G cannula. Familiarity with varying flow rates across IV access devices could better inform clinical decisions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and intramuscular administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in conscious rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Four healthy, opioid-naïve, socially-housed, adult male macaques were used. Buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 24 h, post-administration. Serum buprenorphine concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with commercially available software. Mean residence time in the IV study as compared to the IM study was 177 (159–189) minutes vs. 185 (174–214) minutes, respectively [median (range)]. In the IV study, concentration back extrapolated to time zero was found to be 33.0 (16.8–57.0) ng/mL [median (range)]. On the other hand, the maximum serum concentration found in the IM study was 11.8 (6.30–14.8) ng/mL [median (range)]. Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than 0.10 ng/mL for over 24 h in the IV study and over 12 h in the IM study. Bioavailability was found to be 68.1 (59.3–71.2)% [median (range)]. No significant adverse effects were observed in the monkeys at the 0.03 mg/kg dose of buprenorphine during either study. PMID:24666428

  13. Influence of intravenous anesthetics on neuromonitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pi-Ying; Wu, Che-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Ya; Chen, Hui-Chun; Cheng, Kuang-I; Lu, I-Cheng; Chiang, Feng-Yu

    2014-10-01

    Limited reports are available in the literature on the impact of intravenous administration of anesthetics on laryngeal electromyographic (EMG) activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the two commonly used intravenous anesthetics (propofol and thiamylal) on EMG amplitude evoked from the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid surgery. A total of 40 patients were randomized to receive a bolus of propofol (0.5 mg/kg; n = 20) or thiamylal (1.5 mg/kg; n = 20) to increase anesthetic depth when the surgeon found patient movement intraoperatively. Evoked potentials were obtained before and every 1 minute after the administration of each agent for up to 5 minutes by stimulating the RLN. The magnitude of evoked potentials at each time point and hemodynamic response were compared within groups. The mean amplitude of evoked potentials did not change significantly after administration of either propofol or thiamylal (p > 0.05 within groups). Mean arterial pressure measured from 1 minute to 5 minutes was significantly lower in the propofol group than in the thiamylal group (p EMG readings during neuromonitoring of the RLN in thyroid surgery. Our results show that thiamylal provides better hemodynamic stability than propofol, and is therefore a preferable agent to increase anesthesia depth and prevent further patient movement during intraoperative neuromonitoring. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. Intravenous flat-detector CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Babic, Drazenko [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Obadia, Michael [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Neurology, Paris (France); Alamowitch, Sonia [APHP Hopital Tenon, Universite Paris VI, Department of Neurology, Paris (France)

    2012-04-15

    In the settings of stroke, a non-invasive high-resolution imaging modality to visualize the arterial intracranial circulation in the interventional lab is a helpful mean to plan the endovascular recanalization procedure. We report our initial experience with intravenously enhanced flat-detector CT (IV FDCT) technology in the detection of obstructed intracranial arteries. Fourteen consecutive patients elected for endovascular stroke therapy underwent IV FDCT. The scans were intravenously enhanced and acquired in accordance with the previously calculated bolus arrival time. Images were processed on a commercially available workstation for reconstructions and 3D manipulation. Occlusion level and clot length, the quality of collateral vessels, and the patency of anterior and posterior communicating arteries were assessed. IV FDCT was performed successfully in all the cases and allowed for clot location and length visualization, assessment of communicating arteries patency, and evaluation of vessel collateral grade. Information obtained from this technique was considered useful for patients treated by endovascular approach. Retrospective review of the images by two independent readers was considered accurate and reproducible. IV FDCT technology provided accurate delineation of obstructed vessel segments in acute ischemic stroke disease. It gave a significant help in the interventional strategy. This new technology available in the operating room might provide a valuable tool in emerging endovascular stroke therapy. (orig.)

  15. Intravenous flat-detector CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Raphaël; Pistocchi, Silvia; Babic, Drazenko; Bartolini, Bruno; Obadia, Michaël; Alamowitch, Sonia; Piotin, Michel

    2012-04-01

    In the settings of stroke, a non-invasive high-resolution imaging modality to visualize the arterial intracranial circulation in the interventional lab is a helpful mean to plan the endovascular recanalization procedure. We report our initial experience with intravenously enhanced flat-detector CT (IV FDCT) technology in the detection of obstructed intracranial arteries. Fourteen consecutive patients elected for endovascular stroke therapy underwent IV FDCT. The scans were intravenously enhanced and acquired in accordance with the previously calculated bolus arrival time. Images were processed on a commercially available workstation for reconstructions and 3D manipulation. Occlusion level and clot length, the quality of collateral vessels, and the patency of anterior and posterior communicating arteries were assessed. IV FDCT was performed successfully in all the cases and allowed for clot location and length visualization, assessment of communicating arteries patency, and evaluation of vessel collateral grade. Information obtained from this technique was considered useful for patients treated by endovascular approach. Retrospective review of the images by two independent readers was considered accurate and reproducible. IV FDCT technology provided accurate delineation of obstructed vessel segments in acute ischemic stroke disease. It gave a significant help in the interventional strategy. This new technology available in the operating room might provide a valuable tool in emerging endovascular stroke therapy.

  16. [Perioperative management with short-acting intravenous anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, T

    2000-01-01

    Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with short-acting drugs is a standard procedure for day case surgery and is increasingly used for neurosurgical, cardiac surgical and paediatric surgical operations. The combination of propofol with alfentanil or remifentanil is frequently applied due to its favourable pharmacological properties. Propofol is characterized by a large volume of distribution at steady state and a relatively long elimination half time (t1/2 beta). Because of a high metabolic clearance, the clinical effects of propofol decline rapidly even after prolonged intravenous drug infusion. In patients with increased age, obesity or liver or renal failure, decreased doses of propofol for induction of anaesthesia are recommended. The short-acting opioids alfentanil and remifentanil provide small volumes of distribution at steady state, a short blood-brain equilibration time and decreased t1/2 beta. Remifentanil has unique pharmacological properties due to an ester binding and its elimination via extrahepatic hydrolysis by non-specific blood and tissue esterases. The context sensitive half time of remifentanil is significantly shorter than that of other opioids. Its analgetic potency is equal to fentanyl and 20 to 30 times higher than alfentanil. The advantages of total intravenous anaesthesia include fewer haemodynamic side-effects, a decreased incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and less neurohumoral stress response to surgery. Adequate pain therapy is mandatory after total intravenous anaesthesia with short-acting drugs. Continuous infusion of remifentanil for postoperative analgesia or supplementation of regional anaesthesia requires careful monitoring of vital functions. The economic aspects of TIVA remain to be determined.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Repeated-Dose Intravenous Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    aan het Rot, Marije; Collins, Katherine A.; Murrough, James W.; Perez, Andrew M.; Reich, David L.; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathew, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A single subanesthetic (intravenous) IV dose of ketamine might have rapid but transient antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Here we tested the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of repeated-dose open-label IV ketamine (six infusions over 12 days)

  18. Normal neurologic and developmental outcome after an accidental intravenous infusion of expressed breast milk in a neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2012-02-03

    Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after a query on an e-mail discussion group for health care providers in neonatology (NICU-net), we were informed of 8 similar events that proved fatal in 3 infants. A root-cause analysis revealed that accidental intravenous administration of breast milk or formula can be avoided by the use of color-coded enteral-administration sets with Luer connections that are not compatible with intravenous cannulas. The addition of methylene blue to feeds, or bolus enteral feeds (instead of continuous gastric feedings), may also help prevent such errors. These cases show the value of gathering information about rare but important events through a neonatal network. In addition, they confirm that prevention of medical error should focus on faulty systems rather than faulty people.

  19. Failure of intravenous lipid emulsion in treatment of cardiotoxicity caused by mixed overdose including dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers are among the most frequently ingested cardiovascular drugs in self-poisoning causing significant mortality. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE is reported as a potentially novel antidote for treatment of acute poisoning caused by some of these drugs. Case report. We presented two cases of poisoning with these drugs. The case 1, a 24-year-old woman ingested amplodipine, metformin and gliclazide for self-poisoning. She presented with tachycardia and hypotension. Laboratory analyses revealed hyperglycaemia and metabolic acidosis. Despite the treatment which included fluid resuscitation, vasopressors, intravenous calcium, glucagon and ILE, circulatory shock occurred. The patient died 10 hours after admission due to cardiac arrest refractory to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The case 2, a 41-year old man, was found in a coma with empty packages of nifedipine, metoprolol and diazepam tablets. On admission vital signs included Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 3, weak palpable pulses, undetectable blood pressure, and irregular breathing with oxygen saturation of 60%. An electrocardiography showed AV block (Mobitz II with ventricular rate of 44/min with progression to third degree of AV block. In attempt to increase heart rate and blood pressure the following agents were administered: atropine boluses, normal saline with dopamine, glucagon, calcium chloride and ILE. Temporary transvenous pacemaker was placed, electrical capture was recorded, but without improvement in haemodynamics. Three hours after admission cardiac arrest happened and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was unsuccessful. Conclusion. Intravenous lipid emulsion may be ineffective in acute poisonings with amlodipine, nifedipine or metoprolol.

  20. Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth [Departments of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Department of Neurological Sciences, Walton Medical Centre, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L97 LJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.schultke@usask.ca; Fiedler, Stefan [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Nottkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Nemoz, Christian [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Ogieglo, Lissa [Departments of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Kelly, Michael E. [Departments of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Department of Neurosurgery, Section of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH (United States); Crawford, Paul [Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herfordshire AL9 7TA (United Kingdom); Esteve, Francois [INSERM U836-ESRF, 6 rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Brochard, Thierry; Renier, Michel; Requardt, Herwig; Le Duc, Geraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Juurlink, Bernhard [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Meguro, Kotoo [Departments of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Background: K-edge digital subtraction angiography (KEDSA) combined with the tunability of synchrotron beam yields an imaging technique that is highly sensitive to low concentrations of contrast agents. Thus, contrast agent can be administered intravenously, obviating the need for insertion of a guided catheter to deliver a bolus of contrast agent close to the target tissue. With the high-resolution detectors used at synchrotron facilities, images can be acquired at high spatial resolution. Thus, the KEDSA appears particularly suited for studies of neurovascular pathology in animal models, where the vascular diameters are significantly smaller than in human patients. Materials and methods: This feasibility study was designed to test the suitability of KEDSA after intravenous injection of iodine-based contrast agent for use in a pig model. Four adult male pigs were used for our experiments. Neurovascular angiographic images were acquired using KEDSA with a solid state Germanium (Ge) detector at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Results: After intravenous injection of 0.9 ml/kg iodinated contrast agent (Xenetix), the peak iodine concentrations in the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries reached 35 mg/ml. KEDSA images in radiography mode allowed the visualization of intracranial arteries of less than 1.5 mm diameter.

  1. Cardiac T1 mapping in congenital heart disease: bolus vs. infusion protocols for measurements of myocardial extracellular volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wakeel-Marquard, Nadya; Rastin, Sanaz; Muench, Frédéric; O H-Ici, Darach; Yilmaz, Sevim; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Messroghli, Daniel R

    2017-12-01

    Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) reflecting diffuse myocardial fibrosis can be measured with T1 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) before and after the application of a gadolinium-based extracellular contrast agent. The equilibrium between blood and myocardium contrast concentration required for ECV measurements can be obtained with a primed contrast infusion (equilibrium contrast-CMR). We hypothesized that equilibrium can also be achieved with a single contrast bolus to accurately measure diffuse myocardial fibrosis in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Healthy controls (n = 17; median age 24.0 years) and patients with CHD (n = 19; 25.0 years) were prospectively enrolled. Using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 mapping before, 15 min after bolus injection, and during constant infusion of gadolinium-DOTA, T1 values were obtained for blood pool and myocardium of the left ventricle (LV), the interventricular septum (IVS), and the right ventricle (RV) in a single midventricular plane in short axis or in transverse orientation. ECV of LV, IVS and RV by bolus-only and bolus-infusion correlated significantly in CHD patients (r = 0.94, 0.95, and 0.74; p < 0.01, respectively) and healthy controls (r = 0.96, 0.89, and 0.64; p < 0.05, respectively). Bland-Altman plots revealed no significant bias between the techniques for any of the analyzed regions. ECV of LV and RV myocardium measured by bolus-only T1 mapping agrees well with bolus-infusion measurements in patients with CHD. The use of a bolus-only approach facilitates the integration of ECV measurements into existing CMR imaging protocols, allowing for assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in CHD in clinical routine.

  2. Intravenous versus oral rehydration in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosendal, Simon Piet; Osborne, Mark Andrew; Fassett, Robert Gordon; Lancashire, Bill; Coombes, Jeff Scott

    2010-04-01

    Fluid is typically administered via intravenous (IV) infusion to athletes who develop clinical symptoms of heat illness, based on the perception that dehydration is a primary factor contributing to the condition. However, other athletes also voluntarily rehydrate with IV fluid as opposed to, or in conjunction with, oral rehydration. The voluntary use of IV fluids to accelerate rehydration in dehydrated, though otherwise healthy athletes, has recently been banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. However, the technique remains appealing to many athletes. Given that it now violates the Anti-Doping Code, it is important to determine whether potential benefits of using this technique outweigh the risks involved. Several studies have shown that rehydration is more rapid with IV fluid. However, the benefits are generally transient and only small differences to markers of hydration status are seen when comparing IV and oral rehydration. Furthermore, several studies have shown improvements in cardiovascular function and thermoregulation with IV fluid, while others have indicated that oral fluid is superior. Subsequent exercise performance has not been improved to a greater extent with one technique over the other. The paucity of definitive findings is probably related to the small number of studies investigating these variables and the vast differences in the designs of studies that have been conducted. The major limitation of IV rehydration is that it bypasses oropharyngeal stimulation, which has an influence on factors such as thirst sensation, antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin) release, cutaneous vasodilation and mean arterial pressure. Further research is necessary to determine the relative benefits of oral and IV rehydration for athletes.

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetics of fluralaner in dogs and cats following single topical or intravenous administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kilp, Susanne; Ramirez, Diana; Allan, Mark J; Roepke, Rainer KA

    2016-01-01

    Background Bravecto? Chewable Tablets for Dogs, containing fluralaner as active ingredient, is an innovative treatment for flea and tick infestations that provides safe, rapid and long acting efficacy after a single oral administration in dogs. Topically applied fluralaner provides similar safe, rapid and long acting efficacy, both in dogs and in cats. The pharmacokinetic profile of fluralaner was evaluated in dogs and in cats following either topical or intravenous administration. Methods Tw...

  4. Plasma exchange successfully treats central pontine myelinolysis after acute hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Kyung Yoon; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Gi Jun; Cho, Kangwon; Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Background Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) primarily occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. There are no proven effective therapies for ODS, but we describe the first case showing the successful treatment of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) by plasma exchange, which occurred after rapid development of hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. Case presentation A 40-year-old woman presented with general weakness, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. The p...

  5. The effects of an intravenous bolus of dexmedetomidine following extubation in a mixed population of dogs undergoing general anaesthesia and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James R; Slingsby, Louisa S; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-04-01

    An observer blinded, placebo controlled study evaluated the effects of 62.5 μg/m(2) dexmedetomidine administered IV on recovery from isoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. Forty-four healthy dogs, weighing 1.8-19.95 kg, presented for surgery that was expected to cause mild to moderate pain were studied. All were premedicated with 125 μg/m(2) dexmedetomidine and 20 μg/kg buprenorphine IM. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and local anaesthetics were administered as appropriate. Immediately prior to extubation dogs were treated with dexmedetomidine 62.5 μg/m(2) (group D) or an equivalent volume of heparinised saline (S). Assessments of heart rate, respiratory rate, pain (short form Glasgow composite pain scale [SF-GCPS], dynamic interactive visual analogue scale [DIVAS]), sedation (simple descriptive scale [SDS], DIVAS) and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were performed immediately before premedication, 20 min later, at the time of test drug administration (T0) and at 15-30 min intervals for four hours (T240 min). Recovery quality was scored 0 - 3 (SDS). Data were analysed with Student's t and Mann-Whitney U tests, two-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Significantly fewer poor quality recoveries were observed in group D (D 2 [1-3]; S 2 [0-3]; P=0.02), however, sedation was increased in group D compared to group S from T15 to T150 min (P=0.0001). Pain scores were lower in group D compared to group S from T15 to T120 min (P=0.001), but the requirement for additional analgesia in the first 4h following extubation was not different between groups. Dexmedetomidine may decrease the incidence of poor quality anaesthetic recoveries in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dosimetric characteristics of brass mesh as bolus under megavoltage photon irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Neil D; Daniel, Jim M; Whitbourn, Joe R; Greenhalgh, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a set of dosimetric measurements describing the properties of brass mesh (Whiting and Davis, Attleboro Falls, MA) under megavoltage photon irradiation conditions, with particular relevance to its use in breast radiotherapy. The effectiveness of brass mesh as a bolus material was investigated using 6-, 15- and 6-MV flattening filter-free photon beams. The effect on dose build-up at the entrance surface, build-down at the beam-exit surface, dose with surface entrance obliquity, beam profiles, penumbra and percentage depth doses were investigated. One layer of the brass mesh produces a build-up effect equivalent to 1.1 mm of water at 6 MV and 1.9 mm at 15 MV. The brass generates a backscattered component of dose, if the photon beam exits through it. Percentage depth-dose curves are largely unaffected by the mesh and are shown to be equivalent to plain-field data. Beam penumbra and profiles are unchanged by the brass except within the first millimetre (mm) of phantom, where a periodic pattern of dose enhancement is seen. The data presented demonstrate that one layer of brass mesh provides a similar dose build-up effect equivalent to only a few millimetres of water. However, backscatter from the high atomic number (Z) mesh, at the beam exit, contributes appreciably to the overall dose surface enhancement. This dosimetric consequence cannot be neglected and indeed should be considered and accounted for, when determining the bolus effect of the brass mesh in the case of tangential breast irradiation. Advance in knowledge: This article provides dosimetric data necessary for the introduction of brass mesh bolus into the clinical setting for external-beam breast radiotherapy.

  7. Numerical Simulations of Effects of Multiple Neurotransmission on Intestinal Propulsion of a Non-Deformable Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miftahof

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological mechanisms of co-transmission by serotonin (5-HT and acetylcholine (ACh, co-expression of receptor types 5-HT type 3 and 4, nicotinic cholinerginc (nACh and muscarinic cholinergic (μACh, and effects of selective and non-selective 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor agonists/antagonists, on intestinal propulsion of a solid non-deformable bolus were studied numerically. Results indicated that the propagation of the wave of excitation in the presence of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists was supported by co-release of ACh. Co-stimulation of 5-HT3, nACh and μACh receptors significantly impairs propulsive activity of the gut. In an ACh-free environment, Lotronex increased the transit time of the bolus along a segment of the gut. In the presence of ACh, Lotronex produced intensive tonic-type contractions in the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers and eliminated propulsive activity. Zelnorm preserved the reciprocal electromechanical relationships between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers. The drug changed the normal mixing pattern of activity to an expulsive type. Treatment of the gut with selective 5HT4 receptor antagonists increased the transit time by disrupting the migrating myoelectrical complex. Cisapride increased the excitability of the myenteric nervous plexus and increased the frequency of slow waves. In the presence of Cisapride smooth muscle syncytia responded with the generation of tonic contractions, resulting in a “squeezing” type of bolus movement. Comparison of the theoretical results to in vivo and in vitro experimental data indicated satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement.

  8. Prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults presenting with oesophageal food bolus obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerasing, Neel; Lee, Shok Yin; Alexander, Sina; Dowling, Damian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To look at the relationship between eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) and food bolus impaction in adults. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed medical records of 100 consecutive patients who presented to our hospital with oesophageal food bolus obstruction (FBO) between 2012 and 2014. In this cohort, 96 were adults (64% male), and 4 paediatric patients were excluded from the analysis as our centre did not have paediatric gastroenterologists. Eighty-five adult patients underwent emergency gastroscopy. The food bolus was either advanced into the stomach using the push technique or retrieved using a standard retrieval net. Biopsies were obtained in 51 patients from the proximal and distal parts of the oesophagus at initial gastroscopy. All biopsy specimens were assessed and reviewed by dedicated gastrointestinal pathologists at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital Geelong. The diagnosis of EO was defined and established by the presence of the following histological features: (1) peak eosinophil counts > 20/hpf; (2) eosinophil microabscess; (3) superficial layering of eosinophils; (4) extracellular eosinophil granules; (5) basal cell hyperplasia; (6) dilated intercellular spaces; and (7) subepithelial or lamina propria fibrosis. The histology results of the biopsy specimens were accessed from the pathology database of the hospital and recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Our cohort had a median age of 60. Seventeen/51 (33%) patients had evidence of EO on biopsy findings. The majority of patients with EO were male (71%). Classical endoscopic features of oesophageal rings, furrows or white plaques and exudates were found in 59% of patients with EO. Previous episodes of FBO were present in 12/17 patients and 41% had a history of eczema, hay fever or asthma. Reflux oesophagitis and benign strictures were found in 20/34 patients who did not have biopsies. CONCLUSION: EO is present in approximately one third of patients who are admitted with FBO. Biopsies should be

  9. Influence of attention and bolus volume on brain organization during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2017-10-20

    It has been shown that swallowing involves certain attentional and cognitive resources which, when disrupted can influence swallowing function with in dysphagic patient. However, there are still open questions regarding the influence of attention and cognitive demands on brain activity during swallowing. In order to understand how brain regions responsible for attention influence brain activity during swallowing, we compared brain organization during no-distraction swallowing and swallowing with distraction. Fifteen healthy male adults participated in the data collection process. Participants performed ten 1 ml, ten 5 ml, and ten 10 ml water swallows under both no-distraction conditions and during distraction while EEG signals were recorded. After standard pre-processing of the EEG signals, brain networks were formed using the time-frequency based synchrony measure. The brain networks formed were then compared between the two sets of conditions. Results showed that there are differences in the Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands between no-distraction swallowing and swallowing with distraction. Differences in the Delta and Theta frequency bands can be attributed to changes in subliminal processes, while changes in the Alpha and Beta frequency bands are directly associated with the various levels of attention and cognitive demands during swallowing process, and changes in the Gamma frequency band are due to changes in motor activity. Furthermore, we showed that variations in bolus volume influenced the swallowing brain networks in the Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands. Changes in the Delta, Theta, and Alpha frequency bands are due to sensory perturbations evoked by the various bolus volumes. Changes in the Beta frequency band are due to reallocation of cognitive demands, while changes in the Gamma frequency band are due to changes in motor activity produced by variations in bolus volume. These findings could potentially lead to

  10. SU-E-T-275: Dose Build Up and Bolusing Characteristics for Total Body Irradiation Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, M; Pope, D; Whitaker, M [Chris O’Brien LifeHouse, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard regimen is a 12 Gy / 6 fraction bi-daily technique. To evaluate the delivered dose homogeneity to the patient, EBT3 Gafchromic film is positioned at the head, neck, chest, pelvis and groin for all fractions. This work investigates and quantifies the build-up dose characteristics at TBI distances and requirements for in-vivo dosimetry bolusing. Methods: Percentage dose build up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSD’s using parallel plate ionisations chambers (Attix) and EBT3 Gafchromic film. Measurements were made to open fields at different field sizes as well as large 40cm × 40cm fields with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point. Results: Percentage surface dose measured values for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20 % up to 65.5 % for fields of 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. With the introduction of 1cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments the surface dose values increased up to 83% to 90%, depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 3mm water equivalent bolus / scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Conclusion: Build up dose characteristics exist at long (300cm) SSD’s including treatments using Perspex scattering plates placed at various distances form the patient during TBI treatment. Top accurately assess the applied dose during treatment, in-vivo dosimeters such as Gafchromic EBT3 should have at least 3mm bolus / scatter material placed over them to measure actual applied doses.

  11. Intravenous labetalol compared with intravenous nicardipine in the management of hypertension in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesker, Mark A; Hilleman, Daniel E

    2012-10-01

    Critically ill patients with acute hypertension often require titratable rapid blood pressure (BP) reductions using parenteral administration of drugs. There are few comparative studies available to make informed drug product selection decisions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and costs of intravenous labetalol or intravenous nicardipine in the management of hypertension in critically ill patients. This study was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients receiving intravenous labetalol or intravenous nicardipine in the intensive care unit with acute elevations in either systolic (>160 mm Hg) or diastolic (>90 mm Hg) BP. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and short-term clinical outcomes were abstracted from the medical record. Hospital costs were calculated from hospital billing forms. A total of 189 patients receiving labetalol and 193 patients receiving nicardipine were included in the analysis. The average hourly dose was 37.3 ± 9.4 mg/h for labetalol compared with 7.1 ± 5.6 mg/h for nicardipine (P labetalol was 170.9 ± 32.6 mg compared with 112.2 ± 29.1 mg for nicardipine (P = .02). The duration of therapy was significantly shorter for labetalol (8.2 ± 6.2 hours) compared with nicardipine (15.8 ± 4.4 hours) (P = .03). There were a greater number of dose titrations with labetalol (6.1 ± 6.2) than with nicardipine (4.7 ± 4.9), but this difference was not significantly different (P = .29). There were no significant differences in the magnitude of the average change in systolic (P = .79) or diastolic (P = .82) BP between labetalol and nicardipine. The proportion of patients achieving their BP targets was significantly greater with nicardipine (83%) than with labetalol (67%) (P = .04). The proportion of patients requiring an alternate antihypertensive agent was significantly greater with labetalol than with nicardipine (31% vs 17%; P = .02). The total number of all-cause adverse events was

  12. Split-bolus MDCT urography with synchronous nephrographic and excretory phase enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lawrence C; Kwan, Sharon W; Olcott, Eric W; Sommer, Graham

    2007-08-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of CT urography performed using a split contrast bolus that yields synchronous nephrographic and excretory phase enhancement. Five hundred consecutive patients referred for evaluation of possible urinary tract abnormalities (327 for painless hematuria) underwent CT urography with unenhanced scanning of the abdomen and pelvis and scanning during concurrent nephrographic and excretory phase enhancement produced by administration of a split contrast bolus. The enhanced abdomen scan was obtained with abdominal compression; the enhanced pelvis scan was obtained after release of compression. Findings from axial sections and coronal maximum intensity projections were correlated with clinical follow-up and, as available, with laboratory and other imaging studies including cystoscopy, ureteroscopy, urine cytology, surgery, and pathology. Follow-up management for each patient was determined by the clinical judgment of the referring physician. CT urography identified 100% of pathologically confirmed renal cell carcinomas (n = 10) and uroepithelial malignancies involving the renal collecting system or ureter (n = 8). An additional nine renal masses were identified for which no pathologic proof has yet been obtained, including eight subcentimeter solid renal masses and one multiloculated lesion. Fourteen of 19 confirmed cases of uroepithelial neoplasm involving the bladder were identified. CT urography yielded one false-positive for bladder tumor, two false-positives for ureteral tumor, and one patient with a bladder mass who refused further evaluation. CT urography yielded sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99% and 74% and 99% and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 80% and 100% and 93% and 99% for the renal collecting system and ureter and bladder, respectively. CT urography was ineffective in identifying 11 cases of noninfectious cystitis. CT urography also depicted numerous other congenital and acquired

  13. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B.; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. This review was first published in 2002 and has since

  14. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B.; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. Objectives To review systematically the

  15. Intravenous and intramuscular magnesium sulphate regimens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eclampsia. Sarah Chissell, Julia H. Botha, Jack Moodley, Lynn McFadyen. Abstract. Patients with severe pre-eclampsia were randomised to receive magnesium sulphate according to an intramuscular (IM) (N =9) or an intravenous (IV) (N =8) ...

  16. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.

  17. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulin for neonatal isoimmune thrombocytopenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke, M.; Dreyfus, M; Ropert, J C; Tchernia, G

    1985-01-01

    An infant with severe, isoimmune thrombocytopenia secondary to maternal anti-Pla 1 immunisation was treated successfully by intravenous gammaglobulin (400 mg/kg per day for five days). This treatment compared with Pla 1 negative platelet transfusions is discussed.

  19. Ferrous iron content of intravenous iron formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ajay; Pratt, Raymond D; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

    2016-01-01

    The observed biological differences in safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron formulations are attributable to physicochemical differences. In addition to differences in carbohydrate shell, polarographic signatures due to ferric iron [Fe(III)] and ferrous iron [Fe(II)] differ among IV iron formulations. Intravenous iron contains Fe(II) and releases labile iron in the circulation. Fe(II) generates toxic free radicals and reactive oxygen species and binds to bacterial siderophores and oth...

  20. Intravenous iron-containing products: EMA procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A European reassessment has led to identical changes in the summaries of product characteristics (SPCs) for all intravenous iron-containing products: the risk of serious adverse effects is now highlighted, underlining the fact that intravenous iron-containing products should only be used when the benefits clearly outweigh the harms. Unfortunately, iron dextran still remains on the market despite a higher risk of hypersensitivity reactions than with iron sucrose.

