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Sample records for rapid initial uptake

  1. Science Granting Councils Initiative: Research uptake | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Science Granting Councils Initiative in sub-Saharan Africa aims to strengthen the capacities of science granting councils in sub-Saharan Africa to support research and evidence-based policies that contribute to economic and social development. The initiative's activities include training, regional exchanges and forums, ...

  2. A minimal model for the mitochondrial rapid mode of Ca²+ uptake mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N Bazil

    Full Text Available Mitochondria possess a remarkable ability to rapidly accumulate and sequester Ca²⁺. One of the mechanisms responsible for this ability is believed to be the rapid mode (RaM of Ca²⁺ uptake. Despite the existence of many models of mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics, very few consider RaM as a potential mechanism that regulates mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics. To fill this gap, a novel mathematical model of the RaM mechanism is developed herein. The model is able to simulate the available experimental data of rapid Ca²⁺ uptake in isolated mitochondria from both chicken heart and rat liver tissues with good fidelity. The mechanism is based on Ca²⁺ binding to an external trigger site(s and initiating a brief transient of high Ca²⁺ conductivity. It then quickly switches to an inhibited, zero-conductive state until the external Ca²⁺ level is dropped below a critical value (∼100-150 nM. RaM's Ca²⁺- and time-dependent properties make it a unique Ca²⁺ transporter that may be an important means by which mitochondria take up Ca²⁺ in situ and help enable mitochondria to decode cytosolic Ca²⁺ signals. Integrating the developed RaM model into existing models of mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics will help elucidate the physiological role that this unique mechanism plays in mitochondrial Ca²⁺-homeostasis and bioenergetics.

  3. Understanding uptake of an intervention to accelerate antiretroviral therapy initiation in Uganda via qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semitala, Fred C; Camlin, Carol S; Wallenta, Jeanna; Kampiire, Leatitia; Katuramu, Richard; Amanyire, Gideon; Namusobya, Jennifer; Chang, Wei; Kahn, James G; Charlebois, Edwin D; Havlir, Diane V; Kamya, Moses R; Geng, Elvin H

    2017-12-01

    The Streamlined Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Strategy (START-ART) study found that a theory-based intervention using opinion leaders to inform and coach health care providers about the risks of treatment delay, provision of point of care (POC) CD4 testing machines (PIMA) and reputational incentives, led to rapid rise in ART initiation. We used qualitative research methods to explore mechanisms of provider behaviour change. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 24 health care providers and nine study staff to understand perceptions, attitudes and the context of changes in ART initiation practices. Analyses were informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework. Rapid dissemination of new practices was enabled in the environmental context of an existing relationship based on communication, implementation and accountability between Makerere University Joint AIDS Program (MJAP), a Ugandan University-affiliated organization that provided technical oversight for HIV service delivery at the health facilities where the intervention was implemented, and a network of health facilities operated by the Uganda Ministry of Health. Coaching carried out by field coordinators from MJAP strengthened influence and informal accountability for carrying out the intervention. Frontline health workers held a pre-existing strong sense of professional identity. They were proud of attainment of new knowledge and skills and gratified by providing what they perceived to be higher quality care. Peer counsellors, who were not explicitly targeted in the intervention design, effectively substituted some functions of health care providers; as role models for successful ART uptake, they played a crucial role in creating demand for rapid ART initiation through interactions with patients. Point of care (POC) CD4 testing enabled immediate action and relieved providers from frustrations of lost or delayed laboratory results, and led to higher patient satisfaction (due to reduced costs because of

  4. Initial fate of prions upon peripheral infection: half-life, distribution, clearance, and tissue uptake

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    Urayama, Akihiko; Morales, Rodrigo; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Soto, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders associated with the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc), which appears to be the sole component of the infectious agent (termed prion). To produce disease, prions have to be absorbed into the body and reach sufficient quantities in the brain. Very little is known about the biological mechanisms controlling the initial fate of prions. Here, we studied the systemic pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of PrPSc in vivo. After an intravenous injection of highly purified radiolabeled or native unlabeled PrPSc, the protein was eliminated rapidly from the serum (half-life of 3.24 h), mostly through tissue uptake. The quantity of intact PrPSc reaching the brain was ∼0.2% of the injected dose per gram of brain tissue (ID/g). The highest levels were found in liver (∼20% ID/g), spleen (∼13% ID/g), and kidney (∼7.4% ID/g). Cell surface PrPC does not appear to play a role in PrPSc pharmacokinetics, since the infectious protein distributed similarly in wild-type and PrP-null mice. To measure tissue uptake kinetics and biodistribution accurately, vascular space in tissues was measured with radioactively labeled albumin coinjected with radioactively labeled PrPSc. Our results provide a fundamental pharmacokinetic characterization of PrPSc in vivo, which may be relevant to estimate tissue risks and mechanisms of prion neuroinvasion and to identify novel therapeutic strategies.—Urayama, A., Morales, R., Niehoff, M. L., Banks, W. A., Soto, C. Initial fate of prions upon peripheral infection: half-life, distribution, clearance, and tissue uptake PMID:21555356

  5. Laminated adsorbents with very rapid CO2 uptake by freeze-casting of zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojuva, Arto; Akhtar, Farid; Tomsia, Antoni P; Bergström, Lennart

    2013-04-10

    Structured zeolite 13X monoliths with a laminated structure and hierarchical macro-/microporosity were prepared by freeze-casting aqueous suspensions of zeolite 13X powder, bentonite, and polyethylene glycol. Colloidally stable suspensions with a low viscosity at both room temperature and near freezing could be prepared at alkaline conditions where both the zeolite 13X powder and bentonite carry a negative surface charge. Slow directional freezing of the suspensions led to the formation of well-defined and thin lamellar pores and pore walls while fast freezing resulted in more cylindrical pores. The wall thickness, which varied between 8 and 35 μm, increased with increasing solids loading of the suspension. Thermal treatment at 1053 K of the freeze-cast bodies containing between 9 and 17 wt % bentonite resulted in mechanically stable zeolite 13X monoliths. The monoliths displayed a carbon dioxide uptake capacity of 4-5 mmol/g and an uptake kinetics characterized by a very fast initial uptake where more than 50% of the maximum uptake was reached within 15 s. Freeze-cast laminated zeolite monoliths could be used to improve the volumetric efficiency and reduce the cycle time, of importance in, for example, biogas upgrading and CO2 separation from flue gas.

  6. Selective and rapid uptake of adeno-associated virus type 2 in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J S; Samulski, R J; McCown, T J

    1998-05-20

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors effectively transfer and express foreign genes in the brain. The transferred genes, however, are selectively expressed in neurons, and the cause of this specificity is not understood. To address this question, wild-type AAV-2 capsids were covalently labeled with the fluorophore, Cy3, and infused into the inferior colliculus or the hippocampus. Using antibodies to identify neurons (NeuN), astrocytes (GFAP), or oligodendrocytes (OX-42), clear neuron-specific uptake of the virus was observed as early as 6 min after the start of the infusion. By 30 min postinfusion, AAV particles were present in the nucleus of neurons, yet in both the inferior colliculus and hippocampus, a subset of neurons did not take up the virus particles. No AAV particles were found in astrocytes 1.5 min or 24 hr after virus infusion. Interestingly, 1 hr postinfusion, no AAV particles were found in microglia, yet by 24 hr postinfusion, a punctate pattern of AAV particles was found in microglia. To test whether virus uptake correlated with vector-transduced cells, an rAAV-CMV-GFP virus was infused. By 3 days postinfusion, GFP was localized to neuronal populations with no expression in astrocytes or microglia, similar to that of fluorescent virus uptake. These findings demonstrate that in brain, AAV particles rapidly bind and enter primarily neurons with a pattern similar to that of in vivo vector transduction. In addition, these studies indicate that viral binding and uptake, independent of promoter tropism, can explain the specificity of AAV brain transduction. Thus, this first description of AAV kinetic disposition in vivo should facilitate targeted application of this vector for human brain gene therapy.

  7. Outcomes of acutely HIV-1-infected individuals following rapid antiretroviral therapy initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girometti, Nicolò; Nwokolo, Nneka; McOwan, Alan; Whitlock, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Few data exist on the benefits and acceptability of rapid initiation of antiretroviral treatment in acute HIV infection (AHI). We analysed a large cohort of acutely infected HIV patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine uptake, linkage into care and time to achieve viral suppression. Case notes of all individuals diagnosed with AHI between May 2014 and October 2015 at 56 Dean Street, a sexual health clinic in London, UK were reviewed. AHI was defined through documentation of plasma HIV RNA positivity only, plasma HIV RNA and p24 antigen positivity with a negative HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test or HIV EIA test switching from negative to positive within 6 weeks. Between-group comparisons of time to viral suppression according to ART chosen were performed using the log-rank test. We identified 113 individuals with AHI. Linkage to care was 95%. 77% of patients started ART at first medical appointment: all men who have sex with men, median age 35 years, median viral load (VL) log10 6.45, median CD4+ T-cell count 483 cells/mm3. Median time from diagnosis to ART initiation was 20 days. At 24 weeks, no patients had discontinued ART; 99% of patients achieved viral suppression by 24 weeks, with a median time to documented VL suppression of 74 days. Viral suppression was more rapid with integrase inhibitors compared with other regimens (median 41 versus 88.5 days, PHIV infection, individuals demonstrated high ART uptake and rapid VL suppression suggesting that early treatment with antiretrovirals is acceptable and efficacious.

  8. Drought Rapidly Diminishes the Large Net CO2 Uptake in 2011 Over Semi-Arid Australia

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    Ma, Xuanlong; Huete, Alfredo; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Chevallier, Frederic; Joiner, Joanna; Poulter, Benjamin; Zhang, Yongguang; Guanter, Luis; Meyer, Wayne; hide

    2016-01-01

    Each year, terrestrial ecosystems absorb more than a quarter of the anthropogenic carbon emissions, termed as land carbon sink. An exceptionally large land carbon sink anomaly was recorded in 2011, of which more than half was attributed to Australia. However, the persistence and spatially attribution of this carbon sink remain largely unknown. Here we conducted an observation-based study to characterize the Australian land carbon sink through the novel coupling of satellite retrievals of atmospheric CO2 and photosynthesis and in-situ flux tower measures. We show the 2010-11 carbon sink was primarily ascribed to savannas and grasslands. When all biomes were normalized by rainfall, shrublands however, were most efficient in absorbing carbon. We found the 2010-11 net CO2 uptake was highly transient with rapid dissipation through drought. The size of the 2010-11 carbon sink over Australia (0.97 Pg) was reduced to 0.48 Pg in 2011-12, and was nearly eliminated in 2012-13 (0.08 Pg). We further report evidence of an earlier 2000-01 large net CO2 uptake, demonstrating a repetitive nature of this land carbon sink. Given a significant increasing trend in extreme wet year precipitation over Australia, we suggest that carbon sink episodes will exert greater future impacts on global carbon cycle.

  9. Drought rapidly diminishes the large net CO2 uptake in 2011 over semi-arid Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuanlong; Huete, Alfredo; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Chevallier, Frédéric; Joiner, Joanna; Poulter, Benjamin; Zhang, Yongguang; Guanter, Luis; Meyer, Wayne; Xie, Zunyi; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Each year, terrestrial ecosystems absorb more than a quarter of the anthropogenic carbon emissions, termed as land carbon sink. An exceptionally large land carbon sink anomaly was recorded in 2011, of which more than half was attributed to Australia. However, the persistence and spatially attribution of this carbon sink remain largely unknown. Here we conducted an observation-based study to characterize the Australian land carbon sink through the novel coupling of satellite retrievals of atmospheric CO2 and photosynthesis and in-situ flux tower measures. We show the 2010–11 carbon sink was primarily ascribed to savannas and grasslands. When all biomes were normalized by rainfall, shrublands however, were most efficient in absorbing carbon. We found the 2010–11 net CO2 uptake was highly transient with rapid dissipation through drought. The size of the 2010–11 carbon sink over Australia (0.97 Pg) was reduced to 0.48 Pg in 2011–12, and was nearly eliminated in 2012–13 (0.08 Pg). We further report evidence of an earlier 2000–01 large net CO2 uptake, demonstrating a repetitive nature of this land carbon sink. Given a significant increasing trend in extreme wet year precipitation over Australia, we suggest that carbon sink episodes will exert greater future impacts on global carbon cycle. PMID:27886216

  10. Rapid successions affect microbial N-acetyl-glucosamine uptake patterns during a lacustrine spring phytoplankton bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Ester M; Salcher, Michaela M; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2012-03-01

    The vernal successions of phytoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and viruses in temperate lakes result in alternating dominance of top-down and bottom-up factors on the bacterial community. This may lead to asynchronous blooms of bacteria with different life strategies and affect the channelling of particular components of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) through microbial food webs. We followed the dynamics of several bacterial populations and of other components of the microbial food web throughout the spring phytoplankton bloom period in a pre-alpine lake, and we assessed bacterial uptake patterns of two constituents of the labile DOM pool (N-acetyl-glucosamine [NAG] and leucine). There was a clear genotypic shift within the bacterial assemblage, from fast growing Cytophaga-Flavobacteria (CF) affiliated with Fluviicola and from Betaproteobacteria (BET) of the Limnohabitans cluster to more grazing resistant AcI Actinobacteria (ACT) and to filamentous morphotypes. This was paralleled by successive blooms of viruses and HNF. We also noted the transient rise of other CF (related to Cyclobacteriaceae and Sphingobacteriaceae) that are not detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization with the general CF probe. Both, the average uptake rates of leucine and the fractions of leucine incorporating bacteria were approximately five to sixfold higher than of NAG. However, the composition of the NAG-active community was much more prone to genotypic successions, in particular of bacteria with different life strategies: While 'opportunistically' growing BET and CF dominated NAG uptake in the initial period ruled by bottom-up factors, ACT constituted the major fraction of NAG active cells during the subsequent phase of high predation pressure. This indicates that some ACT could profit from a substrate that might in parts have originated from the grazing of protists on their bacterial competitors. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing

  11. Nanofiber Ion-Exchange Membranes for the Rapid Uptake and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithinart Chitpong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid (PAA and poly(itaconic acid (PIA to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd, productivity, and recovery of Cd(II from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s. Analysis of breakthrough curves indicated that the mass flow rate increased rapidly at constant applied pressure after membranes approached equilibrium load capacity for Cd(II, apparently due to a collapse of the polymer chains on the membrane surface, leading to an increased porosity. This mechanism is supported by hydrodynamic radius (Rh measurements for PAA and PIA obtained from dynamic light scattering, which show that Rh values decrease upon Cd(II binding. Volumetric productivity was high for the nanofiber membranes, and reached 0.55 mg Cd/g/min. The use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as regeneration reagent was effective in fully recovering Cd(II from the membranes. Ion-exchange capacities were constant over five cycles of binding-regeneration.

  12. Nanofiber Ion-Exchange Membranes for the Rapid Uptake and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpong, Nithinart; Husson, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(itaconic acid) (PIA) to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd), productivity, and recovery of Cd(II) from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II) on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s. Analysis of breakthrough curves indicated that the mass flow rate increased rapidly at constant applied pressure after membranes approached equilibrium load capacity for Cd(II), apparently due to a collapse of the polymer chains on the membrane surface, leading to an increased porosity. This mechanism is supported by hydrodynamic radius (Rh) measurements for PAA and PIA obtained from dynamic light scattering, which show that Rh values decrease upon Cd(II) binding. Volumetric productivity was high for the nanofiber membranes, and reached 0.55 mg Cd/g/min. The use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as regeneration reagent was effective in fully recovering Cd(II) from the membranes. Ion-exchange capacities were constant over five cycles of binding-regeneration. PMID:27999394

  13. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

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    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  14. Brain Tumor Initiating Cells Adapt to Restricted Nutrition through Preferential Glucose Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavahan, William A.; Wu, Qiulian; Hitomi, Masahiro; Rahim, Nasiha; Kim, Youngmi; Sloan, Andrew E.; Weil, Robert J.; Nakano, Ichiro; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Stringer, Brett W.; Day, Bryan W.; Li, Meizhang; Lathia, Justin D.; Rich, Jeremy N.; Hjelmeland, Anita B.

    2013-01-01

    Like all cancers, brain tumors require a continuous source of energy and molecular resources for new cell production. In normal brain, glucose is an essential neuronal fuel, but the blood-brain barrier limits its delivery. We now report that nutrient restriction contributes to tumor progression by enriching for brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) due to preferential BTIC survival and adaptation of non-BTICs through acquisition of BTIC features. BTICs outcompete for glucose uptake by co-opting the high affinity neuronal glucose transporter, type 3 (Glut3, SLC2A3). BTICs preferentially express Glut3 and targeting Glut3 inhibits BTIC growth and tumorigenic potential. Glut3, but not Glut1, correlates with poor survival in brain tumors and other cancers; thus, TICs may extract nutrients with high affinity. As altered metabolism represents a cancer hallmark, metabolic reprogramming may instruct the tumor hierarchy and portend poor prognosis. PMID:23995067

  15. Rapid uptake, metabolism, and elimination of inhaled sulfuryl fluoride fumigant by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrala, A L; Markham, D A; Eisenbrandt, D L

    2005-08-01

    Sulfuryl fluoride (SO(2)F(2)) is a structural fumigant gas used to control drywood termites and wood-boring beetles. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of inhaled SO(2)F(2) were evaluated in male Fischer-344 rats exposed to 30 or 300 ppm (35)S-labeled SO(2)F(2) for 4 h. Blood, urine and feces were collected during and after the exposures and analyzed for radioactivity, (35)S-labeled fluorosulfate and sulfate, and fluoride (urine and feces only). Selected tissues were collected 7 days post-exposure and analyzed for radioactivity. During and after unlabeled SO(2)F(2) exposures, blood, brain, and kidney were collected and analyzed for fluoride ion. SO(2)F(2) was rapidly absorbed, achieving maximum concentrations of radioactivity in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC) near the end of the 4-h exposure period. Radioactivity was rapidly excreted, mostly via the urine. Seven days post-exposure, small amounts of radioactivity were distributed among several tissues, with the highest concentration detected in respiratory tissues. Radioactivity associated with the RBC remained elevated 7 days post-exposure, and highly perfused tissues had higher levels of radioactivity than other non-respiratory tissues. Radioactivity cleared from plasma and RBC with initial half-lives of 2.5 h after 30 ppm and 1-2.5 h after 300 ppm exposures. The terminal half-life of radioactivity was 2.5-fold longer in RBC than plasma. Based on the radiochemical profiles, there was no evidence of parent (35)SO(2)F(2) in blood. Identification of fluorosulfate and sulfate in blood and urine suggests that SO(2)F(2) is hydrolyzed to fluorosulfate, with release of fluoride, followed by further hydrolysis to sulfate and release of the remaining fluoride.

  16. First aid to Cultural Heritage. Training initiatives on rapid documentation

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    Almagro Vidal, A.; Tandon, A.; Eppich, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recent dramatic events have brought to the forefront the debate on how to protect, safeguard and document Cultural Heritage in conflict areas. Heritage places have become battlefields, sources of illicit trafficking and even deliberate targets of destruction because of the politicisation to further conflict ideologies as well as misinterpretation of the values they represent. Is it possible to protect Cultural Heritage under such circumstances? If yes, when is the right time to intervene and who can help in this task? How can documentation and training assist? The International Course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis promoted by ICCROM (The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) in collaboration with various partners focuses specifically on ways to help in such difficult and stressful situations. This paper explores the methodological approach and highlights the special circumstances that surround rapid documentation and preliminary condition assessment in conflict areas, and in cases of complex emergencies such as an earthquake striking a conflict area. The paper identifies international actors that might play a special and crucial role in the first steps of such a situation and recognizes the need for training activities to strengthen capacities for disaster response to cultural heritage at national and regional levels.

  17. First aid to Cultural Heritage. Training initiatives on rapid documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almagro Vidal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent dramatic events have brought to the forefront the debate on how to protect, safeguard and document Cultural Heritage in conflict areas. Heritage places have become battlefields, sources of illicit trafficking and even deliberate targets of destruction because of the politicisation to further conflict ideologies as well as misinterpretation of the values they represent. Is it possible to protect Cultural Heritage under such circumstances? If yes, when is the right time to intervene and who can help in this task? How can documentation and training assist? The International Course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis promoted by ICCROM (The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property in collaboration with various partners focuses specifically on ways to help in such difficult and stressful situations. This paper explores the methodological approach and highlights the special circumstances that surround rapid documentation and preliminary condition assessment in conflict areas, and in cases of complex emergencies such as an earthquake striking a conflict area. The paper identifies international actors that might play a special and crucial role in the first steps of such a situation and recognizes the need for training activities to strengthen capacities for disaster response to cultural heritage at national and regional levels.

  18. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, Michael; Murray, Liam; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05) with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62). Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1. PMID:24073411

  19. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition.

  20. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  1. Early initiation of postpartum contraception: does it decrease rapid repeat pregnancy in adolescents?

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    Damle, Lauren F; Gohari, Amir C; McEvoy, Anna K; Desale, Sameer Y; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Rapid repeat adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health concern. An effective and practical means of decreasing unintended second adolescent pregnancies needs to be identified. The objective of this study is to determine if early initiation of contraception, and in particular long acting reversible contraception (LARC), decreases rapid repeat pregnancy among first time adolescent mothers. Retrospective cohort study. Urban teaching hospital. 340 first-time adolescent mothers age ≤ 19. None, study was retrospective. Repeat pregnancy within 2 years. 340 first time adolescent mothers with a documented follow-up time of 2 years had a repeat pregnancy rate of 35%. Average time from delivery to repeat pregnancy was 9.9 ± 6.4 months. Logistic regression analysis comparing adolescents with and without repeat pregnancy revealed that leaving the hospital postpartum without initiating any contraception was associated with significant increase risk of repeat pregnancy (OR = 2.447, 95% CI 1.326-4.515). Follow-up within 8 weeks postpartum was associated with lower chance of repeat pregnancy (OR = 0.322, 95% CI 0.172-0.603). Initiation of a LARC method (either an intrauterine device or etonogestrel subdermal implant) by 8 weeks postpartum was also associated with decreased chance of rapid repeat pregnancy (OR = 0.118, 95% CI 0.035-0.397). Adolescent mothers who initiate a LARC method within 8 weeks of delivery are less likely to have a repeat pregnancy within 2 years than those who choose other methods or no method. First time adolescent mothers should be counseled about this advantage of using LARC. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia

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    A. W. Taylor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite health promotion (WHP initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide policy makers with evidence for targeted interventions. Methods The worksites (n = 218 of randomly selected, working participants, aged between 30 and 65 years, in two South Australian cohort studies were surveyed to assess the practices, beliefs, and attitudes regarding WHP. A survey was sent electronically or by mail to management within each business. Results Smaller businesses (<20 employees had less current health promotion activies (mean 1.0 compared to medium size businesses (20–200 employees – mean 2.4 and large businesses (200+ employees – mean 2.9. Management in small businesses were less likely (31.0 % to believe that health promotion belonged in the workplace (compared to 55.7 % of medium businesses and 73.9 % of large businesses although half of small businesses did not know or were undecided (compared to 36.4 and 21.6 % of medium and large businesses. In total, 85.0 % of smaller businesses believed the health promotion activities currently employed in the worksite were effective (compared to 89.2 % of medium businesses and 83.1 % of large businesses. Time and funding were the most cited responses to the challenges to implementing health promoting strategies regardless of business size. Small businesses ranked morale and work/life balance the highest among a range of health promotion activities that were important for their workplace while work-related injury was the highest ranked consideration for large businesses. Conclusion

  3. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A W; Pilkington, R; Montgomerie, A; Feist, H

    2016-04-21

    Worksite health promotion (WHP) initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide policy makers with evidence for targeted interventions. The worksites (n = 218) of randomly selected, working participants, aged between 30 and 65 years, in two South Australian cohort studies were surveyed to assess the practices, beliefs, and attitudes regarding WHP. A survey was sent electronically or by mail to management within each business. Smaller businesses (promotion activies (mean 1.0) compared to medium size businesses (20-200 employees - mean 2.4) and large businesses (200+ employees - mean 2.9). Management in small businesses were less likely (31.0 %) to believe that health promotion belonged in the workplace (compared to 55.7 % of medium businesses and 73.9 % of large businesses) although half of small businesses did not know or were undecided (compared to 36.4 and 21.6 % of medium and large businesses). In total, 85.0 % of smaller businesses believed the health promotion activities currently employed in the worksite were effective (compared to 89.2 % of medium businesses and 83.1 % of large businesses). Time and funding were the most cited responses to the challenges to implementing health promoting strategies regardless of business size. Small businesses ranked morale and work/life balance the highest among a range of health promotion activities that were important for their workplace while work-related injury was the highest ranked consideration for large businesses. This study found that smaller workplaces had many barriers, beliefs and challenges regarding WHP

  4. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Water uptake and retention by trees affects their ability to cope with drought, as well as influences ground water recharge and stream flow. Historically, water has not often been limiting in Eastern U.S. forests. As a result, very little work has been done to understand the basics of timing of water use by vegetation in these systems. As droughts are projected to increase in length and severity in future decades, this focus is increasingly important, particularly for informing hydrologic models. We used deuterium tracer and sap flux techniques to study tree water transport on a forested ridge top with shallow soil in central Pennsylvania. Three trees of each of the species, Acer saccharum, Carya tomentosa, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubrum were accessed by tree climbing and scaffolding towers. We hypothesized that contrasting vessel size of the tree species would affect the efficiency of water transport (tracer velocity) and contrasting tree size would affect tracer storage as estimated by tracer residence times. Trees were injected with deuterated water in July 2012. Leaves were sampled 15 times over 35 days, initially daily for the first week, then at regular intervals afterwards. The tracer arrived in the canopy of the study trees between 1 and 7 days after injection, traveling at a velocity of 2 to 19 m d-1. The tracer residence time was between 7 and 33 days. Although there was variation in tracer velocity and residence time in individual trees, there were no significant differences among wood types or species (P>0.05). The general patterns in timing of water use were similar to other studies on angiosperm trees in tropical and arid ecosystems. There was no evidence of longer residence times in the larger trees. Sap flux-based estimates of sap velocity were much lower than tracer estimates, which was consistent with other studies. Levels of sap flux and midday water potential measurements suggested that the trees were water-stressed. We observed relatively

  5. Towards Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: The Impact of a Rapid Results Initiative in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L. Dillabaugh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many HIV-positive pregnant women and infants are still not receiving optimal services, preventing the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission (MTCT and improving maternal child health overall. A Rapid Results Initiative (RRI approach was utilized to address key challenges in delivery of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT services including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART uptake for women and infants. The RRI was conducted between April and June 2011 at 119 health facilities in five districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Aggregated site-level data were compared at baseline before the RRI (Oct 2010–Jan 2011, during the RRI, and post-RRI (Jul–Sep 2011 using pre-post cohort analysis. HAART uptake amongst all HIV-positive pregnant women increased by 40% (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.7 and continued to improve post-RRI (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4–1.8. HAART uptake in HIV-positive infants remained stable (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.4 during the RRI and improved by 30% (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.6 post-RRI. Significant improvement in PMTCT services can be achieved through introduction of an RRI, which appears to lead to sustained benefits for pregnant HIV-infected women and their infants.

  6. Sewage sludge as an initial fertility driver for rapid improvement of mudflat salt-soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanchao; Zang, Caiyun; Gu, Minjing; Gu, Chuanhui; Shao, Hongbo; Guan, Yongxiang; Wang, Xukui; Zhou, Xiaojian; Shan, Yuhua; Feng, Ke

    2017-02-01

    Sewage sludge is by-product in the process of centralized wastewater treatment. Land application of sewage sludge is one of the important disposal alternatives. Mudflats in the interaction zone between land and sea can be important alternative sources for arable lands if amended by large amount of organic fertilizers. Rich in organic matter and other nutrients, sewage sludge has been considered as the economic choice for an initial fertility driver. However, sewage sludge amendment has been greatly hampered due to availability of potential toxic metals. Using sewage sludge in compliance with the national standards for agricultural usage could avoid the accumulation of heavy metals. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether massive input of sewage sludge would increase heavy metals concentration in crops. The objective of this study was to investigate impact of sewage sludge amendment (SSA) as an initial fertility driver by one-time input, with the rates of 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300tha -1 , on biomass of green manures, soil chemical properties, and growth and heavy metals uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in mudflat soil. Results showed that one-time sewage sludge amendment promoted an initial fertility for infertile mudflat soil, supported growth of ryegrass as the first season green manure. By tilled ryegrass, it modified the chemical properties of mudflat soil by increasing soil organic carbon, total and available N and P, and decreasing soil salinity and pH, which promoted subsequent growth of two green manures for sesbania and ryegrass. The sewage sludge as an initial fertility driver combined with planting and tilling green manures, increased dry matter of the aerial part and grain yield of maize grown in mudflat soil. Cd and Ni concentrations in grain of maize were positively correlated with sewage sludge amendment rates. Importantly, heavy metal concentrations in grain of maize at all SSA rates did not exceed the safety standard for food in China (GB 2762

  7. A rapid, non-destructive methodology to monitor activity of sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete based on H2S uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Wells, Tony; Keller, Jurg

    2014-08-01

    Many existing methods to monitor the corrosion of concrete in sewers are either very slow or destructive measurements. To overcome these limitations, a rapid, non-invasive methodology was developed to monitor the sulfide-induced corrosion process on concrete through the measurement of the H2S uptake rates of concrete at various corrosion stages. The H2S uptake rate for a concrete coupon was determined by measuring the gaseous H2S concentrations over time in a temperature- and humidity-controlled gas-tight reactor. The reliability of this method was evaluated by carrying out repeated tests on different concrete coupons previously exposed to 50 ppm of H2S, at 30 °C and 100% relative humidity for over 32 months. The H2S uptake measurements showed good reproducibility. It was also shown that a severely corroded coupon exhibited higher sulfide uptake rates than a less corroded coupon. This could be explained by the corrosion layer in the more corroded coupon having a higher biological sulfide oxidation activity than the less corroded coupon. Additionally, temperature changes had a stronger effect on the uptake rate of the heavily corroded coupon compared to the less corroded coupon. A corrosion rate of 8.9 ± 0.5 mm/year, estimated from the H2S uptake results, agreed well with the corrosion rate observed in real sewers under similar conditions. The method could be applied to investigate important factors affecting sulfide-induced concrete corrosion, particularly temperature, fluctuating gaseous H2S concentrations, oxygen concentrations, surface pH and relative humidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid responses to reverse T₃ hormone in immature rat Sertoli cells: calcium uptake and exocytosis mediated by integrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Zanatta

    Full Text Available There is increasing experimental evidence of the nongenomic action of thyroid hormones mediated by receptors located in the plasma membrane or inside cells. The aim of this work was to characterize the reverse T₃ (rT₃ action on calcium uptake and its involvement in immature rat Sertoli cell secretion. The results presented herein show that very low concentrations of rT₃ are able to increase calcium uptake after 1 min of exposure. The implication of T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels and chloride channels in the effect of rT₃ was evidenced using flunarizine and 9-anthracene, respectively. Also, the rT₃-induced calcium uptake was blocked in the presence of the RGD peptide (an inhibitor of integrin-ligand interactions. Therefore, our findings suggest that calcium uptake stimulated by rT₃ may be mediated by integrin αvβ₃. In addition, it was demonstrated that calcium uptake stimulated by rT₃ is PKC and ERK-dependent. Furthermore, the outcomes indicate that rT₃ also stimulates cellular secretion since the cells manifested a loss of fluorescence after 4 min incubation, indicating an exocytic quinacrine release that seems to be mediated by the integrin receptor. These findings indicate that rT₃ modulates the calcium entry and cellular secretion, which might play a role in the regulation of a plethora of intracellular processes involved in male reproductive physiology.

  9. A population-based cross-sectional study of barriers to uptake of eye care services in South India: the Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Shekhar, Konegari; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2014-06-12

    To assess the barriers to uptake of eye care services among those with avoidable impairment in the population aged ≥40 years in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Cross-sectional study. Community setting. Of 7800 participants recruited from one urban and two rural locations using a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology, 7378 (95%) were examined. Eye examinations were conducted using a rapid assessment protocol. Visual impairment (VI) was defined as presenting visual acuity attitude and 'felt need' to improve vision, newer and much intensive awareness campaigns are needed to bring about an attitudinal/behavioural change among individuals to improve the uptake of services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Condition Help: A Patient- and Family-Initiated Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Elizabeth L; Rack, Laurie L; Chen, Ling-Wan; Bump, Gregory M

    2017-03-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) help in delivering safe, timely care. Typically they are activated by clinicians using specific parameters. Allowing patients and families to activate RRTs is a novel intervention. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center developed and implemented a patient- and family-initiated rapid response system called Condition Help (CH). When the CH system is activated, a patient care liaison or an on-duty administrator meets bedside with the unit charge nurse to address the patient's concerns. In this study, we collected demographic data, call reasons, call designations (safety or nonsafety), and outcome information for all CH calls made during the period January 2012 through June 2015. Two hundred forty patients/family members made 367 CH calls during the study period. Most calls were made by patients (76.8%) rather than family members (21.8%). Of the 240 patients, 43 (18%) made multiple calls; their calls accounted for 46.3% of all calls (170/367). Inadequate pain control was the reason for the call in most cases (48.2%), followed by dissatisfaction with staff (12.5%). The majority of calls involved nonsafety issues (83.4%) rather than safety issues (11.4%). In 41.4% of cases, a change in care was made. Patient- and family-initiated RRTs are designed to engage patients and families in providing safer care. In the CH system, safety issues are identified, but the majority of calls involve nonsafety issues. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:157-161.

  11. Rapid fore-arc extension and detachment-mode spreading following subduction initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark W.; Omer, Ahmed; Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2017-11-01

    Most ophiolites have geochemical signatures that indicate formation by suprasubduction seafloor spreading above newly initiated subduction zones, and hence they record fore-arc processes operating following subduction initiation. They are frequently underlain by a metamorphic sole formed at the top of the downgoing plate and accreted below the overlying suprasubduction zone lithosphere immediately following ophiolite formation. Paleomagnetic analyses of ophiolites can provide important insights into the enigmatic geodynamic processes operating in this setting via identification of tectonic rotations related to upper plate extension. Here we present net tectonic rotation results from the Late Cretaceous Mersin ophiolite of southern Turkey that document rapid and progressive rotation of ophiolitic rocks and their associated metamorphic sole. Specifically, we demonstrate that lower crustal cumulate rocks and early dykes intruded into the underlying mantle section have undergone extreme rotation around ridge-parallel, shallowly-plunging axes, consistent with oceanic detachment faulting during spreading. Importantly, later dykes cutting the metamorphic sole experienced rotation around the same axis but with a lower magnitude. We show that these rotations occurred via a common mechanism in a pre-obduction, fore-arc setting, and are best explained by combining (hyper)extension resulting from detachment-mode, amagmatic suprasubduction zone spreading in a fore-arc environment with a recently proposed mechanism for exhumation of metamorphic soles driven by upper plate extension. Available age constraints demonstrate that extreme rotation of these units was accommodated rapidly by these processes over a time period of <∼3 Myr, comparable with rates of rotation seen in oceanic core complexes in the modern oceans.

  12. Systemic and rapidly progressive light-chain deposition disease initially presenting as tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Soma, Jun; Nakaya, Izaya; Yahata, Mayumi; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Yaegashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Akiyoshi; Wano, Masaharu; Sato, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital after first-time detection of proteinuria and hematuria during a routine medical check-up. Because her serum creatinine level had rapidly increased from 0.9 to 3.2 mg/dl since measurement 3 months earlier, she was referred to our hospital. Renal biopsy revealed extensive tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis with mild leukocyte infiltration. Glomeruli showed minimal changes, and no immunoglobulin or complement deposition was observed by immunofluorescence. Oral prednisolone was commenced under the diagnosis of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and she discharged once. However, its effects were transient; her renal function deteriorated rapidly and hemodialysis was initiated 5 months after her initial check-up. On readmission, urinary Bence-Jones protein κ-type was detected, and examination of bone marrow led to a diagnosis of Bence-Jones κ-type multiple myeloma. Light-chain staining using a renal biopsy specimen obtained 2 months earlier showed κ-light-chain deposition on tubular basement membranes but not glomeruli. Despite undergoing chemotherapy with vincristine, doxirubicin, and dexamethasone, the patient died suddenly from a cardiac arrhythmia. Autopsy showed κ-light-chain deposition in the heart, thyroid, liver, lungs, spleen, and ovaries. Congo red staining yielded negative results. Typical light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) characterized by nodular glomerulosclerosis was observed in the kidneys. This case demonstrates that tubulointerstitial nephritis can be an early pathological variant of LCDD, which may be followed by accelerated and massive light-chain deposition in glomeruli.

  13. Uptake of 4-Toluene Sulfonate by Comamonas testosteroni T-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOCHER, HH; POOLMAN, B; COOK, AM; KONINGS, WN

    The mechanism of transport of the xenobiotic 4-toluene sulfonate (TS) in Comamonas testosteroni T-2 was investigated. Rapid uptake of TS was observed only in cells grown with TS or 4-methylbenzoate as a carbon and energy source. Initial uptake rates under aerobic conditions showed substrate

  14. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers.

  15. Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weiyao; Moreland, J. Scott; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the initial three-dimensional spatial configuration of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using centrality and pseudorapidity-dependent measurements of the medium's charged particle density and two-particle correlations. A cumulant-generating function is first used to parametrize the rapidity dependence of local entropy deposition and extend arbitrary boost-invariant initial conditions to nonzero beam rapidities. The model is then compared to p +Pb and Pb + Pb charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle pseudorapidity correlations and systematically optimized using Bayesian parameter estimation to extract high-probability initial condition parameters. The optimized initial conditions are then compared to a number of experimental observables including the pseudorapidity-dependent anisotropic flows, event-plane decorrelations, and flow correlations. We find that the form of the initial local longitudinal entropy profile is well constrained by these experimental measurements.

  16. Impact of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative on family planning uptake at facilities in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer; Calhoun, Lisa M; Corroon, Meghan; Guilkey, David; Speizer, Ilene

    2018-01-05

    The 2012 London Summit on Family Planning set ambitious goals to enable 120 million more women and adolescent girls to use modern contraceptives by 2020. The Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (URHI) was a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded program designed to help contribute to these goals in urban areas in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. URHI implemented a range of country-specific demand and supply side interventions, with supply interventions generally focused on improved service quality, provider training, outreach to patients, and commodity stock management. This study uses data collected by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) Project to examine the effectiveness of these supply-side interventions by considering URHI's influence on the number of family planning clients at health facilities over a four-year period in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. The analysis used facility audits and provider surveys. Principal-components analysis was used to create country-specific program exposure variables for health facilities. Fixed-effects regression was used to determine whether family planning uptake increased at facilities with higher exposure. Outcomes of interest were the number of new family planning acceptors and the total number of family planning clients per reproductive health care provider in the last year. Higher program component scores were associated with an increase in new family planning acceptors per provider in Kenya (β = 18, 95% CI = 7-29), Nigeria (β = 14, 95% CI = 8-20), and Senegal (β = 7, 95% CI = 3-12). Higher scores were also associated with more family planning clients per provider in Kenya (β = 31, 95% CI = 7-56) and Nigeria (β = 26, 95% CI = 15-38), but not in Senegal. Supply-side interventions have increased the number of new family planning acceptors at facilities in urban Nigeria, Kenya, and Senegal and the overall number of clients in urban Nigeria and Kenya. While tailoring

  17. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leg oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise is slowed by a marked reduction in oxygen delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined if a marked reduction in oxygen delivery, unlike findings with moderate intensity exercise, would slow leg oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during intense exercise (86±3% of incremental test peak power). Seven healthy males (26±1 years, mean±SEM) performed one-legged knee-e...

  19. A Process Evaluation to Assess Contextual Factors Associated With the Uptake of a Rapid Response Service to Support Health Systems’ Decision-Making in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Mijumbi-Deve

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Although proven feasible, rapid response services (RRSs to support urgent decision and policymaking are still a fairly new and innovative strategy in several health systems, more especially in low-income countries. There are several information gaps about these RRSs that exist including the factors that make them work in different contexts and in addition what affects their uptake by potential end users. Methods We used a case study employing process evaluation methods to determine what contextual factors affect the utilization of a RRS in Uganda. We held in-depth interviews with researchers, knowledge translation (KT specialists and policy-makers from several research and policy-making institutions in Uganda’s health sector. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis to develop categories and themes about activities and structures under given program components that affected uptake of the service. Results We identified several factors under three themes that have both overlapping relations and also reinforcing loops amplifying each other: Internal factors (those factors that were identified as over which the RRS had full [or almost full] control; external factors (factors over which the service had only partial influence, a second party holds part of this influence; and environmental factors (factors over which the service had no or only remote control if at all. Internal factors were the design of the service and resources available for it, while the external factors were the service’s visibility, integrity and relationships. Environmental factors were political will and health system policy and decision-making infrastructure. Conclusion For health systems practitioners considering RRSs, knowing what factors will affect uptake and therefore modifying them within their contexts is important to ensure efficient use and successful utilization of the mechanisms.

  20. Rapid vascular uptake of contrast during a retrograde urethro-cystogram in a cat with chronic lower urinary tract disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xander Huizing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 9-year male neutered domestic longhair cat was referred to our hospital for investigation of recurrent urinary tract obstruction. The clinical signs had started 12 months earlier and the cat had been catheterised on multiple occasions. Clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound of the abdomen was unremarkable but examination of the penis revealed it to be prolapsed and extremely erythematous and friable. A retrograde contrast urethrocystogram was performed, showing extravasation of the contrast medium and establishing the presence of partial leakage or a tear of the urethra. In subsequent radiographs, the contrast was seen being rapidly absorbed into the pelvic and systemic vasculature via the penile veins, internal and external pudendal veins, internal and external iliac veins, and, ultimately, the caudal vena cava. Later, the contrast medium was seen within the renal pelves. Retrograde urethrocystography revealed stenosis and irregularities of the caudal urethral mucosa consistent with strictures. A routine perineal urethrostomy was performed and the cat recovered well. Conclusions and relevance Rapid vascular absorption of extravasated contrast medium has not been reported before. In this case, the increased blood supply to the distal urethra and penis is likely secondary to (chronic inflammation, as demonstrated by the urethral strictures and the friable, oedematous nature of the penis. Whether the inflammation was caused by chronic obstruction or repeated iatrogenic trauma, or a combination of these factors, will remain debatable. Nonetheless, this case demonstrates that when a retrograde contrast urethrocystogram is considered, it is imperative that a contrast medium (or other intraurethral medication such as local anaesthesia is chosen that is safe for intravascular use. Equally, an absolute aseptic technique is essential considering the potential for contaminants to be absorbed quite rapidly into the systemic

  1. Investigation of initial pH effects on growth of an oleaginous microalgae Chlorella sp. HQ for lipid production and nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Ting; Hong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Using microalgae for synchronous biodiesel production and wastewater treatment is a promising technology. The growth, lipid accumulation and nutrient uptake characteristics of an oleaginous microalga Chlorella sp. HQ were evaluated at different initial pH from 5.0 to 11.0. The pH values changed towards neutrality and ended in the range 6.0-9.0 without artificial control. The alkalinity change before 8 days was in accordance with pH changing. The alkalinity increase after 8 days might be due to the nitrate consumption, CO2 absorption and the algal release at stationary phases. The algal maximal cell density and population growth rate increased with initial pH values while the specific growth rate kept high without significant difference. After 30 days, the maximal algal lipid yield reaching 167.5 mg · L(-1) occurred at initial pH of 7.0 and the triacylglycerols content was significantly enhanced to 63.0% at initial pH of 5.0 but with a peak of 54.4 mg · L(-1) at initial pH of 9.0. Furthermore, nutrients were taken up by the alga obviously at all initial pH values. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) uptake efficiencies in neutral/alkalic circumstances were larger than that in acid circumstance. The TN and TP were removed by 87.77% and 92.05%, respectively, at initial pH of 7.0.

  2. Rapid fore-arc extension and detachment-mode spreading following subduction initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark W.; Omer, Ahmed; Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624

    2017-01-01

    Most ophiolites have geochemical signatures that indicate formation by suprasubduction seafloor spreading above newly initiated subduction zones, and hence they record fore-arc processes operating following subduction initiation. They are frequently underlain by a metamorphic sole formed at the top

  3. Introduction of a new Rotavirus vaccine: Initial results of uptake and impact on laboratory confirmed cases in Anglia and Essex, United Kingdom, July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inns, Thomas; Trindall, Amy; Dunling-Hall, Sara; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2016-04-02

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis accounts for an estimated 130,000 GP consultations and 13,000 hospitalisations for children under 5 y old each year in England and Wales. In July 2013, an oral live attenuated rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) was introduced into the UK infant immunisation program as a 2 dose schedule at 2 and 3 months of age. We collected vaccination uptake from October 2013 to March 2015 and laboratory confirmed cases data on children under the age of 5 y from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2015. The vaccine uptake rates and laboratory confirmed cases were compared to provide evidence of the impact of this vaccination program. Vaccine uptake rates were available from sentinel data with between 91-98% of GP practices in Anglia and Essex providing data every month. These data showed from February 2014 to March 2015 between 90-92% of infants received the recommended 2 doses of Rotarix® each month. The numbers of rotavirus cases reported by laboratories decreased on average by 82% in the post vaccination seasons. The mean number of cases reported in weeks 1-22 for 2004-2013 in Anglia and Essex was 1,318. For the same period in 2014, 256 cases were reported and initial data for 2015 report 226 cases. In the first 5 months 2014 the greatest reduction in cases (89%) was seen in those under 1 yr (who would have been directly affected by vaccination) with case numbers falling to 59 from a mean 537 cases in the equivalent period for 2004-2013. Initially data suggests a 92% reduction in 2015 compared to the same pre-vaccination periods. For those aged 1 to vaccinated, a reduction of 75% was also evident in 2014 and 77% in 2015, suggesting indirect protection in this group. In conclusion, initial results following the introduction of the Rotavirus vaccine clearly indicates a very good uptake of the vaccine and a significant reduction in the numbers of laboratory confirmed cases.

  4. Initiation of a Multidisciplinary, Rapid Response Team to Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brett J; Pemberton, Heather; Bauer, Kenneth A; Chu, Louis M; Weinstein, Jeffrey L; Levarge, Barbara L; Pinto, Duane S

    2017-10-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) can result in rapid clinical decompensation in many patients. With increasing patient complexity and advanced treatment options for PE, multidisciplinary, rapid response teams can optimize risk stratification and expedite management strategies. The Massive And Submassive Clot On-call Team (MASCOT) was created at our institution, which comprised specialists from cardiology, pulmonology, hematology, interventional radiology, and cardiac surgery. MASCOT offers rapid consultation 24 hours a day with a web-based conference call to review patient data and discuss management of patients with high-risk PE. We reviewed patient data collected from MASCOT's registry to analyze patient clinical characteristics and outcomes and describe the composition and operation of the team. Between August 2015 and September 2016, MASCOT evaluated 72 patients. Seventy of the 72 patients were admitted to our institution, accounting for 32% of all patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of PE. Average age was 62 ± 17 years with a female predominance (63%). Active malignancy (31%), recent surgery or trauma (21%), and recent hospitalization (24%) were common. PE clinical severity was massive in 16% and submassive in 83%. Patients were managed with anticoagulation alone in 65% (n = 46), systemic fibrinolysis in 11% (n = 8), catheter-directed therapy in 18% (n = 13), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 3% (n = 2), and an inferior vena cava filter was placed in 15% (n = 11). Thirteen percent (n = 9) experienced a major bleed with no intracranial hemorrhage. Survival to discharge was 89% (64% with massive PE and 93% with submassive PE). In conclusion, multidisciplinary, rapid response PE teams offer a unique coordinated approach to patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Susan; John-Stewart, Grace; Egessa, John J; Mubezi, Sezi; Kusemererwa, Sylvia; Bii, Dennis K; Bulya, Nulu; Mugume, Francis; Campbell, James D; Wangisi, Jonathan; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  6. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Morrison

    Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  7. Rapidly Progressive Encephalopathy: Initial Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Afonso Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare, incurable and fatal condition that can only be confirmed through neuropathological investigation, such as brain biopsy or post-mortem study. However, a probable diagnosis can be made using clinical criteria. CJD manifests as rapidly progressive dementia with myoclonus and to a lesser extent visual impairment and cerebellar and pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs. We report the case of a previously independent adult male that met all the clinical criteria. Taken together, the investigation results suggested probable CJD.

  8. RAPID OPTIMAL SPH PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SPHERICAL GEOMETRIES FOR CREATING ASTROPHYSICAL INITIAL CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-038, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Creating spherical initial conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that are spherically conformal is a difficult task. Here, we describe two algorithmic methods for evenly distributing points on surfaces that when paired can be used to build three-dimensional spherical objects with optimal equipartition of volume between particles, commensurate with an arbitrary radial density function. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method against stretched lattice arrangements on the metrics of hydrodynamic stability, spherical conformity, and the harmonic power distribution of gravitational settling oscillations. We further demonstrate how our method is highly optimized for simulating multi-material spheres, such as planets with core–mantle boundaries.

