Sample records for rapid inexpensive technique

  1. A Simple, Rapid and Inexpensive Procedure to Distinguish Amino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. A Simple, Rapid and Inexpensive Procedure to Distinguish Amino Acids and their Esters. B Ramachandra ... Author Affiliations. B Ramachandra Murty1. Department of Biochemistry PSG College of Arts and Science Coimbatore 641 014, India.

  2. Enhancing COSMO-DE ensemble forecasts by inexpensive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Ben Bouallègue


    Full Text Available COSMO-DE-EPS, a convection-permitting ensemble prediction system based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO-DE, is pre-operational since December 2010, providing probabilistic forecasts which cover Germany. This ensemble system comprises 20 members based on variations of the lateral boundary conditions, the physics parameterizations and the initial conditions. In order to increase the sample size in a computationally inexpensive way, COSMO-DE-EPS is combined with alternative ensemble techniques: the neighborhood method and the time-lagged approach. Their impact on the quality of the resulting probabilistic forecasts is assessed. Objective verification is performed over a six months period, scores based on the Brier score and its decomposition are shown for June 2011. The combination of the ensemble system with the alternative approaches improves probabilistic forecasts of precipitation in particular for high precipitation thresholds. Moreover, combining COSMO-DE-EPS with only the time-lagged approach improves the skill of area probabilities for precipitation and does not deteriorate the skill of 2 m-temperature and wind gusts forecasts.

  3. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. There is no 'one' procedure for extracting DNA from the whole blood of both mammals and birds, since each species has a unique property that require different methods to release its own DNA. Therefore, to obtain genomic DNA, a universal, rapid, and noncostly method was developed. A very simple biological ...

  4. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of both mammals and birds, since each species has a unique property that require different methods to release its own DNA. Therefore, to obtain genomic DNA, a universal, rapid, and noncostly method was developed. A very simple biological basis is followed in this procedure, in which, when the bloodis placed in water, ...

  5. Simple, inexpensive technique for high-quality smartphone fundus photography in human and animal eyes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddock, Luis J; Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo


    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily...

  6. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddock, Luis J; Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo


    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily...

  7. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques. (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J


    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  8. A simple and inexpensive technique for assessing microbial contamination during drilling operations (United States)

    Friese, André; Vuillemin, Aurèle; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk


    , the core was cut and the liner fluid collected. From each whole round core (WRC) that was taken for microbiological and biogeochemical analyses, small samples of 1 cc were retrieved with sterile cutoff syringes from the rim, the center and an intermediate position. After dilution and homogenization in 9 mL MilliQ water, 10 μL of the sediment slurry was transferred onto a filter membrane and particles counted via fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, particles in the liner fluid were also quantified. This allows the quantification of the amount of drilling fluid that has entered the sediment sample during drilling. The minimum detectable volume of drilling fluid was in the order of single nanoliters per cc of sediment, which is in the range of established techniques. The presented method requires only a minimum of equipment and allows rapid determination of contamination in the sediment core and an easy to handle on-site analysis at low costs. The sensitivity is in the same range as perfluorocarbon and microsphere tracer applications. Thus, it offers an inexpensive but powerful technique for contamination assessment for future drilling campaigns.

  9. Ultrasensitive, rapid and inexpensive detection of DNA using paper based lateral flow assay (United States)

    Jauset-Rubio, Miriam; Svobodová, Markéta; Mairal, Teresa; McNeil, Calum; Keegan, Neil; Saeed, Ayman; Abbas, Mohammad Nooredeen; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S.; Bashammakh, Abdulaziz S.; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O.; O´Sullivan, Ciara K.


    Sensitive, specific, rapid, inexpensive and easy-to-use nucleic acid tests for use at the point-of-need are critical for the emerging field of personalised medicine for which companion diagnostics are essential, as well as for application in low resource settings. Here we report on the development of a point-of-care nucleic acid lateral flow test for the direct detection of isothermally amplified DNA. The recombinase polymerase amplification method is modified slightly to use tailed primers, resulting in an amplicon with a duplex flanked by two single stranded DNA tails. This tailed amplicon facilitates detection via hybridisation to a surface immobilised oligonucleotide capture probe and a gold nanoparticle labelled reporter probe. A detection limit of 1 × 10−11 M (190 amol), equivalent to 8.67 × 105 copies of DNA was achieved, with the entire assay, both amplification and detection, being completed in less than 15 minutes at a constant temperature of 37 °C. The use of the tailed primers obviates the need for hapten labelling and consequent use of capture and reporter antibodies, whilst also avoiding the need for any post-amplification processing for the generation of single stranded DNA, thus presenting an assay that can facilely find application at the point of need. PMID:27886248

  10. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Haddock


    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine.

  11. Comparison of Two Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping Methods for Manufacturing Filament Target Ultrasound Phantoms. (United States)

    Füzesi, Krisztián; Gyöngy, Miklós


    Current use of 3-D printers to manufacture ultrasound phantoms is limited to relatively expensive photopolymer jetting printers. The present work investigates the feasibility of using two common and inexpensive 3-D printer technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) and digital light processing (DLP), to print custom filament target phantoms. Acoustic characteristics obtained from printed solid blocks indicated that the printing materials-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid for FDM and a photopolymer for DLP printing-were appropriate for use as scatterers. A regular grid of filaments was printed to study printing accuracy. As a proof of concept of the phantom manufacturing process, a complex pattern of filament targets was placed in de-ionized water to create a phantom, which was then imaged using an ultrasound imager. The pattern was clearly identifiable, although multiple reflections were observed, which underscores the importance of future work to enhance printing resolution. This goal is deemed possible using improvement of the DLP printing setup. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An inexpensive and portable microvolumeter for rapid evaluation of biological samples. (United States)

    Douglass, John K; Wcislo, William T


    We describe an improved microvolumeter (MVM) for rapidly measuring volumes of small biological samples, including live zooplankton, embryos, and small animals and organs. Portability and low cost make this instrument suitable for widespread use, including at remote field sites. Beginning with Archimedes' principle, which states that immersing an arbitrarily shaped sample in a fluid-filled container displaces an equivalent volume, we identified procedures that maximize measurement accuracy and repeatability across a broad range of absolute volumes. Crucial steps include matching the overall configuration to the size of the sample, using reflected light to monitor fluid levels precisely, and accounting for evaporation during measurements. The resulting precision is at least 100 times higher than in previous displacement-based methods. Volumes are obtained much faster than by traditional histological or confocal methods and without shrinkage artifacts due to fixation or dehydration. Calibrations using volume standards confirmed accurate measurements of volumes as small as 0.06 microL. We validated the feasibility of evaluating soft-tissue samples by comparing volumes of freshly dissected ant brains measured with the MVM and by confocal reconstruction.

  13. Rapid and Inexpensive Screening of Genomic Copy Number Variations Using a Novel Quantitative Fluorescent PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stofanko


    Full Text Available Detection of human microdeletion and microduplication syndromes poses significant burden on public healthcare systems in developing countries. With genome-wide diagnostic assays frequently inaccessible, targeted low-cost PCR-based approaches are preferred. However, their reproducibility depends on equally efficient amplification using a number of target and control primers. To address this, the recently described technique called Microdeletion/Microduplication Quantitative Fluorescent PCR (MQF-PCR was shown to reliably detect four human syndromes by quantifying DNA amplification in an internally controlled PCR reaction. Here, we confirm its utility in the detection of eight human microdeletion syndromes, including the more common WAGR, Smith-Magenis, and Potocki-Lupski syndromes with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We present selection, design, and performance evaluation of detection primers using variety of approaches. We conclude that MQF-PCR is an easily adaptable method for detection of human pathological chromosomal aberrations.

  14. Affinity purification of Car9-tagged proteins on silica matrices: Optimization of a rapid and inexpensive protein purification technology. (United States)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Jessica; Coyle, Brandon L; Samuelson, Ariana; Aravagiri, Kannan; Baneyx, François


    Car9, a dodecapeptide identified by cell surface display for its ability to bind to the edge of carbonaceous materials, also binds to silica with high affinity. The interaction can be disrupted with l-lysine or l-arginine, enabling a broad range of technological applications. Previously, we reported that C-terminal Car9 extensions support efficient protein purification on underivatized silica. Here, we show that the Car9 tag is functional and TEV protease-excisable when fused to the N-termini of target proteins, and that it supports affinity purification under denaturing conditions, albeit with reduced yields. We further demonstrate that capture of Car9-tagged proteins is enhanced on small particle size silica gels with large pores, that the concomitant problem of nonspecific protein adsorption can be solved by lysing cells in the presence of 0.3% Tween 20, and that efficient elution is achieved at reduced l-lysine concentrations under alkaline conditions. An optimized small-scale purification kit incorporating the above features allows Car9-tagged proteins to be inexpensively recovered in minutes with better than 90% purity. The Car9 affinity purification technology should prove valuable for laboratory-scale applications requiring rapid access to milligram-quantities of proteins, and for preparative scale purification schemes where cost and productivity are important factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Iodine Concentration in Serum and Urine of Hypothyroid Males Using an Inexpensive and Rapid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Kandhro


    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220 of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01. The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002 respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008. The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism.

  16. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis. (United States)

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack


    Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE) or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM) assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions), IL1F7 (skin), ALAS2 (blood), MMP10 (menstrual blood), HTN3 (saliva) and TGM4 (semen).  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green). Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively inexpensive

  17. Technique for rapid establishment of American lotus in remediation efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M. G.; Jett, R. T.; McCracken, M. K.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Fortner, A. M.; Goins, K. N.; Riazi, A. S.


    A technique for increasing the establishment rate of American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) and simplifying planting was developed as part of a pond remediation project. Lotus propagation techniques typically require scarification of the seed, germination in heated water, and planting in nursery containers. Then mature (~ 1 yr) nursery-grown stock is transferred to planting site or scarified seed are broadcast applied. Mature plants should grow more quickly, but can be sensitive to handling, require more time to plant, and cost more. Scarified seeds are easier to plant and inexpensive, but have a lag time in growth, can fail to germinate, and can be difficult to site precisely. We developed an intermediate technique using small burlap bags that makes planting easier, provides greater germination success, and avoids lag time in growth. Data on survival and growth from experiments using mature stock, scarified seeds, and bag lotus demonstrate that bag lotus grow rapidly in a variety of conditions, have a high survival rate, can be processed and planted easily and quickly, and are very suitable for a variety of remediation projects

  18. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeba Quadri


    Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.

  19. SSR-patchwork: An optimized protocol to obtain a rapid and inexpensive SSR library using first-generation sequencing technology. (United States)

    Di Maio, Antonietta; De Castro, Olga


    We have optimized a version of a microsatellite loci isolation protocol for first-generation sequencing (FGS) technologies. The protocol is optimized to reduce the cost and number of steps, and it combines some procedures from previous simple sequence repeat (SSR) protocols with several key improvements that significantly affect the final yield of the SSR library. This protocol may be accessible for laboratories with a moderate budget or for which next-generation sequencing (NGS) is not readily available. • We drew from classic protocols for library enrichment by digestion, ligation, amplification, hybridization, cloning, and sequencing. Three different systems were chosen: two with very different genome sizes (Galdieria sulphuraria, 10 Mbp; Pancratium maritimum, 30 000 Mbp), and a third with an undetermined genome size (Kochia saxicola). Moreover, we also report the optimization of the sequencing reagents. A good frequency of the obtained microsatellite loci was achieved. • The method presented here is very detailed; comparative tests with other SSR protocols are also reported. This optimized protocol is a promising tool for low-cost genetic studies and the rapid, simple construction of homemade SSR libraries for small and large genomes.

  20. Rapid, simple and inexpensive production of custom 3D printed equipment for large-volume fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Tyson, Adam L; Hilton, Stephen T; Andreae, Laura C


    The cost of 3D printing has reduced dramatically over the last few years and is now within reach of many scientific laboratories. This work presents an example of how 3D printing can be applied to the development of custom laboratory equipment that is specifically adapted for use with the novel brain tissue clearing technique, CLARITY. A simple, freely available online software tool was used, along with consumer-grade equipment, to produce a brain slicing chamber and a combined antibody staining and imaging chamber. Using standard 3D printers we were able to produce research-grade parts in an iterative manner at a fraction of the cost of commercial equipment. 3D printing provides a reproducible, flexible, simple and cost-effective method for researchers to produce the equipment needed to quickly adopt new methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muñoz, Jose, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Stenbock-Fermor, Anja, E-mail: [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Muñoz, Maria, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muraviev, Dmitri N., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes, Francisco, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Tsarkova, Larisa A., E-mail: [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Baeza, Mireia, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanodiamond functionalization with CdS quantum dots. • Approach for carbon nanotube detection in water samples. • Simple functionalization of thin polymeric nanolayers with quantum dots. - Abstract: Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  2. HPLC assay of tomato carotenoids: validation of a rapid microextraction technique. (United States)

    Sérino, Sylvie; Gomez, Laurent; Costagliola, Guy; Gautier, Hélène


    Carotenoids are studied for their role as pigments and as precursors of aromas, vitamin A, abscisic acid, and antioxidant compounds in different plant tissues. A novel, rapid, and inexpensive analytical protocol is proposed to enable the simultaneous analysis of four major tomato carotenoids: lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene, and phytoene. Microextraction is performed in the presence of sodium chloride, n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate on fresh tomato powder that has been finely ground in liquid nitrogen. The carotenoids are extracted by agitation and centrifugation and then analyzed by HPLC using a diode array detector. The principal advantage of this extraction resides in the absence of an evaporation step, often necessary to assay tomato carotenoids other than lycopene. Whatever the carotenoid, tests for accuracy, reproducibility, and linearity were satisfactory and indicative of the method's reliability. The stability of extracts over time (several days at -20 degrees C) as the satisfactory sensitivity of the assay whatever the fruit ripeness had a part in the robustness of the method. Reliable, rapid, simple, and inexpensive, this extraction technique is appropriate for the routine analysis of carotenoids in small samples.

  3. Testing techniques for mechanical characterization of rapidly solidified materials (United States)

    Koch, C. C.


    Mechanical property testing techniques are reviewed for rapidly solidified materials. Mechanical testing of rapidly solidified materials is complicated by the fact that in most cases at least one dimension of the material is very small (less than 100 microns). For some geometries, i.e., powder or thin surface layers, microhardness is the only feasible mechanical test. The ribbon geometry which is obtained by the melt-spinning method, however, has been used for a variety of mechanical property measurements including elastic properties, tensile properties, fracture toughness, creep, and fatigue. These techniques are described with emphasis placed on the precautions required by the restricted geometry of rapidly solidified specimens.

  4. A review of rapid prototyping techniques for tissue engineering purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, Sanna M.; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kellomaki, Minna


    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a common name for several techniques, which read in data from computer-aided design (CAD) drawings and manufacture automatically three-dimensional objects layer-by-layer according to the virtual design. The utilization of RP in tissue engineering enables the production of

  5. Determine quality of rice seed using rapid techniques (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Zheng, Siyuan; Ying, Yibin


    This paper is aimed at investigating the possibility of sorting rice seeds by rapid techniques. Machine vision and dielectric separation were involved to determine external and internal quality of rice seeds. A conceptual rapid seed sorter is proposed. Two varieties of rice seeds planted and harvested in different years were involved in the experiments. Using morphological and color features gave a highly acceptable classification of normal and defective seeds. Dielectric parameters can be used to classify rice seeds into high vigor and low vigor. Combination of appearance characteristics and dielectric properties provide comprehensive response of seed quality. A highly acceptable defects classification and vigor improvement were achieved when the principle prototype was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability. The good adaptability of machine vision and dielectric separation indicate the potential to determine quality of rice seeds rapidly. This paper presents the significant elements of the conceptual prototype and emphasizes the important aspects of the image processing and dielectric separation techniques.

  6. Rapid solidification via melt spinning - Equipment and techniques (United States)

    Jech, R. W.; Moore, T. J.; Glasgow, T. K.; Orth, N. W.


    One of the simpler methods available to accomplish rapid solidification processing is free jet melt spinning. With only a modest expenditure of time, effort, and capital, an apparatus suitable for preliminary experimentation can be assembled. Wheel and crucible materials, process atmospheres, crucible design, heating methods, and process parameters and their relationship to melt composition are described. Practical solutions to processing problems, based on 'hands-on' experience, are offered. Alloys with melting points up to 3000 F have been rapidly solidified using the techniques described.

  7. A rapid technique for determination of nitrate and nitric acid by acid reduction and diazotization at elevated temperature. (United States)

    Mir, S A


    A rapid technique for determination of nitrate by acid reduction and diazotization at elevated temperature has been standardized. The technique is based on quantitative diazotization of sulfanilamide by nitrate on incubation in boiling water bath for 3, 5 or 10 min in presence of high concentration of HCl, ca. 64.5%. The diazotized sulfanilamide is coupled at room temperature to N-1-(naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, and the chromophore evaluated spectrophotometrically at 540 nm. The technique provides linear estimate of nitrate over the test range of 0.5 through 10 microg N mL(-1) sample with all test incubation time periods using alkali nitrate and nitric acid as sources of nitrate anion. Urea treatment enables selective determination of nitrate in presence of nitrite with overall 99+/-1% recovery, and without affecting nitrate determination (P>0.1) or its regression coefficient. The technique has obvious advantages over metal-reduction technique. It is simple, rapid, selective in presence of nitrite, and an inexpensive method for routine determination of nitrate with detection range 0.5-10 microg N mL(-1) sample. Besides, the technique provides opportunity to detect nitric acid as low as 35 microM even in presence of other acids.