  1. Measurement of myocardial blood flow by cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion: comparison of distributed parameter and Fermi models with single and dual bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Giorgos; Williams, Michelle C; Kershaw, Lucy E; Dweck, Marc R; Alam, Shirjel; Mirsadraee, Saeed; Connell, Martin; Gray, Calum; MacGillivray, Tom; Newby, David E; Semple, Scott Ik

    2015-02-17

    Mathematical modeling of cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion data allows absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow. Saturation of left ventricle signal during standard contrast administration can compromise the input function used when applying these models. This saturation effect is evident during application of standard Fermi models in single bolus perfusion data. Dual bolus injection protocols have been suggested to eliminate saturation but are much less practical in the clinical setting. The distributed parameter model can also be used for absolute quantification but has not been applied in patients with coronary artery disease. We assessed whether distributed parameter modeling might be less dependent on arterial input function saturation than Fermi modeling in healthy volunteers. We validated the accuracy of each model in detecting reduced myocardial blood flow in stenotic vessels versus gold-standard invasive methods. Eight healthy subjects were scanned using a dual bolus cardiac perfusion protocol at 3T. We performed both single and dual bolus analysis of these data using the distributed parameter and Fermi models. For the dual bolus analysis, a scaled pre-bolus arterial input function was used. In single bolus analysis, the arterial input function was extracted from the main bolus. We also performed analysis using both models of single bolus data obtained from five patients with coronary artery disease and findings were compared against independent invasive coronary angiography and fractional flow reserve. Statistical significance was defined as two-sided P value blood flow in healthy volunteers due to arterial input function saturation in single bolus analysis compared to dual bolus analysis (P parameter-myocardial blood flow between single and dual bolus analysis. In patients, distributed parameter modeling was able to detect reduced myocardial blood flow at stress (parameter modeling is less dependent on arterial input function

  2. Stable and episodic/bolus patterns of methylmercury exposure on mercury accumulation and histopathologic alterations in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Domingo, José L; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Sarrazin, Sandra L F; Eto, Komyo; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to compare the blood and brain mercury (Hg) accumulation and neurological alterations in adult male and pregnant female/fetal rats following stable and episodic/bolus patterns of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. In addition, MeHg accumulation in the human body was estimated by a one-compartment model using three different patterns of MeHg exposure. In the adult male rat experiment, doses of 0.3 and 1.5mg MeHg/kg/day were orally administered to the stable groups for 5 weeks, while 7-fold higher doses of 2.1 and 10.5mg MeHg/kg/once a week were administered to the bolus groups. The blood Hg levels increased constantly in the stable groups, but increased with repeated waves in the bolus groups. At completion of the experiment, there were no significant differences in the brain Hg concentrations or neurological alterations between the stable and bolus groups, when the total doses of MeHg were the same. In the pregnant female rat experiment, a dose of 1mg MeHg/kg/day was administered orally to the stable group for 20 days (until 1day before expected parturition), while a 5-fold higher dose of 5mg MeHg/kg/once every 5 days was administered to the bolus group. In the brains of the maternal/fetal rats, there were no significant differences in the Hg concentrations and neurological alterations between the stable and bolus groups. The mean Hg concentrations in the fetal brains were approximately 2-fold higher than those in the maternal brains for both stable and bolus groups. Using the one-compartment model, the Hg accumulation curves in humans at doses of 7µg MeHg/day, 48µg MeHg/once a week, and 96µg MeHg/once every 2 weeks were estimated to be similar, while the bolus groups showed dose-dependent amplitudes of repeated waves. These results suggest that stable and episodic/bolus patterns of MeHg exposure do not cause differences in Hg accumulation in the blood and brain, or in neurological alterations, when the total doses are the

  3. Supplementing newborn intrauterine growth restricted piglets with a bolus of porcine colostrum raises rectal temperatures one degree Celsius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdi, C; Jensen, L L; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F

    2017-07-01

    Hyperprolific sows have increased litter sizes but also result in more piglets that have been exposed to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). These IUGR piglets are likely to have a low rectal temperature and lower blood glucose levels compared with normal piglets at birth. Therefore, we hypothesized that a colostrum bolus at birth and/or heat from an external source would have a positive effect on blood glucose levels, rectal temperatures, and growth up to 8 h postpartum. In addition, liver glycogen and blood values at 8 h were investigated. Eighty-four piglets were classified at birth (time = 0) as IUGR based on their head morphology and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments ( = 21) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1) with or without a porcine colostrum bolus (12 mL/kg BW at birth) and 2) with sow or isolated from sow with external heat. Piglets were removed from the sow before they had suckled and were numbered and dried, and initial whole-blood glucose, rectal temperature, and BW were recorded. Piglets in the 2 treatments isolated from sow were placed under a heating lamp (150 W) with a temperature range of 35 to 39°C. Rectal temperatures, glucose, and BW were measured again at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after birth, and a final plasma sample and organs (liver and brain) were removed at 8 h. There was a time × colostrum bolus interaction ( = 0.026) and a time × sow interaction ( piglets that were given a bolus had greater glucose levels after 1 h postpartum (time = 1 h) than piglets without a bolus at birth, but from time = 2 h and onward, there was no difference ( > 0.05). There was a time × colostrum bolus interaction ( piglets with a bolus had a greater rectal temperature compared with piglets without a bolus (37.5 vs. 36.6°C; piglets that had been isolated from the sow had a greater rectal temperature compared with the 2 treatments with sows (37.8 vs. 36.3°C; heat and a colostrum bolus increased rectal temperature by 1°C an hour after birth. However

  4. Optimization of Split-Bolus CT Urography: Effect of Differences in Allocation of Contrast Medium and Prolongation of Imaging Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dahye; Cho, Eun-Suk; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Yong Pyo; Lee, Hyeon-Kyeong; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Chung, Jae-Joon

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the optimal allocation ratio of contrast medium (CM) in split-bolus CT urography (CTU) and to investigate the effect of increased imaging delays for synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase imaging. One hundred ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to one of three protocols with different allocation ratios of CM: group A, 30% of CM at first bolus and 70% of CM at second bolus; group B, 70% and 30%; or group C, 50% and 50%. Saline (250 mL) was administered after the first CM bolus. Patients were subdivided by different imaging delay times (8, 10, 12, and 14 minutes). The attenuation values of the renal cortex and medulla were measured, and the opacification and maximal caliber of each segment of the ureter were evaluated. Renal cortical enhancement was significantly higher in group A (mean ± SD, 145.9 ± 17.5 HU) than group B (120.6 ± 106.3 HU). No significant difference in renal parenchymal enhancement was found with increased imaging delay times. The opacification and maximal caliber of each ureter segment showed no significant difference with different allocation ratios of CM or increased imaging delay times. A split-bolus CTU protocol with a larger CM volume administered at the second injection and an 8-minute imaging delay was the optimal protocol with regard to opacification of the ureter, renal parenchymal enhancement, and shorter examination time.

  5. Swallowing of bolus types by postsurgical head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, R J; Hamlet, S L; Mathog, R H; Jones, L; Heilbrun, L K; Manov, L J; O'Campo, J M

    1994-01-01

    Clinically, head and neck cancer patients with anterior resections have better postoperative outcomes than do patients with posterior resections. Videofluoroscopy was used to study the swallowing characteristics in postsurgery head and neck cancer patients and normal controls. Most patients received post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and no cancer recurrence was noted at the time of study, 4-8 months posttreatment. Bolus types included: 3 mL and 10 mL liquid barium, barium paste, and barium-coated cookie. Temporal measurements and a count of the number of swallows required to ingest each material were made from the videotaped data. Statistical analysis using an unbalanced univariate repeated measures ANOVA was performed. The major differences were found between bolus types, with few differences noted between surgical groups (anterior vs posterior resections) and normal controls. Patients took longer to ingest viscous material, accomplishing this by multiple piecemeal and clearing swallows. Coordination of mastication and swallowing of the cookie was different between normal and patient groups. Patients who are able to swallow reasonably well postoperatively maintain normal coordination and timing of swallowing activity and do not vary these parameters to compensate for structural inadequacy. Instead, repeated swallows are used.

  6. Enteral nutrition for preterm infants: by bolus or continuous? An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bozzetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of nutritional management of preterm infants is crucial for achievement of their long-term health. Enteral nutrition is preferred to total parenteral nutrition (TPN because the former avoids complications related to vascular catheterization, sepsis, adverse effects of TPN, and fasting. Due to the lack of ability of preterm infants to coordinate suckling, swallowing, and breathing, tube feeding is necessary for most infants less than 1500 g to ensure sufficient feeding tolerance, to support optimal growth and to reduce the risk of aspiration. Therefore, feeding by orogastric or nasogastric tube using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery of formula or human milk is common practice for these infants. Theoretical risks and benefits of both continuous nasogastric milk feeding and intermittent bolus milk feeding have been proposed. According to the literature, continuous nutrition could be preferred in smaller infants (as those with a birthweight below 1250 g or hemodynamically impaired infants; in stable growing infants nutrition can be administered intermittently as in healthy term infants.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Single-bolus Subcutaneous Cefovecin in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kevin L; Bas, Esperanza; Cox, Sherry K; Rothen, Daniel E

    2017-09-01

    Because of its extended half-life, cefovecin is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic commonly used to treat dermatitis in dogs and cats. A single injection in dogs can yield an effective plasma concentration for as long as 14 d, depending on the strain of Staphylococcus and for as long as 7 d in cats for the treatment of Pasteurella multocida. In the laboratory animal setting, C57BL/6 mice are commonly affected with dermatologic conditions that make these animals unsuitable for experiments. Therefore, we performed this pharmacokinetic study to determine whether cefovecin would be of benefit in mice. Plasma levels of the drug were determined by HPLC. For this study, single-bolus subcutaneous dosages of 8 and 40 mg/kg were assessed. The results showed that the dosage of 40 mg/kg achieved a maximal plasma concentration of 411.54 μg/mL with a half-life of 0.84 h, whereas 8 mg/kg yielded 78.18 μg/mL and 1.07 h respectively. The pharmacokinetic results suggest that cefovecin is not suitable as a long-acting antibiotic after a single subcutaneous bolus injection in mice for the treatment of dermatitis or any other bacteria sensitive to this medication.

  8. Evaluation of reconstruction parameters of electrical impedance tomography on aorta detection during saline bolus injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thürk Florian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An accurate detection of anatomical structures in electrical impedance tomography (EIT is still at an early stage. Aorta detection in EIT is of special interest, since it would favor non-invasive assessment of hemodynamic processes in the body. Here, diverse EIT reconstruction parameters of the GREIT algorithm were systematically evaluated to detect the aorta after saline bolus injection in apnea. True aorta position and size were taken from computed tomography (CT. A comparison with CT showed that the smallest error for aorta displacement was attained for noise figure nf = 0.7, weighting radius rw = 0.15, and target size ts = 0.01. The spatial extension of the aorta was most precise for nf = 0.7, rw = 0.25, and ts = 0.07. Detection accuracy (F1-score was highest with nf = 0.6, rw = 0.15, and ts = 0.04. This work provides algorithm-related evidence for potentially accurate aorta detection in EIT after injection of a saline bolus.

  9. Bolus effect to reduce skin dose of the caontralateral breast during breast cancer radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, InJe University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Radiation Oncology, KonYang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose comparison using Radon phantom with 5 mm and 10 mm tissue equivalent materials, FIF, Wedge(15, 30 angle) and IMRT, to reduce the skin dose of the contralateral breast during breast cancer radiation therapy(Total dose: 50.4Gy). The dose was measured for each treatment plan by attaching to the 8 point of the contralateral breast of the treated region using a optical-stimulated luminance dosimeter(OSLD) as a comparative dose evaluation method. Of the OSLD used in the study, 10 were used with reproducibility within 3%. As a result, the average reduction rates of 5 mm and 10 mm in the FIF treatment plan were 37.23 cGy and 41.77 cGy, respectively, and the average reduction rates in the treatment plan using Wedge 15 degrees were 70.69 cGy and 87.57 cGy, respectively. The IMRT showed a reduction of 67.37 cGy and 83.17 cGy, respectively. The results of using bolus showed that as the thickness of the bolus increased in all treatments, the dose reduction increased. We concluded that mastectomy as well as general radiotherapy for breast cancer would be very effective for patients who are more likely to be exposed to scattered radiation due to a more demanding or complex treatment plan.

  10. [Remifentanil bolus for cesarean section in high-risk patients: study of 12 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, F J; Ortiz-Gómez, J R; Fornet, I; López, M A; Morillas, P

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the utility and safety of remifentanil for hemodynamic control during cesarean section in high-risk patients ineligible for spinal anesthesia. One minute before induction we injected a bolus of 1 microg x kg(-1) of remifentanil, followed by propofol (2.5 mg x kg(-1)), succinylcholine (1 mg x kg(-1)), cisatracurium, sevoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide, and fentanyl (5 microg x kg(-1)) after clamping the umbilical cord. We recorded maternal hemodynamic variables, pulse oximetry, capnography, bispectral index, and presence of muscular rigidity. In the neonate we assessed fetal wellbeing, weight, and requirement for naloxone. Hemodynamic stability was defined as no more than 15% variation in arterial pressure with respect to baseline. Twelve patients undergoing surgery because of placenta abruptio, subarachnoid hemorrhage, HELLP syndrome, or preeclampsia were enrolled. Hemodynamic variables were consistently stable during surgery in all patients. No cases of neonatal rigidity were noted and there was no need for naloxone. The mean Apgar score was 6.42 (1.5) at 1 minute and 8.42 (0.9) at 5 minutes. Bolus injection of 1 microg x kg(-1) of remifentanil may be useful for maintaining maternal hemodynamic stability in high-risk obstetric cases. Given the risk of neonatal depression, this resource should be used selectively and the means for neonatal resuscitation should be available.

  11. The Effect of Bolus Volume on Hyoid Kinematics in Healthy Swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyoid movement in swallowing is biomechanically linked to closure of the laryngeal vestibule for airway protection and to opening of the upper esophageal sphincter. Studies suggest that the range of hyoid movement is highly variable in the healthy population. However, other aspects of hyoid movement such as velocity remain relatively unexplored. In this study, we analyze data from a sample of 20 healthy young participants (10 male to determine whether hyoid movement distance, duration, velocity, and peak velocity vary systematically with increases in thin liquid bolus volume from 5 to 20 mL. The temporal correspondence between peak hyoid velocity and laryngeal vestibule closure was also examined. The results show that maximum hyoid position and peak velocity increase significantly for 20 mL bolus volumes compared to smaller volumes, and that the timing of peak velocity is closely linked to achieving laryngeal vestibule closure. This suggests that generating hyoid movements with increased power is a strategy for handling larger volumes.

  12. Electronic identification of cattle: interference in the reading of ceramic bolus transponders in the presence of ruminal magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ferri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors assess the reading performances of electronic transponders encased in ceramic boluses, utilised as identification (ID instruments for production ruminants, and the possible influence of the magnet, which is located in the fore-stomach of ruminants. Research has been conducted in free-range Friesian dairy herds in the Teramo Province. The use of the electronic bolus to identify cattle appears to provide better guarantees than the traditional methods used and meets the requirements of identifying individual animals at the farm level. Results demonstrate how the presence of both the magnet and the ceramic bolus, equipped with a transponder, makes it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to read the code. However, the electronic ID system is the best instrument currently available. The authors confirm the validity of this method and highlight some problems that still need to be solved.

  13. A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release

    CERN Document Server

    De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

  14. Phase 1 and pharmacokinetic study of bolus-infusion flavopiridol followed by cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone for acute leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Judith E; Smith, B Douglas; Resar, Linda S; Greer, Jacqueline M; Blackford, Amanda; Zhao, Ming; Moton-Nelson, Dwella; Alino, Katrina; Levis, Mark J; Gore, Steven D; Joseph, Biju; Carraway, Hetty; McDevitt, Michael A; Bagain, Lorena; Mackey, Karen; Briel, Janet; Doyle, L Austin; Wright, John J; Rudek, Michelle A

    2011-03-24

    Flavopiridol is a protein bound, cytotoxic, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Flavopiridol given by 1-hour bolus at 50 mg/m(2) daily 3 times followed by cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone (FLAM) is active in adults with poor-risk acute leukemias. A pharmacologically derived "hybrid" schedule (30-minute bolus followed by 4-hour infusion) of flavopiridol was more effective than bolus administration in refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Our phase 1 trial "hybrid FLAM" in 55 adults with relapsed/refractory acute leukemias began at a total flavopiridol dose of 50 mg/m(2) per day 3 times (20-mg/m(2) bolus, 30-mg/m(2) infusion). Dose-limiting toxicity occurred at level 6 (30-mg/m(2) bolus, 70-mg/m(2) infusion) with tumor lysis, hyperbilirubinemia, and mucositis. Death occurred in 5 patients (9%). Complete remission occurred in 22 (40%) across all doses. Overall and disease-free survivals for complete remission patients are more than 60% at more than 2 years. Pharmacokinetics demonstrated a dose-response for total and unbound plasma flavopiridol unrelated to total protein, albumin, peripheral blast count, or toxicity. Pharmacodynamically, flavopiridol inhibited mRNAs of multiple cell cycle regulators, but with uniform increases in bcl-2. "Hybrid FLAM" is active in relapsed/refractory acute leukemias, with a recommended "hybrid" dose of bolus 30 mg/m(2) followed by infusion of 60 mg/m(2) daily for 3 days. This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00470197.

  15. An in vitro evaluation of the pressure generated during programmed intermittent epidural bolus injection at varying infusion delivery speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpner, Thomas T; Lange, Elizabeth M S; Ahmed, Heena S; Fitzgerald, Paul C; Wong, Cynthia A; Toledo, Paloma

    2016-11-01

    Programmed intermittent bolus injection of epidural anesthetic solution results in decreased anesthetic consumption and better patient satisfaction compared with continuous infusion, presumably by better spread of the anesthetic solution in the epidural space. It is not known whether the delivery speed of the bolus injection influences analgesia outcomes. The objective of this in vitro study was to determine the pressure generated by a programmed intermittent bolus pump at 4 infusion delivery speeds through open-ended, single-orifice and closed-end, multiorifice epidural catheters. In vitro observational study. Not applicable. Not applicable. A CADD-Solis Pain Management System v3.0 with Programmed Intermittent Bolus Model 2110 was connected via a 3-way adapter to an epidural catheter and a digital pressure transducer. Pressures generated by delivery speeds of 100, 175, 300, and 400 mL/h of saline solution were tested with 4 epidural catheters (2 single orifice and 2 multiorifice). These runs were replicated on 5 pumps. Analysis of variance was used to compare the mean peak pressures of each delivery speed within each catheter group (single orifice and multiorifice). Thirty runs at each delivery speed were performed with each type of catheter for a total of 240 experimental runs. Peak pressure increased with increasing delivery speeds in both catheter groups (Pintermittent infusion boluses, the delivery speed of saline solution through epidural catheters was directly related to the peak pressures. Future work should evaluate whether differences in the delivery speed of anesthetic solution into the epidural space correlate with differences in the duration and quality of analgesia during programmed intermittent epidural bolus delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Intravenous Proton Pump Inhibitors in High-Risk Bleeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Veldhuyzen van Zanten

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is unequivocal evidence that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are currently the most effective acid suppressive agents available. Intravenous (IV formulations have been developed, although only IV pantoprazole is available in Canada. In patients presenting with serious upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding due to duodenal or gastric ulcers, it has always been believed that IV administration of acid-lowering agents would improve clinical outcomes. The reason behind this thinking is twofold. First, there is in vitro evidence that formed clots are more stable at or near neutral pH (1. Second, by administering the agent intravenously, suppression of acid production is achieved much more quickly, thereby promoting more rapid healing of the ulcer and reducing the risk of persistent or recurrent bleeding. Interestingly and surprisingly, however, the data for intravenous H2-blockers have been disappointing (2. This failure to demonstrate clinical benefit has never been fully explained.

  17. [Endemic intravenous fluid contamination in pediatric wards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan Manuel; Zapién, Reynaldo; Ponce-De-León, Samuel; Alvarez, José Antonio; Mosqueda, Juan Luis; Gallaga, Juan Carlos; Macías, Alejandro Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    To determine the rate of contamination of intravenous solutions and injection ports in pediatric patients. During non-epidemic periods, eight pediatric wards in Mexican hospitals were studied. Qualitative cultures were performed from the surface of injection ports and from intravenous solutions in use in pediatric patients younger than 2 years, culturing 750 infusion systems from 728 patients. The rate of contamination of intravenous solutions was 2.4% (18/750; CI 95%: 1.3% to 3.5%) and for injection ports it was 3.2% (24/750; CI 95%: 2.1% to 4.3%). Enterobacteriaceae predominated; in four cases the organisms isolated from the port and from the solutions were coincident (Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter sp.). The rate of contamination for solutions mixed in the wards was 5.1%, against 1.3% of those not mixed (chi2 = 9.19, p Contamination of parenteral solutions is not a rare phenomenon and it could be related to inappropriate practices in the preparation of intravenous solutions and medications as well as the contamination of injection ports. In hospitals working with standards similar to those reported here, the monitoring of sterility of intravenous solutions could contribute to reduce the rate of nosocomial bacteremia.

  18. ISOPROTERNENOL INCREASES EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF A LARGE FLUID BOLUS IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, Sven; Salter, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Kramer, George C.; Svensen, Christer; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Kinsky, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary goal of fluid therapy is to maintain fluid homeostasis. Commonly used isotonic crystalloids are only marginally effective and contribute to fluid excess syndrome. In patients with decreased cardiovascular reserve, fluid therapy alone is not sufficient to maintain end-organ perfusion. Therefore, inotropes or vasoactive drugs are used to supplement fluid infusion. Recent animal data suggests that co-infusion of adrenergic agents modulate the distribution of fluid between the vascular and extravascular/interstitial compartments after a fluid bolus. We sought to determine if this effect would translate in humans by co-administering a beta (β)-adrenergic agonist with fluid. Methods Nine healthy volunteers (age 21–50 yrs) were randomly paired and received either a continuous isoproterenol infusion (ISO:0.05μg/kg/min) or 0.9% saline (control(CON)) 30min prior to a 25mL/kg 0.9% NaCl fluid bolus. Hemodynamics, ventricular volume and function and microcirculatory determinants (capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) and oncotic pressure) were measured. Vascular and extra-vascular volume (EVV) and fluid balance were determined. Results Compared to CON, ISO significantly increased heart rate (CON:64.2 ±4.1 bpm vs. ISO:97.4±5.7 bpm) and cardiac output (CON 4.4±0.7L/min vs. ISO:10.2±0.9) before fluid bolus. ISO significantly increased urinary output (ISO: 10.86±1.95 vs Control: 6.53±1.45 mL/kg) and reduced EVV (7.98±2.0 vs 14.15±1.1mL/kg). ISO prevented an increase in CFC (1.74±0.4 vs 3.21±0.4 mL/min/mmHg•10−3). Conclusion Isoproterenol, a non-selective β-adrenergic agonist, augments vascular volume expansion and eliminates EVV via enhanced diuresis, which may in part be due to enhanced endothelial barrier function. PMID:25046539

  19. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Friedrisch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is the most common deficiency disorder, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, but in many conditions, oral iron is less than ideal mainly because of gastrointestinal adverse events and the long course needed to treat the disease and replenish body iron stores. Intravenous iron compounds consist of an iron oxyhydroxide core, which is surrounded by a carbohydrate shell made of polymers such as dextran, sucrose or gluconate. The first iron product for intravenous use was the high molecular weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to use intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia over many years. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose is a stable complex with the advantage of being non- dextran-containing and a very low immunogenic potential and therefore not predisposed to anaphylactic reactions. Its properties permit the administration of large doses (15 mg/kg; maximum of 1000 mg/infusion in a single and rapid session (15-minute infusion without the requirement of a test dose. The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, and safety profile of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of patients with iron deficiency anemia.

  20. Anxiety can significantly explain bolus perception in the context of hypotensive esophageal motility: Results of a large multicenter study in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, D; Scheerens, C; Omari, T; Monrroy, H; Hani, A; Leguizamo, A; Bilder, C; Ditaranto, A; Ruiz de León, A; Pérez de la Serna, J; Valdovinos, M A; Coello, R; Abrahao, L; Remes-Troche, J; Meixueiro, A; Zavala, M A; Marin, I; Serra, J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have not been able to correlate manometry findings with bolus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlation of different variables, including traditional manometric variables (at diagnostic and extreme thresholds), esophageal shortening, bolus transit, automated impedance manometry (AIM) metrics and mood with bolus passage perception in a large cohort of asymptomatic individuals. High resolution manometry (HRM) was performed in healthy individuals from nine centers. Perception was evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale. Anxiety was evaluated using Hospitalized Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). Subgroup analysis was also performed classifying studies into normal, hypotensive, vigorous, and obstructive patterns. One hundred fifteen studies were analyzed (69 using HRM and 46 using high resolution impedance manometry (HRIM); 3.5% swallows in 9.6% of volunteers were perceived. There was no correlation of any of the traditional HRM variables, esophageal shortening, AIM metrics nor bolus transit with perception scores. There was no HRM variable showing difference in perception when comparing normal vs extreme values (percentile 1 or 99). Anxiety but not depression was correlated with perception. Among hypotensive pattern, anxiety was a strong predictor of variance in perception (R(2) up to .70). Bolus perception is less common than abnormal motility among healthy individuals. Neither esophageal motor function nor bolus dynamics evaluated with several techniques seems to explain differences in bolus perception. Different mechanisms seem to be relevant in different manometric patterns. Anxiety is a significant predictor of bolus perception in the context of hypotensive motility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Naloxone: intravenously, intramuscular, inhalatory and intranasal use in emergency cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Locatelli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of naloxone in emergency medicine is primarily connected to the treatment of a syndrome known as overdose, which is cause by non-essential use of heroin and certain opioid agonists. The dose of naloxone required to be efficacious depends on the quantity of opioid assumed, its receptorial affinity and its kinetics: in propoxyphene and pentazocine intoxication, for instance, higher doses are require than those needed in the treatment of morphine or heroin overdose. Intravenous administration is the most efficacious and fast-acting method: however, in certain cases, and depending on aspects that are typical of overdose patient management (e.g. the difficulties connected to vein access, skin scarring, severe hypotension, alternative pathways may be used. These include intraand sub-lingual and intratracheale administration, inhalatory administration via nebulisation (possible in the presence of respiratory action only, and intramuscular and subcutaneaous administration (which are efficacious in the absence of hypoperfusion. However, the most promising means of administration would appear to be intranasal administration, thanks to the relative ease of access, lower risk of contact with bodily fluids and the excellent bioavailability and rapidity of the effect, which is similar to that achieved with intravenous administration.

  2. Use of intravenous immunoglobulins in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Donyush

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are main component of immune defense; they take part in anti-infectious resistance of organism and regulate processes of different immune reactions. Intravenous immunoglobulins are the most frequently used products made from donor blood plasma. The need in these drugs is steadily increasing during last 15–20 years, and indications are widening due to modern hightechnology methods of production and cleaning. The article presents modern data on formula, mechanisms of action and indications for different groups of intravenous immunoglobulins (standard, hyperimmune, fortified and description of possible adverse events.Key words: immuglobulines, prophylaxis, treatment, unfavorable reaction, children.

  3. Intravenous polyclonal human immunoglobulins in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta-analysis ......Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta...

  4. Bolus tracking with nanofilter-based multispectral videography for capturing microvasculature hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Kaminska, Bozena; St. Lawrence, Keith; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2014-04-01

    Multispectral imaging is a highly desirable modality for material-based analysis in diverse areas such as food production and processing, satellite-based reconnaissance, and biomedical imaging. Here, we present nanofilter-based multispectral videography (nMSV) in the 700 to 950 nm range made possible by the tunable extraordinary-optical-transmission properties of 3D metallic nanostructures. Measurements made with nMSV during a bolus injection of an intravascular tracer in the ear of a piglet resulted in spectral videos of the microvasculature. Analysis of the multispectral videos generated contrast measurements representative of arterial pulsation, the distribution of microvascular transit times, as well as a separation of the venous and arterial signals arising from within the tissue. Therefore, nMSV is capable of acquiring serial multispectral images relevant to tissue hemodynamics, which may have application to the detection and identification of skin cancer.

  5. The intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of lotilaner in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline E. Toutain

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lotilaner is a new oral ectoparasiticide from the isoxazoline class developed for the treatment of flea and tick infestations in dogs. It is formulated as pure S-enantiomer in flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™. The pharmacokinetics of lotilaner were thoroughly determined after intravenous and oral administration and under different feeding regimens in dogs. Methods Twenty-six adult beagle dogs were enrolled in a pharmacokinetic study evaluating either intravenous or oral administration of lotilaner. Following the oral administration of 20 mg/kg, under fed or fasted conditions, or intravenous administration of 3 mg/kg, blood samples were collected up to 35 days after treatment. The effects of timing of offering food and the amount of food consumed prior or after dosing on bioavailability were assessed in a separate study in 25 adult dogs. Lotilaner blood concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. In addition, in vivo enantiomer stability was evaluated in an analytical study. Results Following oral administration in fed animals, lotilaner was readily absorbed and peak blood concentrations reached within 2 hours. The terminal half-life was 30.7 days. Food enhanced the absorption, providing an oral bioavailability above 80% and reduced the inter-individual variability. Moreover, the time of feeding with respect to dosing (fed 30 min prior, fed at dosing or fed 30 min post-dosing or the reduction of the food ration to one-third of the normal daily ration did not impact bioavailability. Following intravenous administration, lotilaner had a low clearance of 0.18 l/kg/day, large volumes of distribution Vz and Vss of 6.35 and 6.45 l/kg, respectively and a terminal half-life of 24.6 days. In addition, there was no in vivo racemization of lotilaner. Conclusions The pharmacokinetic

  6. Intracoronary Compared to Intravenous Abciximab in Patients with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Reduces Mortality, Target Vessel Revascularization and Reinfarction after 1 Year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan Zeeberg; Galatius, Soeren; Abildgaard, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Administration of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab to patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) improves outcome. Data have suggested that an intracoronary (IC) bolus might be superior...... to the standard intravenous (IV) administration. We have previously reported reduced short-term mortality and need for target vessel revascularization (TVR) with the IC route. We now present long-term data from our randomized trial on IC versus IV abciximab in pPCI-treated STEMI patients. Methods: A total of 355...

  7. Effect of programmed intermittent epidural boluses and continuous epidural infusion on labor analgesia and obstetric outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Leopoldo E; Romero, David J; Vásquez, Oscar I; Matute, Ednna C; Van de Velde, Marc

    2017-11-01

    Continuous epidural infusion and programmed intermittent epidural boluses are analgesic techniques routinely used for pain relief in laboring women. We aimed to assess both techniques and compare them with respect to labor analgesia and obstetric outcomes. After Institutional Review Board approval, 132 laboring women aged between 18 and 45 years were randomized to epidural analgesia of 10 mL of a mixture of 0.1% bupivacaine plus 2 µg/mL of fentanyl either by programmed intermittent boluses or continuous infusion (66 per group). Primary outcome was quality of analgesia. Secondary outcomes were duration of labor, total drug dose used, maternal satisfaction, sensory level, motor block level, presence of unilateral motor block, hemodynamics, side effects, mode of delivery, and newborn outcome. Patients in the programmed intermittent epidural boluses group received statistically less drug dose than those with continuous epidural infusion (24.9 vs 34.4 mL bupivacaine; P = 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding pain control, characteristics of block, hemodynamics, side effects, and Apgar scores. Our study evidenced a lower anesthetic consumption in the programmed intermittent boluses group with similar labor analgesic control, and obstetric and newborn outcomes in both groups.