  9. Suicide assessment and management initiative (SAM): evaluating the implementation and uptake of suicide prevention activities in a healthcare setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishmael, Kiera Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among Canadian men and women from adolescence to middle age and is strongly associated with mental illness. BC Mental Health and Addiction Services has developed Suicide Assessment and Management (SAM) Guidelines to identify safety risks within its client populations. Rigourous evaluation of the SAM Guidelines Initiative is essential to determine the impact of the intervention. This paper describes the literature review and logic model for the SA...

  10. NIAAA's Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems Initiative: Reinforcing the Use of Evidence-Based Approaches in College Alcohol Prevention*

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Larimer, Mary E.; Wood, Mark D.; Hartman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) created the Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems initiative so that senior college administrators facing an alcohol-related crisis could get assistance from well-established alcohol researchers and NIAAA staff. Method: Based on a competitive grant process, NIAAA selected five teams of research scientists with expertise in college drinking research. NIAAA then invited college administrators to propose interventions to address a recently experienced alcohol-related problem. Between September 2004 and September 2005, NIAAA selected 15 sites and paired each recipient college with a scientific team. Together, each program development/evaluation team, working closely with NIAAA scientific staff, jointly designed, implemented, and evaluated a Rapid Response project. Results: This supplement reports the results of several Rapid Response projects, plus other findings of interest that emerged from that research. Eight articles present evaluation findings for prevention and treatment interventions, which can be grouped by the individual, group/interpersonal, institutional, and community levels of the social ecological framework. Additional studies provide further insights that can inform prevention and treatment programs designed to reduce alcohol-related problems among college students. This article provides an overview of these findings, placing them in the context of the college drinking intervention literature. Conclusions: College drinking remains a daunting problem on many campuses, but evidence-based strategies—such as those described in this supplement—provide hope that more effective solutions can be found. The Rapid Response initiative has helped solidify the necessary link between research and practice in college alcohol prevention and treatment. PMID:19538907

  11. Direct measurement of the initial proton extrusion to oxygen uptake ratio accompanying succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, O H; Shrager, R I; Bunow, B; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L; Hendler, R W

    1986-01-01

    The problem of obtaining very early ratios for the H+/O stoichiometry accompanying succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria was attacked using new techniques for direct measurement rather than extrapolations based on data obtained after mixing and the recovery of the electrode from initial injection of O2. Respiration was quickly initiated in a thoroughly mixed O2-containing suspension of mitochondria under a CO atmosphere by photolysis of the CO-cytochrome c oxidase complex-. Fast responding O2 and pH electrodes were used to collect data every 10 ms. The response time for each electrode was experimentally measured in each experiment and suitable corrections for electrode relaxations were made. With uncorrected data obtained after 0.8 s, the extrapolation back to zero time on the basis of single-exponential curve fitting confirmed values close to 8.0 as previously reported (Costa et al., 1984). The data directly obtained, however, indicate an initial burst in H+/O ratio that peaked to values of approximately 20 to 30 prior to 50 ms and which was no longer evident after 0.3 s. Newer information and considerations that place all extrapolation methods in question are discussed. PMID:3019443

  12. Overcoming challenges to initiating cell therapy clinical trials in rapidly developing countries: India as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Rao, Mahendra; Keating, Armand; Srivastava, Alok

    2013-08-01

    Increasingly, a number of rapidly developing countries, including India, China, Brazil, and others, are becoming global hot spots for the development of regenerative medicine applications, including stem cell-based therapies. Identifying and overcoming regulatory and translational research challenges and promoting scientific and ethical clinical trials with cells will help curb the growth of stem cell tourism for unproven therapies. It will also enable academic investigators, local regulators, and national and international biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies to accelerate stem cell-based clinical research that could lead to effective innovative treatments in these regions. Using India as a model system and obtaining input from regulators, clinicians, academics, and industry representatives across the stem cell field in India, we reviewed the role of key agencies and processes involved in this field. We have identified areas that need attention and here provide solutions from other established and functioning models in the world to streamline and unify the regulatory and ethics approval processes for cell-based therapies. We also make recommendations to check the growth and functioning of clinics offering unproven treatments. Addressing these issues will remove considerable hurdles to both local and international investigators, accelerate the pace of research and development, and create a quality environment for reliable products to emerge. By doing so, these countries would have taken one important step to move to the forefront of stem cell-based therapeutics.

  13. A simulation study of the electromyographic volley at initiation of rapid isometric contractions in the first dorsal interosseous muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y; Suzuki, M; Ohkuwa, T; Itoh, H

    1997-01-01

    Monopolar surface electromyograms (EMGs) of rapid isometric abduction of the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) were initiated from an EMG volley that was characterized by a negative potential lasting over several tens of milliseconds. An EMG model was developed to study how the EMG volley was generated. EMGs were defined as the linear summations of surface-recorded action potential trains originating from single motor units (MUs). All action potential trains had the same discharge pattern but different recruitment thresholds, depending on the potential amplitude. Real action potentials in single MUs in FDI were recorded with a monopolar surface electrode, one of which was used as a prototype wave in simulation. The model predicted an initial negative potential comparable to that of the EMG volley observed in rapid contractions of FDI. Results from our simulation studies suggest that the EMG volley is caused by at least two independent factors: (1) the negative phase of the action potential is greater in area than the positive one, in which the effect is enhanced by the high discharge rate of many MUs; (2) many MUs are recruited within a short time in an orderly fashion starting from those with small action potentials to those with large ones.

  14. Barriers and Facilitators to the Uptake and Maintenance of Healthy Behaviours by People at Mid-Life: A Rapid Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah; Martin, Steven; Kuhn, Isla; Cowan, Andy; Brayne, Carol; Lafortune, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background With an ageing population, there is an increasing societal impact of ill health in later life. People who adopt healthy behaviours are more likely to age successfully. To engage people in health promotion initiatives in mid-life, a good understanding is needed of why people do not undertake healthy behaviours or engage in unhealthy ones. Methods Searches were conducted to identify systematic reviews and qualitative or longitudinal cohort studies that reported mid-life barriers and facilitators to healthy behaviours. Mid-life ranged from 40 to 64 years, but younger adults in disadvantaged or minority groups were also eligible to reflect potential earlier disease onset. Two reviewers independently conducted reference screening and study inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality. Barriers and facilitators were identified and synthesised into broader themes to allow comparisons across behavioural risks. Findings From 16,426 titles reviewed, 28 qualitative studies, 11 longitudinal cohort studies and 46 systematic reviews were included. Evidence was found relating to uptake and maintenance of physical activity, diet and eating behaviours, smoking, alcohol, eye care, and other health promoting behaviours and grouped into six themes: health and quality of life, sociocultural factors, the physical environment, access, psychological factors, evidence relating to health inequalities. Most of the available evidence was from developed countries. Barriers that recur across different health behaviours include lack of time (due to family, household and occupational responsibilities), access issues (to transport, facilities and resources), financial costs, entrenched attitudes and behaviours, restrictions in the physical environment, low socioeconomic status, lack of knowledge. Facilitators include a focus on enjoyment, health benefits including healthy ageing, social support, clear messages, and integration of behaviours into lifestyle. Specific issues

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to the Uptake and Maintenance of Healthy Behaviours by People at Mid-Life: A Rapid Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kelly

    Full Text Available With an ageing population, there is an increasing societal impact of ill health in later life. People who adopt healthy behaviours are more likely to age successfully. To engage people in health promotion initiatives in mid-life, a good understanding is needed of why people do not undertake healthy behaviours or engage in unhealthy ones.Searches were conducted to identify systematic reviews and qualitative or longitudinal cohort studies that reported mid-life barriers and facilitators to healthy behaviours. Mid-life ranged from 40 to 64 years, but younger adults in disadvantaged or minority groups were also eligible to reflect potential earlier disease onset. Two reviewers independently conducted reference screening and study inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality. Barriers and facilitators were identified and synthesised into broader themes to allow comparisons across behavioural risks.From 16,426 titles reviewed, 28 qualitative studies, 11 longitudinal cohort studies and 46 systematic reviews were included. Evidence was found relating to uptake and maintenance of physical activity, diet and eating behaviours, smoking, alcohol, eye care, and other health promoting behaviours and grouped into six themes: health and quality of life, sociocultural factors, the physical environment, access, psychological factors, evidence relating to health inequalities. Most of the available evidence was from developed countries. Barriers that recur across different health behaviours include lack of time (due to family, household and occupational responsibilities, access issues (to transport, facilities and resources, financial costs, entrenched attitudes and behaviours, restrictions in the physical environment, low socioeconomic status, lack of knowledge. Facilitators include a focus on enjoyment, health benefits including healthy ageing, social support, clear messages, and integration of behaviours into lifestyle. Specific issues relating to

  16. How Do We Get Partners to Test for HIV?: Predictors of Uptake of Partner HIV Testing Following Individual Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV Testing in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Gbenro, Olumide; Sileo, Katelyn M; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-08-01

    In a sample of outpatients (152 females, 152 males) receiving individual provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) we aimed to identify factors associated with subsequent uptake of partner HIV testing. Purposively sampled outpatients receiving PITC at a Ugandan hospital completed a questionnaire immediately prior to testing for HIV, and then at 3 and 6 months post-test. By 6-month follow-up 96% of participants reported disclosing their HIV test results to their partner and 96.4% reported asking their partner to test. 38.8% of women and 78.9% of men reported that their partner tested and they knew their results. Recent (men AOR 5.84, 95.0% CI 1.90-17.99; women AOR 6.19, 95.0% CI 2.74-13.59) or any previous testing by the partner (women AOR 4.01, 95% CI 1.06-15.10) predicted uptake of partner testing by the 6-month follow-up. Among women, perceiving greater social support from their partner, which perhaps reflects better relationship quality, was predictive of their male partner testing for HIV (AOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.22-4.58). Notably intimate partner violence showed no negative association with partner testing. Our findings demonstrate that women are at a disadvantage compared to men in their ability to influence their partner to test for HIV, and that improving social support in intimate relationships should be a focus of HIV partner testing interventions. However, more research on interventions to improve partner testing is needed, particularly in identifying effective ways to support women in engaging their partners to test.

  17. Characterization of water uptake and distribution in chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the changes in water status during imbibition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in chickpea seeds exposed to static magnetic fields of 100 mT for 1 h. Water uptake during seed germination showed three phases with rapid initial hydration phase I, followed by ...

  18. DES14X3taz: A TYPE I SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA SHOWING A LUMINOUS, RAPIDLY COOLING INITIAL PRE-PEAK BUMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Castander, F. J.; Casas, R.; Prajs, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Nichol, R. C.; Karpenka, N. V.; Bernard, S. R.; Brown, P.; Cartier, R.; Cooke, J.; Curtin, C.; Davis, T. M.; Finley, D. A.; Foley, R. J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Goldstein, D. A.; González-Gaitán, S.; Gupta, R. R.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kessler, R.; Lidman, C.; Marriner, J.; Nugent, P.; Pritchard, T. A.; Sako, M.; Smartt, S.; Smith, R. C.; Spinka, H.; Thomas, R. C.; Wolf, R. C.; Zenteno, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; Costa, L. N. da; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2016-02-03

    We present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae. Spectra obtained using Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS show DES14X3taz is an SLSN-I at z = 0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000 to 8000 K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical Ni-56-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the entire light curve of DES14X3taz. Models involving the shock-cooling of extended circumstellar material at a distance of similar or equal to 400 R-circle dot are preferred over the cooling of shock-heated surface layers of a stellar envelope. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise. times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation

  19. Rapid turnover of DnaA at replication origin regions contributes to initiation control of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Katrin; Hervás, Ana B; Rösch, Thomas C; Eisemann, Marc; Schmitt, Bernhard A; Dahlke, Stephan; Kleine-Borgmann, Luise; Murray, Seán M; Graumann, Peter L

    2017-02-01

    DnaA is a conserved key regulator of replication initiation in bacteria, and is homologous to ORC proteins in archaea and in eukaryotic cells. The ATPase binds to several high affinity binding sites at the origin region and upon an unknown molecular trigger, spreads to several adjacent sites, inducing the formation of a helical super structure leading to initiation of replication. Using FRAP analysis of a functional YFP-DnaA allele in Bacillus subtilis, we show that DnaA is bound to oriC with a half-time of 2.5 seconds. DnaA shows similarly high turnover at the replication machinery, where DnaA is bound to DNA polymerase via YabA. The absence of YabA increases the half time binding of DnaA at oriC, showing that YabA plays a dual role in the regulation of DnaA, as a tether at the replication forks, and as a chaser at origin regions. Likewise, a deletion of soj (encoding a ParA protein) leads to an increase in residence time and to overinitiation, while a mutation in DnaA that leads to lowered initiation frequency, due to a reduced ATPase activity, shows a decreased residence time on binding sites. Finally, our single molecule tracking experiments show that DnaA rapidly moves between chromosomal binding sites, and does not arrest for more than few hundreds of milliseconds. In Escherichia coli, DnaA also shows low residence times in the range of 200 ms and oscillates between spatially opposite chromosome regions in a time frame of one to two seconds, independently of ongoing transcription. Thus, DnaA shows extremely rapid binding turnover on the chromosome including oriC regions in two bacterial species, which is influenced by Soj and YabA proteins in B. subtilis, and is crucial for balanced initiation control, likely preventing fatal premature multimerization and strand opening of DnaA at oriC.

  20. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  1. The Influence of Nitrate and Chloride Uptake on Expressed Sap pH, Organic Acid Synthesis, and Potassium Accumulation in Higher Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, D G; Hiatt, A J; Lowe, R H

    1974-07-01

    The influence of NO(3) (-) uptake and reduction on ionic balance in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, cv. Compana) was studied. KNO(3) and KCl treatment solutions were used for comparison of cation and anion uptake. The rate of Cl(-) uptake was more rapid than the rate of NO(3) (-) uptake during the first 2 to 4 hours of treatment. There was an acceleration in rate of NO(3) (-) uptake after 4 hours resulting in a sustained rate of NO(3) (-) uptake which exceeded the rate of Cl(-) uptake. The initial (2 to 4 hours) rate of K(+) uptake appeared to be independent of the rate of anion uptake. After 4 hours the rate of K(+) uptake was greater with the KNO(3) treatment than with the KCl treatment, and the solution pH, cell sap pH, and organic acid levels with KNO(3) increased, relative to those with the KCl treatment. When absorption experiments were conducted in darkness, K(+) uptake from KNO(3) did not exceed K(+) uptake from KCl. We suggest that the greater uptake and accumulation of K(+) in NO(3) (-)-treated plants resulted from (a) a more rapid, sustained uptake and transport of NO(3) (-) providing a mobile counteranion for K(+) transport, and (b) the synthesis of organic acids in response to NO(3) (-) reduction increasing the capacity for K(+) accumulation by providing a source of nondiffusible organic anions.

  2. Initial Accuracy of HIV Rapid Test Kits Stored in Suboptimal Conditions and Validity of Delayed Reading of Oral Fluid Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choko, Augustine T; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; MacPherson, Peter; Cocker, Derek; Khundi, McEwen; Thindwa, Deus; Sambakunsi, Rodrick S; Kumwenda, Moses K; Chiumya, Kondwani; Malema, Owen; Makombe, Simon D; Webb, Emily L; Corbett, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes. A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6-99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes.

  3. Relation of myocardial blood flow and initial cardiac uptake of 15-(p-123I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid in the canine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reske, S N; Schön, S; Knust, E J; Machulla, H J; Eichelkraut, W; Hahn, N; Winkler, C

    1984-04-01

    In 8 pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs the correlation between regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) and regional cardiac uptake of 15-(p-123I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) was determined. Three animals were studied under control conditions, in three dogs an acute ischemia was produced by LAD ligation, and two dogs were paced at 195 beats/min. RMBF values were 20-50 ml/min X 100 g in acutely ischemic myocardium. 90-120 ml/min X 100 g under normal conditions and 200-250 ml/min X 100 g during pacing-induced stimulation. Total cardiac uptake of IPPA was 4.5-6% of the injected dose. In normal and acutely ischemic myocardium a good correlation between RMBF and IPPA uptake was obtained. Under stimulated conditions only a moderate increase of IPPA accumulation was found. At RMBF values above 150-170 ml/min X 100 g an upper limit of IPPA uptake was observed and can be explained by limited diffusion or an increased utilization of alternative substrates.

  4. Effects of light intensity and temperature on Cryptomonas ovata (Cryptophyceae) growth and nutrient uptake rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Specific growth rate of Cryptomonas ovata var. palustris Pringsheim was measured in batch culture at 14 light-temperature combinations. Both the maximum growth rate (μm) and optimum light intensity (Iopt) fit an empirical function that increases exponentially with temperature up to an optimum (Topt), then declines rapidly as temperature exceeds Topt. Incorporation of these functions into Steele's growth equation gives a good estimate of specific growth rate over a wide range of temperature and light intensity. Rates of phosphate, ammonium and nitrate uptake were measured separately at 16 combinations of irradiance and temperature and following a spike addition of all starved cells initially took up nutrient at a rapid rate. This transitory surge was followed by a period of steady, substrate-saturated uptake that persisted until external nutrient concentration fell. Substrate-saturated NO3−-uptake proceeded at very slow rates in the dark and was stimulated by both increased temperature and irradiance; NH4+-uptake apparently proceeded at a basal rate at 8 and l4 C and was also stimulated by increased temperature and irradiance. Rates of NH4−-uptake were much higher than NO3−-uptake at all light-temperature combinations. Below 20 C, PO4−3-uptake was more rapid in dark than in light, but was light enhanced at 26 C.

  5. Coffee consumption rapidly reduces background DNA strand breaks in healthy humans: Results of a short-term repeated uptake intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuradze, Tamara; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Schipp, Dorothea; Galan, Jens; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Intervention studies provide evidence that long-term coffee consumption correlates with reduced DNA background damage in healthy volunteers. Here, we report on short-term kinetics of this effect, showing a rapid onset after normal coffee intake. In a short-term human intervention study, we determined the effects of coffee intake on DNA integrity during 8 h. Healthy male subjects ingested coffee in 200 mL aliquots every second hour up to a total volume of 800 mL. Blood samples were taken at baseline, immediately before the first coffee intake and subsequently every 2 h, prior to the respective coffee intake. DNA integrity was assayed by the comet assay. The results show a significant (p coffee intake. Continued coffee intake was associated with further decrements in background DNA damage within the 8 h intervention (p coffee consumption). Repeated coffee consumption was associated with reduced background DNA strand breakage, clearly measurable as early as 2 h after first intake resulting in a cumulative overall reduction by about one-third of the baseline value. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cadmium uptake by the green alga Chlorella emersonii | Arikpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out on the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by the green alga Chlorella emersonii with the aid of an ion selective electrode. Cadmium uptake by Chlorella was very rapid with 70% of total uptake occurring during the first 10 seconds. Uptake of cadmium by Chlorella showed a direct ...

  7. Imaging of acute pulmonary embolism using a dual energy CT system with rapid kVp switching: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, Lucas L., E-mail: Lucas.Geyer@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael, E-mail: michael.scherr@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Körner, Markus, E-mail: markus.koerner@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Wirth, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.wirth@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Deak, Paul, E-mail: paul.deak@ge.com [GE Healthcare, Oskar-Schlemmer-Straße 11, 80807 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: maximilian.reiser@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Linsenmaier, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.linsenmaier@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is considered as clinical gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). Whereas conventional CTPA only offers anatomic information, dual energy CT (DECT) provides functional information on blood volume as surrogate of perfusion by assessing the pulmonary iodine distribution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung perfusion imaging using a single-tube DECT scanner with rapid kVp switching. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with suspicion of acute PE underwent DECT. Two experienced radiologists assessed the CTPA images and lung perfusion maps regarding the presence of PE. The image quality was rated using a semi-quantitative 5-point scale: 1 (=excellent) to 5 (=non-diagnostic). Iodine concentrations were quantified by a ROI analysis. Results: Seventy perfusion defects were identified in 266 lung segments: 13 (19%) were rated as consistent with PE. Five patients had signs of PE at CTPA. All patients with occlusive clots were correctly identified by DECT perfusion maps. On a per patient basis the sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 88.9%, respectively, while on a per segment basis it was 40.0% and 97.6%, respectively. None of the patients with a homogeneous perfusion map had an abnormal CTPA. The overall image quality of the perfusion maps was rated with a mean score of 2.6 ± 0.6. There was a significant ventrodorsal gradient of the median iodine concentrations (1.1 mg/cm{sup 3} vs. 1.7 mg/cm{sup 3}). Conclusion: Lung perfusion imaging on a DE CT-system with fast kVp-switching is feasible. DECT might be a helpful adjunct to assess the clinical severity of PE.

  8. Rapid "one-pot" preparation of polymeric monolith via photo-initiated thiol-acrylate polymerization for capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingyao; Wang, Hongwei; Ou, Junjie; Liu, Zhongshan; Shen, Yehua; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-06-21

    A facile approach was exploited for fast preparation of polymer-based monoliths in UV-transparent fused-silica capillaries via "one-pot" photo-initiated thiol-acrylate polymerization reaction of dipentaerythritolpenta-/hexaacrylate (DPEPA) and 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) in the presence of porogenic solvents (1-butanol and ethylene glycol). Due to relative insensitivity of oxygen inhibition in thiol-ene free-radical polymerization, the polymerization could be performed within 5 min. The effects of composition of prepolymerization solution on the morphology and permeability of poly(ODT-co-DPEPA) monoliths were investigated in detail by adjusting the content of monomer and binary porogen ratio. The physical properties of poly(ODT-co-DPEPA) monoliths were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement. The evaluation of chromatographic performance was carried out by capillary liquid chromatography (cLC). The results indicated that the poly(ODT-co-DPEPA) monolith was homogeneous and permeable, and also possessed a typical reversed-phase retention mechanism in cLC with high efficiency (∼75,000 N m(-1)) for separation of alkylbenzenes. Eventually, the further separation of tryptic digest of proteins by cLC tandem mass spectrometry (cLC-MS/MS) demonstrated its potential in the analysis of biological samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  11. Brain uptake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parepally, Jagan Mohan R; Mandula, Haritha; Smith, Quentin R

    2006-05-01

    To determine the roles of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport and plasma protein binding in brain uptake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and indomethacin. Brain uptake was measured using in situ rat brain perfusion technique. [14C]Ibuprofen, [3H]flurbiprofen, and [14C]indomethacin were rapidly taken up into the brain in the absence of plasma protein with BBB permeability-surface area products (PS(u)) to free drug of (2.63 +/- 0.11) x 10(-2), (1.60 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2), and (0.64 +/- 0.05) x 10(-2) mL s(-1) g(-1) (n = 9-11), respectively. BBB [14C]ibuprofen uptake was inhibited by unlabeled ibuprofen (Km = 0.85 +/- 0.02 mM, Vmax = 13.5 +/- 0.4 nmol s(-1) g(-1)) and indomethacin, but not by pyruvate, probenecid, digoxin, or valproate. No evidence was found for saturable BBB uptake of [3H]flurbiprofen or [14C]indomethacin. Initial brain uptake for all three NSAIDs was reduced by the addition of albumin to the perfusion buffer. The magnitude of the brain uptake reduction correlated with the NSAID free fraction in the perfusate. Free ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and indomethacin rapidly cross the BBB, with ibuprofen exhibiting a saturable component of transport. Plasma protein binding limits brain NSAID uptake by reducing the free fraction of NSAID in the circulation.

  12. Turbulent transport of a passive contaminant in an initially anisotropic turbulence subjected to rapid rotation: an analytical study using linear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bach, A.; Salhi, A.; Cambon, Claude

    2008-04-01

    The linear effect of rapid rotation is studied on the transport by homogeneous turbulence of a passive scalar with vertical mean scalar gradient. Connection with one-particle diffusion studied by Cambon et al. [C. Cambon, F.S. Godeferd, F. Nicolleau, J.C. Vassilicos, Turbulent diffusion in rapidly rotating turbulence with and without stable stratification, J. Fluid Mech. 499 (2004) 231-255] is discussed. The input of the initial anisotropy of the velocity field is then investigated in the axisymmetric case, using a general and systematic way to construct axisymmetric initial data: a classical expansion in terms of scalar spherical harmonics for the 3D spectral density of kinetic energy and a modified expansion for the polarization anisotropy. The scalar variance exhibits a quadratic evolution (∝t) for short times and a linear one (∝t) for larger times. The long-time behaviour looks similar to the classical 'Brownian' evolution but it has a very different origin: a linear impact of dispersive inertial waves via phase-mixing instead of a nonlinearly-induced random walk. It is shown that this trend is not altered by the polarization anisotropy. The vertical scalar flux varies linearly with time for short times and tends to a plateau for larger times. To cite this article: A. El Bach et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  13. Heterogeneous chemistry in aircraft wakes: Constraints for uptake coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    KäRcher, B.

    1997-08-01

    Recent in situ measurements in subsonic and supersonic aircraft plumes show the presence of high aerosol abundances. Given the large initial surface areas of the exhaust particles (volatile aerosols, soot, and ice) of 103-105 μm2 cm-3 or more, heterogeneous processing can potentially become important. Based on an analytical model to predict the temporal evolution of the surface areas, the potential for heterogeneous chemistry during the lifetime of single aircraft wakes is investigated. The model surface areas are constrained by plume observations and compared to numerical simulations of aerosol formation and growth. Efficient heterogeneous processing on volatile aerosols and soot on timescales below 1 day generally requires uptake coefficients ≳0.003-0.007, depending on the specific surface area of soot. For low available surface areas and slow reactions, the lifetime of emitted exhaust species sensitively depends on the wake mixing properties. Shutting off uptake by volatile particles inhibits heterogeneous processing unless high soot surface areas and reaction probabilities are prescribed. Depending on the lifetime of ice contrails, uptake coefficients ≳0.1 are required for rapid uptake of exhaust species on the ice particles. This lower limit becomes relaxed if contrails are long-lived or develop into persistent cirrus or polar stratospheric clouds, rendering activation of chlorine potentially important. The model is applied to investigate the uptake of gaseous HNO2 and SO2 by the observed particles in the plume of the Concorde in the lower stratosphere.

  14. Improving uptake and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the context of artemisinin drug resistance containment in eastern Myanmar: an evaluation of incentive schemes among informal private healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; White, Christopher; Montagu, Dominic; McFarland, Willi; Hlaing, Thaung; Khin, Hnin Su Su; San, Aung Kyaw; Briegleb, Christina; Chen, Ingrid; Sudhinaraset, May

    2015-03-06

    As efforts to contain artemisinin resistance and eliminate Plasmodium falciparum intensify, the accurate diagnosis and prompt effective treatment of malaria are increasingly needed in Myanmar and the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been shown to be safe, feasible, and effective at promoting appropriate treatment for suspected malaria, which are of particular importance to drug resistance containment. The informal private sector is often the first point of care for fever cases in malaria endemic areas across Myanmar and the GMS, but there is little published information about informal private provider practices, quality of service provision, or potential to contribute to malaria control and elimination efforts. This study tested different incentives to increase RDT use and improve the quality of care among informal private healthcare providers in Myanmar. The study randomized six townships in the Mon and Shan states of rural Myanmar into three intervention arms: 1) RDT price subsidies, 2) price subsidies with product-related financial incentives, and 3) price subsidies with intensified information, education and counselling (IEC). The study assessed the uptake of RDT use in the communities by cross-sectional surveys of 3,150 households at baseline and six months post-intervention (6,400 households total, 832 fever cases). The study also used mystery clients among 171 providers to assess quality of service provision across intervention arms. The pilot intervention trained over 600 informal private healthcare providers. The study found a price subsidy with intensified IEC, resulted in the highest uptake of RDTs in the community, as compared to subsidies alone or merchandise-related financial incentives. Moreover, intensified IEC led to improvements in the quality of care, with mystery client surveys showing almost double the number of correct treatment following diagnostic test results as compared to a simple subsidy. Results show

  15. Measuring and Improving Value of Care in Oncology Practices: ASCO Programs from Quality Oncology Practice Initiative to the Rapid Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Joseph O; Neuss, Michael N; Hauser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Rising cancer care costs are no longer sustainable. Medical oncologists must focus on providing the maximum value to their patients; improving short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes; and managing overall costs. Accurate measurement of outcomes and overall cost is essential to informing providers and institutions and in the quest for continuous improvement in value. The ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) is an excellent tool for sampling processes of care in medical oncology practices. To achieve the larger goal of improving the value of cancer care, ASCO is investing in the development of a Rapid Learning System, which will leverage emerging information technologies to more accurately measure outcomes (including those reported by the patient) and costs, resulting in highly efficient, effective, and safe cancer care.

  16. Rapid, non-destructive and non-contact inspection of solid foods by means of photothermal radiometry; thermal effusivity and initial heating coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbertsen, A.; Bicanic, D.; Gielen, J. L. W.; Chirtoc, M.

    2004-03-01

    CO 2-laser photothermal radiometry (PTR) was demonstrated to be suitable for the non-destructive and non-contact characterization (both optical and thermal) of solid phase agricultural commodities (fresh vegetables, fruits) and confectionery products (candy). Proper interpretation of PTR signals enable one to calculate two parameters, i.e. the well known thermal effusivity e ( e= λρc p, where λ and ρcp are the thermal conductivity and the volume specific heat, respectively) and a newly introduced physical quantity termed 'initial heating coefficient' chi ( χ= β/( ρcp), β is the absorption coefficient). Obtained values for e are in a good agreement with data reported in the literature. PTR enables one to rapidly determine e via a single measurement. As opposed to this, the knowledge of two out of three thermophysical parameters (thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and volume specific heat) is a condition sine qua non for determining effusivity in the conventional manner.

  17. Development of a Rapid Cartilage Damage Quantification Method for the Lateral Tibiofemoral Compartment Using Magnetic Resonance Images: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand and validate the cartilage damage index (CDI to detect cartilage damage in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment. We used an iterative 3-step process to develop and validate the lateral CDI: development (100 knees, testing (80 knees, and validation (100 knees. The validation set included 100 knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative that was enriched to include all grades of lateral joint space narrowing (JSN, 0–3. Measurement of the CDI was rapid at 7.4 (s.d. 0.73 minutes per knee pair (baseline and follow-up of one knee. The intratester reliability is good (intraclass correlation coefficient (3, 1 model = 0.86 to 0.98. At baseline, knees with greater KL grade and lateral JSN had a lower mean CDI (i.e., greater cartilage damage. Baseline lateral CDI is associated with both lateral JSW (r=0.81 to 0.85, p<0.01 and HKA (r=-0.30 to −0.33, p<0.05. The SRM is good (lateral femur SRM = −0.76; lateral tibia SRM = −0.73; lateral tibiofemoral total SRM = −0.87. The lateral tibiofemoral CDI quantification allows for rapid evaluation and is reliable and responsive, with good construct validity. It may be an efficient method to measure lateral tibiofemoral articular cartilage in large clinical and epidemiologic studies.

  18. Superstoichiometric Ca2+ uptake supported by hydrolysis of endogenous ATP in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1975-10-10

    The nature of the energy store causing rapid superstoichiometric leads to H+/2e minus ejection and leads to Ca2+/2e minus uptake ratios in rat liver mitochondria pulsed with Ca2+ has been investigated. The extent and the rate of the initial fast superstoichiometric phase of H plus ejection were greatly reduced by oligomycin and other ATPase inhibitors; the subsequent shoichiometric phase was unaffected. No such inhibition was seen with atractyloside. Similarly, the initial fast phase of Ca2+ uptake was reduced in extent by oligomycin, whereas the slower stoichiometric phase was unaffected. Moreover, the ATP content of mitochondria previously incubated with succinate decreased by about 80% within 5 s after pulsing with Ca2+. The energy store for superstoichiometric Ca2+ uptake and H plus injection is thus identified as endogenous ATP.

  19. Economic and clinical effects of evaluating rapid viral response to peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John B; Davis, Gary L; McHutchison, John G; Manns, Michael P; Albrecht, Janice K

    2003-11-01

    Evaluation of 12-wk viral response to initial antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C has been recommended to minimize antiviral-associated morbidity and costs. The aim of this study was to examine the economic and clinical effects of evaluating rapid viral response during antiviral therapy for treatment naive chronic hepatitis C patients. We applied viral response and drug dosage from an international randomized clinical trial of ribavirin plus peginterferon alfa-2b or ribavirin plus interferon alfa-2b to a previously published computer cohort simulation to project lifelong clinical and economic outcomes. Natural history and economic estimates were based on published literature, expert panel estimates, and actual variable and reimbursement cost data. The assessment of 12-wk rapid viral response reduced antiviral treatment duration by 40-44% and antiviral costs by 44-45% (savings of $15,116-16,268 for peginterferon plus ribavirin and $8300 for interferon plus ribavirin) compared to full 48-wk dosing. With the 12-wk evaluation, the marginal cost-effectiveness of peginterferon plus ribavirin versus interferon plus ribavirin was $13,600-22,800 compared with $14,600-25,000 per discounted quality adjusted life-year gained with the 24-wk evaluation. For genotype 1, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing for peginterferon plus ribavirin remaining preferred and cost-effective compared with interferon plus ribavirin. For genotype 2 or 3, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing yielded similar results to those of 24-wk treatment. Assessment of 12-wk viral response in genotype 1, hepatitis C infected patients should reduce peginterferon plus ribavirin morbidity and costs and improve its cost-effectiveness; however, for genotype 2 and 3, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing and 24-wk treatment have similar outcomes. Decisions regarding continuation of antiviral treatment should also consider the variability in the accuracy of quantitative viral assays as

  20. Assimilation of GOES satellite-based convective initiation and cloud growth observations into the Rapid Refresh and HRRR systems to improve aviation forecast guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John; Smith, Tracy; Weygandt, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Latent heating profiles derived from GOES satellite-based cloud-top cooling rates are being assimilated into a retrospective version of the Rapid Refresh system (RAP) being run at the Global Systems Division. Assimilation of these data may help reduce the time lag for convection initiation (CI) in both the RAP model forecasts and in 3-km High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model runs that are initialized off of the RAP model grids. These data may also improve both the location and organization of developing convective storm clusters, especially in the nested HRRR runs. These types of improvements are critical for providing better convective storm guidance around busy hub airports and aviation corridor routes, especially in the highly congested Ohio Valley - Northeast - Mid-Atlantic region. Additional work is focusing on assimilating GOES-R CI algorithm cloud-top cooling-based latent heating profiles directly into the HRRR model. Because of the small-scale nature of the convective phenomena depicted in the cloud-top cooling rate data (on the order of 1-4 km scale), direct assimilation of these data in the HRRR may be more effective than assimilation in the RAP. The RAP is an hourly assimilation system developed at NOAA/ESRL and was implemented at NCEP as a NOAA operational model in May 2012. The 3-km HRRR runs hourly out to 15 hours as a nest within the ESRL real-time experimental RAP. The RAP and HRRR both use the WRF ARW model core, and the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) is used within an hourly cycle to assimilate a wide variety of observations (including radar data) to initialize the RAP. Within this modeling framework, the cloud-top cooling rate-based latent heating profiles are applied as prescribed heating during the diabatic forward model integration part of the RAP digital filter initialization (DFI). No digital filtering is applied on the 3-km HRRR grid, but similar forward model integration with prescribed heating is used to assimilate

  1. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported chelating polymer resins functionalized with (i) glycine, (ii) hydroxy benzoic acid, (iii) Schiff base and (iv) diethanol amine have been investigated. The effects of pH, time and initial concentration on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake of metal ion ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  9. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  10. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  11. Phosphate Uptake by Phosphate-Starved Euglena

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLUM, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Phosphate-deprived Euglena acquire the ability to rapidly in-corporate added phosphate and, also, synthesize an induced acid phosphatase localized in the pellicle. The phosphate uptake system is saturated at low concentrations of phosphate and is inhibited by dinitrophenol, by low temperature, by K+, Li+, and Na+ ions, and competitively by arsenate. The orthophosphate incorporated into the cell is rapidly converted into organic forms but enough remains unesterified to suggest that the uptake is an active transport process. The data do not rule out the possibility that the induced phosphatase is involved in the transport process. PMID:5924104

  12. The SAGA Histone Acetyltransferase Complex Regulates Leucine Uptake through the Agp3 Permease in Fission Yeast*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sun, Xiaoying; Hamamoto, Makiko; Yashiroda, Yoko; Yoshida, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic responses of unicellular organisms are mostly acute, transient, and cell-autonomous. Regulation of nutrient uptake in yeast is one such rapid response. High quality nitrogen sources such as NH4+ inhibit uptake of poor nitrogen sources, such as amino acids. Both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms operate in nutrient uptake regulation; however, many components of this system remain uncharacterized in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we demonstrate that the Spt-Ada-Gcn acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex modulates leucine uptake. Initially, we noticed that a branched-chain amino acid auxotroph exhibits a peculiar adaptive growth phenotype on solid minimal media containing certain nitrogen sources. In fact, the growth of many auxotrophic strains is inhibited by excess NH4Cl, possibly through nitrogen-mediated uptake inhibition of the corresponding nutrients. Surprisingly, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional reprogramming during the adaptation of the branched-chain amino acid auxotroph was highly correlated with reprogramming observed in deletions of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase module genes. Deletion of gcn5+ increased leucine uptake in the prototrophic background and rendered the leucine auxotroph resistant to NH4Cl. Deletion of tra1+ caused the opposite phenotypes. The increase in leucine uptake in the gcn5Δ mutant was dependent on an amino acid permease gene, SPCC965.11c+. The closest budding yeast homolog of this permease is a relatively nonspecific amino acid permease AGP3, which functions in poor nutrient conditions. Our analysis identified the regulation of nutrient uptake as a physiological function for the SAGA complex, providing a potential link between cellular metabolism and chromatin regulation. PMID:22992726

  13. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellin, C.A.; O' Connor, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal {sup 14}C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were <0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge.

  14. Uptake and retention of metallic nanoparticles in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Matthew S.; Vikesland, Peter J. [Virginia Tech Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS) (United States); Virginia Tech Center for Sustainable Nanotechnology (VT SuN) (United States); Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT) (United States); Schultz, Irvin R., E-mail: ir_schultz@pnl.gov [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We measured uptake of two types of nanomaterials in a marine mussel. •Uptake from water was rapid and complete in less than 24 h. •Only particles suspended in the water appeared to be absorbed. •Most absorbed nanomaterial was concentrated in the digestive gland. -- Abstract: We measured the uptake, distribution and elimination of two types of metallic nanoparticles (MetNPs) by the aquatic mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in static seawater column exposures. Test MetNPs included polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (PEG-FeOxNP) and PEG-functionalized cadmium-selenide quantum dots (PEG-Qdot). Exposure water was sampled at various times to assess MetNP clearance, and mussels were serially euthanized to assess uptake of MetNPs into the hemolymph, digestive gland, and remaining carcass. Results indicated that >90% of both types of MetNPs were taken up by mussels within 8 h of initial exposure. Nearly the entire retained dose of FeOxNPs and PEG-Qdots was deposited in the digestive gland. Our results provide important insights on the uptake and elimination kinetics of MetNPs in filter-feeding marine bivalves, and will be useful for subsequent development of toxicokinetic models to predict the kinetics of these processes.

  15. Optic neuritis and rapidly progressive necrotizing retinitis as the initial signs of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report with clinical and histopathologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oray, Merih; Tuncer, Samuray; Kir, Nur; Karacorlu, Murat; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) presenting first with optic neuritis and rapidly progressive necrotizing retinitis at the posterior pole. We reviewed the clinical, laboratory, photographic, angiographic, and histopathologic records of a patient with SSPE. A 15-year-old girl was referred after rapid loss of vision due to optic neuritis and macular necrosis in the right eye. She had a history of cardiac valve surgery, but had no systemic symptoms and extensive work-up was unrewarding. Contralateral involvement with rapidly progressive optic neuritis and macular necrotizing retinitis prompted retinochoroidal biopsy of the right eye, which revealed necrosis of inner retinal layers and perivascular lymphoplasmocytic infiltration with intact choroid and outer retina without any findings of inclusion bodies, microorganisms, or atypical cells. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic findings consistent with SSPE, and detection of elevated measles antibody titers in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. It was further confirmed by development of typical electroencephalography pattern at 6 months and neurological symptoms at 4-year follow-up. Clinicians need to be aware that optic neuritis and necrotizing retinitis at the posterior pole may be the presenting features of SSPE.

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ... a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Nuclear ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at ... of exposing the fetus to radiation. These tests are also not recommended for ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for the imaging to begin, you will lie down on a moveable examination table with your head ... each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during and ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 ... I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also ... to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you ...

  14. Monosegment ALPPS: A new variant of the techniques for rapid hepatic regeneration. Critical review of the initial results of our series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvá Orón, Eva María; Maupoey Ibáñez, Javier; Bañuelos Carrillo, Rómulo; Boscà Robledo, Andrea; Orbis Castellanos, Juan Francisco; Moya Herraiz, Ángel; Ballester Vallés, Carmen; Pérez Rojas, Judith; Aparicio Urtasun, Jorge; López-Andújar, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel surgical technique that provides fast and effective growth of liver remnant volume, allowing surgical resection of hepatic lesions initially considered unresectable. Short and long-term results and the convenience of carrying out this technique are issues that still remain under debate while waiting for the final outcomes of the multicenter registries with larger number of cases. The aim of this paper is to describe, from a critical point of view, the outcomes of the cases performed at our center (n=8). On the other hand, it is possible to leave only one hepatic segment as a liver remnant and we illustrate this new surgical procedure (ALPPS monosegment) performed in one patient. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of ceftibuten uptake into Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranushi, N; Horie, K; Masuda, K; Hirano, K

    1994-12-01

    The characteristics of ceftibuten uptake into Caco-2 cells grown in a collagen-coated dish were examined. Ceftibuten showed stereoselective and pH-dependent uptake. The pH-dependency of ceftibuten was more marked than that of cefaclor or cephalexin, but all three antibiotics showed maximal uptake at pH 5.5. Ceftibuten uptake was linear for the initial 1 hr and then reached a plateau. The initial uptake (15 min) was markedly reduced by the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol or FCCP (a protonophore), or by lowering the incubation temperature. The uptake of ceftibuten into the brush-border membrane vesicles prepared from cultured Caco-2 cells showed an overshoot in the presence of an H(+)-gradient. These findings indicated that the uptake of ceftibuten was energy-dependent, especially H(+)-gradient-dependent. Uptake inhibition by various compounds was compared using Caco-2 cells. Amino acids and a tetrapeptide did not inhibit uptake, whereas di- or tri-peptides were effective inhibitors. These observations suggest that ceftibuten is taken up by a carrier-mediated transport system(s) for dipeptides. Various antibiotics differed in their ability to inhibit uptake, with cyclacillin showing maximum inhibition. Differences in the inhibitory effect may be accounted for by the heterogeneity (multiplicity) of the transport systems.

  16. Uptake kinetics of arsenic by lettuce cultivars under hydroponics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-10

    May 10, 2013 ... minated farmland for food safety. (2) to compare the rates of As uptake ability between ... washed from root system and transferred to plastic bottles containing 1200 ml of As uptake solution. ... compared, was calculated as the arithmetic mean of the initial (t = 0) and final concentration for a time interval.

  17. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with the standardized uptake value (SUV) in hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lesions. Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, P.; Buchbender, C. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Koehler, J. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Medical Oncology; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in non-small cell lung cancer lesions with standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (FDG-PET/MRI) and those derived from FDG-PET/CT. Materials and Methods: In 18 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC (17 men, 1 woman; mean age, 61 {+-} 12 years), whole-body FDG-PET/MRI was performed after whole-body FDG-PET/CT. Regions of interest (ROI) encompassing the entire primary tumor were drawn into FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MR images to determine the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) and into ADC parameter maps to assess mean ADC values. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare SUV and ADC values. Results: The SUV{sub max} of NSCLC was 12.3 {+-} 4.8 [mean {+-} SD], and the SUV{sub mean} was 7.2 {+-} 2.8 as assessed by FDG-PET/MRI. The SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} derived from FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI correlated well (R = 0.93; p < 0.001 and R = 0.92; p < 0.001, respectively). The ADC{sub mean} of the pulmonary tumors was 187.9 {+-} 88.8 x 10{sup -5} {sup mm{sup 2/s}} [mean {+-} SD]. The ADC{sub mean} exhibited a significant inverse correlation with the SUV{sub max} (R = -0.72; p < 0.001) as well as with the SUVmean assessed by FDG-PET/MRI (R = -0.71; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This simultaneous PET/MRI study corroborates the assumed significant inverse correlation between increased metabolic activity on FDG-PET and restricted diffusion on DWI in NSCLC. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Human Saliva on Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans and Other Oral Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Germaine, Greg R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

    1981-01-01

    We examined the effects of human whole salivary supernatant and parotid fluid on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The following three effects of saliva were observed: (i) inhibition of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), (ii) promotion of a transient, rapid (0 to 30 s) burst of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), and (iii) enhancement of glucose uptake (S. mitis, A. vi...

  19. Ascorbate uptake by ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells: substrate specificity and sensitivity to transport inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, S J; Kulaga, A; Jaworski, E M; Wilson, J X

    1991-06-01

    Ascorbate (reduced vitamin C) is required for bone formation. We have shown previously that both the osteoblast-like cell line ROS 17/2.8 and primary cultures of rat calvarial cells possess a saturable, Na(+)-dependent uptake system for L-ascorbate (J Membr Biol 111:83-91, 1989). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the specificity of this transport system for organic anions and its sensitivity to transport inhibitors. Initial rates of ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating ROS 17/2.8 cells with [L-14C]ascorbate at 37 degrees C. Uptake of [L-14C]ascorbate (5 microM) was inhibited 98 +/- 1% by coincubation with unlabeled L-ascorbate (3 mM) and 48 +/- 4% by salicylate (3 mM), but it was not affected by 3 mM formate, lactate, pyruvate, gluconate, oxalate, malonate, or succinate. Uptake of the radiolabeled vitamin also was not affected by acute (1 minute) exposure of the cells to the Na+ transport inhibitors amiloride and ouabain or the glucose transport inhibitor cytochalasin B. In contrast, anion transport inhibitors rapidly (less than 1 minute) and reversibly blocked [L-14C]ascorbate uptake. In order of potency, these drugs were 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) approximately equal to sulfinpyrazone greater than furosemide approximately equal to 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS). These findings indicate that the ascorbate transporter is relatively specific for the ascorbate anion, since other organic anions (with the exception of salicylate) did not compete with ascorbate for uptake. Rapid and reversible inhibition by the impermeant antagonists DIDS and SITS suggests that they interact directly with the ascorbate transporter, consistent with location of the transport system in the plasma membrane.

  20. Uptake of ammonia gas by Jovian ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, T.; Wong, M. H.; Marschall, J.; de Pater, I.; Romani, P. N.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2011-10-01

    The altitude profile of ammonia (NH3) in Jupiter's atmosphere, as constrained by microwave spectra, is poorly understood. A global-scale NH3 depletion mechanism appears to be operating between the 2- and 6-bar levels. Candidate depletion mechanisms include dynamics, condensation, and adsorption of NH3 onto ices. Laboratory measurements of NH3 uptake provide valuable constraints for model calculations testing the NH3 depletion hypothesis in Jupiter's atmosphere. We have performed experiments designed to measure the uptake coefficient of NH3 by H2O ice using a Knudsen cell apparatus at temperatures relevant to the troposphere of Jupiter. We have initiated model calculations to apply the experimental results to Jupiter's atmosphere and evaluate the key parameters and processes that influence the ammonia uptake and their relevance to Jupiter's atmosphere.

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ... Medicine Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  5. The Rapid Field Initiative Business Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goerger, Simon R; Crino, Scott T; McCarthy, Daniel J; Griffin, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    .... It is a process that costs the Army time money and a great deal of effort to execute. This case study examines the RFI supply chain and makes recommendations to improve the current inventory management system (IMS...

  6. Impact of flow rate on lactate uptake and gluconeogenesis in glucagon-stimulated perfused livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Ken D; Urdiales, Jerry H; Donovan, Casey M

    2006-01-01

    The impact of reduced hepatic flow on lactate uptake and gluconeogenesis was examined in isolated glucagon-stimulated perfused livers from 24-h-fasted rats. After surgical isolation, livers were perfused (single pass) for 30 min with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) bicarbonate buffer, fresh bovine erythrocytes (hematocrit approximately 20%), and no added substrate. After this "washout" period, steady-state perfusions were initiated with a second reservoir containing the KH buffer, bovine erythrocytes, [U-(14)C]lactate (10,000 dpm/ml), lactate (2.5 mM), and glucagon (250 microg/ml). Perfusion flow rate was adjusted to one of five rates (i.e., 1.8, 2.7, 3.9, 7.4, and 11.0 ml.min(-1).100 g body wt(-1)). After the perfusion, the liver was dissected out and weighed so as to establish the actual flow rate per gram of liver. The resulting flow rates ranged from 0.52 to 4.03 ml.min(-1).g liver(-1). As a function of flow rate, lactate uptake rose in a hyperbolic fashion to an apparent plateau of 2.34 micromol.min(-1).g liver(-1). Fractional extraction (FX) of lactate from the perfusate demonstrated an exponential decline with increased flow rates (r=0.97). At flow rates above 1.0 ml.min(-1).g liver(-1), adjustments in FX compensated for changes in lactate delivery, resulting in steady rates of lactate uptake and gluconeogenesis. Below 1.0.min(-1).g liver(-1) the increased FX was unable to compensate for the decline in lactate delivery and lactate uptake declined rapidly. Gluconeogenesis demonstrated similar kinetics to lactate uptake, reflecting its dominant role among pathways for lactate removal under the current conditions.