  8. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems (United States)

    van der Ree, Joost; Lebret, Erik


    To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS) and health as an example. Dutch policy-oriented publications on IAPS and health and ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders were analyzed to identify stakeholders and concerns involved in the Dutch debate about IAPS and health. Concerns were mapped and a stakeholder network was derived. Three classes of concerns were recognized in the discussions about IAPS and health: concerns related to health risks, concerns regarding the activity causing the risks (IAPS), and concerns about the process to control the risks. The notions of ‘trust’ and ‘scientific uncertainty’ appeared as important themes in the discussions. Argumentation based on concerns directly related to health risks, the activity causing the risk (IAPS), and its risk management can easily become muddled up in a societal debate, limiting the development of effective action perspectives. Acknowledging these multiple stakeholder concerns can clarify the positions taken by stakeholders and allow for more and other action perspectives to develop. PMID:29232902

  9. Modified AFLP technique for rapid genetic characterization in plants. (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, D G; Kane, M E; Guy, C L; Li, Q B


    The standard amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was modified to develop a convenient and reliable technique for rapid genetic characterization of plants. Modifications included (i) using one restriction enzyme, one adapter molecule and primer, (ii) incorporating formamide to generate more intense and uniform bands and (iii) using agarose gel electrophoresis. Sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.), pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata L.), Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and Penstemon heterophyllus Lindl. were used to determine the ability to generate adequate resolution power with both self- and cross-pollinated plant species including cultivars, ecotypes and individuals within populations. Reproducibility of bands was higher in all the AFLP experiments compared to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Formamide with or without bovine serum albumin improved band intensities compared to dimethyl sulfoxide and the standard reaction mixture with no organic solvents. Comparison between RAPD and modified AFLP using sea-oats population samples proved that modified AFLP exhibits (i) a low number of faint bands with increased specificity of amplified bands, (ii) a significantly higher number of polymorphic loci per primer, (iii) less primer screening time, (iv) easy scoring associated with fewer faint bands and (v) greatly enhanced reproducibility. The technique described here can be applied with a high degree of accuracy for plant genetic characterization.

  10. Rapid sex determination using PCR technique compared to classic cytogenetics. (United States)

    Settin, Ahmad; Elsobky, Ezzat; Hammad, Ayman; Al-Erany, Abeer


    Fetal sexual differentiation relies on the translation of chromosomal sex established at fertilization into gonadal sex and somatic sex as development proceeds. In cases where chromosomal, gonadal, and somatic sex are incongruent in human infants and children, rapid establishment of the diagnosis and implementation of medical and surgical management is of paramount importance, since the gender identity is so important to the psychological well-being throughout life. This work was done in order to test the value of PCR technique for rapid sex determination compared to classic cytogenetic technique. Subjects included 20, cases including 10 neonates with ambiguous genitalia, 2 adult females with delayed puberty and 8 adult males with infertility, in addition to 20 normal infants of both sexes as a control group. The diagnosis of sex was attempted through examination, cytogenetic study, ultrasonography, gonadal biopsy and hormonal analysis, in addition to PCR amplification for the detection of SRY and ATL1 gene loci on Y and X chromosomes respectively. Four neonates were diagnosed as partial testicular feminization showed both positive bands for the Y and X chromosomes and a karyogram of 46/XY. Three neonates were diagnosed as true hermaphrodites showed positive amplification for both Y and X chromosomes with a mosaic karyogram 46,XX/XY. Three neonates were diagnosed as cases of adrenogenital syndrome showed positive amplification of only the Xchromosome and had a karyogram of 46/XX. One of the two adult females was diagnosed as turner syndrome showed positive amplification of the X chromosome and a karyogram of 45/XO; the other one was diagnosed as complete testicular feminization had a positive amplification of X and Y chromosomes and a karyogram of 46/XY. The 8 adult males with infertility showed a positive amplification of X and Y chromosome and a karyogram of 47/XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) in 7 cases and 46/XY gonadal dysgenesis in one case. We concluded that PCR

  11. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops. (United States)

    Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios


    Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid in situ detection of chromosome 21 by PRINS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellestor, F.; Girardet, A.; Andreo, B. [CNRS UPR 9008, Montpellier (France)] [and others


    The {open_quotes}PRimed IN Situ labeling{close_quotes} (PRINS) method is an interesting alternative to in situ hybridization for chromosomal detection. In this procedure, chromosome labeling is performed by in situ annealing of specific oligonucleotide primers, followed by primer elongation by a Taq polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides. Using this process, we have developed a simple and semi-automatic method for rapid in situ detection of human chromosome 21. The reaction was performed on a programmable temperature cycler, with a chromosome 21 specific oligonucleotide primer. Different samples of normal and trisomic lymphocytes and amniotic fluid cells were used for testing the method. Specific labeling of chromosome 21 was obtained in both metaphases and interphase nuclei in a 1 hour reaction. The use of oligonucleotide primer for in situ labeling overcomes the need for complex preparations of specific DNA probes. The present results demonstrate that PRINS may be a simple and reliable technique for rapidly detecting aneuploidies. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Technique for rapid detection of phthalates in water and beverages

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.


    The teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of phthalate esters on living beings are proven in toxicology studies. These ubiquitous food and environmental pollutants pose a great danger to the human race due to their extraordinary use as a plasticizer in the consumer product industry. Contemporary detection techniques used for phthalates require a high level of skills, expensive equipment and longer analysis time than the presented technique. Presented research work introduces a real time non-invasive detection technique using a new type of silicon substrate based planar interdigital (ID) sensor fabricated on basis of thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) semiconductor device fabrication technology. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used in conjunction with the fabricated sensor to detect phthalates in deionized water. Various concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as low as 2 ppb to a higher level of 2 ppm in deionized water were detected distinctively using new planar ID sensor based EIS sensing system. Dip testing method was used to obtain the conductance and dielectric properties of the bulk samples. Parylene C polymer coating was used as a passivation layer on the surface of the fabricated sensor to reduce the influence of Faradaic currents. In addition, inherent dielectric properties of the coating enhanced the sensitivity of the capacitive type sensor. Electrochemical spectrum analysis algorithm was used to model experimentally observed impedance spectrum to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit to analyse the kinetic processes taking place inside the electrochemical cell. Curve fitting technique was used to extract the values of the circuit components and explain experimental results on theoretical grounds. The sensor performance was tested by adding DEHP to an energy drink at concentrations above and below the minimal risk level (MRL) limit set by the ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry

  14. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Hanson


    Full Text Available Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions, IL1F7 (skin, ALAS2 (blood, MMP10 (menstrual blood, HTN3 (saliva and TGM4 (semen.  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green. Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively

  15. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis [v2; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Hanson


    Full Text Available Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions, IL1F7 (skin, ALAS2 (blood, MMP10 (menstrual blood, HTN3 (saliva and TGM4 (semen.  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green. Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively

  16. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work illustrates the efficiency of field spectroscopy for rapid identification of minerals in ore body, alteration zone and host rocks. The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their pro- cessing for noise, spectral matching and spectral un-mixing with selected library end-members. Average weighted ...

  17. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work illustrates the efficiency of field spectroscopy for rapid identification of minerals in ore body, alteration zone and host rocks. The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their processing for noise, spectral matching and spectral un-mixing with selected library end-members. Average weighted spectral ...

  18. RAPD analysis : a rapid technique for differentation of spoilage yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baleiras Couto, M.M.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Hofstra, H.; Huis in 't Veld, J.H.J.


    Techniques for the identification of the spoilage yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and members of the Zygosaccharomyces genus from food and beverages sources were evaluated. The use of identification systems based on physiological characteristics resulted often in incomplete identification or

  19. Rayleigh-Wave Dispersion Technique for Rapid Subsurface Exploration (United States)


    density of the soil is known or can be esatimated. Heukelom and Foster (1960), in the’r ayniunic testing of pave- mnsusing the vibratory technique...Heiland, C. A., 1940, Geophy.icai explorationt New York, Prentice-Hall. Heukelom , W., and Foster, C. R., 1960, Dynamic testing of pavements; Journal

  20. An Inexpensive Digital Infrared Camera (United States)

    Mills, Allan


    Details are given for the conversion of an inexpensive webcam to a camera specifically sensitive to the near infrared (700-1000 nm). Some experiments and practical applications are suggested and illustrated. (Contains 9 figures.)

  1. Rapid identification of single microbes by various Raman spectroscopic techniques (United States)

    Rösch, Petra; Harz, Michaela; Schmitt, Michael; Peschke, Klaus-Dieter; Ronneberger, Olaf; Burkhardt, Hans; Motzkus, Hans-Walter; Lankers, Markus; Hofer, Stefan; Thiele, Hans; Popp, Jürgen


    A fast and unambiguous identification of microorganisms is necessary not only for medical purposes but also in technical processes such as the production of pharmaceuticals. Conventional microbiological identification methods are based on the morphology and the ability of microbes to grow under different conditions on various cultivation media depending on their biochemical properties. These methods require pure cultures which need cultivation of at least 6 h but normally much longer. Recently also additional methods to identify bacteria are established e.g. mass spectroscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry or fluorescence spectroscopy. Alternative approaches for the identification of microorganisms are vibrational spectroscopic techniques. With Raman spectroscopy a spectroscopic fingerprint of the microorganisms can be achieved. Using UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRR) macromolecules like DNA/RNA and proteins are resonantly enhanced. With an excitation wavelength of e.g. 244 nm it is possible to determine the ratio of guanine/cytosine to all DNA bases which allows a genotypic identification of microorganisms. The application of UVRR requires a large amount of microorganisms (> 10 6 cells) e.g. at least a micro colony. For the analysis of single cells micro-Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm can be used. Here, the obtained information is from all type of molecules inside the cells which lead to a chemotaxonomic identification. In this contribution we show how wavelength dependent Raman spectroscopy yields significant molecular information applicable for the identification of microorganisms on a single cell level.

  2. Accuracy and reproducibility of dental replica models reconstructed by different rapid prototyping techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeveld, Aletta; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Ren, Yijin

    INTRODUCTION: Rapid prototyping is a fast-developing technique that might play a significant role in the eventual replacement of plaster dental models. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of physical dental models reconstructed from digital data by several rapid

  3. Reconstruction of large cranial defects with poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) using a rapid prototyping model and a new technique for intraoperative implant modeling. (United States)

    Unterhofer, Claudia; Wipplinger, Christoph; Verius, Michael; Recheis, Wolfgang; Thomé, Claudius; Ortler, Martin

    Reconstruction of large cranial defects after craniectomy can be accomplished by free-hand poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) or industrially manufactured implants. The free-hand technique often does not achieve satisfactory cosmetic results but is inexpensive. In an attempt to combine the accuracy of specifically manufactured implants with low cost of PMMA. Forty-six consecutive patients with large skull defects after trauma or infection were retrospectively analyzed. The defects were reconstructed using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. The computer file was imported into a rapid prototyping (RP) machine to produce an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene model (ABS) of the patient's bony head. The gas-sterilized model was used as a template for the intraoperative modeling of the PMMA cranioplasty. Thus, not the PMMA implant was generated by CAD/CAM technique but the model of the patients head to easily form a well-fitting implant. Cosmetic outcome was rated on a six-tiered scale by the patients after a minimum follow-up of three months. The mean size of the defect was 74.36cm2. The implants fitted well in all patients. Seven patients had a postoperative complication and underwent reoperation. Mean follow-up period was 41 months (range 2-91 months). Results were excellent in 42, good in three and not satisfactory in one patient. Costs per implant were approximately 550 Euros. PMMA implants fabricated in-house by direct molding using a bio-model of the patients bony head are easily produced, fit properly and are inexpensive compared to cranial implants fabricated with other RP or milling techniques. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. An inexpensive sensor for noise. (United States)

    Hallett, Laura; Tatum, Marcus; Thomas, Geb; Sousan, Sinan; Koehler, Kirsten; Peters, Thomas


    Noise is a pervasive workplace hazard that varies spatially and temporally. The cost of direct-reading instruments for noise hampers their use in a network. The objectives for this work were to (1) develop an inexpensive noise sensor (noise sensors for use in an inexpensive sensor network. The inexpensive noise sensor consists of an electret condenser microphone, an amplifier circuit, and a microcontroller with a small form factor (28 mm by 47 mm by 9 mm) than can be operated as a stand-alone unit. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate 50 of the new sensors at 5 sound levels: (1) ambient sound in a quiet office; (2) a pink noise test signal from 65 to 85 dBA in 10 dBA increments; and (3) 94 dBA using a SLM calibrator. Ninety-four percent of the noise sensors (n = 46) were within ± 2 dBA of the SLM for sound levels from 65 dBA to 94 dBA. As sound level increased, bias decreased, ranging from 18.3% in the quiet office to 0.48% at 94 dBA. Overall bias of the sensors was 0.83% across the 75 dBA to 94 dBA range. These sensors are available for a variety of uses and can be customized for many applications, including incorporation into a stationary sensor network for continuous monitoring of noise in manufacturing environments.

  5. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker


    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  6. A Rapid Prototyping Technique for Microfluidics with High Robustness and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Liu


    Full Text Available In microfluidic device prototyping, master fabrication by traditional photolithography is expensive and time-consuming, especially when the design requires being repeatedly modified to achieve a satisfactory performance. By introducing a high-performance/cost-ratio laser to the traditional soft lithography, this paper describes a flexible and rapid prototyping technique for microfluidics. An ultraviolet (UV laser directly writes on the photoresist without a photomask, which is suitable for master fabrication. By eliminating the constraints of fixed patterns in the traditional photomask when the masters are made, this prototyping technique gives designers/researchers the convenience to revise or modify their designs iteratively. A device fabricated by this method is tested for particle separation and demonstrates good properties. This technique provides a flexible and rapid solution to fabricating microfluidic devices for non-professionals at relatively low cost.

  7. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil


    Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items....... Microstructural characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Cobalt release was found in 4 (1.1%) of 354 items. All these had a dark appearance. SEM/EDS was performed on the four dark appearing items which showed tin-cobalt plating on these....... Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future...

  8. Rapid repair techniques for severely earthquake-damaged circular bridge piers with flexural failure mode (United States)

    Sun, Zhiguo; Li, Hongnan; Bi, Kaiming; Si, Bingjun; Wang, Dongsheng


    In this study, three rapid repair techniques are proposed to retrofit circular bridge piers that are severely damaged by the flexural failure mode in major earthquakes. The quasi-static tests on three 1:2.5 scaled circular pier specimens are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed repair techniques. For the purpose of rapid repair, the repair procedure for all the specimens is conducted within four days, and the behavior of the repaired specimens is evaluated and compared with the original ones. A finite element model is developed to predict the cyclic behavior of the repaired specimens and the numerical results are compared with the test data. It is found that all the repaired specimens exhibit similar or larger lateral strength and deformation capacity than the original ones. The initial lateral stiffness of all the repaired specimens is lower than that of the original ones, while they show a higher lateral stiffness at the later stage of the test. No noticeable difference is observed for the energy dissipation capacity between the original and repaired pier specimens. It is suggested that the repair technique using the early-strength concrete jacket confined by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets can be an optimal method for the rapid repair of severely earthquake-damaged circular bridge piers with flexural failure mode.

  9. Considerations for Task Analysis Methods and Rapid E-Learning Development Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ismail Ipek


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide basic dimensions for rapid training development in e-learning courses in education and business. Principally, it starts with defining task analysis and how to select tasks for analysis and task analysis methods for instructional design. To do this, first, learning and instructional technologies as visions of the future were discussed. Second, the importance of task analysis methods in rapid e-learning was considered, with learning technologies as asynchronous and synchronous e-learning development. Finally, rapid instructional design concepts and e-learning design strategies were defined and clarified with examples, that is, all steps for effective task analysis and rapid training development techniques based on learning and instructional design approaches were discussed, such as m-learning and other delivery systems. As a result, the concept of task analysis, rapid e-learning development strategies and the essentials of online course design were discussed, alongside learner interface design features for learners and designers.

  10. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.


    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  11. Inoculation Technique for Fungus Cultures (United States)

    Fusaro, Ramon M.


    A plastic straw and wood applicator stick serve as a simple, inexpensive, and disposable inoculation unit for fungal studies. The method gives a uniform and intact inoculum. The technique is especially useful because a large number of agar plates can be inoculated rapidly. Images PMID:5059618

  12. Nanotools and molecular techniques to rapidly identify and fight bacterial infections. (United States)

    Dinarelli, S; Girasole, M; Kasas, S; Longo, G


    Reducing the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is one of the major healthcare issues of our century. In addition to the increased mortality, infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria drastically enhance the healthcare costs, mainly because of the longer duration of illness and treatment. While in the last 20years, bacterial identification has been revolutionized by the introduction of new molecular techniques, the current phenotypic techniques to determine the susceptibilities of common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria require at least two days from collection of clinical samples. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new technologies to determine rapidly drug susceptibility in bacteria and to achieve faster diagnoses. These techniques would also lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the insurgence of the resistance, greatly helping the quest for new antibacterial systems and drugs. In this review, we describe some of the tools most currently used in clinical and microbiological research to study bacteria and to address the challenge of infections. We discuss the most interesting advancements in the molecular susceptibility testing systems, with a particular focus on the many applications of the MALDI-TOF MS system. In the field of the phenotypic characterization protocols, we detail some of the most promising semi-automated commercial systems and we focus on some emerging developments in the field of nanomechanical sensors, which constitute a step towards the development of rapid and affordable point-of-care testing devices and techniques. While there is still no innovative technique that is capable of completely substituting for the conventional protocols and clinical practices, many exciting new experimental setups and tools could constitute the basis of the standard testing package of future microbiological tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko


    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  14. A simple technique for rapid colonization of Anopheles quadrimaculatus using adults aspirated from livestock barns. (United States)

    Dennett, J A; Meisch, M V


    A technique was developed for rapid colonization of Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in an improvised insectary using blood-fed mosquitoes aspirated from livestock barns. A novel device termed the mosquito aspiration transfer and ovipositional chamber (MATOC) is described. In 2 field seasons, 14 broods were successfully mass reared, yielding more than 28,500 vigorous 3rd- and 4th-stage larvae used in rice plot and other bioassays. Crowding the females over a natural ovipositional substrate induced oviposition as early as 12 h from introduction into the MATOCs.