  8. Dopamine D(2) receptor quantification in extrastriatal brain regions using [(123)I]epidepride with bolus/infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, L H; Videbaek, C; Knudsen, G M

    2000-01-01

    The iodinated benzamide epidepride, which shows a picomolar affinity binding to dopamine D(2) receptors, has been designed for in vivo studies using SPECT. The aim of the present study was to apply a steady-state condition by the bolus/infusion approach with [(123)I]epidepride for the quantificat...

  9. An empirical method for reducing variability and complexity of myocardial perfusion quantification by dual bolus cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Neil; Benefield, Brandon C; Harris, Kathleen R; Fluckiger, Jacob U; Carroll, Timothy; Lee, Daniel C

    2017-06-01

    Myocardial perfusion can be quantified using the "dual bolus" technique, which uses two separate contrast boluses to avoid signal nonlinearity in the blood pool. This technique relies on knowing the precise ratio of contrast concentrations between the two boluses. In this study, we investigated the variability found in these ratios, as well as the error it introduces, and developed a method for correction. Five dogs received dual bolus myocardial perfusion MRI scans. Perfusion was calculated separately using assumed contrast dilution ratios and empirically determined contrast ratios. Perfusion was compared with reference standard fluorescent microspheres. The same technique was then applied to a cohort of six patients with no significant coronary artery stenosis by cardiac catheterization. Assumed contrast dilution ratios were 10:1 for all animal and patient scans. Empirically derived contrast ratios were significantly different for animal (8.51:1 ± 1.53:1, P empirically derived ratios for animal scans improved correlation with microspheres from 0.84 to 0.90 (P Empirically deriving the correct ratio is feasible and improves the accuracy of quantitative perfusion measurements. Magn Reson Med 77:2347-2355, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Gd-DTPA bolus tracking in the myocardium using T1 fast acquisition relaxation mapping (T1 FARM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, D D; Pereira, R S; McKenzie, C A; Prato, F S; Drost, D J; Sykes, J; Wisenberg, G

    2001-09-01

    MRI methods currently used for bolus tracking in the myocardium, such as saturation recovery turbo-fast low-angle shot (FLASH) (srTFL), are limited by signal intensity (SI) saturation at high contrast agent (CA) concentrations. By using T1 fast acquisition relaxation mapping (T1 FARM), a Gd-DTPA bolus (0.075 vs. 0.025 mmol/kg) may be injected without causing saturation. This study tested the feasibility of in vivo T1 FARM bolus tracking under rest/stress conditions in seven beagles with multiple permanently occluded branches of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Although it underestimated the myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) measured ex vivo using radioactive microspheres (mean +/- SEM; 3.60 +/- 0.26), the MPR determined upon application of the modified Kety model (1.86 +/- 0.10) enabled distinction between normal and infarcted tissue. The partition coefficient (lambda) estimated at rest and stress using the modified Kety model underestimated ex vivo radioactive measurements in infarcted tissue (0.25 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.08 ml/g, P T1 FARM bolus tracking shows potential for assessment of myocardial perfusion. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery.

  12. Intermittent bolus feeding has a greater stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding by orogastric tube, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common for infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To determine the impact of different feeding modalities on muscle protein anabolism, neonatal pigs (5–7 day old) received a balanced enteral formula e...

  13. Taste enhancement in food gels: Effect of fracture properties on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Velde, van de F.; Bult, J.H.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of fracture strain and fracture stress on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity of semi-solid food gels containing sucrose heterogeneously distributed in layers. The sweetness intensity of gels was mainly affected by the total surface area of gel

  14. Deposition and dispersion of 1-micrometer aerosol boluses in the human lung: effect of micro- and hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquenne, C.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    We performed bolus inhalations of 1-micrometer particles in four subjects on the ground (1 G) and during parabolic flights both in microgravity (microG) and in approximately 1.6 G. Boluses of approximately 70 ml were inhaled at different points in an inspiration from residual volume to 1 liter above functional residual capacity. The volume of air inhaled after the bolus [the penetration volume (Vp)] ranged from 200 to 1,500 ml. Aerosol concentration and flow rate were continuously measured at the mouth. The deposition, dispersion, and position of the bolus in the expired gas were calculated from these data. For Vp >/=400 ml, both deposition and dispersion increased with Vp and were strongly gravity dependent, with the greatest deposition and dispersion occurring for the largest G level. At Vp = 800 ml, deposition and dispersion increased from 33.9% and 319 ml in microG to 56.9% and 573 ml at approximately 1.6 G, respectively (P volume than Vp, and this volume became smaller with increasing Vp. Although dispersion was lower in microG than in 1 G and approximately 1.6 G, it still increased steadily with increasing Vp, showing that nongravitational ventilatory inhomogeneity is partly responsible for dispersion in the human lung.

  15. Effects of indigo carmine intravenous injection on oxygen reserve index (ORi™) measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosu, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Oishi, Rieko; Imaizumi, Tsuyoshi; Iseki, Yuzo; Sanbe, Norie; Ikegami, Yukihiro; Obara, Shinju; Kurosawa, Shin; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2017-10-03

    To retrospectively investigate the effects of indigo carmine intravenous injection on oxygen reserve index (ORi™) in 20 patients who underwent elective gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia. The study subjects were patients who underwent elective gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia between April 2016 and January 2017, and were administered a 5-ml intravenous injection of 0.4% indigo carmine for clinical purposes during surgery with ORi monitoring. Changes in ORi within 20 min after indigo carmine injection were observed. A relevant decrease in ORi was defined as ≥ 10% reduction in ORi from pre-injection level. ORi rapidly decreased after indigo carmine intravenous injection in all patients. In 10 of 19 patients, ORi decreased to 0 after indigo carmine injection. The median lowest value of ORi was 0 (range 0-0.16) and the median time to reach the lowest value of ORi was 2 min (range 1-4 min) after injection. ORi values returned to pre-injection levels within 20 min in 13 of 19 patients, and the median time to return to pre-injection levels was 10 min (range 6-16 min) after injection. During ORi monitoring it is necessary to consider the rapid reduction in ORi after intravenous injection of indigo carmine.

  16. SU-E-T-176: Clinical Experience of Brass Mesh Bolus: Patient-Specific Parameters as Predictors of Measured Dosimetric Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yock, A; Manger, R; Einck, J; Yashar, C; Sanghvi, P; Hattangadi-Gluth, J; Cervino, L [University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Increasingly, brass mesh bolus is used to insure dosimetric coverage of the skin for patients treated post-mastectomy for breast cancer. Contribution of photoelectrons from interactions between the bolus and the primary beam increases dose superficially without affecting dose at greater depths. We present our experience using brass mesh bolus – including patients for whom the bolus was dosimetrically inadequate – along with analysis of relevant patient-specific parameters. Methods: Optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were used to determine the effect of the bolus for 15 patients. They were positioned beneath the bolus within the tangent fields at three positions: 1.5–3cm inside the medial and lateral field edges, and midway between the two. All OSLDs were midfield in the cranial-caudal direction. The measurements were compared with patient-specific parameters including separation, chest wall/breast tissue thickness, beam angle incidence, and planned surface dose. Results: The average OSLD measurement at the medial field edge, midfield, and lateral field edge position was 86.8%, 101.8%, and 92.8% of the prescription dose, respectively. A measurement for one patient was low enough (77.0%) to warrant a switch to an alternative type of bolus. Anatomic parameters were analyzed to investigate the low dose in this case, not observed in the planning system. The patient was observed to have a thin chest wall and very oblique beam angles. A second patient was also switched to an alternative type of bolus due to her being high risk and treated with an electron patch that extended onto the breast. Conclusion: Brass mesh bolus increases dose superficially while leaving dose at greater depths unaffected. However, our results suggest that this effect may be insufficient in patients with a thin chest wall or very oblique beam angles. More data and analysis is necessary to proactively identify patients for whom brass mesh bolus is effective.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Ultrasonography and Intravenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Renal ultrasonography an easily available procedure was compared to intravenous urogram (IVU) to determine its suitability as an alternative to the latter, which is a relatively invasive test for demonstrating hydronephrosis/ or ureteric obstruction in cervical cancer staging. Study design: Thirty five histologically ...

  18. Intravenous analgesics for pain management in postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of post-operative pain management and associated adverse effects of ketamine and nefopam. Methods: In total, 78 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1 and 2 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery were given 3 mg of intravenous (IV) morphine as ...

  19. Health Instruction Packages: Venipuncture and Intravenous Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P. Allen, Jr.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nursing students in techniques for initiating intravenous (I.V.) therapy. The first module, "Selection of a Venipuncture Site: Arm" by P. Allen Gray, Jr., describes the utilization of a tourniquet in locating filled veins in the arm. The second…

  20. The adverse effects of inadvertent intraoperative intravenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadvertent intravenous injection of 1% phenylephrine (10 mg) induced severe hypertension and tachycardia in a previously healthy female patient undergoing elective gynaecological surgery. This medical error was investigated using the criticalincident technique that is available in our department. This case report ...

  1. Intravenous iron supplementation in children on hemodialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijn, E.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) are often absolute or functional iron deficient. There is little experience in treating these children with intravenous (i.v.) iron-sucrose. In this prospective study, different i.v. iron-sucrose doses were tested in

  2. Intravenous Leiomyomatosis | Mariyappa | Nigerian Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leiomyomas are benign tumors arising from smooth muscle of the uterus. Intravenous leiomyomatosis is characterized by intraluminal growth of benign smooth muscle into either venous or lymphatic vessels outside the limits of myoma. It commonly extends into the pelvic veins and manifests as worm-like protrusions of ...

  3. Administration and monitoring of intravenous anesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahinovic, Marko M.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The importance of accuracy in controlling the dose-response relation for intravenous anesthetics is directly related to the importance of optimizing the efficacy and quality of anesthesia while minimizing adverse drug effects. Therefore, it is important to measure and control all

  4. The adverse effects of inadvertent intraoperative intravenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-03

    Mar 3, 2012 ... Keywords: human error, drug overdose, phenylephrine. Abstract. Inadvertent intravenous injection of 1% phenylephrine (10 mg) induced severe hypertension and tachycardia in a previously healthy female patient undergoing elective gynaecological surgery. This medical error was investigated using the ...

  5. Intravenous and intramuscular magnesium sulphate regimens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-09-03

    Sep 3, 1993 ... management of severe pre-eclampsia. It is given parenterally, usually according to one of two popular regimens: the intramuscular (IM) regimen introduced by. Pritchard' and a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion described by Zuspan! Sibai et a/.3 have reported that lower serum magnesium values are ...

  6. Intravenous Therapy: Hazards, Complications and Their Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous therapy exposes the patient to numerous hazards and many of them are avoidable, if the health care provider understands the risks involved and acts appropriately and timely to prevent their occurrence. Local complications such as thrombophlebitis and infiltration occur more commonly than systemic ...

  7. Intravenous voriconazole after toxic oral administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Van Assen, S.; De Monchy, J.G.R.; Uges, D.R.A.; Kosterink, J.G.W.; Van Der Werf, T.S.

    In a male patient with rhinocerebral invasive aspergillosis, prolonged high-dosage oral administration of voriconazole led to hepatotoxicity combined with a severe cutaneous reaction while intravenous administration in the same patient did not. High concentrations in the portal blood precipitate

  8. Influence of intravenous anesthetics on neuromonitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Ying Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited reports are available in the literature on the impact of intravenous administration of anesthetics on laryngeal electromyographic (EMG activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the two commonly used intravenous anesthetics (propofol and thiamylal on EMG amplitude evoked from the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN during thyroid surgery. A total of 40 patients were randomized to receive a bolus of propofol (0.5 mg/kg; n = 20 or thiamylal (1.5 mg/kg; n = 20 to increase anesthetic depth when the surgeon found patient movement intraoperatively. Evoked potentials were obtained before and every 1 minute after the administration of each agent for up to 5 minutes by stimulating the RLN. The magnitude of evoked potentials at each time point and hemodynamic response were compared within groups. The mean amplitude of evoked potentials did not change significantly after administration of either propofol or thiamylal (p > 0.05 within groups. Mean arterial pressure measured from 1 minute to 5 minutes was significantly lower in the propofol group than in the thiamylal group (p < 0.05. Heart rate measured within 5 minutes did not differ significantly within groups. Low dose of propofol (0.5 mg/kg or thiamylal (1.5 mg/kg did not affect EMG readings during neuromonitoring of the RLN in thyroid surgery. Our results show that thiamylal provides better hemodynamic stability than propofol, and is therefore a preferable agent to increase anesthesia depth and prevent further patient movement during intraoperative neuromonitoring.

  9. Incidence of hyponatremia in children with gastroenteritis treated with hypotonic intravenous fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina; Saberi, Mohammad S

    2010-08-01

    Hypotonic saline solutions have been used for over five decades to treat children with diarrheal dehydration. However, concern has recently been raised about the potential for iatrogenic hyponatremia as a result of this therapy. We reviewed the medical records of 531 otherwise healthy children with gastroenteritis who had been admitted to the hospital for intravenous fluid therapy. We retrospectively collected data on 141 of these children who had received two serum electrolytes (one upon admission and the other 4-24 h thereafter). The remaining 390 children were excluded because their charts lacked the required data. We analyzed data in 124 of these 141 patients whose initial serum sodium (Na) level was between 130-150 mEq/l and excluded 17 patients whose admission serum sodium fell outside this range. All patients were treated with intravenous hypotonic fluids (5% dextrose in 0.2% saline, n = 4; 5% dextrose in 0.3% saline, n = 102; 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline, n = 18 patients) as maintenance fluid therapy or maintenance fluid plus deficit therapy; 100 of these children had received an initial saline bolus of 21.05 +/- 8.5 ml/kg upon admission. The serum Na level decreased by 1.7 +/- 4.3 mEq/l in the whole group. Of the 97 children with isonatremia (Na 139.5 +/- 2.7 mEq/l) on admission, 18 (18.5%) developed mild hyponatremia (Na 133.4 +/- 0.9 mEq/l, range 131-134), with a decrease in serum Na of 5.7 +/- 3.1 mEq/l, and 79 remained isonatremic (Na 138.3 +/- 2.7 mEq/l), with a decrease in serum Na of 1.8 +/- 3.4 mEq/l (p hypotonic saline solutions have the potential to cause hyponatremia in children with gastroenteritis and isonatremic dehydration.

  10. Detection of exhaled hydrogen sulphide gas in rats exposed to intravenous sodium sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insko, Michael A; Deckwerth, Thomas L; Hill, Paul; Toombs, Christopher F; Szabo, Csaba

    2009-07-01

    Sodium sulphide (Na(2)S) disassociates to sodium (Na(+)) hydrosulphide, anion (HS(-)) and hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) in aqueous solutions. Here we have established and characterized a method to detect H(2)S gas in the exhaled breath of rats. Male rats were anaesthetized with ketamine and xylazine, instrumented with intravenous (i.v.) jugular vein catheters, and a tube inserted into the trachea was connected to a pneumotach connected to a H(2)S gas detector. Sodium sulphide, cysteine or the natural polysulphide compound diallyl disulphide were infused intravenously while the airway was monitored for exhaled H(2)S real time. Exhaled sulphide concentration was calculated to be in the range of 0.4-11 ppm in response to i.v. infusion rates ranging between 0.3 and 1.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1). When nitric oxide synthesis was inhibited with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester the amount of H(2)S exhaled during i.v. infusions of sodium sulphide was significantly increased compared with that obtained with the vehicle control. An increase in circulating nitric oxide using DETA NONOate [3,3-bis(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene] did not alter the levels of exhaled H(2)S during an i.v. infusion of sodium sulphide. An i.v. bolus of L-cysteine, 1 g.kg(-1), and an i.v. infusion of the garlic derived natural compound diallyl disulphide, 1.8 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), also caused exhalation of H(2)S gas. This method has shown that significant amounts of H(2)S are exhaled in rats during sodium sulphide infusions, and the amount exhaled can be modulated by various pharmacological interventions.

  11. Long-term mortality after bolus-only administration of abciximab, eptifibatide, or tirofiban during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmur, Jonathan D; Poludasu, Shyam; Lazar, Jason; Cavusoglu, Erdal

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term mortality after bolus-only administration of abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Studies on platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors (GPI) administered as bolus-only during PCI suggest that this strategy may be similar in efficacy, safer, and more cost-effective compared to a bolus plus infusion of GPI. We evaluated 864 patients (abciximab = 274, eptifibatide = 361, and tirofiban = 229) who underwent PCI with a bolus-only regimen during January 2003 to August 2005. After a median follow up of four (interquartile range, 3-4.5) years, there were a total of 95 (11%) deaths. The survival rate was 83% in the abciximab group, 91% in the eptifibatide group, and 93% in the tirofiban group (P = 0.003 by log-rank test). After adjustment for baseline clinical and procedural characteristics using a Cox proportional hazards model, the abciximab group had a significantly higher mortality compared to the eptifibatide group (P = 0.003; Hazard ratio (HR) for eptifibatide compared to abciximab was 0.49 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.30-0.78). The long-term mortality was not significantly different in the tirofiban group compared to the abciximab group (P = 0.33) or the eptifibatide group (P = 0.20), perhaps because of shorter follow-up period and fewer patients in the tirofiban group. When given as bolus-only during PCI, eptifibatide may improve long-term survival compared to abciximab. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Immediate & Short Term Outcome of Using Single Bolus Eptifibatide in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Randomized Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, S A; Haque, K S; Arzu, J; Mahmood, M; Fatema, N; Hasan, M N

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the immediate and short term outcome of single bolus dose of eptifibatide in elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We enrolled 146 patients who underwent elective PCI from May 2013 to May 2014 in University Cardiac Centre, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Among 146 patients, seventy four patients received single bolus dose of eptifibatide (10 mg intra coronary single bolus dose) just after crossing the lesion were selected as case. The other 72 patients, who did not receive eptifibatide, were selected as control. All patients of both the groups were treated with aspirin, clopidogrel before and after the procedure and all received a single bolus dose of Clopidogrel (300mg) before the procedure. All patient received weight adjusted doses of heparin during and after the procedure. The outcome measures were 24-hours and 30-day morbidity (complications or adverse events) and mortality. The patients of eptifibatide group experienced significantly lower incidence of QMI lesions and complete absence of NQMI lesion in 24 hours of PCI as compared to 5.6% and 6.9% of the lesions respectively in their control counterparts (p=0.027 and p=0.025 respectively). However, the incidence of bleeding and target vessel revascularization (TVR) were no different between the groups (p=0.255 and p=0.117). There was no incidence of TVR at all in the eptifibatide group as opposed to 5.6% in the control group in 30 days following stenting (p=0.017). Single bolus dose of eptifibatite reduces the Major adverse cardiac events as immediate and short term outcome in elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

  13. SU-E-T-19: A Comparison of the Dosimetric Effects of Brass Mesh and Superflab Boluses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, JS; Gong, J; Pavord, D [Vassar Brothers Hospital, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We compared the dosimetric effects of brass mesh (Whiting and Davis, Attleboro Falls, MA) and Superflab (CNMC, Nashville, TN) boluses to verify equivalence between the two. Brass mesh bolus may be a convenient alternative to traditional bolus as it better conforms to the skin surface. Methods: Measurements were taken using a 6MV 10×10cm field produced by an Infinity linear accelerator (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) in a solid water phantom using a parallel plate ion chamber (Model 96035, Keithley Instruments, Cleveland, OH). Measurements compared 0.5cm and 1cm of Superflab to one to six layers of brass bolus mesh. Measurements were performed at depths from 0cm (‘skin’) to 10cm. Oblique beams were not studied. Results: Four layers of brass mesh were equivalent to 0.5cm Superflab within 5% at all depths. Six layers of brass compares most favorably with 0.5cm Superflab, with doses at all depths within 3%. Six layers of brass were not fully equivalent to 1cm Superflab, although the agreement was within 5% for depths greater than 3mm. Surface dose was 12% lower than 1cm Superflab. Surface dose can be up to 34% different between Superflab and brass mesh, but is less than 5% different with 4–6 layers of brass when compared to 0.5cm Superflab. To achieve surface dose agreement better than 5% compared to 1cm Superflab, more than 6 layers would be needed. The attenuation at depth was a maximum of 0.17cm per layer. Conclusion: Between four and six layers of brass mesh can be equivalent to 0.5cm Superflab, depending on the level of agreement desired. Equivalence within 5% at all depths to 1cm Superflab was not achieved even with six layers. This data agrees with measurements taken by Utsunomiya et al. (2010). More point measurements at shallower depths should be taken prior to clinical implementation of brass bolus mesh.

  14. Persistent gross lipemia and suspected corneal lipidosis following intravenous lipid therapy in a cat with permethrin toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Marc A; Burkitt-Creedon, Jamie M

    2016-11-01

    To describe the observation of persistent gross lipemia and suspected corneal lipidosis following intravenous lipid therapy (IVLT) in a cat with permethrin toxicosis. A 5-year-old, spayed female, domestic short-haired cat with permethrin toxicosis was treated with a high dose of IVLT as an adjunct treatment when it remained severely obtunded following traditional supportive care. The cat received intravenous 20% lipid emulsion as a 1.5 mL/kg bolus given over 10 minutes followed by a constant rate infusion of 0.25 mL/kg/min for 2 hours. The cat developed gross lipemia that persisted at least 48 hours after the single dose of IVLT. Changes consistent with corneal lipidosis were observed and resolved within 1 week after IVLT. This is the first report documenting the complications of persistent gross lipemia and suspected corneal lipidosis in a cat following IVLT. This report underscores the off-label, experimental nature of IVLT as a treatment for intoxication in cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  15. Clinical Efficacy of Intravenous Lidocaine for Thyroidectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Ahn, Eun Jin; Oh, Jong In; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Kim, Jin Yun

    2016-12-01

    Systemic lidocaine has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to evaluate the effects of intravenous lidocaine on pain following thyroidectomy. Fifty-eight adult patients scheduled for total thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to receive a 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine bolus followed by a 2 mg/kg/h infusion during surgery, or the same volume of normal saline (control). After thyroidectomy, we evaluated postoperative pain, nausea, fentanyl consumption, frequency of pushing the button (FPB) for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in serum, and patient satisfaction scores regarding the recovery process. Postoperative pain and nausea scores were significantly lower in the lidocaine group for the first 4 h following thyroidectomy, compared to the control group. Fentanyl consumption and FPB for the PCA were also significantly reduced in the lidocaine group for 4 h following thyroidectomy, and hs-CRP was significantly less in the lidocaine group at postoperative days 1 and 3. Furthermore, satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the lidocaine group compared to the control group. Intravenous lidocaine effectively reduced postoperative pain and nausea following thyroidectomy as well as improved the quality of recovery. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01608360.

  16. Efficacy of intravenous ondansetron to prevent vomiting episodes in acute gastroenteritis: a randomized, double blind, and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood. Its symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. In the emergency ward, intravenous rather than oral rehydration is usually preferred because of the high likelihood of emesis. Treatments to reduce emesis are of value in improving the rehydration procedure. Our study is a double-blind randomized trial and proposes the use of ondansetron as an anti-emetic drug to treat children with acute gastroenteritis. Seventy-four in-patients, aged 3 months to 15 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an ondansetron or placebo group. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis and the absence of other diseases or allergies to drugs. A single bolus (0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron was injected intravenously; normal 0.9% saline solution was used as a placebo. This treatment induced vomiting cessation in the ondansetron group significantly in comparison to the placebo group. The length of the hospital stay and the oral rehydration fluid volume were similar in the two groups and no adverse effects were noticed. Thus, safety, low cost, and overall bene­fit of ondansetron treatment suggests that this drug can be administered successfully to children with acute gastroenteritis.

  17. Intravenous clonidine as a part of balanced anaesthesia for controlled hypotension in functional endoscopic sinus surgery: A randomised controled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwanmall, Meghna; Joselyn, Anita Shirley; Kandasamy, Subramani

    2017-05-01

    Controlled hypotension with balanced anaesthesia minimises blood loss. This study was done to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous clonidine as a single bolus dose to establish controlled hypotension during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was done in a tertiary hospital in India. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients (18-65 years) undergoing FESS were randomly allocated to one of the two groups. Placebo group (group A, n = 30) received sterile water whereas the clonidine group (group B, n = 30) received 3μg/kg of clonidine intravenously, 30 min prior to induction of anaesthesia. The primary outcome was to achieve a target mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 55-65 mmHg intraoperatively. The secondary outcomes measured were requirement of additional fentanyl and metoprolol, intra-operative blood loss, surgeon's opinion on the surgical field, pain, sedation score and complications requiring treatment. Target MAP was easily achieved in clonidine group as against the placebo group ( P hypotensive drugs and good analgesia ( P = 0.01) were seen in clonidine group. The complication rates were similar in both the groups. Clonidine is effective in achieving controlled hypotension in patients undergoing FESS. It reduces intra-operative blood loss, requirement of additional hypotensive drugs, improves the surgical field and offers good analgesia without significant side effects.

  18. Plasma exchange successfully treats central pontine myelinolysis after acute hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung Yoon; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Gi Jun; Cho, Kangwon; Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2014-04-04

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) primarily occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. There are no proven effective therapies for ODS, but we describe the first case showing the successful treatment of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) by plasma exchange, which occurred after rapid development of hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. A 40-year-old woman presented with general weakness, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated with oral and intravenous potassium chloride, along with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. Although her bicarbonate deficit was 365 mEq, we treated her with an overdose of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, 480 mEq for 24 hours, due to the severity of her acidemia and her altered mental status. The next day, she developed hypernatremia with serum sodium levels rising from 142.8 mEq/L to 172.8 mEq/L. Six days after developing hypernatremia, she exhibited tetraparesis, drooling, difficulty swallowing, and dysarthria, and a brain MRI revealed high signal intensity in the central pons with sparing of the peripheral portion, suggesting CPM. We diagnosed her with CPM associated with the rapid development of hypernatremia after intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy and treated her with plasma exchange. After two consecutive plasma exchange sessions, her neurologic symptoms were markedly improved except for mild diplopia. After the plasma exchange sessions, we examined the patient to determine the reason for her symptoms upon presentation to the hospital. She had normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, low blood bicarbonate levels, a urine pH of 6.5, and a calyceal stone in her left kidney. We performed a sodium bicarbonate loading test and diagnosed distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). We also found that she had Sjögren's syndrome after a positive screen for anti-Lo, anti-Ra, and after the results of Schirmer's test and a lower lip biopsy. She was discharged and treated as an outpatient with

  19. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 14C-isepamicin in humans following intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Korduba, C; Affrime, M; Radwanski, E; Nomeir, A; Batra, V; Cutler, D; Cayen, M N

    1995-01-01

    Twelve healthy adult male volunteers received 1 g (base equivalent) of 14C-isepamicin (131 microCi) as an intravenous bolus over 5 min. The areas under the plasma concentration-time curves at infinity for isepamicin (196 micrograms*h/ml) and total radioactivity (164 micrograms*h/ml) were similar, indicating no biotransformation of isepamicin. The disappearance of isepamicin from plasma followed a triexponential decline, with half-lives of 0.17, 2.12, and 34 h for the alpha, beta, and gamma phases, respectively. However, the contribution of the gamma phase to the total area under the concentration-time curve was only 2.6%. There were no detectable metabolites in plasma and urine, confirming that isepamicin was not biotransformed. The cumulative levels of isepamicin and total radioactivity excretion in urine from 0 to 120 h were 97.3 and 92.1% of the dose, respectively, indicating that the drug was excreted mainly as unchanged isepamicin in urine. PMID:8619567

  20. A simple intravenous glucose tolerance test for assessment of insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljunggren Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to find a simple intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT that can be used to estimate insulin sensitivity. Methods In 20 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 51 years (mean, 28 comparisons were made between kinetic parameters derived from a 12-sample, 75-min IVGTT and the Mbw (glucose uptake obtained during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp. Plasma glucose was used to calculate the volume of distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of the injected glucose bolus. The plasma insulin response was quantified by the area under the curve (AUCins. Uptake of glucose during the clamp was corrected for body weight (Mbw. Results There was a 7-fold variation in Mbw. Algorithms based on the slope of the glucose-elimination curve (CL/Vd in combination with AUCins obtained during the IVGTT showed statistically significant correlations with Mbw, the linearity being r2 = 0.63-0.83. The best algorithms were associated with a 25-75th prediction error ranging from -10% to +10%. Sampling could be shortened to 30-40 min without loss of linearity or precision. Conclusion Simple measures of glucose and insulin kinetics during an IVGTT can predict between 2/3 and 4/5 of the insulin sensitivity.

  1. Diuresis by intravenous administration of xanthurenic acid in rats, and inhibition by probenecid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwai, Yuichi; Nakashima, Yuta; Honjo, Emi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Nabekura, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    The conjugates with sulfate and glucoside of xanthurenic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, were reported to show natriuresis. Sulfotransferase for xanthurenic acid works in the renal proximal tubule to produce the sulfate of xanthurenic acid as well as the liver, and we recently found that xanthurenic acid is a substrate of renal organic anion transporter OAT1. The purpose of this study was to examine relationship between the transport by OAT1 and diuresis related with xanthurenic acid. Drug transport experiment using Xenopus laevis oocytes represented that probenecid inhibited xanthurenic acid uptake by rat OAT1 (rOAT1). Although no diuresis was recognized by the intravenous injection of xanthurenic acid as a bolus in rats, the addition of its infusion exhibited natriuresis. Simultaneous administration of probenecid significantly decreased the urine volume and excreted amounts of sodium into urine. These findings showed the diuresis by the xanthurenic acid administration, and it was probenecid-sensitive. The rOAT1-mediated transport of xanthurenic acid might, at least in part, contribute to its diuretic effect.