  7. A novel protein, ubiquitous in marine phytoplankton, concentrates iron at the cell surface and facilitates uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Joe; Sutak, Robert; Paz-Yepes, Javier; Tanaka, Atsuko; Moustafa, Ahmed; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Thomas, Yann; Botebol, Hugo; Bouget, François-Yves; McQuaid, Jeffrey B; Tirichine, Leila; Allen, Andrew E; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Bowler, Chris

    2015-02-02

    Numerous cellular functions including respiration require iron. Plants and phytoplankton must also maintain the iron-rich photosynthetic electron transport chain, which most likely evolved in the iron-replete reducing environments of the Proterozoic ocean [1]. Iron bioavailability has drastically decreased in the contemporary ocean [1], most likely selecting for the evolution of efficient iron acquisition mechanisms among modern phytoplankton. Mesoscale iron fertilization experiments often result in blooms dominated by diatoms [2], indicating that diatoms have adaptations that allow survival in iron-limited waters and rapid multiplication when iron becomes available. Yet the genetic and molecular bases are unclear, as very few iron uptake genes have been functionally characterized from marine eukaryotic phytoplankton, and large portions of diatom iron starvation transcriptomes are genes encoding unknown functions [3-5]. Here we show that the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum utilizes ISIP2a to concentrate Fe(III) at the cell surface as part of a novel, copper-independent and thermodynamically controlled iron uptake system. ISIP2a is expressed in response to iron limitation several days prior to the induction of ferrireductase activity, and it facilitates significant Fe(III) uptake during the initial response to Fe limitation. ISIP2a is able to directly bind Fe(III) and increase iron uptake when heterologously expressed, whereas knockdown of ISIP2a in P. tricornutum decreases iron uptake, resulting in impaired growth and chlorosis during iron limitation. ISIP2a is expressed by diverse marine phytoplankton, indicating that it is an ecologically significant adaptation to the unique nutrient composition of marine environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrate and nitrite uptake and reduction by intact sunflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, E; de la Haba, P; Fontes, A G; Maldonado, J M

    1990-08-01

    Nitrogen-starved sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovic) cannot absorb NO 3 (-) or NO 2 (-) upon initial exposure to these anions. Ability of the plants to take up NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) at high rates from the beginning was induced by a pretreatment with NO 3 (-) . Nitrite also acted as inducer of the NO 2 (-) -uptake system. The presence of cycloheximide during NO 3 (-) -pretreatment prevented the subsequent uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) , indicating that both uptake systems are synthesized de novo when plants are exposed to NO 3 (-) . Cycloheximide also suppressed nitrate-reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite-reductase (EC 1.7.7.1) activities in the roots. The sulfhydryl-group reagent N-ethylmaleimide greatly inhibited the uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) . Likewise, N-ethylmaleimide promoted in vivo the inactivation of nitrate reductase without affecting nitrite-reductase activity. Rates of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake as a function of external anion concentration exhibited saturation kinetics. The calculated Km values for NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake were 45 and 23 μM, respectively. Rates of NO 3 (-) uptake were four to six times higher than NO 3 (-) -reduction rates in roots. In contrast, NO 2 (-) -uptake rates, found to be very similar to NO 3 (-) -uptake rates, were much lower (about 30 times) than NO 2 (-) -reduction rates. Removal of oxygen from the external solution drastically suppressed NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake without affecting their reduction. Uptake and reduction were also differentially affected by pH. The results demonstrate that uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) into sunflower plants is mediated by energy-dependent inducible-transport systems distinguishable from the respective enzymatic reducing systems.

  9. Putrescine uptake in saintpaulia petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, N; Pistocchi, R

    1985-02-01

    Putrescine uptake and the kinetics of this uptake were studied in petals of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Uptake experiments of [(3)H] or [(14)C] putrescine were done on single petals at room temperature at various pH values. The results show that putrescine uptake occurs against a concentration gradient at low external putrescine concentration (0.5-100 micromolar) and follows a concentration gradient at higher external putrescine concentrations (100 micromolar to 100 millimolar). 2,4-Dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, two uncouplers, had no effect on putrescine uptake. Uptake rates were constant for 2 hours, reaching a maximum after 3 to 4 hours. Putrescine uptake depended markedly on the external pH and two maxima were observed: at low external concentrations of putrescine, the optimum was at pH 5 to 5.5; at higher concentrations the optimum was at pH 8.

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... slight pain and redness which should rapidly resolve. Women should always inform their physician or radiology technologist ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, there may be some discomfort from having to ... exam. Injection of the radiotracer may cause slight pain and redness which should rapidly resolve. Women should ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be allowed to wear your own clothing. Women should always inform their physician or technologist if ... slight pain and redness which should rapidly resolve. Women should always inform their physician or radiology technologist ...

  13. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non-immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of paramount importance.

  14. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non- immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of para‐ mount importance.

  15. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Ming [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zhangming@zju.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation.

  16. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    {sup 3}H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na{sup +}-dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na{sup +}-independent component. The Na{sup +}-dependent component of inositol uptake had a K{sub m} of 50 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca{sup 2+} - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  17. Simulation of the plant uptake of organophosphates and other emerging pollutants for greenhouse experiments and field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Eggen, Trine

    2013-01-01

    The uptake of the organophosphates tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), the insect repellant N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET), and the plasticizer n-butyl benzenesulfonamide (NBBS) into plants was studied in greenhouse experiments...... concentrations in straw (leaves and stem). Uptake into carrot roots was high for TCPP and TBP. NBBS showed no high uptake but was rapidly degraded. Uptake into barley seeds was small. The pattern and levels of uptake could be reproduced by the model simulations, which indicates mainly passive uptake...

  18. Molecular initiating events of the intersex phenotype: Low-dose exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol rapidly regulates molecular networks associated with gonad differentiation in the adult fathead minnow testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R.; Isaacs, Meghan A.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyni@yahoo.ca

    2016-12-15

    testis, despite the fact that dmrt1 itself was not different in expression from control males. Transcriptional networks involving forkhead box L2 (foxl2) (transcript involved in ovarian follicle development) were increased in expression in the testis. Noteworthy was that a gene network associated to granulosa cell development was increased over 100%, suggesting that this transcriptome network may be important for monitoring estrogenic exposures. Other cell processes rapidly downregulated by EE2 at the transcript level included glucose homeostasis, response to heavy metal, amino acid catabolism, and the cyclooxygenase pathway. Conversely, lymphocyte chemotaxis, intermediate filament polymerization, glucocorticoid metabolism, carbohydrate utilization, and anterior/posterior axis specification were increased. These data provide new insight into the transcriptional responses that are perturbed prior to gonadal remodeling and intersex following exposure to estrogens. These data demonstrate that low concentrations of EE2 (1) rapidly suppresses male hormone production, (2) down-regulate molecular networks related to male sex differentiation, and (3) induce transcriptional networks related to granulosa cell development in the adult testis. These responses are hypothesized to be key molecular initiating events that occur prior to the development of the intersex phenotype following estrogenic exposures.

  19. An audit of the uptake of key PMTCT interventions in the pre and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV may require the uptake of the culturally unacceptable options of cesarean delivery and formula feeding. The successful use of HAART, as enumerated by the WHO 2009 rapid advice, has the potential for facilitating the uptake of the more culturally acceptable vaginal delivery and ...

  20. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  1. Uptake mechanism for iodine species to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Min-Gyu

    2013-09-17

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in determining the fate and transport of iodine species such as iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) in groundwater system. Although NOM exists as diverse forms in environments, prior iodine studies have mainly focused on uptake processes of iodide and iodate to humic materials. This study was conducted to determine the iodide and iodate uptake potential for a particulate NOM (i.e., black carbon [BC]). A laboratory-produced BC and commercial humic acid were used for batch experiments to compare their iodine uptake properties. The BC exhibited >100 times greater uptake capability for iodide than iodate at low pH of ~3, while iodide uptake was negligible for the humic acid. The uptake properties of both solids strongly depend on the initial iodine aqueous concentrations. After uptake reaction of iodide to the BC, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy results indicated that the iodide was converted to electrophilic species, and iodine was covalently bound to carbon atom in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the BC. The computed distribution coefficients (i.e., Kd values) suggest that the BC materials retard significantly the transport of iodide at low pH in environmental systems containing even a small amount of BC.

  2. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  3. Uptake and depuration of gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Kern, Kristina; Hjorth, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a series of short-term studies (total duration 48 h) of uptake and depuration of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in neonate Daphnia magna. Gold nanoparticles (Au NP) were used to study the influence of size, stabilizing agent and feeding on uptake and depuration kinetics...... and animal body burdens. 10 and 30 nm Au NP with different stabilizing agents [citrate (CIT) and mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA)] were tested in concentrations around 0.5 mg Au/L. Fast initial uptake was observed for all studied Au NP, with CIT stabilized Au NP showing similar rates independent of size...... and MUDA showing increased uptake for the smaller Au NP (MUDA 10 nm > CIT 10 nm, 30 nm > MUDA 30 nm). However, upon transfer to clean media no clear trend on depuration rates was found in terms of stabilizing agent or size. Independent of stabilizing agent, 10 nm Au NP resulted in higher residual whole...

  4. Gastric schwannoma exhibiting increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daisuke; Koide, Naohiko; Hiraga, Risako; Furuya, Naoyuki; Akamatsu, Taiji; Uehara, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This is the first case of gastric schwannoma that exhibited increased accumulation of [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The patient was a 60-year-old woman in whom esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a submucosal tumor, about 25 mm in size, in the upper body of the stomach, with ulceration at the top of the tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a well-defined hypoechoic mass located in the proper muscle layer of the stomach. The specimen taken from the tumor showed only inflammatory degenerative tissue. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the upper body of the stomach. FDG-PET showed FDG uptake (standardized uptake value [SUV] max 5.8) coincident with the tumor. Hence, the tumor was diagnosed initially as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor consisted of spindle cells with large nuclei, and mitosis was absent. The Ki-67 labeling index of the tumor cells was 4%. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed a positive reaction for S-100 protein, whereas they were negative for KIT, CD 34, and alpha-smooth muscle actin protein. The tumor was diagnosed as a benign gastric schwannoma. Gastric schwannoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of submucosal tumors of the stomach with FDG uptake.

  5. Organic acids enhance the uptake of lead by wheat roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhua; Shan, Xiaoquan; Liu, Tao; Xie, Yaning; Wen, Bei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Han, Fang; van Genuchten, Martinus Th

    2007-05-01

    The uptake and bioavailability of lead (Pb) in soil-plant systems remain poorly understood. This study indicates that acetic and malic acids enhance the uptake of Pb by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots under hydroponic conditions. The net concentration-dependent uptake influx of Pb in the presence and absence of organic acids was characterized by Michaelis-Menten type nonsaturating kinetic curves that could be resolved into linear and saturable components. Fitted maximum uptake rates (V (max)) of the Michaelis-Menton saturable component in the presence of acetic and malic acids were, respectively, 2.45 and 1.63 times those of the control, while the Michaelis-Menten K (m) values of 5.5, 3.7 and 2.2 microM, respectively, remained unchanged. Enhanced Pb uptake by organic acids was partially mediated by Ca(2+) and K(+) channels, and also depended upon the physiological function of the plasma membrane P-type ATPase. Uptake may have been further enhanced by an effectively thinner unstirred layer of Pb adjacent to the roots, leading to more rapid diffusion towards roots. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies provided evidence that the coordination environment of Pb in wheat roots was similar to that of Pb(CH(3)COO)(2)x3H(2)O in that one Pb atom was coordinated to four oxygen atoms via the carboxylate group.

  6. Further advances in modeling transdermal uptake of SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To better simulate dermal uptake of SVOCs from air, we develop an enhanced transport model that includes skin surface lipids (SSL). As modeled, clothing can remove SSL by contact transfer and it can act as a source or sink for gas-phase transfer to and from SSL. Addition of SSL increases the over......To better simulate dermal uptake of SVOCs from air, we develop an enhanced transport model that includes skin surface lipids (SSL). As modeled, clothing can remove SSL by contact transfer and it can act as a source or sink for gas-phase transfer to and from SSL. Addition of SSL increases...... the overall resistance to uptake of SVOCs from air but also allows for more rapid release of SVOCs to sinks like clothing or clean air. We compare the model results to reported experimental uptake of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), normalized by exposed skin area and the phthalate...... air concentration during exposure (Weschler et al., 2015). Overall, the model predicts total uptake values that are consistent with those observed in the experiments. The model predicts a normalized mass uptake of DEP of 3.1 (µg/m2)/(µg/m3) whereas the experimental results range from 1.0 to 4.3 (µg/m2...

  7. A Comparative Study of the Uptake, Clearance and Metabolism of Technetium in Lobster (Homarus Gammarus) and Edible Crab (Cancer Paguras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, J.F.; Smith, D.L.; Winpenny, K

    1998-07-01

    Lobsters and edible crabs have been exposed to {sup 95}Tc{sup m} in their sea water or in their food, and the uptake, retention and distribution of the isotope in their bodies examined. The steady-state concentration factor C{sub ss} for uptake of {sup 95}Tc{sup m} from sea water was significantly greater for female crabs (C{sub ss}=17.9) than for males (C{sub ss}=14.4). There was no such sex difference in lobsters and they took up {sup 95}Tc{sup m} to much higher levels with a C{sub ss} of 1160. Retention of the isotope was similar for crabs and lobsters and for animals of both sexes. However the route of uptake was important with more rapid clearance after uptake from sea water (t{sub b1/2} = 51 days) than after uptake from food (t{sub b1/2} = 108 days). Technetium was found predominantly in the hepatopancreas of all crabs and most male lobsters. In a few male lobsters and all females it was mainly in muscle. Lobster ovaries consistently contained more activity than testes but this difference was not seen in crabs. At the subcellular level {sup 95}Tc{sup m} in hepatopancreas cells of both lobster and crab occurred mainly in the cytosol. Results of initial studies into the relationships between technetium and cytosol proteins are given and the possible basis for the much greater accumulation of the element by lobsters than crabs discussed. (author)

  8. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN......(-) and H2O, respectively), were included as control samples. The results indicated that B12 derivatives delivered cisplatin to both cellular cytosol and nuclei with an efficiency of one third compared to the uptake of free cisplatin cis-[Pt(II)Cl2(NH3)2]. In addition, uptake of charged B12 derivatives...

  9. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  10. Degradation and plant uptake of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four contrasting agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestroem, A.E. [Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London (United Kingdom); Collins, C.D. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Smith, S.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: george.shaw@nottingham.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are surfactants found ubiquitously in the environment due to widespread industrial and domestic use. Biodegradation of NPEOs produces nonylphenol (NP), an endocrine disruptor. Sewage sludge application introduces NPEOs and NP into soils, potentially leading to accumulation in soils and crops. We examined degradation of NP and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils. NP12EO degraded rapidly (initial half time 0.3-5 days). Concentrations became undetectable within 70-90 days, with a small increase in NP concentrations after 30 days. NP initially degraded quickly (mean half time 11.5 days), but in three soils a recalcitrant fraction of 26-35% remained: the non-degrading fraction may consist of branched isomers, resistant to biodegradation. Uptake of NP by bean plants was also examined. Mean bioconcentration factors for shoots and seeds were 0.71 and 0.58, respectively. Removal of NP from the soil by plant uptake was negligible (0.01-0.02% of initial NP). Root concentrations were substantially higher than shoot and seed concentrations. - Degradation curves of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils indicate that 26-35% of NP is recalcitrant, with minor NP ingrowth from NP12EO breakdown.

  11. Characterization of ascorbic acid uptake by isolated rat kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers-Komro, D.M.; McCormick, D.B. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Isolated kidney cells accumulated L(1-14C)ascorbic acid in a time-dependent manner and reached a steady state after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Initial velocity for uptake was over 300 pmol/mg protein per min when cells were separated from the bathing solution using a density gradient established during centrifugation. The uptake process was saturable with an apparent concentration at half maximal uptake of 36 mumols/L. Ascorbate uptake was reduced by metabolic inhibitors and was temperature dependent. Although ascorbic acid is an acid anion at pH 7.4, uptake did not appear to be inhibited by other acid anions such as p-aminohippurate and probenecid; however, involvement of the ion gradient established by Na+, H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase could not be confirmed. Replacing the sodium ion with other monovalent ions reduced the accumulation of ascorbate significantly. Isoascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids inhibited ascorbate uptake (34 and 13 mmol/L, respectively), whereas high concentrations of glucose showed some stimulation. These findings indicated that ascorbic acid is reabsorbed by the kidney in a sodium-dependent active transport process that is not common to other acid anions and has some specificity for the ascorbic acid structure.

  12. Coupling of methylmercury uptake with respiration and water pumping in freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-09-01

    The relationships among the uptake of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) and two important fish physiological processes-respiration and water pumping--in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were explored in the present study. Coupled radiotracer and respirometric techniques were applied to measure simultaneously the uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen under various environmental conditions (temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and water flow). A higher temperature enhanced MeHg influx and the oxygen consumption rate but had no effect on the water uptake, indicating the influence of metabolism on MeHg uptake. The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consumption rate was not affected until the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased to extremely low levels (below 1 mg/L). The MeHg and water uptake rates increased simultaneously as the dissolved oxygen level decreased, suggesting the coupling of water flux and MeHg uptake. The influence of fish swimming performance on MeHg uptake was also investigated for the first time. Rapidly swimming fish showed significantly higher uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen, confirming the coupling relationships among respiration, water pumping, and metal uptake. Moreover, these results support that MeHg uptake is a rate-limiting process involving energy. Our study demonstrates the importance of physiological processes in understanding mercury bioaccumulation in fluctuating aquatic environments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  13. Nitrogen Uptake in Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J.; VanBenthem, P.

    2013-12-01

    A plant's absorption of nitrogen can be encouraged by a variety of environmental factors, especially the application of fertilizers. As a common limiting factor in plant growth, not up taking enough nitrogen can be a result of an unhealthy plant. Moreover, as farmers seek out methods to increase growth of plants, fertilizers are used as a solution to the issue of nitrogen deficiency to incorporate additional nitrogen from chemical or organic sources, by not using the right fertilizer can greatly affect the plats. The point of this research project is to determine the effect of various fertilizers on the plant growth, and to correlate the measured nitrogen, water and chlorophyll content in spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were used because they are known to quickly uptake chemicals in the environment. The spinach plants were exposed to four different growing parameters, which are referred to as control, ammonium nitrate, MiracleGro , and organic. The spinach was originally placed in nitrogen deficient soil with only 2.2x10 4 weight percent (wt. %) nitrogen. The leaves in the control group were grown in this nitrogen deficient soil without any fertilizer added. Ammomium nitrate and MiracleGro were added to the spinach in the A and MG groups, respectively, and organic chicken stool was used for the O group. By using a spectral imaging system and flame combustion techniques, the chlorophyll content can be related to the nitrogen content in the spinach leaves. In these spinach leaves, nitrogen and chlorophyll content were measured, chlorophyll is a green pigment that plays a crucial role in producing nutrients for green plants. The lack of chlorophyll will allow the plant to become susceptible to diseases, so it is extremely important that the plants have a high content of chlorophyll. The role of nitrogen in chlorophyll is very important and helps in the creation of chlorophyll; therefore it is necessary that an appropriate amount of nitrogen is added for optimal growth

  14. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  15. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  16. Do general practice characteristics influence uptake of an information technology (IT innovation in primary care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Evans

    2008-05-01

    Conclusions The analyses show that structural characteristics of a practice are not associated with uptake of a new IT facility, but that its use may be influenced by post-graduate education in the relevant clinical condition. For this diabetes system at least, practice nurse use was critical in spreading uptake beyond initial GP enthusiasts and for sustained and rising use in subsequent years.

  17. Uptake and transport of paraquat in slash pine. [/sup 14/C tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.L.; Nix, L.E.

    1975-12-01

    Uptake and movement of paraquat (1,1'dimethyl-4,4'bipyridylium dichloride into the transpiration stream of 25-year-old slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) trees was followed using methyl-/sup 14/C-paraquat (10..mu..Ci/tree) applied in 8 and 3 percent solutions with commercial paraquat. Initial uptake from saturated cellulose pads into xylem was rapid, whereas upward axial movement in outer rings of xylem was 100-fold less than the established velocity of water transport in pines. Velocity of paraquat-/sup 14/C movement was approximately 30 cm/day vertically and 0.5 cm/day radially along negative pressure gradients in xylem. Recovery of /sup 14/C-paraquat by sulphuric acid extraction of xylem samples above the site of application, followed by thin layer chromatography of partially purified extracts, indicated that much radioactivity was still in the form of methyl-/sup 14/C-paraquat. The physiological significance of paraquat's strong affinity for cellulose, resulting in its slow movement both vertically and horizontally, is briefly discussed as it relates to increased oleoresin synthesis and lightwood formation.

  18. Uranium uptake and depuration in the aquatic invertebrate Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatello, Jorgelina R., E-mail: jorgelina_muscatello@golder.co [Toxicology Centre, 44 Campus Dr, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Liber, Karsten [Toxicology Centre, 44 Campus Dr, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Evaluation of aqueous uranium (U) uptake and depuration in larvae of the midge Chironomus tentans were investigated in two separated experiments. First, a static-renewal experiment was performed with 10-d old C. tentans larvae exposed to 300 mug U/L. The animals steadily accumulated U (K{sub u} = 20.3) approaching steady-state conditions (BAF = 56) in approximately 9-11 d. However, accumulated U was readily depurated (K{sub d} = 0.36) with U tissue concentration decreasing rapidly within 3 d of the larvae being placed in clean water (t{sub 1/2} = 1.9 d). Also, the growth of C. tentans larvae appeared to decrease after 6-11 d of U exposure, probably due to the reallocation of resources into U detoxification mechanisms. However, growth significantly increased once C. tentans were transferred to clean water. A separate short-term experiment was performed to evaluate the possible mechanism of U uptake in this invertebrate. Results suggested a passive mechanism of U uptake coupled with an active mechanism of U depuration but no details related to the type of mechanisms or pathway was investigated. - Aqueous uranium uptake and depuration in Chironomus tentans are rapid processes that appear to be associated with passive and active process of depuration.

  19. Uptake of DNA by cancer cells without a transfection reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yanping; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhao, Yongliang; Xue, Yanfang; Zhang, Ye

    2017-01-21

    Cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of glucose uptake and may obtain pre-formed, diet-derived fatty acids from the bloodstream to boost their rapid growth; they may also use nucleic acid from their microenvironment. The study of processing nucleic acid by cancer cells will help improve the understanding of the metabolism of cancer. DNA is commonly packaged into a viral or lipid particle to be transferred into cells; this process is called transfection in laboratory. Cancer cells are known for having gene mutations and the evolving ability of endocytosis. Their uptake of DNAs might be different from normal cells; they may take in DNAs directly from the environment. In this report, we studied the uptake of DNAs in cancer cells without a transfection reagent. A group of DNA fragments were prepared with PCR and labeled with isotope phosphorous-32 to test their uptake by Huh 7 (liver cancer) and THLE3 (normal liver cells) after incubation overnight by counting radioactivity of the cells' genomic DNA. Multiple cell lines including breast cancer and lung cancer were tested with the same method. DNA molecules were also labeled with fluorescence to test the location in the cells using a kit of "label it fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)" from Mirus (USA). The data demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess the ability to take in large DNA fragments directly without a transfection reagent whereas normal liver cells cannot. Huh7 and MDA-MB231 cells displayed a significantly higher Rhodamine density in the cytoplasmic phagosomes and this suggests that the mechanism of uptake of large DNA by cancer cells is likely endocytosis. The efficacy of uptake is related to the DNA's size. Some cell lines of lung cancer and breast cancer also showed similar uptake of DNA. In the present study, we have revealed the evidence that some cancer cells, but not nontumorigenic cells, can take DNA fragments directly from the environment without the aid of the transfecting

  20. Presenilin promotes dietary copper uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Southon

    Full Text Available Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1. Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake.

  1. l-Methionine Placental Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, João R.; Correia-Branco, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pinho, Maria J.; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM-associated conditions upon the placental uptake of 14C-l-methionine (14C-l-Met). The 14C-l-Met uptake by human trophoblasts (TBs) obtained from normal pregnancies (normal trophoblast [NTB] cells) is mainly system l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1 [L])-mediated, although a small contribution of system y+LAT2 is also present. Comparison of 14C-l-Met uptake by NTB and by human TBs obtained from GDM pregnancies (diabetic trophoblast [DTB] cells) reveals similar kinetics, but a contribution of systems A, LAT2, and b0+ and a greater contribution of system y+LAT1 appears to exist in DTB cells. Short-term exposure to insulin and long-term exposure to high glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin decrease 14C-l-Met uptake in a human TB (Bewo) cell line. The effect of leptin was dependent upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK/MEK 1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, GDM does not quantitatively alter 14C-l-Met placental uptake, although it changes the nature of transporters involved in that process. PMID:23653387

  2. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-08-09

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional \\'single porosity\\' models, this \\'dual porosity\\' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Migratory dermal dendritic cells act as rapid sensors of protozoan parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Guan Ng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC, including those of the skin, act as sentinels for intruding microorganisms. In the epidermis, DC (termed Langerhans cells, LC are sessile and screen their microenvironment through occasional movements of their dendrites. The spatio-temporal orchestration of antigen encounter by dermal DC (DDC is not known. Since these cells are thought to be instrumental in the initiation of immune responses during infection, we investigated their behavior directly within their natural microenvironment using intravital two-photon microscopy. Surprisingly, we found that, under homeostatic conditions, DDC were highly motile, continuously crawling through the interstitial space in a Galpha(i protein-coupled receptor-dependent manner. However, within minutes after intradermal delivery of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, DDC became immobile and incorporated multiple parasites into cytosolic vacuoles. Parasite uptake occurred through the extension of long, highly dynamic pseudopods capable of tracking and engulfing parasites. This was then followed by rapid dendrite retraction towards the cell body. DDC were proficient at discriminating between parasites and inert particles, and parasite uptake was independent of the presence of neutrophils. Together, our study has visualized the dynamics and microenvironmental context of parasite encounter by an innate immune cell subset during the initiation of the immune response. Our results uncover a unique migratory tissue surveillance program of DDC that ensures the rapid detection of pathogens.

  4. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga in the lung of mice during bleomycin treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.; Kohima, S.; Kubodera, A.

    1984-02-01

    Changes of /sup 67/Ga uptake in the lungs and changes of components of the so-called ground substance of the lung connective tissues of mice were followed for 7 weeks after the start of bleomycin (BLM) administration (20 mg/kg body weight IP, twice weekly for 5 weeks; this treatment induced fibrosis of the lung). /sup 67/Ga uptake of the lung was elevated at 1 week, and reached a maximum at 5 weeks (3.00+-0.11% dose/g lung), and then decreased slightly at 7 weeks. The uronic acid content in the 1.2 M NaCl-soluble fraction, which contained predominantly heparan sulfate (HS), was increased at 1 week, peaked at 3 weeks, and then remained unchanged up to 7 weeks. This pattern was similar to that of /sup 67/Ca acumulation in the lungs. The uronic acid content of the 0.4 M NaCl-fraction, which contained predominantly hyaluronic acid (HA), was decreased at 1 week, but increased to a maximum at 3 weeks, then decreased to about the initial level at 5 weeks and decreased further at 7 weeks. Lung hydroxyproline content, an index of collagen content, was increased at 3 weeks and continued to increase rapidly thereafter, reaching approximately 1.5 times the control value at 7 weeks. Serum, iron, measured as an indicator of iron metabolism, was slightly increased at 3 weeks and there was corresponding decrease of unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). No corresponding change of /sup 67/Ga uptake was apparent. These results indicate that HS increased before the collagen accumulation at an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis of the lung during BLM treatment of mice, and support our earlier proposal that HS is a major acceptor for /sup 67/Ga accumulation.

  5. Ethnic background and human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Casadevante, Victoria Fernández; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Cuesta, Julita Gil

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We examined ethnicity-related differences in the uptake of a temporary free-of-charge HPV vaccine (HPVV) catch-up programme offered in Denmark from August 2012 to December 2013 to women born from 1985-1992 and compared it with the previous self-payment system in place. Methods: We conducted...... a nationwide retrospective cohort study. We performed logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between ethnic background and HPV vaccine (HPVV) programme initiation. Results: The free programme increased the vaccination uptake from 16% to 75%. Descendants (Denmark-born women with both parents...

  6. Drivers to Enhance ICT Uptake in IBS Management Processes in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Ern Peniel Ang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, as a result of the government’s initiative and future outlook in advancing the use of innovative technologies, the Industrialised Building System (IBS approach is actively promoted through several strategies and incentives as an alternative to conventional building methods. Extensive uptakes of modern Information Communication Technology (ICT applications are able to support the different IBS processes for effective production. However, it is argued that ICT uptake at the organisational level is still in its infancy. This raises the importance to identify critical drivers for effective uptake of ICT in the IBS production management process. Critical drivers to ICT uptake were identified through questionnaire survey with industry stakeholders which was analysed using mean index and critical t-value with the use of SPSS software. The top ten priority ranked drivers reflect the People, Technology and Policy elements to ICT uptake. These identified critical drivers are able enhance ICT uptake in IBS management process in the construction industry.

  7. Uptake and translocation of imidacloprid, clothianidin and flupyradifurone in seed-treated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Mitchell D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Baxendale, Frederick P; Siegfried, Blair D; Blankenship, Erin E; Nauen, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Seed treatment insecticides have become a popular management option for early-season insect control. This study investigated the total uptake and translocation of seed-applied [(14) C]imidacloprid, [(14) C]clothianidin and [(14) C]flupyradifurone into different plant parts in three soybean vegetative stages (VC, V1 and V2). The effects of soil moisture stress on insecticide uptake and translocation were also assessed among treatments. We hypothesized that (1) uptake and translocation would be different among the insecticides owing to differences in water solubility, and (2) moisture stress would increase insecticide uptake and translocation. Uptake and translocation did not follow a clear trend in the three vegetative stages. Initially, flupyradifurone uptake was greater than clothianidin uptake in VC soybeans. In V1 soybeans, differences in uptake among the three insecticides were not apparent and unaffected by soil moisture stress. Clothianidin was negatively affected by soil moisture stress in V2 soybeans, while imidacloprid and flupyradifurone were unaffected. Specifically, soil moisture stress had a positive effect on the distribution of flupyradifurone in leaves. This was not observed with the neonicotinoids. This study enhances our understanding of the uptake and distribution of insecticides used as seed treatments in soybean. The uptake and translocation of these insecticides differed in response to soil moisture stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Comparative investigations on the uptake of phallotoxins, bile acids, bovine lactoperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase into rat hepatocytes in suspension and in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, E; Frimmer, M

    1988-01-13

    Two alternative uptake mechanisms for phallotoxins by liver cells are debated: carrier-mediated uptake and receptor-mediated endocytosis. We have compared the properties of hepatocellular uptake of the phallotoxins, phalloidin and demethylphalloin, with the uptake of cholate as a substrate for carrier-mediated uptake and compared with iodinated bovine lactoperoxidase or iodinated horseradish peroxidase, as the latter are known to be taken up by vesicular endocytosis. Uptake of phallotoxins and [14C]cholate uptake into isolated hepatocytes is independent of extracellular calcium but inhibited by A23187 or by monensin. Uptake of bovine lactoperoxidase strictly depends on external Ca2+, was insensitive to A23197 and was not inhibited by monensin. No mutual uptake inhibition between phalloidin or cholate and peroxidases was seen, indicating independent permeation pathways in hepatocytes. However, high concentrations of cytochalasin B inhibited the uptake of either phalloidin, cholate or bovine lactoperoxidase. Horseradish peroxidase uptake, which was taken as an indicator for fluid pinocytosis, was low in isolated hepatocytes and could not account for the amount of phalloidin or cholate taken up. In cultured rat hepatocytes, uptake of phallotoxins decreased within 1 day to 10% of the uptake seen in freshly isolated hepatocytes. The results indicate different mechanisms for hepatocellular phallotoxin/bile-acid uptake and peroxidase internalization. As monolayer cultures of hepatocytes rapidly lost the carrier-mediated uptake of phallotoxins and bile acids, freshly isolated hepatocytes might be a more suitable experimental model than cultured cells for kinetic studies on this transport system.

  9. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:77-79

  10. Identification of multiple cellular uptake pathways of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting the uptake: relevance for drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdessa, Rebuma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Moll, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles may address challenges by human diseases through improving diagnosis, vaccination and treatment. The uptake mechanism regulates the type of threat a particle poses on the host cells and how a cell responds to it. Hence, understanding the uptake mechanisms and cellular interactions of nanoparticles at the cellular and subcellular level is a prerequisite for their effective biomedical applications. The present study shows the uptake mechanisms of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting their uptake in bone marrow-derived macrophages, 293T kidney epithelial cells and L929 fibroblasts. Labeling with the endocytic marker FM4-64 and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the nanoparticles were internalized rapidly via endocytosis and accumulated in intracellular vesicles. Soon after their internalizations, nanoparticles trafficked to organelles with acidic pH. Analysis of the ultrastructural morphology of the plasma membrane invaginations or extravasations provides clear evidence for the involvement of several uptake routes in parallel to internalize a given type of nanoparticles by mammalian cells, highlighting the complexity of the nanoparticle-cell interactions. Blocking the specific endocytic pathways by different pharmacological inhibitors shows similar outcomes. The potential to take up nanoparticles varies highly among different cell types in a particle sizes-, time- and energy-dependent manner. Furthermore, infection and the activation status of bone marrow-derived macrophages significantly affect the uptake potential of the cells, indicating the need to understand the diseases' pathogenesis to establish effective and rational drug-delivery systems. This study enhances our understanding of the application of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    Zooxanthellae freshly isolated from the coral host Pocillopora damicornis exhibited substrate-saturable uptake kinetics for ammonium, nitrate and urea. Maximum uptake velocity for ammonium [10.1 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] was greater than...

  12. Processes of nickel and cobalt uptake by a manganese oxide forming sediment in Pinal Creek, Globe mining district, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J.T.; Conklin, M.H.; Fuller, C.C.; O'Day, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of column experiments was conducted using manganese oxide coated sediments collected from the hyporheic zone in Pinal Creek (AZ), a metal-contaminated stream, to study the uptake and retention of Mn, Ni, and Co. Experimental variables included the absence (abiotic) and presence (biotic) of active Mn-oxidizing bacteria, the absence and presence of dissolved Mn, and sediment manganese oxide content. Uptake of Mn under biotic conditions was between 8 and 39% higher than under abiotic conditions. Continuous uptake of Mn due to biotic oxidation was evident from extraction of column sediments. Manganese uptake is hypothesized to initially occur as adsorption, which led to subsequent surface and/or microbial oxidation. Complete breakthrough of Ni within 100 pore volumes indicated no process of continuous uptake and was modeled as an equilibrium adsorption process. Nickel uptake in the presence of dissolved Mn was 67-100% reversible. Sediment extractions suggest that Ni uptake occurred through weak and strong adsorption. Continuous uptake of cobalt increased with sediment manganese oxide content, and Co uptake was up to 75% greater under biotic than abiotic conditions. Cobalt uptake was controlled by both existing and newly formed manganese oxides. Only a small amount of Co uptake was reversible (10-25%). XANES spectral analysis indicated that most Co(II) was oxidized to Co(III) and probably incorporated structurally into manganese oxides. Although manganese oxides were the primary phase controlling uptake and retention of Mn, Ni, and Co, the mechanisms varied among the metals.

  13. Comparison of semiquantitative fluorescence imaging and PET tracer uptake in mesothelioma models as a monitoring system for growth and therapeutic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuriko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, 260-8675 (Japan); Furukawa, Takako [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida, Fukui, 910-1193 (Japan); Arano, Yasushi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, 260-8675 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida, Fukui, 910-1193 (Japan); Saga, Tsuneo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Introduction: Various techniques are available for in vivo imaging, and precise understanding of their characteristics is essential for effective use of the imaging results. We established human mesothelioma cell lines expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) and examined their fluorescence intensity and uptake of positron emission tomography (PET) tracer analogs to compare their characteristics and assess their usefulness in the evaluation of therapeutics. Method: A human mesothelioma cell line was stably transfected to express RFP. Fluorescence, cell number and protein amount were measured during cell growth and treatment with cytotoxic reagents. In in vivo experiments, RFP-expressing cells were injected subcutaneously or into the pleural cavity of nude mice, and fluorescence images were taken with or without pemetrexed treatment. The uptake of [{sup 3}H]3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ([{sup 3}H]FLT) and [{sup 14}C]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 14}C]FDG) under treatment with the above reagents in vitro and in vivo were examined. Results: Strong correlation was observed between fluorescence intensity and total cell number with or without cytotoxic treatment. The uptake of [{sup 3}H]FLT and [{sup 14}C]FDG decreased rapidly after the initiation of treatment with actinomycin D or cycloheximide. When treated with pemetrexed, the uptake of [{sup 3}H]FLT temporarily increased. The cells formed subcutaneous and orthotopic tumors, with fluorescence intensity correlating with tumor volume. The correlation was sustained under pemetrexed treatment. The uptake of [{sup 3}H]FLT in vivo increased significantly early after pemetrexed treatment. Conclusion: Fluorescence imaging could be used to semiquantitatively monitor tumor size, whereas PET could be used to monitor tumor response to therapeutic treatments, and especially, FLT might be a good marker of the response to anti-folate chemotherapeutics.

  14. Comparison of in vitro fluoride uptake from whitening toothpastes and a conventional toothpaste in demineralised enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Markus J; Bernhart, Jasmin; Schicha, Thurid D; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the compatibility of abrasives and fluoride compounds deal exclusively with fluoride uptake and remineralization after storing the enamel specimens in a toothpaste-saliva mixture. The influence of brushing on the fluoride uptake when highly abrasive toothpastes are used has hardly been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate fluoride uptake in initially demineralised dental enamel after storage in, or brushing with, whitening toothpaste slurries, compared to a conventional toothpaste. For this purpose two widely available whitening toothpastes with ionically bound fluoride (sodium fluoride NaF), two with covalently-bound fluoride toothpastes (sodium monofluorophosphate, NaMFP) and a conventional amine fluoride toothpaste (AmF) were compared. The fluoride uptake after use of the AmF toothpaste was shown to be statistically significantly higher than that after application of the NaF toothpastes, which in turn was statistically significantly higher than the uptake resulting from NaMFP application. The fluoride uptake was slightly higher when the enamel samples were brushed with NaF toothpaste, rather than just stored in the respective toothpaste slurry. Brushing with highly abrasive toothpastes did not negatively influence fluoride uptake in demineralised dental enamel. The ionic form of the fluoride in toothpastes appears to be critical for increased fluoride uptake. The acidic components of the AmF toothpaste improved fluoride uptake compared to alkaline NaF toothpastes.

  15. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  16. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew G.; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  17. Mechanisms of hepatic methylmercury uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballatori, N.; Truong, A.T. [Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The mechanism by which methylmercury is cleared from hepatic portal blood was examined in isolated rat livers perfused single-pass with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. [{sup 203}Hg]Methylmercury (0.24-24 {mu}M) was infused over a 30-min interval, followed by a 30-min washout, as a complex with the endogenous ligands L-cysteine (CH{sub 3}Hg-L-cys), gluthathione (CH{sub 3}Hg-DTT), chloride (CH{sub 3}HgCl), and the D-enantiomer of cysteine (CH{sub 3}Hg-D-cys). The sulfhydryl-containing compounds were added at a 10-fold molar excess. When administered as the albumin complex, only a small fraction of the [{sup 203}Hg]methylmercury was cleared from perfusate ({approximately}8%) and excreted into bile (0.7%). Hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of methylmercury was considerably higher for the other complexes. For the dithiothreitol complex, hepatic extraction of methylmercury was nearly complete during single-pass perfusion. A comparison of hepatic removal of increasing doses of CH{sub 3}Hg-L-cys and CH{sub 3}Hg-L-cys and CH{sub 3}-D-cys revealed little difference. Moreover, the fraction of methylmercury removed was similar at concentrations of 0.24, 2.4, and 24 {mu}M, indicating no saturability of uptake in this dose range. Methylmercury was not hepatotoxic at concentrations up to 24 {mu}M if administered as a mercaptide; however, the chloride complex (CH{sub 3}HgCl) produced cholestasis and an increase in perfusion pressure at a concentration of only 0.24 {mu}m. These findings indicate that hepatic methylmercury uptake and toxicity are dependent on the chemical form in blood plasma. Uptake was faster when methylmercury was present as a cysteine or glutathione complex, as compared to the albumin complex; however, the lack of steroselectivity indicates that the uptake process may be relatively unselective.

  18. Actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement modulates proton-induced uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dov, Nadav [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi, E-mail: korens@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2013-04-15

    Recently it has been shown that elevating proton concentration at the cell surface stimulates the formation of membrane invaginations and vesicles accompanied by an enhanced uptake of macromolecules. While the initial induction of inward membrane curvature was rationalized in terms of proton-based increase of charge asymmetry across the membrane, the mechanisms underlying vesicle formation and its scission are still unknown. In light of the critical role of actin in vesicle formation during endocytosis, the present study addresses the involvement of cytoskeletal actin in proton-induced uptake (PIU). The uptake of dextran-FITC is used as a measure for the factual fraction of inward invaginations that undergo scission from the cell's plasma membrane. Our findings show that the rate of PIU in suspended cells is constant, whereas the rate of PIU in adherent cells is gradually increased in time, saturating at the level possessed by suspended cells. This is consistent with pH induced gradual degradation of stress-fibers in adherent cells. Wortmannin and calyculin-A are able to elevate PIU by 25% in adherent cells but not in suspended cells, while cytochalasin-D, rapamycin and latrunculin-A elevate PIU both in adherent and suspended cells. However, extensive actin depolymerization by high concentrations of latrunculin-A is able to inhibit PIU. We conclude that proton-induced membrane vesiculation is restricted by the actin structural resistance to the plasma membrane bending. Nevertheless, a certain degree of cortical actin restructuring is required for the completion of the scission process. - Highlights: ► Acidification of cells' exterior enhances uptake of macromolecules by the cells. ► Disruption of actin stress fibers leads to enhancement of proton induced uptake. ► Extensive depolymerization of cellular actin attenuates proton-induced uptake.

  19. Putrescine Uptake in Saintpaulia Petals 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, Nello; Pistocchi, Rossella

    1985-01-01

    Putrescine uptake and the kinetics of this uptake were studied in petals of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Uptake experiments of [3H] or [14C] putrescine were done on single petals at room temperature at various pH values. The results show that putrescine uptake occurs against a concentration gradient at low external putrescine concentration (0.5-100 micromolar) and follows a concentration gradient at higher external putrescine concentrations (100 micromolar to 100 millimolar). 2,4-Dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, two uncouplers, had no effect on putrescine uptake. Uptake rates were constant for 2 hours, reaching a maximum after 3 to 4 hours. Putrescine uptake depended markedly on the external pH and two maxima were observed: at low external concentrations of putrescine, the optimum was at pH 5 to 5.5; at higher concentrations the optimum was at pH 8. PMID:16664065

  20. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of {sup 201}TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse (Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per {sup 201}TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl<2.5 have been conservatively managed because of slow tumour growth. The other two pts have Tl>3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid {sup 201}TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid {sup 201}TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, {sup 201}TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited

  1. Rapid Endolysosomal Escape and Controlled Intracellular Trafficking of Cell Surface Mimetic Quantum-Dots-Anchored Peptides and Glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Roger S; Naruchi, Kentaro; Amano, Maho; Hinou, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-09-18

    A novel strategy for the development of a high performance nanoparticules platform was established by means of cell surface mimetic quantum-dots (QDs)-anchored peptides/glycopeptides, which was developed as a model system for nanoparticle-based drug delivery (NDD) vehicles with defined functions helping the specific intracellular trafficking after initial endocytosis. In this paper, we proposed a standardized protocol for the preparation of multifunctional QDs that allows for efficient cellular uptake and rapid escaping from the endolysosomal system and subsequent cytoplasmic molecular delivery to the target cellular compartment. Chemoselective ligation of the ketone-functionalized hexahistidine derivative facilitated both efficient endocytic entry and rapid endolysosomal escape of the aminooxy/phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayer-coated QDs (AO/PCSAM-QDs) to the cytosol in various cell lines such as human normal and cancer cells, while modifications of these QDs with cell-penetrating arginine-rich peptides showed poor cellular uptake and induced self-aggregation of AO/PCSAM-QDs. Combined use of hexahistidylated AO/PCSAM-QDs with serglycine-like glycopeptides, namely synthetic proteoglycan initiators (PGIs), elicited the entry and controlled intracellular trafficking, Golgi localization, and also excretion of these nanoparticles, which suggested that the present approach would provide an ideal platform for the design of high performance NDD systems.

  2. Composites by rapid prototyping technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available powder is a fiber, problems of manufacturing occur. The method has also been used to make Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), e.g Fe and graphite [17], WC-Co [18,19], WC-Co and Cu [20,21], Fe, Ni and TiC [22] etc and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) e.g. Si... of various materials used. Key words: : Rapid Prototyping (RP), Laser, Composites 1 Introduction Rapid Prototyping (RP) initially focussed on polymers. These were later re- placed/supplemented by ceramics, metals and composites. Composites are used in RP...

  3. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  4. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  5. Polyamine Uptake in Carrot Cell Cultures 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Bagni, Nello; Creus, José A.

    1987-01-01

    Putrescine and spermidine uptake into carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells in culture was studied. The time course of uptake showed that the two polyamines were very quickly transported into the cells, reaching a maximum absorption within 1 minute. Increasing external polyamine concentrations up to 100 millimolar showed the existence of a biphasic system with different affinities at low and high polyamine concentrations. The cellular localization of absorbed polyamines was such that a greater amount of putrescine was present in the cytoplasmic soluble fraction, while spermidine was mostly present in cell walls. The absorbed polyamines were released into the medium in the presence of increasing external concentrations of the corresponding polyamine or Ca2+. The effects of Ca2+ were different for putrescine and spermidine; putrescine uptake was slightly stimulated by 10 micromolar Ca2+ and inhibited by higher concentrations, while for spermidine uptake there was an increasing stimulation in the Ca2+ concentration range between 10 micromolar and 1 millimolar. La3+ nullified the stimulatory effect of 10 micromolar Ca2+ on putrescine uptake and that of 1 millimolar Ca2+ on spermidine uptake. La3+ at 0.5 to 1 millimolar markedly inhibited the uptake of both polyamines, suggesting that it interferes with the sites of polyamine uptake. Putrescine uptake was affected to a lesser extent by metabolic inhibitors than was spermidine uptake. It is proposed that the entry of polyamines into the cells is driven by the transmembrane electrical gradient, with a possible antiport mechanism between external and internal polyamine molecule. PMID:16665446

  6. [Axolemmal transporters for neurotransmitter uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M

    Neurotransmission is a fundamental process in interneuronal communication. It starts with the release of the neurotransmitter following a nerve impulse and ends either by uptake by specific specific transporters or by metabolization to an inactive compound. In this review we will consider the molecular, ion dependence and electrogenic properties of the axolemal transporters for neurotransmitters and also the pathological consequences of their impairment as well as the drugs that can interact with them. Most axolemmal transporters have been cloned and grouped into two large families according to their molecular characteristics and electrogenic properties: 1. Those dependent on Na+/Cl- include transporters of GABA, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, choline, proline, betaine, glycine and taurine, and 2. Those dependent on Na+/K+, which include the transporters of glutamate, alanine, serine and cysteine. The clonation of transporters has permitted (and will continue to permit) the correlation of molecular alterations of transporters with different neuro-degenerative disorders (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), with brain lesions (e.g. cerebral ischemia, status epilepticus) and with psychiatric alterations (e.g. schizophrenia, depression). In this respect, chemical synthesis of new selective drugs which interact with the different systems for uptake of neurotransmitters will offer new approaches to the treatment of many disorders of the central nervous system which still have no satisfactory drug treatment.