  15. Meteosat-6 Rapid Scan IR/WV technique for estimating precipitation (United States)

    Berger, F. H.


    In August 2002, the heaviest flood since more than 100 years occurred in Central Europe, starting in Austria, then in Czech Republic and finally in Germany (Vb cyclonic system). For this specific event remotely sensed data with a 10 minute time resolution, especially Meteosat-6 rapid scan data, were used to develop a IR/WV technique for estimating precipitation. This technique is based on the IR and WV temperatures, measured at the satellite and converted to cloud top temperatures. It considers also temperature differences (IR-WV) to distinguish between high dense ice clouds and non-precipitating areas with cold cloud top temperatures. A significant part of this technique is the use of the high temporal information about changing cloud top structures based on variable cloud top temperatures, which correspond to the cloud life cycle. To quantify the cloud life cycle, the temporal changes of cloud top temperatures for each pixel as well as the spatial changes of temperatures in time for the surrounding pixels are considered. Applying this technique, precipitation estimates could be achieved with a sufficient accuracy. To quantify the uncertainty of these precipitation estimates, the inferred rain rates are compared with ground based observations, where e.g. the maximum precipitation was measured with 312 mm in 24h in Zinnwald, Germany (new German record!).

  16. Gene-modified stem cells combined with rapid prototyping techniques: a novel strategy for periodontal regeneration. (United States)

    He, Huixia; Cao, Junkai; Wang, Dongsheng; Gu, Bing; Guo, Hong; Liu, Hongchen


    Periodontal disease, a worldwide prevalent chronic disease in adults, is characterized by the destruction of the periodontal supporting tissue including the cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The regeneration of damaged periodontal tissue is the main goal of periodontal treatment. Because conventional periodontal treatments remain insufficient to attain complete and reliable periodontal regeneration, periodontal tissue engineering has emerged as a prospective alternative method for improving the regenerative capacity of periodontal tissue. However, the potential of periodontal regeneration seems to be limited by the understanding of the cellular and molecular events in the formation of periodontal tissue and by the insufficient collaboration of multi-disciplinary research that periodontal tissue engineering involves. In this paper, we first reviewed the recent advancements in stem cells, signaling factors, and scaffolds that relate to periodontal regeneration. Then we speculate that specific genes would improve regenerative capacity of these stem cells, which could differentiate into cementoblasts, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. In addition, the 3D scaffolds that mimic the different structure and physiologic functions of natural fibro-osseous tissue could be fabricated by rapid prototyping (RP) techniques. It was therefore hypothesized that gene-modified stem cells combined with rapid prototyping techniques would be a new strategy to promote more effective and efficient periodontal regeneration.

  17. Replication of human tracheobronchial hollow airway models using a selective laser sintering rapid prototyping technique. (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Rodney E; Johnson, David L; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar; Altan, M Cengiz; Tan, Kah-Hoe; Park, Seok-Min; Crawford, Richard H


    Exposures to toxic or pathogenic aerosols are known to produce adverse health effects. The nature and severity of these effects often are governed in large part by the location and amount of aerosol deposition within the respiratory tract. Morphologically detailed replica hollow lung airway casts are widely used in aerosol deposition research; however, techniques are not currently available that allow replicate deposition studies in identical morphologically detailed casts produced from a common reference anatomy. This project developed a technique for the precision manufacture of morphologically detailed human tracheobronchial airway models based on high-resolution anatomical imaging data. Detailed physical models were produced using the selective laser sintering (SLS) rapid prototyping process. Input to the SLS process was a three-dimensional computer model developed by boundary-based two-dimension to three-dimension conversion of anatomical images from the original National Institutes of Health/National Library of Medicine Visible Human male data set. The SLS process produced identical replicate models that corresponded exactly to the anatomical section images, within the limits of the measurement. At least five airway generations were achievable, corresponding to airways less than 2 mm in diameter. It is anticipated that rapid prototyping manufacture of respiratory tract structures based on reference anatomies such as the Visible Male and Visible Female may provide "gold standard" models for inhaled aerosol deposition studies. Adaptations of the models to represent various disease states may be readily achieved, thereby promoting exploration of pharmaceutical research on targeted drug delivery via inhaled aerosols.

  18. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudowe, Ralf [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program and Health Physics Dept.; Roman, Audrey [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program; Dailey, Ashlee [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program; Go, Elaine [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program


    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  19. Can juvenile corals be surveyed effectively using digital photography?: implications for rapid assessment techniques. (United States)

    Burgess, Scott C; Osborne, Kate; Sfiligoj, Bianca; Sweatman, Hugh


    The widespread decline of coral reefs requires integrated management measures across whole regions. Knowledge of demographic processes of reef organisms is important for informed management, yet current techniques for assessing such processes are time consuming, making it impractical to gather relevant information over large scales. We tested the usefulness of digital still photography as a rapid assessment technique to estimate coral recruitment--an important process in coral reef recovery. Estimates of the density and diversity of juvenile hard corals from digital images were compared with direct visual estimates from the same plots made in the field. Multiple plots were sampled on four reefs from a range of locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. On average, estimates of juvenile densities from photographic images were lower, in both absolute and relative terms, than that estimated from images. This was the case whether colonies <20 mm or <50 mm in diameter were considered. Overall differences between methods were generally greater at reefs where recruitment was higher, though proportional differences (density from images/density from direct visual census) still varied among reefs. Although the ranking of taxa, in terms of their densities, from the two methods were similar, the density of common genera was generally underestimated in images, and the occurrence of 'unknown' taxa was higher. We conclude that photographic images do not constitute a reliable rapid assessment method for estimating the spatial patterns in the density or diversity of juvenile hard corals.

  20. Development of novel hybrid poly(l-lactide)/chitosan scaffolds using the rapid freeze prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, N; Chen, X B [Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Li, M G [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Cooper, D, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)


    Engineered scaffolds have been shown to be critical to various tissue engineering applications. This paper presents the development of a novel three-dimensional scaffold made from a mixture of chitosan microspheres (CMs) and poly(l-lactide) by means of the rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique. The CMs were used to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the scaffold mechanical properties. Experiments to examine the BSA release were carried out; the BSA release could be controlled by adjusting the crosslink degree of the CMs and prolonged after the CMs were embedded into the PLLA scaffolds, while the examination of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds illustrates that they depend on the ratio of CMs to PLLA in the scaffolds as well as the cryogenic temperature used in the RFP fabrication process. The chemical characteristics of the PLLA/chitosan scaffolds were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological and pore structure of the scaffolds were also examined by scanning electron microscopy and micro-tomography. The results obtained show that the scaffolds have higher porosity and enhanced pore size distribution compared to those fabricated by the dispensing-based rapid prototyping technique. This study demonstrates that the novel scaffolds have not only enhanced porous structure and mechanical properties but also showed the potential to preserve the bioactivities of the biomolecules and to control the biomolecule distribution and release rate.

  1. Direct typing of Canine parvovirus (CPV) from infected dog faeces by rapid mini sequencing technique. (United States)

    V, Pavana Jyothi; S, Akila; Selvan, Malini K; Naidu, Hariprasad; Raghunathan, Shwethaa; Kota, Sathish; Sundaram, R C Raja; Rana, Samir Kumar; Raj, G Dhinakar; Srinivasan, V A; Mohana Subramanian, B


    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a non-enveloped single stranded DNA virus with an icosahedral capsid. Mini-sequencing based CPV typing was developed earlier to detect and differentiate all the CPV types and FPV in a single reaction. This technique was further evaluated in the present study by performing the mini-sequencing directly from fecal samples which avoided tedious virus isolation steps by cell culture system. Fecal swab samples were collected from 84 dogs with enteritis symptoms, suggestive of parvoviral infection from different locations across India. Seventy six of these samples were positive by PCR; the subsequent mini-sequencing reaction typed 74 of them as type 2a virus, and 2 samples as type 2b. Additionally, 25 of the positive samples were typed by cycle sequencing of PCR products. Direct CPV typing from fecal samples using mini-sequencing showed 100% correlation with CPV typing by cycle sequencing. Moreover, CPV typing was achieved by mini-sequencing even with faintly positive PCR amplicons which was not possible by cycle sequencing. Therefore, the mini-sequencing technique is recommended for regular epidemiological follow up of CPV types, since the technique is rapid, highly sensitive and high capacity method for CPV typing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A rapid and robust gradient measurement technique using dynamic single-point imaging. (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; McMillan, Alan B


    We propose a new gradient measurement technique based on dynamic single-point imaging (SPI), which allows simple, rapid, and robust measurement of k-space trajectory. To enable gradient measurement, we utilize the variable field-of-view (FOV) property of dynamic SPI, which is dependent on gradient shape. First, one-dimensional (1D) dynamic SPI data are acquired from a targeted gradient axis, and then relative FOV scaling factors between 1D images or k-spaces at varying encoding times are found. These relative scaling factors are the relative k-space position that can be used for image reconstruction. The gradient measurement technique also can be used to estimate the gradient impulse response function for reproducible gradient estimation as a linear time invariant system. The proposed measurement technique was used to improve reconstructed image quality in 3D ultrashort echo, 2D spiral, and multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging. In multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging, measurement of the k-space trajectory allowed the use of a ramp-sampled trajectory for improved acquisition speed (approximately 30%) and more accurate quantitative fat and water separation in a phantom. The proposed dynamic SPI-based method allows fast k-space trajectory measurement with a simple implementation and no additional hardware for improved image quality. Magn Reson Med 78:950-962, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel


    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  4. Automated electrical impedance technique for rapid enumeration of fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants. (United States)

    Silverman, M P; Munoz, E F


    Fecal coliforms growing in a selective lactose-based broth medium at 44.5 degrees C generate a change in the electrical impedance of the culture relative to a sterile control when populations reach 10(6) to 10(7) per ml. The ratio of these changes was measured automatically, and the data were processed by computer. A linear relation was found between the log10 of the number of fecal coliforms in an inoculum and the time required for an electrical impedance ratio signal to be detected. Pure culture inocula consisting of 100 fecal coliforms in log phase or stationary phase were detected in 6.5 and 7.7 h, respectively. Standard curves of log10 fecal coliforms in wastewater inocula versus detection time, based on samples collected at a sewage treatment plant over a 4-month period, were found to vary from one another with time. Nevertheless, detection times were rapid and ranged from 5.8 to 7.9 h for 200 fecal coliforms to 8.7 to 11.4 h for 1 fecal coliform. Variations in detection times for a given number of fecal coliforms were also found among sewage treatment plants. A strategy is proposed which takes these variations into account and allows for rapid, automated enumeration of fecal coliforms in wastewater by the electrical impedance ratio technique. PMID:378128

  5. The DNA 'comet assay' as a rapid screening technique to control irradiated food. (United States)

    Cerda, H; Delincée, H; Haine, H; Rupp, H


    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce labelling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs have been radiation processed. In order to simplify the test, the agarose single-layer set-up has been chosen, using a neutral protocol. Interlaboratory blind trials have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin. This paper presents an overview of the hitherto obtained results and in addition the results of an intercomparison test with seeds, dried fruits and spices are described. In this intercomparison, an identification rate of 95% was achieved. Thus, using this novel technique, an effective screening of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation is obtained. Since other food treatments also may cause DNA fragmentation, samples with fragmented DNA suspected to have been irradiated should be analyzed by other validated methods for irradiated food, if such treatments which damage DNA cannot be excluded.

  6. The DNA `comet assay` as a rapid screening technique to control irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda, H. [Department of Radioecology, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Delincee, H. [Institute of Nutritional Physiology, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haine, H. [Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Rupp, H. [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Section of Food Chemistry, Berne (Switzerland)


    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce labelling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs have been radiation processed. In order to simplify the test, the agarose single-layer set-up has been chosen, using a neutral protocol. Interlaboratory blind trials have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin. This paper presents an overview of the hitherto obtained results and in addition the results of an intercomparison test with seeds, dried fruits and spices are described. In this intercomparison, an identification rate of 95% was achieved. Thus, using this novel technique, an effective screening of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation is obtained. Since other food treatments also may cause DNA fragmentation, samples with fragmented DNA suspected to have been irradiated should be analyzed by other validated methods for irradiated food, if such treatments which damage DNA cannot be excluded.

  7. Rapid non-destructive assessment of pork edible quality by using VIS/NIR spectroscopic technique (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Song, Yulin; Zhao, Juan; Zhao, Songwei


    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid non-destructive method to evaluate the edible quality of chilled pork. A total of 42 samples were packed in seal plastic bags and stored at 4°C for 1 to 21 days. Reflectance spectra were collected from visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system in the range of 400nm to 1100nm. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable counts (TVC), total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters L* were determined to appraise pork edible quality. Savitzky-Golay (SG) based on five and eleven smoothing points, Multiple Scattering Correlation (MSC) and first derivative pre-processing methods were employed to eliminate the spectra noise. The support vector machines (SVM) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied to establish prediction models using the de-noised spectra. A linear correlation was developed between the VIS/NIR spectroscopy and parameters such as TVC, TVB-N, pH and color parameter L* indexes, which could gain prediction results with Rv of 0.931, 0.844, 0.805 and 0.852, respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy technique combined with SVM possesses a powerful assessment capability. It can provide a potential tool for detecting pork edible quality rapidly and non-destructively.

  8. Simple and Rapid Molecular Techniques for Identification of Amylose Levels in Rice Varieties (United States)

    Cheng, Acga; Ismail, Ismanizan; Osman, Mohamad; Hashim, Habibuddin


    The polymorphisms of Waxy (Wx) microsatellite and G-T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Wx gene region were analyzed using simplified techniques in fifteen rice varieties. A rapid and reliable electrophoresis method, MetaPhor agarose gel electrophoresis (MAGE), was effectively employed as an alternative to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for separating Wx microsatellite alleles. The amplified products containing the Wx microsatellite ranged from 100 to 130 bp in length. Five Wx microsatellite alleles, namely (CT)10, (CT)11, (CT)16, (CT)17, and (CT)18 were identified. Of these, (CT)11 and (CT)17 were the predominant classes among the tested varieties. All varieties with an apparent amylose content higher than 24% were associated with the shorter repeat alleles; (CT)10 and (CT)11, while varieties with 24% or less amylose were associated with the longer repeat alleles. All varieties with intermediate and high amylose content had the sequence AGGTATA at the 5′-leader intron splice site, while varieties with low amylose content had the sequence AGTTATA. The G-T polymorphism was further verified by the PCR-AccI cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) method, in which only genotypes containing the AGGTATA sequence were cleaved by AccI. Hence, varieties with desirable amylose levels can be developed rapidly using the Wx microsatellite and G-T SNP, along with MAGE. PMID:22754356

  9. RESEARCH NOTE A Universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    very satisfactory for many researchers to prepare reagents for “all in one” ready to use method to extract gDNA from very wide range sources of blood samples. To meet these criteria, a universal and versatile DNA extraction procedure should be developedwith a minimal chemicals and equipment.On the other hand, the ...

  10. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reagents for 'all in one' / ready to use tool to extract genomic. DNA (gDNA) from a very wide spectrum of blood samples. To meet these criteria, a universal and versatile DNA extrac- tion procedure should be developed with minimal chemicals and equipment. On the other hand, the interesting natural relation between RBCs ...

  11. Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique. (United States)

    Ryan, Garrett E; Pandit, Abhay S; Apatsidis, Dimitrios P


    One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by a sacrificial wax template, fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer. Powder metallurgy processes were employed to generate the titanium scaffolds by filling around the wax template with titanium slurry. In the attempt to optimise the powder metallurgy technique, variations in slurry concentration, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were investigated. By altering the wax design template, pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 microm were achieved. Scaffolds with porosities of 66.8 +/- 3.6% revealed compression strengths of 104.4+/-22.5 MPa in the axial direction and 23.5 +/- 9.6 MPa in the transverse direction demonstrating their anisotropic nature. Scaffold topography was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled the main architectural parameters such as pore size, interconnecting porosity, level of anisotropy and level of structural disorder to be determined. The titanium scaffolds were compared to their intended designs, as governed by their sacrificial wax templates. Although discrepancies in architectural parameters existed between the intended and the actual scaffolds, overall the results indicate that the porous titanium scaffolds have the properties to be potentially employed in orthopaedic applications.

  12. Variation in the rapid shallow breathing index associated with common measurement techniques and conditions. (United States)

    Patel, Kapil N; Ganatra, Kalpesh D; Bates, Jason H T; Young, Michael P


    The rapid-shallow-breathing index (RSBI) is widely used to evaluate mechanically ventilated patients for weaning and extubation, but it is determined in different clinical centers in a variety of ways, under conditions that are not always comparable. We hypothesized that the value of RSBI may be significantly influenced by common variations in measurement conditions and technique. Sixty patients eligible for a weaning evaluation after >or=72 hours of mechanical ventilation were studied over 15 months in a medical intensive care unit. RSBI was measured while the patients were on 2 different levels of ventilator support: 5 cm H2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus T-piece. RSBI was also calculated in 2 different ways: using the values of minute ventilation and respiratory rate provided by the digital output of the ventilator, versus values obtained manually with a Wright spirometer. Finally, RSBI was measured at 2 different times of the day. RSBI was significantly less when measured on 5 cm H2O CPAP, compared to T-piece: the medians and interquartile ranges were 71 (52-88) breaths/min/L versus 90 (59-137) breaths/min/L, respectively (Pventilator-derived versus manual measures of the breathing pattern. RSBI was also not significantly different in the morning versus evening measurements. RSBI can be significantly affected by the level of ventilator support, but is relatively unaffected by both the technique used to determine the breathing pattern and the time of day at which it is measured.