  2. Lupus and autoimmune shock: Use of intravenous gammaglobulin. Case report and proposal for a new designation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Bautista Victor Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shock is a state of hypotension and hypoperfusion which in turn leads to cellular dysfunction, neuroendocrine responses, inflam- matory mediator release, and alterations of the microcirculation. There are various ways of classifying tissue perfusion failure. A simple method is dividing them into a distributive category, such as septic or anaphylactic shock, and a non-distributive category such as hypovolemic shock. There is extensive knowledge on septic shock; the interaction between bacteria and the antigen presenting cell receptor (TRL-2, TRL-4 releases a proinflammatory cytokine storm, favoring the production of nitric oxide, thus perpetuating the hypotensive state. The imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines creates an immunologic dysfunction, which favors the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and unleashes a shock state, a situation named immunologic disso- nance by Dr. Roger Bone in 1996. From our perspective, this term explains the alterations presented in one particular case, where the cornerstone is the dysfunction of the patient’s immune system and its culmination in a distributive form of shock, which from our hypotheti- cal perspective is of autoimmune origin. We consider autoimmunity to be the platform leading to the state of immunologic dissonance responsible for autoimmune shock, which we believe merits a non-traditional approach. For this reason in a case in which we suspect shock based on autoimmunity, intravenous gammaglobulin was used in conjunction with a bolus of methylprednisolone in an attempt to counteract the immunologic dissonance; satisfactory results were obtained.

  3. How to Keep an Infusion Log: Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Globulin include Pediatric AIDS and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Therapy with Intravenous Immune Globulin Many of these immune deficiency diseases ... be treated very success- fully with IVIG replacement therapy. The intravenous Immune Globulin used to treat patients with immune ...

  4. Evaluation of the effects of intravenous anaesthesia using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medetomidine for total intravenous anaesthesia were evaluated in six sahel goats. The goats were administered a combination of ketamine (5mg/kg) and medetomidine (0.01mg/kg) intravenously. Baseline measurements of heart rate, respiratory ...

  5. Effect of intravenous iron-dextran (Imferon) infusion on antigen induced monarticular arthritis in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, C N; Blackham, A; Morris, C J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of intravenously infused iron-dextran (Imferon) on the progression of antigen induced monarticular arthritis in rabbits was studied. A rapid deposition of iron and apoferritin in the synovia of arthritis joints occurred after infusion of iron-dextran during either the acute or chronic phases of the disease. This coincided with the appearance of catalytic (bleomycin reactive) iron in the synovial fluid. There was no evidence, however, for an exacerbation of the antigen induced arthr...

  6. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy for Severe Diphenhydramine Toxicity: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study in a Swine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Shawn M; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Boudreau, Susan M; Vargas, Toni E; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A

    2016-02-01

    Diphenhydramine is a moderately lipophilic antihistamine with sodium channel blockade properties. It is consumed recreationally for mild hallucinogenic and hypnotic effects and causes dysrhythmias, seizures, and death with overdose. Intravenous lipid emulsion is a novel agent used to treat lipophilic drug overdose. Two case reports describe clinical improvement with intravenous lipid emulsion after diphenhydramine toxicity, but no prospective studies have been reported. Our objective is to determine whether intravenous lipid emulsion improved hypotension compared with sodium bicarbonate for severe diphenhydramine toxicity in a model of critically ill swine. Twenty-four swine weighing 45 to 55 kg were infused with diphenhydramine at 1 mg/kg per minute until the mean arterial pressure reached 60% of baseline. Subjects were randomized to receive intravenous lipid emulsion (bolus of 7 mL/kg and then 0.25 mL/kg per minute) or sodium bicarbonate (2 mEq/kg plus an equal volume of normal saline solution). We measured pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, QRS interval, and serum diphenhydramine level. Twelve animals per group provided a power of 0.8 and α of .05 to detect a 50% difference in mean arterial pressure. We assessed differences between groups with a repeated-measures linear model (MIXED) and Kaplan-Meier estimation methods. We compared systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output with repeated measures ANOVA. Baseline weight, hemodynamic parameters, QRS interval, time to hypotension, and diphenhydramine dose required to achieve hypotension were similar between groups. After hypotension was reached, there was no overall difference between intravenous lipid emulsion and sodium bicarbonate groups for cardiac output or QRS intervals; however, there were transient differences in mean arterial pressure and systolic blood pressure, favoring intravenous lipid emulsion (difference: mean arterial pressure

  7. Switch over from intravenous to oral therapy: A concise overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriac, Jissa Maria; James, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Majority of the patients admitted to a hospital with severe infections are initially started with intravenous medications. Short intravenous course of therapy for 2-3 days followed by oral medications for the remainder of the course is found to be beneficial to many patients. This switch over from intravenous to oral therapy is widely practiced in the case of antibiotics in many developed countries. Even though intravenous to oral therapy conversion is inappropriate for a patient who is critically ill or who has inability to absorb oral medications, every hospital will have a certain number of patients who are eligible for switch over from intravenous to oral therapy. Among the various routes of administration of medications, oral administration is considered to be the most acceptable and economical method of administration. The main obstacle limiting intravenous to oral conversion is the belief that oral medications do not achieve the same bioavailability as that of intravenous medications and that the same agent must be used both intravenously and orally. The advent of newer, more potent or broad spectrum oral agents that achieve higher and more consistent serum and tissue concentration has paved the way for the popularity of intravenous to oral medication conversion. In this review, the advantages of intravenous to oral switch over therapy, the various methods of intravenous to oral conversion, bioavailability of various oral medications for the switch over program, the patient selection criteria for conversion from parenteral to oral route and application of intravenous to oral switch over through case studies are exemplified.

  8. A phase I trial of intravenous catumaxomab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau-Sørensen, Morten; Dittrich, Christian; Dienstmann, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    . A reversible decrease in liver function test (prothrombin time) at the 7-µg dose level was considered a DLT. The first patient at 10 µg experienced a fatal hepatic failure related to catumaxomab that led to the termination of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The MTD of weekly intravenous catumaxomab was 7 µg. Major...... design in epithelial cancers with known EpCAM expression. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) period consisted of 4 weeks, with weekly intravenous administration of catumaxomab. Key DLTs were ≥grade 3 optimally treated non-hematological toxicity; ≥grade 3 infusion-related reactions refractory to supportive.......5 %). The most common TEAE of grade ≥3 was transient dose-dependent increases in aspartate aminotransferase (56.3 %). The intensity of toxicities decreased with the number of infusions. Also, serum IL-6 increased in a dose-dependent manner and reverted to low or undetectable levels after four infusions...

  9. Clinical applications of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Sam H; Diaz, James H; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-12-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE; Intralipid) therapy, a standard treatment in local anesthetic toxicity, has demonstrated therapeutic efficacies for a number of different drug class-mediated toxicities. Some of these varied drug groups include antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiarrhythmics, and calcium channel blockers. To meet the objective of describing the growing number of indications for Intralipid therapy and any diverse effects and/or failures of Intralipid therapy in reversing multiple drug toxicities, we queried several Internet search engines with the key words "intravenous lipid emulsion therapy," "Intralipid," "lipid emulsion," and "local anesthetic systemic toxicity," resulting in the identification of 31 case reports for descriptive analysis. These case reports included 49 separate drug overdose cases involving ten separate drug classes which were successfully reversed with Intralipid. The education of clinicians regarding the beneficial and varied roles of Intralipid therapy in different clinical settings is warranted, particularly in terms of the potential for Intralipid therapy to reverse the toxicities of non-local anesthetic drugs.

  10. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for refractory recurrent pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Fresno, M Rosa; Peralta, Julio E; Granados, Miguel Ángel; Enríquez, Eugenia; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; de Inocencio, Jaime

    2014-11-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is a troublesome complication of idiopathic acute pericarditis and occurs more frequently in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery (postpericardiotomy syndrome). Conventional treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and colchicine is not always effective or may cause serious adverse effects. There is no consensus, however, on how to proceed in those patients whose disease is refractory to conventional therapy. In such cases, human intravenous immunoglobulin, immunosuppressive drugs, and biological agents have been used. In this report we describe 2 patients with refractory recurrent pericarditis after cardiac surgery who were successfully treated with 3 and 5 monthly high-dose (2 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin until resolution of the effusion. Our experience supports the effectiveness and safety of this therapy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Rapid IV Versus Oral Rehydration: Responses to Subsequent Exercise Heat Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenefick, Robert W; O'Moore, Kathleen M; Mahood, Nicholas V; Castellani, John W

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of rapid intravenous (IV) versus oral (ORAL) rehydration immediately after dehydration, on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  12. Dosimetry characterization and clinical application of Exa skin: Bolus of high of high density for use with photons; Caracterizacion dosimetrica y aplicacion clinica de Exaskin: bolus de alta densidad para uso con fotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Seidel, M.; Velazquez Miranda, S.

    2013-07-01

    Bolus of high density eXaSkin of density 1.6 g/cm{sub 3} is calculated correctly in the planning systems, is easy to use and generates optimum coupling with the radiation area, at the same time which is easily reproducible in their placement, avoiding the use of electron beams. On the other hand its behavior varies very slightly with the presence of air gaps. (Author)

  13. Dose-dependent attenuation of intravenous nalbuphine on epidural morphine-induced pruritus and analgesia after cesarean delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Kai Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidural morphine in patient-controlled analgesia regimens controls postoperative pain well but easily induces pruritus and other epidural morphine-related side effects. With 90 pregnant American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II females scheduled for elective cesarean delivery, the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of patient-controlled antipruritus (PCP use of intravenous nalbuphine-based regimens for attenuation of postoperative pruritus and related side effects in combination with epidural morphine patient-controlled analgesia with regard to the quality of postoperative pain management. Patients were randomly assigned to two nalbuphine groups (5 μg/kg/hour, Group N5 or 10 μg/kg/hour, Group N10 and bolus dose of 1.6 μg/kg for PCP or the control (normal saline group. Comparable visual analog scale scores for rest pain at each measured time interval among the three groups demonstrated that adequate pain relief was offered; however, the cumulative dose of nalbuphine administered to the patients in Group N10 attenuated the analgesic effect of epidural morphine in moving pain at POh24 only. Fewer episodes and milder severity of pruritus were observed in patients in Groups N5 and N10 at all postoperative time intervals. Epidural morphine provided good postoperative pain relief but with incommodious side effects. In addition, intravenous nalbuphine not only attenuated the incidence of pruritus but also decreased total morphine consumption. In conclusion, intravenous administration of low-dose nalbuphine (5 μg/kg/hour for PCP maintained analgesia produced by epidural morphine and offered low pruritus incidence.

  14. Synthetic Strategies for Engineering Intravenous Hemostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leslie W; White, Nathan J; Pun, Suzie H

    2015-07-15

    While there are currently many well-established topical hemostatic agents for field administration, there are still limited tools to staunch bleeding at less accessible injury sites. Current clinical methods to restore hemostasis after large volume blood loss include platelet and clotting factor transfusion, which have respective drawbacks of short shelf life and risk of viral transmission. Therefore, synthetic hemostatic agents that can be delivered intravenously and encourage stable clot formation after localizing to sites of vascular injury are particularly appealing. In the past three decades, platelet substitutes have been prepared using drug delivery vehicles such as liposomes and PLGA nanoparticles that have been modified to mimic platelet properties. Additionally, structural considerations such as particle size, shape, and flexibility have been addressed in a number of reports. Since platelets are the first responders after vascular injury, platelet substitutes represent an important class of intravenous hemostats under development. More recently, materials affecting fibrin formation have been introduced to induce faster or more stable blood clot formation through fibrin cross-linking. Fibrin represents a major structural component in the final blood clot, and a fibrin-based hemostatic mechanism acting downstream of initial platelet plug formation may be a safer alternative to platelets to avoid undesired thrombotic activity. This Review explores intravenous hemostats under development and strategies to optimize their clotting activity.

  15. Thoracic pathologies on scout views and bolus tracking slices for computed tomographic cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M.; Fiehler, J.; Buhk, J.H. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Henes, F.O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence of additional thoracic pathologic findings (TPF) detected on scout views and corresponding bolus tracking slices (SVBT) for computed tomographic cerebral angiography (CTCA) and to test the reliability and accuracy of these findings. The study collective included 505 consecutive patients who underwent multidetector CTCA. Appendant SVBT of all patients were reviewed for any pathologic findings and patient medical reports were analyzed, if any medical treatment was initiated for the detected pathologic findings. In 18 patients thoracic CT scans were performed in the same session. These were additionally reviewed by two blinded observers to test for intra- and interobserver reliability as well as for accuracy of detecting thoracic pathologies on SVBT. TPF were detected in 165 (33 %) SVBT. The five most common pathologic findings were: pleural effusion, 12 %; pneumonia, 8 %; atelectasis/dystelecatsis, 6 %; pericardial effusion, 2 % and elevated diaphragm, 1 %. For 48 % of these findings medical treatment was initiated. SVBT showed a sensitivity of 53 %, a specificity of 99 %, a positive predictive value of 89 %, a negative predictive value of 94 % and accuracy of 94 % for the detection of TPF. The intraobserver reliability was very good and the interobserver reliability showed moderate agreement. SVBT for CTCA should be reviewed with care by radiologists, since additional TPF can affect patient management. Nevertheless, despite a high specificity of SVBT for detecting TPF, an only moderate sensitivity has to be taken into account.

  16. Cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen content measurements by a tracer bolus method: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J S; Lin, Y J; Criddle, M J; Cutillo, A G; Bigler, A H; Farr, F L; Renzetti, A D

    1997-09-01

    We present a bolus method of inert-gas delivery to the lungs that facilitates application of multiple inert gases and the multiple inert-gas-exchange technique (MIGET) model to noninvasive measurements of cardiac output (CO) and central mixed venous oxygen content Reduction in recirculation error is made possible by 1) replacement of sinusoidal input functions with impulse inputs and 2) replacement of steady-state analyses with transient analyses. Recirculation error reduction increases the inert-gas selection to include common gases without unusually high (and difficult to find) tissue-to-blood partition coefficients for maximizing the systemic filtering efficiency. This paper also presents a practical method for determining the recirculation contributions to inert expired profiles in animals and determining their specific contributions to errors in the calculations of CO and from simulations applied to published ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q) profiles. Recirculation errors from common gases were found to be reducible to the order of 5% or less for both CO and whereas simulation studies indicate that measurement bias contributions from recirculation, V/Q mismatch, and the V/Q extraction process can be limited to 15% for subjects with severe V/Q mismatch and high inspired oxygen fraction levels. These studies demonstrate a decreasing influence of V/Q mismatch on parameter extraction bias as the number of inert gases are increased. However, the influence of measurement uncertainty on parameter extraction error limits improvement to six gases.

  17. Optimizing computed tomography pulmonary angiography using right atrium bolus monitoring combined with spontaneous respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Wang; Jian, Li; Rui, Zhai [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, Department of Computed Tomography, Jining City, ShanDong Province (China); Wen, Li [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Jining, ShanDong (China); Dai, Lun-Hou [Shandong Chest Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jinan, ShanDong (China)

    2015-09-15

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) aims to provide pulmonary arterial opacification in the absence of significant pulmonary venous filling. This requires accurate timing of the imaging acquisition to ensure synchronization with the peak pulmonary artery contrast concentration. This study was designed to test the utility of right atrium (RA) monitoring in ensuring optimal timing of CTPA acquisition. Sixty patients referred for CTPA were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 30): CTPA was performed using bolus triggering from the pulmonary trunk, suspended respiration and 70 ml of contrast agent (CA). Group B (n = 30): CTPA image acquisition was triggered using RA monitoring with spontaneous respiration and 40 ml of CA. Image quality was compared. Subjective image quality, average CT values of pulmonary arteries and density difference between artery and vein pairs were significantly higher whereas CT values of pulmonary veins were significantly lower in group B (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the proportion of subjects where sixth grade pulmonary arteries were opacified (P > 0.05). RA monitoring combined with spontaneous respiration to trigger image acquisition in CTPA produces optimal contrast enhancement in pulmonary arterial structures with minimal venous filling even with reduced doses of CA. (orig.)

  18. The Effect of Rheological Properties of Foods on Bolus Characteristics After Mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junah; Bae, Jung Hyun; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Byong Ki; Lee, Sook Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of physical properties of foods on the changes of viscosity and mass as well as the particle size distribution after mastication. Method Twenty subjects with no masticatory disorders were recruited. Six grams of four solid foods of different textures (banana, tofu, cooked-rice, cookie) were provided, and the viscosity and mass after 10, 20, and 30 cycles of mastication and just before swallowing were measured. The physical properties of foods, such as hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness, were measured with a texture analyzer. Wet sieving and laser diffraction were used to determine the distribution of food particle size. Results When we measured the physical characteristics of foods, the cookie was the hardest food, and the banana exhibited marked adhesiveness. Tofu and cooked-rice exhibited a highly cohesive nature. As the number of mastication cycles increased, the masses of all foods were significantly increased (pmastication (pmastication process and food bolus formation were affected by the physical properties of the food. PMID:23342309

  19. Mode shift of an inhaled aerosol bolus is correlated with flow sequencing in the human lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher N.; Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G. Kim; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects on aerosol bolus inhalations of small changes in convective inhomogeneity induced by posture change from upright to supine in nine normal subjects. Vital capacity single-breath nitrogen washout tests were used to determine ventilatory inhomogeneity change between postures. Relative to upright, supine phase III slope was increased 33 +/- 11% (mean +/- SE, P volumes (V(p)) between 150 and 1,200 ml during a standardized inhalation from residual volume to 1 liter above upright functional residual capacity. Mode shift (MS) in supine posture was more mouthward than upright at all V(p), changing by 11.6 ml at V(p) = 150 ml (P < 0.05) and 38.4 ml at V(p) = 1,200 ml (P < 0.05). MS and phase III slope changes correlated positively at deeper V(p). Deposition did not change at any V(p), suggesting that deposition did not cause the MS change. We propose that the MS change results from increased sequencing in supine vs. upright posture.

  20. Clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid cardioversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation -- a protocol of a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (the AnPAF Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) to sinus rhythm may be achieved by the administration of class IA, IC and III antiarrhythmic drugs or vernakalant hydrochloride. However, that treatment may be related to potential pro-arrhythmia, lack of efficacy or the exceptionally high cost of a compound used. Antazoline is a first generation antihistaminic agent with chinidin-like properties. When administered intravenously, antazoline exerts a strong antiarrhythmic effect on supraventricular arrhythmia, especially on AF, facilitating rapid conversion to sinus rhythm. Despite a relative lack of published data antazoline has been marketed in Poland and widely used in cardiology wards and emergency rooms for many years due to its efficacy, safety and rapid onset of action within minutes of administration. Methods/design A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, superiority clinical trial was designed to assess clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid conversion of AF to sinus rhythm. Eligible patients will present AF lasting less than 43 hours, will be in stable cardio-pulmonary condition and will have no prior history of advanced heart failure or significant valvular disease. Long-term antiarrhythmic therapy is not considered an exclusion criterion. Subjects who fulfill selection criteria will be randomly assigned to receive intravenously either antazoline or placebo in divided doses and observed for 1.5 hours after conversion to sinus rhythm or after the last i.v. bolus. Primary end point will be the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm confirmed in an electrocardiogram (ECG) during the observation period. Secondary end points will be comprised of time to conversion and return of AF during the observation period. Special consideration will be given to the observation of any adverse events. A sample size of 80 patients was calculated based on the following assumptions: two-tailed test, a type I error of 0.01, a power of 90%, efficacy of placebo 5

  1. Clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid cardioversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation--a protocol of a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (the AnPAF Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkowski, Michal M; Maciag, Aleksander; Dabrowski, Rafal; Pytkowski, Mariusz; Kowalik, Ilona; Szwed, Hanna

    2012-09-11

    Rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) to sinus rhythm may be achieved by the administration of class IA, IC and III antiarrhythmic drugs or vernakalant hydrochloride. However, that treatment may be related to potential pro-arrhythmia, lack of efficacy or the exceptionally high cost of a compound used. Antazoline is a first generation antihistaminic agent with chinidin-like properties. When administered intravenously, antazoline exerts a strong antiarrhythmic effect on supraventricular arrhythmia, especially on AF, facilitating rapid conversion to sinus rhythm. Despite a relative lack of published data antazoline has been marketed in Poland and widely used in cardiology wards and emergency rooms for many years due to its efficacy, safety and rapid onset of action within minutes of administration. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, superiority clinical trial was designed to assess clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid conversion of AF to sinus rhythm. Eligible patients will present AF lasting less than 43 hours, will be in stable cardio-pulmonary condition and will have no prior history of advanced heart failure or significant valvular disease. Long-term antiarrhythmic therapy is not considered an exclusion criterion. Subjects who fulfill selection criteria will be randomly assigned to receive intravenously either antazoline or placebo in divided doses and observed for 1.5 hours after conversion to sinus rhythm or after the last i.v. bolus. Primary end point will be the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm confirmed in an electrocardiogram (ECG) during the observation period. Secondary end points will be comprised of time to conversion and return of AF during the observation period. Special consideration will be given to the observation of any adverse events. A sample size of 80 patients was calculated based on the following assumptions: two-tailed test, a type I error of 0.01, a power of 90%, efficacy of placebo 5%, efficacy of antazoline 50% and

  2. Clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid cardioversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation -- a protocol of a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (the AnPAF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkowski Michal M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF to sinus rhythm may be achieved by the administration of class IA, IC and III antiarrhythmic drugs or vernakalant hydrochloride. However, that treatment may be related to potential pro-arrhythmia, lack of efficacy or the exceptionally high cost of a compound used. Antazoline is a first generation antihistaminic agent with chinidin-like properties. When administered intravenously, antazoline exerts a strong antiarrhythmic effect on supraventricular arrhythmia, especially on AF, facilitating rapid conversion to sinus rhythm. Despite a relative lack of published data antazoline has been marketed in Poland and widely used in cardiology wards and emergency rooms for many years due to its efficacy, safety and rapid onset of action within minutes of administration. Methods/design A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, superiority clinical trial was designed to assess clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid conversion of AF to sinus rhythm. Eligible patients will present AF lasting less than 43 hours, will be in stable cardio-pulmonary condition and will have no prior history of advanced heart failure or significant valvular disease. Long-term antiarrhythmic therapy is not considered an exclusion criterion. Subjects who fulfill selection criteria will be randomly assigned to receive intravenously either antazoline or placebo in divided doses and observed for 1.5 hours after conversion to sinus rhythm or after the last i.v. bolus. Primary end point will be the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm confirmed in an electrocardiogram (ECG during the observation period. Secondary end points will be comprised of time to conversion and return of AF during the observation period. Special consideration will be given to the observation of any adverse events. A sample size of 80 patients was calculated based on the following assumptions: two-tailed test, a type I error of 0.01, a power of 90

  3. Changes in basal rates and bolus calculator settings in insulin pumps during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jonathan M; Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore insulin pump settings in a cohort of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator. METHODS: Twenty-seven women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy were included in this study. At 8, 12, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, insulin pump settings......c levels during pregnancy, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio declined 4-fold from early to late pregnancy, whereas...... and HbA1c were recorded. Results were compared with 96 women with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injection therapy. RESULTS: Throughout pregnancy, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio decreased at all three main meals. The most pronounced decrease was observed at breakfast, where the carbohydrate-to-insulin...

  4. INTRAVENOUS REGIONAL ANTIBIOTIC PERFUSION THERAPY AS AN ADJUNCTIVE TREATMENT FOR DIGITAL LESIONS IN SEABIRDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V

    2017-03-01

    Foot infections are a common problem among seabirds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pododermatitis and digital infections are often challenging to treat because of the presence of suboptimal substrates, abnormal weight-bearing due to injuries, and suboptimal nutritional or health status. Seabirds represent the majority of animals requiring rehabilitation after oil spills, and foot problems are a common reason for euthanasia among these birds. Antibiotic intravenous regional perfusion therapy is frequently used in humans and other species to treat infections of the distal extremities, but it has not been evaluated in seabirds. During the 2015 Refugio oil spill response, four birds with foot lesions (pododermatitis, osteomyelitis, or both) were treated with ampicillin/sulbactam administered intravenously to the affected limb(s) in addition to systemic antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Three of the birds, all brown pelicans ( Pelecanus occidentalis ) recovered rapidly and were released. Two of these birds had acute pododermatitis and were treated once with intravenous regional perfusion. They were released approximately 3 wk after the perfusion therapy. The third pelican had osteomyelitis of a digit. It was treated twice with intravenous regional perfusion and was released about 1 mo after the initial perfusion therapy. The fourth bird, a Pacific loon ( Gavia pacifica ), was treated once with perfusion therapy but did not respond to treatment and was euthanatized. No serious adverse effects were observed. This technique should be explored further in avian species.

  5. Comparison of Two Methods of Bolus and Infusion of Tranexamic Acid in Reduction of Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Moshari; Bahman Malek; Mohammadreza Minator-Sajjadi; Maryam Vosoghian; Mastaneh Dahi; Mahshid Ghasemi; Razieh Shekari

    2018-01-01

    Background: So far, many studies have been performed to determine the optimal dose and regimen of tranexamic acid to reduce preoperative and postoperative blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty. In the present study, two different methods of administration (bolus and infusion), were compared. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomized in the two groups (A and B) of 20 patients each. All patients received 500 mg tranexamic acid before inflation of tourniquet. Group A (mea...

  6. Detection of significant stenosis in the left anterior descending artery by 'virtual myocardial perfusion' bolus tracking, 320 slice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Funabashi, Nobusada; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2014-12-20

    We used bolus-tracking CT-images, which are usually used only to detect contrast-material in target organs for optimal-starting of acquisition, as virtual first pass myocardial perfusion images. Retrospective-analysis of 14 patients (10 male, 63 ± 10 years) diagnosed with ≥ 75% stenosis confined to left-anterior-descending-artery (LAD) (7 patients, Group-1) or insignificant stenosis of any coronary artery (7 patients Group-2) diagnosed using invasive-coronary-angiograms (ICA) and enhanced 320-slice-CT within 3-months and without incident between examinations. Bolus-tracking CT-images were acquired at mid-level left-ventricle (LV) until CT-attenuation of descending-aorta increased to 200 HU. We measured CT-attenuation (HU) in the LV anterior-wall (AW), the basal inter-ventricular-septum (BIVS), and LV basal lateral-wall (BLW) in end-systole using both bolus-tracking images and routine, enhanced, early-phase CT-images. In the bolus-tracking images, the Group-1 LV AW, BIVS, BLW CT-attenuation and ratio of LV AW CT attenuation to the average of BIVS and BLW were 36 ± 7HU, 62 ± 11HU, 58 ± 25HU, and 0.6 ± 0.1 respectively. In Group-2, they were 53 ± 14HU, 56 ± 9HU, 54 ± 15HU, and 1.0 ± 0.3 respectively. LV AW CT attenuation and the ratio of LV AW CT values to the average of BIVS and BLW, were significantly lower in Group-1 (both P BLW and without the need for drugs, exercise or additional radiation-exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility of test-bolus DCE-MRI using CAIPIRINHA-VIBE for the evaluation of pancreatic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Jimi; Seo, Nieun; Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoonseok; Woo, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Chang Kyung [Asan Medical Center, Bioimaging Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Seong [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nickel, Dominik [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Kim, Kyung Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Medical Center, Bioimaging Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of test-bolus dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE for pancreatic malignancies. Thirty-two patients underwent DCE-MRI with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE after injection of 2 mL gadolinium. From the resulting time-intensity curve (TIC), we estimated the arterial (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP) scan timing for subsequent multiphasic MRI. DCE-MRI perfusion maps were generated, and perfusion parameters were calculated. The image quality was rated on a 5-point scale (1: poor, 5: excellent). Goodness-of-fit of the TIC was evaluated by Pearson's χ{sup 2} test. Test-bolus DCE-MRIs with high temporal (3 s) and spatial resolution (1 x 1 x 4 mm{sup 3}) were acquired with good-quality perfusion maps of Ktrans and iAUC (mean score 4.313 ± 0.535 and 4.125 ± 0.554, respectively). The mean χ{sup 2} values for fitted TICs were 0.115 ± 0.082 for the pancreatic parenchyma and 0.784 ± 0.074 for pancreatic malignancies, indicating an acceptable goodness-of-fit. Test-bolus DCE-MRI was highly accurate in estimating the proper timing of AP (90.6 %) and PVP (100 %) of subsequent multiphasic MRI. Between pancreatic adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumours, there were significant differences in the Ktrans (0.073 ± 0.058 vs. 0.308 ± 0.062, respectively; p = 0.007) and iAUC (1.501 ± 0.828 vs. 3.378 ± 0.378, respectively; p = 0.045). Test-bolus DCE-MRI using CAIPIRINHA-VIBE is feasible for incorporating perfusion analysis of pancreatic tumours into routine multiphasic MRI. (orig.)

  8. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  9. Split-bolus pancreas CTA protocol for local staging of pancreatic cancer and detection and characterization of liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Andrés; Fang, Jieming; Cohen, Marcela Pecora; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Brook, Olga R

    2017-10-23

    To validate the use of a split-bolus pancreas CTA protocol for local staging of pancreatic cancer and to evaluate its ability to detect and characterize liver lesions. Consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent split-bolus pancreas CTA between 12/2015 and 12/2016 were included in this IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. Objective evaluation of the abdominal vessels, the pancreas, the liver, and lesions, if present, was performed with attenuation measurements and tumor conspicuity and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculations. An abdominal radiologist with 20 years of experience performed subjective evaluation of image quality and blindly detected and characterized liver lesions. Any inconclusive findings or grading scores were evaluated in consensus with another abdominal radiologist with 7 years of experience. Liver findings were validated using a composite reference standard to assess accuracy. There were 82 pancreatic cancer patients with a total of 91 liver findings. Tumor conspicuity and CNR were 60.8 ± 35.1 HU and 8.0 ± 5.8 for the pancreatic lesions and 58 ± 34.7 HU and 9.7 ± 6.3 for the liver lesions, respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the split-bolus protocol for the hepatic findings were correspondingly 89/91 (97.8%, 95% CI 92.3-99.4), 58/60 (96.7%, 95% CI 88.6-99.1), and 33/33 (100%, 95% CI 89.6-100). The subjective image quality ratings were optimal in more than 89% of the cases for various structures, with no non-diagnostic ratings. Split-bolus pancreas CTA protocol allows for detection and staging of pancreatic cancer, both for the primary tumor and detection and characterization of liver lesions.