  7. [Methoxyflurane and ethanol do not inhibit the neuronal uptake of noradrenaline (uptake 1) at the desipramine binding site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H G; Schömig, E

    1990-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that the net accumulation of 3H-norepinephrine in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 was reduced by anesthetic concentrations of n-alkanols and the volatile anesthetics halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane. In PC12 cells, as in adrenergic neurons, norepinephrine is transported across the plasma membrane by a saturable, high-affinity, carrier-mediated mechanism (uptake1), which follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, is energy- and sodium-dependent, and is inhibited by low concentrations of cocaine and the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. Although uptake1 is the most important process for the removal of norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft, the net accumulation of norepinephrine within the neuron also depends on other factors including its vesicular uptake and storage within the granules, its metabolism by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and the efflux of its more lipophilic metabolites. In our previous report we could not exclude the contribution of any of these factors to the observed inhibitory effects of volatile substances. Therefore, the aim of the present study with ethanol and methoxyflurane was: (1) to elucidate further the exact mechanism responsible for the reduction of the norepinephrine accumulation; and (2) to investigate the anesthetics' interaction with the substrate recognition site, which is identical with the desipramine binding site on the norepinephrine carrier. METHODS. For 3H-norepinephrine uptake experiments, PC12 cells were cultured on dishes (60 mm, Nunc) coated with polyornithine. Reserpine (10 microM) was added to the culture 24 h before the experiment to deplete endogenous norepinephrine. The initial carrier-mediated transport rate (60 s) was measured as previously described. 3H-desipramine equilibrium binding was determined with isolated plasma membranes prepared from PC12 cells grown in suspension culture. The carrier-mediated uptake of 3H

  8. Glucose-induced insulin resistance of skeletal-muscle glucose transport and uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Hansen, B F; Hansen, S A

    1988-01-01

    , impairment of insulin action on muscle glucose transport and uptake. Thus maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake at 12 mM-glucose decreased from 34.8 +/- 1.9 to 11.5 +/- 1.1 mumol/h per g (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10) during 5 h perfusion. This decrease in glucose uptake was accompanied by a similar change...... in the presence of glucose and insulin. The data indicate that exposure to a moderately increased glucose concentration (12 mM) leads to rapidly developing resistance of skeletal-muscle glucose transport and uptake to maximal insulin stimulation. The effect of glucose is enhanced by simultaneous insulin exposure......, whereas exposure for 5 h to insulin itself does not cause measurable resistance to maximal insulin stimulation....

  9. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Richter, Erik

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  10. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  11. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ting-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE, a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM. The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40

  12. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  13. Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV at a Patient's First Clinic Visit: The RapIT Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Rosen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High rates of patient attrition from care between HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation have been documented in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to persistently low CD4 cell counts at treatment initiation. One reason for this is that starting ART in many countries is a lengthy and burdensome process, imposing long waits and multiple clinic visits on patients. We estimated the effect on uptake of ART and viral suppression of an accelerated initiation algorithm that allowed treatment-eligible patients to be dispensed their first supply of antiretroviral medications on the day of their first HIV-related clinic visit.RapIT (Rapid Initiation of Treatment was an unblinded randomized controlled trial of single-visit ART initiation in two public sector clinics in South Africa, a primary health clinic (PHC and a hospital-based HIV clinic. Adult (≥18 y old, non-pregnant patients receiving a positive HIV test or first treatment-eligible CD4 count were randomized to standard or rapid initiation. Patients in the rapid-initiation arm of the study ("rapid arm" received a point-of-care (POC CD4 count if needed; those who were ART-eligible received a POC tuberculosis (TB test if symptomatic, POC blood tests, physical exam, education, counseling, and antiretroviral (ARV dispensing. Patients in the standard-initiation arm of the study ("standard arm" followed standard clinic procedures (three to five additional clinic visits over 2-4 wk prior to ARV dispensing. Follow up was by record review only. The primary outcome was viral suppression, defined as initiated, retained in care, and suppressed (≤400 copies/ml within 10 mo of study enrollment. Secondary outcomes included initiation of ART ≤90 d of study enrollment, retention in care, time to ART initiation, patient-level predictors of primary outcomes, prevalence of TB symptoms, and the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. A survival analysis was conducted comparing attrition

  14. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakheet, S.M.; Powe, J.; Al Suhaibani, H. [Department of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Hammami, M.M.; Bazarbashi, M. [Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-06-01

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  15. Growth and nitrogen uptake kinetics in cultured Prorocentrum donghaiense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxi Hu

    Full Text Available We compared growth kinetics of Prorocentrum donghaiense cultures on different nitrogen (N compounds including nitrate (NO3-, ammonium (NH4+, urea, glutamic acid (glu, dialanine (diala and cyanate. P. donghaiense exhibited standard Monod-type growth kinetics over a range of N concentraions (0.5-500 μmol N L-1 for NO3- and NH4+, 0.5-50 μmol N L-1 for urea, 0.5-100 μmol N L-1 for glu and cyanate, and 0.5-200 μmol N L-1 for diala for all of the N compounds tested. Cultures grown on glu and urea had the highest maximum growth rates (μm, 1.51±0.06 d-1 and 1.50±0.05 d-1, respectively. However, cultures grown on cyanate, NO3-, and NH4+ had lower half saturation constants (Kμ, 0.28-0.51 μmol N L-1. N uptake kinetics were measured in NO3--deplete and -replete batch cultures of P. donghaiense. In NO3--deplete batch cultures, P. donghaiense exhibited Michaelis-Menten type uptake kinetics for NO3-, NH4+, urea and algal amino acids; uptake was saturated at or below 50 μmol N L-1. In NO3--replete batch cultures, NH4+, urea, and algal amino acid uptake kinetics were similar to those measured in NO3--deplete batch cultures. Together, our results demonstrate that P. donghaiense can grow well on a variety of N sources, and exhibits similar uptake kinetics under both nutrient replete and deplete conditions. This may be an important factor facilitating their growth during bloom initiation and development in N-enriched estuaries where many algae compete for bioavailable N and the nutrient environment changes as a result of algal growth.

  16. An alternative polysaccharide uptake mechanism of marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Greta; Arnosti, Carol; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrophic microbial communities process much of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton in the ocean, thus having a critical role in the global carbon cycle. A major fraction of the phytoplankton-derived substrates are high-molecular-weight (HMW) polysaccharides. For bacterial uptake, these substrates must initially be hydrolysed to smaller sizes by extracellular enzymes. We investigated polysaccharide hydrolysis by microbial communities during a transect of the Atlantic Ocean, and serendipitously discovered—using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy—that up to 26% of total cells showed uptake of fluorescently labelled polysaccharides (FLA-PS). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation identified these organisms as members of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes and the gammaproteobacterial genus Catenovulum. Simultaneous membrane staining with nile red indicated that the FLA-PS labelling occurred in the cell but not in the cytoplasm. The dynamics of FLA-PS staining was further investigated in pure culture experiments using Gramella forsetii, a marine member of Bacteroidetes. The staining patterns observed in environmental samples and pure culture tests are consistent with a ‘selfish’ uptake mechanisms of larger oligosaccharides (>600 Da), as demonstrated for gut Bacteroidetes. Ecologically, this alternative polysaccharide uptake mechanism secures substantial quantities of substrate in the periplasmic space, where further processing can occur without diffusive loss. Such a mechanism challenges the paradigm that hydrolysis of HMW substrates inevitably yields low-molecular-weight fragments that are available to the surrounding community and demonstrates the importance of an alternative mechanism of polysaccharide uptake in marine bacteria. PMID:28323277

  17. Optimizing simulated fertilizer additions using a genetic algorithm with a nutrient uptake model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell P. Cropper; N.B. Comerford

    2005-01-01

    Intensive management of pine plantations in the southeastern coastal plain typically involves weed and pest control, and the addition of fertilizer to meet the high nutrient demand of rapidly growing pines. In this study we coupled a mechanistic nutrient uptake model (SSAND, soil supply and nutrient demand) with a genetic algorithm (GA) in order to estimate the minimum...

  18. Effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline on the uptake of uridine and incorporation into RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, D; Hemleben, V

    1977-01-01

    8-hydroxyquinoline has been previously used as an inhibitor in studies on porphyrin metabolism, where it is thought to act by chelating iron. It is shown that this compound also rapidly inhibits uridine uptake of seedlings or cotyledons of the crucifer Matthiola incana R.Br. RNA synthesis is also affected but the inhibition is not as severe as reported for fission yeast.

  19. Bioavailability of contaminants estimated from uptake rates into soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straalen, N M; Donker, M H; Vijver, M G; van Gestel, C A M

    2005-08-01

    It is often argued that the concentration of a pollutant inside an organism is a good indicator of its bioavailability, however, we show that the rate of uptake, not the concentration itself, is the superior predictor. In a study on zinc accumulation and toxicity to isopods (Porcellio scaber) the dietary EC(50) for the effect on body growth was rather constant and reproducible, while the internal EC(50) varied depending on the accumulation history of the animals. From the data a critical value for zinc accumulation in P. scaber was estimated as 53 microg/g/wk. We review toxicokinetic models applicable to time-series measurements of concentrations in invertebrates. The initial slope of the uptake curve is proposed as an indicator of bioavailability. To apply the dynamic concept of bioavailability in risk assessment, a set of representative organisms should be chosen and standardized protocols developed for exposure assays by which suspect soils can be evaluated.

  20. Mechanism of cellular uptake of genotoxic silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qingshan; Hondow, Nicole S; Krzemiński, Lukasz; Brown, Andy P; Jeuken, Lars J C; Routledge, Michael N

    2012-07-23

    Mechanisms for cellular uptake of nanoparticles have important implications for nanoparticulate drug delivery and toxicity. We have explored the mechanism of uptake of amorphous silica nanoparticles of 14 nm diameter, which agglomerate in culture medium to hydrodynamic diameters around 500 nm. In HT29, HaCat and A549 cells, cytotoxicity was observed at nanoparticle concentrations ≥ 1 μg/ml, but DNA damage was evident at 0.1 μg/ml and above. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed entry of the silica particles into A549 cells exposed to 10 μg/ml of nanoparticles. The particles were observed in the cytoplasm but not within membrane bound vesicles or in the nucleus. TEM of cells exposed to nanoparticles at 4°C for 30 minutes showed particles enter cells when activity is low, suggesting a passive mode of entry. Plasma lipid membrane models identified physical interactions between the membrane and the silica NPs. Quartz crystal microbalance experiments on tethered bilayer lipid membrane systems show that the nanoparticles strongly bind to lipid membranes, forming an adherent monolayer on the membrane. Leakage assays on large unilamellar vesicles (400 nm diameter) indicate that binding of the silica NPs transiently disrupts the vesicles which rapidly self-seal. We suggest that an adhesive interaction between silica nanoparticles and lipid membranes could cause passive cellular uptake of the particles.

  1. Mechanism of cellular uptake of genotoxic silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Qingshan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mechanisms for cellular uptake of nanoparticles have important implications for nanoparticulate drug delivery and toxicity. We have explored the mechanism of uptake of amorphous silica nanoparticles of 14 nm diameter, which agglomerate in culture medium to hydrodynamic diameters around 500 nm. In HT29, HaCat and A549 cells, cytotoxicity was observed at nanoparticle concentrations ≥ 1 μg/ml, but DNA damage was evident at 0.1 μg/ml and above. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed entry of the silica particles into A549 cells exposed to 10 μg/ml of nanoparticles. The particles were observed in the cytoplasm but not within membrane bound vesicles or in the nucleus. TEM of cells exposed to nanoparticles at 4°C for 30 minutes showed particles enter cells when activity is low, suggesting a passive mode of entry. Plasma lipid membrane models identified physical interactions between the membrane and the silica NPs. Quartz crystal microbalance experiments on tethered bilayer lipid membrane systems show that the nanoparticles strongly bind to lipid membranes, forming an adherent monolayer on the membrane. Leakage assays on large unilamellar vesicles (400 nm diameter indicate that binding of the silica NPs transiently disrupts the vesicles which rapidly self-seal. We suggest that an adhesive interaction between silica nanoparticles and lipid membranes could cause passive cellular uptake of the particles.

  2. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    labeling experiment (15N + 13C + 14C) investigating whether root uptake of labeled inorganic C can bias the results obtained in studies of organic N uptake using dual-labeled amino acids (15N, 13C). In a rhizosphere tube experiment we investigated 13C and 14C uptake by maize either supplied with labeled...... glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...... by mineralization of amino acids can significantly bias the interpretations of organic N uptake studies using dual-labeling....

  3. Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadas, Timothy M., E-mail: tvadas@umbc.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ahner, Beth A., E-mail: baa7@cornell.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

  4. Single-Stranded DNA Uptake during Gonococcal Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Christof; Gangel, Heike; Henseler, Katja; Günther, Niklas; Maier, Berenike

    2016-09-15

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is naturally competent for transformation. The first step of the transformation process is the uptake of DNA from the environment into the cell. This transport step is driven by a powerful molecular machine. Here, we addressed the question whether this machine imports single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at similar rates. The fluorescence signal associated with the uptake of short DNA fragments labeled with a single fluorescent marker molecule was quantified. We found that ssDNA with a double-stranded DNA uptake sequence (DUS) was taken up with a similar efficiency as dsDNA. Imported ssDNA was degraded rapidly, and the thermonuclease Nuc was required for degradation. In a nuc deletion background, dsDNA and ssDNA with a double-stranded DUS were imported and used as the substrates for transformation, whereas the import and transformation efficiencies of ssDNA with single-stranded DUS were below the detection limits. We conclude that the DNA uptake machine requires a double-stranded DUS for efficient DNA recognition and transports ssDNA and dsDNA with comparable efficiencies. Bacterial transformation enables bacteria to exchange genetic information. It can speed up adaptive evolution and enhances the potential of DNA repair. The transport of DNA through the outer membrane is the first step of transformation in Gram-negative species. It is driven by a powerful molecular machine whose mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show for Neisseria gonorrhoeae that the machine transports single- and double-stranded DNA at comparable rates, provided that the species-specific DNA uptake sequence is double stranded. Moreover, we found that single-stranded DNA taken up into the periplasm is rapidly degraded by the thermonuclease Nuc. We conclude that the secondary structure of transforming DNA is important for the recognition of self DNA but not for the process of transport through the outer membrane. Copyright © 2016, American Society

  5. Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazawa, Masaharu; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Saotome-Nakamura, Ai; Obara, Chizuka; Yasuda, Takeshi; Gotoh, Takaya; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tajima, Katsushi, E-mail: tajima@nirs.go.jp

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Radiation increases cellular uptake of exosomes. • Radiation induces colocalization of CD29 and CD81. • Exosomes selectively bind the CD29/CD81 complex. • Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. - Abstract: Exosomes mediate intercellular communication, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or their secreted exosomes affect a number of pathophysiologic states. Clinical applications of MSC and exosomes are increasingly anticipated. Radiation therapy is the main therapeutic tool for a number of various conditions. The cellular uptake mechanisms of exosomes and the effects of radiation on exosome–cell interactions are crucial, but they are not well understood. Here we examined the basic mechanisms and effects of radiation on exosome uptake processes in MSC. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes. Radiation markedly enhanced the initial cellular attachment to exosomes and induced the colocalization of integrin CD29 and tetraspanin CD81 on the cell surface without affecting their expression levels. Exosomes dominantly bound to the CD29/CD81 complex. Knockdown of CD29 completely inhibited the radiation-induced uptake, and additional or single knockdown of CD81 inhibited basal uptake as well as the increase in radiation-induced uptake. We also examined possible exosome uptake processes affected by radiation. Radiation-induced changes did not involve dynamin2, reactive oxygen species, or their evoked p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent endocytic or pinocytic pathways. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. These findings provide essential basic insights for potential therapeutic applications of exosomes or MSC in combination with radiation.

  6. Oxidation by neutrophils-derived HOCl increases immunogenicity of proteins by converting them into ligands of several endocytic receptors involved in antigen uptake by dendritic cells and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Biedroń

    Full Text Available The initiation of adaptive immune responses to protein antigens has to be preceded by their uptake by antigen presenting cells and intracellular proteolytic processing. Paradoxically, endocytic receptors involved in antigen uptake do not bind the majority of proteins, which may be the main reason why purified proteins stimulate at most weak immune responses. A shared feature of different types of adjuvants, capable of boosting immunogenicity of protein vaccines, is their ability to induce acute inflammation, characterized by early influx of activated neutrophils. Neutrophils are also rapidly recruited to sites of tissue injury or infection. These cells are the source of potent oxidants, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl, causing oxidation of proteins present in inflammatory foci. We demonstrate that oxidation of proteins by endogenous, neutrophils-derived HOCl increases their immunogenicity. Upon oxidation, different, randomly chosen simple proteins (yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, human and bovine serum albumin and glycoproteins (human apo-transferrin, ovalbumin gain the ability to bind with high affinity to several endocytic receptors on antigen presenting cells, which seems to be the major mechanism of their increased immunogenicity. The mannose receptor (CD206, scavenger receptors A (CD204 and CD36 were responsible for the uptake and presentation of HOCl-modified proteins by murine dendritic cells and macrophages. Other scavenger receptors, SREC-I and LOX-1, as well as RAGE were also able to bind HOCl-modified proteins, but they did not contribute significantly to these ligands uptake by dendritic cells because they were either not expressed or exhibited preference for more heavily oxidised proteins. Our results indicate that oxidation by neutrophils-derived HOCl may be a physiological mechanism of conferring immunogenicity on proteins which in their native forms do not bind to endocytic receptors. This mechanism might enable the immune system

  7. Comparative analysis of nitrite uptake and hemoglobin-nitrite reactions in erythrocytes: sorting out uptake mechanisms and oxygenation dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo; Rohde, Sabina

    2010-01-01

    (hagfish and lamprey) anion exchanger-1 (AE1) in the membrane, with the aim to unravel the mechanisms and oxygenation dependencies of nitrite transport. Added nitrite rapidly diffused into the RBCs until equilibrium. The distribution ratio of nitrite across the membrane agreed with that expected from HNO2...... diffusion and AE1-mediated facilitated NO2- diffusion. Participation of HNO2 diffusion was emphasized by rapid transmembrane nitrite equilibration also in the natural AE1 knockouts. Following the equilibration, nitrite was consumed by reacting with Hb, which created a continued inward diffusion controlled....... We propose a model for RBC nitrite uptake that involves both HNO2 diffusion and AE1-mediated transport and which explains both the present and previous (sometimes puzzling) results....

  8. Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. ... Results: The study established that the determinants of uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine are age(OR 5.8, CI 1.4-23.4, p=0.014), level of education (OR 5.8, ...

  9. Water-polymer interaction during water uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baukh, V.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.; Erich, S.J.F.; Ven, L.G.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Water uptake by multilayer films plays an important role in their performance. Individual layers may consist of different polymeric phases. Understanding the water uptake in such systems requires knowledge of the water distribution, its state in the polymer, and influence on the polymeric phases.

  10. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  11. Nitrogen uptake dynamics of a persistent cyanobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... particularly salinity, which suppressed uptake rates, and temperature, which facilitated them. The long-term bloom maintenance appears to be attributed to efficient nutrient uptake rates, absence of grazers during the hypersaline phase, and the ability of Cyanothece sp. to outcompete other microalgae at temperatures >25 ...

  12. Perception, acceptance and uptake of Human papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to malignant changes in the cervix leading to cancer mortality among women. HPV vaccine is now available for its prevention, yet the level of uptake is low. The study aimed at determining Perception, Acceptance and Uptake of Human papillomavirus Vaccine among ...

  13. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  14. Uptake of ascorbic acid by freshly isolated cells and secretory granules from the intermediate lobe of ox hypophyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Matsumoto, T; Farver, O

    1990-01-01

    Mechanically isolated cells from the intermediate lobe of ox hypophyses contained 40.6 +/- 3.7 nmol mg-1 protein (mean +/- SE, n = 5) of ascorbic acid. They accumulated radioactivity time dependently, on incubation with L-[14C]ascorbic acid in ionic medium dominated by NaCl. No definite saturation...... of uptake occurred when mechanically isolated cells were incubated with increasing ascorbic acid concentrations up to 0.6 mM. But if such cells were purified on a Percoll gradient, a clear saturation of uptake could be observed. Acetylsalicylic acid reduced the uptake markedly. When cells loaded with L-[14C]ascorbic...... sodium-dependent. Phloridzin inhibited uptake. Secretory granules from pars intermedia contained 40.0 +/- 3.8 nmol mg-1 protein of ascorbic acid (mean +/- SE, n = 3) and could accumulate L-[14C]ascorbic acid rapidly in a KCl-dominated medium. The uptake was not saturable with ascorbic acid concentration...

  15. Secretion of a pneumococcal type II secretion system pilus correlates with DNA uptake during transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Murat; Bättig, Patrick; Muschiol, Sandra; Tirier, Stephan M; Wartha, Florian; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2014-02-18

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that successfully adapts to the host environment via an efficient uptake system for free DNA liberated from other organisms in the upper respiratory tract, facilitating immune evasion and drug resistance. Although the initial signaling events leading to pneumococcal competence for DNA transformation and the fate of DNA when it has been taken up have been extensively studied, the actual mechanism by which DNA in the environment may traverse the thick capsular and cell wall layers remains unknown. Here we visualize that induction of competence results in the formation of a native morphologically distinct pilus structure on the bacterial surface. This plaited pilus is encoded by the competence (com)G locus, and, after assembly, it is rapidly released into the surrounding medium. Heterologous pneumococcal pilus expression in Escherichia coli was obtained by replacing the pulE-K putative pilin genes of the Klebsiella oxytoca type II secretion system with the complete comG locus. In the pneumococcus, the coordinated secretion of pili from the cells correlates to DNA transformation. A model for DNA transformation is proposed whereby pilus assembly "drills" a channel across the thick cell wall that becomes transiently open by secretion of the pilus, providing the entry port for exogenous DNA to gain access to DNA receptors associated with the cytoplasmic membrane.

  16. Effects of meals and meal times on uptake of lead from the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, H M; Hilburn, M E; Blair, J A

    1985-07-01

    Twenty three adults ingested 203Pb as lead acetate on the 12th hour of a 19 h fast. Retention measured 7 days later in a whole-body counter was 61% and whole-body turnover rates suggested that initial uptake had been considerably greater. Balanced meals eaten with 203Pb reduced lead uptake to 4% and the influence of the food lasted for up to 3 h. The effects of phytate, ethylene-diaminetetra acetate (EDTA), caffeine, alcohol, glucose, a liquid meal and a light snack were tested separately with intermediate results. The effect of a meal was probably largely due to its content of calcium and phosphate salts but lead uptake was probably further reduced by phytate which is plentiful in whole cereals and it was probably increased by a factor in milk. Uptake with skimmed milk was the same as with whole milk and we suggested that the factor was not fat. Comestibles with low mineral and phytate contents reduced lead uptake by intermediate amounts, possibly by stimulation of digestive secretions. The avid uptake of lead during a fast, the large reduction of lead uptake with meals and the likelihood of variations in gastric-emptying rates and dietary habits may be major causes of variation in body burdens of lead in the population.

  17. Physiological and Transcriptomic Aspects of Urea Uptake and Assimilation in Arabidopsis Plants1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérigout, Patricia; Lelandais, Maud; Bitton, Frédérique; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Briand, Xavier; Meyer, Christian; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Urea is the major nitrogen (N) form supplied as fertilizer in agriculture, but it is also an important N metabolite in plants. Urea transport and assimilation were investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Uptake studies using 15N-labeled urea demonstrated the capacity of Arabidopsis to absorb urea and that the urea uptake was regulated by the initial N status of the plants. Urea uptake was stimulated by urea but was reduced by the presence of ammonium nitrate in the growth medium. N deficiency in plants did not affect urea uptake. Urea exerted a repressive effect on nitrate influx, whereas urea enhanced ammonium uptake. The use of [15N]urea and [15N]ammonium tracers allowed us to show that urea and ammonium assimilation pathways were similar. Finally, urea uptake was less efficient than nitrate uptake, and urea grown-plants presented signs of N starvation. We also report the first analysis, to our knowledge, of Arabidopsis gene expression profiling in response to urea. Our transcriptomic approach revealed that nitrate and ammonium transporters were transcriptionally regulated by urea as well as key enzymes of the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway. AtDUR3, a high-affinity urea transporter in Arabidopsis, was strongly up-regulated by urea. Moreover, our transcriptomic data suggest that other genes are also involved in urea influx. PMID:18508958

  18. Physiological and transcriptomic aspects of urea uptake and assimilation in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérigout, Patricia; Lelandais, Maud; Bitton, Frédérique; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Briand, Xavier; Meyer, Christian; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2008-07-01

    Urea is the major nitrogen (N) form supplied as fertilizer in agriculture, but it is also an important N metabolite in plants. Urea transport and assimilation were investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Uptake studies using (15)N-labeled urea demonstrated the capacity of Arabidopsis to absorb urea and that the urea uptake was regulated by the initial N status of the plants. Urea uptake was stimulated by urea but was reduced by the presence of ammonium nitrate in the growth medium. N deficiency in plants did not affect urea uptake. Urea exerted a repressive effect on nitrate influx, whereas urea enhanced ammonium uptake. The use of [(15)N]urea and [(15)N]ammonium tracers allowed us to show that urea and ammonium assimilation pathways were similar. Finally, urea uptake was less efficient than nitrate uptake, and urea grown-plants presented signs of N starvation. We also report the first analysis, to our knowledge, of Arabidopsis gene expression profiling in response to urea. Our transcriptomic approach revealed that nitrate and ammonium transporters were transcriptionally regulated by urea as well as key enzymes of the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway. AtDUR3, a high-affinity urea transporter in Arabidopsis, was strongly up-regulated by urea. Moreover, our transcriptomic data suggest that other genes are also involved in urea influx.

  19. Size Effect of Silica Shell on Gas Uptake Kinetics in Dry Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Diwei; Bai, Dongsheng; Li, Shujing; Wang, Xinrui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-07-26

    Two kinds of dry water (DW) particles are prepared by mixing water and hydrophobic silica particles with nanometer or micrometer dimensions, and the two DW particles are found to have similar size distributions regardless of the size of the silica shell. The CO2 uptake kinetics of DW with nanometer (nanoshell) and micrometer shells (microshell) are measured, and both uptake rate and capacity show the obvious size effect of the silica shell. The DW with a microshell possesses a larger uptake capacity, whereas the DW with a nanoshell has a faster uptake rate. By comparing the uptake kinetics of soluble NH3 and CO2 further, we found that the microshell enhances the stability and the dispersion degree of DW and the nanoshell offers a shorter path for the transit of guest gas into the water core. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation is introduced to illustrate the nanosize effect of the silica shell on the initial step of the gas uptake. It is found that the concentration of gas molecules close to the silica shell is higher than that in the bulk water core. With the increase in the size of the silica shell, the amount of CO2 in the silica shell decreases, and it is easier for the gas uptake to reach steady state.

  20. [C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C. [Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

  1. Incidence of phytoplankton and environmental conditions on the bacterial ammonium uptake in a subtropical coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the coupling between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton in Laguna de Rocha through an experimental approach. A freshwater zone of high turbidity and macrophytes growth and a brackish zone of higher light penetration and lower macrophytes biomass characterize this coastal lagoon. It has been shown that dissolved inorganic nitrogen, especially NH4+, has decreased to undetectable levels during the last decade. One hypothesis for this trend is the rapid removal by phytoplankton and bacterioplankton uptake. In an attempt to test this, we performed incubations using lagoon water from both zones split in two treatments (pre-filtered by 1.2 µm and unfiltered water and amended with 15N-NH4+. After 4 h incubation we found that in both zones bacterioplankton showed significantly higher NH4+ uptake rates when incubated together with phytoplankton and that uptake rates of both microbial communities were higher in freshwater incubations. These results suggest that bacterial NH4+ uptake would be coupled to phytoplankton-derived exudates and hence that depletion of dissolved NH4+ in this system could be linked to rapid microbial uptake. The degree of this coupling would vary according to hydrological dynamics in this ecosystem.

  2. Teleoncology uptake in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Melissa; Barnett, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Telehealth enables the delivery of specialized health care to patients living in isolated and remote regions. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the current uptake of teleoncology in mainland British Columbia. Patient appointment data was extracted from the Cancer Agency Information System (CAIS) for the 2009 calendar year. Three types of practitioners used teleoncology in 2009: Medical Oncologists, Genetic Counsellors and Medical Geneticists. In total, 712 telehealth encounters were conducted; Medical Oncologists conducted 595 encounters (83.6%), Genetic Counsellors conducted 112 encounters (15.7%) and Medical Geneticists conducted 5 encounters (0.7%). The most common oncology appointments were Gastro-Intestinal (11.4%) and Lymphoma (11.0%) follow-up appointments with a Medical Oncologist. Telehealth encounters were conducted by 46 individual health care providers however, a single Medical Oncologist conducted 418 encounters and this accounts for more than half (58.7%) of all telehealth appointments in 2009. Radiation Oncologists on the mainland up to this point are not using the technology. The Local Health Areas with the highest number of oncology telehealth appointments were: Kamloops: 203 encounters (34.1%), Penticton: 84 encounters (14.1%), Cranbrook: 58 encounters (9.7%) and the Southern Okanagan: 33 encounter (5.5%). Use of telehealth in rural and remote areas of BC is limited and there is significant room for growth. Further research will be required to identify barriers and restrictions to the use of telehealth in order to increase teleoncology adoption in British Columbia.

  3. Perforin rapidly induces plasma membrane phospholipid flip-flop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil S Metkar

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic cell granule secretory pathway is essential for host defense. This pathway is fundamentally a form of intracellular protein delivery where granule proteases (granzymes from cytotoxic lymphocytes are thought to diffuse through barrel stave pores generated in the plasma membrane of the target cell by the pore forming protein perforin (PFN and mediate apoptotic as well as additional biological effects. While recent electron microscopy and structural analyses indicate that recombinant PFN oligomerizes to form pores containing 20 monomers (20 nm when applied to liposomal membranes, these pores are not observed by propidium iodide uptake in target cells. Instead, concentrations of human PFN that encourage granzyme-mediated apoptosis are associated with pore structures that unexpectedly favor phosphatidylserine flip-flop measured by Annexin-V and Lactadherin. Efforts that reduce PFN mediated Ca influx in targets did not reduce Annexin-V reactivity. Antigen specific mouse CD8 cells initiate a similar rapid flip-flop in target cells. A lipid that augments plasma membrane curvature as well as cholesterol depletion in target cells enhance flip-flop. Annexin-V staining highly correlated with apoptosis after Granzyme B (GzmB treatment. We propose the structures that PFN oligomers form in the membrane bilayer may include arcs previously observed by electron microscopy and that these unusual structures represent an incomplete mixture of plasma membrane lipid and PFN oligomers that may act as a flexible gateway for GzmB to translocate across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of target cells.

  4. Energy independent uptake and release of polystyrene nanoparticles in primary mammalian cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Ilaria; Gualtieri, Roberto; Barbato, Vincenza; Mollo, Valentina; Braun, Sabrina; Angrisani, Alberto; Turano, Mimmo; Furia, Maria; Netti, Paolo A; Guarnieri, Daniela; Fusco, Sabato; Talevi, Riccardo

    2015-01-15

    Nanoparticle (NPs) delivery systems in vivo promises to overcome many obstacles associated with the administration of drugs, vaccines, plasmid DNA and RNA materials, making the study of their cellular uptake a central issue in nanomedicine. The uptake of NPs may be influenced by the cell culture stage and the NPs physical-chemical properties. So far, controversial data on NPs uptake have been derived owing to the heterogeneity of NPs and the general use of immortalized cancer cell lines that often behave differently from each other and from primary mammalian cell cultures. Main aims of the present study were to investigate the uptake, endocytosis pathways, intracellular fate and release of well standardized model particles, i.e. fluorescent 44 nm polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs), on two primary mammalian cell cultures, i.e. bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) and human colon fibroblasts (HCF) by confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetric analysis. Different drugs and conditions that inhibit specific internalization routes were used to understand the mechanisms that mediate PS-NP uptake. Our data showed that PS-NPs are rapidly internalized by both cell types 1) with similar saturation kinetics; 2) through ATP-independent processes, and 3) quickly released in the culture medium. Our results suggest that PS-NPs are able to rapidly cross the cell membrane through passive translocation during both uptake and release, and emphasize the need to carefully design NPs for drug delivery, to ensure their selective uptake and to optimize their retainment in the targeted cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Uptake of Griseofulvin by the Sensitive Dermatophyte, Microsporum gypseum

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nakeeb, Moustafa A.; Lampen, J. O.

    1965-01-01

    El-Nakeeb, Moustafa A. (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), and J. O. Lampen. Uptake of griseofulvin by the sensitive dermatophyte, Microsporum gypseum. J. Bacteriol. 89:564–569. 1965.—Actively growing cultures of Microsporum gypseum took up large amounts of griseofulvin-(4-methoxy-H3) from the medium. Initially, most of the material could be extracted with hot water, but there was a continuing increase in firmly bound forms of the antibiotic. The fungus accumulated griseofulvin intracellularly to a level up to 100 times that present in the medium. The process appeared to involve two phases. A small amount of griseofulvin was bound almost instantaneously. This binding was independent of the culture conditions or cell viability. The second stage was prolonged and was governed by the different factors controlling active metabolism, but it proceeded in organisms whose growth had been inhibited by the antibiotic itself or by limited nutrients. This stage required a supply of metabolic energy, since it was temperature-dependent, needed an exogenous energy source, and was completely inhibited by sodium azide or 2,4-dinitrophenol. Uptake was optimal at pH 5.5 to 6.5. Synthesis of a transport system is probably required, since uptake is prevented by p-fluorophenylalanine. Heat-killed cells did not take up griseofulvin beyond the small amount bound instantly. PMID:14273629

  6. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  7. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  8. Natural DNA uptake by Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Sinha

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli has homologues of the competence genes other species use for DNA uptake and processing, but natural competence and transformation have never been detected. Although we previously showed that these genes are induced by the competence regulator Sxy as in other gamma-proteobacteria, no conditions are known that naturally induce sxy expression. We have now tested whether the competence gene homologues encode a functional DNA uptake machinery and whether DNA uptake leads to recombination, by investigating the effects of plasmid-borne sxy expression on natural competence in a wide variety of E. coli strains. High- and low-level sxy expression alone did not induce transformation in any of the strains tested, despite varying the transforming DNA, its concentration, and the incubation conditions used. Direct measurements of uptake of radiolabelled DNA were below the limit of detection, however transformants were readily detected when recombination functions were provided by the lambda Red recombinase. This is the first demonstration that E. coli sxy expression can induce natural DNA uptake and that E. coli's competence genes do encode a functional uptake machinery. However, the amount of transformation cells undergo is limited both by low levels of DNA uptake and by inefficient DNA processing/recombination.

  9. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  10. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  11. Uptake of perfluorooctanoic acid by Caco-2 cells: Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Osamu; Fujii, Yukiko; Haraguchi, Koichi; Kato, Yoshihisa; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Endo, Tetsuya

    2017-08-05

    The mechanism underlying the intestinal absorption of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The uptake of PFOA from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells was fast, and pH, temperature, and concentration dependent, but Na+ independent. Coincubation with sulfobromophthalein (BSP), glibenclamide, estron-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A or rifamycin SV, which are typical substrates or inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), significantly decreased the uptake of PFOA. However, coincubation with probenecid or p-aminohippuric acid, typical substrates of organic anion transporters, did not decrease the uptake of PFOA. Furthermore, coincubation with l-lactic acid or benzoic acid, substrates of monocarboxylic acid transporters, did not decrease PFOA uptake. The relationship between the initial uptake of PFOA and its concentration was saturable, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated process. The calculated Km and uptake clearance (Vmax/Km) values for PFOA were 8.3μM and 55.0μL/mg protein/min, respectively. This clearance value was about 3-fold greater than that of the non-saturable uptake clearance (Kd: 18.1μL/mg protein/min). Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that BSP competitively inhibits the uptake of PFOA, with a Ki value of 23.1μM. These results suggest that the uptake of PFOA from the apical membranes of Caco-2 cells could be, at least in part, mediated by OATPs along with BSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of High-Throughput Quantitative Assays for Glucose Uptake in Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Weidow, Brandy; Koehler, Elizabeth; Bakane, Naimish; Garbett, Shawn; Shyr, Yu; Quaranta, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Metabolism, and especially glucose uptake, is a key quantitative cell trait that is closely linked to cancer initiation and progression. Therefore, developing high-throughput assays for measuring glucose uptake in cancer cells would be enviable for simultaneous comparisons of multiple cell lines and microenvironmental conditions. This study was designed with two specific aims in mind: the first was to develop and validate a high-throughput screening method for quantitative assessment of glucose uptake in “normal” and tumor cells using the fluorescent 2-deoxyglucose analog 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), and the second was to develop an image-based, quantitative, single-cell assay for measuring glucose uptake using the same probe to dissect the full spectrum of metabolic variability within populations of tumor cells in vitro in higher resolution. Procedure The kinetics of population-based glucose uptake was evaluated for MCF10A mammary epithelial and CA1d breast cancer cell lines, using 2-NBDG and a fluorometric microplate reader. Glucose uptake for the same cell lines was also examined at the single-cell level using high-content automated microscopy coupled with semi-automated cell-cytometric image analysis approaches. Statistical treatments were also implemented to analyze intra-population variability. Results Our results demonstrate that the high-throughput fluorometric assay using 2-NBDG is a reliable method to assess population-level kinetics of glucose uptake in cell lines in vitro. Similarly, single-cell image-based assays and analyses of 2-NBDG fluorescence proved an effective and accurate means for assessing glucose uptake, which revealed that breast tumor cell lines display intra-population variability that is modulated by growth conditions. Conclusions These studies indicate that 2-NBDG can be used to aid in the high-throughput analysis of the influence of chemotherapeutics on glucose uptake in cancer

  13. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  14. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  15. Uptake rate of cationic mitochondrial inhibitor MKT-077 determines cellular oxygen consumption change in carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Chunta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Since tumor radiation response is oxygen-dependent, radiosensitivity can be enhanced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Theoretically, inhibiting cellular oxygen consumption is the most efficient way to increase oxygen levels. The cationic, rhodacyanine dye-analog MKT-077 inhibits mitochondrial respiration and could be an effective metabolic inhibitor. However, the relationship between cellular MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition is unknown. We hypothesized that rat and human mammary carcinoma cells would take up MKT-077, causing a decrease in oxygen metabolism related to drug uptake. METHODS: R3230Ac rat breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to MKT-077. Cellular MKT-077 concentration was quantified using spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption was measured using polarographic electrodes. MKT-077 uptake kinetics were modeled by accounting for uptake due to both the concentration and potential gradients across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. These kinetic parameters were used to model the relationship between MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition. MKT-077-induced changes in oxygen consumption were also characterized in MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cells. RESULTS: Cells took up MKT-077 with a time constant of ∼1 hr, and modeling showed that over 90% of intracellular MKT-077 was bound or sequestered, likely by the mitochondria. The uptake resulted in a rapid decrease in oxygen consumption, with a time constant of ∼30 minutes. Surprisingly the change in oxygen consumption was proportional to uptake rate, not cellular concentration. MKT-077 proved a potent metabolic inhibitor, with dose-dependent decreases of 45-73% (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: MKT-077 caused an uptake rate-dependent decrease in cellular metabolism, suggesting potential efficacy for increasing tumor oxygen levels and radiosensitivity in vivo.

  16. Coupled model of root water uptake, mucilage exudation and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Although the fact that root mucilage plays a prominent role in soil-plant water relations is becoming more and more accepted, many aspects of how mucilage distribution and root water uptake interact with each other remain unexplored. First, it is not clear how long mucilage persists in soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and root water uptake (i.e. convective fluxes) on the diffusion of mucilage from the root surface into the soil are not included in current models of water uptake. The aims of this study were: i) to measure the effect of soil moisture on mucilage decomposition; ii) to develop a coupled model of root water uptake and mucilage diffusion and degradation during root growth. C4 root mucilage from maize was added as single pulses to a C3 soil of two different moisture levels. We have then employed the Richards Equation for water flow and an advection-dispersion equation to describe the dynamic distribution of mucilage in a single-root model. Most of the mucilage was decomposed under optimum water supply. Drought significantly suppressed mucilage mineralization. Opposed to classical solute transport models the water flow in the rhizosphere was affected by the local concentration of mucilage. Namely a higher concentration of mucilage results in (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content and (c) a non-equilibrium water retention curve caused by swelling and shrinking dynamics of mucilage in the pore space. The dispersion coefficient, on the other hand, depends on the water content. The parameters of mucilage diffusion have been fitted to observations on real plants. The model shows that mucilage exuded in wet soils diffuses far from the roots and it is rapidly degraded. On the contrary, mucilage of plants growing in dry soil is not easily degradable and it remains at higher concentrations in a narrow region around the roots, resulting in a marked increase in water

  17. Copper uptake across rainbow trout gills: mechanisms of apical entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Wood, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss......Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  18. Downregulation of taurine uptake in multidrug resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Litman, Thomas; Eriksen, J

    2002-01-01

    In daunorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (DNR), the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 56% as compared to the parental, drug sensitive Ehrlich cells. Kinetic experiments indicated that taurine uptake in Ehrlich cells occurs via both high- and low-affinity transporters. The maximal...... rate constant for the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 45% (high-affinity system) and 49% (low affinity system) in the resistant subline whereas the affinity of the transporters to taurine was unchanged. By immunoblotting we identified 3 TauT protein bands in the 50-70 kDa region. A visible...... reduction in the intensity of the band with the lowest molecular weight was observed in resistant cells. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated a significant reduction in the amount of taurine transporter mRNA in the resistant cells. Drug resistance in DNR Ehrlich cells is associated with overexpression of the mdr1...

  19. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  20. Metabolic regulation of ammonium uptake by Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta): A compartmental analysis of the rate-limiting step for uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.M.; Wheeler, P.A.; Edwards, R.L. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Non-linear time courses of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) depletion from the medium and internal accumulation of soluble nitrogen (N) in macroalgae imply that the rate-limiting step for ammonium uptake changes over time. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the time course of N accumulation in N-limited Ulva rigida C. Agardh. Total uptake was measured as removal of NH{sub 4}{sup +} from medium. Rates for the component processes (transport of NH{sub 4}{sup +} across the membrane = R{sub t}, assimilation of tissue NH{sub 4}{sup +} into soluble N compounds = R{sub a}, and incorporation of soluble N compounds into macromolecules = R{sub i}) were determined by measuring the rate of labelling of the major tissue N pools after the addition of {sup 15}N-ammonium. The results indicate that nitrogen-specific rates (mass N taken up/mass N present/unit time) are ranked in the order of R{sub t} > R{sub a} > R{sub i}. Absolute uptake rates ({mu}mol N{center dot}mg dry wt{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1}) showed a different relationship. Membrane transport appears to be inhibited when NH{sub 4}{sup +} accumulates in the tissue. Maximum uptake rates occur when assimilation of NH{sub 4}{sup +} into soluble N compounds begins. Assimilation of NH{sub 4}{sup +} into soluble N compounds was initially faster than incorporation of soluble N compounds into macromolecules. Implications of rate limitations caused by differences in maximal rates and maximal pool sizes are discussed.

  1. Cuticular uptake of xenobiotics into living plants. Part 2: influence of the xenobiotic dose on the uptake of bentazone, epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin, applied in the presence of various surfactants, into Chenopodium album, Sinapis alba and Triticum aestivum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, W Alison; Zabkiewicz, Jerzy A; Liu, Zhiqian

    2006-07-01

    This study has determined the uptake of three pesticides, applied as commercial or model formulations in the presence of a wide range of surfactants, into the leaves of three plant species (bentazone into Chenopodium album L. and Sinapis alba L., epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin into Triticum aestivum L.). The results have confirmed previous findings that the initial dose (nmol mm(-2)) of xenobiotic applied to plant foliage is a strong, positive determinant of uptake. This held true for all the pesticide formulations studied, although surfactant concentration was found to have an effect. The lower surfactant concentrations studied showed an inferior relationship between the amount of xenobiotic applied and uptake. High molecular mass surfactants also produced much lower uptake than expected from the dose uptake equations in specific situations.

  2. Antibiotic uptake by alveolar macrophages of smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hand, W L; Boozer, R M; King-Thompson, N L

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, particularly when associated with chronic pulmonary disease, increases the risk of respiratory tract infection. Thus, we elevated the uptake of antibiotics by alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from persons who smoke and have associated pulmonary abnormalities, circumstances which adversely affect certain macrophage functions. The entry of radiolabeled drugs into AM was determined by a velocity-gradient centrifugation technique, and uptake was expr...

  3. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  4. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  5. General aspects of muscle glucose uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL O. ALVIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose uptake in peripheral tissues is dependent on the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. Studies have shown the existence of two major signaling pathways that lead to the translocation of GLUT4. The first, and widely investigated, is the insulin activated signaling pathway through insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The second is the insulin-independent signaling pathway, which is activated by contractions. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle due to the phenomenon of insulin resistance. However, those individuals have normal glucose uptake during exercise. In this context, physical exercise is one of the most important interventions that stimulates glucose uptake by insulin-independent pathways, and the main molecules involved are adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide, bradykinin, AKT, reactive oxygen species and calcium. In this review, our main aims were to highlight the different glucose uptake pathways and to report the effects of physical exercise, diet and drugs on their functioning. Lastly, with the better understanding of these pathways, it would be possible to assess, exactly and molecularly, the importance of physical exercise and diet on glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it would be possible to assess the action of drugs that might optimize glucose uptake and consequently be an important step in controlling the blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, in addition to being important to clarify some pathways that justify the development of drugs capable of mimicking the contraction pathway.

  6. Inhibitors of glutamate dehydrogenase block sodium-dependent glutamate uptake in rat brain membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan S Whitelaw

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently found evidence for anatomic and physical linkages between the astroglial Na+-dependent glutamate transporters (GLT-1/EAAT2 and GLAST/EAAT1 and mitochondria. In these same studies, we found that the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH inhibitor, epigallocatechin-monogallate (EGCG, inhibits both glutamate oxidation and Na+-dependent glutamate uptake in astrocytes. In the present study, we extend this finding by exploring the effects of EGCG on Na+-dependent L-[3H]-glutamate (Glu uptake in crude membranes (P2 prepared from rat brain cortex. In this preparation, uptake is almost exclusively mediated by GLT-1. EGCG inhibited L-[3H]-Glu uptake in cortical membranes with an IC50 value of 230 µM. We also studied the effects of two additional inhibitors of GDH, hexachlorophene (HCP and bithionol (BTH. Both of these compounds also caused concentration-dependent inhibition of glutamate uptake in cortical membranes. Pre-incubating with HCP for up to 15 min had no greater effect than that observed with no pre-incubation, showing that the effects occur rapidly. HCP decreased the Vmax for glutamate uptake without changing the Km, consistent with a non-competitive mechanism of action. EGCG, HCP, and BTH also inhibited Na+-dependent transport of D-[3H]-aspartate (Asp, a non-metabolizable substrate, and [3H]-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. In contrast to the forebrain, glutamate uptake in crude cerebellar membranes (P2 is likely mediated by GLAST (EAAT1. Therefore, the effects of these compounds were examined in cerebellar membranes. In this region, none of these compounds had any effect on uptake of either L-[3H]-Glu or D-[3H]-Asp, but they all inhibited [3H]-GABA uptake. Together these studies suggest that GDH is preferentially required for glutamate uptake in forebrain as compared to cerebellum, and GDH may be required for GABA uptake as well. They also provide further evidence for a functional linkage between glutamate transport and mitochondria.

  7. Influence of nitrogen supply on uptake and translocation of strontium and calcium in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. J.; Jackson, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Supplying nitrate to N-depleted wheat seedlings (Triticum vulgare cv. Knox) stimulated the uptake and translocation of both 83Sr and 45Ca. Since the increase in 45Ca accumulation was greater, the 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the plant tissue was decreased. Nitrate had relatively little influence...... on the amount of the divalent cations and 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the exchangeable fraction on the root surfaces, whereas it greatly increased the uptake into root tissue and translocation to shoots. The increase in percent transported to shoots occurred largely in the period of most rapid nitrate uptake. A split...... root study indicated that nitrate was ineffective when it was supplied to a different portion of the root system than that exposed to 85Sr and 45Ca. Nevertheless, ammonium and urea also increased the translocation of the two cations, indicating that the effects of nitrate could not entirely be ascribed...

  8. Potassium applied under drought improves physiological and nutrient uptake performances of wheat (Triticum Aestivun L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, M.A.S.; Saleem, M.F.; Shah, G.M.; Jamil, M.; Khan, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    The physiological and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Lasani-2008 and Auqab-2000) to foliar application of 1% potassium (K) at three different growth stages (tillering, flower initiation and grain filling) was investigated under water limited environment in

  9. Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, James F; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Cox, Rachel T; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

    2014-12-09

    There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes. Acute exposure of myocytes to 10 mM sodium acetate caused a marked, but transient, decrease in systolic sarcomere shortening (1.49 ± 0.20% vs. 5.58 ± 0.49% in control), accompanied by a significant increase in diastolic sarcomere length (1.81 ± 0.01 μm vs. 1.77 ± 0.01 μm in control), with a near linear dose response in the 1-10 mM range. Unlike palmitate, acetate caused no change in action potential duration; however, acetate markedly increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake blocker, Ru-360 (10 μM), markedly suppressed the effect of acetate on contraction. Lehninger and others have previously demonstrated that the anions of weak aliphatic acids such as acetate stimulate Ca(2+) uptake in isolated mitochondria. Here we show that this effect of acetate appears to extend to isolated cardiac myocytes where it transiently modulates cell contraction.