  13. Single-Layer Plication for Repair of Diastasis Recti: The Most Rapid and Efficient Technique. (United States)

    Gama, Luiz José Muaccad; Barbosa, Marcus Vinicius Jardini; Czapkowski, Adriano; Ajzen, Sergio; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan


    Plication of the anterior rectus sheath is the most commonly used technique for repair of diastasis recti, but is also a time-consuming procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and time required to repair diastasis recti using different plication techniques. Thirty women with similar abdominal deformities, who had had at least one pregnancy, were randomized into three groups to undergo abdominoplasty. Plication of the anterior rectus sheath was performed in two layers with 2-0 monofilament nylon suture (control group) or in a single layer with either a continuous 2-0 monofilament nylon suture (group I) or using a continuous barbed suture (group II). Operative time was recorded. All patients underwent ultrasound examination preoperatively and at 3 weeks and 6 months postoperatively to monitor for diastasis recurrence. The force required to bring the anterior rectus sheath to the midline was measured at the supraumbilical and infraumbilical levels. Patient age ranged from 26 to 50 years and body mass index from 20.56 to 29.17 kg/m2. A significant difference in mean operative time was found between the control and study groups (control group, 35 min:22 s; group I, 14 min:22 s; group II, 15 min:23 s; P diastasis. There were no significant within- and between-group differences in tensile force on the aponeurosis. Plication of the anterior rectus sheath in a single-layer with a continuous suture showed to be an efficient and rapid technique for repair of diastasis recti.

  14. Studies on the Process Parameters of Rapid Prototyping Technique (Stereolithography for the Betterment of Part Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Bangalore Singe Gowda


    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping (RP has evolved as frontier technology in the recent times, which allows direct transformation of CAD files into functional prototypes where it tremendously reduces the lead time to produce physical prototypes necessary for design verification, fit, and functional analysis by generating the prototypes directly from the CAD data. Part quality in the rapid prototyping process is a function of build parameters such as hatch cure depth, layer thickness, orientation, and hatch spacing. Thus an attempt was made to identify, study, and optimize the process parameters governing the system which are related to part characteristics using Taguchi experimental design techniques quality. The part characteristics can be divided into physical part and mechanical part characteristics. The physical characteristics are surface finish, dimensional accuracy, distortion, layer thickness, hatch cure, and hatch file, whereas mechanical characteristics are flexural strength, ultimate tensile strength, and impact strength. Thus, this paper proposes to characterize the influence of the physical build parameters over the part quality. An L9 orthogonal array was designed with the minimum number of experimental runs with desired parameter settings and also by analysis tools such as ANOVA (analysis of variance. Establishment of experimentally verified correlations between the physical part characteristics and mechanical part characteristics to obtain an optimal process parameter level for betterment of part quality is obtained. The process model obtained by the empirical relation can be used to determine the strength of the prototype for the given set of parameters that shows the dependency of strength, which are essential for designers and RP machine users.

  15. Fabrication of multi-well chips for spheroid cultures and implantable constructs through rapid prototyping techniques. (United States)

    Lopa, Silvia; Piraino, Francesco; Kemp, Raymond J; Di Caro, Clelia; Lovati, Arianna B; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Moroni, Lorenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Rasponi, Marco; Moretti, Matteo


    Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are widely used in basic and translational research. In this study, to generate and culture multiple 3D cell spheroids, we exploited laser ablation and replica molding for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) multi-well chips, which were validated using articular chondrocytes (ACs). Multi-well ACs spheroids were comparable or superior to standard spheroids, as revealed by glycosaminoglycan and type-II collagen deposition. Moreover, the use of our multi-well chips significantly reduced the operation time for cell seeding and medium refresh. Exploiting a similar approach, we used clinical-grade fibrin to generate implantable multi-well constructs allowing for the precise distribution of multiple cell types. Multi-well fibrin constructs were seeded with ACs generating high cell density regions, as shown by histology and cell fluorescent staining. Multi-well constructs were compared to standard constructs with homogeneously distributed ACs. After 7 days in vitro, expression of SOX9, ACAN, COL2A1, and COMP was increased in both constructs, with multi-well constructs expressing significantly higher levels of chondrogenic genes than standard constructs. After 5 weeks in vivo, we found that despite a dramatic size reduction, the cell distribution pattern was maintained and glycosaminoglycan content per wet weight was significantly increased respect to pre-implantation samples. In conclusion, multi-well chips for the generation and culture of multiple cell spheroids can be fabricated by low-cost rapid prototyping techniques. Furthermore, these techniques can be used to generate implantable constructs with defined architecture and controlled cell distribution, allowing for in vitro and in vivo investigation of cell interactions in a 3D environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Application of Molecular Cytogenetic Technique for Rapid Prenatal Diagnosis of Aneuploidies in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Nasiri


    Full Text Available Objective: Classic cell culture and karyotyping is routinely used for prenatal detection of different chromosomal abnormalities. Molecular cytogenetic techniques have also recently been developed and used for this purpose. Quantitative florescence PCR using short tandem repeat (STR markers has more potential for high throughput diagnosis. Marker heterozygosity in short tandem repeats (STR is of critical importance in the clinical applicablity of this method. Materials and Methods: Different STR markers on chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y  were analysed from  amniotic samples to detect related disorders such as Down, Edward, Patau,  Klinefelter sundromes , as well as sex chromosomes numerical abnormalities . Results: In our population some markers (D18S976, DXS6854, D21S11, and D21S1411 showed alleles with sizes out of expected ranges. But others occupied narrower range of predicted distribution. Most markers have enough heterozygosity (66.3-94.7 to be used for prenatal diagnosis. Furthermore, results obtained from full karyotype for all samples were in concordance with results of molecular cytogenetic testing. Conclusion: It is concluded that, in urgent situations, if proper markers used, molecular cytogenetic testing (QF-PCR could be a useful method for rapid prenatal diagnosis (PND in populations with high rate of consanguinity such as Iran.  

  17. Quantitative Functional Imaging Using Dynamic Positron Computed Tomography and Rapid Parameter Estimation Techniques (United States)

    Koeppe, Robert Allen

    Positron computed tomography (PCT) is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides both three dimensional imaging capability and quantitative measurements of local tissue radioactivity concentrations in vivo. This allows the development of non-invasive methods that employ the principles of tracer kinetics for determining physiological properties such as mass specific blood flow, tissue pH, and rates of substrate transport or utilization. A physiologically based, two-compartment tracer kinetic model was derived to mathematically describe the exchange of a radioindicator between blood and tissue. The model was adapted for use with dynamic sequences of data acquired with a positron tomograph. Rapid estimation techniques were implemented to produce functional images of the model parameters by analyzing each individual pixel sequence of the image data. A detailed analysis of the performance characteristics of three different parameter estimation schemes was performed. The analysis included examination of errors caused by statistical uncertainties in the measured data, errors in the timing of the data, and errors caused by violation of various assumptions of the tracer kinetic model. Two specific radioindicators were investigated. ('18)F -fluoromethane, an inert freely diffusible gas, was used for local quantitative determinations of both cerebral blood flow and tissue:blood partition coefficient. A method was developed that did not require direct sampling of arterial blood for the absolute scaling of flow values. The arterial input concentration time course was obtained by assuming that the alveolar or end-tidal expired breath radioactivity concentration is proportional to the arterial blood concentration. The scale of the input function was obtained from a series of venous blood concentration measurements. The method of absolute scaling using venous samples was validated in four studies, performed on normal volunteers, in which directly measured arterial concentrations

  18. Microwave-assisted chemical insertion: a rapid technique for screening cathodes for Mg-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Huq, Ashfia; Manthiram, Arumugam


    We report an ultrafast microwave-assisted solvothermal method for chemical insertion of Mg2+ ions into host materials using magnesium acetate [Mg(CH3COO)2] as a metal-ion source and diethylene glycol (DEG) as a reducing agent. For instance, up to 3 Mg ions per formula unit of a microporous host framework Mo2.5+yVO9+z could be inserted in as little as 30 min at 170–195 °C in air. This process is superior to the traditional method which involves the use of organometallic reagents, such as di-n-butylmagnesium [(C4H9)2Mg] and magnesium bis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenoxide) [Mg-(O-2,6-But2C6H3)2], and requires an inert atmosphere with extremely long reaction times. Considering the lack of robust electrolytes for Mg-ion batteries, this facile approach can be readily used as a rapid screening technique to identify potential Mg-ion electrode hosts without the necessity of fabricating electrodes and assembling electrochemical cells. Due to the mild reaction conditions, the overall structure and morphology of the Mg-ion inserted products are maintained and the compounds can be used successfully as a cathode in Mg-ion batteries. The combined synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction Rietveld analysis reveals the structure of the Mg-inserted compounds and gives an insight into the interactions between the Mg ions and the open-tunnel host framework.

  19. Mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of a resorbable bioactive implant prepared by rapid prototyping technique. (United States)

    El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Hart, Amanda; White, Dean; Cunningham, Larry


    Bioceramic processing using rapid prototyping technique (RPT) results in a fragile device that requires thermal treatment to improve the mechanical properties. This investigation evaluates the effect of thermal treatment on the mechanical, porosity, and bioactivity properties as well as the cytotoxicity of a porous silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC) implant prepared by RPT. Porous SCPC implant was subject to 3-h treatment at 800°C, 850°C, or 900°C. The compressive strength (s) and modulus of elasticity (E) were doubled when the sintering temperature is raised from 850 to 900°C measuring (s = 15.326 ± 2.95 MPa and E = 1095 ± 164 MPa) after the later treatment. The significant increase in mechanical properties takes place with minimal changes in the surface area and the percentage of pores in the range 1-356 μm. The SCPC implant prepared at 900°C was loaded with rh-BMP-2 and grafted into a segmental defect in the rabbit ulna. Histology analyses showed highly vascularized bone formation inside the defect. Histopathological analyses of the liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and the lung of rabbits grafted with and without SCPC demonstrated healthy tissues with no signs of toxicity or morphology alterations. Results of the study suggest that it is possible to engineering the mechanical properties of the SCPC implant without compromising its bioactivity. The enhanced bone formation inside the porous SCPC facilitated cell-mediated graft resorption and prohibited any accumulation of the material in the body organs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  20. Inflation Fighters: An Inexpensive Du Nuoy Tensiometer. (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon H.


    Describes an inexpensive tensiometer, a balance consisting of a plastic drinking straw as the crossarm, a needle as a pivot, and wire loop counter balance to assure proper balance. The instrument permits the quantitative demonstration of interfacial tension and effects of various agents that modify it. (Author/JN)

  1. Rapid Screening Technique To Identify Sudan Dyes (I to IV) in Adulterated Tomato Sauce, Chilli Powder, and Palm Oil by Innovative High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Sciuto, Simona; Esposito, Giovanna; Dell'Atti, Luana; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Martucci, Francesca


    Sudan dyes are synthetic azo dyes used by industry in a variety of applications. Classified as carcinogenic, they are not allowed in foodstuffs; however, their presence as adulterants in food products has been regularly reported. Here, we describe an innovative screening method to detect Sudan I, II, III, and IV in tomato sauce, palm oil, and chilli powder. The method entails minimal sample preparation, completely avoiding the liquid chromatography phase, followed by detection and identification through atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in positive ionization mode. Analytes were efficiently identified and detected in samples, fortified both with individual analytes and with their mixture, with an error in mass identification less than 5 ppm. Limits of identification of the analytes in the fortified samples were 0.5 to 1 mg/kg, depending on the dye and matrix. The method had a linear range of 0.05 to 5 mg/kg and good linear relationships (R2 > 0.98). Repeatability was satisfactory, with a coefficient of variation lower than 20%. The method was applied to detect the dyes in real adulterated chilli samples, previously found positive by confirmatory high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and ELISA, and in commercial products purchased from supermarkets. In all positive samples, analytes were correctly identified with an error in mass identification lower than 5 ppm, while none of the 45 commercial samples analyzed were found to be contaminated. The proposed new assay is sensitive, with a limit of identification, for all the three matrices, complying with the limits defined by the European Union (0.5 to 1 mg/kg) for analytical methods. Compared with conventional methods, the new assay is rapid and inexpensive and characterized by a high throughput; thus, it could be suitable as screening technique to identify Sudan dyes in adulterated food products.

  2. The application of compressive sampling in rapid ultrasonic computerized tomography (UCT) technique of steel tube slab (STS) (United States)

    Jiang, Baofeng; Jia, Pengjiao; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Wentao


    This paper explores a new method for rapid structural damage inspection of steel tube slab (STS) structures along randomly measured paths based on a combination of compressive sampling (CS) and ultrasonic computerized tomography (UCT). In the measurement stage, using fewer randomly selected paths rather than the whole measurement net is proposed to detect the underlying damage of a concrete-filled steel tube. In the imaging stage, the ℓ1-minimization algorithm is employed to recover the information of the microstructures based on the measurement data related to the internal situation of the STS structure. A numerical concrete tube model, with the various level of damage, was studied to demonstrate the performance of the rapid UCT technique. Real-world concrete-filled steel tubes in the Shenyang Metro stations were detected using the proposed UCT technique in a CS framework. Both the numerical and experimental results show the rapid UCT technique has the capability of damage detection in an STS structure with a high level of accuracy and with fewer required measurements, which is more convenient and efficient than the traditional UCT technique. PMID:29293593

  3. A technique to reduce low dose region for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with RapidArc and its dosimetric comparison with 3D conformal technique (3DCRT). (United States)

    Srivastava, Roopam; Saini, Gagan; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Chomal, Manish; Aagarwal, Anchal; Nangia, Sapna; Garg, Madhur


    We proposed a method to reduce the volume of normal tissues irradiated by low doses in patients receiving CSI with RapidArc (RA) using Avoidance-Sector technique (RA+AS) and to compare its dosimetric implications with RA using full-arc (RA+FA) and 3D conformal technique (3DCRT). Four patients of CSI were retrospectively planned with 3DCRT, RA+FA, and RA+AS. Conformity-Index (CI), Homogeneity-Index (HI), and Paddick Gradient-Index (GI) were calculated. Quantitative evaluation was done using DVH analysis for PTVs and OARs. When compared with 3DCRT, GI, CI, and HI were favorable to RA based techniques. In comparison with 3DCRT the doses to OARs were lower with RA+AS with the difference being statistically significant in most instances. RA+AS significantly decreases the dose to OARs and their volumes receiving low doses in comparison with RA+FA and 3DCRT.

  4. High Accuracy Optical Inverse Square Law Experiment Using Inexpensive Light to Frequency Converters (United States)

    Wanser, Keith H.; Mahrley, Steve; Tanner, Joshua


    In this paper we report on the use of two different light to frequency converters, four different light sources, three of which are novel and inexpensive, and a hand held digital multimeter with a frequency counter, suitable for making accurate and rapid determination of the optical inverse square law exponent of -2 to better than [plus or…

  5. Frequency-domain Harman technique for rapid characterization of bulk and thin film thermoelectric materials (United States)

    Moran, Samuel

    Nanostructured thermoelectrics, often in the form of thin films, may potentially improve the generally poor efficiency of bulk thermoelectric power generators and coolers. In order to characterize the efficiency of these new materials it is necessary to measure their thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT. The only direct measurement of ZT is based on the Harman technique and relies on measuring the voltage drop across a sample subjected to a passing continuous current. Application of this technique to thin films is currently carried out as a time-domain measurement of the voltage as the thermal component decays after switching off an applied voltage. This work develops a technique for direct simultaneous measurement of figure of merit and Seebeck coefficient from the harmonic response of a thermoelectric material under alternating current excitation. A thermocouple mounted on the top surface measures voltage across the device as the frequency of the applied voltage is varied. A thermal model allows the sample thermal conductivity to also be determined and shows good agreement with measurements. This technique provides improved signal-to-noise ratio and accuracy compared to time-domain ZT measurements for comparable conditions while simultaneously measuring Seebeck coefficient. The technique is applied to both bulk and thin film thermoelectric samples.

  6. Electromembrane extraction as a rapid and selective miniaturized sample preparation technique for biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Seip, Knut Fredrik


    of organic solvent, and into an aqueous receiver solution. The extraction is promoted by application of an electrical field, causing electrokinetic migration of the charged analytes. The method has shown to perform excellent clean-up and selectivity from complicated aqueous matrices like biological fluids......This special report discusses the sample preparation method electromembrane extraction, which was introduced in 2006 as a rapid and selective miniaturized extraction method. The extraction principle is based on isolation of charged analytes extracted from an aqueous sample, across a thin film...

  7. Response Characterization of an Inexpensive Aerosol Sensor. (United States)

    Kuula, Joel; Mäkelä, Timo; Hillamo, Risto; Timonen, Hilkka


    Inexpensive aerosol sensors have been considered as a complementary option to address the issue of expensive but low spatial coverage air quality monitoring networks. However, the accuracy and response characteristics of these sensors is poorly documented. In this study, inexpensive Shinyei PPD42NS and PPD60PV sensors were evaluated using a novel laboratory evaluation method. A continuously changing monodisperse size distribution of particles was generated using a Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator. Furthermore, the laboratory results were validated in a field experiment. The laboratory tests showed that both of the sensors responded to particulate mass (PM) concentration stimulus, rather than number concentration. The highest detection efficiency for the PPD42NS was within particle size range of 2.5-4 µm, and the respective optimal size range for the PPD60PV was 0.7-1 µm. The field test yielded high PM correlations (R² = 0.962 and R² = 0.986) for viable detection ranges of 1.6-5 and 0.3-1.6 µm, when compared to a medium cost optical dust monitor. As the size distribution of atmospheric particles tends to be bimodal, it is likely that indicatively valid results could be obtained for the PM 10-2.5 size fraction (particulate mass in size range 2.5-10 µm) with the PPD42NS sensor. Respectively, the PPD60PV could possibly be used to measure the PM 2.5 size fraction (particulate mass in size below 2.5 µm).

  8. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.