  10. Intravenous amiodarone for cardioversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Jacek; Kułakowski, Piotr; Budaj, Andrzej; Danielewicz, Henryk; Maciejewicz, Janusz; Kawka-Urbanek, Teresa; Ceremuzyński, Leszek

    2003-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common causes of hospital admission, with a prevalence of up to 5% of the population, increasing with advancing age. Emergency direct current cardioversion is the therapy of choice when arrhythmia leads to hemodynamic compromise, but in patients who are hemodynamically stable, antiarrhythmic drugs are usually given to restore sinus rhythm. The study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of intravenous amiodarone in cardioversion of recent-onset paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). No standard antiarrhythmic therapy has been accepted for pharmacologic cardioversion of AF. Amiodarone seems to be a promising candidate, but only few randomized trials are available and the results are inconsistent. In all, 160 patients with AF lasting amiodarone group (n = 106) receiving 5 mg/kg as a 30 min intravenous (i.v.) infusion, followed by i.v. infusion of 10 mg/kg during 20 h diluted in 1000 ml of 10% glucose with 20 IU of rapid-action insulin, 80 mEq of potassium chloride, and 8 g of magnesium sulphate (GIKM), or to the control group (n = 54) receiving 1000 ml of GIKM alone. Treatment was continued up to 20 h independent of sinus rhythm restoration. Sinus rhythm was restored 20 h after initiation of therapy in 88 (83%) patients in the amiodarone group and in 24 (44%) patients in the control group (p amiodarone administered until sinus rhythm restoration was 740 +/- 296 mg. The presence and the type of underlying heart disease did not influence the conversion rate in either group. In two patients (1.8%) treated with amiodarone, the return of sinus rhythm was preceded by asystole. Amiodarone is effective in the termination of AF lasting < 24 h. It may be particularly useful in patients with organic heart disease in whom class I antiarrhythmic agents may be contraindicated. During treatment, the heart rhythm should be monitored continuously.

  11. Increased pulsatile movement of the hindbrain in syringomyelia associated with the Chiari malformation: cine-MRI with presaturation bolus tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terae, S. [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Miyasaka, K. [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Abe, S. [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Abe, H.; Tashiro, K. [Hokkaido Univ. School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Neurology

    1994-02-01

    Cine-MRI with presaturation bolus tracking was used in patients with syringomyelia associated with a Chiari malformation to study pulsatile movement of the hindbrain, cervical spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid and the fluid within the syrinx. Nine patients had 13 examinations, 6 preoperative, 3 after syringosubarachnoid shunting and 4 after posterior fossa decompression. Five controls were also examined. Dynamic display of the acquired images demonstrated downward displacement of the presaturation bolus on the cerebellar tonsils and medulla oblongata (or upper cervical cord) at the C1 level in all preoperative examinations and in two patients after syringo-subarachnoid shunting but with residual foramen magnum obstruction. Downward displacement of the bolus on the cervical spinal cord was also demonstrated in 7 examinations, but not observed in the controls. Thus, the hindbrain-spinal cord axis showed larger pulsatile movements in patients with foramen magnum obstruction. Based on these observations and a review of the literature, a new theory on the mode of extension of syringomyelia, emphasising the role of increased pulsatile movement of the hindbrain-spinal cord axis is proposed: that the pulsatile movements, together with a one-way valve mechanism in the syrinx cavity act as a ``vacuum-pump`` to enlarge the syrinx. (orig.)

  12. Kidney and urinary tract imaging: Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography as a one-stop shop - Protocol design, opacification, and image quality analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kekelidze (Maka); R.S. Dwarkasing (Roy); M.L. Dijkshoorn (Marcel); K. Sikorska (Karolina); P.C.M.S. Verhagen (Paul); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To retrospectively evaluate renal, vascular, and urinary tract visualization following a single postcontrast multidetector computed tomographic (CT) urographic sequence performed with three limited-volume bolus injections. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board

  13. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Njoku, Njoku

    2015-01-01

    The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol...

  14. Intravenous lipid emulsion and high-dose insulin as adjunctive therapy for propranolol toxicity in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda M; Franco Palacios, Carlos R; Henriksen, Maria N

    2016-06-15

    The concurrent use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) and high-dose insulin (HDI) for the management and treatment of propranolol toxicity in a pediatric patient is described. A seven-month-old infant (weight, 6.1 kg) was admitted to a hospital emergency department with lethargy and bradycardia after an unintentional overdose of propranolol suspension, which had been prescribed several days previously for treatment of a scalp hemangioma. Notable physical examination and laboratory findings were as follows: blood pressure, 121/84 mm Hg (normal range, 90 ± 30/60 ± 10 mm Hg); heart rate, 62 beats/min (normal range, 100-150 beats/min); respiratory rate, 24 breaths/min (normal range, 25-35 breaths/min); oxygen saturation, 100% on room air; and rectal temperature, 35.7 °C (normal range, 36.6-38.0 °C). The patient was lethargic. Treatment included i.v. fluid boluses of 0.9% sodium chloride injection and i.v. boluses and continuous infusions of HDI, dextrose, and ILE. After the completion of these treatments, hemodynamic stability was regained. The case is believed to be the first reported case in which a pediatric patient less than one year of age regained hemodynamic stability after administration of ILE and HDI rescue therapy. Monitoring blood glucose frequently with HDI is essential to avoid hypoglycemia. The rationale for using ILE and HDI for reversal of drug toxicities is discussed. A symptomatic pediatric patient with acute propranolol toxicity exhibited clinical improvement with the administration of ILE in conjunction with HDI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence, hemodynamic, and electrical characteristics of spreading depolarization in a swine model are affected by local but not by intravenous application of magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Edgar; León, Fiorella; Silos, Humberto; Sanchez-Porras, Renan; Shuttleworth, C William; Unterberg, Andreas; Sakowitz, Oliver W

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to characterize the effects of magnesium sulfate, using i.v. bolus and local administration, using intrinsic signal imaging, and on electrocorticographic activity during the induction and propagation of spreading depolarizations in the gyrencephalic porcine brain. Local application of magnesium sulfate led to a complete inhibition of spreading depolarizations. One hour after washing out the topical magnesium sulfate, re-incidence of the spreading depolarizations was observed in 50% of the hemispheres. Those spreading depolarizations showed attenuation in hemodynamic characteristics and speed in intrinsic optical signal imaging. The electrical amplitude decreased through electrocorticographic activity. Intravenous magnesium therapy showed no significant effects on spreading depolarization incidence and characteristics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Intravenous dexamethasone as an adjunct to improve labor analgesia: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Pratibha; Mitra, Sukanya; Singh, Jasveer; Saroa, Richa; Mehra, Reeti

    2017-09-12

    To study the role of intravenous (i.v.) dexamethasone as an analgesic adjunct in labor analgesia. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Labor analgesia in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Eighty consenting ASA I-II parturients, age>18year, nulliparous, single gestation, cephalic presentation at ≥36 wk. of gestation, in early spontaneous labor (cervical dilatation≤5cm) requesting epidural analgesia. The patients were randomized to two groups. The Dexa group received 8mg of dexamethasone i.v. in 50ml normal saline approximately 45min before the procedure. Placebo group patients received 50ml normal saline only. All patients underwent epidural labor analgesia per hospital protocol. After an initial bolus, they received continuous background infusion of 5ml/h of 0.1% of levobupivacaine with 2μg/ml of fentanyl, with the provision of patient controlled boluses of 5ml of the same drug combination with a lockout interval of 12min if needed. Primary outcome measure: hourly average consumption of neuraxially administered levobupivacaine-fentanyl combination. Secondary outcomes and observations: pain score, maternal satisfaction, sensory and motor block characteristics, hemodynamic parameters of mother, fetal heart rate, duration of second stage of labor, mode of delivery, Apgar scores at 1 and 5min, and adverse effects. Average hourly drug consumption was significantly lower in Dexa group as compared to Placebo group (10.34±1.79ml/h vs. 11.34±1.83ml/h; mean difference 1.007, 95% CI 0.199-1.815; P=0.015). The median number of bolus doses was 4 (interquartile-range [IQR] 3-5.75) and 5 (IQR 3-6) in the Dexa and Placebo groups, respectively (P=0.162). There was no significant difference between groups with regard to pain scores, maternal satisfaction and hemodynamics, mode of delivery, and adverse effects. I.v. dexamethasone significantly decreased hourly average drug consumption of levobupivacaine-fentanyl combination through the epidural route, demonstrating the

  17. Once-weekly dulaglutide 1.5 mg restores insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Amparo; Loghin, Corina; Cui, Xuewei; Zhang, Xin; Kapitza, Christoph; Kelly, Ronan P

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of dulaglutide 1.5 mg on first- and second-phase insulin secretion in response to an intravenous (i.v.) glucose bolus challenge, in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; primary objective) and in healthy subjects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period crossover study, subjects received a single subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide 1.5 mg or placebo on day 1 of each period. On day 3, subjects underwent a 6-hour insulin infusion, followed by an i.v. glucose bolus and a glucagon challenge during hyperglycaemia. Areas under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentrations for first- (AUC0-10 and Cmax0-10 ) and second-phase secretion (AUC10-180 and Cmax10-180 ) were calculated for insulin and C-peptide. The glucose disappearance constant (Kg ) and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) were assessed. In 20 subjects with T2DM, dulaglutide increased mean insulin AUC0-10 by 7.92-fold and Cmax0-10 by 5.40-fold vs placebo, and mean AUC10-180 and Cmax10-180 by 2.44- and 3.78- fold, respectively. In 10 healthy subjects, dulaglutide increased the mean insulin AUC0-10 by 3.09-fold and Cmax0-10 by 2.96-fold vs placebo, and mean AUC10-180 and Cmax10-180 by 2.04- and 4.15-fold, respectively. The corresponding C-peptide values also increased. Mean Kg and HOMA-β were higher after dulaglutide compared with placebo. In subjects with T2DM, a single dulaglutide 1.5-mg dose restored the first-phase insulin secretion in response to an i.v. glucose bolus, increased the second-phase insulin response and enhanced β-cell function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of the Intravenous and Topical Routes for Ocular Delivery of Hesperidin and Hesperetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangam, Ramesh; Hippalgaonkar, Ketan; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The objective of this study was to determine the ocular bioavailability of hesperidin and hesperetin, especially with respect to their distribution into the posterior segment of the eye, following systemic and topical administration in rabbits. Methods Hesperidin and hesperetin were administered either intravenously or topically to male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Vitreous humor and plasma samples were collected after intravenous administration and analyzed to estimate the concentrations of the parent compounds and their metabolites. Ocular tissue concentrations, obtained on topical administration of hesperidin and hesperetin, were also determined. Results In the systemic circulation, hesperidin and hesperetin were rapidly metabolized into their glucuronides, which are extremely hydrophilic in nature. Vitreal samples did not demonstrate any detectable levels of hesperidin/hesperetin following intravenous administration. Topical administration produced significant concentrations of hesperidin/hesperetin in all the ocular tissues tested at the 1 and 3 hours time points postdosing, with hesperetin showing higher levels compared to hesperidin. However, only low levels were generated in the vitreous humor. Inclusion of a penetration enhancer, benzalkonium chloride (BAK), improved the back-of-the-eye hesperetin levels. Conclusions Ocular delivery of hesperidin/hesperetin via the systemic route does not seem to be feasible considering the rapid generation of the hydrophilic metabolites. Topical application appears to be more promising and needs to be further developed/refined. PMID:22794525

  19. Intravenous drugs infusion safety through smart pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gómez-Baraza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the role of smart infusion pumps in reducing errors related with the administration of intravenous medications. Method: Retrospective, observational study analyzing the implementation of a system with smart intravenous infusion pumps (Hospira MedNetTM and the role of the safety system for the detection of errors during the administration of drugs, sera, and blood. We included infusions administered at the day-care hospitals of hematology, oncology, rheumatology, and oncopediatrics. We analyzed adherence to the safety system, the number of programming errors detected, the commonly implicated drugs in these errors, and improvement actions. Results: During the study period, 120 smart pumps were implemented and data on 70,028 infusions were gathered. The rate of adherence to the safety program was 62.30% in hematology (6,887 infusions, 60,30% in oncology (28,127 infusions, 46,50% in rheumatology (1,950 infusions and 1.8% in oncopediatrics (139 infusions. 3,481 out of the established limits programming alerts were generated by the pumps: 2,716 of relative limit and 765 of absolute limit. En 807 infusions (2.17%, errors that could have had consequences for the patients could be prevented. These findings allowed implementing a series of strategies aimed at minimizing these errors in the future. Conclusions: The Hospira MedNetTM system detects deviations from the established protocols of intravenous infusion, preventing in this way potential adverse events for the patients. It also allows establishing correction measures and implementing the improvement strategies.

  20. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae on Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA. Silva

    Full Text Available Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook, is an ornamental Asteraceae of great commercial value, and pests can affect adversely its cultivation. More than 20 species of arthropods cause economic damage on gerbera, among them the two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, considered a key pest for this and other ornamental plants. In this work, some life-cycle aspects of T. urticae on gerbera, considered important for the knowledge of its population dynamics and for pest management programs, were studied. Mites were reared on 3-cm diameter arenas of gerbera leaf discs maintained on distilled water in Petri dishes, under laboratory conditions of 25 ºC, 70 ± 10% RU and 14-hour photophase, with only one egg left per arena, in a total of 262 arenas. Egg viability was 96.5% and 97.1% for unmated and mated females, respectively. Unmated females originated larvae which lived for 3.2 days and the stages of protonymph and deutonymph, 1.9 and 1.6 days, respectively; those from mated females lived 3.5 days and for protonymphs and deutonymphs, 2.0 and 1.6 days, respectively. Except for the duration of one generation (T, with similar values, 18.6 and 19.7 days, respectively for unmated and mated females, the net reproductive rate of increase (Rº, the innate capacity to increase in number (r m and the finite rate of growth (λ were different for mated and unmated females, respectively 11.5 and 24.6 for R0; 0.12 and 0.17 for r m and 1.13 and 1.19 for λ.

  1. Monte Carlo based modeling of indocyanine green bolus tracking in the adult human head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2011-02-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly being investigated in critical care settings to assess cerebral hemodynamics, because of its potential for guiding therapy during the recovery period following brain injury. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be quantified by NIRS using indocyanine green (ICG) as an intravascular tracer. However, extracting accurate measurements from complex tissue geometries, such as the human head, is challenging and has hindered the clinical applications. With the development of fast Monte Carlo simulations that can take into account a priori anatomical information (e.g. near-infrared light propagation in tissue from MRI or CT imaging data), it is now possible to investigate signal contamination arising from the extracerebral layers, which can confound NIRS-CBF measurements. Here, we present a theoretical model that combines Monte Carlo simulations of broadband time-resolved near-infrared measurements with indicator-dilution theory to model time-dependent changes in light propagation following ICG bolus injection. Broadband, time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy measurements were simulated for three source-detector positions. Individual simulations required 56 seconds for 5x108 photons, and a set of simulations consisting of baseline measurements at 40 wavelengths, and single-wavelength measurements at 160 time-points required on average 3.4 hours. To demonstrate the usefulness of our model, the propagation of errors associated with varying both the scalp blood flow and the scalp thickness was investigated. For each simulation the data were analyzed using four independent approaches-simple-subtraction blood flow index (ΔBFISS), time-resolved variance time-to-peak (ΔTTPTR), and absolute and relative CBF with depth-resolved NIRS (CBFDR and ΔCBFDR)-to assess cerebral hemodynamics.

  2. [Intravenous monoanesthesia and antianesthetics in emergency surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iachenko, P K; Kostiuchenko, A L

    1984-04-01

    Profiles of using the intravenous mononarcosis (sodium hydroxybutyrate, viadryl , ketamin , sombrevin, seduxen) in urgent surgery and traumatology are analyzed. Choice of certain narcotics is motivated for patients with blood loss and shock, intoxication, insufficiency of kidneys, adrenals and liver, cardio-vascular and respiratory disorders. The problem of antinarcotics is considered with reference to the efficiency of specific (bemegride, gutimine , amtizol , cytochrome "C") and nonspecific ( osmodiuretics , infusion media containing thawing water) antinarcotics . A preliminary assessment of the efficiency of different drugs of antinarcotic action is given.

  3. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four....... Rates of clinically important events, including grade ≥3 AEs, serious AEs, AEs leading to study drug discontinuation and cardiac AEs, were low and similar between treatment arms (safety signals for trastuzumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PrefHer revealed...... that switching from IV to SC trastuzumab (hand-held syringe or SID) or vice versa did not impact the known safety profile of trastuzumab....

  4. Intramuscular oxytocin versus intravenous oxytocin to prevent postpartum haemorrhage at vaginal delivery (LabOR trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nita; Boland, Fiona; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2017-11-15

    Primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The most common cause of primary PPH is uterine atony. Atonic PPH rates are increasing in developed countries despite routine active management of the third stage of labour. In less-developed countries, primary PPH remains the leading cause of maternal death. Although the value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of labour has been well established, there is inconsistent practice in the choice of agent and route of administration. Oxytocin is the preferred agent because it has fewer side effects than other uterotonics with similar efficacy. It can be given intravenously or intramuscularly; however, to date, the most effective route of administering oxytocin has not been established. A double-blind randomised controlled trial is planned. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of an intramuscular bolus of oxytocin (10 IU in 1 mL) and placebo intravenous injection (1 mL 0.9% saline given slowly) with an intravenous bolus of oxytocin (10 IU in 1 mL given slowly over 1 min) and placebo intramuscular injection (1 mL 0.9% saline) at vaginal delivery. The study will recruit 1000 women at term (>36 weeks) with singleton pregnancies who are aiming for a vaginal delivery. The primary outcome will be PPH (measured blood loss ≥ 500 mL). A study involving 1000 women will have 80% power at the 5% two-sided alpha level, to detect differences in the proportion of patients with measured blood loss > 500 ml of 10% vs 5%. Given the increasing trends of atonic PPH it is both important and timely that we evaluate the most effective route of oxytocin administration for the management of the third stage of labour. To date, there has been limited research comparing the efficacy of intramuscular oxytocin vs intravenous oxytocin for the third stage of labour. ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN14718882 . Registered on 4 January 2016. Pilot commenced 12

  5. Comparative oncology evaluation of intravenous recombinant oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus therapy in spontaneous canine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Shruthi; Galyon, Gina D; Jenks, Nathan J; Steele, Michael B; Miller, Amber C; Allstadt, Sara D; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Peng, Kah Whye; Federspiel, Mark J; Russell, Stephen J; LeBlanc, Amy K

    2017-11-20

    Clinical translation of intravenous therapies to treat disseminated or metastatic cancer is imperative. Comparative oncology, the evaluation of novel cancer therapies in animals with spontaneous cancer, can be utilized to inform and accelerate clinical translation. Preclinical murine studies demonstrate that single shot systemic therapy with a VSV-IFNβ-NIS, a novel recombinant oncolytic Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), can induce curative remission in tumor bearing mice. Clinical translation of VSV-IFNβ-NIS therapy is dependent on comprehensive assessment of clinical toxicities, virus shedding, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy in clinically relevant models. Dogs spontaneously develop cancer with comparable etiology, clinical progression and response to therapy as human malignancies. A comparative oncology study was carried out to investigate feasibility and tolerability of intravenous oncolytic VSV-IFNβ-NIS therapy in pet dogs with spontaneous cancer. Nine dogs with various malignancies were treated with a single intravenous dose of VSV-IFNβ-NIS. Two dogs with high-grade peripheral T-cell lymphoma had rapid but transient remission of disseminated disease and transient hepatotoxicity that resolved spontaneously. There was no shedding of infectious virus. Correlative pharmacokinetic studies revealed elevated levels of VSV RNA in blood in dogs with measurable disease remission. This is the first evaluation of intravenous oncolytic virus therapy for spontaneous canine cancer, demonstrating that VSV-IFNβ-NIS is well-tolerated and safe in dogs with advanced or metastatic disease. This approach has informed clinical translation, including dose and target indication selection, leading to a clinical investigation of intravenous VSV-IFNβ-NIS therapy, and provided preliminary evidence of clinical efficacy, and potential biomarkers that correlate with therapeutic response. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  7. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Levy, Yair; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2005-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy may be beneficial and safe for various manifestations in SLE. A structured literature search of articles published on the efficacy of IVIg in the treatment of SLE between 1983 and 2005 was conducted. We searched the terms "IVIg," "intravenous immunoglobulin," "lupus," "SLE," and "systemic lupus erythematosus." The various clinical manifestations of SLE that were reported to be successfully treated by IVIg in case reports include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, acquired factor VIII inhibitors, acquired von Willebrand disease, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiogenic shock, nephritis, end-stage renal disease, encephalitis, neuropsychiatric lupus, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and vasculitis. The most extensive experience is with lupus nephritis. There are only a few case series of IVIg use in patients with SLE with various manifestations, in which the response rate to IVIg therapy ranged from 33 to 100%. We suggest that IVIg devoid of sucrose, at a dose of 2 g/kg over a 5-d period given uniformly and at a slow infusion rate in patients without an increased risk for thromboembolic events or renal failure, is a safe and beneficial adjunct therapy for cases of SLE that are resistant to or refuse conventional treatment. The duration of therapy is yet to be established. Controlled trials are warranted.

  8. Intravenous Carbamazepine for Adults With Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, P Brittany; Tillery, Erika E; DeFalco, Alicia Potter

    2018-03-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, potential drug-drug interactions, and place in therapy of the intravenous (IV) formulation of carbamazepine (Carnexiv) for the treatment of seizures in adult patients. A comprehensive PubMed and EBSCOhost search (1945 to August 2017) was performed utilizing the keywords carbamazepine, Carnexiv, carbamazepine intravenous, IV carbamazepine, seizures, epilepsy, and seizure disorder. Additional data were obtained from literature review citations, manufacturer's product labeling, and Lundbeck website as well as Clinicaltrials.gov and governmental sources. All English-language trials evaluating IV carbamazepine were analyzed for this review. IV carbamazepine is FDA approved as temporary replacement therapy for treatment of adult seizures. Based on a phase I trial and pooled data from 2 open-label bioavailability studies comparing oral with IV dosing, there was no noted indication of loss of seizure control in patients switched to short-term replacement antiepileptic drug therapy with IV carbamazepine. The recommended dose of IV carbamazepine is 70% of the patient's oral dose, given every 6 hours via 30-minute infusions. The adverse effect profile of IV carbamazepine is similar to that of the oral formulation, with the exception of added infusion-site reactions. IV carbamazepine is a reasonable option for adults with generalized tonic-clonic or focal seizures, previously stabilized on oral carbamazepine, who are unable to tolerate oral medications for up to 7 days. Unknown acquisition cost and lack of availability in the United States limit its use currently.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered isepamicin in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C C; Radwanski, E; Korduba, C; Cayen, M; Affrime, M

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of isepamicin, a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic, were studied in men after intravenous administration. Three groups of six volunteers received isepamicin for 10 consecutive days by 0.5-h intravenous infusions at respective dosages of 7.5 mg/kg of body weight once daily, 7.5 mg/kg twice daily, and 15 mg/kg once daily. Levels of isepamicin in plasma and urine were determined by a specific high-performance liquid chromatography method. For all three groups, steady-state concentrations of the drug in plasma were attained with the first dose. The area under the concentration-time curve for plasma and urinary drug excretion were dose proportional. A half-life ranging from 2.0 to 2.5 h was independent of the dosage regimen. Isepamicin excreted in urine over 24 h accounted for about 100% of the dose. The results show that the pharmacokinetics of isepamicin are linear with these dosage regimens. The drug does not accumulate upon multiple dosing, undergoes no detectable biotransformation, and is cleared solely by urinary excretion. PMID:8593018

  10. Flank pain: is Intravenous Urogram necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, H S; Lin, M B; Khoo, T K

    2001-09-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of Intravenous Urogram (IVU) and the values of plain radiograph of kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB) and urinalysis as screening tests, with the objective to improve the cost effectiveness, in the management of patients presenting with flank pain due to urinary lithiasis. All Intravenous Urogram (IVU) request forms and reports for the month of February 1998 were audited. The case notes, urinalysis, KUB and IVU films were traced and reviewed. There were 110 patients investigated, 61.8% (68) had normal IVU, 38.2% (42) had abnormal IVU. The sensitivity and specificity of KUB alone was 79.4% and 90%. The sensitivity using urinalysis alone was 90.9% and its specificity 33.8%. The sensitivity of combined KUB and urinalysis was 100% and its specificity 26%, with a negative predictive value of 100%. All the patients with both negative KUB and urinalysis in our study were found to have negative IVU. Our study shows that in patients with both negative KUB and urinalysis, the yield of IVU is very low and may not be necessary. This is important, as an IVU examination is not without risk. A combination of KUB with urinary analysis and careful evaluation of clinical symptoms will improve the cost-effectiveness of patient management.

  11. Hepatic Dysfunction in Patients Receiving Intravenous Amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Ali; Keswani, Nicole R; Kim, Sharon; Graham, David Y

    2016-02-01

    Amiodarone is a commonly used antiarrhythmic drug. Hepatotoxicity following chronic oral administration occurs in 1% to 3% of patients. Hepatotoxicity following intravenous (IV) administration is infrequent but may be associated with dramatic increases in serum transaminases. We describe the incidence of liver toxicity among patients receiving IV amiodarone during a 5-year period. This was a single-center retrospective review of patients receiving IV amiodarone for any cause. The outcome measures were development of elevated serum transaminases and the relation of transaminitis to all-cause 30-day mortality. A total of 1510 patients received amiodarone intravenously between 2005 and 2011; 77 (5%) developed elevated liver enzymes. Enzyme elevation was divided into mild (100-300 IU/L), moderate (300-1000 IU/L), and severe (>1000 IU/L). The median alanine aminotransferase was 189 (37-10,006) IU/L and aspartate aminotransferase was 253 (84-12,005) IU/L. The 30-day mortality among those with transaminitis was 22%; however, no patient died of amiodarone-related liver disease. Amiodarone can cause severe elevation in liver enzymes. The incidence of severe transaminitis is low; deaths following IV amiodarone are rarely caused by drug-induced liver failure.

  12. The human experience with intravenous levodopa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan H Siddiqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compile a comprehensive summary of published human experience with levodopa given intravenously, with a focus on information required by regulatory agencies.Background: While safe intravenous (IV use of levodopa has been documented for over 50 years, regulatory supervision for pharmaceuticals given by a route other than that approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has become increasingly cautious. If delivering a drug by an alternate route raises the risk of adverse events, an investigational new drug (IND application is required, including a comprehensive review of toxicity data.Methods: Over 200 articles referring to IV levodopa were examined for details of administration, pharmacokinetics, benefit and side effects.Results: We identified 142 original reports describing IVLD use in humans, beginning with psychiatric research in 1959-1960 before the development of peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors. Over 2750 subjects have received IV levodopa, and reported outcomes include parkinsonian signs, sleep variables, hormone levels, hemodynamics, CSF amino acid composition, regional cerebral blood flow, cognition, perception and complex behavior. Mean pharmacokinetic variables were summarized for 49 healthy subjects and 190 with Parkinson’s disease. Side effects were those expected from clinical experience with oral levodopa and dopamine agonists. No articles reported deaths or induction of psychosis.Conclusion: Over 2750 patients have received IV levodopa with a safety profile comparable to that seen with oral administration.

  13. Automated bolus advisor control and usability study (ABACUS: does use of an insulin bolus advisor improve glycaemic control in patients failing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI therapy? [NCT01460446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavan David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM often do not follow and/or adjust their insulin regimens as needed. Key contributors to treatment non-adherence are fear of hypoglycaemia, difficulty and lack of self-efficacy associated with insulin dose determination. Because manual calculation of insulin boluses is both complex and time consuming, people may rely on empirical estimates, which can result in persistent hypoglycaemia and/or hyperglycaemia. Use of automated bolus advisors (BA has been shown to help insulin pump users to more accurately meet prandial insulin dosage requirements, improve postprandial glycaemic excursions, and achieve optimal glycaemic control with an increased time within optimal range. Use of a BA containing an early algorithm based on sliding scales for insulin dosing has also been shown to improve HbA1c levels in people treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI. We designed a study to determine if use of an automated BA can improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in people treated with MDI. Methods/design The Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS is a 6-month, prospective, randomised, multi-centre, multi-national trial to determine if automated BA use improves glycaemic control as measured by a change in HbA1c in people using MDI with elevated HbA1c levels (#62;7.5%. A total of 226 T1DM and T2DM participants will be recruited. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of 90 participants, which will provide #62;80% power to detect a mean difference of 0.5%, with SD of 0.9%, using a one-sided 5% t-test, with 5% significance level. Other measures of glycaemic control, self-care behaviours and psychosocial issues will also be assessed. Discussion It is critical that healthcare providers utilise available technologies that both facilitate effective glucose management and address concerns about safety and lifestyle. Automated BAs may help people using MDI to

  14. A randomized phase III multicenter trial comparing irinotecan in combination with the Nordic bolus 5-FU and folinic acid schedule or the bolus/infused de Gramont schedule (Lv5FU2) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimelius, B; Sørbye, H; Balteskard, L

    2008-01-01

    not differ (4% versus 6%, P = 0.3). Grade 3/4 neutropenia (11% versus 5%, P = 0.01) and grade 2 alopecia (18% versus 9%, P = 0.002) were more common in the FLIRI group. The 60-day mortality was 2.4% versus 2.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Irinotecan with the bolus Nordic schedule (FLIRI) is a convenient treatment with PFS...... and OS comparable to irinotecan with the Lv5FU2 schedule. Neutropenia and alopecia are more prevalent, but both regimens are equally well tolerated....

  15. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpandev Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216 switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6% to week 24 (1.0% in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001, while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort.

  16. Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique – feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxa, Jan, E-mail: baxaj@fnplzen.cz [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Vendiš, Tomáš [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Moláček, Jiří [Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Lucie [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Flohr, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Korporaal, Johannes G. [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography Division, Forchheim (Germany); Ferda, Jiří [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique – the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed. Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1–2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: −0.263, −0.298 and −0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease. Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus.

  17. Perfluorocarbon emulsions: one approach to intravenous artificial respiratory gas transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, B D

    1995-01-01

    The PFC emulsions have had a developmental history of promise as yet unfulfilled. Today, second-generation PFC emulsions are poised with the right gas-carrying capabilities to be able to make significant contributions to oxygen transport and delivery. The dream of stable, safe, easily transportable intravenous fluid, with universal rapid application is not yet at hand. However, we appear to be a great deal closer than in the mid 1980s. If these 40% volume-to-volume emulsions prove safe, then an entirely new realm of therapeutic options will become available. Not only will the uses for trauma and acute blood loss replacement become a reality, but extremes of euvolemic hemodilution may become possible. The use of these compounds for prevention of stroke, ischemic organ salvage, and prevention of air embolism or decompression sickness are particularly exciting. It is clear from the recent developments in PFC technology that some product will come to market in the not-too-distant future. How such a PFC will be utilized as compared with hemoglobin preparations is yet to be discerned, but the two concepts are quite different. Each will have its own specific indications.