  10. Uptake of chloride ion from aqueous solution by calcined layered double hydroxides: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Liang; He, Jing; Wei, Min; Evans, D G; Duan, Xue

    2006-02-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) calcined within a certain temperature range (denoted as CLDH) have been shown to recover their original layered structure in the presence of appropriate anions. In the light of this so-called "memory effect", uptake of chloride ion from aqueous solution by calcined MgAl-CO3 LDH was investigated in batch mode. The equilibrium isotherm showed that the uptake of chloride ion by CLDH was consistent with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich model. The maximum uptake capacity of CLDH for chloride ion was 149.5 mg/g, close to the stoichiometric uptake (168 mg/g). The influence of varying pH of solution, initial chloride concentration, adsorbent quantity, and temperature on the kinetics of chloride removal has also been explored. Four kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data, and it was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetics model could be used to describe the uptake process satisfactorily. The calculated value of Ea was found to be 56.8 kJ/mol, which suggests that the process of uptake of chloride ion is controlled by the rate of reaction of chloride ion with the CLDH rather than diffusion. A mechanism for removal of chloride ion has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-MS measurements.

  11. Temperature dependence of the heterogeneous uptake of acrylic acid on Arizona test dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qifan; Wang, Yidan; Wu, Lingyan; Jing, Bo; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the temperature dependence of the heterogeneous uptake of acrylic acid on Arizona test dust (ATD) has been investigated within a temperature range of 255-315K using a Knudsen cell reactor. Combined with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) experiment, it was found that acrylic acid could adsorb on ATD via surface OH groups and convert to carboxylate on the particle surface. The kinetics study suggests that the initial true uptake coefficient (γt) of acrylic acid on ATD decreases from (4.02±0.12)×10(-5) to (1.73±0.05)×10(-5) with a temperature increase from 255 to 315K. According to the temperature dependence of uptake coefficients, the enthalpy (ΔHobs) and entropy (ΔSobs) of uptake processes were determined to be -(9.60±0.38) KJ/mol and -(121.55±1.33) J·K/mol, respectively. The activation energy for desorption (Edes) was calculated to be (14.57±0.60) KJ/mol. These results indicated that the heterogeneous uptake of acrylic acid on ATD surface was sensitive to temperature. The heterogeneous uptake on ATD could affect the concentration of acrylic acid in the atmosphere, especially at low temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Arsenic uptake by aquatic macrophyte Spirodela polyrhiza L.: interactions with phosphate and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Ueda, K; Maki, T; Rahman, M Mahfuzur

    2008-12-30

    The uptake of arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) by aquatic macrophyte Spirodela polyrhiza L. was investigated to determine the influence of arsenic interaction with PO4(3-) and Fe ions. Plants were grown hydroponically on standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture solutions. Arsenic concentrations in Fe-oxide (Fe-plaque) on plant surfaces were determined by citrate-bicarbonate-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CBE) technique. S. polyrhiza L. accumulated 51-fold arsenic from arsenate solution compared to that from DMAA solution with initial concentrations of 4.0 and 0.02microM of arsenic and phosphate, respectively. The arsenate uptake was negatively (p0.05) with iron accumulation. The results suggest that adsorption of arsenate on Fe-plaque of the surface of S. polyrhiza L. contributes to the arsenic uptake significantly. Thus, arsenate uptake in S. polyrhiza L. occurred through the phosphate uptake pathway and by physico-chemical adsorption on Fe-plaques of plant surfaces as well. The S. polyrhiza L. uses different mechanisms for DMAA uptake.

  13. Effect of Human Saliva on Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans and Other Oral Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Greg R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

    1981-01-01

    We examined the effects of human whole salivary supernatant and parotid fluid on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The following three effects of saliva were observed: (i) inhibition of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), (ii) promotion of a transient, rapid (0 to 30 s) burst of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), and (iii) enhancement of glucose uptake (S. mitis, A. viscosus, S. aureus, E. coli). We observed no differences between the effects of whole salivary supernatant and the effects of parotid fluid. Heat treatment (80°C, 10 min) of saliva or the addition of dithiothreitol abolished inhibition of glucose uptake. Supplementation of saliva with H2O2 potentiated inhibition of glucose uptake. S. mitis and A. viscosus, which were stimulated by saliva alone, were inhibited by H2O2-supplemented saliva; 50% inhibition of glucose uptake by S. mutans and S. mitis required ca. 10 μM H2O2 in 50% (vol/vol) saliva. Loss of the inhibitory action of saliva occurred at about 5% (vol/vol) saliva. Supplementation of saliva dilutions with SCN− and H2O2 extended the inhibitory activity to solutions containing ca. 0.2% (vol/vol) saliva. We suggest that the salivary lactoperoxidase-SCN−-H2O2 system is responsible for the inhibitory activity of saliva reported here. Furthermore, we concluded that lactoperoxidase and SCN− are present in saliva specimens in concentrations that exceed minimal inhibitory levels by factors of ca. 500 and 10 to 20, respectively. The resistance of A. viscosus, S. aureus, and E. coli to the inhibitory potential of saliva alone was probably due to the production of catalase by these organisms. The resistance of S. mitis may have been due to special effects of saliva on H2O2 accumulation by this organism compared with S. mutans and S. sanguis. The basis of saliva-dependent enhancement of glucose uptake and the basis of promotion

  14. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Wakefield, Melanie; Johnston, Lloyd D; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2007-05-01

    To examine the differential associations of cigarette retail marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Analyses from annual, nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders in the United States. The February 1999 through June 2003 Monitoring the Future surveys involved 109,308 students and data on retail cigarette marketing collected from 966 communities in which the students reside, as part of the Bridging the Gap Initiative: Research Informing Practice and Policy for Healthy Youth Behavior. A total of 26,301 students were selected for this study. Point-of-sale advertising, promotions, prices, and placement. Using a smoking uptake measure to account for stages that identify the process by which adolescents begin smoking, we calculated odds ratios and confidence intervals through generalized ordered logit analyses, with weighted data that controlled for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and accounted for clustering at the community level. Higher levels of advertising, lower cigarette prices, and greater availability of cigarette promotions were associated with smoking uptake. Advertising increased the likelihood of youth initiating smoking, price increased the likelihood of smoking at most levels of uptake, and availability of promotions increased the likelihood that youth will move from experimentation to regular smoking. Cigarette retail marketing practices increase the likelihood of smoking uptake. These findings suggest that specific restrictions on retail cigarette marketing may reduce youth smoking.

  15. Uptake and bioconcentration of copper and zinc by the molluscs Saccostrea cucullata (Born) and Cerithium rubus (Desh) from the coastal waters of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.

    Rate of uptake increased linearly during the initial period of 20-30 days. Compared to the gastropod, the rate of uptake in oyster was 2.2 and 9.4 times more respectively for Cu and Zn. In oysters collected from a polluted area off Bombay Coast...

  16. Acclimation of nitrogen uptake capacity of rice to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Bunce, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen (N) is a major factor affecting yield gain of crops under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2]. It is well established that elevated [CO2] increases root mass, but there are inconsistent reports on the effects on N uptake capacity per root mass. In the present study, it was hypothesized that the responses of N uptake capacity would change with the duration of exposure to elevated [CO2]. Methods The hypothesis was tested by measuring N uptake capacity in rice plants exposed to long-term and short-term [CO2] treatments at different growth stages in plants grown under non-limiting N conditions in hydroponic culture. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate were also measured. Key Results In the long-term [CO2] study, leaf photosynthetic responses to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were not affected by elevated [CO2] before the heading stage, but the initial slope in this response was decreased by elevated [CO2] at the grain-filling stage. Nitrate and ammonium uptake capacities per root dry weight were not affected by elevated [CO2] at panicle initiation, but thereafter they were reduced by elevated [CO2] by 31–41 % at the full heading and mid-ripening growth stages. In the short-term study (24 h exposures), elevated [CO2] enhanced nitrate and ammonium uptake capacities at the early vegetative growth stage, but elevated [CO2] decreased the uptake capacities at the mid-reproductive stage. Conclusions This study showed that N uptake capacity was downregulated under long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] and its response to elevated [CO2] varied greatly with growth stage. PMID:18952623

  17. Hyperpolarized Xe MR imaging of alveolar gas uptake in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackary I Cleveland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the central physiological functions of the lungs is to transfer inhaled gases from the alveoli to pulmonary capillary blood. However, current measures of alveolar gas uptake provide only global information and thus lack the sensitivity and specificity needed to account for regional variations in gas exchange. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we exploit the solubility, high magnetic resonance (MR signal intensity, and large chemical shift of hyperpolarized (HP (129Xe to probe the regional uptake of alveolar gases by directly imaging HP (129Xe dissolved in the gas exchange tissues and pulmonary capillary blood of human subjects. The resulting single breath-hold, three-dimensional MR images are optimized using millisecond repetition times and high flip angle radio-frequency pulses, because the dissolved HP (129Xe magnetization is rapidly replenished by diffusive exchange with alveolar (129Xe. The dissolved HP (129Xe MR images display significant, directional heterogeneity, with increased signal intensity observed from the gravity-dependent portions of the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: The features observed in dissolved-phase (129Xe MR images are consistent with gravity-dependent lung deformation, which produces increased ventilation, reduced alveolar size (i.e., higher surface-to-volume ratios, higher tissue densities, and increased perfusion in the dependent portions of the lungs. Thus, these results suggest that dissolved HP (129Xe imaging reports on pulmonary function at a fundamental level.

  18. Soil temperature, nitrogen concentration, and residence time affect nitrogen uptake efficiency in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholberg, J M S; Parsons, L R; Wheaton, T A; McNeal, B L; Morgan, K T

    2002-01-01

    We try to elucidate which environmental and soil factors control nitrogen uptake efficiency in citrus. Effects of residence time and nitrogen (N) concentration (three 500-mL applications of 7 mg N L(-1), representative of reclaimed water used for citrus irrigation in central Florida, or one 150-mL application of 70 mg N L(-1)) on nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUE) of young citrus seedlings were studied. Increasing residence times from 2 to 8 h increased NUE from 36 to 82% and from 17 to 34% for high and low application frequencies, respectively. We developed a model to predict N uptake based on root density, N concentration, and soil temperature (Ts). Assuming a base temperature (Tb) of 10 degrees C, N uptake temperature sum (UTS) = sigma(Ts - Tb)/24 (degrees CdN, degree day units of N uptake). To eliminate the risk of N leaching for young seedlings, minimum uptake periods of 5 and 16 degrees CdN were required at initial soil N concentrations of 0.9 and 2.5 mg N L(-1), respectively. After correcting for differences in root length, this information was then used to predict the effect of irrigation practices on N uptake from reclaimed water for mature trees. Applying 2500 mm yr(-1) vs. 400 mm yr(-1) reclaimed water reduced the NUE of N in this water from 100 to 63% during the summer and from 100 to 28% during the winter. Reductions in NUE at higher irrigation rates appeared to be related to N displacement below the root zone prior to complete N uptake.

  19. Materials Genome Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) project element is a cross-Center effort that is focused on the integration of computational tools to simulate manufacturing processes and materials behavior. These computational simulations will be utilized to gain understanding of processes and materials behavior to accelerate process development and certification to more efficiently integrate new materials in existing NASA projects and to lead to the design of new materials for improved performance. This NASA effort looks to collaborate with efforts at other government agencies and universities working under the national MGI. MGI plans to develop integrated computational/experimental/ processing methodologies for accelerating discovery and insertion of materials to satisfy NASA's unique mission demands. The challenges include validated design tools that incorporate materials properties, processes, and design requirements; and materials process control to rapidly mature emerging manufacturing methods and develop certified manufacturing processes

  20. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  1. Cadmium toxicity and uptake by mats of the freshwater diatom: Navicula pelliculosa (Bréb) Hilse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Elaine C; Baird, Donald J; Culp, Joseph M

    2009-10-01

    Contaminant uptake by algae, and its subsequent toxicity, has important ramifications for aquatic biomonitoring and environmental risk assessment. To study the effects of cadmium on diatom mats, a series of experiments was undertaken. These investigated the sensitivity of Navicula pelliculosa mats to cadmium, uptake of cadmium across a range of exposure concentrations, influence of mat biomass and thickness on uptake, and cadmium uptake by mats over time. Diatom mat formation proved to be sensitive to cadmium exposure, with a 96-h EC(50) of 31 microg/L. The rapid uptake of cadmium over 15 min was a linear function of exposure concentration and was not significantly affected by mat thickness. Cadmium uptake over time was also a linear function of exposure concentration for time periods up to 5 h. Linear uptake was likely due to the availability of algal binding sites as cadmium ions diffused through the diatom mats. Internal high-pH microenvironments may also have influenced uptake, through cadmium precipitation or enhanced adsorption within the mats. The lack of a significant relationship between mat biomass and uptake could be explained by the static water exposure conditions. Other studies have shown that cadmium uptake by algal mats was only significantly affected by biomass under flowing water conditions. Flowing water appeared to facilitate the diffusion of cadmium ions through the algal mats. Our research demonstrates the propensity of diatom mats to adsorb cadmium to achieve concentrations that could inhibit macroinvertebrate grazing. Overall, these findings contribute to a greater understanding of cadmium bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems and to the further development of benthic algae as an effective biomonitoring tool.

  2. γ-Aminobutyric acid transporter 2 mediates the hepatic uptake of guanidinoacetate, the creatine biosynthetic precursor, in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Tachikawa

    Full Text Available Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA is the biosynthetic precursor of creatine which is involved in storage and transmission of phosphate-bound energy. Hepatocytes readily convert GAA to creatine, raising the possibility that the active uptake of GAA by hepatocytes is a regulatory factor. The purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the transporter responsible for GAA uptake by hepatocytes. The characteristics of [(14C]GAA uptake by hepatocytes were elucidated using the in vivo liver uptake method, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, an expression system of Xenopus laevis oocytes, gene knockdown, and an immunohistochemical technique. In vivo injection of [(14C]GAA into the rat femoral vein and portal vein results in the rapid uptake of [(14C]GAA by the liver. The uptake was markedly inhibited by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and nipecotinic acid, an inhibitor of GABA transporters (GATs. The characteristics of Na(+- and Cl(--dependent [(14C]GAA uptake by freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were consistent with those of GAT2. The Km value of the GAA uptake (134 µM was close to that of GAT2-mediated GAA transport (78.9 µM. GABA caused a marked inhibition with an IC(50 value of 8.81 µM. The [(14C]GAA uptake exhibited a significant reduction corresponding to the reduction in GAT2 protein expression. GAT2 was localized on the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes predominantly in the periportal region. This distribution pattern was consistent with that of the creatine biosynthetic enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase. GAT2 makes a major contribution to the sinusoidal GAA uptake by periportal hepatocytes, thus regulating creatine biosynthesis in the liver.

  3. Analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET diffuse bone marrow uptake and splenic uptake in staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma: a reflection of disease infiltration or just inflammation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaun, Pierre Y. [University Hospital of Brest, Nuclear Medicine Department, Brest (France); Rene Gauducheau Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); Gastinne, Thomas [University Hospital of Nantes, Department of Haematology, Nantes (France); Bodet-Milin, Caroline [University Hospital of Nantes, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); Campion, Loic [Rene Gauducheau Cancer Center, Biostatistics Unit, Nantes (France); INSERM UMR 892, CRCNA, Nantes (France); Cambefort, Pierre [University Hospital of Brest, Nuclear Medicine Department, Brest (France); Moreau, Anne [University Hospital of Nantes, Department of Histopathology, Nantes (France); Le Gouill, Steven; Moreau, Philippe [University Hospital of Nantes, Department of Haematology, Nantes (France); INSERM UMR 892, CRCNA, Nantes (France); Berthou, Christian [University Hospital of Brest, Department of Haematology, Brest (France); Kraeber-Bodere, Francoise [Rene Gauducheau Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); University Hospital of Nantes, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); INSERM UMR 892, CRCNA, Nantes (France)

    2009-11-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET has been successfully evaluated in the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and the most recent international guidelines recommended {sup 18}F-FDG PET for initial staging and final therapeutic assessment. However, {sup 18}F-FDG PET diffuse bone marrow uptake (BMU) and splenic uptake (SU) are frequently observed at the initial imaging and remain difficult to analyse. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the significance of {sup 18}F-FDG diffuse BMU and SU in initial staging of HL. A total of 106 patients (median age: 31 years, range: 9-81, 51 female, 55 male) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging of HL. BMU level was assessed visually according to liver uptake (1 = below liver uptake, 2 = corresponding to liver uptake, 3 = above liver uptake) and semi-quantitatively using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) measured in the sacral area. SU was assessed visually according to liver uptake (1 = below liver uptake, 2 = corresponding to liver uptake, 3 = above liver uptake). These data were compared with the patient's characteristics including sex, age, Ann Arbor staging, bulky disease (tumour burden > 10 cm), presence of B symptoms, bone foci on PET (n = 106), bone marrow involvement (BMI) on biopsy (n = 75), leukocyte count (n = 74), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (n = 87), C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 83) and fibrinogen (n = 60). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Multivariate analysis found an independent correlation between BMU visual grading and CRP level (p = 0.007). For semi-quantitative BMU evaluation, multivariate analysis found an independent correlation between sacral SUVs and CRP level (p = 0.032) and Ann Arbor stage (p = 0.005). No BMI was found in patients who presented with SUV{sub max} below 3.4. For splenic evaluation, multivariate analysis found an independent correlation between SU and splenic foci (p = 0.034). No statistical link was found between SU and

  4. Calcium uptake in brain synaptosomes: a pharmacologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampe, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Pinched-off nerve endings (synaptosomes) from rat and guinea pig brain were used as a model to study Ca/sup 2 +/ entry mechanisms in neuronal tissue. Synaptosomes contain high affinity binding sites for both, 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, and activators. The thermodynamic characteristics of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine building in synaptosomes were similar to those seen in both cardiac and smooth muscle preparations. Synaptosomes display two distinct K/sup +/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ entry mechanisms. These are kinetically distinct with the faster of the two terminating in approx. 1 second while the slower persists for approx. minute. The slow phase uptake process is abolished in Na/sup +/-free media, is sensitive to antagonism by 3,4-dichlorobenzamil and displays a more rapid ontogenic appearance relative to the fast phase. It is likely that the slow phase represents Ca/sup 2 +/ entry via Na/sup +//Ca/sup 2 +/ exchange. The rapid inactivation of the fast phase coupled with its voltage dependence suggest that it represents Ca/sup 2 +/ entry via one or more types of voltage dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ channels. These channels may not be dihydropyridin sensitive since neither nitrendipine nor Bay K 8644 were shown to modulate synaptosomal Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. The benzodiazepine receptor ligands Ro 5-4864, PK 11195 and diazepam all selectively inhibited fast phase Ca/sup 2 +/ entry relative to slow phase entry. In addition, these compounds altered (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding affinity. It is concluded that certain benzodiazepine receptor ligands can interact specifically with voltage dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ channels.

  5. Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Hinton, T.G. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)]. E-mail: thinton@srel.edu; Whicker, F.W. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of {sup 133}Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}) and a loss rate parameter k (d{sup -1}) were estimated for each species using time series of {sup 133}Cs concentrations in the water and plant tissues. Foliar uptake, as indicated by rapid increases in plant concentrations following the {sup 133}Cs addition, occurred in two floating-leaf species, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, and two submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Utricularia inflata. These species had values of u {>=} 0.75 x 10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Less evidence for foliar uptake was observed in three emergent species, including Typha latifolia. Ratios of u to k for B. schreberi, M. spicatum, N. odorata and U. inflata can be used to estimate concentration ratios (CR) at equilibrium, and these estimates were generally within a factor of 2 of the CR for {sup 137}Cs for these species in the same reservoir. This correspondence suggests that foliar uptake of Cs was the principal absorption mechanism for these species. Assessments of: (1) the prevalence of foliar uptake of potassium, rubidium and Cs isotopes by aquatic macrophytes and (2) the possible importance of foliar uptake of Cs in other lentic systems are made from a review of foliar uptake studies and estimation of comparable u and k values from lake studies involving Cs releases.

  6. Linoleic acid uptake by isolated enterocytes: influence of alpha-linolenic acid on absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goré, J; Hoinard, C; Couet, C

    1994-10-01

    In a previous study we showed that intestinal uptake of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was carrier-mediated and we suggested that a plasma membrane fatty acid protein was involved in the transport of long-chain fatty acids. To further test this hypothesis, the mechanism of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) uptake by isolated intestinal cells was examined using a rapid filtration method and 20 mM sodium taurocholate as solubilizing agent. Under these experimental conditions transport of [1-14C]linoleic acid monomers in the concentration range of 2 to 2220 nM was saturable with a Vm of 5.1 +/- 0.6 nmol/mg protein/min and a Km of 183 +/- 7 nM. Experiments carried out in the presence of metabolic inhibitors, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol and antimycin A, suggested that an active, carrier-mediated mechanism was involved in the intestinal uptake of this essential fatty acid. The addition of excess unlabeled linoleic acid to the incubation medium led to a 89% decrease in the uptake of [1-14C]linoleic acid, while D-glucose did not compete for transport into the cell. Other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids added to the incubation mixture inhibited linoleic acid uptake by more than 80%. The presence of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in the incubation medium caused the competitive inhibition (Ki = 353 nM) of linoleic acid uptake. The data are compatible with the hypothesis that intestinal uptake of both linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acid is mediated by a membrane carrier common to long-chain fatty acids.

  7. Vimentin mediates uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Rohrbeck

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3 selectively inactivates RhoA/B/C GTPases by ADP-ribosylation. Based on this substrate specificity C3 is a well-established tool in cell biology. C3 is taken up by eukaryotic cells although lacking an uptake and translocation domain. Based on different approaches vimentin was identified as membranous C3-interaction partner by mass spectrometry. Vimentin in fact was partly localized at the outer surface of hippocampal HT22 cells and J744A.1 macrophages. Domain analysis identified the rod domain as binding partner of C3. Vimentin was also involved in uptake of C3 as shown by knock down of vimentin in HT22 and J774A.1 cells. The involvement of vimentin in uptake of C3 was further supported by the findings that the vimentin disruptor acrylamide blocked uptake of C3. Vimentin is not only a major organizing element of the intermediate filament network but is also involved in both binding and uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

  8. Sorafenib increases 18-FDG colic uptake: demonstration in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappuccini, Renaud; Trzepla, Géraldine; Heutte, Natacha; Sevin, Emmanuel; Galais, Marie Pierre; Bardet, Stéphane

    2012-05-07

    To assess 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) bowel uptake in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated with sorafenib. Visual (5-point scale) and high maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) semi-quantitative analyses were conducted in 63 positron emission tomography (PET) studies performed in patients on sorafenib (group 1, n = 20), in a control group (group 2, n = 28) and in patients on sunitinib or vandetanib (group 3, n = 15).Moderate or high and diffuse bowel uptake (grade 4 or 5) was observed in 90% of the PET scans of group 1 versus none in group 2. Only 20% of PET scans in group 3 were scored grade 4. SUVmax values were significantly higher for all colic segments in group 1 than in group 2 (P < 0.0001) or 3 (P < 0.0004). This uptake pattern appeared rapidly (one month) and disappeared after sorafenib withdrawal. FDG uptake is increased in the colon of DTC patients treated by sorafenib.

  9. THE UPTAKE OF IRON IN RABBIT SYNOVIAL TISSUE FOLLOWING INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTION OF IRON DEXTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.; Chapman, J. A.; Muirden, K. D.

    1964-01-01

    Iron dextran (molecular weight 7,000) diffuses rapidly from the joint cavity through the synovium, along lymphatics and extracellular tissue spaces; articular cartilage is impermeable to iron dextran. There is also rapid cellular uptake by synovial lining cells, particularly of the vacuolar type; endoplasmic reticulum-containing lining cells rarely take up iron dextran. Cellular uptake is probably effected by pseudopodial folds projecting from the cell surface and enclosing extracellular material. Cells containing iron may degenerate and be ingested by phagocytes, and this may account for the concentration of iron in a smaller proportion of cells on or below the synovial surface in the later stages. At 6 to 18 hours after injection there is a mild inflammatory reaction and some synovial proliferation; from this stage onwards intracellular iron occurs in the form of haemosiderin. Granules of haemosiderin are present in the synovium 3 months after injection and possibly longer. PMID:14203385

  10. Modulatory Role of Surface Coating of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms in Complement Opsonization and Leukocyte Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inturi, Swetha; Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang

    2015-01-01

    Notwithstanding rapid advances of nanotechnology in diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, the engineered nanocarriers still exhibit substantial lack of hemocompatibility. Thus, when injected systemically, nanoparticles are avidly recognized by blood leukocytes and platelets, but the mechanisms of...... alternative pathway and by nanoparticle surface coating. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of hemocompatibility of nanomedicines.......Notwithstanding rapid advances of nanotechnology in diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, the engineered nanocarriers still exhibit substantial lack of hemocompatibility. Thus, when injected systemically, nanoparticles are avidly recognized by blood leukocytes and platelets, but the mechanisms...... leukocytes. The residual uptake of cross-linked nanoparticles was completely blocked by EDTA. These findings demonstrate species differences in complement-mediated nanoparticle recognition and uptake by leukocytes, and further show that human hemocompatibility could be improved by inhibitors of complement...

  11. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  12. The role of receptor topology in the vitamin D3 uptake and Ca{sup 2+} response systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrill, Gene A., E-mail: gene.morrill@einstein.yu.edu; Kostellow, Adele B.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-09-02

    The steroid hormone, vitamin D{sub 3}, regulates gene transcription via at least two receptors and initiates putative rapid response systems at the plasma membrane. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds vitamin D{sub 3} and a second receptor, importin-4, imports the VDR-vitamin D{sub 3} complex into the nucleus via nuclear pores. Here we present evidence that the Homo sapiens VDR homodimer contains two transmembrane (TM) helices ({sup 327}E – D{sup 342}), two TM “half-helix” ({sup 264}K − N{sup 276}), one or more large channels, and 16 cholesterol binding (CRAC/CARC) domains. The importin-4 monomer exhibits 3 pore-lining regions ({sup 226}E – L{sup 251}; {sup 768}V – G{sup 783}; {sup 876}S – A{sup 891}) and 16 CRAC/CARC domains. The MEMSAT algorithm indicates that VDR and importin-4 may not be restricted to cytoplasm and nucleus. VDR homodimer TM helix-topology predicts insertion into the plasma membrane, with two 84 residue C-terminal regions being extracellular. Similarly, MEMSAT predicts importin-4 insertion into the plasma membrane with 226 residue extracellular N-terminal regions and 96 residue C-terminal extracellular loops; with the pore-lining regions contributing gated Ca{sup 2+} channels. The PoreWalker algorithm indicates that, of the 427 residues in each VDR monomer, 91 line the largest channel, including two vitamin D{sub 3} binding sites and residues from both the TM helix and “half-helix”. Cholesterol-binding domains also extend into the channel within the ligand binding region. Programmed changes in bound cholesterol may regulate both membrane Ca{sup 2+} response systems and vitamin D{sub 3} uptake as well as receptor internalization by the endomembrane system culminating in uptake of the vitamin D{sub 3}-VDR-importin-4 complex into the nucleus.

  13. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  14. Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: A review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org

    2012-04-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses — most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.

  15. [[sup 11]C](+)McN5652 as a radiotracer for imaging serotonin uptake sites with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, M.; Scheffel, U.; Ravert, H.T.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The in vivo behavior of the stereoisomers of [[sup 11]C]McN5652, a highly potent serotonin (5-HT) uptake blocker, was determined to evaluate their utility as radiotracers for imaging 5-HT uptake sites by positron emission tomography (PET). After intravenous injection into mice, [[sup 11]C](+)MnN5652 showed markedly higher uptake and longer retention in regions with high density of 5-HT uptake sites than the [[sup 11]C]-labeled racemic mixture, while [[sup 11]C]([minus])McN5652 washed out rapidly. With the [[sup 11]C](+)-enantiomer, the ratio between hypothalamus and cerebellum reached 6 at 90 minutes. The binding of [[sup 11]C](+)McN5652 was inhibited by 45-73% by pre-injection of 5 mg/kg of paroxetine, a selective 5-HT uptake blocker, in all regions examined except cerebellum where no significant effect of the drug was observed. [[sup 11]C]([minus])McN5652 showed no specific binding in any of the regions. The [[sup 11]C]-labeled cis isomer, [[sup 11]C]McN5655, revealed surprisingly low brain penetration and showed no significantly higher uptake in regions of interest than cerebellum. These results suggest that [[sup 11]C](+)McN56542 is a promising candidate as a PET radiotracer for studying 5-HT uptake sites in vivo.

  16. Trophic positioning and microphytobenthic carbon uptake of biofilm-dwelling meiofauna in a temperate river

    OpenAIRE

    Majdi, Nabil; Tackx, Michèle; Buffan-Dubau, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    International audience; 1. δ13C and δ15N stable isotope signatures combined with an in situ microphytobenthic 13C labelling experiment were performed in epilithic biofilms of a large temperate river (the Garonne, France) to infer the trophic positioning and the microphytobenthic carbon (MPBC) uptake of biofilm-dwelling meio- and macrofauna. 2. Chironomidae larvae and Chromadorina spp. nematodes rapidly incorporated freshly produced MPBC contrary to Rhyacophilidae larvae and Naididae oligochae...

  17. Comparison of Clostridium difficile detection by monolayer and by inhibition of nucleoside uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhr, J.E.; Trent, D.J.; Collmann, I.R.

    1987-02-01

    Detection and identification of Clostridium difficile toxin by traditional monolayer assay were compared with results obtained by a new procedure based on toxin-dependent inhibition of target cell uptake of a radioactive nucleoside. A high degree of correlation was noted between the two determinations. Although the new procedure was quantitative and objective, its value is seen at present as a rapid screen that may support results obtained in monolayers and as a potential assay for other, currently unidentified, toxins.

  18. Increased muscle glucose uptake after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been shown that insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is increased after a single exercise session. The present study was designed to determine whether insulin is necessary during exercise for development of these changes found after exercise....... Diabetic rats and controls ran on a treadmill and their isolated hindquarters were subsequently perfused at insulin concentrations of 0, 100, and 20,000 microU/ml. Exercise increased insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis equally in diabetic and control rats, but insulin...... responsiveness of glucose uptake was noted only in controls. Analysis of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, glycogen synthesis, and glucose transport suggested that the exercise effect on responsiveness might be due to enhancement of glucose disposal. After electrical stimulation of diabetic...

  19. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheloske, Stefan; Maetz, Mischa; Schüßler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  20. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake...... rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low ( 90% respectively....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  1. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  2. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  3. Combat Wound Initiative program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2010-07-01

    The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.

  4. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  5. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  6. Metal Uptake Rates by Veronica anagallis aquatica at Pinal Creek near Globe, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E. A.; Conklin, M.; Harvey, J.; Corley, T.

    2002-12-01

    Pinal Creek, Globe, Arizona had elevated levels of dissolved manganese [Mn(II)] in the stream that has since been intercepted, due to recharge of contaminated ground water from numerous Cu mining operations. The focus of this study is to determine the distribution of metals on water speedwell and the rate of metal removal (Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn) from surface water by the aquatic plant `water speedwell', Veronica anagallis aquatica. Water speedwell grows in the central stream channel at Pinal Creek and is suspected to bio accumulate metals as well as provide surfaces for metal precipitation. Water speedwell was collected approximately monthly from Pinal Creek for one year. Roots and shoots were separated to determine external metal concentrations, and the plants were extracted using 0.03M EDTA and 0.03M ascorbic acid. Water speedwell accumulates substantial manganese in its root and shoot tissues with median values of 22,000 mg/kg dry root and 1,700 mg/kg dry shoot, respectively. The roots of water speedwell are capable of accumulating metals at concentrations well above sediment (7,000 mg/kg dry sediment) and surface water, with (1 mg/L) the majority of metals associated with the external plant surface. To determine metal uptake rates, a known mass of plants was placed in a container with artificial surface water that had been spiked with known metal concentrations and the change in metal concentration solution was monitored over time. Manganese, nickel, and cobalt followed similar trends of an initial rapid decrease in metal from solution followed by a slower uptake rate. As much as 50% of the manganese and nickel were removed from solution over a five-day period. Manganese was removed from surface water at an average rate of -0.0016 +/- 0.0007 (Log(mgMn)/hour). Removal of zinc from surface water was correlated with pH of the solution, which ranged from 6.0 to 7.5. The results indicate that water speedwell is effective in the removal of metals from surface water.

  7. Do parental education and income matter? A nationwide register-based study on HPV vaccine uptake in the school-based immunisation programme in Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feiring, Berit; Laake, Ida; Molden, Tor; Cappelen, Inger; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Steingrímsdóttir, Ólöf Anna; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Stålcrantz, Jeanette; Trogstad, Lill

    2015-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the uptake of HPV vaccine is lower than for other childhood vaccines. The aim of this study was to examine whether parental education and income are associated with initiation and completion of HPV vaccination...

  8. Iron metabolism in BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Transferrin-mediated uptake and release of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; du Maine, A.; Simmons, C. F.; Schwartz, A. L.; Strous, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Growing human choriocarcinoma BeWo b24 cells contain 1.5 X 10(6) functional cell surface transferrin binding sites and 2.0 X 10(6) intracellular binding sites. These cells rapidly accumulate iron at a rate of 360,000 iron atoms/min/cell. During iron uptake the transferrin and its receptor recycle at

  9. The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors fluvoxamine and paroxetine differ in sexual inhibitory effects after chronic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, M.D.; Plas, A.; Pattij, T.; Oorschot, R. van; Coolen, L.M.; Veening, J.G.; Olivier, B.

    2002-01-01

    RATIONALE: The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) delay orgasm and ejaculation in men. In men with rapid ejaculation it was shown that, of the SSRIs, paroxetine exerted the strongest delay in ejaculation and fluvoxamine the weakest. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we compared the

  10. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together

  11. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    the microbiota at other parts of the GI tract, which is especially true for the small intestine because of its limited accessibility. Here we deduce an ecological model of the microbiota composition and function in the small intestine, using complementing culture-independent approaches. Phylogenetic microarray......The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) harbors a complex community of microbes. The microbiota composition varies between different locations in the GI tract, but most studies focus on the fecal microbiota, and that inhabiting the colonic mucosa. Consequently, little is known about...

  12. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for cellular uptake of surface-modified nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Rallo, Robert; Bilal, Muhammad; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed, for cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) of the same iron oxide core but with different surface-modifying organic molecules, based on linear and non-linear (epsilon support vector regression (ε-SVR)). A linear QSAR provided high prediction accuracy of R2=0.751 (coefficient of determination) using 11 descriptors selected from an initial pool of 184 descriptors calculated for the NP surfacemodifying molecules, while a ε-SVR based QSAR with only 6 descriptors improved prediction accuracy to R2=0.806. The linear and ε-SVR based QSARs both demonstrated good robustness and well spanned applicability domains. It is suggested that the approach of evaluating pertinent descriptors and their significance, via QSAR analysis, to cellular NP uptake could support planning and interpretation of toxicity studies as well as provide guidance for the tailor-design NPs with respect to targeted cellular uptake for various applications.

  13. f-Ratios calculated with and without urea uptake in nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Corre, P.L.; L'Helguen, S.

    -Sea Re,earrh 1. Vol. 42, No. Y. pp. lh6Y-1674. 1YY.5 0967-0637(95)000664 Copyright 0 1995 Elsex,ier Science L&J Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved UYh70637/YS $Yso+o 00 NOTE f-Ratios calculated with and without urea uptake in nitrogen..., coastal, polar, oceanic and estuarine waters. Systematic urea uptake mcasurcmcnts thus become necessary, but where such data are lacking, corrections are possible with the ratio between thefvalues calculated with and without urea uptake for each...

  14. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-05-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C in the presence of /sup 14/C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with /sup 14/C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine.

  15. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Van Brussel, Marco; Bongers, Bart C.; Hulzebos, Erik; Helders, Paul J.M.; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the submaximal Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) in a healthy pediatric population. Bicycle ergometry exercise tests with gas-analyses were performed in 46 healthy children aged 7–17 years. Maximal OUES, submaximal OUES,

  16. New concepts for dynamic plant uptake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are widely applied tools for human and wildlife exposure assessment, pesticide design and for environmental biotechnology such as phytoremediation. Steady-state considerations are often applied, because they are simple and have a small data...

  17. Nicotinamide ribosyl uptake mutants in Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mark; Sauer, Elizabeta; Smethurst, Graeme; Kraiss, Anita; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-09-01

    The gene for the nicotinamide riboside (NR) transporter (pnuC) was identified in Haemophilus influenzae. A pnuC mutant had only residual NR uptake and could survive in vitro with high concentrations of NR, but could not survive in vivo. PnuC may represent a target for the development of inhibitors for preventing H. influenzae disease.

  18. Plant uptake of radionuclides and rhizosphere factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arie, Tsutomu; Gouthu, S.; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Hirata, Hiroaki

    1999-03-01

    Influence of soil factors such as nuclide availability, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}), phosphate absorption coefficient (PAC), physical composition of soil (coarse sand, fine sand, silt, and clay), soil texture, and rhizosphere microbes on uptake of radionuclides by plants are studied. (author)

  19. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  20. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print...

  1. Chromium Uptake Efficiency of Spinacea olaracea from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the uptake of chromium by Spinacea olaracea and its accumulation in roots and shoots of plants grown in pots at various concentrations of chromium (30, 60, 90,120,150 mg/l). The results revealed that the levels of chromium accumulation in roots and shoots were higher at minimum ...

  2. Performance, Nutrient Uptake and Profitability of Amaranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield was significantly influenced by soil amendments and the highest herbage yield (10.60 t ha-1) was obtained from 40 t ha-1 treatment. The NPK treatment produced the yield with the maximum nutrient content and uptake. The organomineral fertilizer treatment was the most expensive but the optimum yield was produced ...

  3. Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Uptake among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Uptake among Nigerian. Women: Evidence from the National Demographic and Health. Survey. Ofonime E. Johnson. Department of Community ... La proportion la plus élevée d'utilisation était de 26,7% dans le sud-ouest, tandis que la plus faible était de 2,7% dans le nord-ouest.

  4. Trichoderma -mediated enhancement of nutrient uptake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma harzianum is a naturally occurring filamentous fungus which solubilizes mineral nutrients and inorganic fertilizers, increasing availability and uptake of nutrients to the plant. Rhizoctonia solani is a major problem for seedlings, causing damping-off and in mature plants causing foot and root rot in the tomato crop, ...

  5. Routes and mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ann Mulcahy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are small vesicles released by donor cells that can be taken up by recipient cells. Despite their discovery decades ago, it has only recently become apparent that EVs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs can carry a range of nucleic acids and proteins which can have a significant impact on the phenotype of the recipient. For this phenotypic effect to occur, EVs need to fuse with target cell membranes, either directly with the plasma membrane or with the endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. EVs are of therapeutic interest because they are deregulated in diseases such as cancer and they could be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EVs are taken up into cells. This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms. Cells appear to take up EVs by a variety of endocytic pathways, including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-independent pathways such as caveolin-mediated uptake, macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and lipid raft–mediated internalization. Indeed, it seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route. The uptake mechanism used by a given EV may depend on proteins and glycoproteins found on the surface of both the vesicle and the target cell. Further research is needed to understand the precise rules that underpin EV entry into cells.

  6. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associative Influence of Soluble Phosphate, RockPhosphate and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus on Plant Growth and. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes. B. D. Ahiabor1* and H. Hirata2. '^Laboratory of Plant Nutrition, Department of Biological Production, Faculty of. Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture ...

  7. Water Uptake Mechanism in Crispy Bread Crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Crispness is an important quality characteristic of dry solid food products such as crispy rolls. Its retention is directly related to the kinetics of water uptake by the crust. In this study, a method for the evaluation of the water sorption kinetics in bread crust is proposed. Two different

  8. Dissolved organic nitrogen uptake by seagrasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Stapel, J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the ability of seagrasses to take up dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) with leaves (in situ) and roots (laboratory) in an oligotrophic tropical offshore meadow in Indonesia using 15N-labeled nitrogen (N) substrates. We compared the uptake of urea and amino acids with that of ammonium

  9. Determinants in the uptake of the Human Papillomavirus vaccine: a systematic review based on European studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eFernández de Casadevante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Since 2006, two Human Papillomavirus vaccines (HPVV have been licensed to protect women against the virus that causes cervical cancer. However, worldwide coverage remains unequal. Studies from the USA found strong evidence for differences in HPVV uptake by ethnicity and healthcare coverage. As the profile of ethnic groups and the healthcare system in the USA differ from countries in Europe where HPVV is free in most of the countries, we conducted a systematic review in order to analyze the determinants of HPVV uptake in Europe.Methods We performed a systematic Pubmed, Scopus and Science Direct search to find articles published from HPVV availability in European countries until April 2014. No age restriction was applied. We included all studies assessing factors associated with HPVV uptake. Uptake refers to either initiation and/or completion of the three dose vaccination program. Results Out of the 23 eligible studies, 14 were retrospective reviews of data, six were cross-sectional surveys and three were prospective cohort studies. Higher HPVV uptake was associated with ethnic majority populations, higher socio-economic status, regular cervical screening participation by the mother and having received previous childhood vaccinations.Conclusions Since the vaccine is offered for free in most of the European countries, the findings suggest that ethno-cultural and educational factors play an important role when it comes to HPVV uptake. Girls who were undervaccinated had also a lower uptake of standard childhood vaccines and mothers who were less likely to attend cervical cancer screening. This may indicate, that only few parents have specific concerns with HPVV, and that preventive health care should seek ways to target these vulnerable groups.

  10. Activation of virus uptake through induction of macropinocytosis with a novel polymerizing peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah I.; Soule, Erin E.; Davidoff, Katharine S.; Bernbaum, John G.; Hu, Duosha; Maeda, Kenji; Stahl, Stephen J.; Naiman, Nicole E.; Waheed, Abdul A.; Freed, Eric O.; Wingfield, Paul; Yarchoan, Robert; Davis, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A 27-aa peptide (P27) was previously shown to decrease the accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the supernatant of chronically infected cells; however, the mechanism was not understood. Here, we show that P27 prevents virus accumulation by inducing macropinocytosis (MPC). Treatment of HIV-1- and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells with 2–10 μM P27 caused cell membrane ruffling and uptake of virus and polymerized forms of the peptide into large vacuoles. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, activation of MPC did not require virus or cells infected with virus, as P27 initiated its own uptake in the absence of virus. Inhibitors of MPC, Cytochalasin D and amiloride, decreased P27-mediated uptake of soluble dextran and inhibited P27-induced virus uptake by >60%, which provides further evidence that P27 induces MPC. In CD4+ HeLa cells, HIV-1 infection was enhanced by P27 up to 4-fold, and P27 increased infection at concentrations as low as 20 nM. The 5-aa C-terminal domain of P27 was necessary for virus uptake and may be responsible for the polymerization of P27 into fibrils. These forms of P27 may play a key role in triggering MPC, making this peptide a useful tool for studying virus uptake and infection, as well as MPC of other macromolecules.—Daniels, S.I., Soule, E.E., Davidoff, K.S., Bernbaum, J.G., Hu, D., Maeda, K., Stahl, S.J., Naiman, N.E., Waheed, A.E., Freed, E.O., Wingfield, P., Yarchoan, R., Davis. D.A. Activation of virus uptake through induction of macropinocytosis with a novel polymerizing peptide. PMID:24097312

  11. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  12. Evaluation of kinetic entropy of breast masses initially found on MRI using whole-lesion curve distribution data: Comparison with the standard kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimauchi, Akiko [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Tohoku University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Abe, Hiroyuki; Schacht, David V.; Yulei, Jian; Pineda, Federico D.; Jansen, Sanaz A.; Ganesh, Rajiv; Newstead, Gillian M. [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To quantify kinetic heterogeneity of breast masses that were initially detected with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, using whole-lesion kinetic distribution data obtained from computer-aided evaluation (CAE), and to compare that with standard kinetic curve analysis. Clinical MR images from 2006 to 2011 with breast masses initially detected with MRI were evaluated with CAE. The relative frequencies of six kinetic patterns (medium-persistent, medium-plateau, medium-washout, rapid-persistent, rapid-plateau, rapid-washout) within the entire lesion were used to calculate kinetic entropy (KE), a quantitative measure of enhancement pattern heterogeneity. Initial uptake (IU) and signal enhancement ratio (SER) were obtained from the most-suspicious kinetic curve. Mann-Whitney U test and ROC analysis were conducted for differentiation of malignant and benign masses. Forty benign and 37 malignant masses comprised the case set. IU and SER were not significantly different between malignant and benign masses, whereas KE was significantly greater for malignant than benign masses (p = 0.748, p = 0.083, and p < 0.0001, respectively). Areas under ROC curve for IU, SER, and KE were 0.479, 0.615, and 0.662, respectively. Quantification of kinetic heterogeneity of whole-lesion time-curve data with KE has the potential to improve differentiation of malignant from benign breast masses on breast MRI. (orig.)

  13. An Inhibitor-Based Method to Measure Initial Decomposition of Naturally Occurring Polysaccharides in Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Bertilsson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    A method that can be used to measure the initial decomposition rates of polysaccharides in sediment samples was developed. It uses toluene to specifically inhibit microbial uptake of carbohydrates without affecting extracellular hydrolysis of polysaccharides. Accumulating carbohydrates were

  14. Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane N Mutanga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074, 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983, 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342, 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early

  15. Determinants in the uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Casadevante, Victoria Fernández; Cuesta, Julita Gil; Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Since 2006, two human papillomavirus vaccines (HPVV) have been licensed to protect women against the virus that causes cervical cancer. However, worldwide coverage remains unequal. Studies from the USA found...... refers to either initiation and/or completion of the three dose vaccination program. Results: Out of the 23 eligible studies, 14 were retrospective reviews of data, six were cross-sectional surveys, and three were prospective cohort studies. Higher HPVV uptake was associated with ethnic majority...... populations, higher socio-economic status, regular cervical screening participation by the mother, and having received previous childhood vaccinations. Conclusion: Since the vaccine is offered for free in most of the European countries, the findings suggest that ethno-cultural and educational factors play...

  16. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  17. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  18. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  19. Vitamin B1 and B12 uptake and cycling by plankton communities in coastal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eKoch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM, vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2 µm phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms, picoplankton (< 2 µm were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession.

  20. Effects of transport inhibitors on the cellular uptake of carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles in different cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago dos Santos

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role in the rapidly developing field of nanomedicine, creating innovative solutions and therapies for currently untreatable diseases, and providing new tools for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. In order to optimize the efficacy of nanoparticle (NP delivery to cells, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which NPs are internalized by cells, as this will likely determine their ultimate sub-cellular fate and localisation. Here we have used pharmacological inhibitors of some of the major endocytic pathways to investigate nanoparticle uptake mechanisms in a range of representative human cell lines, including HeLa (cervical cancer, A549 (lung carcinoma and 1321N1 (brain astrocytoma. Chlorpromazine and genistein were used to inhibit clathrin and caveolin mediated endocytosis, respectively. Cytochalasin A and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerisation of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Uptake experiments were performed systematically across the different cell lines, using carboxylated polystyrene NPs of 40 nm and 200 nm diameters, as model NPs of sizes comparable to typical endocytic cargoes. The results clearly indicated that, in all cases and cell types, NPs entered cells via active energy dependent processes. NP uptake in HeLa and 1321N1 cells was strongly affected by actin depolymerisation, while A549 cells showed a stronger inhibition of NP uptake (in comparison to the other cell types after microtubule disruption and treatment with genistein. A strong reduction of NP uptake was observed after chlorpromazine treatment only in the case of 1321N1 cells. These outcomes suggested that the same NP might exploit different uptake mechanisms to enter different cell types.

  1. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using (/sup 3/H)paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand.