    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  9. [Rapid measurement of trace mercury in aqueous solutions with optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS technique]. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Yu-Qi; Li, Run-Hua


    A wood slice was used as absorber to transfer liquid sample to solid sample in order to solve the problems existing in directly analyzing aqueous solutions with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). An optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS (OEDP-LIBS) technique was first used to enhance atomic emission of mercury in laser-induced plasma. The calibration curves of mercury were obtained by typical single pulse LIBS and OEDP-LIBS techniques. The limit of detection (LOD) of mercury in these two techniques reaches 2.4 and 0.3 mg x L(-1), respectively. Under current experimental conditions, the time-integrated a tomic emission of mercury at 253.65 nm was enhanced 50 times and the LOD of mercury was improved by one order, if comparing OEDP-LIBS to single pulse LIBS. The required time for a whole analysis process is less than 5 minutes. As the atomic emission of mercury decays slowly while increasing the delay time between electrical pulse and laser pulse, increasing the electrical pulse width can further enhance the time integrated intensity of mercury emission and improve the detection sensitivity of mercury by OEDP-LIBS technique.

  10. Rapid prototyping and inclined plane technique in the treatment of maxillofacial malformations in a fox. (United States)

    Freitas, Elisangela P; Rahal, Sheila C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Silva, Jorge V L; Noritomi, Pedro Y; Villela, Carlos H S; Yamashita, Seizo


    An approximately 9-month-old fox (Pseudalopex vetulus) was presented with malocclusion and deviation of the lower jaw to the right side. Orthodontic treatment was performed using the inclined plane technique. Virtual 3D models and prototypes of the head were based on computed tomography (CT) image data to assist in diagnosis and treatment.

  11. A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers (United States)


    direct heating of the wire for a. , 0.1 (Bonnet & Alziary de Roquefort 1980), and it appears to be reliable technique for setting the frequency...54: 1513-1524. Bonnet, J. P. and Alziary de Roquefort , T. (1980), Determination and optimization of frequency response of constant temperature hot

  12. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  13. Rapid prototyping and inclined plane technique in the treatment of maxillofacial malformations in a fox (United States)

    Freitas, Elisangela P.; Rahal, Sheila C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Silva, Jorge V.L.; Noritomi, Pedro Y.; Villela, Carlos H.S.; Yamashita, Seizo


    An approximately 9-month-old fox (Pseudalopex vetulus) was presented with malocclusion and deviation of the lower jaw to the right side. Orthodontic treatment was performed using the inclined plane technique. Virtual 3D models and prototypes of the head were based on computed tomography (CT) image data to assist in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20514249

  14. Rapid Extrication versus the Kendrick Extrication Device (KED: Comparison of Techniques Used After Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucher, Joshua


    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this study was to compare application of the Kendrick Extrication Device (KED versus rapid extrication (RE by emergency medical service personnel. Our primary endpoints were movement of head, time to extrication and patient comfort by a visual analogue scale. Methods: We used 23 subjects in two scenarios for this study. The emergency medical services (EMS providers were composed of one basic emergency medical technician (EMT, one advanced EMT. Each subject underwent two scenarios, one using RE and the other using extrication involving a commercial KED. Results: Time was significantly shorter using rapid extraction for all patients. Angles of head turning were all significantly larger when using RE. Weight marginally modified the effect of KED versus RE on the “angle to right after patient moved to backboard (p= 0.029 and on subjective movement on patient questionnaire (p=0.011. No statistical differences were noted on patient discomfort or pain. Conclusion: This is a small experiment that showed decreased patient neck movement using a KED versus RE but resulted in increased patient movement in obese patients. Further studies are needed to determine if the KED improves any meaningful patient outcomes in the era of increased evidence-based medicine in emergency medical services. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:453–458.

  15. Using mind mapping techniques for rapid qualitative data analysis in public participation processes. (United States)

    Burgess-Allen, Jilla; Owen-Smith, Vicci


    In a health service environment where timescales for patient participation in service design are short and resources scarce, a balance needs to be achieved between research rigour and the timeliness and utility of the findings of patient participation processes. To develop a pragmatic mind mapping approach to managing the qualitative data from patient participation processes. While this article draws on experience of using mind maps in a variety of participation processes, a single example is used to illustrate the approach. In this example mind maps were created during the course of patient participation focus groups. Two group discussions were also transcribed verbatim to allow comparison of the rapid mind mapping approach with traditional thematic analysis of qualitative data. The illustrative example formed part of a local alcohol service review which included consultation with local alcohol service users, their families and staff groups. The mind mapping approach provided a pleasing graphical format for representing the key themes raised during the focus groups. It helped stimulate and galvanize discussion and keep it on track, enhanced transparency and group ownership of the data analysis process, allowed a rapid dynamic between data collection and feedback, and was considerably faster than traditional methods for the analysis of focus groups, while resulting in similar broad themes. This study suggests that the use of a mind mapping approach to managing qualitative data can provide a pragmatic resolution of the tension between limited resources and quality in patient participation processes. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of wavelet techniques in rapid extraction of ABR variations from underlying EEG. (United States)

    De Silva, A C; Schier, M A


    The aim of this study is to analyse an effective wavelet method for denoising and tracking temporal variations of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The rapid and accurate extraction of ABRs in clinical practice has numerous benefits, including reductions in clinical test times and potential long-term patient monitoring applications. One method of achieving rapid extraction is through the application of wavelet filtering which, according to earlier research, has shown potential in denoising signals with low signal-to-noise ratios. The research documented in this paper evaluates the application of three such wavelet approaches on a common set of ABR data collected from eight participants. We introduced the use of the latency-intensity curve of ABR wave V for performance evaluation of tracking temporal variations. The application of these methods to the ABR required establishing threshold functions and time windows as an integral part of the research. Results revealed that the cyclic-shift-tree-denoising performed superior compared to other tested approaches. This required an ensemble of only 32 epochs to extract a fully featured ABR compared to the 1024 epochs with conventional ABR extraction based on linear moving time averaging.

  17. [Optinization of rapid propagation technique and induction and identification of autotetraploid of Polygonum multiflorum]. (United States)

    Huang, He-Ping; Gao, Shan-Lin; Wang, Jian; Huang, Lu-Qi; Huang, Peng


    To establish and optimize the rapid propagation system of Polygonum multiflorum, as well as explore method for induction and identification of autotetraploid. Propagation medium was optimized by orthogonal test. The buds were immersed in colchicine solution with different concentrations for different time to select induction conditions for autotetraploid of P. multiflorum. The most appropriate propagation medium was MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg x L(-1) 6-BA, 0.3 mg x L(-1) NAA, and 0.4 mg x L(-1) PP333. That the buds were soaked in 0.2% colchicine solution for 30 h, or soaked in 0.3% colchicine solution for 18 h, was optimal condition to induce autopolyploid of P. multiflorum with induction rate as high as 16.7%. Rapid propagation of P. multiflorum could be achieved by tissue culture. Furthermore, colchicine was an effective inducer of polyploidy, and 25 tetraploid lines were obtained through chromosome identification. The experiment laid a foundation for the wild resource conservation, superior varieties breeding of P. multiflorum.

  18. Imaging Spectroscopy Techniques for Rapid Assessment of Geologic and Cryospheric Science Data from future Satellite Sensors (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Hill, R.


    Several efforts are currently underway to develop and launch the next generation of imaging spectrometer systems on satellite platforms for a wide range of Earth Observation goals. Systems that include the reflected solar wavelength range up to 2.5 μm will be capable of detailed mapping of the composition of the Earth's surface. Sensors under development include EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, HERO, and HyspIRI. These systems are expected to be able to provide global data for insights and constraints on fundamental geological processes, natural and anthropogenic hazards, water, energy and mineral resource assessments. Coupled with the development of these sensors is the challenge of bringing a multi-channel user community (from Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER) into the rich science return available from imaging spectrometer systems. Most data end users will never be spectroscopy experts so that making the derived science products accessible to a wide user community is imperative. Simple band parameterizations have been developed for the CRISM instrument at Mars, including mafic and alteration minerals, frost and volatile ice indices. These products enhance and augment the use of that data set by broader group of scientists. Summary products for terrestrial geologic and water resource applications would help build a wider user base for future satellite systems, and rapidly key spectral experts to important regions for detailed spectral mapping. Summary products take advantage of imaging spectroscopy's narrow spectral channels with band depth calculations in addition to band ratios that are commonly used by multi-channel systems (e.g. NDVI, NDWI, NDSI). We are testing summary products for Earth geologic and snow scenes over California using AVIRIS data at 18m/pixel. This has resulted in several algorithms for rapid mineral discrimination and mapping and data collects over the melting Sierra snowpack in spring 2016 are expected to generate algorithms for snow grain size and surface

  19. Application of morphing technique with mesh-merging in rapid hull form generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Kang


    Full Text Available Morphing is a geometric interpolation technique that is often used by the animation industry to transform one form into another seemingly seamlessly. It does this by producing a large number of ‘intermediate’ forms between the two ‘extreme’ or ‘parent’ forms. It has already been shown that morphing technique can be a powerful tool for form design and as such can be a useful addition to the armoury of product designers. Morphing procedure itself is simple and consists of straightforward linear interpolation. However, establishing the correspondence between vertices of the parent models is one of the most difficult and important tasks during a morphing process. This paper discusses the mesh-merging method employed for this process as against the already established mesh-regularising method. It has been found that the merging method minimises the need for manual manipulation, allowing automation to a large extent.

  20. Application of morphing technique with mesh-merging in rapid hull form generation (United States)

    Kang, Ju Young; Lee, Byung Suk


    Morphing is a geometric interpolation technique that is often used by the animation industry to transform one form into another seemingly seamlessly. It does this by producing a large number of `intermediate' forms between the two `extreme' or `parent' forms. It has already been shown that morphing technique can be a powerful tool for form design and as such can be a useful addition to the armoury of product designers. Morphing procedure itself is simple and consists of straightforward linear interpolation. However, establishing the correspondence between vertices of the parent models is one of the most difficult and important tasks during a morphing process. This paper discusses the mesh-merging method employed for this process as against the already established mesh-regularising method. It has been found that the merging method minimises the need for manual manipulation, allowing automation to a large extent.

  1. [Recommendations for the use of rapid diagnosis techniques in respiratory infections in primary care]. (United States)

    Llor, Carles; Alkorta Gurrutxaga, Miriam; de la Flor I Bru, Josep; Bernárdez Carracedo, Sílvia; Cañada Merino, José Luis; Bárcena Caamaño, Mario; Serrano Martino, Carmen; Cots Yago, Josep Maria

    Respiratory tract infections rank first as causes of adult and paediatric infectious morbidity in primary care in Spain. These infections are usually self-limiting and are mainly caused by viruses. However, a high percentage of unnecessary antibiotic prescription is reported. Point-of-care tests are biomedical tests, which can be used near the patient, without interference of a laboratory. The use of these tests, many of which have been recently developed, is rapidly increasing in general practice. Notwithstanding, we must mull over whether they always contribute to an effective and high-quality diagnostic process by primary care clinicians. We present a set of criteria that can be used by clinicians and discuss the pros and cons of the instruments available for the management of respiratory tract infections and how to use them appropriately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun [School of Physics and Telecom Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo [School of Physics and Telecom Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); GuangDong Province Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, IMOT, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Yi [School of Control Engineering, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)


    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ∼15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT.

  3. Rapidly solidified Ag-Cu eutectics: A comparative study using drop-tube and melt fluxing techniques (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Mullis, A. M.; Cochrane, R. F.


    A comparative study of rapid solidification of Ag-Cu eutectic alloy processed via melt fluxing and drop-tube techniques is presented. A computational model is used to estimate the cooling rate and undercooling of the free fall droplets as this cannot be determined directly. SEM micrographs show that both materials consist of lamellar and anomalous eutectic structures. However, below the critical undercooling the morphologies of each are different in respect of the distribution and volume of anomalous eutectic. The anomalous eutectic in flux- undercooled samples preferentially forms at cell boundaries around the lamellar eutectic in the cell body. In drop-tube processed samples it tends to distribute randomly inside the droplets and at much smaller volume fractions. That the formation of the anomalous eutectic can, at least in part, be suppressed in the drop-tube is strongly suggestive that the formation of anomalous eutectic occurs via remelting process, which is suppressed by rapid cooling during solidification.

  4. A Comparative Study with RapidMiner and WEKA Tools over some Classification Techniques for SMS Spam (United States)

    Foozy, Cik Feresa Mohd; Ahmad, Rabiah; Faizal Abdollah, M. A.; Chai Wen, Chuah


    SMS Spamming is a serious attack that can manipulate the use of the SMS by spreading the advertisement in bulk. By sending the unwanted SMS that contain advertisement can make the users feeling disturb and this against the privacy of the mobile users. To overcome these issues, many studies have proposed to detect SMS Spam by using data mining tools. This paper will do a comparative study using five machine learning techniques such as Naïve Bayes, K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm), Decision Tree, Random Forest and Decision Stumps to observe the accuracy result between RapidMiner and WEKA for dataset SMS Spam UCI Machine Learning repository.

  5. Using multimodal imaging techniques to monitor limb ischemia: a rapid noninvasive method for assessing extremity wounds (United States)

    Luthra, Rajiv; Caruso, Joseph D.; Radowsky, Jason S.; Rodriguez, Maricela; Forsberg, Jonathan; Elster, Eric A.; Crane, Nicole J.


    Over 70% of military casualties resulting from the current conflicts sustain major extremity injuries. Of these the majority are caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices. The resulting injuries include traumatic amputations, open fractures, crush injuries, and acute vascular disruption. Critical tissue ischemia—the point at which ischemic tissues lose the capacity to recover—is therefore a major concern, as lack of blood flow to tissues rapidly leads to tissue deoxygenation and necrosis. If left undetected or unaddressed, a potentially salvageable limb may require more extensive debridement or, more commonly, amputation. Predicting wound outcome during the initial management of blast wounds remains a significant challenge, as wounds continue to "evolve" during the debridement process and our ability to assess wound viability remains subjectively based. Better means of identifying critical ischemia are needed. We developed a swine limb ischemia model in which two imaging modalities were combined to produce an objective and quantitative assessment of wound perfusion and tissue viability. By using 3 Charge-Coupled Device (3CCD) and Infrared (IR) cameras, both surface tissue oxygenation as well as overall limb perfusion could be depicted. We observed a change in mean 3CCD and IR values at peak ischemia and during reperfusion correlate well with clinically observed indicators for limb function and vitality. After correcting for baseline mean R-B values, the 3CCD values correlate with surface tissue oxygenation and the IR values with changes in perfusion. This study aims to not only increase fundamental understanding of the processes involved with limb ischemia and reperfusion, but also to develop tools to monitor overall limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting. A rapid and objective diagnostic for extent of ischemic damage and overall limb viability could provide surgeons with a more accurate indication of tissue viability. This may

  6. Rapid determination of crocins in saffron by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques. (United States)

    Li, Shuailing; Shao, Qingsong; Lu, Zhonghua; Duan, Chengli; Yi, Haojun; Su, Liyang


    Saffron is an expensive spice. Its primary effective constituents are crocin I and II, and the contents of these compounds directly affect the quality and commercial value of saffron. In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy was combined with chemometric techniques for the determination of crocin I and II in saffron. Partial least squares regression models were built for the quantification of crocin I and II. By comparing different spectral ranges and spectral pretreatment methods (no pretreatment, vector normalization, subtract a straight line, multiplicative scatter correction, minimum-maximum normalization, eliminate the constant offset, first derivative, and second derivative), optimum models were developed. The root mean square error of cross-validation values of the best partial least squares models for crocin I and II were 1.40 and 0.30, respectively. The coefficients of determination for crocin I and II were 93.40 and 96.30, respectively. These results show that near-infrared spectroscopy can be combined with chemometric techniques to determine the contents of crocin I and II in saffron quickly and efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Technique for rapid at-wavelength inspection of extreme ultraviolet mask blanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, S. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); White, D. L. [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Tennant, D. M. [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Holmdel, New Jersey 07733 (United States); Ocola, L. E. [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Novembre, A. E. [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Peabody, M. L. [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Wood, O. R. II [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)


    We have developed two new methods for at-wavelength inspection of mask blanks for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. In one method an EUV photoresist is applied directly to a mask blank which is then flood exposed with EUV light and partially developed. In the second method, the photoresist is applied to an EUV transparent membrane that is placed in close proximity to the mask and then exposed and developed. Both reflectivity defects and phase defects alter the exposure of the resist, resulting in mounds of resist at defect sites that can then be located by visual inspection. In the direct application method, a higher contrast resist was shown to increase the height of the mounds, thereby improving the sensitivity of the technique. In the membrane method, a holographic technique was used to reconstruct an image of the mask, revealing the presence of very small defects, approximately 0.2 {mu}m in size. The demonstrated clean transfer of phase and amplitude defects to resist features on a membrane will be important when flagging defects in an automatic inspection tool. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  8. Rapid detection of defects in fuel-cell electrodes using infrared reactive-flow-through technique (United States)

    Das, Prodip K.; Weber, Adam Z.; Bender, Guido; Manak, Austin; Bittinat, Daniel; Herring, Andrew M.; Ulsh, Michael


    As fuel cells become more prominent, new manufacturing and production methods will need to be developed to deal efficiently and effectively with increased demand. One necessary component of this industrial growth is the accurate measurement of the variability in the manufacturing process. In this study, we present a diagnostic system that combines infrared thermography with a reactive-flow-through technique to detect catalyst-loading defects in fuel-cell gas-diffusion electrodes accurately with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Experimental results are compared with model predictions of thermal response with good agreement. Data analysis, operating-condition impacts, and detection limits are explored using both experiments and simulation. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential of this technique to measure defects on the millimeter length scale with temporal resolutions appropriate for use on a web-line. Thus we present the first development stage of a next-generation non-destructive diagnostic tool, which may be amenable to eventual use on roll-to-roll manufacturing lines.