  18. Hypersensitivity to intravenous ondansetron: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Karishma K

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist widely used in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, is associated with various unusual adverse drug reactions. In this paper, we describe a hypersensitivity reaction to a single intravenous dose of ondansetron. Case presentation A 19-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our institute with 3–4 episodes of nausea, vomiting and epigastric distress. She had a diagnosis of polycystic ovarian disease and had been on treatment with cyproterone acetate 2 mg, ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, finasteride 5 mg and metformin 500 mg for a month. She had been taking oral roxithromycin 500 mg per day for the past 3 days for treatment of a mild upper respiratory tract infection. She also occasionally took rabeprazole 10 mg for gastritis which had worsened after treatment with roxithromycin. She was treated with a single 4 mg dose of ondansetron intravenously. She immediately developed urticaria, which was treated with intravenous dexamethasone 4 mg and chlorpheniramine maleate 20 mg. The reaction abated within a few minutes and she was discharged within an hour. She was asymptomatic at 72 hours of follow-up. She had no history of ondansetron exposure, or drug or food allergies. On the Naranjo's causality assessment scale, the adverse event was 6 indicating a "probable" reaction to ondansetron. Conclusion 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists have been associated with life-threatening adverse reactions such as hypotension, seizures and anaphylaxis. The wide availability of these drugs in India has promoted their off label use in the treatment of gastritis, migraine and so on. Our case represents an off label use in a patient who could have been treated with a safer drug. Some authors have suggested that anaphylaxis may be a class effect while others think it may be drug specific. In our case, the reaction could be either

  19. A presedation fluid bolus does not decrease the incidence of propofol-induced hypotension in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Matthew D; Aldag, Jean C; Deshpande, Girish G

    2015-02-01

    Propofol is commonly used in pediatric sedation, which may cause hypotension during induction. Our goal was to determine the effect of a preinduction 20-mL/kg isotonic fluid bolus on propofol-induced hypotension, assess clinical signs of hypoperfusion during hypotension, and evaluate for age-related propofol dosing differences. This prospective, randomized, controlled, nonblinded study was conducted at Children's Hospital of Illinois. Patients were children 6 to 60 months of age who needed sedation for MRI or auditory brainstem-evoked response testing. The treatment group received a preinduction 20-mL/kg isotonic saline bolus before procedure initiation. Patients were continuously monitored via cardiorespiratory monitor with pulse oximetry and end-tidal carbon dioxide measurements. Cardiovascular indices and clinical signs of hypoperfusion were compared between groups, and propofol dosing differences were compared between age groups. One hundred twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to treatment (n=52) or control (n=74) conditions. Twelve patients in the treatment group and 14 patients in the control group experienced postinduction hypotension, as defined by the Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines. One patient in each group was given volume resuscitation when blood pressure did not improve after a reduction in the propofol infusion rate. No hypotensive patients had physical signs of hypoperfusion, and patients≤1 year of age needed significantly more propofol. A 20-mL/kg preinduction isotonic saline bolus does not prevent propofol-induced hypotension. No clinical signs of hypoperfusion were noted with induced hypotension, and infants≤12 months old need significantly more propofol per kilogram for procedures. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Intravenous S-Ketamine Does Not Inhibit Alveolar Fluid Clearance in a Septic Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nina C.; van der Sluijs, Koen; Hackl, Florian; Hotz, Lorenz; Dahan, Albert; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intratracheally administered S-ketamine inhibits alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), whereas an intravenous (IV) bolus injection had no effect. The aim of the present study was to characterize whether continuous IV infusion of S-ketamine, yielding clinically relevant plasma concentrations, inhibits AFC and whether its effect is enhanced in acute lung injury (ALI) which might favor the appearance of IV S-ketamine at the alveolar surface. AFC was measured in fluid-instilled rat lungs. S-ketamine was administered IV over 6 h (loading dose: 20 mg/kg, followed by 20 mg/kg/h), or intratracheally by addition to the instillate (75 µg/ml). ALI was induced by IV lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-6 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-3 were measured by ELISA in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Isolated rat alveolar type-II cells were exposed to S-ketamine (75 µg/ml) and/or LPS (1 mg/ml) for 6 h, and transepithelial ion transport was measured as short circuit current (ISC). AFC was 27±5% (mean±SD) over 60 min in control rats and was unaffected by IV S-ketamine. Tracheal S-ketamine reduced AFC to 18±9%. In LPS-treated rats, AFC decreased to 16±6%. This effect was not enhanced by IV S-ketamine. LPS increased IL-6 and CINC-3 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In alveolar type-II cells, S-ketamine reduced ISC by 37% via a decrease in amiloride-inhibitable sodium transport. Continuous administration of IV S-ketamine does not affect rat AFC even in endotoxin-induced ALI. Tracheal application with direct exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to S-ketamine decreases AFC by inhibition of amiloride-inhibitable sodium transport. PMID:25386677

  1. The Effect of Intravenous Ketamine in Suicidal Ideation of Emergency Department Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Kashani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicidal ideation is an emergent problem in the Emergency Department (ED that often complicates patient disposition and discharge. It has been shown that ketamine possesses fast acting antidepressant and anti-suicidal effects. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a single intravenous bolus of ketamine on patients with suicidal ideations in ED. Methods: Forty-nine subjects with suicidal ideations with or without an unsuccessful suicide attempt, received 0.2 mg/kg of ketamine. Scale for suicidal ideation (SSI and Montgomery-Abserg depression rating scale (MADRS were evaluated before and 40, 80 and 120 minutes after drug intervention. The results were compared using the paired t-test and patients were followed up 10 days after ED admission for remnant suicide ideation. Results: SSI (df: 3, 46; F=80.7; p<0.001 and MADRS (df: 3, 46; F=87.2; p<0.001 scores significantly dropped after ketamine injection; the SSI score before and after 20, 40, and 80 minutes of ketamine injection were 23.0±6.7, 16.2±5.2, 14.3±4.3, and 13.6±4.0 respectively. The MADRS scores were 38.2±9.3, 25.6±7.1, 22.7±6.3, and 22.1±5.95 at the same time intervals. 25.5% of patients were hospitalized, 63.3% received medications and 12.2% discharged. 6.2% of patients had suicidal ideations ten days after ED disposition.  Conclusion: It seems that Ketamine couldn't be a good choice for fast reduction of suicidal ideations in ED patients. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose of ketamine for different patients.

  2. Foetal Fentanyl Exposure and Ion Trapping after Intravenous and Transdermal Administration to the Ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Emma M; Kokki, Hannu; Heikkinen, Aki; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Räsänen, Juha; Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Kokki, Merja

    2017-02-01

    Opioids given to pregnant and parturient women are relatively freely transferred across the placenta. Spinal, epidural and intravenous fentanyl has been studied in pregnant women and neonates, but foetal safety of fentanyl dosing with transdermal patch during pregnancy and labour is not sufficiently studied. Foetal pH is physiologically lower than maternal pH, and thus, opioids, which are weak bases, are ionized and may cumulate to foetus. Foetal asphyxia may further worsen acidosis, and ion trapping induced by low pH is assumed to increase the foetal exposure to opioids. Here, we show that no correlation between foetal acidosis and ion trapping of fentanyl could be found. In three experiments, 29 pregnant sheep were administered fentanyl with 2 μg/kg/h patch supplemented with IV boluses/infusion. Foetal exposure to fentanyl was extensive, median 0.34 ng/ml (quartiles 0.21, 0.42), yet drug accumulation to foetus was not observed, and median of foetal/maternal concentration (F/M) ratio was 0.63 (0.43, 0.75) during the first hours after the fentanyl administration. Low foetal pH and pH difference between ewe and the foetus did not correlate with fentanyl concentration in the foetus or F/M ratio. At steady-state during the second patch worn, foetal plasma fentanyl was low, 0.13 ng/ml, and the median of F/M ratio was 0.69. Our results demonstrate that drug accumulation to foetus caused by ion trapping seen with some weak base opioids may not be that significant with fentanyl. These results have a clinical relevance when fentanyl is dosed to pregnant woman and the foetus is acidemic. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood propofol concentration during total intravenous anaesthesia for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, A L; Fijałkowska, A; Nestorowicz, A; Kalityński, R; Trojanowski, T

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the propofol concentration in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients scheduled for different neurosurgical procedures and anaesthetized using propofol as part of a total intravenous anaesthesia technique. Thirty-nine patients (ASA I-III) scheduled for elective intracranial procedures, were studied. Propofol was infused initially at 12 mg kg(-1) h(-1) and then reduced in steps to 9 and 6 mg kg(-1) h(-1). During anaesthesia, bolus doses of fentanyl and cis-atracurium were administered as necessary. After tracheal intubation the lungs were ventilated to achieve normocapnia with an oxygen-air mixture (FI(O(2))=0.33). Arterial blood and CSF samples for propofol examination were obtained simultaneously directly after intracranial drainage insertion and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the type of neurosurgery. The Aneurysm group consisted of 13 patients who were surgically treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The Tumour group was composed of 26 patients who were undergoing elective posterior fossa extra-axial tumour removal. Blood propofol concentrations in both groups did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The propofol concentration in CSF was 86.62 (SD 37.99) ng ml(-1) in the Aneurysm group and 50.81 (26.10) ng ml(-1) in the Tumour group (P<0.005). Intracranial pathology may influence CSF propofol concentration. However, the observed discrepancies may also result from quantitative differences in CSF composition and from restricted diffusion of the drug in the CSF.

  4. Proteus endocarditis in an intravenous drug user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rohan; Sekar, Baskar; Payne, Mark N

    2015-11-26

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening condition with adverse consequences and increased mortality, despite improvements in treatment options. Diagnosed patients usually require a prolonged course of antibiotics, with up to 40-50% requiring surgery during initial hospital admission. We report a case of a 42-year-old intravenous drug user who presented feeling generally unwell, with lethargy, rigours, confusion and a painful swollen right leg. He was subsequently diagnosed with Proteus mirabilis endocarditis (fulfilling modified Duke criteria for possible IE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). He was successfully treated with single antibiotic therapy without needing surgical intervention or requiring anticoagulation for his DVT. Proteus endocarditis is extremely uncommon, with a limited number of case reports available in the literature. This case illustrates how blood cultures are invaluable in the diagnosis of IE, especially that due to unusual microorganisms. Our case also highlights how single antibiotic therapy can be effective in treating Proteus endocarditis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Solar urticaria successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic solar urticaria (SU) is a rare, debilitating photodermatosis, which may be difficult to treat. First-line treatment with antihistamines is effective in mild cases, but remission after phototherapeutic induction of tolerance is often short-lived. Other treatment options include plasma exchange, photopheresis and cyclosporin. We present two cases of severe, idiopathic SU, which were resistant to conventional treatment. Both patients achieved remission after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and have remained in remission at 13 months and 4 years, respectively. There are only two case reports of successful treatment of solar urticaria with IVIg. In our experience IVIg given at a total dose of 2 g\\/kg over several 5-day courses about a month apart is an effective treatment option for severe idiopathic SU. It is also generally safe, even if certainly subject to significant theoretical risks, such as induction of viral infection or anaphylaxis.

  6. Renal trauma and the intravenous urogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, C D; Britton, J M; Charlton, C A

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of all patients with blunt abdominal trauma associated with haematuria admitted to one hospital (Royal United, Bath) in a 10-year period was conducted to establish the contribution of the intravenous urogram (IVU) in their management. Eighty-one case records were analysed. Of 35 IVUs performed in patients with microscopic (reagentstrip positive) haematuria, only one was abnormal. In contrast, 27 IVUs performed in patients with macroscopic (naked eye) haematuria revealed 17 major injuries and 5 previously unrecognized congenital abnormalities. It is concluded that an IVU is an unnecessary and non-contributory investigation in patients with microscopic haematuria and guidelines are suggested for the role of IVU in patients with blunt abdominal trauma associated with haematuria. PMID:3560121

  7. Intravenous urography in children and youth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, H.K.; Gudmundsen, T.E.; Oestensen, H.; Pape, J.F.

    1987-10-01

    This report derives from Tromsoe in northern Norway. In a retrospective study of the indications for intravenous urography (IU) and the findings at IU in 740 patients (451 girls and 289 boys) aged 0-19 years, we found that urinary tract infections accounted for 69.4% of the IU in females and 30.1% of the IU in males, most often seen in the youngest patients. The pathological findings most frequently seen were anomalies (17 females and 10 males) and urinary tract obstruction (3 females and 15 males). The present study indicates the following: first, that the yield of IU in the primary investigation of children and youth suffering from enuresis and non-specific abdominal disturbancies is small; and second, that the use of IU in children and youth with urinary tract infection and haematuria should be questioned and reconsidered.

  8. Phytonadione Content in Branded Intravenous Fat Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchielli, Maria Luisa; Conti, Matteo; Motta, Roberto; Puggioli, Cristina; Bersani, Germana

    2017-03-01

    Intravenous fat emulsions (IVFE) with different fatty acid compositions contain vitamin E as a by-product of vegetable and animal oil during the refining processes. Likewise, other lipid-soluble vitamins may be present in IVFE. No data, however, exist about phytonadione (vitamin K1) concentration in IVFE information leaflets. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the phytonadione content in different IVFE. Analyses were carried out in triplicate on 6 branded IVFE as follows: 30% soybean oil (100%), 20% olive-soybean oil (80%-20%), 20% soybean-medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) coconut oil (50%-50%), 20% soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil (30%-25%-30%-15%), 20% soybean-MCT-fish oil (40%-50%-10%), and 10% pure fish oil (100%). Phytonadione was analyzed and quantified by a quali-quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method after its extraction from the IVFE by an isopropyl alcohol-hexane mixture, reverse phase-liquid chromatography, and specific multiple-reaction monitoring for phytonadione and vitamin d3 (as internal standard). This method was validated through specificity, linearity, and accuracy. Average vitamin K1 content was 500, 100, 90, 100, 95, and 70 µg/L in soybean oil, olive-soybean oil, soybean-MCT coconut oil, soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil, soybean-MCT-fish oil, and pure fish oil intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs), respectively. The analytical LC-MS method was extremely effective in terms of specificity, linearity ( r = 0.99), and accuracy (coefficient of variation <5%). Phytonadione is present in IVFE, and its intake varies according to IVFE type and the volume administered. It can contribute to daily requirements and become clinically relevant when simultaneously infused with multivitamins during long-term parenteral nutrition. LC-MS seems adequate in assessing vitamin K1 intake in IVFE.

  9. Very Early Carotid Endarterectomy After Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzini, C; Gentile, M; De Vito, A; Traina, L; Sette, E; Fainardi, E; Mascoli, F; Casetta, I

    2016-04-01

    The timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) after thrombolysis is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to analyse a cohort of patients undergoing urgent endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. This was an observational study. Prospective databases were reviewed and matched to identify patients who underwent CEA early after intravenous thrombolysis (2009-14). The focus was carotid surgery performed within 12 hours of stroke onset in patients with a high grade (≥70%) symptomatic carotid stenosis, associated with vulnerable plaques or stroke in evolution, and evidence of a significant salvageable ischaemic penumbra on perfusion computed tomography scan. Demographic and clinical information, as well as data on relevant outcomes were extracted. Thirty four consecutive stroke patients who underwent CEA within 2 weeks of thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke and ipsilateral high grade carotid stenosis were identified. In 11 patients the surgical procedure was performed within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms. All patients showed a clinical improvement after combined treatment. The 3 month outcome was favourable (modified Rankin Scale ≤ 2) in 10 patients. No haemorrhagic complications were registered. There was neither peri-operative stroke nor stroke within 3 months of surgery. One patient died from acute myocardial infarction 3 days after intervention. This experience suggests that very early CEA after thrombolysis, aimed at removing the source of potential embolisation and restoring blood flow, may be safe and can lead to a favourable outcome. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Simplified Semiquantitative Meal Bolus Strategy Combined with Single- and Dual-Hormone Closed-Loop Delivery in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Véronique; Haidar, Ahmad; Messier, Virginie; Legault, Laurent; Ladouceur, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2016-08-01

    Single- and dual-hormone closed-loop systems can improve glycemic control and have the potential to reduce carbohydrate-counting burden for patients with type 1 diabetes; however, simplification of meal insulin calculation should not compromise glycemic control. We compared in a randomized outpatient pilot trial: (1) a single-hormone closed-loop system accompanied with carbohydrate-content matched boluses versus accompanied with a simplified meal bolus strategy, and (2) a dual-hormone closed-loop system accompanied with carbohydrate-content matched boluses versus accompanied with a simplified meal bolus strategy. Carbohydrate-matched boluses were based on the participant's carbohydrate meal content estimation whereas the simplified strategy involved the selection, by participants, of a semi-quantitative meal carbohydrate-content size: snack, regular, large, or very large meal. Each participant also underwent sensor-augmented pump therapy. Basal insulin delivery was more aggressive with the simplified bolus. The primary outcome was mean sensor glucose level over a 15-h daytime period. Twelve participants were recruited (48.2 ± 16.0 years old; HbA1c 7.4% ± 0.9%) to compare the two bolus strategies during single- and dual-hormone closed-loop delivery. A similar mean sensor glucose level (15 h) was achieved with the carbohydrate-matched boluses and simplified strategy using single-hormone (median [interquartile]: 7.6 [7.2-8.1] vs. 8.0 [7.0-8.6] mmol/L; P = 0.90) and dual-hormone closed-loop systems (7.6 [6.7-9.1] vs. 7.0 [6.4-8.2] mmol/L; P = 0.08). Exploratory analyses showed that, as compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy, there was an increased time spent in hypoglycemia with the simplified strategy but not with the carbohydrate-matched boluses. Though the algorithm employed in this pilot study may lead to an increased risk for hypoglycemia, this strategy has the potential to reduce the carbohydrate-counting burden in patients with type

  11. The Calculating Boluses on Multiple Daily Injections (CBMDI) study: A randomized controlled trial on the effect on metabolic control of adding a bolus calculator to multiple daily injections in people with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Mora, María Del Rosario; Carreira-Soler, Mónica; Linares-Parrado, Francisca; Olveira, Gabriel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Domínguez-López, Marta; Ruiz-de-Adana-Navas, María Soledad; González-Romero, María Stella

    2017-01-01

    Although the insulin bolus calculator is increasingly being used by people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy, few studies have investigated its effects on glycemic control. The aim of this study was to determine whether adding this device to therapeutic intensification could further improve metabolic control. A 4-month randomized controlled clinical trial was performed comparing subjects undergoing therapeutic intensification and either using the bolus calculator (Cb group) or not (active control [Co] group). Metabolic control, fear of hypoglycemia, and treatment acceptance were evaluated. In all, 70 people completed the study (42 in the Cb group, 28 in the Co group). There was a significant decrease in HbA1c in both the Cb and Co groups (-7 mmol/mol [-0.7 %] vs -4 mmol/mol [-0.4 %], respectively). There were no significant differences in HbA1c at baseline or the end of the study, or in the decrease in HbA1c, glycemia, or changes in blood glucose levels at the end of the study between the two groups. There was a significant increase in the number of participants with good metabolic control (HbA1c metabolic control and slightly decreased the number of hypoglycemic episodes. Metabolic control also improved in the Co group. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Comparison radiation dose with upper and lower limbs of automated injection of contrast media with a bolus tracking system in pulmonary embolism MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shin Heung College University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Woon Kwan [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Eun [Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hwan [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Bolus tracking system allows optimized enhancement of the organs and reduces the dose of contrast material. In a retrospective study we investigated the radiation dose of this method with the intention of optimizing enhancement during examination of the pulmonary embolism MDCT. The purpose of the study was to compare radiation dose (CTDIvol and DLP) of MDCT performed with bolus tracking system in the pulmonary embolism. In total, we examined 75 patients under pulmonary embolism conditions. All examinations were performed on a MDCT system using the bolus tracking system of blood from the upper body to the lower limbs of patient. This produces repetitive low-dose test images and measures the Hounsfield attenuation in a pre-selected region of interest. After exceeding a defined threshold, a diagnostic spiral CT examination was begun automatically. Compared with bolus tracking system, upper limb injected of contrast media resulted in reduction of the pulmonary embolism in the CTDIvol (81.1%) and DLP (82.1%). Bolus triggering allows optimized enhancement of the organs and reduces the dose of contrast material required compared with lower limbs administration.

  13. Intravenous lipid emulsion and dexmedetomidine for treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All cats presented in this study, were treated with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) at variable dosages, and dexmedetomidine was also administered by intravenous way. No adverse reaction such as thrombophlebitis, overload circulation or others was noticed during and after administration of ILE. Dexmedetomidine was ...

  14. Cost-minimization of mabthera intravenous versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and compare all costs related to preparing and administrating MabThera for the intravenous and subcutaneous formulations in Dutch hematological patients. The a priori notion is that the costs of subcutaneous MabThera injections are lower compared to intravenous infusion due

  15. Microbiological quality of some brands of intravenous fluids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... Centre for Disease Control (CDC) (1997). Epidemiologic notes and reports nosocomial bacteremias associated with Intravenous Fluids therapy-USA. MMWR: 46(51): 1227–1233. Dennis GM, Roger LA, Jones AS (1974). In- use contamination of intravenous fluids. Appl. Microbiol. pp. 778-784. Frean JA ...

  16. Moderate hyperventilation during intravenous anesthesia increases net cerebral lactate efflux

    OpenAIRE

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Sonntag, Barbara; Stolker, Robert; Weyland, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND:: Hyperventilation is known to decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to impair cerebral metabolism, but the threshold in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia is unknown. The authors hypothesized that reduced CBF associated with moderate hyperventilation might impair cerebral aerobic metabolism in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia. METHODS:: Thirty male patients scheduled for coronary surgery were included in a prospective, controlled crossover trial. Mea...

  17. Clinical effect of intravenous thrombolysis combined with nicorandil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous thrombolysis in combination with nicorandil in the treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Patients who developed acute STEMI and underwent intravenous thrombolysis in the hospital were selected and divided into observation ...

  18. Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intravenous diclofenac sodium on the occurrence and severity of postoperative sore throat. ... Conclusion: Intravenous diclofenac sodium does not reduce the occurrence or severity of postoperative sore throat. African Health .... the study patient's unique hospital file number. Using.

  19. Effects of intravenous bumetanide administration on renal haemodynamics and proximal and distal tubular sodium reabsorption in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalmi, M.; Petersen, J.S.; Christensen, S. (Department of pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    The renal effects of 0.02-62.5 mg/kg bumetanide given as intravenous bolus injections were studied in water diuretic conscious rats. Clearances of {sup 14}C-tetraethylammonium, {sup 3}H-inulin and lithium were used as markers for renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtion rate (GFR) and proximal tubular output, respectively. Bumetanide caused biphasic, transient and dose-independent changes in the renal haemodynamics without significant alterations of the filtration fraction. At dose-levels above 0.02 mg/kg bumetanide increased urine flow, absolute and fractional Na excretion as well as the indices for fractional output of Na from the proximal tubules (C{sub Li}/C{sub I}n) and the distal nephron segments (C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}). The changes in C{sub Li}/C{sub In} became maximal at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, whereas C{sub Na}/C{sub Li} was increased with the dose up to 12.5 mg/kg. Paradoxically, doses above 12.5 mg/kg were less natriuretic due to a decrease of C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}. It is concluded that in rats bumetanide is an effective although short-acting diuretic when administered intravenously. When comparing peak responses bumetanide is equipotent to furosemide but has a lower maximal efficacy. Judged from the changes in fractional lithium excretion, the natriuretic effect of bumetanide is effected by inhibition of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule in addition to the well-known effect on the distal nephron segment. (author).

  20. Pharmacokinetics of pidotimod in broiler chickens by UHPLC-MS/MS after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruili; Qiu, Mei; Zhao, Li; Cui, Liangliang; Wang, Chunyuan; Zhu, Jiajia; Hao, Zhihui

    2018-03-01

    Pidotimod is widely used in children as an immune promoter but it has not been fully evaluated in animals. The pharmacokinetics of pidotimod and its oral bioavailability have not been described in broiler chickens. We developed a simple and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS assay for rapid determination of pidotimod levels in chicken blood. Recoveries were nearly 100% and the coefficients of accuracy and precision were minimal. Healthy broiler chickens were given 10 mg/kg pidotimod either orally or intravenously. The oral pidotimod was rapidly absorbed (time to reach maximum concentration, 1.25 h) and rapidly eliminated (the mean residence time was 3.2 h). A noncompartmental analysis of the intravenous route indicated a mean plasma clearance of 2.2 L (h kg) -1 with an estimated mean volume of distribution at steady state of 12.69 L/kg. The bioavailability of pidotimod after oral dosing was 27%. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. THE DETERMINATION OF SERUM IRON AFTER THE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF IRON-DEXTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D.

    1960-01-01

    A rapid technique for the determination of iron in serum, after the intravenous injection of iron-dextran, is presented. Dithionite is used for the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. The use of a detergent solution enables protein precipitation to be omitted. The iron reagent, 4: 7-diphenyl-1: 10-phenanthroline, and its ferrous complex are both soluble in the dilute detergent solution. Lipaemic serum can be used without affecting the results. The recovery of added ferric iron, as iron-dextran, is quantitative. PMID:13843331

  2. Clearance and tissue distribution of intravenously injected Salmonella typhi polysaccharide in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Isibasi, A.; Jimenez, E.; Kumate, J.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of Freeman polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi with blood and tissues of rabbits was studied by radioimmunoassay. After intravenous injection of 1.0 mg of S. typhi Freeman polysaccharide, a rapid clearance phase (t1/2, 6.0 min) was followed by a slower clearance period (t1/2, 55.2 min). These results suggest first, that the distribution of whole lipopolysaccharide is a function of how the polysaccharides are handled by the host; further, that the O side chain determines how and...

  3. Intravenous delivery of hydrophobin-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles: stability, plasma protein adsorption and biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarparanta, Mirkka; Bimbo, Luis M; Rytkönen, Jussi; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo J; Laaksonen, Päivi; Nyman, Markus; Salonen, Jarno; Linder, Markus B; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A; Airaksinen, Anu J

    2012-03-05

    Rapid immune recognition and subsequent elimination from the circulation hampers the use of many nanomaterials as carriers to targeted drug delivery and controlled release in the intravenous route. Here, we report the effect of a functional self-assembled protein coating on the intravenous biodistribution of (18)F-labeled thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles in rats. (18)F-Radiolabeling enables the sensitive and easy quantification of nanoparticles in tissues using radiometric methods and allows imaging of the nanoparticle biodistribution with positron emission tomography. Coating with Trichoderma reesei HFBII altered the hydrophobicity of (18)F-THCPSi nanoparticles and resulted in a pronounced change in the degree of plasma protein adsorption to the nanoparticle surface in vitro. The HFBII-THCPSi nanoparticles were biocompatible in RAW 264.7 macrophages and HepG2 liver cells making their intravenous administration feasible. In vivo, the distribution of the nanoparticles between the liver and spleen, the major mononuclear phagocyte system organs in the body, was altered compared to that of uncoated (18)F-THCPSi. Identification of the adsorbed proteins revealed that certain opsonins and apolipoproteins are enriched in HFBII-functionalized nanoparticles, whereas the adsorption of abundant plasma components such as serum albumin and fibrinogen is decreased.

  4. Hyperacute drug-induced hepatitis with intravenous amiodarone: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Nasser, Timothy R Larsen, Barryton Waanbah, Ibrahim Sidiqi, Peter A McCullough Providence Hospitals and Medical Centers, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Southfield and Novi, MI, USA Abstract: Amiodarone is a benzofuran class III antiarrhythmic drug used to treat a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The parenteral formulation is prepared in polysorbate 80 diluent. We report an unusual case of acute elevation of aminotransaminase concentrations after the initiation of intravenous amiodarone. An 88-year-old Caucasian female developed acute hepatitis and renal failure after initiating intravenous amiodarone for atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response in the setting of acutely decompensated heart failure and hepatic congestion. Liver transaminases returned to baseline within 7 days after discontinuing the drug. Researchers hypothesized that this type of injury is related to liver ischemia with possible superimposed direct drug toxicity. The CIOMS/RUCAM scale identifies our patient’s acute hepatitis as a highly probable adverse drug reaction. Future research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which hyperacute drug toxicity occurs in the setting of impaired hepatic perfusion and venous congestion. Keywords: intravenous amiodarone, acute hepatotoxicity, liver transaminases, drug-induced liver toxicity

  5. Split-bolus CT-urography using dual-energy CT: Feasibility, image quality and dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuru, E-mail: m2rbimn@gmail.com [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601 (Japan); Kawai, Tatsuya; Ito, Masato; Ogawa, Masaki [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601 (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuya [Nagoya City University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601 (Japan); Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy (DE) split-bolus CT-urography (CTU) and the quality of virtual non-enhanced images (VNEI) and DE combined nephrographic-excretory phase images (CNEPI), and to estimate radiation dose reduction if true non-enhanced images (TNEI) could be omitted. Patients and methods: Between August and September 2011, 30 consecutive patients with confirmed or suspected urothelial cancer or with hematuria underwent DE CT. Single-energy TNEI and DE CNEPI were obtained. VNEI was reconstructed from CNEPI. Image quality of CNEPI and VNEI was evaluated using a 5-point scale. The attenuation of urine in the bladder on TNEI and VNEI was measured. The CT dose index volume (CTDI (vol)) of the two scans was recorded. Results: The mean image quality score of CNEPI and VNEI was 4.7 and 3.3, respectively. The mean differences in urine attenuation between VNEI and TNEI were 14 {+-} 15 [SD] and -16 {+-} 29 in the anterior and posterior parts of the bladder, respectively. The mean CTDI (vol) for TNEI and CNEPI was 11.8 and 10.9 mGy, respectively. Omission of TNEI could reduce the total radiation dose by 52%. Conclusion: DE split-bolus CTU is technically feasible and can reduce radiation exposure; however, an additional TNEI scan is necessary when the VNEI quality is poor or quantitative evaluation of urine attenuation is required.