  2. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  3. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  4. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  5. Knowledge Translation Interventions to Improve the Timing of Dialysis Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Elaine M. T.; Manns, Braden J.; Garg, Amit X.; Sood, Manish M.; Kim, S. Joseph; Naimark, David; Nesrallah, Gihad E.; Soroka, Steven D.; Beaulieu, Monica; Dixon, Stephanie; Alam, Ahsan; Tangri, Navdeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early initiation of chronic dialysis (starting dialysis with higher vs lower kidney function) has risen rapidly in the past 2 decades in Canada and internationally, despite absence of established health benefits and higher costs. In 2014, a Canadian guideline on the timing of dialysis initiation, recommending an intent-to-defer approach, was published. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a knowledge translation intervention to promote the intent-to-defer approach in clinical practice. Design: This study is a multicenter, 2-arm parallel, cluster randomized trial. Setting: The study involves 55 advanced chronic kidney disease clinics across Canada. Patients: Patients older than 18 years who are managed by nephrologists for more than 3 months, and initiate dialysis in the follow-up period are included in the study. Measurements: Outcomes will be measured at the patient-level and enumerated within a cluster. Data on characteristics of each dialysis start will be determined by linkages with the Canadian Organ Replacement Register. Primary outcomes include the proportion of patients who start dialysis early with an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 10.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 and start dialysis in hospital as inpatients or in an emergency room setting. Secondary outcomes include the rate of change in early dialysis starts; rates of hospitalizations, deaths, and cost of predialysis care (wherever available); quarterly proportion of new starts; and acceptability of the knowledge translation materials. Methods: We randomized 55 multidisciplinary chronic disease clinics (clusters) in Canada to receive either an active knowledge translation intervention or no intervention for the uptake of the guideline on the timing of dialysis initiation. The active knowledge translation intervention consists of audit and feedback as well as patient- and provider-directed educational tools delivered at a comprehensive in

  6. Immortalization of human alveolar epithelial cells to investigate nanoparticle uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Sarah J; Thorley, Andrew J; Gorelik, Julia; Seckl, Michael J; O'Hare, Michael J; Arcaro, Alexandre; Korchev, Yuri; Goldstraw, Peter; Tetley, Teresa D

    2008-11-01

    Primary human alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells were immortalized by transduction with the catalytic subunit of telomerase and simian virus 40 large-tumor antigen. Characterization by immunochemical and morphologic methods demonstrated an AT1-like cell phenotype. Unlike primary AT2 cells, immortalized cells no longer expressed alkaline phosphatase, pro-surfactant protein C, and thyroid transcription factor-1, but expressed increased caveolin-1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Live cell imaging using scanning ion conductance microscopy showed that the cuboidal primary AT2 cells were approximately 15 microm and enriched with surface microvilli, while the immortal AT1 cells were attenuated more than 40 microm, resembling these cells in situ. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the attenuated morphology and showed endosomal vesicles in some immortal AT1 cells (but not primary AT2 cells) as found in situ. Particulate air pollution exacerbates cardiopulmonary disease. Interaction of ultrafine, nano-sized particles with the alveolar epithelium and/or translocation into the cardiovasculature may be a contributory factor. We hypothesized differential uptake of nanoparticles by AT1 and AT2 cells, depending on particle size and surface charge. Uptake of 50-nm and 1-microm fluorescent latex particles was investigated using confocal microscopy and scanning surface confocal microscopy of live cells. Fewer than 10% of primary AT2 cells internalized particles. In contrast, 75% immortal AT1 cells internalized negatively charged particles, while less than 55% of these cells internalized positively charged particles; charge, rather than size, mattered. The process was rapid: one-third of the total cell-associated negatively charged 50-nm particle fluorescence measured at 24 hours was internalized during the first hour. AT1 cells could be important in translocation of particles from the lung into the circulation.

  7. Measurement of the maximum oxygen uptake V̇o2max: V̇o2peak is no longer acceptable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, David C; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-04-01

    The maximum rate of O2 uptake (i.e., V̇o2max), as measured during large muscle mass exercise such as cycling or running, is widely considered to be the gold standard measurement of integrated cardiopulmonary-muscle oxidative function. The development of rapid-response gas analyzers, enabling measurement of breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange, has facilitated replacement of the discontinuous progressive maximal exercise test (that produced an unambiguous V̇o2-work rate plateau definitive for V̇o2max) with the rapidly incremented or ramp testing protocol. Although this is more suitable for clinical and experimental investigations and enables measurement of the gas exchange threshold, exercise efficiency, and V̇o2 kinetics, a V̇o2-work rate plateau is not an obligatory outcome. This shortcoming has led to investigators resorting to so-called secondary criteria such as respiratory exchange ratio, maximal heart rate, and/or maximal blood lactate concentration, the acceptable values of which may be selected arbitrarily and result in grossly inaccurate V̇o2max estimation. Whereas this may not be an overriding concern in young, healthy subjects with experience of performing exercise to volitional exhaustion, exercise test naïve subjects, patient populations, and less motivated subjects may stop exercising before their V̇o2max is reached. When V̇o2max is a or the criterion outcome of the investigation, this represents a major experimental design issue. This CORP presents the rationale for incorporation of a second, constant work rate test performed at ~110% of the work rate achieved on the initial ramp test to resolve the classic V̇o2-work rate plateau that is the unambiguous validation of V̇o2max The broad utility of this procedure has been established for children, adults of varying fitness, obese individuals, and patient populations. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Hydrogen Uptake of DPB Getter Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Herberg, J L; Saab, A P; Weigle, J; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; McLean II, W

    2008-05-30

    The physical and chemical properties of 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne (DPB) blended with carbon-supported Pd (DPB-Pd/C) in the form of pellets during hydrogenation were investigated. A thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) was employed to measure the kinetics of the hydrogen uptake by the DPB getter pellets. The kinetics obtained were then used to develop a semi-empirical model, based on gas diffusion into solids, to predict the performance of the getter pellets under various conditions. The accuracy of the prediction model was established by comparing the prediction models with independent experimental data on hydrogen pressure buildup in sealed systems containing DPB getter pellets and subjected to known rates of hydrogen input. The volatility of the hydrogenated DPB products and its effects on the hydrogen uptake kinetics were also analyzed.

  9. Dermal Uptake of Benzophenone-3 from Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    compartments, including clothing. Given its physical and chemical properties, we hypothesized that dermal uptake from clothing could contribute to the body burden of this compound. First, cotton shirts were exposed to air at an elevated concentration of BP-3 for 32 days; the final air concentration was 4.4 μg....../m3. Next, three participants wore the exposed shirts for 3 h. After 3 h of exposure, participants wore their usual clothing during the collection of urine samples for the next 48 h. Urine was analyzed for BP-3, a metabolite (BP-1), and six other UV filters. The rate of urinary excretion of the sum...... with predictions of steady-state models, suggest that dermal uptake of BP-3 from clothing could meaningfully contribute to overall body burden....

  10. Quantitative fluorescence imaging reveals point of release for lipoproteins during LDLR-dependent uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompey, Shanica; Zhao, Zhenze; Luby-Phelps, Kate; Michaely, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The LDL receptor (LDLR) supports efficient uptake of both LDL and VLDL remnants by binding lipoprotein at the cell surface, internalizing lipoprotein through coated pits, and releasing lipoprotein in endocytic compartments before returning to the surface for further rounds of uptake. While many aspects of lipoprotein binding and receptor entry are well understood, it is less clear where, when, and how the LDLR releases lipoprotein. To address these questions, the current study employed quantitative fluorescence imaging to visualize the uptake and endosomal processing of LDL and the VLDL remnant β-VLDL. We find that lipoprotein release is rapid, with most release occurring prior to entry of lipoprotein into early endosomes. Published biochemical studies have identified two mechanisms of lipoprotein release: one that involves the β-propeller module of the LDLR and a second that is independent of this module. Quantitative imaging comparing uptake supported by the normal LDLR or by an LDLR variant incapable of β-propeller-dependent release shows that the β-propeller-independent process is sufficient for release for both lipoproteins but that the β-propeller process accelerates both LDL and β-VLDL release. Together these findings define where, when, and how lipoprotein release occurs and provide a generalizable methodology for visualizing endocytic handling in situ.

  11. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  12. Uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from sediment by the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djomo, J.E. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Garrigues, P.; Narbonne, J.F. [Univ. Bordeaux I, Talence (France)

    1996-07-01

    Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) were exposed for 30 d to individual {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, or benzo[a]pyrene) adsorbed on sediment. The uptake and depuration rate constants were measured. Rate of radioactivity release was measured under both contaminated (experiment 1) and clean (experiment 2) conditions. The results confirm that uptake and depuration rate constants were strongly related to physicochemical properties. However, the uptake from the water compartment was rapidly decreased in the microcosm system ({minus}83% for anthracene and phenanthrene, {minus}71% for pyrene, and {minus}59% for benzo[a]pyrene within the first 2 d). For depuration in clean water, the half-lives of radioactivity loss from whole body were 63, 97, 115, and 138 h for anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, and were positively correlated with log K{sub ow}. In experiment 1 after 10 d, the remaining PAH concentrations were only about 16% of the maximum concentrations measured at time 24 h for anthracene, 12% for phenanthrene, 30% for pyrene, and 46% for benzo[a]pyrene. K{sub ow} appears to be a determining factor for partitioning constants for sorption to sediment, uptake, and release in aquatic organisms.

  13. Brain Glucose Transporter (Glut3) Haploinsufficiency Does Not Impair Mouse Brain Glucose Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles A.; Ross, Ian R.; Howell, Mary E. A.; McCurry, Melanie P.; Wood, Thomas G.; Ceci, Jeffrey D.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Mouse brain expresses three principle glucose transporters. Glut1 is an endothelial marker and is the principal glucose transporter of the blood-brain barrier. Glut3 and Glut6 are expressed in glial cells and neural cells. A mouse line with a null allele for Glut3 has been developed. The Glut3−/− genotype is intrauterine lethal by seven days post-coitis, but the heterozygous (Glut3+/−) littermate survives, exhibiting rapid post-natal weight gain, but no seizures or other behavioral aberrations. At twelve weeks of age, brain uptake of tail vein-injected 3H-2-deoxy glucose in Glut3+/− mice was not different from Glut3+/+ littermates, despite 50% less Glut3 protein expression in the brain. The brain uptake of injected 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose was similarly not different from Glut3+/− littermates in the total amount, time course, or brain imaging in the Glut3+/− mice. Glut1 and Glut6 protein expressions evaluated by immunoblots were not affected by the diminished Glut3 expression in the Glut3+/− mice. We conclude that a 50% decrease in Glut3 is not limiting for the uptake of glucose into the mouse brain, since Glut3 haploinsufficiency does not impair brain glucose uptake or utilization. PMID:21316350

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of soil phosphorus and crop uptake in global cropland during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Van Apeldoorn, Dirk F.; Mogollón, José M.; Yu, Chaoqing; Bouwman, Alexander F.

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) plays a vital role in global crop production and food security. In this study, we investigate the changes in soil P pool inventories calibrated from historical countrywide crop P uptake, using a 0.5-by-0.5° spatially explicit model for the period 1900-2010. Globally, the total P pool per hectare increased rapidly between 1900 and 2010 in soils of Europe (+31 %), South America (+2 %), North America (+15 %), Asia (+17 %), and Oceania (+17 %), while it has been stable in Africa. Simulated crop P uptake is influenced by both soil properties (available P and the P retention potential) and crop characteristics (maximum uptake). Until 1950, P fertilizer application had a negligible influence on crop uptake, but recently it has become a driving factor for food production in industrialized countries and a number of transition countries like Brazil, Korea, and China. This comprehensive and spatially explicit model can be used to assess how long surplus P fertilization is needed or how long depletions of built-up surplus P can continue without affecting crop yield.

  15. Effects of surface ligands on the uptake and transport of gold nanoparticles in rice and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Xinxin; Guo, Xisheng; Geng, Zhigang; Wang, Guozhong

    2016-08-15

    Nanotechnology is advancing rapidly and substantial amounts of nanomaterials are released into the environment. Plants are an essential base component of the ecological environment and play a critical role in the fate and transport of nanomaterials in the environment through plant uptake and bioaccumulation. In this study, plant uptake of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalized with three types of short ligands [cysteamine (CA), cysteine (CYS) and thioglycolic acid (TGA)] and of nearly identical hydrodynamic size (8-12nm) was investigated in the major crops rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Uptake and translocation of GNPs not only depended on particle surface charge, but were also related to the species of ligand on the GNPs. The negatively charged GNPs capped with the CYS ligand (GNP-CYS) were more efficiently absorbed in roots and transferred to shoots (including stems and leaves) than that of GNPs capped with CA and TGA. The absorption process of GNPs involved a combination of both clathrin-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The endocytosis of GNPs was strongly inhibited by wortmannin, suggesting that clathrin-independent endocytosis was an important pathway of nanoparticle internalization in plants. Competition experiments with a free ligand (CYS) showed that the CYS ligand probably facilitated the endocytosis process of GNPs and increased the internalization of GNP-CYS in plants. The results will aid understanding of the mechanisms of nanoparticle uptake and translocation in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation of uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT)and treatment response in patients with knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Geon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Hae Jin; Kim, Seog Gyun; Lee, Beom Koo [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether treatment response in patients with knee pain could be predicted using uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images. Ninety-five patients with knee pain who had undergone SPECT/CT were included in this retrospective study. Subjects were divided into three groups: increased focal uptake (FTU), increased irregular tracer uptake (ITU), and no tracer uptake (NTU). A numeric rating scale (NRS-11) assessed pain intensity. We analyzed the association between uptake patterns and treatment response using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Uptake was quantified from SPECT/CT with region of interest (ROI) counting, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculated agreement. We used Student' t-test to calculate statistically significant differences of counts between groups and the Pearson correlation to measure the relationship between counts and initial NRS-1k1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which variables were significantly associated with uptake. The FTU group included 32 patients; ITU, 39; and NTU, 24. With conservative management, 64 % of patients with increased tracer uptake (TU, both focal and irregular) and 36 % with NTU showed positive response. Conservative treatment response of FTU was better than NTU, but did not differ from that of ITU. Conservative treatment response of TU was significantly different from that of NTU (OR 3.1; p 0.036). Moderate positive correlation was observed between ITU and initial NRS-11. Age and initial NRS-11 significantly predicted uptake. Patients with uptake in their knee(s) on SPECT/CT showed positive treatment response under conservative treatment.

  17. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  18. Myths and misconceptions about cervical cancer among Zambian women: rapid assessment by peer educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Susan; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi; Kapambwe, Sharon; Mkumba, Gracilia; Stringer, Jeff; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant; Pfaendler, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Objective To make a rapid assessment of the common myths and misconceptions surrounding the causes of cervical cancer and lack of screening among unscreened low-income Zambian women. Methods We initiated a door-to-door community-based initiative, led by peer educators, to inform unscreened women about the existence of a new see-and-treat cervical cancer prevention program. During home visits peer educators posed the following two questions to women: 1. What do you think causes cervical cancer? 2. Why haven’t you been screened for cervical cancer? The most frequent types of responses gathered in this exercise were analyzed thematically. Results Peer educators contacted over 1100 unscreened women over a period of two months. Their median age was 33 years, a large majority (58%) were not educated beyond primary school, over two-thirds (71%) did not have monthly incomes over 500,000 Zambian Kwacha (US$100) per month, and just over half (51%) were married and cohabiting with their spouses. Approximately 75% of the women engaged in discussions had heard of cervical cancer and had heard of the new cervical cancer prevention program in the local clinic. The responses of unscreened low-income Zambian women to questions posed by peer educators in urban Lusaka reflect the variety of prevalent ‘folk’ myths and misconceptions surrounding cervical cancer and its prevention methods. Conclusion The information in our rapid assessment can serve as a basis for developing future educational and intervention campaigns for improving uptake of cervical cancer prevention services in Zambia. It also speaks to the necessity of ensuring that programs addressing women’s reproductive health take into account societal inputs at the time they are being developed and implemented. Taking a community-based participatory approach to program development and implementation will help ensure sustainability and impact. PMID:20595342

  19. Radiolabeling as a tool to study uptake pathways in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schymura, Stefan; Hildebrand, Heike; Franke, Karsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Fricke, T. [Vita34 BioPlanta, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The identification of major uptake pathways in plants is an important factor when evaluation the fate of manufactured nanoparticles in the environment and the associated risks. Using different radiolabeling techniques we were able to show a predominantly particulate uptake for CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) in contrast to a possible uptake in the form of ionic cerium.

  20. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to measure...

  2. CONSEXPO 3.0, consumer exposure and uptake models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen MP van; LBM

    2001-01-01

    The report provides a modelling approach to consumer exposure to chemicals, based on mathematical contact, exposure and uptake models. For each route of exposure, a number of exposure and uptake models are included. A general framework joins the exposure and uptake models selected by the user. By

  3. 21 CFR 892.1320 - Nuclear uptake probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear uptake probe. 892.1320 Section 892.1320...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1320 Nuclear uptake probe. (a) Identification. A nuclear uptake probe is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclide taken up by a...

  4. Capturing Individual Uptake: Toward a Disruptive Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and illustrates a qualitative research methodology for studies of uptake. It does so by articulating a theoretical framework for qualitative investigations of uptake and detailing a research study designed to invoke and capture students' uptakes in a first-year writing classroom. The research design sought to make uptake…

  5. Copper and calcium uptake in colored hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, K E; Kilburn, M; Schroeder, M; Martin, B G H; Hawes, C; Marsh, J M; Grovenor, C R M

    2009-01-01

    During hair coloring a number of disulfide bonds in cystine are oxidized (1) to create cysteic acid, forming binding sites for metal ions such as Ca(2+ )and Cu(2+ )from tap water (2). The increased uptake of these metals can have a detrimental impact on fiber properties-for example, reducing shine and causing a poor wet and dry feel (3). In addition, the increased uptake of copper can also contribute to further fiber damage during subsequent coloring due to its ability to take part in metal-induced radical chemistry (4). It is important to know where in the fibers these metals are located in order to either effectively remove these metals or control their chemistry. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) has been used to locate the calcium and copper within hair that has been treated with a colorant and washed multiple times in tap water containing these ions. Untreated hair is used as a baseline standard material. Images with up to 50-nm spatial resolution of the preferential locations of calcium uptake were obtained, showing a high concentration of calcium in the cuticle region of colored hair, specifically in the sulfur-rich regions (A-layer and exocuticle).

  6. Antibiotic uptake by alveolar macrophages of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, W L; Boozer, R M; King-Thompson, N L

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, particularly when associated with chronic pulmonary disease, increases the risk of respiratory tract infection. Thus, we elevated the uptake of antibiotics by alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from persons who smoke and have associated pulmonary abnormalities, circumstances which adversely affect certain macrophage functions. The entry of radiolabeled drugs into AM was determined by a velocity-gradient centrifugation technique, and uptake was expressed as the ratio of cellular to extracellular antibiotic concentration (C/E). Cefamandole and penicillin G were taken up poorly by the AM obtained from smokers (C/E less than or equal to 1). Cellular levels of isoniazid, gentamicin, and tetracycline were similar to their extracellular concentrations. The lipid-soluble drugs lincomycin, chloramphenicol, and rifampin were concentrated severalfold by the AM from smokers (C/E = 3 to 11). Ethambutol also entered macrophages readily (C/E = 11). Erythromycin and clindamycin were massively concentrated by the AM from smokers (C/E = 23 to 56). The AM of smokers accumulated a lipid-soluble antibiotic (rifampin) and actively transported agents (erythromycin propionate, clindamycin) more avidly than did the AM of nonsmokers. Augmented uptake of these antibiotics by the AM of smokers may be related to structural and functional alterations induced by smoking. PMID:3985596

  7. Methylcellulose-Directed Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Zeolite NaA with High CO2 Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshod Shakarova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite NaA nanocrystals with a narrow particle size distribution were prepared by template-free hydrothermal synthesis in thermo-reversible methylcellulose gels. The effects of the amount of methylcellulose, crystallization time and hydrothermal treatment temperature on the crystallinity and particle size distribution of the zeolite NaA nanocrystals were investigated. We found that the thermogelation of methylcellulose in the alkaline Na2O-SiO2-Al2O3-H2O system played an important role in controlling the particle size. The synthesized zeolite nanocrystals are highly crystalline, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM shows that the nanocrystals can also display a well-defined facetted morphology. Gas adsorption studies on the synthesized nanocrystalline zeolite NaA showed that nanocrystals with a size of 100 nm displayed a high CO2 uptake capacity (4.9 mmol/g at 293 K at 100 kPa and a relatively rapid uptake rate compared to commercially available, micron-sized particles. Low-cost nanosized zeolite adsorbents with a high and rapid uptake are important for large scale gas separation processes, e.g., carbon capture from flue gas.

  8. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  9. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  10. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  11. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  12. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr uptake by sunflower cultivated under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Valenova, Sarka [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vavrikova, Zuzana [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: vanek@uochb.cas.cz

    2006-07-01

    The {sup 9}Sr and {sup 137}Cs uptake by the plant Helianthus annuus L. was studied during cultivation in a hydroponic medium. The accumulation of radioactivity in plants was measured after 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of cultivation. About 12% of {sup 137}Cs and 20% of {sup 9}Sr accumulated during the experiments. We did not find any differences between the uptake of radioactive and stable caesium and strontium isotopes. Radioactivity distribution within the plant was determined by autoradiography. {sup 137}Cs was present mainly in nodal segments, leaf veins and young leaves. High activity of {sup 9}Sr was localized in leaf veins, stem, central root and stomata. The influence of stable elements or analogues on the transfer behaviour was investigated. The percentage of non-active caesium and strontium concentration in plants decreased with the increasing initial concentration of Cs or Sr in the medium. The percentage of {sup 9}Sr activity in plants decreased with increasing initial activity of the nuclide in the medium, but the activity of {sup 137}Cs in plants increased. The influence of K{sup +} and NH{sub 4} {sup +} on the uptake of {sup 137}Cs and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} on the uptake of {sup 9}Sr was tested. The highest accumulation of {sup 137}Cs (24-27% of the initial activity of {sup 137}Cs) was found in the presence of 10 mM potassium and 12 mM ammonium ions. Accumulation of about 22% of initial activity of {sup 9}Sr was determined in plants grown on the medium with 8 mM calcium ions.

  13. Approaches to improving breast screening uptake: evidence and experience from Tower Hamlets

    OpenAIRE

    Eilbert, K W; Carroll, K.; Peach, J.; Khatoon, S; Basnett, I; McCulloch, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an innovative whole-systems approach to improving uptake of breast screening in Tower Hamlets, a deprived borough in the East End of London with a large minority ethnic population. The approach, developed by the public health team at NHS Tower Hamlets, draws on analysis of needs and existing literature about effective interventions to promote breast screening. Social marketing research led to a campaign targeted at Bangladeshi women, together with a range of initiatives ...

  14. IntermIttent PreventIve treatment and Bed nets uPtake among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IntErMIttEnt PrEvEntIvE trEAtMEnt And BEd nEts uPtAkE AMong PrEgnAnt woMEn. In kEnyA s. M. karoki, Bsc, MsC, Ministry of ... The use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets ..... was conducted through the structured operational research and training Initiative (sort.

  15. Ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake in mouse eggs and preimplantation conceptuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Campione, A.L. (Department of Biochemistry, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Downers Grove, IL (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The results of histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have been used elsewhere to support the hypothesis that Na+/K(+)-ATPase expression is initiated or increases dramatically in preimplantation mouse conceptuses just before they begin to cavitate. Moreover, localization of the enzyme in the inner membrane of the mural trophoblast is thought to be involved directly in formation and maintenance of the blastocyst cavity. Presumably, Na+/K(+)-ATPase extrudes the cation, Na+, and therefore water into the cavity. The cation transporting activity of the enzyme can be determined by measuring ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake by cells. Therefore, we measured Rb+ uptake in mouse eggs and preimplantation conceptuses at various stages of development. 86Rb+ uptake by conceptuses increased linearly with time for at least 60 min in medium containing 0.7 mM total Rb+ plus K+ in the absence or presence of 1.0 mM ouabain, and ouabain inhibited more than 70% of 86Rb+ uptake. The ouabain concentration at 1/2 of maximum inhibition of the ouabain-sensitive component of 86Rb+ uptake was about 10-20 microM in eggs and conceptuses at all stages of preimplantation development. Moreover, ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake had a twofold higher Vmax value in blastocysts than in eggs or conceptuses at earlier stages of development (i.e., approximately 173 vs 70-100 fmole.conceptus-1.min-1), although the total cell surface area also was probably about two times greater in blastocysts than in eggs or other conceptuses. Ouabain-sensitive Rb+ transport in eggs and conceptuses may have occurred via a single ouabain-sensitive Rb+ transporter with a Hill coefficient of 1.5-1.8 (Hill plots). When it was assumed that the Hill coefficient had a value of 2.0, however, eggs and conceptuses appeared to contain at least two forms of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity.

  16. Summer peaks in uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) and other adolescent vaccines in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Rimer, Barbara K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonality in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could have a large impact on national cancer prevention efforts. We hypothesized that uptake of HPV vaccine and other adolescent vaccines in the United States would be highest in the summer. Methods Data came from healthcare provider-verified vaccination records for 70,144 adolescents (ages 13–17) from the 2008–2012 versions of the National Immunization Survey-Teen. Using the Edwards method for testing annual trends, we examined seasonal patterns in uptake of HPV and other recommended adolescent vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) booster and meningococcal vaccine). HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of the first of the three-dose series) data were for female adolescents. Results Uptake for HPV and other adolescent vaccines peaked in the summer across years and states (all p<.001). Uptake was 5 times as frequent at the peak as at the trough for HPV vaccine, and HPV vaccine initiation was highest in June, July, and August (percent of doses delivered in these months: 38.7%). The same pattern existed for Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccine. Concomitant (same-day) vaccination of HPV vaccine with other adolescent vaccines also demonstrated summer peaks each year nationally (all p<.001). Conclusion Uptake of adolescent vaccines increased dramatically in summer months. These summer peaks are an important opportunity for interventions focused on concomitant vaccination. Impact The potential cancer prevention impact of HPV vaccination programs could be increased, for example, by delivering messages about concomitant vaccination during the summer, when adolescents and their parents might be most open to them. PMID:26677211

  17. WRKY6 Transcription Factor Restricts Arsenate Uptake and Transposon Activation in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, Gabriel; Sánchez-Bermejo, Eduardo; de Lorenzo, Laura; Crevillén, Pedro; Fraile-Escanciano, Ana; TC, Mohan; Mouriz, Alfonso; Catarecha, Pablo; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Olsson, Sanna; Leo del Puerto, Yolanda; Mateos, Isabel; Rojo, Enrique; Hernández, Luis E.; Jarillo, Jose A.; Piñeiro, Manuel; Paz-Ares, Javier; Leyva, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Stress constantly challenges plant adaptation to the environment. Of all stress types, arsenic was a major threat during the early evolution of plants. The most prevalent chemical form of arsenic is arsenate, whose similarity to phosphate renders it easily incorporated into cells via the phosphate transporters. Here, we found that arsenate stress provokes a notable transposon burst in plants, in coordination with arsenate/phosphate transporter repression, which immediately restricts arsenate uptake. This repression was accompanied by delocalization of the phosphate transporter from the plasma membrane. When arsenate was removed, the system rapidly restored transcriptional expression and membrane localization of the transporter. We identify WRKY6 as an arsenate-responsive transcription factor that mediates arsenate/phosphate transporter gene expression and restricts arsenate-induced transposon activation. Plants therefore have a dual WRKY-dependent signaling mechanism that modulates arsenate uptake and transposon expression, providing a coordinated strategy for arsenate tolerance and transposon gene silencing. PMID:23922208

  18. WRKY6 transcription factor restricts arsenate uptake and transposon activation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, Gabriel; Sánchez-Bermejo, Eduardo; de Lorenzo, Laura; Crevillén, Pedro; Fraile-Escanciano, Ana; Tc, Mohan; Mouriz, Alfonso; Catarecha, Pablo; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Olsson, Sanna; Leo Del Puerto, Yolanda; Mateos, Isabel; Rojo, Enrique; Hernández, Luis E; Jarillo, Jose A; Piñeiro, Manuel; Paz-Ares, Javier; Leyva, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Stress constantly challenges plant adaptation to the environment. Of all stress types, arsenic was a major threat during the early evolution of plants. The most prevalent chemical form of arsenic is arsenate, whose similarity to phosphate renders it easily incorporated into cells via the phosphate transporters. Here, we found that arsenate stress provokes a notable transposon burst in plants, in coordination with arsenate/phosphate transporter repression, which immediately restricts arsenate uptake. This repression was accompanied by delocalization of the phosphate transporter from the plasma membrane. When arsenate was removed, the system rapidly restored transcriptional expression and membrane localization of the transporter. We identify WRKY6 as an arsenate-responsive transcription factor that mediates arsenate/phosphate transporter gene expression and restricts arsenate-induced transposon activation. Plants therefore have a dual WRKY-dependent signaling mechanism that modulates arsenate uptake and transposon expression, providing a coordinated strategy for arsenate tolerance and transposon gene silencing.

  19. Blood-brain barrier permeability and brain uptake mechanism of kainic Acid and dihydrokainic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Mikko; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-01-01

    tools in various in vivo central nervous system disease models in rodents, as well as being templates in the design of novel ligands affecting the glutamatergic system. Both molecules are highly polar but yet capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We used an in situ rat brain perfusion...... technique to determine the brain uptake mechanism and permeability across the BBB. To determine KA and DHK concentrations in the rat brain, simple and rapid sample preparation and liquid chromatography mass spectrometer methods were developed. According to our results the BBB permeability of KA and DHK...... is low, 0.25 × 10(-6) and 0.28 × 10(-6) cm/s for KA and DHK, respectively. In addition, the brain uptake is mediated by passive diffusion, and not by active transport. Furthermore, the non-specific plasma and brain protein binding of KA and DHK was determined to be low, which means that the unbound drug...

  20. The uptake and accumulation of phosphorous and nitrates and the activity of nitrate reductase in cucumber seedlings treated with PbCl2 or CdCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Burzyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of 4-day-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings with PbCl2 or CdCl2 caused a significant increase in the accumulation of heavy metals by the plants, especially in the roots. The accumulated Pb initially enhanced the uptake of phosphorous after the plants had been transferred to a nutrient medium (6, 24 hrs, but after only 48 Ins the uptake had dropped to below control level. The plants treated with Cd exhibited a constant decreased phosphorous uptake level. The accumulated lead and cadmium also inhibited nitrate uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase. It is suggested that the reason for the decreased nitrate reductase activity lay rather in the lower nitrate uptake than in a direct effect of the heavy metals on the enzyme.

  1. Uptake and predictors of contraceptive use in Afghan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Mohammad H; Ali, Mohamed M; Brown, Nick J W; Noormal, Bashir

    2015-01-01

    Afghanistan has one of the world's highest fertility rates and, related to this, an infant mortality rate far higher than its South Asian neighbors. Contraception enhances family spacing, improves women's safety in child birth and, as a result, reduces infant and child mortality. Until recently, there has been a paucity of information on the comparative rates of contraceptive practices in the country and socioeconomic correlates of uptake. We aimed to elucidate the factors influencing the use of contraception in Afghanistan using recent, robust national data. Using Afghanistan Mortality Survey (AMS) 2010 data, the distribution of Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) and correlates of contraceptive use among currently married women aged 15-49 years were explored. We initially summarised descriptive data on 25,743 married women and then derived predictors of the use of any form of contraception using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence of self-reported current use of any contraceptive method was 21.8% (95% CI: 20.4-23.4) at the national level though there was a wide variation in practice between provinces. Herat province in the West region had a highest contraceptive prevalence rate of 49.4% while Paktika in the Southeast region had the lowest CPR of 2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a family size of greater than 6 living children strongly predicted contraceptive use (AOR 7.4 (95% CI:6.1-9.0)). Other independent predictors included: secondary or high level of education (AOR 2.1 (95% CI: 1.8-2.5)) and being in the wealthiest stratum (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-3.0)). Rural residence predicted a lower use of contraception (AOR, 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56-0.92). Contraceptive uptake rate was low overall with wide inter provincial variation. Strengthening female education, targeting married women in rural area and women with no education may enhance the effectiveness of National Family planning program in Afghanistan.

  2. Hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of manganese in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Michael S; Boyer, James L; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2009-05-01

    The liver is a major organ involved in regulating whole body manganese (Mn) homeostasis; however, the mechanisms of Mn transport across the hepatocyte basolateral and canalicular membranes remain poorly defined. To gain insight into these transport steps, the present study measured hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of Mn in an evolutionarily primitive marine vertebrate, the elasmobranch Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate. Mn was rapidly removed from the recirculating perfusate of isolated perfused skate livers in a dose-dependent fashion; however, only a small fraction was released into bile (skate hepatocytes in culture. Mn uptake was inhibited by a variety of divalent metals, but not by cesium. Analysis of the concentration-dependence of Mn uptake revealed of two components, with apparent K(m) values 1.1+/-0.1 microM and 112+/-29 microM. The K(m) value for the high-affinity component was similar to the measured skate blood Mn concentration, 1.9+/-0.5 microM. Mn uptake was reduced by nearly half when bicarbonate was removed from the culture medium, but was unaffected by a change in pH from 6.5 to 8.5, or by substitution of Na with Li or K. Mn efflux from the hepatocytes was also rapid, and was inhibited when cells were treated with 0.5 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol to deplete ATP levels. These data indicate that skate liver has efficient mechanisms for removing Mn from the sinusoidal circulation, whereas overall biliary excretion is low and appears to be mediated in part by an ATP-sensitive mechanism.

  3. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  4. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  5. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  6. Factors Influencing the Uptake of a Mechatronics Curriculum Initiative in Five Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Howard; Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    While the ready-made Lego[TM] Robotics kits are popular in schools and are used by students at both primary and secondary year levels, using the Picaxe microcontroller (chip) to create simple electronic devices, including robotic devices is less popular. The latter imposes an additional challenge as a result of the need to construct the universal…

  7. Initial uptake and evidence of safe prescribing practice with Buproprion (Zyban).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D; Bennett, K; Heery, A; Feely, J

    2004-06-01

    To study the effect of safety concerns and the introduction of freely available nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on the prescribing of Buproprion within the General Medical Services (GMS) scheme in Ireland. Using the state-supported GMS prescription database in Ireland, we identified 8166 patients who were prescribed Buproprion and 18,450 patients who were prescribed NRT over a 12-month-period. A decline in the prescribing of Buproprion was noted which coincided with concerns regarding the safety of the drug but which preceded the introduction of NRT to the GMS. Furthermore, patients who were prescribed Buproprion were less likely to be co-prescribed potentially interacting drugs (odds ratio (OR): 0.48, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.42, 0.54) or drugs known to reduce seizure threshold (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.6, 0.67) indicating good prescribing practice. Patients aged 65 years or more were less likely to be prescribed any form of smoking cessation therapy compared with those aged Buproprion and were likely to have been influenced both by the safety concerns and the introduction of freely available NRT to the GMS population. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Calcium-sensing receptors signal constitutive macropinocytosis and facilitate the uptake of NOD2 ligands in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Canton, Johnathan; Schlam, Daniel; Breuer, Christian; G?tschow, Michael; Glogauer, Michael; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis can be induced in several cell types by stimulation with growth factors. In selected cell types, notably macrophages and dendritic cells, macropinocytosis occurs constitutively, supporting the uptake of antigens for subsequent presentation. Despite their different mode of initiation and contrasting physiological roles, it is tacitly assumed that both types of macropinocytosis are mechanistically identical. We report that constitutive macropinocytosis is stringently calcium de...

  9. Characterization of cadmium uptake in Lactobacillus plantarum and isolation of cadmium and manganese uptake mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Z.; Reiske, H.R.; Wilson, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    Two different Cd{sup 2+} uptake systems were identified in Lactobacillus plantarum. One is a high-affinity, high-velocity Mn{sup 2+} uptake system which also takes up Cd{sup 2+} and is induced by Mn{sup 2+} starvation. The calculated K{sub m} and V{sub max} are 0.26 {mu}M and 3.6 {mu}mol g of dry cell{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Unlike Mn{sup 2+} uptake, which is facilitated by citrate and related tricarboxylic acids, Cd{sup 2+} uptake is weakly inhibited by citrate. Cd{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} are competitive inhibitors of each other, and the affinity of the system for Cd{sup 2+} is higher than that for Mn{sup 2+}. The other Cd{sup 2+} uptake system is expressed in Mn{sup 2+}-sufficient cells, and no K{sub m} can be calculated for it because uptake is nonsaturable. Mn{sup 2+} does not compete for transport through this system, nor does any other tested cation, i.e., Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, or Ni{sup 2+}. Both systems require energy, since uncouplers completely inhibit their activities. Two Mn{sup 2+}-dependent L. plantarum mutants were isolated by chemical mutagenesis and ampicillin enrichment. They required more than 5,000 times as much Mn{sup 2+} for growth as the parental strain. Mn{sup 2+} starvation-induced Cd{sup 2+} uptake in both mutants was less than 5% the wild-type rate. The low level of long-term Mn{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+} accumulation by the mutant strains also shows that the mutations eliminate the high-affinity Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} uptake system.

  10. High and Low Affinity Urea Root Uptake: Involvement of NIP5;1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayiu; Menz, Jochen; Häussermann, Iris; Benz, Martin; Fujiwara, Toru; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-08-01

    Urea is the most widespread nitrogen (N) fertilizer worldwide and is rapidly degraded in soil to ammonium by urease. Ammonium is either taken up by plant roots or is further processed to nitrate by soil microorganisms. However, urea can be taken up by roots and is further degraded to ammonium by plant urease for assimilation. When urea is supplied under sterile conditions, it acts as a poor N source for seedlings or adult Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Here, the gene expression of young seedlings exposed to urea and ammonium nitrate nutrition was compared. Several primary metabolism and transport genes, including those for nitrate and urea, were differentially expressed in seedlings. However, urease and most major intrinsic proteins were not differentially expressed, with the exception of NIP6;1, a urea-permeable channel, which was repressed. Furthermore, little overlap with the gene expression with ammonium as the sole N source was observed, confirming that pure urea nutrition is not associated with the ammonium toxicity syndrome in seedlings. The direct root uptake of urea was increased under boron deficiency, in both the high and low affinity range. This activity was entirely mediated by the NIP5;1 channel, which was confirmed to transport urea when expressed in oocytes. The uptake of urea in the high and low affinity range was also determined for maize and wheat roots. The urea uptake by maize roots was only about half that of wheat, but was not stimulated by boron deficiency or N deficiency in either species. This analysis identifies novel components of the urea uptake systems in plants, which may become agronomically relevant to urea uptake and utilization, as stabilized urea fertilizers become increasingly popular. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Gas6-Axl Protein Interaction Mediates Endothelial Uptake of Platelet Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, Kaisa E; Tran, Sinh; Mörgelin, Matthias; Prince, Raja; Calzavarini, Sara; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2016-05-13

    Upon activation, platelets release plasma membrane-derived microparticles (PMPs) exposing phosphatidylserine on their surface. The functions and clearance mechanism of these microparticles are incompletely understood. As they are pro-coagulant and potentially pro-inflammatory, rapid clearance from the circulation is essential for prevention of thrombotic diseases. The tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAMs) and their ligands protein S and Gas6 are involved in the uptake of phosphatidylserine-exposing apoptotic cells in macrophages and dendritic cells. Both TAMs and their ligands are expressed in the vasculature, the functional significance of which is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how vascular TAMs and their ligands may mediate endothelial uptake of PMPs. PMPs, generated from purified human platelets, were isolated by ultracentrifugation and labeled with biotin or PKH67. The uptake of labeled microparticles in the presence of protein S and Gas6 in human aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells was monitored by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and confocal/electron microscopy. We found that both endothelial cell types can phagocytose PMPs, and by using TAM-blocking antibodies or siRNA knockdown of individual TAMs, we show that the uptake is mediated by endothelial Axl and Gas6. As circulating PMP levels were not altered in Gas6(-/-) mice compared with Gas6(+/+) mice, we hypothesize that the Gas6-mediated uptake is not a means to clear the bulk of circulating PMPs but may serve to locally phagocytose PMPs generated at sites of platelet activation and as a way to effect endothelial responses. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Kinetics of Uptake and Washout of Lidocaine in Rat Sciatic Nerve In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Stanley; Strichartz, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background The potency and efficacy of local anesthetics injected clinically for peripheral nerve block depends strongly on the rate of neural drug uptake. However, since diffusion into surrounding tissues and removal by the vascular system are major factors in the overall distribution of lidocaine in vivo, true kinetics of drug/neural tissue interactions must be studied in the absence of those confounding factors. Methods Uptake: Ensheathed or desheathed isolated rat sciatic nerves were exposed to [14C]-lidocaine for 0-180min and then removed and the lidocaine content of nerve and sheath analyzed. Washout: Isolated nerves were soaked in [14C]-lidocaine for 60min and then placed in lidocaine-free solution for 0-30min, with samples removed at different times to assess the drug content. Experimental variables included the effects of the ensheathing epineurium, lidocaine concentration, pH, presence of CO2-bicarbonate, and incubation duration. Results The equilibrium uptake of lidocaine increased with incubation time, concentration and the fraction of molecules in the non-ionized form. The uptake rate was unaffected by drug concentration, but was about halved by the presence of the epineurial sheath, with the washout rate slowed less. Slight alkalinization, from pH 6.8 to pH 7.4, by bicarbonate-CO2 buffer or a non-bicarbonate buffer, enhanced the neural uptake, and to the same degree. The washout of lidocaine was faster after shorter incubations at high concentrations than when equal amounts of lidocaine were taken up after long incubations at low lidocaine concentrations. Conclusion Lidocaine enters a nerve by a process other than free diffusion, through an epineurial sheath that is a slight obstacle. Given the rapid entry in vitro compared to the much smaller and transient content measured in vivo, it seems highly unlikely that lidocaine equilibrates with the nerve during a peripheral blockade. PMID:23400993

  13. Contrasting macrophage activation by fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide particles is associated with different uptake mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Annette M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhalation of (nanoparticles may lead to pulmonary inflammation. However, the precise mechanisms of particle uptake and generation of inflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages (AM are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between particles and AM and their associated pro-inflammatory effects in relation to particle size and physico-chemical properties. NR8383 rat lung AM were treated with ultrafine (uf, fine (f TiO2 or fine crystalline silica (DQ12 quartz. Physico-chemical particle properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetry. Aggregation and agglomeration tendency of the particles were determined in assay-specific suspensions by means of dynamic light scattering. All three particle types were rapidly taken up by AM. DQ12 and ufTiO2 , but not fTiO2 , caused increased extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 mRNA expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α release. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA expression was increased most strongly by ufTiO2 , while DQ12 exclusively triggered interleukin (IL 1β release. However, oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration and increased intracellular ROS were observed with all three samples. Uptake inhibition experiments with cytochalasin D, chlorpromazine and a Fcγ receptor II (FcγRII antibody revealed that the endocytosis of fTiO2 by the macrophages involves actin-dependent phagocytosis and macropinocytosis as well as clathrin-coated pit formation, whereas the uptake of ufTiO2 was dominated by FcγIIR. The uptake of DQ12 was found to be significantly reduced by all three inhibitors. Our findings suggest that the contrasting AM responses to fTiO2 , ufTiO2 and DQ12 relate to differences in the involvement of specific uptake mechanisms.

  14. Effect of phosphorus stress on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and phosphorus uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeela Ghaffar

    Full Text Available This study was designed to advance understanding of phosphorus regulation of Microcystis aeruginosa growth, phosphorus uptake and storage in changing phosphorus (P conditions as would occur in lakes. We hypothesized that Microcystis growth and nutrient uptake would fit classic models by Monod, Droop, and Michaelis-Menten in these changing conditions. Microcystis grown in luxury nutrient concentrations was transferred to treatments with phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0-256 μg P∙L-1 and luxury nitrogen. Dissolved phosphorus concentration, cell phosphorus quota, P uptake rate and cell densities were measured at day 3 and 6. Results showed little relationship to predicted models. Microcystis growth was asymptotically related to P treatment from day 0-3, fitting Monod model well, but negatively related to P treatment and cell quota from day 3-6. From day 0-3, cell quota was negatively related to P treatments at <2 μg∙L-1, but increased slightly at higher P. Cell quota decreased greatly in low P treatments from day 3-6, which may have enabled high growths in low P treatments. P uptake was positively and linearly related to P treatment during both periods. Negative uptake rates and increases in measured culture phosphorus concentrations to 5 μg∙L-1 in the lowest P treatments indicated P leaked from cells into culture medium. This leakage during early stages of the experiment may have been sufficient to stimulate metabolism and use of intracellular P stores in low P treatments for rapid growth. Our study shows P regulation of Microcystis growth can be complex as a result of changing P concentrations, and this complexity may be important for modeling Microcystis for nutrient and ecosystem management.

  15. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by different methods have become increasingly important for various applications at the cellular level. In order to understand how these nanostructures “behave” and for studying their internalization kinetics, several attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic pH-dependent dye pHrodo™ Red, covalently bound to the aminosilane surface. Time-lapse live imaging of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells interacting with the labeled iron nanowires is performed for 24 hours. As the pHrodo™ Red conjugated nanowires are non-fluorescent outside the cells but fluoresce brightly inside, internalized nanowires are distinguished from non-internalized ones and their behavior inside the cells can be tracked for the respective time length. A machine learning-based computational framework dedicated to automatic analysis of live cell imaging data, Cell Cognition, is adapted and used to classify cells with internalized and non-internalized nanowires and subsequently determine the uptake percentage by cells at different time points. An uptake of 85 % by HCT 116 cells is observed after 24 hours incubation at NW-to-cell ratios of 200. While the approach of using pHrodo™ Red for internalization studies is not novel in the literature, this study reports for the first time the utilization of a machine-learning based time-resolved automatic analysis pipeline for quantification of nanowire uptake by cells. This pipeline has also been used for comparison studies with nickel nanowires coated with APTES and labeled with pHrodo™ Red, and another cell line derived from the cervix carcinoma, HeLa. It has thus the potential to be used for studying the interaction of different types of nanostructures with potentially any live cell types.

  16. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  17. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  18. Studies on calcium uptake by myometrial microsomes with particular reference to the dependence on inorganic phosphate and oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, S

    1978-09-01

    Ca uptake by microsomes isolated from non-pregnant rabbit myometrium was potentiated by both inorganic phosphate (Pi) and oxalate anions. Both Pi and oxalate had little effect on the initial rate of uptake but a pronounced effect on the capacity of Ca uptake measured after 20 min which was greater in the presence of oxalate than that of Pi (5 mM each). The presence or absence of sucrose in the uptake medium had a significant effect on oxalate-induced potentiation of Ca uptake but not on that potentiated by Pi or that measured in the absence of either potentiating anion. A part of Ca accumulated additionally under the influence of sucrose could be removed by washing microsomes with KCl. Another significant difference between the pontentiating effect of oxalate and Pi was observed when the pH of the incubation medium was varied. In the presence of oxalate the pH optimum was between 6.4--6.8, whereas that in its absence or in the presence of Pi the optimal pH was around 7.2. Reduction in pH from 7.2 to 6.8 along with the substitution of KCl by sucrose resulted in 3-fold increase in Ca uptake when oxalate was used as the potentiating anion. The results suggest that Ca is taken up by a different mechanism in the presence of oxalate than that in its absence or when oxalate anion is substituted with inorganic phosphate.

  19. Nitrate supply and phytoplankton uptake kinetics in the euphotic layer of a Gulf Stream warm-core ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James J.; Garside, Chris; Nevins, John L.

    1992-03-01

    Chcmiluminescent nitrate analysis was used in conjuction with 15N-labeled B=-BeB=-Bek uptake by phytoplankton in warm-core ring 82B. The relatively high precision of this method compared to conventional B=-Bek analyses permits reliable estimates of B=-Bek uptake in oligotrophic waters. Aggregation of uptake data from six profiles from 2 days of observation permitted the calculation of B=-Bek turnover times ranging from about 4 h near the surface to 150 h at the top of the nitracline. Turnover times in the euphotic zone and the observed half saturation constant of 93 nmol kg -1 for B=-Bek uptake imply nitrogen limitation for these populations. Extrapolation from the linear portion of the kinetic curve revealed that a B=-Bek threshold concentration of about 16 nmol kg -1 was required for the initiation of uptake. These highly precise uptake measurements were used in a one-dimensional model to estimate the vertical flux of B=-Bek. Maximum near-surface and deep-euphotic-zone eddy diffusivity values ( Kz)were 3 × 10 -3 and 5 × 10 -4 m 2 s -1, respectively, prior toamajor storm. Following the storm Kz values were substantially greater.

  20. High tumor uptake of (64)Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær; Persson, Morten; Madsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The use of copper-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracers in cancer studies is increasing. However, as copper has previously been found in high concentrations in human tumor tissue in vivo, instability of PET tracers could result in tumor accumulation of non-tracer-bound radioactive copper...... that may influence PET measurements. Here we determine the degree of (64)Cu uptake in five commonly used human cancer xenograft models in mice. Additionally, we compare copper accumulation in tumor tissue to gene expression of human copper transporter 1 (CTR1)....