  9. An innovative technique to distalize maxillary molar using microimplant supported rapid molar distalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Goel


    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, enhancements in implants have made their use possible as a mode of absolute anchorage in orthodontic patients. In this paper, the authors have introduced an innovative technique to unilaterally distalize the upper left 1 st molar to obtain an ideal Class I molar relationship from a Class II existing molar relationship with an indigenous designed distalizer. Clinical Innovation: For effective unilateral diatalization of molar, a novel cantilever sliding jig assembly was utilized with coil spring supported by a buccally placed single micro implant. The results showed 3 mm of bodily distalization with 1 mm of intrusion and 2° of distal tipping of upper left 1 st molar in 1.5 months. Discussion: This appliance is relatively easy to insert, well-tolerated, and requires minimal patient cooperation compared to other present techniques of molar distalization. Moreover, it is particularly useful in cases that are Class II on one side and Class I on the other, with a minor midline discrepancy and nominal overjet. Patient acceptance level was reported to be within patients physiological and comfort limits.

  10. Prospecting fungal parasites of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida using a rapid screening technique. (United States)

    Kooliyottil, Rinu; Dandurand, Louise-Marie; Knudsen, Guy R


    Seven filamentous fungal species were isolated from individual eggs of Globodera pallida cysts collected from infested fields in Shelley Idaho, USA and identified as Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium tricinctum, Microdochium bolleyi, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Their ability to reduce infection by G. pallida in planta were assessed in simple, reproducible micro-rhizosphere chambers (micro-ROCs). All fungi reduced G. pallida infection in potato, but greatest reduction was observed with C. globosum at an average reduction of 76%. Further non-destructive methods were developed to rapidly assess biological control potential of putative fungal strains by staining the infectious second stage juveniles of G. pallida with the live fluorescent stain PKH26. In comparisons between the standard, invasive acid fuchsin method and use of the live stain PKH26, no significant difference in infection level of G. pallida was observed whether roots were stained with PKH26 or acid fuchsin. For both methods, a similar reduction (77% for acid fuchsin, and 78% for PKH26 stain) in invasion of infectious stage of G. pallida was observed when potato plants were inoculated with C. globosum compared to non-inoculated potato. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Parameter optimization and stretch enhancement of AISI 316 sheet using rapid prototyping technique (United States)

    Moayedfar, M.; Rani, A. M.; Hanaei, H.; Ahmad, A.; Tale, A.


    Incremental sheet forming is a flexible manufacturing process which uses the indenter point-to-point force to shape the sheet metal workpiece into manufactured parts in batch production series. However, the problem sometimes arising from this process is the low plastic point in the stress-strain diagram of the material which leads the low stretching amount before ultra-tensile strain point. Hence, a set of experiments is designed to find the optimum forming parameters in this process for optimum sheet thickness distribution while both sides of the sheet are considered for the surface quality improvement. A five-axis high-speed CNC milling machine is employed to deliver the proper motion based on the programming system while the clamping system for holding the sheet metal was a blank mould. Finally, an electron microscope and roughness machine are utilized to evaluate the surface structure of final parts, illustrate any defect may cause during the forming process and examine the roughness of the final part surface accordingly. The best interaction between parameters is obtained with the optimum values which lead the maximum sheet thickness distribution of 4.211e-01 logarithmic elongation when the depth was 24mm with respect to the design. This study demonstrates that this rapid forming method offers an alternative solution for surface quality improvement of 65% avoiding the low probability of cracks and low probability of crystal structure changes.

  12. The use of recently described ionisation techniques for the rapid analysis of some common drugs and samples of biological origin. (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan P; Patel, Vibhuti J; Holland, Richard; Scrivens, James H


    Three ionisation techniques that require no sample preparation or extraction prior to mass analysis have been used for the rapid analysis of pharmaceutical tablets and ointments. These methods were (i) the novel direct analysis in real time (DART), (ii) desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI), and (iii) desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (DAPCI). The performance of the three techniques was investigated for a number of common drugs. Significant differences between these approaches were observed. For compounds of moderate to low polarity DAPCI produced more effective ionisation. Accurate DESI and DAPCI tandem mass spectra were obtained and these greatly enhance the selectivity and information content of the experiment. The detection from human skin of the active ingredients from ointments is reported together with the detection of ibuprofen metabolites in human urine. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. PET/MR - a rapidly growing technique of imaging in oncology and neurology. (United States)

    Sałyga, Alicja; Guzikowska-Ruszkowska, Izabela; Czepczyński, Rafał; Ruchała, Marek


    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) has become a subject of interest for researchers in the recent several years. Positron emission tomography in combination with magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is the most recent imaging technique classified in the so called hybrid systems category. This review briefly discusses the development history of PET/MR scanners, the principle of their operation, of tandem systems, as well as fully integrated devices. Further, it summarizes recent reports on the application of PET/MR scans and their possible future role in oncological and non-oncological diagnostics. Recent reports regarding the application of PET/MR scanners show huge potential of simultaneously received images, which exceed the advantages of either of those scans used separately. However, the results so far remain uncertain and require further investigations, especially in terms of clinical studies, not only for scientific purposes.

  14. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  15. Seismogeodetic monitoring techniques for tsunami and earthquake early warning and rapid assessment of structural damage (United States)

    Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.; Saunders, J. K.; Goldberg, D.; Restrepo, J. I.


    As part of an effort to promote the use of NASA-sponsored Earth science information for disaster risk reduction, real-time high-rate seismogeodetic data are being incorporated into early warning and structural monitoring systems. Seismogeodesy combines seismic acceleration and GPS displacement measurements using a tightly-coupled Kalman filter to provide absolute estimates of seismic acceleration, velocity and displacement. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. Real-time seismogeodetic observations at subduction zones allow for more robust and rapid magnitude and slip estimation that increase warning time in the near-source region. A NASA-funded effort to utilize GPS and seismogeodesy in NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii integrates new modules for picking, locating, and estimating magnitudes and moment tensors for earthquakes into the USGS earthworm environment at the TWCs. In a related project, NASA supports the transition of this research to seismogeodetic tools for disaster preparedness, specifically by implementing GPS and low-cost MEMS accelerometers for structural monitoring in partnership with earthquake engineers. Real-time high-rate seismogeodetic structural monitoring has been implemented on two structures. The first is a parking garage at the Autonomous University of Baja California Faculty of Medicine in Mexicali, not far from the rupture of the 2011 Mw 7.2 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake enabled through a UCMexus collaboration. The second is the 8-story Geisel Library at University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The system has also been installed for several proof-of-concept experiments at the UCSD Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table. We present MEMS-based seismogeodetic observations from the 10 June

  16. Coagulant plus ballast technique provides a rapid mitigation of cyanobacterial nuisance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia P Noyma

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose coagulant (poly-aluminium chloride-PAC-or chitosan with different ballast compounds (red soil, bauxite, gravel, aluminium modified zeolite and lanthanum modified bentonite to remove cyanobacterial biomass from water collected in Funil Reservoir (Brazil. We tested the effect of different cyanobacterial biomass concentrations on removal efficiency. We also examined if zeta potential was altered by treatments. Addition of low doses of PAC and chitosan (1-8 mg Al L-1 to the cyanobacterial suspensions caused flock formation, but did not settle the cyanobacteria. When those low dose coagulants were combined with ballast, effective settling in a dose-dependent way up to 99.7% removal of the flocks could be achieved without any effect on the zeta potential and thus without potential membrane damage. Removal efficacy was influenced by the cyanobacterial biomass and at higher biomass more ballast was needed to achieve good removal. The combined coagulant-ballast technique provides a promising alternative to algaecides in lakes, ponds and reservoirs.

  17. Fabrication of a two-level tumor bone repair biomaterial based on a rapid prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai He; Yan Yongnian; Zhang Renji; Wang Xiaohong [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education and Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Xinluan; Madhukar, Kumta Shekhar; Qin Ling [Department of Orthoapedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    After the removal of the giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone, it is necessary to fill the defects with adequate biomaterials. A new functional bone repair material with both stimulating osteoblast growth and inhibiting osteoclast activity has been developed with phosphorylated chitosan (P-chitosan) and disodium (1 {yields} 4)-2-deoxy-2-sulfoamino-{beta}-D-glucopyranuronan (S-chitosan) as the additives of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/calcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds based on a double-nozzle low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique. A computer-assisted design model was used and the optimal fabrication parameters were determined through the manipulation of a pure PLGA/TCP system. The microscopic structures, water absorbability and mechanical properties of the samples with different P-chitosan and S-chitosan concentrations were characterized correspondingly. The results suggested that this unique composite porous scaffold material is a potential candidate for the repair of large bone defects after a surgical removal of GCT.

  18. Coagulant plus ballast technique provides a rapid mitigation of cyanobacterial nuisance. (United States)

    Noyma, Natalia P; de Magalhães, Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; van Oosterhout, Frank; Huszar, Vera L M; Marinho, Marcelo M; Lima, Eduardo R A; Lürling, Miquel


    Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose coagulant (poly-aluminium chloride-PAC-or chitosan) with different ballast compounds (red soil, bauxite, gravel, aluminium modified zeolite and lanthanum modified bentonite) to remove cyanobacterial biomass from water collected in Funil Reservoir (Brazil). We tested the effect of different cyanobacterial biomass concentrations on removal efficiency. We also examined if zeta potential was altered by treatments. Addition of low doses of PAC and chitosan (1-8 mg Al L-1) to the cyanobacterial suspensions caused flock formation, but did not settle the cyanobacteria. When those low dose coagulants were combined with ballast, effective settling in a dose-dependent way up to 99.7% removal of the flocks could be achieved without any effect on the zeta potential and thus without potential membrane damage. Removal efficacy was influenced by the cyanobacterial biomass and at higher biomass more ballast was needed to achieve good removal. The combined coagulant-ballast technique provides a promising alternative to algaecides in lakes, ponds and reservoirs.

  19. Inexpensive Device for Demonstrating Rock Slope Failure and Other Collapse Phenomena. (United States)

    Stimpson, B.


    Describes an inexpensive modeling technique for demonstrating large-scale displacement phenomena in rock masses, such as slope collapse and failure of underground openings. Excavation of the model material occurs through openings made in the polyurethane foam in the correct excavation sequence. (Author/SA)

  20. A Simple, Inexpensive Acoustic Levitation Apparatus (United States)

    Schappe, R. Scott; Barbosa, Cinthya


    Acoustic levitation uses a resonant ultrasonic standing wave to suspend small objects; it is used in a variety of research disciplines, particularly in the study of phase transitions and materials susceptible to contamination, or as a stabilization mechanism in microgravity environments. The levitation equipment used for such research is quite costly; we wanted to develop a simple, inexpensive system to demonstrate this visually striking example of standing waves. A search of the literature produced only one article relevant to creating such an apparatus, but the authors' approach uses a test tube, which limits the access to the standing wave. Our apparatus, shown in Fig. 1, can levitate multiple small (1-2 mm) pieces of expanded polystyrene (Styrofoam) using components readily available to most instructors of introductory physics. Acoustic levitation occurs in small, stable equilibrium locations where the weight of the object is balanced by the acoustic radiation force created by an ultrasonic standing wave; these locations are slightly below the pressure nodes. The levitation process also creates a horizontal restoring force. Since the pressure nodes are also velocity antinodes, this transverse stability may be analogous to the effect of an upward air stream supporting a ball.

  1. Inexpensive Complex Hand Model Twenty Years Later. (United States)

    Frenger, Paul


    Twenty years ago the author unveiled his inexpensive complex hand model, which reproduced every motion of the human hand. A control system programmed in the Forth language operated its actuators and sensors. Follow-on papers for this popular project were next presented in Texas, Canada and Germany. From this hand grew the author’s meter-tall robot (nicknamed ANNIE: Android With Neural Networks, Intellect and Emotions). It received machine vision, facial expressiveness, speech synthesis and speech recognition; a simian version also received a dexterous ape foot. New artificial intelligence features included op-amp neurons for OCR and simulated emotions, hormone emulation, endocannabinoid receptors, fear-trust-love mechanisms, a Grandmother Cell recognizer and artificial consciousness. Simulated illnesses included narcotic addiction, autism, PTSD, fibromyalgia and Alzheimer’s disease. The author gave 13 robotics-AI presentations at NASA in Houston since 2006. A meter-tall simian robot was proposed with gripping hand-feet for use with space vehicles and to explore distant planets and moons. Also proposed were: intelligent motorized exoskeletons for astronaut force multiplication; a cognitive prosthesis to detect and alleviate decreased crew mental performance; and a gynoid robot medic to tend astronauts in deep space missions. What began as a complex hand model evolved into an innovative robot-AI within two decades.

  2. Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering fabricated from two different materials by the rapid prototyping technique: PCL versus PLGA. (United States)

    Park, So Hee; Park, Dae Sung; Shin, Ji Won; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Kim, Hyung Keun; Yoon, Taek Rim; Shin, Jung-Woog


    Three dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds for the treatment of critical defect have been usually fabricated by salt leaching or gas forming technique. However, it is not easy for cells to penetrate the scaffolds due to the poor interconnectivity of pores. To overcome these current limitations we utilized a rapid prototyping (RP) technique for fabricating tissue engineered scaffolds to treat critical defects. The RP technique resulted in the uniform distribution and systematic connection of pores, which enabled cells to penetrate the scaffold. Two kinds of materials were used. They were poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(D, L-lactic-glycolic acid) (PLGA), where PCL is known to have longer degradation time than PLGA. In vitro tests supported the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. A 12-week animal study involving various examinations of rabbit tibias such as micro-CT and staining showed that both PCL and PLGA resulted in successful bone regeneration. As expected, PLGA degraded faster than PCL, and consequently the tissues generated in the PLGA group were less dense than those in the PCL group. We concluded that slower degradation is preferable in bone tissue engineering, especially when treating critical defects, as mechanical support is needed until full regeneration has occurred.

  3. A Rapid Model Adaptation Technique for Emotional Speech Recognition with Style Estimation Based on Multiple-Regression HMM (United States)

    Ijima, Yusuke; Nose, Takashi; Tachibana, Makoto; Kobayashi, Takao

    In this paper, we propose a rapid model adaptation technique for emotional speech recognition which enables us to extract paralinguistic information as well as linguistic information contained in speech signals. This technique is based on style estimation and style adaptation using a multiple-regression HMM (MRHMM). In the MRHMM, the mean parameters of the output probability density function are controlled by a low-dimensional parameter vector, called a style vector, which corresponds to a set of the explanatory variables of the multiple regression. The recognition process consists of two stages. In the first stage, the style vector that represents the emotional expression category and the intensity of its expressiveness for the input speech is estimated on a sentence-by-sentence basis. Next, the acoustic models are adapted using the estimated style vector, and then standard HMM-based speech recognition is performed in the second stage. We assess the performance of the proposed technique in the recognition of simulated emotional speech uttered by both professional narrators and non-professional speakers.

  4. Preliminary Clinical Application of Removable Partial Denture Frameworks Fabricated Using Computer-Aided Design and Rapid Prototyping Techniques. (United States)

    Ye, Hongqiang; Ning, Jing; Li, Man; Niu, Li; Yang, Jian; Sun, Yuchun; Zhou, Yongsheng

    The aim of this study was to explore the application of computer-aided design and rapid prototyping (CAD/RP) for removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks and evaluate the fitness of the technique for clinical application. Three-dimensional (3D) images of dentition defects were obtained using a lab scanner. The RPD frameworks were designed using commercial dental software and manufactured using selective laser melting (SLM). A total of 15 cases of RPD prostheses were selected, wherein each patient received two types of RPD frameworks, prepared by CAD/RP and investment casting. Primary evaluation of the CAD/RP framework was performed by visual inspection. The gap between the occlusal rest and the relevant rest seat was then replaced using silicone, and the specimens were observed and measured. Paired t test was used to compare the average thickness and distributed thickness between the CAD/RP and investment casting frameworks. Analysis of variance test was used to compare the difference in thickness among different zones. The RPD framework was designed and directly manufactured using the SLM technique. CAD/RP frameworks may meet the clinical requirements with satisfactory retention and stability and no undesired rotation. Although the average gap between the occlusal rest and the corresponding rest seat of the CAD/RP frameworks was slightly larger than that of the investment casting frameworks (P < .05), it was acceptable for clinical application. RPD frameworks can be designed and fabricated directly using digital techniques with acceptable results in clinical application.

  5. Tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions of musa (banana and plantain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N.; De Langhe, E.


    A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions is presented in this paper. Shoot-tip cultures of Musa cultivars (both banana and plantain) are induced by culturing small excised shoot apices on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. The effects of cytokinin concentration in the medium as well as the genotypic configuration of the cultivars on the rate of shoot-bud proliferation have been tested. The established shoot-tip cultures grown on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with IAA (0.18 mg/l) and Ba (2.30 mg/l) have been successfully stored at 15/sup 0/ C with 1000 lux light intensity up to 13-17 months depending on the cultivar. The cultivars tested in the present investigation seem to vary in their ability to withstand minimal growth temperature. 20 references.

  6. Rapid detection of parasite in muscle fibers of fishes using a portable microscope imaging technique (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.; Cho, Byoungkwan


    Fishes are a widely used food material in the world. Recently about 4% of the fishes are infected with Kudoa thyrsites in Asian ocean. Kudoa thyrsites is a parasite that is found within the muscle fibers of fishes. The infected fishes can be a reason of food poisoning, which should be sorted out before distribution and consumption. Although Kudoa thyrsites is visible to the naked eye, it could be easily overlooked due to the micro-scale size and similar color with fish tissue. In addition, the visual inspection is labor intensive works resulting in loss of money and time. In this study, a portable microscopic camera was utilized to obtain images of raw fish slices. The optimized image processing techniques with polarized transmittance images provided reliable performance. The result shows that the portable microscopic imaging method can be used to detect parasites rapidly and non-destructively, which could be an alternative to manual inspections.

  7. Large-timestep techniques for particle-in-cell simulation of systems with applied fields that vary rapidly in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.


    Under conditions which arise commonly in space-charge-dominated beam applications, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the self-fields (which are, on average, comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly. In such cases it is desirable to employ timesteps which advance the particles over distances greater than the characteristic scales over which the applied fields vary. Several related concepts are potentially applicable: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution, a higher-order time-advance algorithm, force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits, and orbit-averaging. We report on our investigations into the utility of such techniques for systems typical of those encountered in accelerator studies for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion.