  6. Split-bolus CT-urography using dual-energy CT: feasibility, image quality and dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuru; Kawai, Tatsuya; Ito, Masato; Ogawa, Masaki; Ohashi, Kazuya; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2012-11-01

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy (DE) split-bolus CT-urography (CTU) and the quality of virtual non-enhanced images (VNEI) and DE combined nephrographic-excretory phase images (CNEPI), and to estimate radiation dose reduction if true non-enhanced images (TNEI) could be omitted. Between August and September 2011, 30 consecutive patients with confirmed or suspected urothelial cancer or with hematuria underwent DE CT. Single-energy TNEI and DE CNEPI were obtained. VNEI was reconstructed from CNEPI. Image quality of CNEPI and VNEI was evaluated using a 5-point scale. The attenuation of urine in the bladder on TNEI and VNEI was measured. The CT dose index volume (CTDI (vol)) of the two scans was recorded. The mean image quality score of CNEPI and VNEI was 4.7 and 3.3, respectively. The mean differences in urine attenuation between VNEI and TNEI were 14±15 [SD] and -16±29 in the anterior and posterior parts of the bladder, respectively. The mean CTDI (vol) for TNEI and CNEPI was 11.8 and 10.9 mGy, respectively. Omission of TNEI could reduce the total radiation dose by 52%. DE split-bolus CTU is technically feasible and can reduce radiation exposure; however, an additional TNEI scan is necessary when the VNEI quality is poor or quantitative evaluation of urine attenuation is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of prophylactic bolus phenylephrine on hypotension during low-dose spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H-M; Kim, S-H; Hwang, B-Y; Yoo, B-W; Koh, W-U; Jang, D-M; Choi, W-J

    2016-02-01

    Continuously infused phenylephrine is frequently used to reduce the incidence of hypotension in women undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia, but less is known about the prophylactic bolus method. We evaluated three prophylactic bolus doses of phenylephrine during low-dose spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. One-hundred-and-eighty-four patients were randomized to receive 0.9% saline 2mL (Control Group) or phenylephrine 1.0μg/kg (PHE1 Group), 1.5μg/kg (PHE1.5 Group), or 2.0μg/kg (PHE2 Group) immediately after induction of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Maternal blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at 1-min intervals until delivery. Hypotension, defined as systolic blood pressure hypotension resolved. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, bradycardia, and hypertension, as well as Apgar scores and umbilical blood gases, were recorded. The incidence of hypotension was 71.7% (33/46) in the Control Group, 68.9% (31/45) in the PHE1 Group, 37.0% (17/46) in the PHE1.5 Group and 45.7% (21/46) in the PHE2 Group (P=0.001). The total rescue dose of phenylephrine was greater in the Control Group than those in the PHE1.5 Group (Phypotension during low-dose spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of oxiracetam and its degraded substance (HOPAA after oral and intravenous administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhuan Wan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of oxiracetam and its degraded substance (4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetic acid, HOPAA after oral and intravenous administration in rats were studied using an established UPLC-MS/MS method. Three groups of rats after an overnight fasted received 10 g/kg (n = 6 oxiracetam suspensions orally, and 2 g/kg (n = 6 normal or degraded oxiracetam injections intravenously via a caudal tail vein, respectively. Before the pharmacokinetic experiment, a simple safety evaluation test was conducted on the degraded oxiracetam injections containing 16.16% HOPAA in mice. There was no mortality by a single intravenous dose of 2 g/kg of degraded oxiracetam injections within two weeks, demonstrating that HOPAA was non-toxic in mice. Following intravenous administration of the normal injections, the plasma concentration-time curves of oxiracetam and HOPAA both showed a rapid elimination phase. The values of t1/2 were 3.1 ± 1.5 h for oxiracetam and 0.8 ± 0.2 h for HOPAA, and the mean residence times (MRT were 1.2 ± 0.1 h and 0.8 ± 0.1 h, respectively. Oxiracetam and HOPAA after intravenous administration of the degraded oxiracetam injections presented elimination patterns similar to those observed in the normal injections. Oral pharmacokinetic results showed that the Tmax was less than 1.5 h for the two analytes, and both had a longer t1/2 and MRT than those of intravenous administration. Contents of HOPAA in three groups were calculated based on AUC0–t values of the two analytes. The quantitative change of HOPAA in vivo was also evaluated by comparing the plasma concentrations of HOPAA and oxiracetam at the same time for every group. Additionally, the values of absolute bioavailability of oxiracetam were about 8.0% and 7.4% calculated by the normal or degraded oxiracetam injections, which were far less than the value of 75% reported in literature, indicating the necessity of further study.

  9. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy in dogs following intravenous administration of a liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul R. Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of nanotechnologies in advanced therapies has allowed the observation of specific adverse reactions related to nanostructures. The toxicity of a novel liposome formulation of meglumine antimoniate in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis after single dose has been investigated. Groups of 12 animals received by the intravenous route a single dose of liposomal meglumine antimoniate (group I [GI], 6.5 mg Sb/kg, empty liposomes (GII or isotonic saline (GIII. Evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes 4 days after administration. No undesired effects were registered in the GIII. However, adverse reactions were observed in 67.7% of dogs from both groups that received liposomal formulations. The side effects began moments after bolus administration and disappeared during the first 15 minutes after treatment. Prostation, sialorrhea and defecation were the most frequent clinical signs, registered in 33.3% and 41.6 % of animals from the groups GI and GII, respectively. Tachypnea, mydriasis, miosis, vomiting and cyanosis were also registered in both groups. The adverse reactions observed in this study were attributed to the activation of the complement system by lipid vesicles in a phenomenon known as Complement Activation-Related Pseudoallergy (CARPA. The influence of the physical-chemical characteristics of liposomal formulation in the triggering of CARPA is discussed.

  10. Concomitant intravenous nitroglycerin with intracoronary delivery of AAV1.SERCA2a enhances gene transfer in porcine hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakikes, Ioannis; Hadri, Lahouaria; Rapti, Kleopatra; Ladage, Dennis; Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Tilemann, Lisa; Yi, Geng-Hua; Morel, Charlotte; Gwathmey, Judith K; Zsebo, Krisztina; Weber, Thomas; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Hajjar, Roger J

    2012-03-01

    SERCA2a gene therapy improves contractile and energetic function of failing hearts and has been shown to be associated with benefits in clinical outcomes, symptoms, functional status, biomarkers, and cardiac structure in a phase 2 clinical trial. In an effort to enhance the efficiency and homogeneity of gene uptake in cardiac tissue, we examined the effects of nitroglycerin (NTG) in a porcine model following AAV1.SERCA2a gene delivery. Three groups of Göttingen minipigs were assessed: (i) group A: control intracoronary (IC) AAV1.SERCA2a (n = 6); (ii) group B: a single bolus IC injection of NTG (50 µg) immediately before administration of intravenous (IV) AAV1.SERCA2a (n = 6); and (iii) group C: continuous IV NTG (1 µg/kg/minute) during the 10 minutes of AAV1.SERCA2a infusion (n = 6). We found that simultaneous IV infusion of NTG and AAV1.SERCA2a resulted in increased viral transduction efficiency, both in terms of messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as SERCA2a protein levels in the whole left ventricle (LV) compared to control animals. On the other hand, IC NTG pretreatment did not result in enhanced gene transfer efficiency, mRNA or protein levels when compared to control animals. Importantly, the transgene expression was restricted to the heart tissue. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that IV infusion of NTG significantly improves cardiac gene transfer efficiency in porcine hearts.

  11. The Positive Effects of One-Hour Intravenous Administration of Bortezomib on Peripheral Neuropathy in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Young Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BiPN in multiple myeloma (MM patients is a common and serious side effect. Currently, it has been reported that subcutaneous (SC administration of bortezomib decreases the incidence of BiPN as compared to standard intravenous (IV bolus injection without any differences in efficacy. However, there are reports of severe injection site reaction following SC administration of bortezomib. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response rate and incidence of BiPN following one-hour IV infusion of bortezomib. The data was retrospectively collected from MM patients who had been treated with IV administration of bortezomib for one hour. Twenty-three patients were evaluated (median age 72 years, 13 males. The median number of treatment cycles was 5 (range 2–10. The cumulative bortezomib dose was 26.0 mg/m2 (14.3–66.3 and percent of actual per expected cumulative dose was 90% (50–100. The overall response (complete response plus partial response rate was 65%. The incidence of BiPN was 57% (n = 13 and incidence of severe neuropathy was 4% (n = 1. One-hour IV infusion of bortezomib was an effective regimen for MM with reduced incidence of severe BiPN. This route of administration of bortezomib could be an alternative mode of delivery for patients with severe injection site reactions following SC administration.

  12. Anaphylaxis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome induced by inadvertent intravenous administration of mare's milk in a neonatal foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcott, Cody J; Wong, David M

    2010-12-01

    To describe the diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and successful outcome of a case of anaphylaxis induced by the inadvertent intravenous (IV) administration of mare's milk to a neonatal foal. A 3-day-old Thoroughbred colt was presented for treatment of bilateral flexural limb deformities of the forelimbs. Because the foal was unable to ambulate initially, mare's milk was administered via nasoesophageal tube feedings during treatment of the musculoskeletal disorder. Anaphylaxis resulted after unintentional administration of a bolus of 150mL of mare's milk through a jugular catheter. Aggressive therapy for anaphylaxis and careful monitoring resulted in the successful recovery of the foal after 9 days of intensive care. This case is the first published report to describe the effects of accidental IV administration of mare's milk to a neonatal foal. Medical errors are commonly reported in pediatric medicine; the intent of this report is to raise awareness of medical errors and student education in equine medicine as well as describe the therapy and outcome of anaphylaxis induced by IV administration of mare's milk in a neonatal foal. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2010.

  13. Intravenous secretin for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katrina; Wray, John A; Wheeler, Danielle M

    2012-04-18

    In 1998 secretin, a gastrointestinal hormone, was suggested as an effective treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) based on anecdotal evidence. To assess whether intravenous secretin improves the core features of ASD, other aspects of behaviour or function such as self-injurious behaviour, and the quality of life of affected individuals and their carers. We also assessed whether secretin causes harm. This is an updated version of our review of this topic originally published in 2005. We searched CENTRAL (2010 Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to January 2010) , EMBASE (1980 to 2010 Week 2), PsycINFO (1806 to 2010 Week 2), CINAHL (1938 to January 2010), ERIC (1966 to January 2010), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to January 2010). Sociofile and HealthStar were searched in March 2005 when this review was first published, but were not available for this update. Records were limited to studies published since 1998 as this is when secretin was first proposed as a possible treatment for ASD. We searched reference lists of trials and reviews; we also contacted experts and trialists to find unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials of intravenous secretin compared to a placebo treatment in children or adults diagnosed with ASD, where at least one standardised outcome measure was reported. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria but for two of these, conducted by Repligen, the only available multisite data were reported in press releases. All outcome data from the other 14 trials were continuous. Where trials used cross-over designs, we conducted analysis on results from the first treatment phase. Where mean change from baseline was reported, we used this in preference to post-treatment scores for meta-analyses or forest plots. Meta-analysis was able to be attempted for only one outcome (Childhood Autism Rating Scale). Insufficient data were available to conduct sensitivity or subgroup analyses to assess the impact of study quality, clinical differences in the

  14. Quantifying rates of glucose production in vivo following an intraperitoneal tracer bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Ping; Zhou, Dan; Yao, Zuliang; Satapati, Santhosh; Chen, Ying; Daurio, Natalie A; Petrov, Aleksandr; Shen, Xiaolan; Metzger, Daniel; Yin, Wu; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Eiermann, George J; Hwa, Joyce; Fancourt, Craig; Miller, Corin; Herath, Kithsiri; Roddy, Thomas P; Slipetz, Deborah; Erion, Mark D; Previs, Stephen F; Kelley, David E

    2016-12-01

    Aberrant regulation of glucose production makes a critical contribution to the impaired glycemic control that is observed in type 2 diabetes. Although isotopic tracer methods have proven to be informative in quantifying the magnitude of such alterations, it is presumed that one must rely on venous access to administer glucose tracers which therein presents obstacles for the routine application of tracer methods in rodent models. Since intraperitoneal injections are readily used to deliver glucose challenges and/or dose potential therapeutics, we hypothesized that this route could also be used to administer a glucose tracer. The ability to then reliably estimate glucose flux would require attention toward setting a schedule for collecting samples and choosing a distribution volume. For example, glucose production can be calculated by multiplying the fractional turnover rate by the pool size. We have taken a step-wise approach to examine the potential of using an intraperitoneal tracer administration in rat and mouse models. First, we compared the kinetics of [U-(13)C]glucose following either an intravenous or an intraperitoneal injection. Second, we tested whether the intraperitoneal method could detect a pharmacological manipulation of glucose production. Finally, we contrasted a potential application of the intraperitoneal method against the glucose-insulin clamp. We conclude that it is possible to 1) quantify glucose production using an intraperitoneal injection of tracer and 2) derive a "glucose production index" by coupling estimates of basal glucose production with measurements of fasting insulin concentration; this yields a proxy for clamp-derived assessments of insulin sensitivity of endogenous production. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. MYCOTIC FEMORAL PSEUDOANEURYSMS FROM INTRAVENOUS DRUG ABUSE

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    Vojko Flis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parenteral drug abuse is the most common cause of infected femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (IFAP. This complication of intravenous drug abuse is not only limb threatening but can also be life threatening. The management of the IFAP is difficult and controversial. Generally speaking, ligation and excision of the pseudoaneurysm without revascularization is accepted procedure in majority of the patients. However it is not regarded as an appropriate procedure for cases where the high probability of amputation is expected from acute interruption of the femoral artery flow.Patients, methods and results. We present three cases of young (average 20 years, range 18–24 patients with IFAP, in which a primary reconstruction was performed due to absence of doppler signal over pedal arteries after ligation of common femoral artery. In two of them complications in form of haemorrhage and repeated infection developed in late postoperative period. The first one, had an excision and ligation while the second one had a reconstruction made by means of a silver impregnated dacron prosthesis. None of the patients required an amputation.Conclusions. Overall prognosis and prognosis of the reconstruction in parenteral drug abuse patients is uncertain because there is a high incidence of postoperative drug injection despite aggressive drug rehabilitation.

  16. Potential intravenous drug interactions in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Benevides Moreira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze potential intravenous drug interactions, and their level of severity associated with the administration of these drugs based on the prescriptions of an intensive care unit. METHOD Quantitative study, with aretrospective exploratory design, and descriptive statistical analysis of the ICU prescriptions of a teaching hospital from March to June 2014. RESULTS The sample consisted of 319 prescriptions and subsamples of 50 prescriptions. The mean number of drugs per patient was 9.3 records, and a higher probability of drug interaction inherent to polypharmacy was evidenced. The study identified severe drug interactions, such as concomitant administration of Tramadol with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs (e.g., Metoclopramide and Fluconazole, increasing the risk of seizures due to their epileptogenic actions, as well as the simultaneous use of Ranitidine-Fentanyl®, which can lead to respiratory depression. CONCLUSION A previous mapping of prescriptions enables the characterization of the drug therapy, contributing to prevent potential drug interactions and their clinical consequences.

  17. Intravenous injection of ioxilan, iohexol and diatrizoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Dorph, S.; Mygind, T.; Sovak, M.; Nielsen, H.; Rygaard, H.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Hemmingsen, L.; Holm, J.

    Effects of intravenous ioxilan, a new third generation non-ionic contrast medium, diatrizoate, iohexol and saline on urine profiles were compared. Albumin, glucose, sodium, phosphate, and the enzymes NAG, LDH and GGT were followed in 24 normal rats over 7 days. Diatrizoate significantly affected all profile components during the first two hours. Albuminuria was significantly greater after diatrizoate than after iohexol or ioxilan, and excretion of glucose, LDH and GGT was significantly higher than after ioxilan. Both iohexol and ioxilan increased the excretion of albumin, LDH and GGT, while iohexol also significantly increased excretion of glucose and sodium. There was a greater excretion of glucose and GGT after iohexol than after ioxilan. Saline did not induce any changes. At day 7, serum sodium, urea, creatinine, and albumin were normal for all test substances, and kidney histology revealed no difference between the groups of animals. It is thus concluded that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media may cause temporary glomerular and tubular dysfunction in rats. In this model, the kidney is affected most by diatrizoate, less by iohexol, and least by ioxilan.

  18. Hypothyroid dogs treated with intravenous levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, William H; Hess, Rebecka S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to report clinical and clinicopathologic findings, response to treatment, and outcome of hypothyroid dogs treated with levothyroxine intravenously (IV). Seven levothyroxine IV treated hypothyroid dogs and 799 other hypothyroid dogs examined during the same period were included. Rottweiler dogs were overrepresented in the group of levothyroxine IV-treated hypothyroid dogs compared with other hypothyroid dogs (P dogs), mental dullness (5 dogs), and nonpitting edema (4 dogs). Anemia (4 dogs) and hypercholesterolemia (5) were common, although 1 dog had neither. Concurrent disease (most commonly infection) was observed in 5 dogs. Glucocorticoids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs had been administered to 2 dogs before examination. Surgery was performed in 2 dogs before treatment with levothyroxine IV. Four of the 7 dogs received 4-5 microg/kg of levothyroxine IV. Subjective improvement in mentation or ambulation (6 of 7 dogs) and systolic hypotension (2 of 2 dogs) occurred within 30 hours of levothyroxine IV administration. Six of the 7 dogs responded well to therapy and were discharged from the hospital. It was concluded that physical examination and clinicopathologic findings of dogs with a hypothyroid crisis are nonspecific, although Rottweiler dogs may be at increased risk. Concurrent disorder, such as infection, concurrent administration of thyroid hormone-altering medication, and surgery, may be associated with development of a hypothyroid crisis. Resolution of abnormal mentation, ambulation, and systolic hypotension should be expected within 30 hours. Prognosis is good in most treated dogs.

  19. Intravenous buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine pharmacokinetics in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, M.A.; Cone, E.J.; Pirnay, S.O.; Umbricht, A.; Preston, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescribed sublingual (SL) buprenorphine is sometimes diverted for intravenous (IV) abuse, but no human pharmacokinetic data are available following high-dose IV buprenorphine. Methods Plasma was collected for 72 h after administration of placebo or 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16 mg IV buprenorphine in escalating order (single-blind, double-dummy) in 5 healthy male non-dependent opioid users. Buprenorphine and its primary active metabolite, norbuprenorphine, were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with limits of quantitation of 0.1 μg/L. Results Maximum buprenorphine concentrations (mean ± SE) were detected 10 min after 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 mg IV: 19.3±1.0, 44.5±4.8, 85.2±7.7, 124.6±16.6, and 137.7±18.8 μg/L, respectively. Maximum norbuprenorphine concentrations occurred 10–15 min (3.7±0.7 μg/L) after 16 mg IV administration. Conclusions Buprenorphine concentrations increased in a significantly linear dose-dependent manner up to 12 mg IV buprenorphine. Thus, previously demonstrated pharmacodynamic ceiling effects (over 2–16 mg) are not due to pharmacokinetic adaptations within this range, although they may play a role at doses higher than 12 mg. PMID:23246635

  20. Intravenous hemostat: nanotechnology to halt bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, James P; Williams, Cicely A; Robinson, Rebecca; Segal, Steven S; Flynn, Nolan T; Lavik, Erin B

    2009-12-16

    Blood loss is the major cause of death in both civilian and battlefield traumas. Methods to staunch bleeding include pressure dressings and absorbent materials. For example, QuikClot effectively halts bleeding by absorbing large quantities of fluid and concentrating platelets to augment clotting, but these treatments are limited to compressible and exposed wounds. An ideal treatment would halt bleeding only at the injury site, be stable at room temperature, be administered easily, and work effectively for internal injuries. We have developed synthetic platelets based on Arg-Gly-Asp functionalized nanoparticles, which halve bleeding time after intravenous administration in a rat model of major trauma. The effects of these synthetic platelets surpass other treatments, including recombinant factor VIIa, which is used clinically for uncontrolled bleeding. Synthetic platelets were cleared within 24 hours at a dose of 20 mg/ml, and no complications were seen out to 7 days after infusion, the longest time point studied. These synthetic platelets may be useful for early intervention in trauma and demonstrate the role that nanotechnology can have in addressing unmet medical needs.

  1. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of intravenous Paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in multimodal analgesia after hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Ünal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: We aimed to evaluate analgesic efficacy, opioid-sparing, and opioid-related adverse effects of intravenous paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in combination with iv morphine after total abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status Classification I-II patients scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled to this double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled, and prospective study. Patients were divided into three groups as paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, and placebo (0.9% NaCl due to their post-operative analgesic usage. Intravenous patient controlled analgesia morphine was used as a rescue analgesic in all groups. Pain scores, hemodynamic parameters, morphine consumption, patient satisfaction, and side-effects were evaluated. Results: Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were not statistically significantly different among the groups in all evaluation times, but decrease in VAS scores was statistically significant after the evaluation at 12 th h in all groups. Total morphine consumption (morphine concentration = 0.2 mg/ml in group paracetamol (72.3 ± 38.0 ml and dexketoprofen trometamol (69.3 ± 24.1 ml was significantly lower than group placebo (129.3 ± 22.6 ml (P < 0.001. Global satisfaction scores of the patients in group placebo was significantly lower than group dexketoprofen trometamol after surgery and the increase in global satisfaction score was significant only in group placebo. Conclusion: Dexketoprofen trometamol and Paracetamol didn′t cause significant change on pain scores, but increased patients′ comfort. Although total morphine consumption was significantly decreased by both drugs, the incidence of nausea and vomiting were similar among the groups. According to results of the present study routine addition of dexketoprofen trometamol and paracetamol to patient controlled analgesia morphine after hysterectomies is not

  2. Comparison of bolus injection and constant infusion methods for measuring muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chinkes, David L; Bahadorani, John; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Killewich, Lois A; Wolfe, Robert R

    2014-12-01

    The use of stable isotope tracer techniques to measure muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) has been well established and widely used. The most common method that has been utilized so far is a primed constant infusion (CI) method, which requires 3-4 h of tracer infusion. However, recently our group has developed a bolus injection (BI) method, which requires an injection of bolus of tracer and can be completed within 1 h. In this study, we compared calf (gastrocnemius) muscle protein FSR measured using these two different methods--CI and BI. FSRs were measured in eight people (5 men and 3 women; age: 62.3±6.9 years (mean±SD); body weight: 75.4±21.5 kg) at basal, postabsorptive state using L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine. In the CI protocol, a primed continuous infusion was given for 4 h, and muscle biopsies were taken at 120 and 240 min; in the BI, a bolus injection of the tracer was given at 0 min and biopsies were taken at 5 and 60 min. Tracer enrichments in blood and muscle tissue were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data are expressed as mean±SE; t-test, linear regression and Levene Median equal variance test analyses were performed. CI FSR was 0.066±0.006%/h, whereas BI FSR was 0.058±0.008%/h, p=NS. The linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between BI and CI, p=0.038. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.83. The standard deviation of the differences in the measurements was 0.015%/h. The Levene Median equal variance test demonstrated no difference in variance between the CI and BI measurements (p=0.722). No difference could be detected in calf muscle protein FSR measured by CI and BI methods; the BI method can be used for the measurement of muscle protein FSR in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid conversion of persistent atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm by intravenous AZD7009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geller, J Christoph; Egstrup, Kenneth; Kulakowski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind trial compared cardioversion rates between AZD7009 infusion (15-minute 3.25 mg/min, 15-minute 4.4 mg/min, or 30-minute 3.25 mg/min) and placebo infusion (15 or 30 minutes) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) scheduled for DC cardioversion. One hundred sixty-eig...

  4. Intravenous Valproate versus Subcutaneous Sumatriptan in Acute Migraine Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderibarmi, Fahmida; Tavakkoli, Nader; Togha, Mansoureh

    2015-10-01

    Migraine is a common and incapacitating neurologic disorder manifesting with episodic moderate to a severe headache and other symptoms such as photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting. Triptans and ergot compounds have been used as treatment options for an acute migraine headache for many years. Triptans are considered the first line of treatment in patients with moderate to a severe migraine. Although the triptans are commonly used at any time during a migraine attack; they are more efficacious when used in the early stages of a migraine. Intravenous valproic acid has been shown to be well tolerated, safe, and with rapid onset of action in patients with acute moderate to severe and even refractory migraine. Sodium valproate is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for prophylaxis of a migraine with and without aura. In this study, the main goal was to compare the effectiveness of sumatriptan versus valproate in an acute migraine. A randomized clinical trial including 37 patients with an acute migraine was considered to compare the effectiveness of sumatriptan versus valproate. The patients were divided into two groups. In first group, 6 mg subcutaneous of sumatriptan and in the second group 15 mg/Kg of valproate was administered. The outcomes including pain and drug adverse effects were compared across the groups. A total of 37 patients (7 male and 30 female) were evaluated in two groups. The difference between two groups regarding sex and age was not significant (P>0.05). The mean pain scores reduced from 8.3 to 4.7 and from 8.3 to 2.2 after one hour of treatment in sumatriptan and valproate groups, respectively. Response to treatment in valproate group was faster and more effective than sumatriptan group (Pvalproate was more effective and with the faster response in patients with an acute migraine in comparison with sumatriptan without any recurrence and remarkable side effects.

  5. The intravenous adenosine test: a new test for the identification of bradycardia pacing indications? A pilot study in subjects with bradycardia pacing indications, vasovagal syncope and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, S W; Chadwick, T; Gray, J C; Bexton, R S; Tynan, M; Bourke, J P; Nath, S

    2009-07-01

    Intravenous adenosine has recently been used in the diagnosis of unexplained syncope, but there is no consensus as to the meaning of a 'positive' test. The objective is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of intravenous adenosine testing in the diagnosis of bradycardia-pacing indications [sinus node dysfunction(SND), atrio-ventricular block (AVB) and cardio-inhibitory carotid sinus syndrome (CSS)]. Pilot cohort study. Patients-(i) Bradycardia-pacing group: Consecutive patients referred for pacing for SND, AVB and CSS; (ii) Consecutive head-up tilt (HUT)-positive VVS patients. Controls-(i) Simple controls (S-Con: normal examination/ECG) and (ii) Electrophysiology controls (EP-Con: consecutive subjects referred for accessory pathway ablation). Pacing referrals and EP-Con had electrophysiology studies to confirm referral diagnosis and exclude others. All subjects had bolus injection of 20 mg intravenous adenosine during continuous ECG and blood pressure monitoring (positive test: >or=6 s asystole, >or=10 s high-degree AVB post-injection). Sensitivity, specificity, safety and tolerability of the test were measured. Of 264 potential participants (4 SND, 8 AVB, 7 CSS, 10 VVS, 10 EP-Con and 11 S-Con) 50 were studied. All (100%) of the bradycardia-pacing group were adenosine test-positive, as were 6 (60%) VVS. None (0%) and 3 (27%) of the EP- and S-Con groups were positive. Adenosine testing was 100% sensitive and 86% specific for bradycardia-pacing indications, and 100% specific using the diagnostically 'clean' EP-Con results. There were no significant adverse or side effects. Adenosine testing reliably identified patients with definitive bradycardia-pacing indications in whom alternative diagnoses were excluded. Further work is needed to evaluate the role of this test in the diagnosis of unexplained syncope.

  6. Exceptionally Stable Fluorous Emulsions for the Intravenous Delivery of Volatile General Anesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jun-Pil; Parlato, Maria C.; Perkins, Mark G.; Mecozzi, Sandro; Pearce, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intravenous delivery of volatile fluorinated anesthetics has a number of potential advantages when compared to the current inhalation method of administration. We reported previously that the IV delivery of sevoflurane can be achieved through an emulsion composed of a linear fluorinated diblock copolymer, a stabilizer, and the anesthetic. However, this original emulsion was subject to particle size growth that would limit its potential clinical utility. We hypothesized that the use of bulkier fluorous groups and smaller poly(ethylene glycol) moieties in the polymer design would result in improved emulsion stability while maintaining anesthetic functionality. Methods The authors prepared emulsions incorporating sevoflurane, perfluorooctyl bromide as a stabilizing agent, and combinations of linear fluorinated diblock copolymer and a novel dibranched fluorinated diblock copolymer. Emulsion stability was assessed using dynamic light scattering. The ability of the emulsions to induce anesthesia was tested in vivo by administering them intravenously to fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats and measuring loss of the forepaw righting reflex. Results 20% (volume/volume) sevoflurane emulsions incorporating mixtures of dibranched- and linear diblock copolymers had improved stability, with those containing an excess of the dibranched polymers displaying stability of particle size for over one year. The ED50s for loss of forepaw righting reflex were all similar, and ranged between 0.55 and 0.60 ml/kg body weight. Conclusions Hemifluorinated dibranched polymers can be used to generate exceptionally stable sevoflurane nanoemulsions, as required of formulations intended for clinical use. Intravenous delivery of the emulsion in rats resulted in induction of anesthesia with rapid onset and smooth and rapid recovery. PMID:22354241

  7. Intravenous iron in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; García-Erce, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of anemia across studies on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high (30%). Both iron deficiency (ID) and anemia of chronic disease contribute most to the development of anemia in IBD. The prevalence of ID is even higher (45%). Anemia and ID negatively impact the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, together with an adequate control of disease activity, iron replacement therapy should start as soon as anemia or ID is detected to attain a normal hemoglobin (Hb) and iron status. Many patients will respond to oral iron, but compliance may be poor, whereas intravenous (IV) compounds are safe, provide a faster Hb increase and iron store repletion, and presents a lower rate of treatment discontinuation. Absolute indications for IV iron treatment should include severe anemia, intolerance or inappropriate response to oral iron, severe intestinal disease activity, or use of an erythropoietic stimulating agent. Four different products are principally used in clinical practice, which differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles: iron gluconate and iron sucrose (lower single doses), and iron dextran and ferric carboxymaltose (higher single doses). After the initial resolution of anemia and the repletion of iron stores, the patient’s hematological and iron parameters should be carefully and periodically monitored, and maintenance iron treatment should be provided as required. New IV preparations that allow for giving 1000-1500 mg in a single session, thus facilitating patient management, provide an excellent tool to prevent or treat anemia and ID in this patient population, which in turn avoids allogeneic blood transfusion and improves their quality of life. PMID:19787830

  8. Capillary permeability of 99mTc-DTPA in canine myocardium determined by intracoronary bolus injection and residue detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Efsen, Fritz; Haunsø, S

    1989-01-01

    chest dogs (group A) these indicators were administered separately as bolus injections into a cannulated diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the curve of the response function was recorded by external activity registration. In further experiments on closed and open...... chest dogs (group B) 99mTc-DTPA was injected via a coronary angiography catheter into the ostium of the left coronary artery and the response curve was obtained by external registration. Regional myocardial perfusion coefficients were determined by the local 133xenon washout technique and from kinetic...... analysis of SIRD experiments. Plasma perfusion coefficients calculated by kinetic analysis of response curves from 99mTc-DTPA SIRD experiments (group A) were on average 98 v 102 ml.min-1.100 g-1 in 51Cr-EDTA experiments, in good agreement with the average plasma flow rate of 92 ml.min-1.100 g-1 determined...