  1. Impact of assimilable nitrogen availability in glucose uptake kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Margarida; Madeira, Sara Cordeiro; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2012-07-30

    The expression and activity of the different Saccharomyces cerevisiae hexose uptake systems (Hxt) and the kinetics of glucose uptake are considered essential to industrial alcoholic fermentation performance. However, the dynamics of glucose uptake kinetics during the different stages of fermentation, depending on glucose and nitrogen availability, is very poorly characterized. The objective of the present work was to examine thoroughly the alterations occurring in glucose uptake kinetics during alcoholic fermentation, by the wine strain S. cerevisiae PYCC 4072, of a synthetic grape juice basal medium with either a limiting or non-limiting initial nitrogen concentration and following nitrogen supplementation of the nitrogen-depleted sluggish fermentation. Independently of the initial concentration of the nitrogen source, glucose transport capacity is maximal during the early stages of fermentation and presumably sustained by the low-affinity and high-capacity glucose transporter Hxt1p. During nitrogen-limited sluggish fermentation, glucose uptake capacity was reduced to approximately 20% of its initial values (Vmax = 4.9 ± 0.8 compared to 21.9 ± 1.2 μmol h⁻¹ 10⁻⁸ cells), being presumably sustained by the low-affinity glucose transporter Hxt3p (considering the calculated Km = 39.2 ± 8.6 mM). The supplementation of the sluggish fermentation broth with ammonium led to the increase of glucose transport capacity associated to the expression of different glucose uptake systems with low and high affinities for glucose (Km = 58.2 ± 9.1 and 2.7 ± 0.4 mM). A biclustering analysis carried out using microarray data, previously obtained for this yeast strain transcriptional response to equivalent fermentation conditions, indicates that the activation of the expression of genes encoding the glucose transporters Hxt2p (during the transition period to active fermentation) and Hxt3p, Hxt4p, Hxt6p and Hxt7p (during the period of

  2. Impact of assimilable nitrogen availability in glucose uptake kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Margarida

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression and activity of the different Saccharomyces cerevisiae hexose uptake systems (Hxt and the kinetics of glucose uptake are considered essential to industrial alcoholic fermentation performance. However, the dynamics of glucose uptake kinetics during the different stages of fermentation, depending on glucose and nitrogen availability, is very poorly characterized. The objective of the present work was to examine thoroughly the alterations occurring in glucose uptake kinetics during alcoholic fermentation, by the wine strain S. cerevisiae PYCC 4072, of a synthetic grape juice basal medium with either a limiting or non-limiting initial nitrogen concentration and following nitrogen supplementation of the nitrogen-depleted sluggish fermentation. Results Independently of the initial concentration of the nitrogen source, glucose transport capacity is maximal during the early stages of fermentation and presumably sustained by the low-affinity and high-capacity glucose transporter Hxt1p. During nitrogen-limited sluggish fermentation, glucose uptake capacity was reduced to approximately 20% of its initial values (Vmax = 4.9 ± 0.8 compared to 21.9 ± 1.2 μmol h-1 10-8 cells, being presumably sustained by the low-affinity glucose transporter Hxt3p (considering the calculated Km = 39.2 ± 8.6 mM. The supplementation of the sluggish fermentation broth with ammonium led to the increase of glucose transport capacity associated to the expression of different glucose uptake systems with low and high affinities for glucose (Km = 58.2 ± 9.1 and 2.7 ± 0.4 mM. A biclustering analysis carried out using microarray data, previously obtained for this yeast strain transcriptional response to equivalent fermentation conditions, indicates that the activation of the expression of genes encoding the glucose transporters Hxt2p (during the transition period to active fermentation and Hxt3p, Hxt4p, Hxt6

  3. Impact of assimilable nitrogen availability in glucose uptake kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The expression and activity of the different Saccharomyces cerevisiae hexose uptake systems (Hxt) and the kinetics of glucose uptake are considered essential to industrial alcoholic fermentation performance. However, the dynamics of glucose uptake kinetics during the different stages of fermentation, depending on glucose and nitrogen availability, is very poorly characterized. The objective of the present work was to examine thoroughly the alterations occurring in glucose uptake kinetics during alcoholic fermentation, by the wine strain S. cerevisiae PYCC 4072, of a synthetic grape juice basal medium with either a limiting or non-limiting initial nitrogen concentration and following nitrogen supplementation of the nitrogen-depleted sluggish fermentation. Results Independently of the initial concentration of the nitrogen source, glucose transport capacity is maximal during the early stages of fermentation and presumably sustained by the low-affinity and high-capacity glucose transporter Hxt1p. During nitrogen-limited sluggish fermentation, glucose uptake capacity was reduced to approximately 20% of its initial values (Vmax = 4.9 ± 0.8 compared to 21.9 ± 1.2 μmol h-1 10-8 cells), being presumably sustained by the low-affinity glucose transporter Hxt3p (considering the calculated Km = 39.2 ± 8.6 mM). The supplementation of the sluggish fermentation broth with ammonium led to the increase of glucose transport capacity associated to the expression of different glucose uptake systems with low and high affinities for glucose (Km = 58.2 ± 9.1 and 2.7 ± 0.4 mM). A biclustering analysis carried out using microarray data, previously obtained for this yeast strain transcriptional response to equivalent fermentation conditions, indicates that the activation of the expression of genes encoding the glucose transporters Hxt2p (during the transition period to active fermentation) and Hxt3p, Hxt4p, Hxt6p and Hxt7p (during the

  4. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  6. Uncertainty in projections of Southern Ocean carbon uptake and acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenduski, Nicole; Hauri, Claudine

    2017-04-01

    We investigate projections of carbon uptake and the associated acidification of the Southern Ocean over 2006-2080 using output from two ensembles of the Community Earth System Model run under business as usual (RCP8.5) and mitigation (RCP4.5) emission scenarios. On basin-wide and regional scales we observe a rapid onset of aragonite undersaturation in surface waters by mid-century that may be detrimental to calcareous organisms. An analysis of variance reveals that the speed of transition from supersaturation to undersaturation is driven almost entirely by emission scenario, as internal variability in saturation depth across ensemble members is small. Regional differences are observed in the timing and magnitude of aragonite saturation state changes. In the Patagonian Shelf region, undersaturation of the top 200m of the water column is observed by 2080 regardless of emission scenario. Whereas, in the Weddell Sea, saturation state is significantly different between the two emission scenarios by 2080, and undersaturation of the surface waters is "avoidable" if we follow RCP4.5, rather than RCP8.5.

  7. Human papillomavirus vaccination uptake in Canada: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Bird

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection in the world and the primary cause of cervical cancer. Canada introduced publicly funded HPV vaccination programs in 2006. The objectives of this study are twofold and aim to (1 determine the levels and (2 examine the various factors influencing vaccine uptake among the general Canadian population. A literature search was conducted on seven databases, followed by screening, methodological quality review (using modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and data extraction. Pooled meta-analysis and a subgroup analysis were conducted stratifying by a number of variables (age, sex, type of program, and method of payment determined apriori. A total of 718 peer-reviewed articles were initially identified with 12 remaining after screening and underwent methodological quality review. HPV vaccination uptake in Canada varied from 12.40% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.77–20.26 to 88.20% (95% CI 85.72–90.39. The pooled random effects model showed the HPV vaccination uptake to be 55.92% (95% CI 44.87–66.65. The subgroup analysis showed that vaccination uptake was 66.95% (95% CI 55.00–77.89 in participants ≤ 18 years as compared to 13.58% (95% CI 10.93–16.46 in participants > 18 years. Uptake for females was higher 57.23% (95% CI: 45.40–68.66 when compared to that of 47.01% (95% CI: 0.82–97.75 in males. HPV vaccine uptake among school-based programs was 69.62% (95% CI 57.27–80.68 as compared to 18.66% (95% CI 6.66–34.92 for community-based programs. Vaccination uptake for publicly funded programs was significantly higher 66.95% (95% CI 55.00–77.89 when compared to 13.58% (95% CI 10.92–16.46 for programs where participants had to pay out of pocket. To prevent infections and reduce the burden of HPV-related diseases (including cervical cancer, communities should be made aware and encouraged to vaccinate their children. There is a documented need to direct effort and

  8. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  9. Uptake of Quality-Related Event Standards of Practice by Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Overmars, Craig; MacMaster, Kaleigh; Mahaffey, Thomas; Zwicker, Bev; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2015-10-01

    Quality-related events (QREs), including medication errors and near misses, are an inevitable part of community pharmacy practice. As QREs have significant implications for patient safety, pharmacy regulatory authorities across North America are increasing their expectations regarding QRE reporting and learning. Such expectations, commonly encapsulated as standards of practice (SoP), vary greatly between pharmacy jurisdictions and may range from the simple requirement to document QREs occurring within the pharmacy, all the way to requiring that quality improvement plans have been put in place. This research explores the uptake of QRE reporting and learning SoP and how this uptake varies based on pharmacy characteristics including location, prescription volume, and pharmacy type. Secondary data analysis of 91 community pharmacy assessments in Nova Scotia, Canada, was used to explore uptake of QRE standards. Overall, pharmacies are performing relatively well on reporting QREs. However, despite initial success with basic QRE reporting, community pharmacy uptake of QRE learning activities is lagging. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Corrective feedback, learner uptake, and feedback perception in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfeng Fu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of corrective feedback in second language classrooms has received considerable research attention in the past few decades. However, most of this research has been conducted in English-teaching settings, either ESL or EFL. This study examined teacher feedback, learner uptake as well as learner and teacher perception of feedback in an adult Chinese as a foreign language classroom. Ten hours of classroom interactions were videotaped, transcribed and coded for analysis. Lyster and Ranta’s (1997 coding system involving six types of feedback was initially used to identify feedback frequency and learner uptake. However, the teacher was found to use a number of additional feedback types. Altogether, 12 types of feedback were identified: recasts, delayed recasts, clarification requests, translation, metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, explicit correction, asking a direct question, repetition, directing question to other students, re-asks, and using L1-English. Differences were noted in the frequency of some of the feedback types as well as learner uptake compared to what had been reported in some previous ESL and EFL studies. With respect to the new feedback types, some led to noticeable uptake. As for the students’ and teacher’s perceptions, they did not match and both the teacher and the students were generally not accurate in perceiving the frequency of each feedback type. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of context in affecting the provision and effectiveness of feedback and its relationship to student and teacher perception of feedback.

  11. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takito, J.; Shinki, T.; Sasaki, T.; Suda, T. (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 alpha,25(OH)2D3). The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane.

  12. Retrospective analysis of antiretroviral therapy uptake and retention of male clients receiving methadone maintenance therapy in two provinces in Vietnam: potential synergy of the two therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Linh Thi Thuy; Kitamura, Akiko; Do, Hoa Mai; Lai, Kim Anh; Le, Nhan Tuan; Nguyen, Van Thi Thuy; Kato, Masaya

    2017-02-17

    Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic with injection drug use being the dominant mode of HIV transmission. Vietnam has rapidly expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). This study aims to analyze ART uptake and retention among male clients receiving MMT in Vietnam in the early phase of the MMT program. The male clients (age ≥18) who were newly enrolled in care or started ART at two HIV clinics in Hanoi (2009 to 2011) and three HIV clinics in Can Tho (2010 to 2012) were included for the analysis. The CD4 lymphocyte count at HIV care enrollment and ART initiation and retention on ART were retrospectively analyzed. The values of those receiving MMT were compared with the values of two groups: those in whom injection drug use (IDU) status was documented, but were not receiving MMT, and all male clients not receiving MMT. To analyze retention, survival analysis with log rank test and Cox proportional hazard model was used. During the study period, 663 adult men were newly enrolled in HIV care (237 had IDU status documented) and 456 initiated ART (167 had IDU status documented). Among those who initiated ART, 28 were receiving MMT. At care enrolment, those receiving MMT had a median CD4 count of 230 (IQR 57-308) cells/mm3, while men self-reporting IDU and not receiving MMT and all men not receiving MMT had a median CD4 count of 158 (IQR 50-370) cells/mm3 and 143 (IQR 35-366) cells/mm3, respectively. At ART initiation, men receiving MMT had significantly higher CD4 count with median at 203 (IQR 64-290) cells/mm3 than men self-reporting IDU and not receiving MMT (80, IQR 40-220, cells/mm3, p = 0.038) and all men not receiving MMT (76, IQR 20-199, cells/mm3, p = 0.009). Those receiving MMT had a significantly higher retention rate than those self-reporting IDU but not receiving MMT (hazard ratio = 0.18, p = 0.019) and men not receiving MMT (hazard ratio = 0.20, p = 0.041). Our analysis suggests that men receiving MMT

  13. Measuring Uptake Coefficients and Henry's Law Constants of Gas-Phase Species with Models for Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, M. C.; Waring-Kidd, C.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are oxidized in the atmosphere and their products contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. These particles have been shown to have effects on visibility, climate, and human health. Current models typically under-predict SOA concentrations from field measurements. Underestimation of these concentrations could be a result of how models treat particle growth. It is often assumed that particles grow via instantaneous thermal equilibrium partitioning between liquid particles and gas-phase species. Recent work has shown that growth may be better represented by irreversible, kinetically limited uptake of gas-phase species onto more viscous, tar-like SOA. However, uptake coefficients for these processes are not known. The goal of this project is to measure uptake coefficients and solubilities for different gases onto models serving as proxies for SOA and determine how they vary based on the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase. Experiments were conducted using two approaches: attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and a flow system coupled to a mass spectrometer. The ATR crystal was coated with the SOA proxy and the gas-phase species introduced via a custom flow system. Uptake of the gas-phase species was characterized by measuring the intensity of characteristic IR bands as a function of time, from which a Henry's law constant and initial estimate of uptake coefficients could be obtained. Uptake coefficients were also measured in a flow system where the walls of the flow tube were coated with the SOA proxy and gas-phase species introduced via a moveable inlet. Uptake coefficients were derived from the decay in gas-phase species measured by mass spectrometry. The results of this work will establish a structure-interaction relationship for uptake of gases into SOA that can be implemented into regional and global models.

  14. Patterns of radioiodine uptake by the lactating breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakheet, S.M. (Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)); Hammami, M.M. (Dept. of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

    1994-07-01

    Breast uptake of radioiodine, if not suspected, may be misinterpreted as thyroid cancer metastasis to the lung. To characterize the patterns of radioiodine breast uptake, we retrospectively studied 20 radioiodine scans that were performed within 1 week of cessation of breast feeding. Four patterns of uptake were identified: ''full'', ''focal'', ''crescent'' and ''irregular''. The uptake was asymmetric in 60% (left>right in 45%, right>left in 15%), symmetric in 25% and unilateral in 15% of cases. A characteristic full bilateral uptake was present in 40% of cases. In three cases with the irregular pattern, caused in part by external contamination with radioactive milk, the uptake closely mimicked lung metastases. Delayed images, obtained in one case, showed an apparent radioiodine shift from the breast to the thyroid, suggesting that the presence of breast uptake can modulate radioiodine uptake by thyroid tissue. In a case of unilateral breast uptake, a history of mastitis was obtained, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. Breast uptake of radioiodine may take several scintigraphic patterns that are not always characteristic of the lactating breast and may affect the apparent extent of thyroid remnant/metastasis. (orig.)

  15. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model

  16. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging neurotransmitter uptake and depletion in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, W. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)]|[Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7200 (United States); Haydon, P.G. [Department of Zoology and Genetics, Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) laser-based optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) detection system was used to obtain chemical images of biological cells. Subcellular structures can be easily seen in both optical and fluorescence images. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection provides high sensitivity and low limits of detection, and it does not require coupling to fluorescent dyes. We were able to quantitatively monitor serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual astrocytes on the basis of its native fluorescence. Different regions of the cells took up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of uptake kinetics. Similarly, we observed different serotonin depletion dynamics in different astrocyte regions. There were also some astrocyte areas where no serotonin uptake or depletion was observed. Potential applications include the mapping of other biogenic species in cells as well as the ability to image their release from specific regions of cells in response to external stimuli. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  18. Dermal Uptake of Benzophenone-3 from Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn C; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Schripp, Tobias; Salthammer, Tunga; Hill, Jonathan; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2017-10-03

    Benzophenone-3 (also known as BP-3 or oxybenzone) is added to sunscreens, plastics, and some coatings to filter UV radiation. The suspected endocrine disruptor BP-3 has been detected in the air and settled dust of homes and is expected to redistribute from its original sources to other indoor compartments, including clothing. Given its physical and chemical properties, we hypothesized that dermal uptake from clothing could contribute to the body burden of this compound. First, cotton shirts were exposed to air at an elevated concentration of BP-3 for 32 days; the final air concentration was 4.4 μg/m(3). Next, three participants wore the exposed shirts for 3 h. After 3 h of exposure, participants wore their usual clothing during the collection of urine samples for the next 48 h. Urine was analyzed for BP-3, a metabolite (BP-1), and six other UV filters. The rate of urinary excretion of the sum of BP-1 and BP-3 increased for all participants during and following the 3 h of exposure. The summed mass of BP-1 and BP-3 excreted during the first 24 h attributable to wearing exposed t-shirts were 12, 9.9, and 82 μg for participants 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Analysis of these results, coupled with predictions of steady-state models, suggest that dermal uptake of BP-3 from clothing could meaningfully contribute to overall body burden.

  19. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  20. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Regulation of nutrient uptake, water uptake and growth under calcium starvation and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amor, del F.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the dynamics of growth, water and nutrient uptake, the effects of 1, 3 and 7 d of calcium starvation and the recovery capability during 7 d afterwards were investigated in vegetative tomato plants. Results showed that after only 1 d of Ca-starvation, leaf photosynthesis, leaf expansion

  3. The role of the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in regulation of Helicobacter pylori iron uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Stoof, Jeroen; Vlasblom, Ronald; Wainwright, Stuart A.; Hughes, Nicola J.; Kelly, David J.; Bereswill, Stefan; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Kist, Manfred; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Availability of the essential nutrient iron is thought to vary greatly in the gastric mucosa, and thus the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori requires regulatory responses to these environmental changes. Bacterial iron-responsive regulation is often mediated by Ferric Uptake

  4. False-positive radioactive iodine uptake mimicking miliary lung metastases in a patient affected by papillary thyroid cancer and IgA deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidowich, Andrew Paul; Reynolds, James C. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (United States); Kundu, Amartya [Dept. of MedicineUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States); Celi, Francesco S. [Div. of Endocrinology and MetabolismVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmond (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A 42-year-old female with immunoglobulin A deficiency and recurrent sinopulmonary infections underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Follow-up {sup 123}I scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake, suggesting metastatic disease. However, subsequent pathologic, biochemical and radiographic testing proved that she was in fact disease free, and the initial {sup 123}I pulmonary uptake was identified as a false positive. Inflammatory conditions may rarely cause iodine uptake in non-thyroidal tissues due to local retention, organification, and/or immunologic utilization. To avoid exposing patients to unnecessary treatments, it is critical for clinicians to recognize that comorbid pulmonary conditions may mimic metastatic PTC on radioiodine scintigraphy.

  5. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  6. The influence of time and distance traveled by bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, on permethrin uptake from treated mattress liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, Stephen A; Hymel, Sabrina N

    2017-01-01

    Residual insecticides interrupt the dispersal of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius, L.), but one of the issues encountered with residual applications is understanding the uptake of active residues by the insect. This study determined permethrin uptake by bed bugs walking on the ActiveGuard® Mattress Liner product, via a combination of video recording in arenas and gas chromatography analyses. The best model for estimating permethrin uptake utilized a covariance model (r2  = 0.469) with two factors: time of exposure (F1,55 = 2.44, P permethrin uptake was 15.1 (95% CI: 10.3-22.1) ng insect-1 within 1 min exposure, 21.0 (15.0, 31.0) ng insect-1 within 10 min and ≈ 42 (29.8, 60.6) ng insect-1 within ≥50 min exposure. Correcting for percentage recovery, these values would be increased by a factor of 1.21. This permethrin-treated fabric provides a surface from which bed bugs begin rapidly to absorb permethrin on contact and within the first 1 cm of travel. Variability in uptake was likely a result of grooming and thigmotaxis, and future work should use quantitative methods to study behaviors and formulations that increase exposure to the toxicant. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. FDG uptake in the pathologically proven papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Yun, Mi Jin; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Metastatic thyroid cancers with I-131 uptake have been known to show no increase of FDG uptake whereas those without I-131 uptake tend to demonstrate increased uptake on PET. In this study, we evaluated the degree of FDG uptake in primary thyroid cancers of papillary histology before surgery. Forty FDG PET studies were performed on the patients who had papillary cancer proven by fine needle aspiration. The degree of FDG uptake was visually categorized as positive or negative (positive if the tumor showed discernible FDG; negative if the tumor didn't) and the peak standard uptake value (peak SUV) of the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were compared with the size of PTC. The mean size of 26 PTC with positive FDG uptake was 1.9{+-} 1.4 cm (0.5 {approx} 5 cm). In 13 PTC with negative FDG uptake, the mean size of those was 0.5 {+-} 0.2 cm (0.2 {approx} 0.9 cm). All PTC larger than 1 cm (2.5 {+-}1.4 cm, 1 {approx} 5 cm) have positive FDG uptake (peak SUV = 6.4 {+-} 5.7, 1.7 {approx} 22.7). Among the micropapillary thyroid cancer (microPTC; PTC smaller than 1 cm), 8 microPTC show positive FDG uptake (peak SUV = 2.9 {+-} 1.3, 1.7 {approx} 5.5), while 13 microPTC show negative finding (peak SUV 1.3 {+-} 0.2, 1.1{approx} 1.7). The size of microPTC with positive FDG uptake is significantly larger than that of microPTC with negative FDG uptake (0.7 {+-} 0.1cm vs 0.4 {+-} 0.2 cm, {rho} = 0.01). All PTCs larger than 1cm show positive FDG uptake in our study. In other words, thyroid lesions larger than 1cm with negative FDG uptake are unlikely to be PTC. So far, only poorly differentiated thyroid cancers are known to show increased FDG uptake. Our results seem to be contradictory to what is known in the literature. Further study is needed to understand better the significance of increased FDG uptake in PTC in relation to expression of NIS and GLUT.

  8. Background Intestinal 18F-FDG Uptake Is Related to Serum Lipid Profile and Obesity in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jeon Yoon

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between background intestinal uptake on 18F-FDG PET and cardio-metabolic risk (CMR factors.A total of 326 female patients that underwent 18F-FDG PET to determine the initial stage of breast cancer were enrolled. None of the patients had history of diabetes or hypertension. The background intestinal uptake on PET was visually graded (low vs. high uptake group and quantitatively measured using the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax. SUVmax of 7 bowel segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, hepatic flexure, splenic flexure, and descending colon-sigmoid junction were averaged for the total bowel (TB SUVmax. Age, body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose level (BST, triglyceride (TG, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were the considered CMR factors. The relationships between background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake on PET and diverse CMR factors were analyzed.The visual grades based on background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake classified 100 (30.7% patients into the low uptake group, while 226 (69.3% were classified into the high uptake group. Among CMR factors, age (p = 0.004, BMI (p<0.001, and TG (p<0.001 were significantly different according to visual grade of background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake. Quantitative TB SUVmax showed significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.203, p<0.001, BMI (r = 0.373, p<0.001, TG (r = 0.338, p<0.001, cholesterol (r = 0.148, p = 0.008, and LDL (r = 0.143, p = 0.024 and significant negative correlation with HDL (r = -0.147, p = 0.022. Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI and TG were independent factors in both visually graded background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake (p = 0.027 and p = 0.023, respectively and quantitatively measured TB SUVmax (p = 0.006 and p = 0.004, respectively.Increased background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake on PET may suggest alteration of lipid metabolism and risk of cardio-metabolic disease in non

  9. Association between gallium-67 uptake by lung foci and sputum smear status in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Chin; Huang, Yung-Cheng; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Lee, Tsung-Lung; Yeh, Jun-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Rapid determination of the inflammatory and sputum smear status in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is crucial for clinical decision making. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between gallium-67 (Ga-67) uptake by lung foci and sputum smear status in patients with PTB. We also attempted to predict the patients with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-positive PTB by means of a semiquantitative measurement of Ga-67 uptake ratio using single-photon emission computed tomography images. Ninety-five patients with PTB were enrolled in this retrospective study. A volume-of-interest method was used to quantify Ga-67 uptake in single-photon emission computed tomography images. The Ga-67 uptake ratio was defined as the maximum voxel value of the pulmonary lesion divided by the maximum voxel value of normal lung tissue. The Ga-67 uptake ratio was higher in patients with active PTB than in those with inactive PTB (3.11 ± 1.52 vs. 1.42 ± 0.14, P<0.01). In active PTB, the Ga-67 uptake ratio was higher in smear-positive patients than in smear-negative patients (3.41 ± 1.60 vs. 2.16 ± 0.61, P<0.01). In patients with AFB smear grades 1+, 2+, and 3+, the Ga-67 uptake ratios were 2.51 ± 0.81, 3.30 ± 1.57, and 4.23 ± 1.73, respectively. The correlation between Ga-67 uptake ratio and AFB smear grading was statistically significant (Spearman's ρ=0.60, P<0.01). In receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, the area under the curve for the Ga-67 uptake ratio was 0.95 ± 0.02 (P<0.01) for predicting active PTB and 0.87 ± 0.04 (P<0.01) for predicting smear-positive active PTB. In patients with active PTB, more-intense Ga-67 uptake was associated with more AFB load in the sputum - that is a greater potential to transmit PTB. This finding might facilitate clinical decision making for immediate isolation and treatment to reduce transmission of PTB.

  10. Improving prescribing practices with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchett, Helen E D; Leurent, Baptiste; Baiden, Frank

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overuse of antimalarial drugs is widespread. Effective methods to improve prescribing practice remain unclear. We evaluated the impact of 10 interventions that introduced rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) on the use of tests and adherence to results in different contexts...... packages, supervision, supplies and community sensitisation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis explored variation in: (1) uptake of mRDTs (% febrile patients tested); (2) provider adherence to positive mRDTs (% Plasmodium falciparum positive prescribed/given Artemisinin Combination Treatment); (3) provider...

  11. Uptake of chemicals from indoor air: Pathways and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Building occupants are exposed to manufactured chemicals. Exposure in the indoor environment can occur via non-dietary ingestion (e.g. indoor dust), inhalation and dermal absorption including dermal uptake directly from air. The extent of dermal uptake from air has been previously studied for vol...... depend on the pathway of exposure. However, studies that investigate the health consequences of dermal uptake of SVOCs from air are lacking.......Building occupants are exposed to manufactured chemicals. Exposure in the indoor environment can occur via non-dietary ingestion (e.g. indoor dust), inhalation and dermal absorption including dermal uptake directly from air. The extent of dermal uptake from air has been previously studied...... for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Not much is however known about its role for semivolatile organics (SVOC) and therefore this exposure pathway is often neglected in exposure assessments. Dermal uptake received attention with regards to contact transfer from contaminated surfaces. Recent modeling efforts...

  12. In vitro uptake and release studies of ocular pharmaceutical agents by silicon-containing and p-HEMA hydrogel contact lens materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgard, C C S; Wong, N S; Jones, L W; Moresoli, C

    2003-05-12

    The in vitro uptake and release behaviour of cromolyn sodium, ketotifen fumarate, ketorolac tromethamine and dexamethasone sodium phosphate with silicon-containing (lotrafilcon and balafilcon) and p-HEMA-containing (etafilcon, alphafilcon, polymacon, vifilcon and omafilcon) hydrogel contact lenses indicated that both drug and material affected the uptake and release behaviour. Rapid uptake and release (within 50 min) was observed for all drugs except ketotifen fumarate which was more gradual taking approximately 5h. Furthermore, the maximum uptake differed significantly between drugs and materials. The highest average uptake (7879+/-684 microg/lens) was cromolyn sodium and the lowest average uptake (67+/-13 microg/lens) was dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Partial release of the drug taken up was observed for all drugs except dexamethasone sodium phosphate where no release was detected. Sustained release was demonstrated only by ketotifen fumarate. Drug uptake/release appeared to be a function of lens material ionicity, water and silicon content. The silicon-containing materials released less drug than the p-HEMA-containing materials. The lotrafilcon material demonstrated less interactions with the drugs than the balafilcon material which can be explained by their different bulk composition and surface treatment.

  13. Growth and nutrients uptake in Euterpe edulis Martius inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lucio Silva Moreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe edulis Martius is one of the endangered species of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest which presents low germination rate and slow seedling growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are known by their symbiosis with plants, promoting an increase of water and nutrientes uptake. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of AMF inoculation on the initial growth (6 months and nutrients uptake in E. edulis seedlings. Treatments consisted of the inoculation of pre-germinated seeds with AMF spores collected from three sites (forest, Juçara and crop, as well as a control with no inoculation. Seedlings growth, number of AMF spores in the substrate and uptake of the N, P, K, Ca and Mg macronutrients in plant tissues were analyzed. Inoculation with AMF improved the initial growth of seedlings, regardless of the source of inoculum used in the experiment, and the inoculation with material collected from rhizosphere increased the shoot and root dry biomass of seedlings by 43 % and 61 %, respectively. Inoculation with AMF provided a greater accumulation of all nutrients assessed in the shoot and root of seedlings, especially when spores were collected at the Juçara site. Inoculation with AMF is a promising strategy to improve the spread of this species.

  14. Characterization of the uptake of aqueous Ni2+ ions on nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI)

    OpenAIRE

    Efecan, Nazlı; Shahwan, Talal; Eroğlu, Ahmet E.; Lieberwirth, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the fixation of aqueous Ni2+ ions by nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI) prepared using the borohydride reduction method. The uptake of Ni2+ was tested under various experimental conditions like initial concentration, time, pH, and repetitive application of nZVI. Part of the experiments was devoted to comparing the extent of uptake of Ni2+ ions with those of Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Sr2+ ions, which belong to a wide range of standard reduction potentials. Particle si...

  15. Uptake of glutamate is impaired in the cortical penumbra of the rat following middle cerebral artery occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Torben; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    %. The present results provide direct evidence that uptake of Glu is reduced both in the ischemic core and in the penumbra of the cerebral cortex following MCAO in rats, possibly contributing to the initiation and spread of infarction. The results further indicate that uptake of Glu in the penumbra recovers......By using microdialysis extraction of (3)H-D-aspartate and concomitant recordings of extracellular direct current (DC) potentials, the effect of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was studied continuously over a period of 100 min in the cerebral cortex of rats. From analysis of the DC...

  16. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  17. The Uptake by Plants of Diethylstilboestrol and of Its Glucuronide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers Hansen, B.

    1964-01-01

    The uptake of diethylstilboestrol and its glucuronide by plants could, under certain circumstances, present a potential health hazard. The relative uptake of the two compounds has therefore been studied in rye grass, red clover, mushrooms, and maize in pot and water culture experiments. It is con......The uptake of diethylstilboestrol and its glucuronide by plants could, under certain circumstances, present a potential health hazard. The relative uptake of the two compounds has therefore been studied in rye grass, red clover, mushrooms, and maize in pot and water culture experiments...

  18. Cadmium uptake by Caco-2 cells: effects of Cd complexation by chloride, glutathione, and phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, C; Fortin, C; Houde, M; Campbell, P G; Denizeau, F

    2001-01-01

    Short-term cadmium uptake by the highly differentiated TC7 clone of enterocytic-like Caco-2 cells was studied as a function of Cd speciation. For low metal concentrations and with a constant free [Cd(2+)] = 43 nM, initial uptake rates of (109)Cd increased linearly as a function of increasing concentration of chlorocomplexes (Sigma[(109)CdCl(2-n)(n)]) over the range from 0 to 250 nM. When normalized as a function of the metal concentration, the absorption rate for the chlorocomplexes was less than that estimated for uptake of the free Cd(2+) cation. Metal absorption decreased upon organic ligand addition in the exposure media, but much less than predicted from the assumption that only inorganic metal species would be transported. Under exposure conditions where the concentration of each of the inorganic species was kept constant, (109)Cd uptake increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium glutathione ((109)Cd-GSH) or phytochelatin ((109)Cd-hmPC(3)) complexes. A specific system of very high affinity but low capacity has been characterized for (109)Cd-GSH transport, whereas accumulation data increased linearly with (109)Cd-hmPC(3) up to 6 microM. Comparison among uptake data for 0.3 microM inorganic (109)Cd, (109)Cd-GSH, or (109)Cd-hmPC(3) yields the following accumulation ratios: Cd-GSH/Cd(inorg) = 0.2; Cd-hmPC(3)/Cd(inorg) = 0.5. These results clearly show that Cd(2+) is not the exclusive metal species participating in Cd absorption, though, for comparable Cd concentrations, its contribution to transport would be more important than that of other species. Cadmium bound to thiol-containing peptides may be absorbed via transport systems that differ from those involved in absorption of the inorganic metal species. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. Differential uptake of cholesterol and plant sterols by rat erythrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, P; Kuksis, A

    1982-10-01

    The in vitro uptake of radioactively labeled cholesterol and the plant sterol beta-sitosterol has been examined in rat erythrocytes. From mixed micellar solutions containing egg yolk phospholipid and sodium taurocholate, the erythrocytes showed a nonlinear uptake of the two sterols. The uptake leveled off after about 45 min with the attainment of a 1:1 total sterol-to-phospholipid ratio within the cell membrane, as determined on a mass basis. From solutions containing egg yolk phospholipid, or purified egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, a preference for cholesterol over the plant sterol was observed, increasing with time from a cholesterol/beta-sitosterol uptake ratio of unity (the media ratio) to a maximum of 2 after a 60-min incubation. Correction of the data for nonspecifically bound sterol increased the ratio to a maximum of 5 at the 30-min time point. The increase in the cholesterol/beta-sitosterol uptake ratio with time, following an initial nonspecific association, showed that penetration of the plasma membrane by the sterol was required for the selectivity to be expressed. The presence of lysophosphatidylcholine or bovine serum albumin did not exert any noticeable influence over the extent or selectivity of absorption. Replacement of the egg yolk phospholipid with synthetic dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine led to a loss of the sterol selectivity. No evidence was found to support a selective extraction of sterol from the erythrocyte membrane to account for the observed effects, nor was there any sign of a mass accumulation of phospholipid during the incubation. It is suggested that the media phospholipid influences the membrane permeability toward cholesterol and beta-sitosterol.

  20. Global 3D Imaging of Yersinia ruckeri Bacterin Uptake in Rainbow Trout Fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout, and the first commercially available fish vaccine was an immersion vaccine against ERM consisting of Y. ruckeri bacterin. The ERM immersion vaccine has been successfully used in aquaculture farming of salmonids for more than 35 years. The gills and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are believed to be the portals of antigen uptake during waterborne vaccination against ERM; however, the actual sites of bacterin uptake are only partly understood. In order to obtain insight into bacterin uptake during waterborne vaccination, optical projection tomography (OPT) together with immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to visualize bacterin uptake and processing in whole rainbow trout fry. Visualization by OPT revealed that the bacterin was initially taken up via gill lamellae from within 30 seconds post vaccination. Later, bacterin uptake was detected on other mucosal surfaces such as skin and olfactory bulb from 5 to 30 minutes post vaccination. The GI tract was found to be filled with a complex of bacterin and mucus at 3 hours post vaccination and the bacterin remained in the GI tract for at least 24 hours. Large amounts of bacterin were present in the blood, and an accumulation of bacterin was found in filtering lymphoid organs such as spleen and trunk kidney where the bacterin accumulates 24 hours post vaccination as demonstrated by OPT and IHC. These results suggest that bacterin is taken up via the gill epithelium in the earliest phases of the bath exposure and from the GI tract in the later phase. The bacterin then enters the blood circulatory system, after which it is filtered by spleen and trunk kidney, before finally accumulating in lymphoid organs where adaptive immunity against ERM is likely to develop. PMID:25658600

  1. Uptake of an endocytic marker by rice cells: variations related to osmotic and saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaji, Abdellatif; Aniento, Fernando; Cornejo, María-Jesús

    2003-10-01

    Saline and osmotic stress are the main abiotic factors limiting the productivity of rice and other crop plants. Although both coincide in generating water deficit and affect many aspects of plant growth and development similarly, some effects of salinity are distinctively related to the ionic component of salt stress. At the cellular level, dessication tolerance is largely dependent on the cell's ability for osmotic adjustment. Here, we have studied the effects of saline and osmotic stress on endocytosis by rice cells, to investigate the common and distinctive effects of saline-generated stress and osmotically generated stress, and the possible involvement of endocytosis in tolerance mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used rice cell lines with different levels of tolerance and biotinylated bovine serum albumin (bBSA) as an endocytic marker, which in our previous experiments has been shown to enter rice cells by a process with the characteristics of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Our results indicate that the pattern of uptake is common to both types of stress. Thus, when rice cells were subjected to saline or osmotic stress there was an initial dose-dependent inhibition of uptake. However, after more extended stress periods, there was an activation of uptake in the stressed cells. This late activation appears mainly related to the inhibition of growth commonly caused by the different stress agents used in this study. When using cell lines with different degrees of tolerance, the level of uptake activation varied as a function of the type of stress. Thus, under osmotic stress, a higher stress tolerance was directly related to a higher bBSA uptake, while the opposite occurred under saline stress. The possible role of endocytosis in the cellular responses to osmotic and saline stress is discussed.

  2. Population uptake of antiretroviral treatment through primary care in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KwaZulu-Natal is the South African province worst affected by HIV and the focus of early modeling studies investigating strategies of antiretroviral treatment (ART delivery. The reality of antiretroviral roll-out through primary care has differed from that anticipated and real world data are needed to inform the planning of further scaling up of services. We investigated the factors associated with uptake of antiretroviral treatment through a primary healthcare system in rural South Africa. Methods Detailed demographic, HIV surveillance and geographic information system (GIS data were used to estimate the proportion of HIV positive adults accessing antiretroviral treatment within northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in the period from initiation of antiretroviral roll-out until the end of 2008. Demographic, spatial and socioeconomic factors influencing the likelihood of individuals accessing antiretroviral treatment were explored using multivariable analysis. Results Mean uptake of ART among HIV positive resident adults was 21.0% (95%CI 20.1-21.9. Uptake among HIV positive men (19.2% was slightly lower than women (21.8%, P = 0.011. An individual's likelihood of accessing ART was not associated with level of education, household assets or urban/rural locale. ART uptake was strongly negatively associated with distance from the nearest primary healthcare facility (aOR = 0.728 per square-root transformed km, 95%CI 0.658-0.963, P = 0.002. Conclusions Despite concerns about the equitable nature of antiretroviral treatment rollout, we find very few differences in ART uptake across a range of socio-demographic variables in a rural South African population. However, even when socio-demographic factors were taken into account, individuals living further away from primary healthcare clinics were still significantly less likely to be accessing ART

  3. Uptake of the Influenza Vaccination in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crosby, DA

    2016-09-01

    Influenza is caused by a highly infectious RNA virus, which usually occurs in a seasonal pattern with epidemics in the winter months. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of the influenza vaccine in a pregnant population and ascertain the reasons why some women did not receive it. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a two-week period in January 2016 in the National Maternity Hospital Dublin, a tertiary referral maternity hospital delivering over 9000 infants per year. There were 504 women studied over the 2-week period. Overall, 197(39.1%) women received the vaccine at a mean gestational age 20.9 weeks (SD 7.0). Given the increased rates of influenza in the community and the associated implications for mother and infant, it is important that pregnant women are educated regarding the risks of influenza in pregnancy and encourage this cohort to be vaccinated.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Pollutant Uptake by Mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Models for pollutant uptake by mangrove plants are developed at different scales and applied to the environmental fate of a pollutant in an estuary. Employing cohesion-tension theory, a 3-dimensional model of water and substance flow in young mangrove trees is set up in form of porous media equations. Water transport is conceived as a continuous hydraulic process driven by canopy transpiration. State variables are water potential and pollutant concentrations in the soil, roots, xylem, core and canopy.  At catchment scale, the mangrove forest is conceived as a flow reactor. Up-scaled models are derived from a 3-dimensional single plant model by fitting a compartment model in form of ordinary differential equations to data obtained by spatial integration over the domains of the 3-dimensional model. These equations are imbedded as reaction terms into the shallow water equations for riverine transport. The model is applied to the dispersal of pollutants in an estuary.

  5. Actinide uptake by transferrin and ferritin metalloproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, C.; Llorens, I.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Vidaud, C. [CEA Marcoule DSV/DIEP/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Goudard, F.; Barbot, C. [Univ. de Nantes, Faculte des Sciences, Biochim., Nantes (France); Solari, P.L. [BM29, ESRF, Grenoble (France); Funke, H. [FZR, Rossendorf beamline (BM20), ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms of actinide uptake by specific biomolecules, it is essential to explore the intramolecular interactions between the cation and the protein binding site. Although this has long been done for widely investigated transition metals, very few studies have been devoted to complexation mechanisms of actinides by active chelation sites of metalloproteins. In this field, X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been extensively used as a structural and electronic metal cation probe. The two examples that are presented here are related to two metalloproteins in charge of iron transport and storage in eukaryote cells: transferrin and ferritin. U(VI)O{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Np(IV) and Pu(IV) have been selected because of their possible role as contaminant from the geosphere. (orig.)

  6. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  7. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  8. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  9. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  10. Heavy Metal Uptake by Novel Miscanthus Seed-Based Hybrids Cultivated in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżak, Jacek; Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Clifton-Brown, John; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Kiesel, Andreas; Mangold, Anja; Mos, Michal

    2017-09-01

    When heavy metal contaminated soils are excluded from food production, biomass crops offer an alternative commercial opportunity. Perennial crops have potential for phytoremediation. Whilst the conditions at heavy metal contaminated sites are challenging, successful phytoremediation would bring significant economic and social benefits. Seed-based Miscanthus hybrids were tested alongside the commercial clone Miscanthus × giganteus on arable land, contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn near Katowice. Before the randomized experimental plots were established (25m2 plots with plant density 2/m2) `time-zero' soil samples were taken to determine initial levels of total (aqua regia) and bioavailable (CaCl2 extraction) concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn. After the growing season plant material was sampled during autumn (October, green harvest) and winter (March, brown harvest) to determine differences in heavy metal uptake. Results after the first growing season are presented, including the plot establishment success, biomass yield and heavy metal uptake.

  11. Interventions for Increasing HIV Testing Uptake in Migrants: A Systematic Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Eithandee; Blondell, Sarah J; Durham, Jo

    2017-07-14

    Migrants have been identified as being at greater risk for late HIV testing and diagnosis. Late diagnosis is of concern because timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment can both optimise health outcomes and reduce transmission. We reviewed and evaluated interventions that aimed to increase HIV testing uptake in migrant populations. Of 6511 papers retrieved, 10 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Three types of interventions were identified (exposure to HIV prevention messages, HIV education programs, and direct offer of testing). All interventions were based on individual models of behaviour change targeting migrants or GPs. While important, interventions that also address broader health system and structural factors that contribute to late HIV-diagnosis in at-risk members of migrant populations are needed. Integrating PITC into existing primary healthcare settings shows promise of creating an enabling environment within patient-doctor relationships that can encourage HIV testing uptake among migrant populations.

  12. Evaluations of Mechanisms for Pu Uptake and Retention within Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The unexpected uptake and retention of plutonium (Pu) onto columns containing spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin during ion exchange testing of Cs (Cs) removal from alkaline tank waste was observed in experiments at both the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These observations have raised concern regarding the criticality safety of the Cs removal unit operation within the low-activity waste pretreatment system (LAWPS). Accordingly, studies have been initiated at Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), who manages the operations of the Hanford Site tank farms, including the LAWPS, PNNL, and elsewhere to investigate these findings. As part of these efforts, PNNL has prepared the present report to summarize the laboratory testing observations, evaluate these phenomena in light of published and unpublished technical information, and outline future laboratory testing, as deemed appropriate based on the literature studies, with the goal to elucidate the mechanisms for the observed Pu uptake and retention.

  13. Feedback regulation of cholesterol uptake by the LXR-IDOL-LDLR axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Reue, Karen; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G; Tontonoz, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Inducible degrader of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (IDOL) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). IDOL expression is controlled at the transcriptional level by the cholesterol-sensing nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR). In response to rising cellular sterol levels, activated LXR induces IDOL production, thereby limiting further uptake of exogenous cholesterol through the LDLR pathway. The LXR-IDOL-LDLR mechanism for feedback inhibition of cholesterol uptake is independent of and complementary to the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway. Since the initial description of the LXR-IDOL pathway, biochemical studies have helped to define the structural basis for both IDOL target recognition and LDLR ubiquitin transfer. Recent work has also suggested links between IDOL and human lipid metabolism.

  14. Abnormal uptake of technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile in a primary cardiac lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medolago, G.; Virotta, G.; Bertocchi, C. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Piti, A.; Tespili, M.; D' Adda, F. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Cardiology); Rottoli, M.R. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Neurology); Comotti, B. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Hematology); Motta, T. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Pathology); Orlandi, C. (Du Pont Pharma, North Billerica, MA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    Abnormally high uptake of technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc-SESTAMIBI) in the right ventricle and in the septum was observed in a 47-year-old woman initially presenting with dysarthria and left hemiparesis. Endomyocardial biopsy demonstrated a high-grade malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Complete remission was achieved by combined cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherpay and radiotherapy of the heart and mediastinum. The post-remission single photon emission tomography (SPET) {sup 99m}Tc-SESTAMIBI study showed a homogeneous distribution pattern, in agreement with echocardiography computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Increased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-SESTAMIBI, a myocardial perfusion agent, has been observed in some benign and malignant tumours. It may prove to be useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of malignancies. (orig.).

  15. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in healthy and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul S

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissues in the human body and is considered the primary target for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In skeletal muscle, binding of the insulin to insulin receptor (IR) initiates a signaling cascade that results in the translocation of the insulin-sensitive glucose...... transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane which leads to facilitated diffusion of glucose into the cell. Understanding the precise signaling events guiding insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is pivotal, because impairment in these signaling events leads to development of insulin resistance and type...... 2 diabetes. This review summarizes current understanding of insulin signaling pathways mediating glucose uptake in healthy and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle....

  16. Gold-peptide nanoconjugate cellular uptake is modulated by serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guankui; Papasani, Madhusudhan R; Cheguru, Pallavi; Hrdlicka, Patrick J; Hill, Rodney A

    2012-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs, 20 nm) were conjugated with two different cysteine-terminated peptides. Radio-ligand binding studies were conducted to characterize Au NP-peptide binding, suggesting both covalent and noncovalent interactions. The interactions of serum proteins with Au NP-peptide nanoconjugates were determined using gel electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. Serum proteins rapidly bound the nanoconjugates (15 minutes). The cellular uptake of free peptides and nanoconjugates into mouse myogenic (Sol8) cells was investigated in the absence or presence of serum. In the absence of serum, peptides presented as nanoconjugates showed significantly higher intracellular fluorescence signals compared to those in the presence of serum (P < 0.05), suggesting that serum proteins inhibit Au NP-mediated peptide delivery. The cellular uptake of nanoconjugates was also confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. These data suggest that Au NP-peptide nanoconjugates are a useful platform for intracellular delivery of therapeutics. However, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms regulating their uptake and intracellular trafficking is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Image-guided local delivery strategies enhance therapeutic nanoparticle uptake in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouli, Samdeep K; Tyler, Patrick; McDevitt, Joseph L; Eifler, Aaron C; Guo, Yang; Nicolai, Jodi; Lewandowski, Robert J; Li, Weiguo; Procissi, Daniel; Ryu, Robert K; Wang, Y Andrew; Salem, Riad; Larson, Andrew C; Omary, Reed A

    2013-09-24

    Nanoparticles (NP) have emerged as a novel class of therapeutic agents that overcome many of the limitations of current cancer chemotherapeutics. However, a major challenge to many current NP platforms is unfavorable biodistribution, and limited tumor uptake, upon systemic delivery. Delivery, therefore, remains a critical barrier to widespread clinical adoption of NP therapeutics. To overcome these limitations, we have adapted the techniques of image-guided local drug delivery to develop nanoablation and nanoembolization. Nanoablation is a tumor ablative strategy that employs image-guided placement of electrodes into tumor tissue to electroporate tumor cells, resulting in a rapid influx of NPs that is not dependent on cellular uptake machinery or stage of the cell cycle. Nanoembolization involves the image-guided delivery of NPs and embolic agents directly into the blood supply of tumors. We describe the design and testing of our innovative local delivery strategies using doxorubicin-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (DOX-SPIOs) in cell culture, and the N1S1 hepatoma and VX2 tumor models, imaged by high resolution 7T MRI. We demonstrate that local delivery techniques result in significantly increased intratumoral DOX-SPIO uptake, with limited off-target delivery in tumor-bearing animal models. The techniques described are versatile enough to be extended to any NP platform, targeting any solid organ malignancy that can be accessed via imaging guidance.

  18. Factors Affecting the Uptake and Reactivity of OH with Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, F. A.; Wilson, K. R.; Hinsberg, B.