  8. Application of the LAMP Assay as a Diagnostic Technique for Rapid Identification of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). (United States)

    Fekrat, Lida; Zaki Aghl, Mohammad; Tahan, Vahid


    Rapid and accurate identification of potentially invasive taxa that may cause high economic losses or environmental damage is of critical importance. The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, ranks as one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests and commonly found in imported agricultural products and field samples, but is prone to undetected transport because of its minute size as well as cryptic behavior. Although traditional taxonomic methods are pretty useful in straightforward assignment of specimens to the genus Thrips, identification in the species level is much more difficult and requires expertise, knowledge, and experience. Furthermore, it is often difficult or impossible to identify or distinguish this species from other thrips by using material from other stages of development. Based on the foregoings, use of a molecular technique known as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as a rapid and robust alternative species diagnostic tool would be valuable. In this study, a relatively quick and simple method was used to detect the presence of onion thrips DNA rapidly and discriminate it from other species, by using material from different stages of development. Not only LAMP itself required less than 1 h to complete but also amounts of DNA as little as that recovered from a single specimen were adequate for the detection. Another advantage of this identification system is that nonspecialists will be able to make faster and cheaper identifications. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  9. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications. (United States)

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo


    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  10. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pallottino


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s. To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%. The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information

  11. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants. (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao


    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of the rapid prototyping technique to design a customized temporomandibular joint used to treat temporomandibular ankylosis (United States)

    Chaware, Suresh M.; Bagaria, Vaibhav; Kuthe, Abhay


    Anthropometric variations in humans make it difficult to replace a temporomandibular joint (TMJ), successfully using a standard “one-size-fits-all” prosthesis. The case report presents a unique concept of total TMJ replacement with customized and modified TMJ prosthesis, which is cost-effective and provides the best fit for the patient. The process involved in designing and modifications over the existing prosthesis are also described. A 12-year- old female who presented for treatment of left unilateral TMJ ankylosis underwent the surgery for total TMJ replacement. A three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scan suggested features of bony ankylosis of left TMJ. CT images were converted to a sterolithographic model using CAD software and a rapid prototyping machine. A process of rapid manufacturing was then used to manufacture the customized prosthesis. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with an improvement in mouth opening of 3.5 cm and painless jaw movements. Three years postsurgery, the patient is pain-free, has a mouth opening of about 4.0 cm and enjoys a normal diet. The postoperative radiographs concur with the excellent clinical results. The use of CAD/CAM technique to design the custom-made prosthesis, using orthopaedically proven structural materials, significantly improves the predictability and success rates of TMJ replacement surgery. PMID:19881026

  13. A novel method for rapid and non-invasive detection of plants senescence using delayed fluorescence technique (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Xing, Da; Wang, Junsheng; Zeng, Lizhang; Li, Qiang


    Plants senescence is a phase of plants ontogeny marked by declining photosynthetic activity that is paralleled by a decline in chloroplast function. The photosystem II ( PSII ) in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed fluorescence (DF) is produced. With the leaves of Catharanthus roseus (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don) as testing models, we have studied the effects of plants senescence induced by dark and/or exogenous hormones treatments on characteristics of DF by using a home-made portable DF detection system, which can enable various DF parameters, such as DF decay kinetic curve and DF intensity, to be rapidly produced for the plants in a short time. The results show that the changes in DF intensity of green plants can truly reflect the changes in photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content. Therefore, DF may be used an important means of evaluating in vivo plants senescence physiology. The changes in DF intensity may provide a new approach for the rapid and early detection of plants senescence caused by age or other senescence-related factors. DF technique could be potential useful for high throughput screening and less time-consuming and automated identifying the interesting mutants with genetic modifications that change plants senescence progress.

  14. Efficient and inexpensive transient expression of multispecific multivalent antibodies in Expi293 cells


    Fang, Xiaotian T; Sehlin, Dag; Lannfelt, Lars; Syv?nen, Stina; Hultqvist, Greta


    Background Immunotherapy is a very fast expanding field within drug discovery and, hence, rapid and inexpensive expression of antibodies would be extremely valuable. Antibodies are, however, difficult to express. Multifunctional antibodies with additional binding domains further complicate the expression. Only few protocols describe the production of tetravalent bispecific antibodies and all with limited expression levels.? Methods Here, we describe a protocol that can produce functional tetr...

  15. Environmental risk prioritization and management of petroleum retail facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and rapid field investigation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, J.T.; Thomas, C.A.; Molloy, K.P. [Camp Dresser & McKee Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others


    Environmental risk prioritization is a method of estimating the probability and severity of an environmental impact related to a petroleum facility. The risk analysis is directed at prioritizing environmental risks associated with each facility and so that capital expenditures can be directed toward mitigation at high risk sites and monitoring or stewardship at low risk locations. The expenditures or investments may include facility upgrades, waste disposal or containment, soil and water remediation, or facility monitoring activities. The risk analyses and petroleum retail facilities prioritization system presented in this paper includes a geographic information systems (GIS) and rapid field investigation techniques. This system was recently used in the prioritization of 150 petroleum facilities in Caracas, Venezuela and is currently being expanded to include additional facilities. The prioritization system used GIS and a data management system to quantify the Potential Impact Factors (PIF) and the Leak Likelihood Factors (LLF) associated with each facility. The PIF analysis used GIS to perform a proximity analysis; a radial search was performed for each site identifying proximal receptors including sensitive environmental receptors, water supply well locations, protected open spaces, water supply watersheds, areas of critical environmental concern, and residential populations. The LLF analysis assessed risk based on the age of the underground storage tanks, presence of leak protection devices, soils and groundwater conditions, tank and piping characteristics, sales volume and proximity to sources of high voltage. Prioritization weighting was placed on each of the LLF factors based on the risk associated with each. After the initial GIS site rankings, rapid site audits were completed selected the high risk sites. These audits included compilation of spill histories and soil vapor analyses using gas chromatography.

  16. Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation technique: a rapid and reliable assay for studying plant-bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalapati Srinivasa R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem is one of the most widely used systems to understand the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis and plant innate immunity. Several inoculation methods have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions in this model system. However, none of the methods reported to date are similar to those occurring in nature and amicable to large-scale mutant screens. Results In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable seedling flood-inoculation method based on young Arabidopsis seedlings grown on MS medium. This method has several advantages over conventional soil-grown plant inoculation assays, including a shorter growth and incubation period, ease of inoculation and handling, uniform infection and disease development, requires less growth chamber space and is suitable for high-throughput screens. In this study we demonstrated the efficacy of the Arabidopsis seedling assay to study 1 the virulence factors of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, including type III protein secretion system (TTSS and phytotoxin coronatine (COR; 2 the effector-triggered immunity; and 3 Arabidopsis mutants affected in salicylic acid (SA- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs-mediated pathways. Furthermore, we applied this technique to study nonhost resistance (NHR responses in Arabidopsis using nonhost pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. tabaci, pv. glycinea and pv. tomato T1, and confirmed the functional role of FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 in NHR. Conclusions The Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation assay provides a rapid, efficient and economical method for studying Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas interactions with minimal growth chamber space and time. This assay could also provide an excellent system for investigating the virulence mechanisms of P. syringae. Using this method, we demonstrated that FLS2 plays a critical role in conferring NHR against nonhost pathovars of P. syringae, but not to

  17. New layer-based imaging and rapid prototyping techniques for computer-aided design and manufacture of custom dental restoration. (United States)

    Lee, M-Y; Chang, C-C; Ku, Y C


    Fixed dental restoration by conventional methods greatly relies on the skill and experience of the dental technician. The quality and accuracy of the final product depends mostly on the technician's subjective judgment. In addition, the traditional manual operation involves many complex procedures, and is a time-consuming and labour-intensive job. Most importantly, no quantitative design and manufacturing information is preserved for future retrieval. In this paper, a new device for scanning the dental profile and reconstructing 3D digital information of a dental model based on a layer-based imaging technique, called abrasive computer tomography (ACT) was designed in-house and proposed for the design of custom dental restoration. The fixed partial dental restoration was then produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and computer numerical control (CNC) machining methods based on the ACT scanned digital information. A force feedback sculptor (FreeForm system, Sensible Technologies, Inc., Cambridge MA, USA), which comprises 3D Touch technology, was applied to modify the morphology and design of the fixed dental restoration. In addition, a comparison of conventional manual operation and digital manufacture using both RP and CNC machining technologies for fixed dental restoration production is presented. Finally, a digital custom fixed restoration manufacturing protocol integrating proposed layer-based dental profile scanning, computer-aided design, 3D force feedback feature modification and advanced fixed restoration manufacturing techniques is illustrated. The proposed method provides solid evidence that computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies may become a new avenue for custom-made fixed restoration design, analysis, and production in the 21st century.

  18. An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC. (United States)

    Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.


    Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…

  19. Nylon screws make inexpensive coil forms (United States)

    Aucoin, G.; Rosenthal, C.


    Standard nylon screws act as coil form copper wire laid down in spiral thread. Completed coil may be bonded to printed-circuit board. However, it is impossible to tune coil by adjusting spacing between windings, technique sometimes used with air-core coils.

  20. Development of a rapid matrix digestion technique for ultrastructural analysis of elastic fibers in the intervertebral disc. (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Costi, John J


    Collagen and elastic fibers are two major fibrous constituents of the annulus fibrosus (AF) in the disc that contribute to its mechanical and viscoelastic properties. It was thought that elastic fibers play no substantial role in the function and properties of the disc as these fibers were irregularly distributed. Studies that have revealed highly organized elastic fibers with different regional orientation and distribution, while being strongly crosslinked with matrix, suggesting their contribution to disc structure-function properties. These studies that were performed by light microscopic analysis of histologically prepared samples, have not been able to reveal the fine-scale architectural details of the elastic fiber network. Since elastic fibers are intermingled with other fibrous components of the disc and mostly obscured by the extracellular matrix, it is difficult to demonstrate their ultra-structural organization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore the aim of this study was to develop a rapid matrix digestion technique for ultrastructural analysis of the disc elastic fibers. This study provides a new method for fundamental visualization of elastic fibers and their architecture in the disc. Through the ultra-structural analysis, the relationship between structure and function, as well as the role of elastic fibers on AF mechanical properties can be studied. This method may be used to develop a three-dimensional map of elastic fibers distribution within the disc, which would provide valuable information for designing tissue engineered scaffolds for AF repair and replacement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Technique for diamond machining large ZnSe grisms for the Rapid Infrared/Imager Spectrograph (RIMAS) (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Little, Steve L.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Capone, John I.


    The Rapid Infrared Imager/Spectrograph (RIMAS) is an instrument designed to observe gamma ray burst afterglows following initial detection by the SWIFT satellite. Operating in the near infrared between 0.9 and 2.4 μm, it has capabilities for both low resolution (R 25) and moderate resolution (R 4000) spectroscopy. Two zinc selenide (ZnSe) grisms provide dispersion in the moderate resolution mode: one covers the Y and J bands and the other covers the H and K. Each has a clear aperture of 44 mm. The YJ grism has a blaze angle of 49.9° with a 40 μm groove spacing. The HK grism is blazed at 43.1° with a 50 μm grooves spacing. Previous fabrication of ZnSe grisms on the Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL II) at LLNL has demonstrated the importance of surface preparation, tool and fixture design, tight thermal control, and backup power sources for the machine. The biggest challenges in machining the RIMAS grisms are the large grooved area, which indicates long machining time, and the relatively steep blaze angle, which means that the grism wavefront error is much more sensitive to lathe metrology errors. Mitigating techniques are described.

  2. Scaffolds with a standardized macro-architecture fabricated from several calcium phosphate ceramics using an indirect rapid prototyping technique (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; van Blitterswijk, C. A.; Verbout, A. J.; de Bruijn, J. D.


    Calcium phosphate ceramics, commonly applied as bone graft substitutes, are a natural choice of scaffolding material for bone tissue engineering. Evidence shows that the chemical composition, macroporosity and microporosity of these ceramics influences their behavior as bone graft substitutes and bone tissue engineering scaffolds but little has been done to optimize these parameters. One method of optimization is to place focus on a particular parameter by normalizing the influence, as much as possible, of confounding parameters. This is difficult to accomplish with traditional fabrication techniques. In this study we describe a design based rapid prototyping method of manufacturing scaffolds with virtually identical macroporous architectures from different calcium phosphate ceramic compositions. Beta-tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite (at two sintering temperatures) and biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds were manufactured. The macro- and micro-architectures of the scaffolds were characterized as well as the influence of the manufacturing method on the chemistries of the calcium phosphate compositions. The structural characteristics of the resulting scaffolds were remarkably similar. The manufacturing process had little influence on the composition of the materials except for the consistent but small addition of, or increase in, a beta-tricalcium phosphate phase. Among other applications, scaffolds produced by the method described provide a means of examining the influence of different calcium phosphate compositions while confidently excluding the influence of the macroporous structure of the scaffolds. PMID:21069558

  3. A Rapid Culture Technique Produces Functional Dendritic-Like Cells from Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ning


    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies involving dendritic cells (DC as vaccines rely upon the adoptive transfer of DC loaded with exogenous tumour-peptides. This study utilized human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells as progenitors from which functional dendritic-like antigen presenting cells (DLC were generated, that constitutively express tumour antigens for recognition by CD8+ T cells. DLC were generated from AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3 using rapid culture techniques and appropriate cytokines. DLC were evaluated for their cell-surface phenotype, antigen uptake and ability to stimulate allogeneic responder cell proliferation, and production of IFN-γ; compared with DC derived from normal human PBMC donors. KG-1 and MUTZ-3 DLC increased expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR, and MUTZ-3 DLC downregulated CD14 and expressed CD1a. Importantly, both KG-1 and MUTZ-3-derived DLC promoted proliferation of allogeneic responder cells more efficiently than unmodified cells; neither cells incorporated FITC-labeled dextran, but both stimulated IFN-γ production from responding allogeneic CD8+ T cells. Control DC produced from PBMC using the FastDC culture also expressed high levels of critical cell surface ligands and demonstrated good APC function. This paper indicates that functional DLC can be cultured from the AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3, and FastDC culture generates functional KG-1 DLC.

  4. Inexpensive electronics and software for photon statistics and correlation spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gamari, Benjamin D; Zhang, Dianwen; Buckman, Richard E; Milas, Peker; Denker, John S; Chen, Hui; Li, Hongmin; Goldner, Lori S


    Single-molecule-sensitive microscopy and spectroscopy are transforming biophysics and materials science laboratories. Techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and single-molecule sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are now commonly available in research laboratories but are as yet infrequently available in teaching laboratories. We describe inexpensive electronics and open-source software that bridges this gap, making state-of-the-art research capabilities accessible to undergraduates interested in biophysics. We include a discussion of the intensity correlation function relevant to FCS and how it can be determined from photon arrival times. We demonstrate the system with a measurement of the hydrodynamic radius of a protein using FCS that is suitable for the undergraduate teaching laboratory. The FPGA-based electronics, which are easy to construct, are suitable for more advanced measurements as well, and several applications are described. As implemented, the system has 8 ns timing resolution, can control up to four laser sources, and can collect information from as many as four photon-counting detectors.

  5. Robust and inexpensive equipment design for polymerase chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robust and inexpensive equipment design for polymerase chain reaction detection of sequence mutations Cystic fibrosis in a mother and 2 children analysed. L. R. Purves, R. Rubinstein, J. Maxwell, F. Leisegang, J. Ireland ...

  6. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Naftulin

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT collect three-dimensional data (3D that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM images to stereolithography (STL files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min. Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  7. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull. (United States)

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S


    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  8. An efficient near infrared spectroscopy based on aquaphotomics technique for rapid determining the level of Cadmium in aqueous solution (United States)

    Putra, Alfian; Vassileva, Maria; Santo, Ryoko; Tsenkova, Roumina


    Cadmium (Cd) is a common industrial pollutant with long biological half-life, which makes it as a cumulative toxicant. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been successfully used for quick and accurate assessment of Cd content in agricultural materials, but the development of a quick detection method for ground and drinking water samples is equal importance for pollution monitoring. Metals have no absorbance in the NIR spectral range, thus the methods developed so far have focused on detection of metal-organic complexes (move to intro). This study focuses on the use of Aquaphotomics technique to measure Cd in aqueous solutions by analyzing the changes in water spectra that occur due to water-metal interaction. Measurements were performed with Cd (II) in 0.1 M HNO3, in the 680-1090 nm (water second and third overtones) and 1110-1800 nm (water first overtone) spectral regions, and were subjected to partial least-square regression analysis. It was found/determined that A concentration of Cd from 1 mg L-1 to 10 mg L-1 could be predicted by this model with average prediction correlation coefficient of 0.897. The model was tested by perturbations with temperature and other metal presence in the solution. The regression coefficient showed consistent peaks at 728, 752, 770, 780, 1362, 1430,1444, 1472/1474 and 1484 nm under various perturbations, indicating that metal to influence the water spectra. The residual predictive deviation values (RPD) were greater than 2, indicating that the model is appropriate for practical use. The result suggested that this newly proposed approach is capable of detecting metal ion in a much simpler, rapid and reliable way.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyanda Arnafia


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific assay for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in food. The kit-prototype was developed by using indirect coagglutination technique with three main components, namely Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I, rabbit IgG anti-chicken Fc IgY and chicken IgY anti-S. Enteritidis. Isa Brown layer chickens were used to produce specific antibodies against S. Enteritidis. Monospecific antisera were prepared by absorption method. Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I was coupled with rabbit IgG anti-chicken Fc IgY and monospecific antisera anti-S. Enteritidis. Kit-prototype was compared with multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine sensitivity and specificity of kit-prototype. Artificially inoculated food sample was used to determine the limit of detection of kit-prototype in a food sample. Indirect coagglutination kit-prototype was able to differentiate positive control from negative control without self-agglutination reaction. This assay has a high specificity to S. Enteritidis without significant cross-reactivity towards other bacteria. Kit-prototype was able to detect 108 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis in the buffer and 1 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis in a food sample after selective enrichment procedure. The application of this kit was able to give a fast result (reaction can be observed in 10 sec, to be applied in a sample without extraction in the preparation of antigen and to reduce detection time of S. Enteritidis in food until 4 days.