  9. Effects of advanced carbohydrate counting guided by an automated bolus calculator in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (StenoABC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Schmidt, S; Vistisen, D

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To test whether concomitant use of an automated bolus calculator for people with Type 1 diabetes carrying out advanced carbohydrate counting would induce further improvements in metabolic control. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, single......-centre, investigator-initiated clinical study. We enrolled advanced carbohydrate counting-naïve adults with Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c levels 64-100 mmol/mol (8.0-11.3%), who were receiving multiple daily insulin injection therapy. In a 1:1-ratio, participants were randomized to receive training in either advanced......% CI -6 to -3) or -0.5% (95% CI -0.6 to -0.3; P Type 1 diabetes initiating advanced carbohydrate counting obtained significantly greater...

  10. Irreversible encephalopathy after treatment with high-dose intravenous metronidazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothoff, M.V.R.; Hofmeijer, J.; Sikma, M.A.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Encephalopathy associated with metronidazole is rare and, in most cases, reversible following discontinuation. OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of fatal encephalopathy after treatment with high-dose intravenous metronidazole and the potential causes of the irreversibility. CASE SUMMARY: A

  11. Distinct in vitro Complement Activation by Various Intravenous Iron Preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, Julia Cordelia; Poppelaars, Felix; da Costa, Mariana Gaya; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Vlaam, Thomas P G; Daha, Mohamed R.; Berger, Stefan P.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) iron preparations are widely used in the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). All IV iron preparations carry a risk of causing hypersensitivity reactions. However, the pathophysiological mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesize that a

  12. Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy Resulting From Intravenous Valproate for Status Epilepticus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richards, Karen

    2004-01-01

    .... Intravenous vaiproate has been suggested as an alternative to phenytoin and/or phenobarbital in patients with hypersensitivity to or at high risk for the sedative or vasoactive effects of these drugs...

  13. Moderate hyperventilation during intravenous anesthesia increases net cerebral lactate efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Grüne (Frank); S. Kazmaier (Stephan); B. Sonntag (Barbara); R.J. Stolker (Robert); A. Weyland (Andreas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND:: Hyperventilation is known to decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to impair cerebral metabolism, but the threshold in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia is unknown. The authors hypothesized that reduced CBF associated with moderate hyperventilation might impair

  14. Irreversible Encephalopathy After Treatment With High-Dose Intravenous Metronidazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothoff, Miriam V. R.; Hofmeijer, Jannette; Sikma, Maaike A.; Meulenbelt, Jan

    Background: Encephalopathy associated with metronidazole is rare and, in most cases, reversible following discontinuation. Objective: We describe a case of fatal encephalopathy after treatment with high-dose intravenous metronidazole and the potential causes of the irreversibility. Case summary: A

  15. The Effects of Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, Pia; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunological disturbances are hypothesised to play a role in recurrent miscarriage (RM) and therefore intravenous immunoglubulins (IVIg) have been tested in RM patients. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to investigate the benefits and harms of IVIg versus placebo, no intervention...

  16. Comparação do tempo de recuperação do mivacúrio em bolus e em infusão contínua Comparación del tiempo de recuperación del mivacúrio en bolus y en infusión continuada Comparison of recovery time of bolus and continuous infusion mivacurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O mivacúrio é um bloqueador neuromuscular (BNM de ação curta, que apresenta uma duração total não ultrapassando 24 minutos. As primeiras comunicações científicas relataram não haver diferenças significativas no tempo de recuperação, independentemente da forma de administração. No entanto, a experiência clínica aponta para recuperações mais prolongadas quando se administra o fármaco em infusão contínua. Este trabalho tem por objetivo comparar o tempo de recuperação do mivacúrio quando administrado em bolus e em forma contínua, em um grupo de pacientes jovens e adultos. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 40 pacientes jovens sem doenças neuromusculares. Após receberem midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica, foram monitorizados na sala de operação com ECG na derivação D II e realizada a aferição da pressão arterial indireta por método automático. Todos receberam propofol e fentanil, e a anestesia foi mantida com isoflurano, óxido nitroso e oxigênio. Após a indução, foram instalados o monitor da transmissão neuromuscular por acelerometria e, após a intubação, o capnógrafo e o analisador de gases. Foram divididos em 2 grupos iguais de acordo com o regime de administração de mivacúrio: os do grupo 1 receberam somente dose inicial em bolus e os do grupo 2, após a dose inicial e terem recuperado 10% de T1, receberam infusão contínua para manter uma T1 nesse valor. Foram anotados em ambos os grupos os valores de T1 e T4/T1 na fase de recuperação, a partir de T1 em 10% da resposta inicial, de minuto a minuto, até 30 minutos. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram homogêneos em relação às variáveis antropométricas. O grupo 2 apresentou tempo de recuperação mais lenta do que os pacientes que receberam somente a dose inicial em bolus. Houve grande variação de doses de infusão entre pacientes e no próprio paciente no decorrer da infusão. CONCLUSÕES: Em pacientes jovens e adultos

  17. Monte-Carlo-model for the aerosol bolus dispersion in the human lung. Part 1. Theoretical model description and application; Monte-Carlo-Modell der Aerosolbolusdispersion in der menschlichen Lunge. Teil 1. Theoretische Modellbeschreibung und Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, R.; Pawlak, E.; Hofmann, W. [Salzburg Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Physik und Biophysik

    2007-07-01

    Aerosol bolus dispersion, which has excited enormous interest in lung medicine due to its possible use as an efficient tool for the non-invasive clinical diagnosis of lung function, was simulated by a Monte Carlo model based on the concept of effective diffusivities and a stochastic lung geometry. The mathematical approach enabled the computation of essential characteristics of the exhaled bolus (half width, standard deviation, skewness, and mode shift) as well as the estimation of their dependence upon the volumetric lung depth (VLD) of the inhaled bolus. Results of the dispersion model generally show a very good correspondence with preliminary published experimental data. Half width and standard deviation of the exhaled bolus increase with VLD according to specific functions, whereas skewness and mode shift are subject to a decrease. While no correlation between bolus dispersion and flow rate could be worked out with the model, dispersion linearly increased with total lung capacity (TLC). (orig.)

  18. Split-bolus MDCT urography: Upper tract opacification and performance for upper tract tumors in patients with hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ekta; O'Malley, Martin E; Ghai, Sangeet; Staunton, Marie; Massey, Christine

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose was to assess upper urinary tract opacification and the performance of split-bolus MDCT urography for upper tract tumors in patients with hematuria. Between January 2004 and December 2006, we identified 200 patients (119 men, 81 women; median age, 58 years, age range, 18-89 years) who underwent MDCT urography for hematuria. MDCT urography included unenhanced and combined nephrographic and excretory phase imaging of the urinary tract. Images were independently reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the final diagnosis. The degree of upper urinary tract opacification and the diagnosis were recorded. Prospective interpretations were also reviewed. The standard of reference included all available clinical, imaging, and laboratory data for up to 12 months after MDCT urography. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for upper tract tumors for prospective and retrospective interpretations. For reviewers 1 and 2, 85.1% and 84.5% of segments were at least 50% opacified, respectively. Final diagnoses for hematuria were no cause, 123 (61.5%); urothelial cancer, 27 (13.5%); nonmalignant, 46 (23%) and indeterminate, four patients (2%). There were nine upper tract cancers. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for upper tract cancers for prospective interpretation, reviewer 1 and reviewer 2, were 100%, 99%, 99%; 100%, 99.5%, 99.5%; and 88.9%, 99.0%, 98.5%, respectively. Split-bolus MDCT urography provided at least 50% opacification of the majority of upper urinary tract segments and had high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of upper urinary tract tumors.

  19. The effective bolus dose of remifentanil to facilitate laryngeal mask airway insertion during inhalation induction of sevoflurane in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuckgoo; Jung, Sung Mee; Park, Sang-Jin

    2015-10-01

    The additional administration of remifentanil during inhalation induction with sevoflurane could provide better conditions for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion than sevoflurane alone. This study was designed to evaluate the 50 % effective bolus dose (ED50) and 95 % effective bolus dose (ED95) of remifentanil required for LMA insertion in children during inhalation induction with sevoflurane. Pediatric patients aged 3-12 years requiring general anesthesia were recruited. A predetermined dose of remifentanil was injected over 30 s after the induction of general anesthesia with sevoflurane. LMA insertion was attempted 60 s after remifentanil injection. The dose of remifentanil was determined using the Dixon's up-and-down method, starting from 0.5 μg/kg (step size of 0.05 μg/kg). The study was conducted until seven cross-over points and 29 children were collected. The ED50 of remifentanil for successful LMA insertion during sevoflurane inhalation induction in children was 0.168 ± 0.035 μg/kg using Dixon's method. In addition, the ED50 and ED95 of remifentanil from the probit analysis were 0.176 μg/kg (95 % confidence limits, 0.102-0.216 μg/kg) and 0.268 μg/kg (95 % confidence limits, 0.223-0.659 μg/kg), respectively. The ED50 and ED95 of remifentanil for successful LMA insertion in children were estimated to be 0.176 (0.168) and 0.268 μg/kg during inhalation induction with 2.1 % sevoflurane.

  20. Intravenous injection of elemental mercury: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of intravenous injection of elemental mercury are described in this report. One patient succumbed and the other remains asymptomatic two years after the surgical removal of all the injected mercury. Management of intravenous injection of elemental mercury (intended to be an aphrodisiac in these two cases is discussed here and the need for surgical removal of all accessible mercury has been emphasized.

  1. The intravenous pharmacokinetics of diminazene in healthy dogs

    OpenAIRE

    V. Naidoo; M.S.G. Mulders; G.E. Swan

    2009-01-01

    Diminazene remains one of South Africa's most commonly used antiprotozoal agents for the management of babesiosis in dogs . Although the drug has been on the market for over 40 years, its intravenous pharmacokinetics are poorly known. To better understand the pharmacokinetics of the drug Berenil®, it was reconstituted in sterile water and administered intravenously to 6 adult German shepherd dogs. All 6 dogs demonstrated the previously described secondary peak in the plasma concentration vers...

  2. Treatment with intravenous gammaglobulin in pediatric patients with primary vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Meza Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays intravenous immunoglobulins have been used in differ- ent vasculitis with various results for each condition, being more recommended for its use in Kawasaki disease and ANCA-associated vasculitis. However, there is still no solid evidence to support its use in the entire group of these diseases. We present a review of the existing literature related to the use of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of primary vasculitis in childhood.

  3. Monitoring of propofol and its metabolite during total intravenous anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarov, A. Yu.; Ershov, T. D.; Levshankov, A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Intravenous hypnotic propofol and its metabolite are detected in real time during total intravenous anesthesia by an electron ionization mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer is connected directly to the breathing circuit of an apparatus for inhalational anesthesia. Ratios between the propofol concentrations in expired air and blood serum are measured. It is concluded that real-time noninvasive monitoring of the propofol concentration in blood using electron ionization mass spectrometry is feasible.

  4. The reliability and validity of passive leg raise and fluid bolus to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing emergency department patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Nicolaj; Shogilev, Daniel J; Skibsted, Simon

    2015-01-01

    initiated immediately after the end of BOLUS1. We calculated κ statistics, correlation coefficients, and odds ratios with 95% confidence interval and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: We enrolled 109 patients enrolled in this study. The 2 PLRs were significantly correlated (r = 0.78, P

  5. Associations between bolus infusion of hydrocortisone, glycemic variability and insulin infusion rate variability in critically Ill patients under moderate glycemic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, Roosmarijn T. M.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively studied associations between bolus infusion of hydrocortisone and variability of the blood glucose level and changes in insulin rates in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. 'Glycemic variability' and 'insulin infusion rate variability' were calculated from and expressed as the

  6. 1H NMR and MVA metabolomic profiles of urines from piglets fed with boluses contaminated with a mixture of five mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. De Pascali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic profile of urine from piglets administered with single boluses contaminated with mycotoxin mixture (deoxynivalenol, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A were studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics (PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA. The mycotoxin levels were close to the established maximum and guidance levels for animal feed (2003/100/EC and 2006/576/EC. Urine samples were obtained from four groups of four piglets before (control, C or within 24 h (treated, T after receiving a contaminated boluses with increasing doses of mycotoxins (boluses 1–4. For the two highest dose groups, the urines were collected also after one week of wash out (W. For the two lowest doses groups no significant differences between the C and T samples were observed. By contrast, for the two highest doses groups the T urines separated from the controls for a higher relative content of creatinine, p-cresol glucuronide and phenyl acetyl glycine and lower concentration of betaine and TMAO. Interestingly, a similar profile was found for both W and T urines suggesting, at least for the highest doses used, serious alteration after a single bolus of mycotoxin mixture.

  7. Comparison of Intermittent and Bolus Enteral Feeding Methods on Enteral Feeding Intolerance of Patients with Sepsis: A Triple-blind Controlled Trial in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Morteza; Farsi, Zahra; Ahangari, Mojtaba; Dadgari, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    BACKGROUND Recent trials have shown controversial results on which enteral feeding methods has a lower risk of enteral feeding intolerance. Therefore, we aimed to compare two methods of bolus and intermittent feeding on enteral feeding intolerance of patients with sepsis. METHODS This triple-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients with sepsis, who were fed through tubes for at least 3 days. The patients were randomly assigned into bolus feeding, intermittent feeding, and control groups. Enteral feeding intolerance of all patients was recorded in 3 consecutive days by a researcher-made checklist including the data on gastric residual volume, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal distension. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the three studied groups in none of the intervention days pertaining to constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal distention, and gastric residual volume ( p > 0.05). Also, no statistically significant difference was found between all variables in the three studied groups during the 3 days ( p > 0.05). CONCLUSION As enteral feeding intolerance of patients with sepsis was similar in both bolus and intermittent feeding methods, it can be concluded that bolus method can still be used as a standard method to decrease the risk of enteral feeding intolerance if it is used properly.

  8. Multidetector computed tomography with triple-bolus contrast medium administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of potential living renal donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Matthew K. [University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, UME Office, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D. [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Medicine, MD Undergraduate Program, Diamond Health Care Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bardgett, Harry P. [Bradford Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Bradford (United Kingdom); Cowan, Nigel C. [The Churchill Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a triple-bolus contrast administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-five potential living renal donors underwent MDCT of which 27 proceeded to donor nephrectomy. A triple-bolus contrast administration protocol was used for simultaneous acquisition of arterial, nephrographic, and excretory phases. MDCT images were independently reviewed in random order by two radiologists blinded to surgical anatomy findings. Diagnostic accuracy for anatomical variants was quantified by sensitivity and specificity. Differential renal function (DRF) was derived from MDCT for 54 patients and compared with technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renography (Tc-99 m DMSA). All triple-bolus MDCT examinations were technically adequate. Accessory renal arteries and veins were identified at surgery in 33% (n = 9/27) and 22% (n = 6/27) of donor kidneys. The mean difference between MDCT-derived DRF and DMSA was 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.6) with 95% limits of agreement of -4.6% (95% CI -3.3 to -5.9) to 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.6). MDCT delivered a mean (SD, range) radiation dose of 9.5 (3.6, 3.6-17.3) mSv. MDCT with a triple-bolus contrast administration provides accurate anatomical and functional evaluation of living renal donors. (orig.)

  9. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, W.; Zwaka, P.A.; Sohns, J.M.; Schwarz, A.; Lotz, J. [University Medical Center Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sohns, C.; Vollmann, D.; Zabel, M.; Hasenfuss, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumology; Schneider, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics

    2014-11-15

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  10. Dietary pretreatment with green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces the bioavailability and hepatotoxicity of subsequent oral bolus doses of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karma D; Forester, Sarah C; Lambert, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    Human case-studies have reported an association between green tea-based dietary supplements and hepatotoxicity. Studies have demonstrated the hepatotoxicity of high-dose oral bolus dosing with the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in mice and dogs. We examined the effect of pretreatment with dietary EGCG on the hepatotoxicity and bioavailability of acute oral bolus dosing with EGCG in CF-1 mice. EGCG (750 mg/kg, i.g., once daily for 3 days) increased plasma alanine aminotransferase by 80-fold, decreased both reduced (by 59%) and total (by 33%) hepatic glutathione, and increased hepatic levels of phosphorylated histone 2AX. Pretreatment with dietary EGCG (3.2 mg/g diet) for 2 weeks mitigated hepatotoxicity. Acute oral EGCG also decreased mRNA expression of glutathione reductase. Dietary pretreatment prevented these decreased and increased glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)2, Gpx3, Gpx5, and Gpx7 expression. We found that dietary EGCG reduced the plasma (57% reduction) and hepatic (71% reduction) EGCG exposure following oral bolus dosing compared to mice that were not pre-treated. Overall, it appears that EGCG can modulate its own bioavailability and that dietary treatment may reduce the toxic potential of acute high oral bolus doses of EGCG. These data may partly explain the observed variation in hepatotoxic response to green tea-containing dietary supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Agreement between ccNexfin CO-trek cardiac output and intermittent cold-bolus pulmonary thermodilution in a prospective multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperna Weiland, Nicolaas H.; de Wever, Jim W.; van Duivenvoorde, Yoni; Boer, Christa; Mitrev, Ludmil; Muntazar, Muhammad; Patel, Kinjal; Hollmann, Markus W.; Preckel, Benedikt

    2017-01-01

    The ccNexfin system uses the CO-trek algorithm to analyse a non-invasively obtained arterial pressure waveform and calculate cardiac output (NEXCO). It remains matter of debate whether NEXCO can replace invasive, pulmonary artery catheter derived, cold-bolus pulmonary thermodilution cardiac output

  12. The optimum bolus dose of remifentanil to facilitate laryngeal mask airway insertion with a single standard dose of propofol at induction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, H J; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y B; Chae, Y J; Kim, J Y

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal bolus dose of remifentanil required for the successful insertion of the laryngeal mask airway during propofol induction in children without a neuromuscular blocking agent. Twenty-six paediatric patients, aged 3-10 years, requiring anaesthesia for short ambulatory surgery were recruited. A predetermined bolus dose of remifentanil was injected over 30 s, followed by propofol 2.5 mg.kg(-1) over 10 s. The bolus dose of remifentanil was determined by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method, starting from 0.5 microg.kg(-1) (0.1 microg.kg(-1) as a step size). Laryngeal mask insertion was attempted 90 s after the end of remifentanil injection and the response of patients was classified as either 'movement' or 'no movement'. The bolus dose of remifentanil at which there was a 50% probability of successful laryngeal mask insertion (ED(50)) during induction with 2.5 mg.kg(-1) propofol was 0.56 (0.07) microg.kg(-1) in children without a neuromuscular blocking agent. From probit analysis, the ED(50) and ED(95) of remifentanil were 0.52 microg.kg(-1) (95% confidence limits, 0.42-0.62 microg.kg(-1)) and 0.71 microg.kg(-1) (95% confidence limits, 0.61-1.40 microg.kg(-1)), respectively.

  13. Premixed vs basal-bolus insulin regimen in Type 2 diabetes: comparison of clinical outcomes from randomized controlled trials and real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwagu, U; Mamza, J; Gordon, J; Donnelly, R; Idris, I

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the concordance between data derived from randomized controlled trial (RCT) and real-world estimates of HbA1c and weight change after 24 weeks of initiation of a basal-bolus compared with a premixed insulin regimen in people with Type 2 diabetes. Data eight RCTs were pooled after a systematic review of studies examining basal-bolus (n = 1893) or premixed (n = 1517) regimens. Real-world data were extracted from the UK primary care dataset for people on basal-bolus (n = 7483) or premixed insulin regimens (n=10 744). The mean differences between HbA1c and weight from baseline were calculated using t-tests, while analysis of variance was used to compare the two treatment regimens. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of this change. Both insulin regimens were associated with HbA1c reductions (real-world data -0.28%; RCT data, -1.4%) and weight gain (real-world data, +0.27 kg; RCT data, +2.96 kg) but there were no significant differences between basal-bolus and premixed insulin. Discordances in the pattern of treatment response were observed, however, between real-world and RCT data for both insulin regimens. For any given baseline HbA1c concentration, the change in HbA1c in the RCTs was greater than in real-world conditions and for those with baseline weight above ~60 kg, RCT data showed overall weight gain in contrast to slight weight loss in the real-world population. Lastly, for both randomized controlled trial and real-world populations, while greater baseline weight was associated with reduced response to treatment, the association was much steeper in the RCT than in the real-world population. In addition, greater baseline weight was associated with greater weight reductions in both premixed insulin and basal-bolus insulin regimens, although to a lesser extent with the latter. These results highlight specific discrepancies in the HbA1c reduction and weight change in insulin regimen between real world versus RCT populations

  14. A comparison of analgesic efficacy between oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block and intravenous morphine for laparascopic cholecystectomy. A prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chee Kean; Tan, Peter Chee Seong; Phui, Vui Eng; Teo, Shu Ching

    2013-06-01

    The ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane (OSTAP) block provides a wider area of sensory block to the anterior abdominal wall than the classical posterior approach. We compared the intra-operative analgesic efficacy of OSTAP block with conventional intravenous (IV) morphine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Forty adult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under standard general anesthesia, were randomly assigned for either bilateral OSTAP block using 1.5 mg/kg ropivacaine on each side (n = 20) or IV morphine 0.1 mg/kg (n = 20). The intra-operative pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure were monitored every five minutes. Repetitive boluses of IV fentanyl 0.5 µg/kg were given as rescue analgesia when any of the above-mentioned parameters rose more than 15% from the baseline values. Time to extubation was documented. Additional boluses of IV morphine 0.05 mg/kg were administered in the recovery room if the recorded visual analogue score (VAS) was more than 4. Nausea and vomiting score, as well as sedation score were recorded. The morphine group required more rescue fentanyl as compared to the OSTAP block group but the difference was not significant statistically. Time to extubation was significantly shorter in the OSTAP block group (mean [SD] 10.4 [2.60] vs 12.4 [2.54] min; P = 0.021). Both methods provided excellent analgesia and did not differ in postoperative morphine requirements. No between-group differences in sedation score and incidence of nausea and vomiting were demonstrated. Ultrasound-guided OSTAP block has an important role as part of balanced anesthesia. It is as efficacious as IV morphine in providing effective analgesia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  15. Exposure-Response Analysis of Alvocidib (Flavopiridol) Treatment by Bolus or Hybrid Administration in Newly Diagnosed or Relapsed/Refractory Acute Leukemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCerte, Carl; Ivaturi, Vijay; Gobburu, Joga; Greer, Jacqueline M; Doyle, L Austin; Wright, John J; Karp, Judith E; Rudek, Michelle A

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: To elucidate any differences in the exposure-response of alvocidib (flavopiridol) given by 1-hour bolus or a hybrid schedule (30-minute bolus followed by a 4-hour infusion) using a flavopiridol/cytosine arabinoside/mitoxantrone sequential protocol (FLAM) in patients with acute leukemia. The hybrid schedule was devised to be pharmacologically superior in chronic leukemia based on unbound exposure.Experimental Design: Data from 129 patients in three FLAM studies were used for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling. Newly diagnosed (62%) or relapsed/refractory (38%) patients were treated by bolus (43%) or hybrid schedule (57%). Total and unbound flavopiridol concentrations were fit using nonlinear mixed-effect population pharmacokinetic methodologies. Exposure-response relationships using unbound flavopiridol AUC were explored using recursive partitioning.Results: Flavopiridol pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a two-compartment model. No pharmacokinetic covariates were identified. Flavopiridol fraction unbound was 10.9% and not different between schedules. Partitioning found no association between dosing schedule and clinical response. Clinical response was associated with AUC ≥ 780 h*ng/mL for newly diagnosed patients and AUC ≥ 1,690 h*ng/mL for relapsed/refractory patients. Higher exposures were not associated with increases in severe adverse events (≥ grade 3).Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling showed no difference in flavopiridol plasma protein binding for bolus versus hybrid dosing. Further trials in newly diagnosed patients with acute leukemia should utilize the bolus FLAM regimen at the MTD of 50 mg/m2/day. Trials in relapsed/refractory patients should use the hybrid dosing schedule at the MTD (30/60 mg/m2/day) to achieve the higher exposures required for maximal efficacy in this population. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3592-600. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Ziconotide Trialing by Intrathecal Bolus Injections: An Open-Label Non-Randomized Clinical Trial in Postoperative/Posttraumatic Neuropathic Pain Patients Refractory to Conventional Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckryd, Emmanuel; Sörensen, Jan; Gerdle, Björn

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial was to evaluate the feasibility of trialing ziconotide by intrathecal bolus injections. Twenty-three patients, who had peripheral neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacological treatment and were under consideration for Spinal Cord Stimulation, received up to three ziconotide bolus injections according to a comprehensive algorithm. After a first injection of 2.5 μg, the patients progressed in the algorithm depending on the presence or absence of pain reduction and significant adverse events. A patient was considered a "responder" if experiencing pain reduction and no significant adverse event on two consecutive occasions at the same dosage. We found a low proportion of responders (13%). However 30% of patients experienced ≥30% pain reduction on a least one injection, yielding a number needed to treat of ∼3 for clinically significant pain relief. Pain intensity changed significantly over time (0-6 h) (p = 0.047) after a mean ziconotide dose of 2.75 μg. Adverse events were as expected, and no serious adverse event occurred. We did not find any statistical association between response to Spinal Cord Stimulation and response to ziconotide. Ziconotide bolus injection trialing seems feasible, but the proportion of responders in the present study was low. Adverse events were as expected, and no serious adverse event occurred. The predictive power of ziconotide bolus trialing remains unclear, and the pharmacological profile of ziconotide (slow tissue penetration due to high hydrophilicity) calls the rationale for bolus trialing into question. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Bolus intrathecal injection of ziconotide (Prialt®) to evaluate the option of continuous administration via an implanted intrathecal drug delivery (ITDD) system: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Salma I; Eldabe, Sam; Simpson, Karen H; Brookes, Morag; Madzinga, Grace; Gulve, Ashish; Baranidharan, Ganesan; Radford, Helen; Crowther, Tracey; Buchser, Eric; Perruchoud, Christophe; Batterham, Alan Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated efficacy and safety of bolus doses of ziconotide (Prialt®, Eisai Limited, Hertfordshire, UK) to assess the option of continuous administration of this drug via an implanted intrathecal drug delivery system. Twenty adults with severe chronic pain who were under consideration for intrathecal (IT) therapy were enrolled in this open label, nonrandomized, pilot study. Informed consent was obtained. Demographics, medical/pain history, pain scores, and concomitant medications were recorded. A physical examination was performed. Creatine kinase was measured. Initial visual analog scale (VAS), blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded. All patients received an initial bolus dose of 2.5 mcg ziconotide; the dose in the subsequent visits was modified according to response. Subsequent doses were 2.5 mcg, 1.2 mcg, or 3.75 mcg as per protocol. A good response (≥30% reduction in baseline pain VAS) with no side-effects on two occasions was considered a successful trial. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model, with pain VAS as the outcome and time (seven time points; preinjection and one to six hours postinjection) as the predictor. Generalized estimating equations analysis of summary measures showed a mean reduction of pain VAS of approximately 25% at the group level; of 11 responders, seven underwent pump implantation procedure, two withdrew because of adverse effects, one refused an implant, and one could not have an implant (lack of funding from the Primary Care Trust). Our data demonstrated that mean VAS was reduced by approximately 25% at the group level after IT ziconotide bolus. Treatment efficacy did not vary with sex, center, age, or pain etiology. Ziconotide bolus was generally well tolerated. Larger studies are needed to determine if bolus dosing with ziconotide is a good predictor of response to continuous IT ziconotide via an intrathecal drug delivery system. © 2012 International

  18. Kidney and urinary tract imaging: triple-bolus multidetector CT urography as a one-stop shop--protocol design, opacification, and image quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekelidze, Maka; Dwarkasing, Roy S; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L; Sikorska, Karolina; Verhagen, Paul C M S; Krestin, Gabriel P

    2010-05-01

    To retrospectively evaluate renal, vascular, and urinary tract visualization following a single postcontrast multidetector computed tomographic (CT) urographic sequence performed with three limited-volume bolus injections. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Patient informed consent was waived. Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography was performed in 110 patients. Triple-bolus protocol consisted of 30 mL of contrast material at 2 mL/sec at 0 seconds, 50 mL at 1.5 mL/sec at 435 seconds, 65 mL at 3 mL/sec at 488 seconds, with total abdominal scanning time of 510 seconds. Two independent readers rated urinary tract opacification and qualitatively and quantitatively assessed renal parenchymal and vascular contrast enhancement. Upper urinary tract (UUT) distention was measured by one reader. Interobserver agreement was assessed by using kappa statistics. Complete opacification of the intrarenal collecting system and proximal ureter was achieved in 91% (184 of 202) (kappa = 0.62) and 82% (166 of 202) (kappa = 0.94) of segments, respectively. The distal ureter was not opacified in 21% of the cases (kappa = 0.92), and the bladder was not opacified in 20% of the cases. Mean distention was higher for proximal (3.9 mm) than for distal (3.7 mm) segments. Image quality of renal parenchymal enhancement was excellent in 76% of cases. Arteries showed better contrast enhancement than veins (excellent rating in 89% vs 59% of the cases). Radiation dose calculated for triple-bolus acquisition was 9.8 mSv. Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography is a dose-efficient protocol