    2014-12-01

    The uptake of gas phase species onto an aerosol surface is the primary process that governs oxidative aging of aerosols. The complexity of the resulting multiphase chemical and physical transformations has been challenging to describe at the level of accuracy required to predict aerosol lifetimes, chemical composition, phase and other key properties. Stochastic simulations of a modelcoupling free radical reactions and Fickian diffusion that quantitatively reproduces experimental observations areused to examine the early stages of a well-mixed liquid model system, the oxidation of squalane by hydroxyl radical (OH). The results elucidate the physical meaning of the uptake coefficient and reveal internal details of the particle as it undergoes oxidation. The uptake coefficient is not equivalent to an accommodation coefficient: is an intrinsically emergent process that depends upon particle size, viscosity, and OH concentration. Well-mixed, liquid behavior is also found to depend on these systems characteristics. The small particle size creates large instantaneous concentration gradients, leading to dispersal of OH within the top few nanometers and rapid mixing of long-lived peroxy radicals throughout. The implications of these results for connecting laboratory and natural oxidative processes will be discussed.

  19. B and C types natriuretic peptides modify norepinephrine uptake and release in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, M S; Presas, M F; Bianciotti, L G; Rodriguez-Fermepin, M; Ambros, R; Fernandez, B E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) modulates adrenomedullar norepinephrine (NE) metabolism. On this basis, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of B and C types natriuretic peptides (BNP and CNP) on the uptake, intracellular distribution and release of 3H-NE. Experiments were carried out in rat adrenal medulla slices incubated "in vitro." Results showed that 100 nM of both, CNP and BNP, enhanced total and neuronal NE uptake. Both peptides (100 nM) caused a rapid increase in NE uptake during the first minute, which was sustained for 60 min. NE intracellular distribution was only modified by CNP (100 nM), which increased the granular fraction and decreased the cytosolic pool. On the other hand, spontaneous as well as evoked (KCl) NE release, was decreased by BNP and CNP (50 and 100 nM for spontaneous release and 1, 10, 50 and 100 nM for evoked output). The present results suggest that BNP and CNP may regulate catecholamine secretion and modulate adrenomedullary biological actions mediated by catecholamines, such as blood arterial pressure, smooth muscle tone, and metabolic activities.

  20. Uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Donald; Rajic, Ljiljana; Sly, Elizabeth; Meric, Dogus; Sheahan, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    The uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, total PCBs (tPCBs) uptake was significantly greater in live vs dead plants. The concentration of tPCB taken up in live plants was greatest in the first 24h (1580 μg kg(-1) dry weight), and then increased at a lower rate from day 2 to 14. Dead plants had a significantly lower tPCB concentration after 24h (609 μg kg(-1) dry weight) and lower uptake rate through day 14. Lesser chlorinated PCB congeners (below 123) made up the majority of PCBs taken up. Congener composition in both laboratory and field experiments was correlated to congener logKow value and sediment content. Field experiments showed that Ulva plants could concentrate PCBs to 3.9 mg kg(-1) in 24h. Thus, U. rigida is capable of removing PCBs in sediments at a rapid rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships of Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake Kinetics with Skeletal Muscle Fatigue Resistance and Peak Oxygen Uptake in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Yusuke; Nishida, Yuusuke

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the validity of pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in assessment of the ability of skeletal muscles to utilize oxygen. [Subjects] We evaluated 12 young, healthy males. [Methods] The subjects completed a series of tests to determine their peak oxygen uptake, pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise, and the rate of decline in electromyographic (EMG) mean power frequency (MPF) (EMG MPFrate) during...

  2. The Genesis, Implementation and Impact of the Better Access Mental Health Initiative Introducing Medicare-Funded Psychology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Lyn; Giese, Jill

    2008-01-01

    The Australian Government's Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative introduced mental health reforms that included the availability of Medicare-funded psychology services. The mental health initiative has resulted in a huge uptake of these services, demonstrating the strong community demand for psychological treatment. The initiative has…

  3. Earthworms and radionuclides, with experimental investigations on the uptake and exchangeability of radiocaesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S L; Bell, J N

    1995-01-01

    The potential influence of earthworm activity on the mobility of radionuclides in soils and their subsequent availability for uptake by plants and transfer to higher trophic levels is briefly reviewed. The accumulation of caesium by the earthworm Aporrectodea longa from soil and from plant litter was investigated in laboratory experiments, as was the effect of reworking (through burrowing and ingestion) soil and soil with added organic material, on the extractability of caesium (ammonium acetate extraction). Soil was spiked with (134)Cs, organic matter with (137)Cs. In soil-fed worms, most of the radioactivity measured was eliminated with the gut contents; 5-25% of the ingested radioactivity was retained or assimilated. Loss of caesium from soil-fed worms followed a two component curve, with an initial rapid loss due to gut clearance (half-life of loss (Tb1/2) of about 0.2-0.6 days) and a slower loss of assimilated caesium (Tb1/2 of 15-26 days). Loss rates of assimilated caesium from worms fed on fragmented apple leaves were found to have half-lives of 18-54 days. Assimilation of caesium from apple leaves was higher than from soil, ranging from 55-100% of the activity measured before gut clearance. Dry weight transfer factors (concentration in worm tissue/concentration in substrate) for worms cleared of their gut contents were similar for the two substrates 0.04 and 0.04 for two loss experiments with worms fed on radioactive soil, and 0.03 and 0.05 for worms fed on apple leaves. After three months of reworking soil and soil/organic mixtures, A. longa was found to have no measurable effect on the extractable fraction of caesium. If earthworms have any subtle effects they were masked by changes in availability that occurred when the spiked soil and organic substrates were mixed together. Only about half of the extractable fraction in soil was recovered when soil was mixed with organic material suggesting that some of the labile fraction in soil had become complexed

  4. Compared boron uptake and translocation in cotton cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Bogiani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The mobility of boron (B, a commonly deficient micronutrient in cotton, has been shown to be low in the plant phloem. Nevertheless, studies have indicated that cotton cultivars can respond differently to B application. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare B absorption and mobility in cotton cultivars grown in nutrient solution. Treatments consisted of three cotton cultivars (FMT 701, DP 604BG and FMX 993, and five B rates (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 µmol L-1. Plant growth and development were monitored for four weeks from the appearance of the first square. The time of onset and severity of B deficiency symptoms varied among cotton cultivars. Initial B uptake of cv. DP 604BG was lower than of the other cultivars, but a greater amount of available B in the nutrient solution was required to prevent deficiency symptoms in this cultivar. Boron deficiency impairs cotton growth, with no differences among cultivars, regardless of the time of appearance and intensity of B deficiency symptoms.

  5. Pediatric Exercise Testing: Value and Implications of Peak Oxygen Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo T. Pianosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peak oxygen uptake (peak V ˙ O 2 measured by clinical exercise testing is the benchmark for aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness, estimated from maximal treadmill exercise, is a predictor of mortality in adults. Peak V ˙ O 2 was shown to predict longevity in patients aged 7–35 years with cystic fibrosis over 25 years ago. A surge of exercise studies in young adults with congenital heart disease over the past decade has revealed significant prognostic information. Three years ago, the first clinical trial in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension used peak V ˙ O 2 as an endpoint that likewise delivered clinically relevant data. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides clinicians with biomarkers and clinical outcomes, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response hidden at rest. Momentum from these pioneering observations in multiple disease states should impel clinicians to employ similar methods in other patient populations; e.g., sickle cell disease. Advances in pediatric exercise science will elucidate new pathways that may identify novel biomarkers. Our initial aim of this essay is to highlight the clinical relevance of exercise testing to determine peak V ˙ O 2 , and thereby convince clinicians of its merit, stimulating future clinical investigators to broaden the application of exercise testing in pediatrics.

  6. Rapid parapatric speciation on holey adaptive landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S; Vose, M D; Gavrilets, Sergey; Li, Hai; Vose, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A classical view of speciation is that reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic divergence. Here, individual-based simulations are used to evaluate whether the mechanisms implied by this view may result in rapid speciation if the only source of genetic divergence are mutation and random genetic drift. Distinctive features of the simulations are the consideration of the complete process of speciation (from initiation until completion), and of a large number of loci, which was only one order of magnitude smaller than that of bacteria. It is demonstrated that rapid speciation on the time scale of hundreds of generations is plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographic isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. The plausibility of speciation is enhanced by population subdivision. Simultaneous emergence of more than two new species from a subdivided population is highly probable. Numerical examples relevant to the theory of ce...

  7. Methane uptake in forest and agro-ecosystems in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, S. K.; Livesley, S. J.; Fest, B. J.; Weston, C. J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2007-12-01

    Oxidation of methane by methanotrophic bacteria in aerated soils does provide a considerable global sink for greenhouse gases (-30 Tg CH4/yr). The form of land-use can have a significant impact on the methane uptake capacity of a soil. We investigated the sink strength for methane uptake of forest ecosystems and agro- ecosystems in Australia using automated measurement systems and manual chamber methods. Our results demonstrate large differences in the methane uptake capacity of Australian soils. Data from Western Australia showed that CH4 uptake rates increased with stand age of plantations and were greatest in an undisturbed native forest and lowest in an improved pasture. Measurements in differently aged forest ecosystems indicated that sites with the most recent fire disturbance had the lowest methane uptake rates. Generally, native forest ecosystems showed the greatest methane uptake rates (up to 130 kg CO2-e ha yr). Plantations (eucalyptus/pine) showed significantly lower methane uptake rates (around 15 kg CO2-e ha yr). Grazed pastures in Australia had the lowest uptake rates (6 kg CO2-e ha yr) and were occasional methane sources. The methane uptake rates of soils were only marginally influenced by environmental parameters over the course of a year. Between sites the methane uptake rates were not related to soil parameters such as soil bulk density. Experiments with excavated soil cores demonstrated that diffusivity of methane through the upper soil layer was the rate limiting step. Our results indicate that the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria and substrate diffusivity are the most important factor influencing methane uptake rates in soils. Disturbance events such as change of land-use or vegetation structure can have significant impacts on the capacity of soils to take up methane.

  8. Atmospheric nitrous oxide uptake in boreal spruce forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljanen, Henri; Welti, Nina; Heikkinen, Juha; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) uptake from the atmosphere has been found in forest soils but environmental factors controlling the uptake and its atmospheric impact are poorly known. We measured N2O fluxes over growing season in a boreal spruce forest having control plots and plots with long nitrogen fertilization history. Also methane (CH4) fluxes were measured to compare the atmospheric impact of N2O and CH4fluxes. Soil chemical and physical characteristics and climatic conditions were measured as background data. Nitrous oxide consumption and uptake mechanisms were measured in complementary laboratory incubation experiments using stable isotope approaches. Gene transcript numbers of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) I and II genes were quantified along the incubation with elevated N2O atmosphere. The spruce forests without fertilization history showed highest N2O uptake rates whereas pine forest had low emissions. Nitrous oxide uptake correlated positively with soil moisture, high soil silt content, and low temperature. Nitrous oxide uptake varied seasonally, being highest in spring and autumn when temperature was low and water content was high. The spruce forest was sink for CH4.Methane fluxes were decoupled from the N2O fluxes (i.e. when the N2O uptake was high the CH4 uptake was low). By using GWP approach, the cooling effect of N2O uptake was on average 30% of the cooling effect of CH4 uptake in spruce forest without fertilization. Anoxic conditions promoted higher N2O consumption rates in all soils. Gene transcription of nosZ-I genes were activated at beginning of the incubation. However, atypical/clade-II nosZ was not detected. These results suggests, that also N2O uptake rates have to be considered when accounting for the GHG budget of spruce forests.

  9. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  10. High uptake of (68)Ga-DOTATOC in spleen as compared to splenosis: measurement by PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Harshad R; Prasad, Vikas; Kaemmerer, Daniel; Hommann, Merten; Baum, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the high somatostatin receptor (SSTR) uptake in spleen and to compare the uptake in spleen and splenosis using SSTR PET/CT using( 68)Ga-DOTATOC. SUV(max) of spleen on (68)Ga-DOTATOC SSTR PET/CT (acquired for initial staging) in 10 patients with known neuroendocrine neoplasm of pancreatic tail was analyzed. All patients underwent left pancreatectomy and splenectomy. Diagnosis of splenosis was confirmed on CT, and SUV(max) was noted on follow-up SSTR PET/CT. SUV(max)was 28.8 ± 12.5 in normal spleen and 10.5 ± 4.3 in splenosis. The high uptake of( 68)Ga-DOTATOC (which has a high affinity to SSTR 2) in the spleen as compared to splenosis, which has a different histology, suggests white pulp as the probable site of high SSTR 2 expression.

  11. Rapid formation of plasma protein corona critically affects nanoparticle pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Docter, Dominic; Kuharev, Jörg; Musyanovych, Anna; Fetz, Verena; Hecht, Rouven; Schlenk, Florian; Fischer, Dagmar; Kiouptsi, Klytaimnistra; Reinhardt, Christoph; Landfester, Katharina; Schild, Hansjörg; Maskos, Michael; Knauer, Shirley K.; Stauber, Roland H.

    2013-10-01

    In biological fluids, proteins bind to the surface of nanoparticles to form a coating known as the protein corona, which can critically affect the interaction of the nanoparticles with living systems. As physiological systems are highly dynamic, it is important to obtain a time-resolved knowledge of protein-corona formation, development and biological relevancy. Here we show that label-free snapshot proteomics can be used to obtain quantitative time-resolved profiles of human plasma coronas formed on silica and polystyrene nanoparticles of various size and surface functionalization. Complex time- and nanoparticle-specific coronas, which comprise almost 300 different proteins, were found to form rapidly (<0.5 minutes) and, over time, to change significantly in terms of the amount of bound protein, but not in composition. Rapid corona formation is found to affect haemolysis, thrombocyte activation, nanoparticle uptake and endothelial cell death at an early exposure time.

  12. The photon PDF in events with rapidity gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L.A. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V.A. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M.G. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    We consider photon-initiated events with large rapidity gaps in proton-proton collisions, where one or both protons may break up. We formulate a modified photon PDF that accounts for the specific experimental rapidity gap veto, and demonstrate how the soft survival probability for these gaps may be implemented consistently. Finally, we present some phenomenological results for the two-photon induced production of lepton and W boson pairs. (orig.)

  13. Facilitated monocyte-macrophage uptake and tissue distribution of superparmagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Beduneau

    SPIO, intravenous injection of IgG-SPIO afforded enhanced and sustained lymphoid tissue distribution over 24 hours as demonstrated by MRI. CONCLUSIONS: Facilitated uptake of coated SPIO in monocytes and MDM was achieved. Uptake was linked to particle size and was time and concentration dependent. The ability of SPIO to be rapidly taken up and distributed into lymphoid tissues also demonstrates feasibility of macrophage-targeted nanoformulations for diagnostic and drug therapy.

  14. The relationship between cardiac autonomic function and maximal oxygen uptake response to high-intensity intermittent-exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutcher, Stephen H; Park, Young; Dunn, Sarah Louise; Boutcher, Yati N

    2013-01-01

    Major individual differences in the maximal oxygen uptake response to aerobic training have been documented. Vagal influence on the heart has been shown to contribute to changes in aerobic fitness. Whether vagal influence on the heart also predicts maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training, however, is undetermined. Thus, the relationship between baseline vagal activity and the maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training was examined. Exercisers (n = 16) exercised three times a week for 12 weeks, whereas controls did no exercise (n = 16). Interval-sprinting consisted of 20 min of intermittent sprinting on a cycle ergometer (8 s sprint, 12 s recovery). Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed using open-circuit spirometry. Vagal influence was assessed through frequency analysis of heart rate variability. Participants were aged 22 ± 4.5 years and had a body mass of 72.7 ± 18.9 kg, a body mass index of 26.9 ± 3.9 kg · m(-2), and a maximal oxygen uptake of 28 ± 7.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1). Overall increase in maximal oxygen uptake after the training programme, despite being anaerobic in nature, was 19 ± 1.2%. Change in maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with initial baseline heart rate variability high-frequency power in normalised units (r = 0.58; P training response after 12 weeks of high-intensity intermittent-exercise. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between the aerobic training response and resting heart rate variability need to be established before practical implications can be identified.

  15. Spatio-temporal micromeasurements of the oxygen uptake in the developing chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, P; Raddatz, E

    1980-02-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of the oxygen uptake of small areas (0.01 mm2) in an entire chick embryo cultured in vitro under defined metabolic conditions. It is based on the recordings of the spectral changes of the hemoglobin used as oxygen source for the respiring tissue (Barzu and Borza, 1967). Rapid scanning of the hemoglobin absorbance over the preparation allows a comparison of the O2 uptake of various regions. Values of the order of 10(-2) 1 O2 . min-2 are measured in less than 10 sec with a spatial resolution of 100 micron. The differentiation of embryonic tissue is not disturbed by the measurements. The O2 diffusion in the media and in the tissue has been analyzed by digital simulation. The O2 uptake of the Hensen's node was measured from embryos starting at the stage of definitive primitive streak (stage 4) up to the stage of 10 somites. It increases from 0.6 to 1.1 nl . h-1 with a marked acceleration between stages 4 and 5. The values corrected for the protein content of the Hensen's node at stage 4, 5, 6 and 8 are 32, 30 and 28 microliter . mg-1 . h-1 respectively. The first scanning results show different patterns of the O2 utake at the level of the Hensen's node and of the neural plate. At stage 6-7, the corrected O2 uptake is 30 microliter . mg-1 . h-1 for . the former and 43 microliter . mg-1 . h-1 for the latter.

  16. B and C types natriuretic peptides modulate norepinephrine uptake and release in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, M S; Presas, M; Bianciotti, L G; Zarrabeitia, V; Fernández, B E

    1996-09-16

    We previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) regulates catecholamine metabolism in the central nervous system. ANF, B and C types natriuretic peptides (BNP and CNP) also play a regulatory role in body fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular activity and hormonal and neuro-hormonal secretions. The aim of the present work was to investigate BNP and CNP effects on the uptake and release of norepinephrine (NE) in rat hypothalamic slices incubated in vitro. Results showed that BNP (100 nM) and CNP (1, 10 and 100 nM) enhanced total and neuronal [3H]NE uptake but did not modify non-neuronal uptake. BNP (100 nM) and CNP (1 nM) caused a rapid increase in NE uptake (1 min), which was sustained for 60 min. BNP (100 nM) did not modify the intracellular distribution of NE; however, 1 nM CNP increased the granular store and decreased the cytosolic pool of NE. BNP (100 nM) and CNP (1, 10 and 100 nM), diminished spontaneous NE release. In addition, BNP (1, 10, 100 nM) and CNP (1, 10 and 100 pM, as well as 1, 10 and 100 nM) reduced NE output induced by 25 mM KCl. These results suggest that BNP and CNP may be involved in the regulation of several central as well as peripheral physiological functions through the modulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission at the presynaptic neuronal level. Present results provide evidence to consider CNP as the brain natriuretic peptide since physiological concentrations of this peptide (pM) diminished NE evoked release.

  17. Role and uptake of human papillomavirus vaccine in adolescent health in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudenga SL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Staci L Sudenga, Kathryn E Royse, Sadeep ShresthaDepartment of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Both the prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines, Gardasil® and Cervarix®, are licensed for the prevention of cervical cancer in females, and Gardasil is also licensed for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer in both males and females. This review focuses on the uptake of these vaccines in adolescent males and females in the USA and the barriers associated with vaccine initiation and completion. In the USA in 2009, approximately 44.3% of adolescent females aged 13–17 years had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine, but only 26.7% had received all three doses. In general, the Northeast and Midwest regions of the USA have the highest rates of HPV vaccine initiation in adolescent females, while the Southeast has the lowest rates of vaccine initiation. Uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine in adolescent females did not vary by race/ethnicity; however, completion of all three doses is lower among African Americans (23.1% and Latinos (23.4% compared with Caucasians (29.3%. At present, vaccination rates among adolescent females are lower than expected, and thus vaccine models suggest that it is more cost-effective to vaccinate both adolescent males and females. Current guidelines for HPV vaccination in adolescent males is recommended only for “permissive use,” which leaves this population out of routine vaccination for HPV. The uptake of the vaccine is challenged by the high cost, feasibility, and logistics of three-dose deliveries. The biggest impact on acceptability of the vaccine is by adolescents, physicians, parents, and the community. Future efforts need to focus on HPV vaccine education among adolescents and decreasing the barriers associated with poor vaccine uptake and completion in adolescents before their sexual debut, but Papanicolau

  18. Uptake kinetics of arsenic by lettuce cultivars under hydroponics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic (As) uptake ability based on kinetic parameters by two lettuce cultivars; Sijibaiye (SJBY) and Texuanyanlingsun (TXYLS) was investigated in nutrient solution containing eight levels of arsenic (As). Depletion of As from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time to estimate As uptake kinetics of the ...

  19. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    We hypothesized that increased NO generated from its donors may alter basal and/or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose tissues of both normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of GSNO and SNAP on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes.

  20. Uptake of water from soils by plant roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, P.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of water by plant roots can be considered at two different Darcian scales, referred to as the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. At the mesoscopic scale, uptake of water is represented by a flux at the soil¿root interface, while at the macroscopic scale it is represented by a sink term in the

  1. Heavy Metal uptake Potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uptake of heavy metals, silver and cadmium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a Gram negative bacterium) and Micrococcus luteus (a Gram positive bacterium) was investigated in Cadmium and Silver stock solution using ion selective electrodes. Silver and cadmium uptake by the two organisms was described by Langmuir ...

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation uptake and its determinants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engen-Verheul, Mariëtte; de Vries, Han; Kemps, Hareld; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik; de Keizer, Nicolette; Peek, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Despite its documented efficacy, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is still not well implemented in current clinical practice. The aims of the present study were to assess CR uptake rates in the Netherlands, and to identify factors that determine uptake.Methods: The cohort consisted of persons

  3. Cataract surgical uptake among older adults in Ghana | Ackuaku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In sub-Saharan Africa, cataract surgical services are highly inadequate and surgical uptake for cataract is low. This paper describes cataract surgical uptake among older adults in Ghana. Methods: This work was based on World Health Organization's multi-country Study on global Ageing and adult health ...

  4. Uptake of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy for malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the uptake of malaria chemoprophylaxis using Sulfadoxine and Pyrimethamine (SP) in pregnant women attending antenatal care. To compare the uptake of malaria chemoprophylaxis using Intermittent Preventive Therapy in pregnancy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTp –SP) between 2 audit ...

  5. Methionine Uptake and Required Radiation Dose to Control Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iuchi, Toshihiko, E-mail: tiuchi@chiba-cc.jp [Division of Neurological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hatano, Kazuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Bay Advanced Imaging and Radiation Oncology Clinic, Makuhari, Chiba (Japan); Uchino, Yoshio [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Chiba Ryogo Center, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Makiko [Division of Surgical Pathology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hasegawa, Yuzo; Kawasaki, Koichiro; Sakaida, Tsukasa [Division of Neurological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hara, Ryusuke [Division of Radiation Oncology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility of radiation therapy planning for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) based on the use of methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET), and the correlation among MET uptake, radiation dose, and tumor control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GBM who underwent MET-PET prior to radiation therapy were enrolled. MET uptake in 30 regions of interest (ROIs) from 22 GBMs, biologically effective doses (BEDs) for the ROIs and their ratios (MET uptake:BED) were compared in terms of whether the ROIs were controlled for >12 months. Results: MET uptake was significantly correlated with tumor control (odds ratio [OR], 10.0; P=.005); however, there was a higher level of correlation between MET uptake:BED ratio and tumor control (OR, 40.0; P<.0001). These data indicated that the required BEDs for controlling the ROIs could be predicted in terms of MET uptake; BED could be calculated as [34.0 × MET uptake] Gy from the optimal threshold of the MET uptake:BED ratio for tumor control. Conclusions: Target delineation based on MET-PET was demonstrated to be feasible for radiation therapy treatment planning. MET-PET could not only provide precise visualization of infiltrating tumor cells but also predict the required radiation doses to control target regions.

  6. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    at pH 6 they are found to be Cd(II) and Cr(VI) selective. Metal ion uptake properties of resins follow Freundlich's equation. The resins are recyclable and are therefore employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. Keywords. Uptake properties; heavy metal ion; selectivity; recyclability. 1.

  7. Nutrient uptake of peanut genotypes under different water regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is a serious environmental stress limiting growth and productivity in peanut and other crops. Nutrient uptake of peanut is reduced under drought conditions, which reduces yield. The objectives of this study were to investigate nutrient uptake of peanut genotypes in response to drought and ...

  8. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  9. Uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in turbid, tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ammonium and nitrate uptake was measured in 6 European tidal estuaries (Ems, Rhine, Scheldt, Loire, Gironde and Douro) using N-15-tracer techniques. Uptake rates of ammonium and nitrate ranged from 0.005 to 1.56 mu mol N l(-1) h(-1) and 0.00025 to 0.25 mu mol N l(-1) h(-1), respectively, and

  10. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  11. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  12. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  13. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  14. Uptake of the necrotic serpin in Drosophila melanogaster via the lipophorin receptor-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fausia Soukup

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The humoral response to fungal and Gram-positive infections is regulated by the serpin-family inhibitor, Necrotic. Following immune-challenge, a proteolytic cascade is activated which signals through the Toll receptor. Toll activation results in a range of antibiotic peptides being synthesised in the fat-body and exported to the haemolymph. As with mammalian serpins, Necrotic turnover in Drosophila is rapid. This serpin is synthesised in the fat-body, but its site of degradation has been unclear. By "freezing" endocytosis with a temperature sensitive Dynamin mutation, we demonstrate that Necrotic is removed from the haemolymph in two groups of giant cells: the garland and pericardial athrocytes. Necrotic uptake responds rapidly to infection, being visibly increased after 30 mins and peaking at 6-8 hours. Co-localisation of anti-Nec with anti-AP50, Rab5, and Rab7 antibodies establishes that the serpin is processed through multi-vesicular bodies and delivered to the lysosome, where it co-localises with the ubiquitin-binding protein, HRS. Nec does not co-localise with Rab11, indicating that the serpin is not re-exported from athrocytes. Instead, mutations which block late endosome/lysosome fusion (dor, hk, and car cause accumulation of Necrotic-positive endosomes, even in the absence of infection. Knockdown of the 6 Drosophila orthologues of the mammalian LDL receptor family with dsRNA identifies LpR1 as an enhancer of the immune response. Uptake of Necrotic from the haemolymph is blocked by a chromosomal deletion of LpR1. In conclusion, we identify the cells and the receptor molecule responsible for the uptake and degradation of the Necrotic serpin in Drosophila melanogaster. The scavenging of serpin/proteinase complexes may be a critical step in the regulation of proteolytic cascades.

  15. Effect of culture conditions on producing and uptake hydrogen flux of biohydrogen fermentation by metabolic flux analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kun; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Wen-Song; Zhu, Ming-Long

    2011-08-01

    In this work, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) method was used to estimate the effects of the culture conditions on both the producing and uptake hydrogen flux inside the cell of Klebsiella pneumoniae ECU-15. The results indicated that higher temperature could reduce the amount of the uptake hydrogen and enhance the hydrogen production from the NADH pathway. Moreover, both the producing hydrogen flux from formate and the uptake hydrogen flux were attained to the maximum at pH 7.0-7.5. The producing hydrogen flux was higher at 5g/L initial glucose than that of the other concentrations, and the uptake hydrogen flux showed the minimum value under the same condition. The apparent hydrogen generation was caused by the combined action of producing hydrogenase, uptake hydrogenase and bidirectional hydrogenase. These results were helpful to deeply understand the mechanism of the biohydrogen evolving process and establish the suitable molecular strategies for improving hydrogen production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supporting the Uptake of Nursing Guidelines: what you really need to know to move nursing guidelines into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew-Maich, Nancy; Ploeg, Jenny; Dobbins, Maureen; Jack, Susan

    2013-05-01

    There is a current push to use best practice guidelines (BPGs) in health care to enhance client care and outcomes. Even though intensive resources have been invested internationally to develop BPGs, a gap in knowledge exists about how to consistently and efficiently move them into practice. Constructivist grounded theory was used to explore the complex processes of a breastfeeding BPG implementation and uptake in three acute care hospitals. Interviews (n = 120) with 112 participants representing clients, nurses, lactation consultants, midwives, physicians, managers, administrators, and nurse educators as well as document and field note analysis informed this study. Data were analyzed using constant comparison and coding steps outlined by Charmaz: initial coding, selective (focused) coding, then theoretical coding. Triangulation of data types and sources were used as well as theoretical sampling. Data were collected from 2009 to 2010. Two sites showed BPG uptake while one did not. Factors present in the uptake sites included, ongoing passionate frontline leaders, the use of multifaceted strategies, and processes that occurred at organizational, leadership, individual and social levels. Particularly noteworthy was the transformation of individual nurses to believing in and using the BPG. Impacts occurred at client, nurse, unit, inter-professional, organizational and system levels. A conceptual framework: Supporting the Uptake of Nursing Guidelines, was developed that reveals essential processes used to facilitate BPG uptake into nursing practice and a process of nurse transformation to believing in and using the BPG. © Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in skeletal muscle health and disease

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jingsong; Yi, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Muscle uses Ca2+ as a messenger to control contraction and relies on ATP to maintain the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Mitochondria are the major sub-cellular organelle of ATP production. With a negative inner membrane potential, mitochondria take up Ca2+ from their surroundings, a process called mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Under physiological conditions, Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria promotes ATP production. Excessive uptake causes mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, which activates downstream adverse responses leading to cell dysfunction. Moreover, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake could shape spatio-temporal patterns of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Malfunction of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is implicated in muscle degeneration. Unlike non-excitable cells, mitochondria in muscle cells experience dramatic changes of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Besides the sudden elevation of Ca2+ level induced by action potentials, Ca2+ transients in muscle cells can be as short as a few milliseconds during a single twitch or as long as min...

  18. Coupling of Groundwater Transport and Plant Uptake Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the setup of mass balances in env...... to groundwater transport simulation tools. Exemplary simulations of plant uptake were carried out, in order to estimate concentrations in the soilplant- air system and the influence of plants on contaminant mass fluxes from soil to groundwater.......Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the setup of mass balances...

  19. Dynamic plant uptake modelling and mass flux estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the set-up of mass balances in en...... be coupled to groundwater transport simulation tools. Exemplary simulations of plant uptake were carried out in order to estimate chemical concentrations in the soil–plant–air system and the influence of plants on contaminant mass fluxes from soil to groundwater.......Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the set-up of mass balances...

  20. Uptake of Sulfadiazine Sulfonamide from Water by Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between sulfadiazine (SDZ, a sulfonamide antibiotic, and clinoptilolite, a hydrophilic zeolite, were investigated under batch experimental conditions. The uptake of SDZ on the zeolite followed a linear sorption isotherm under neutral pH conditions. Higher SDZ uptake on the zeolite was observed when solution pH was below the or above the values of SDZ, while minimal SDZ uptake was observed when the solution pH was between the and values of SDZ. These observations suggested that hydrophobic interaction between SDZ and the zeolite was minimal due to the hydrophilic nature of the substrate. Electrostatic interactions and ion bridging were attributed to the elevated SDZ uptake under low and high pH conditions. As SDZ had a low value, the hydrophilic nature of the substrate prevented extensive uptake of SDZ, which could contribute to its extensive detection in the environment, including surface water and wastewater.

  1. Injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling in dechorionated eggs and larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi-Hong; Chen, Chien-Hung

    2017-04-01

    Previous study showed that diapause in Bombyx mori eggs can be terminated by dechorionation and that activation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in dechorionated cultured eggs is involved in diapause termination. In the present study, the possible mechanism underlying activation of ERK upon dechorionation was further investigated. Results showed that mechanical injury of diapause eggs without medium incubation also resulted in rapid increase in the phospho-ERK levels and that injury increased the phospho-ERK levels at different stages of both diapause eggs and eggs in which diapause initiation was prevented by HCl. Effects of anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels showed that the mechanical injury itself but not the dramatic increase in oxygen uptake upon injury is involved in a rapid activation of ERK. Chemical anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels and the in vivo effect of anaerobiosis showed that the supply of oxygen also plays a role in ERK signaling. In addition, injury induced the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 kinase, components of two parallel MAPK pathways. A kinase assay showed a dramatic increase in JNK kinase activity in egg lysates upon injury. When newly hatched first instar larvae were injured, an increase in the phospho-ERK levels similar to that in dechorionated eggs was observed. From the results, we hypothesize that the injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling, which serves as a natural signal for embryonic development, is related to diapause termination in dechorionated eggs. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Interventions to improve the rate or timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: meta-analyses of effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As global policy evolves toward initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART regardless of CD4 count, initiating individuals newly diagnosed with HIV on ART as efficiently as possible will become increasingly important. To inform progress, we conducted a systematic review of pre-ART interventions aiming to increase ART initiation in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and the ISI Web of Knowledge from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2015, extended in PubMed to 25 May 2016, for English language publications pertaining to any country in sub-Saharan Africa and reporting on general adult populations. We included studies describing interventions aimed at increasing linkage to HIV care, retention in pre-ART or uptake of ART, which reported ART initiation as an outcome. We synthesized the evidence on causal intervention effects in meta-analysis of studies belonging to distinct intervention categories. Results and discussion: We identified 22 studies, which evaluated 25 interventions and included data on 45,393 individual patients. Twelve of twenty-two studies were observational. Rapid/point-of-care (POC CD4 count technology (seven interventions (relative risk, RR: 1.26; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.02–1.55, interventions within home-based testing (two interventions (RR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.36–2.92, improved clinic operations (three interventions (RR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.25–1.48 and a package of patient-directed services (three interventions (RR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.20–1.97 were all associated with increased ART initiation as was HIV/TB service integration (three interventions (RR: 2.05; 95% CI: 0.59–7.09 but with high imprecision. Provider-initiated testing (three interventions was associated with reduced ART initiation (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86–0.97. Counselling and support interventions (two interventions (RR 1.08; 95% CI: 0.94–1.26 had no impact on ART initiation. Overall, the evidence was graded as low or moderate

  3. Rapid Clozapine Titration in Patients with Treatment Refractory Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Özdemir, Armağan; Sağlam, Nazife Gamze Usta; Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Tomruk, Nesrin; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in patients with schizophrenia in hospital settings. We conducted a retrospective two-center cohort study to compare the safety and effectiveness of clozapine with different titration rates in treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia. In the first center, clozapine was started at 25-50 mg followed by 50-100 mg as needed every 6 h on day 1, followed by increases of 50-100 mg/day. In the second center, titration was slower; clozapine initiated with 12.5-50 mg on day 1 followed by increases of 25-50 mg/day. The number of days between starting of clozapine until discharge was shorter in the rapid titration group (22.4 ± 8.72 vs 27.0 ± 10.5, p = 0.1). Number of days of total hospital stay were significantly shorter in the rapid titration group (29.6 ± 10.6 vs 41.2 ± 14.8, p = 0.002). Hypotension was more common in the rapid titration group and one patient had suspected myocarditis. Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective. The length of stay following initiation of clozapine was shorter in the rapid-titration group, although this was not statistically significant. However starting clozapine earlier together with rapid titration has significantly shortened the length of hospital stay in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia.

  4. Properties of putrescine uptake by PotFGHI and PuuP and their physiological significance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terui, Yusuke; Saroj, Sunil D; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Yoshida, Taketo; Higashi, Kyohei; Kurihara, Shin; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-03-01

    Properties of putrescine uptake by PotFGHI and PuuP and their physiological significance were studied using a polyamine biosynthesis and uptake deficient Escherichia coli KK3131 transformed with pACYC184 containing potFGHI or puuP. Putrescine uptake activity of E. coli KK3131 transformed with pACYC184-PotFGHI was higher than that of E. coli 3131 transformed with pACYC-PuuP when cells were cultured in the absence of putrescine. Putrescine uptake by PotFGHI was both ATP and membrane potential dependent, while that by PuuP was membrane potential dependent. Feedback inhibition by polyamines occurred at the PotFGHI uptake system but not at the PuuP uptake system. Expression of PuuP was reduced in the presence of PuuR, a negative regulator for PuuP, and expression of PuuR was positively regulated by glucose, which reduces the level of cAMP. The complex of cAMP and CRP (cAMP receptor protein) inhibited the expression of PuuR in the absence of glucose. Thus, the growth rate of E. coli KK3131 in the presence of both 0.4% (22.2 mM) glucose and 10 mM putrescine was in the order of cells transformed with pACYC-PotFGHI > pACYC-PuuP > pACYC-PuuP + PuuR, which was parallel with the polyamine content in cells. The results indicate that PotFGHI is necessary for rapid cell growth in the presence of glucose as an energy source. When glucose in medium was depleted, however, PuuP was absolutely necessary for cell growth in the presence of putrescine, because accumulation of putrescine to a high level by PuuP was necessary for utilization of putrescine as an energy source.

  5. Characteristics and regulatory nature of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMG) uptake in bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigornia, L.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics and regulatory nature of sugar transport were investigated in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, serving as a model of a homogeneous neuronal cell population. Transport was measured by following the cell/medium distribution of the nonmetabolizable glucose analogue, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMG). In isolated chromaffin cells, 3OMG uptake had a Km = 8.2 mM and Vmax = 0.69 nmol/mg protein/min, and exhibited saturability, competitive inhibition, countertransport and inhibition by cytochalasin B and phloretin. Thus, sugar transport in adrenal chromaffin cells is mediated by facilitated diffusion, as in other neural tissue preparations and most other animal cell types. Insulin, hyperosmolarity and secretagogues stimulated 3OMG transport and /sup 45/Ca uptake in isolated chromaffin cells, and stimulatory effects on sugar transport were abolished in nominally Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium. The effects of culturing on characteristics of 3OMG uptake in adrenal chromaffin cells were examined. 3OMG uptake in rapidly growing day 1 cultures had a Vmax = 139 nmol/mg protein/min and Km = 15 mM, and was not altered by insulin. In stationary day 5 cultures, Vmax and Km of 3OMG uptake decreased to 50 nmol/mg protein/min and 9 mM, respectively. Insulin stimulated sugar transport in day 5 cultures, and this effect was abolished in nominally Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium. Thus, saturation kinetics, insulin and Ca/sup 2 +/ sensitivity of 3OMG uptake were maintained in culture. Quantitative differences in transport activity between freshly isolated and cultured chromaffin cells may be related to differences in energy requirements at various stages of cell growth and morphologic change.

  6. Rapid Retort Processing of Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-04

    reduce oxygen uptake by the mix. Par-cooking was also tested as a means of developing the cooked-scrambled egg flavor in the retorted product. In this...carbon. It was then instantaneously frozen by plunging into a “ nitrogen slurry”. The frozen sample was first sublimated to remove any ice or nitrogen on...choice of oil had large impact on flavor depending on whether soy, corn, sunflower , olive or canola was used. Standard vegetable oil performed

  7. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  8. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  9. Cellular uptake: lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Giulio; Bang, Eun-Kyoung; Montenegro, Javier; Matile, Stefan

    2015-07-04

    The objective of this Feature Article is to reflect on the importance of established and emerging principles of supramolecular organic chemistry to address one of the most persistent problems in life sciences. The main topic is dynamic covalent chemistry on cell surfaces, particularly disulfide exchange for thiol-mediated uptake. Examples of boronate and hydrazone exchange are added for contrast, comparison and completion. Of equal importance are the discussions of proximity effects in polyions and counterion hopping, and more recent highlights on ring tension and ion pair-π interactions. These lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry apply to cell-penetrating peptides, particularly the origin of "arginine magic" and the "pyrenebutyrate trick," and the currently emerging complementary "disulfide magic" with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s. They further extend to the voltage gating of neuronal potassium channels, gene transfection, and the delivery of siRNA. The collected examples illustrate that the input from conceptually innovative chemistry is essential to address the true challenges in biology beyond incremental progress and random screening.

  10. Factors Infuencing Women in Pap Smear Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, K. E.; Alam, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Pap smear has proven can decrease death caused by cervical cancer. However, in Indonesia, only few woman who already did pap smear. The aim of this study was to investigate women’s knowledge about pap smear cervical cancer, and to investigate factors influence women to do pap smear test. Methods: Quantitative data colected through questionairre towards 31 women who did pap smear and 55 women who did not do pap smear. Questionairre was made using Health Belief model as a guideline to examine percieved susceptibility, perceived serioussnes, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Chi square and multiple logistic regresion were used to investigate difference in knowledge and what the most factor that influence women to take pap smear test. Results: There’s significance knowledge difference betweeen women who did and did not do pap smear. But furthermore, by using Multiple Logistic Regression test, appearantly knowledge was not a strong predictor factor for women to take pap smear test (koefisiensi β = -0,164) Conclusion: Perceived barriers were factors that affected pap smear uptake in women in Indonesia. Few respondents get the wrong informations about pap smear, cevical cancer and its symptoms

  11. Pegylated silica nanoparticles: cytotoxicity and macrophage uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorani, Giulia; Marin, Riccardo; Canton, Patrizia; Pinto, Marcella; Conti, Giamaica; Fracasso, Giulio; Riello, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present a thorough study of pegylated silica nanoparticle (SNP) interaction with different biological environments. The SNPs have a mean diameter of about 40 nm and are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights. The physicochemical characterization of SNPs allowed the confirmation of the binding of PEG chains to the silica surface, the reproducibility of the synthesis and the narrow size-dispersion. In view of clarifying the SNP interaction with biological environments, we first assessed the SNP reactivity after the incubation with two cell lines (macrophages RAW 264.7 and primary human fibroblasts), observing a reduced toxicity of pegylated SNPs compared to the bare ones. Then, we investigated the effect of the protein adsorption on the SNP surface using the model serum protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). We found that the protein adsorption takes place more heavily on poorly pegylated SNPs, promoting the uptake of the latter by macrophages and leading to an increased mortality of these cells. To better understand this mechanism by means of flow cytometry, the dye Ru(bpy)3Cl2 was incorporated in the SNPs. The overall results highlight the SNP potentialities as a drug delivery system, thanks to the low interactions with the macrophages.

  12. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia, or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid transporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways. PMID:25699068

  13. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eStruck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid tranporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways.

  14. Proximity to safety-net clinics and HPV vaccine uptake among low-income, ethnic minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gee, Gilbert C; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-04-12

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake remains low. Although publicly funded programs provide free or low cost vaccines to low-income children, barriers aside from cost may prevent disadvantaged girls from getting vaccinated. Prior studies have shown distance to health care as a potential barrier to utilizing pediatric preventive services. This study examines whether HPV vaccines are geographically accessible for low-income girls in Los Angeles County and whether proximity to safety-net clinics is associated with vaccine initiation. Interviews were conducted in multiple languages with largely immigrant, low-income mothers of girls ages 9 to 18 via a county health hotline to assess uptake and correlates of uptake. Addresses of respondents and safety-net clinics that provide the HPV vaccine for free or low cost were geo-coded and linked to create measures of geographic proximity. Logistic regression models were estimated for each proximity measure on HPV vaccine initiation while controlling for other factors. On average, 83% of the 468 girls had at least one clinic within 3-miles of their residence. The average travel time on public transportation to the nearest clinic among all girls was 21min. Average proximity to clinics differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Latinas had both the shortest travel distances (2.2 miles) and public transportation times (16min) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The overall HPV vaccine initiation rate was 25%. Increased proximity to the nearest clinic was not significantly associated with initiation. By contrast, daughter's age and insurance status were significantly associated with increased uptake. This study is among the first to examine geographic access to HPV vaccines for underserved girls. Although the majority of girls live in close proximity to safety-net vaccination services, rates of initiation were low. Expanding clinic outreach in this urban area is likely more important than increasing geographic access to the

  15. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  16. Explaining variation in the uptake of HPV vaccination in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, two national programmes of HPV vaccination for girls have been instituted, a routine programme for 12- and 13-year-olds and a catch-up programme for 17- and 18-year-olds. Uptake rates across the country have been far from uniform, and this research sought to identify factors explaining the variation in uptake by locality. Methods An association between uptake, deprivation and ethnic background had been established in pilot research. The present analysis was conducted at an aggregate, Primary Care Trust (PCT, level for the first year of the programmes. Published measures of HPV vaccination uptake, material deprivation, ethnic composition of PCT populations, primary care quality, and uptake of cervical screening and of other childhood immunisations were collated. Strong evidence of collinearity amongst the explanatory variables required a factor analysis to be undertaken. This provided four independent factors, used thereafter in regression models to explain uptake by PCT. Results The factor analysis revealed that ethnic composition was associated with attitudes towards cervical screening and other childhood vaccinations, whilst material deprivation and quality of primary care were orthogonal. Ethnic composition, early childhood vaccination, cervical screening and primary care quality were found to be influential in predicting uptake in both the routine and the catch-up cohorts, although with a lower degree of confidence in the case of the last two independent variables. Lower primary care quality was significant in explaining a greater fall in vaccination uptake between the first two doses in the catch-up cohort. Greater deprivation was a significant explanatory factor for both uptake and the fall in uptake between doses for the catch-up cohort but not for uptake in the routine cohort. Conclusion These results for uptake of the first year of the national programme using aggregate data corroborate findings from

  17. Selenium uptake, tolerance and reduction in Flammulina velutipes supplied with selenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jipeng Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, selenium (Se enriched mushrooms have been exploited as dietary Se supplements, but our knowledge of the metabolic process during the Se enrichment process is far from complete. In this study, the uptake, tolerance and reduction of selenite in a widely cultivated mushroom, Flammulina velutipes, was investigated. The results showed that pH variation (from 5.5–7.5, metabolic inhibitor (0.1 mM 2,4-DNP and P or S starvation led to 11–26% decreases in the selenite uptake rate of F. velutipes. This indicates that a minor portion of the selenite uptake was metabolism dependent, whereas a carrier-facilitated passive transport may be crucial. Growth inhibition of F. velutipes initiated at 0.1 mM selenite (11% decrease in the growth rate and complete growth inhibition occurred at 3 mM selenite. A selenite concentration of 0.03–0.1 mM was recommended to maintain the balance between mycelium production and Se enrichment. F. velutipes was capable of reducing selenite to elemental Se [Se(0] including Se(0 nanoparticles, possibly as a detoxification mechanism. This process depended on both selenite concentration and metabolism activity. Overall, the data obtained provided some basic information for the cultivation of the selenized F. velutipes, and highlighted the opportunity of using mushrooms for the production of Se(0 nanoparticles.

  18. Uptake of Cd(II Using Natural Zeolite: Batch and Continuous Fixed-Bed Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna M. LMarashdeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of Cd(II ions by natural phillipsite tuff was investigated both in shake-flask and fixed-bed columns. Equilibrium uptake, qe, was found to best fit Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a maximum value of 25.78 mg/g. Percent removal of Cd ions was close to 100% from initial metal ion concentrations in the range 50 - 75 mg/L at 5.0 g zeolite/L. Also, qe was found to vary exponentially with zeolite dose. Break points as high as 350 minutes were obtained from bed treatment at favorable conditions of a low solution flow rate and high bed depth. In batch experiments, equilibrium pH increased to < 8.0 excluding chemical precipitation as part of the removal while in fixed-beds the final pH exceeded 9.0. It is suggested that a sieve action of zeolite porous structure plays a role as an uptake mechanism in addition to the ion exchange.

  19. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Uptake of Arsenite From Solution By Synthetic Mackinawite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, T.J.; Hyun, S.P.; Hayes, K.F.

    2009-06-03

    As(III) uptake from solution by synthetic mackinawite is examined as a function of pH and initial As(III) concentration using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). XAS data indicate that when mackinawite is reacted at pH 5, 7, and 9 with 5 x 10{sup -4} M As(III), arsenic is reduced from its original +3 valence state and is primarily coordinated as As-S ({approx}2.26 {angstrom}) and As-As ({approx}2.54 {angstrom}), which is consistent with the formation of a realgar-like phase in agreement with XRD data. At 5 x 10{sup -5} M As(III), samples are markedly different from those collected at an order of magnitude higher concentration and differ at each pH value. The XAS analysis of mackinawite samples reacted with 5 x 10{sup -5} M As(III) shows a transition from As-O coordination to As-S coordination as pH decreases, with the sample reacted at pH 5 resembling realgar. Under alkaline conditions, arsenic retains its original valence state of +3 and is primarily coordinated to oxygen at a distance of 1.75 {angstrom}. This may be attributed to uptake by adsorption as an As(III) oxyanion. These results provide the basis for selecting the reactions needed for modeling and are beneficial in understanding the mechanisms of arsenite uptake by mackinawite under anoxic sulfidic conditions.

  20. Cadmium triggers Elodea canadensis to change the surrounding water pH and thereby Cd uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tariq; Greger, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on surrounding water pH in the presence of cadmium and the effect of plant-induced pH on cadmium uptake. The pH change in the surrounding nutrient solution and Cd uptake by Elodea shoots were investigated after cultivation of various plant densities (1, 3, 6 plants per 500 ml) in hydroponics at a starting pH of 4.0 and in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 0.1, 0.5 microM). Cadmium uptake was also investigated at different constant pH (4.0, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). To investigate if the pH change arose from photosynthetic activities, plants were grown under light, darkness or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), and 0.5 microM cadmium in the solution. Elodea had an ability to increase the surrounding water pH, when the initial pH was low, which resulted in increased accumulation of Cd. The higher the plant density, the more pronounced was the pH change. The pH increase was not due to the photosynthetic activity since the pH rise was more pronounced under darkness and in the presence of DCMU. The pH increase by Elodea was triggered by cadmium.