  10. Culture-Independent Techniques for Rapid Detection of Bacteria Associated with Loss of Chloramine Residual in a Drinking Water System (United States)

    Hoefel, Daniel; Monis, Paul T.; Grooby, Warwick L.; Andrews, Stuart; Saint, Christopher P.


    Chloramination is often the disinfection regimen of choice for extended drinking water systems. However, this process is prone to instability due to the growth of nitrifying bacteria. This is the first study to use alternative approaches for rapid investigation of chloraminated drinking water system instability in which flow cytometric cell sorting of bacteria with intact membranes (membrane-intact fraction) (BacLight kit) or with active esterases (esterase-active fraction) (carboxyfluorescein diacetate) was combined with 16S rRNA gene-directed PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). No active bacteria were detected when water left the water treatment plant (WTP), but 12 km downstream the chloramine residual had diminished and the level of active bacteria in the bulk water had increased to more than 1 × 105 bacteria ml−1. The bacterial diversity in the system was represented by six major DGGE bands for the membrane-intact fraction and 10 major DGGE bands for the esterase-active fraction. PCR targeting of the 16S rRNA gene of chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and subsequent DGGE and DNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of an active Nitrosospira-related species and Nitrosomonas cryotolerans in the system, but no AOB were detected in the associated WTP. The abundance of active AOB was then determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the amoA gene; 3.43 × 103 active AOB ml−1 were detected in the membrane-intact fraction, and 1.40 × 104 active AOB ml−1 were detected in the esterase-active fraction. These values were several orders of magnitude greater than the 2.5 AOB ml−1 detected using a routine liquid most-probable-number assay. Culture-independent techniques described here, in combination with existing chemical indicators, should allow the water industry to obtain more comprehensive data with which to make informed decisions regarding remedial action that may be required either prior to or during an

  11. A novel abutment construction technique for rapid bridge construction : controlled low strength Materials (CLSM) with full-height concrete panels. (United States)


    One of the major obstacles facing rapid bridge construction for typical span type bridges is the time required to construct bridge abutments and foundations. This can be remedied by using the controlled low strength materials (CLSM) bridge abutment. ...

  12. Kinematic Analysis of the Effect of Rapid Weight Loss by Sauna on Elite Wrestlers’ Single Leg Takedown Technique


    Amir Moghaddami; ZinnurGerek; Ali Karimiasl; HabibNozohouri


    Rapid weight loss and weight cutting are two widely used methods to reach competition weight; Sauna and dehydration as well as sweating through physical activity are very common. Many athletes with specific weight classifications such as wrestling, judo, and weight lifting want to participate in competitions 6-8 % below their normal weight. The aim of this study was to present an example of the quantitative contribution of modern sport biomechanics. The results showed that rapid weight loss c...

  13. High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA): a highly sensitive inexpensive genotyping alternative for population studies. (United States)

    Smith, B L; Lu, C-P; Alvarado Bremer, J R


    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a highly sensitive closed-tube genotyping method used primarily in clinical studies. As the method is rapid, inexpensive and amenable to high throughput, we decided to investigate its applicability to population studies. Small amplicons and unlabelled probes were used to genotype the nuclear genes, lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldh-A), myosin light chain-2 (mlc-2), acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (ARP) and calmodulin (CaM) in populations of swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Results indicate that HRMA is a powerful genotyping tool to study wild populations. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The zygomatic implant perforated (ZIP) flap: a new technique for combined surgical reconstruction and rapid fixed dental rehabilitation following low-level maxillectomy. (United States)

    Butterworth, C J; Rogers, S N


    This aim of this report is to describe the development and evolution of a new surgical technique for the immediate surgical reconstruction and rapid post-operative prosthodontic rehabilitation with a fixed dental prosthesis following low-level maxillectomy for malignant disease.The technique involves the use of a zygomatic oncology implant perforated micro-vascular soft tissue flap (ZIP flap) for the primary management of maxillary malignancy with surgical closure of the resultant maxillary defect and the installation of osseointegrated support for a zygomatic implant-supported maxillary fixed dental prosthesis.The use of this technique facilitates extremely rapid oral and dental rehabilitation within a few weeks of resective surgery, providing rapid return to function and restoring appearance following low-level maxillary resection, even in cases where radiotherapy is required as an adjuvant treatment post-operatively. The ZIP flap technique has been adopted as a standard procedure in the unit for the management of low-level maxillary malignancy, and this report provides a detailed step-by-step approach to treatment and discusses modifications developed over the treatment of an initial cohort of patients.

  15. Rapid near-infrared fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy for multifluorophore characterization using an acousto-optic tunable filter technique. (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei


    We report on a novel acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy technique for rapid multifluorophore characterization. We implement a unique light filtering module design by using cascaded AOTFs coupled with three orthogonally oriented polarizers to effectively remove the side-ripple artifacts of AOTFs as well as by using a pair of AOTFs coupled with two orthogonally oriented polarizers to improve detection efficiency for high-quality fluorescence EEM acquisitions. NIR fluorescence EEM spectroscopy (41 excitation wavelengths ranging from 550 to 950 nm in 10-nm increments; fluorescence emission from 570 to 1000 nm at 10-nm intervals) can be acquired from fluorescence dyes [e.g., diethylthiatricarbocyanine (DTTC) iodide, oxazine 750, and IR 140] within 10 s or even less, illustrating the potential of the AOTF-based NIR EEM technique developed for rapid multifluorophore analysis and characterization in biochemical and biomedical systems.

  16. Rapid MRI using a modified Dixon technique: a non-invasive and effective method for detection and monitoring of fatty metamorphosis of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbein, M.H. [Pediatric Gastroenterology, Dept. of Pediatrics, Springfield, IL (United States); Stevens, W.R. [St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States)


    Fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are frequently associated with obesity. Weight loss is the mainstay of therapy for these conditions. In this case report, we used a modification of the Dixon method to demonstrate normalization of hepatic fat content in an obese individual with fatty liver following weight reduction. This technique involves fast gradient echo instead of spin echo, which has been utilized previously, as the former provides an accurate and more rapid means of assessing hepatic fat content. This technique is recommended for the assessment of hepatic steatosis in at-risk subjects. (orig.)

  17. Computationally Inexpensive Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Pansharpening


    Hankui K. Zhang; Roy, David P.


    Pansharpening algorithms fuse higher spatial resolution panchromatic with lower spatial resolution multispectral imagery to create higher spatial resolution multispectral images. The free-availability and systematic global acquisition of Landsat 8 data indicate an expected need for global coverage and so computationally efficient Landsat 8 pansharpening. This study adapts and evaluates the established, and relatively computationally inexpensive, Brovey and context adaptive Gram Schmidt compon...

  18. Build an Inexpensive Wind Tunnel to Test CO2 Cars (United States)

    McCormick, Kevin


    As part of the technology education curriculum, the author's eighth-grade students design, build, test, and race CO2 vehicles. To help them in refining their designs, they use a wind tunnel to test for aerodynamic drag. In this article, the author describes how to build a wind tunnel using inexpensive, readily available materials. (Contains 1…

  19. Design and Calibration of an Inexpensive Digital Anemometer (United States)

    Hernandez-Walls, R.; Rojas-Mayoral, E.; Baez-Castillo, L.; Rojas-Mayoral, B.


    An inexpensive and easily implemented device to measure wind velocity is proposed. This prototype has the advantage of being able to measure both the speed and the direction of the wind in two dimensions. The device utilizes a computational interface commonly referred to as a "mouse." The mouse proposed for this prototype contains an…

  20. In-lab three-dimensional printing: an inexpensive tool for experimentation and visualization for the field of organogenesis. (United States)

    Partridge, Roland; Conlisk, Noel; Davies, Jamie A


    The development of the microscope in 1590 by Zacharias Janssenby and Hans Lippershey gave the world a new way of visualizing details of morphogenesis and development. More recent improvements in this technology including confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical projection tomography (OPT) have enhanced the quality of the resultant image. These technologies also allow a representation to be made of a developing tissue's three-dimensional (3-D) form. With all these techniques however, the image is delivered on a flat two-dimensional (2-D) screen. 3-D printing represents an exciting potential to reproduce the image not simply on a flat screen, but in a physical, palpable three-dimensional structure. Here we explore the scope that this holds for exploring and interacting with the structure of a developing organ in an entirely novel way. As well as being useful for visualization, 3-D printers are capable of rapidly and cost-effectively producing custom-made structures for use within the laboratory. We here describe the advantages of producing hardware for a tissue culture system using an inexpensive in-lab printer.

  1. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke


    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A chelating-bond breaking and re-linking technique for rapid re-immobilization of immune micro-sensors. (United States)

    Xu, Tiegang; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Pengchen; Li, Xinxin


    With high sensitivity and specificity to antigen, immune micro-sensors can be used in rapid detection of pathogenic microbial. This study proposes and develops a method for rapidly regeneration of antibody on a resonant micro-cantilever sensor. A nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) derivative is synthesized with cystine and bromoacetic acid, then added with 2-mercaptoethanol to prepare a mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Au (111) surface of the cantilever. Ni²⁺ ions are thereafter chelated on the mixed SAM to form a breakable and re-linkable chelating-bond layer. Repeatable cycles of antibody immobilization and erasing are experimentally validated with a detectable marker of synthesized biotinylated poly peptides harboring six histidine residues (named as His-Bio). Two distinguished pathogenic microbial, Escherichia. coli O157:H7 and Bacillus Anthracis, are detected with the rapidly regenerated sensor. The E. coli O157:H7 sensor exhibits a three-time repeated detection to the 10³ CFU/ml concentration microbial. Then, an E. coli O157:H7 sensor is eluted with Tris-HCl (20 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20, pH = 3.0) and rapidly reconstructed into a B. Anthracis sensor by changing the re-immobilized antibody. The cantilever sensor no longer responses to E. coli O157:H7 even in a high concentration of 10⁷ CFU/ml. In contrast, the sensor is experimentally confirmed being resoluble to low concentration B. Anthracis at 10³ spores/ml level. The proposed fast regeneration method is promising in repeatedly or multi-target detection applications of micro/nano immune-sensors, e.g. the resonant micro-cantilevers.

  3. A review of the issues surrounding three-dimensional computed tomography for medical modelling using rapid prototyping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, Richard [Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Winder, John [Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Research Institute, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    This technical note aims to raise awareness amongst radiographers of the application of Computed Tomography data in the production of models using Rapid Prototyping technologies. It also aims to provide radiographers with recommendations that will assist them in providing three-dimensional Computed Tomography data that can fulfil the requirements of medical modelling. Potential problem areas in data acquisition and transfer are discussed and suggestions are given for methods that aim to avoid these.

  4. Novel, rapid optical immunoassay technique for detection of group A streptococci from pharyngeal specimens: comparison with standard culture methods.


    Harbeck, R. J.; Teague, J; Crossen, G R; Maul, D M; Childers, P L


    A novel immunoassay system based on the changes in the reflection of light, termed an optical immunoassay (OIA), was utilized to directly detect group A streptococcal (GAS) carbohydrate antigen from clinical specimens. In two studies, a total of 1,275 throat swabs were tested for the presence of this antigen with the Strep A OIA rapid detection system and the results were compared with those of standard culture methods. In both studies, the Strep A OIA yielded more positive results than plati...

  5. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid ...

  6. A new technique for rapid assessment of eutrophication status of coastal waters using a support vector machine (United States)

    Kong, Xianyu; Che, Xiaowei; Su, Rongguo; Zhang, Chuansong; Yao, Qingzhen; Shi, Xiaoyong


    There is an urgent need to develop efficient evaluation tools that use easily measured variables to make rapid and timely eutrophication assessments, which are important for marine health management, and to implement eutrophication monitoring programs. In this study, an approach for rapidly assessing the eutrophication status of coastal waters with three easily measured parameters (turbidity, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen) was developed by the grid search (GS) optimized support vector machine (SVM), with trophic index TRIX classification results as the reference. With the optimized penalty parameter C =64 and the kernel parameter γ =1, the classification accuracy rates reached 89.3% for the training data, 88.3% for the cross-validation, and 88.5% for the validation dataset. Because the developed approach only used three easy-to-measure variables, its application could facilitate the rapid assessment of the eutrophication status of coastal waters, resulting in potential cost savings in marine monitoring programs and assisting in the provision of timely advice for marine management.

  7. Development of an Inexpensive RGB Color Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen Cyanide Gas. (United States)

    Greenawald, Lee A; Boss, Gerry R; Snyder, Jay L; Reeder, Aaron; Bell, Suzanne


    An inexpensive red, green, blue (RGB) color sensor was developed for detecting low ppm concentrations of hydrogen cyanide gas. A piece of glass fiber filter paper containing monocyanocobinamide [CN(H2O)Cbi] was placed directly above the RGB color sensor and an on chip LED. Light reflected from the paper was monitored for RGB color change upon exposure to hydrogen cyanide at concentrations of 1.0-10.0 ppm as a function of 25%, 50%, and 85% relative humidity. A rapid color change occurred within 10 s of exposure to 5.0 ppm hydrogen cyanide gas (near the NIOSH recommended exposure limit). A more rapid color change occurred at higher humidity, suggesting a more effective reaction between hydrogen cyanide and CN(H2O)Cbi. The sensor could provide the first real time respirator end-of-service-life alert for hydrogen cyanide gas.

  8. A brief review of dispensing-based rapid prototyping techniques in tissue scaffold fabrication: role of modeling on scaffold properties prediction. (United States)

    Li, M G; Tian, X Y; Chen, X B


    Artificial scaffolds play vital roles in tissue engineering as they provide a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation during tissue formation. Fabrication of tissue scaffolds is thus of fundamental importance for tissue engineering. Of the variety of scaffold fabrication techniques available, rapid prototyping (RP) methods have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This method can improve conventional scaffold fabrication by controlling scaffold microstructure, incorporating cells into scaffolds and regulating cell distribution. All of these contribute towards the ultimate goal of tissue engineering: functional tissues or organs. Dispensing is typically used in different RP techniques to implement the layer-by-layer fabrication process. This article reviews RP methods in tissue scaffold fabrication, with emphasis on dispensing-based techniques, and analyzes the effects of different process factors on fabrication performance, including flow rate, pore size and porosity, and mechanical cell damage that can occur in the bio-manufacturing process.

  9. A brief review of dispensing-based rapid prototyping techniques in tissue scaffold fabrication: role of modeling on scaffold properties prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M G; Chen, X B [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9 (Canada); Tian, X Y, E-mail: mil715@mail.usask.c [Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9 (Canada)


    Artificial scaffolds play vital roles in tissue engineering as they provide a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation during tissue formation. Fabrication of tissue scaffolds is thus of fundamental importance for tissue engineering. Of the variety of scaffold fabrication techniques available, rapid prototyping (RP) methods have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This method can improve conventional scaffold fabrication by controlling scaffold microstructure, incorporating cells into scaffolds and regulating cell distribution. All of these contribute towards the ultimate goal of tissue engineering: functional tissues or organs. Dispensing is typically used in different RP techniques to implement the layer-by-layer fabrication process. This article reviews RP methods in tissue scaffold fabrication, with emphasis on dispensing-based techniques, and analyzes the effects of different process factors on fabrication performance, including flow rate, pore size and porosity, and mechanical cell damage that can occur in the bio-manufacturing process. (topical review)

  10. Creating pathology models from MRI data: a comparison of virtual 3D modelling and rapid prototyping techniques. (United States)

    Challoner, Alexandra; Erolin, Caroline


    This paper discusses a pilot study in collaboration between the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification and the Pathology Department at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee. Anonymised patient MRI data depicting renal cancer was used to create a virtual 3D model and two rapid prototype models of the kidneys and surrounding anatomy. A questionnaire was conducted to collect feedback from tutors and students in order to evaluate the models and determine user preference. It was found that the majority preferred the physical models to the virtual model.


    Ifeorah, Ifeanyi Kanayo; Brown, Biobele J; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro O


    The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold standard. The study involved children ages 0-5 years who presented with a history of fever at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood was collected from each patient and used for RDT, QBC and Giemsa-stained blood films for malaria parasites (MP). Results of QBC and RDT were compared with microscopy results for the diagnosis of malaria. A total of 370 cases (194 boys and 176 girls) were studied giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1. Of the 370 cases tested using Giemsa-stained thick blood films for MP, 78 (21 %) were positive. For the QBC test, 78 (21%) of the cases were positive with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 70.5 %, 92.1%, 70.5 % and 92.1 % respectively. Seventy-six (20%) of the cases were positive by RDT with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 84.2 %, 95.2 %, 82.1 %, and 95.9 % respectively. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of QBC compared with the RDT. Both the QBC and the pfLDH (RDT) performed reasonably well in this study Malaria rapid diagnostic tests are recommended in malaria endemic clinical settings to avoid unnecessary antimalarial treatment. List of Abbreviations: AO: Acridine orange, AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, ACT: Artemisinin-based combination therapy, CM:Cerebral malaria, BCP:Benzothiocarboxypurine, DDT:Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, DNA:DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, ELAM-1: Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule, G6PD: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, HIV: Human immuno deficiency virus, HRP 2: Histidine Rich Protein 2, ICAM -1: Inter cellular adhesion molecule1, ICER: Incremental cost effectiveness ratio, IL-1: Interleukin -1, IFN

  12. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  13. Hyphenated chromatographic techniques for the rapid screening and identification of antioxidants in methanolic extracts of pharmaceutically used plants .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Fiamegos, Y.C.; Beek, van T.A.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.


    Phytochemical analysis is an important scientific research area, which normally relies on a number of rather laborious and time-consuming techniques for compound identification. Isolation of the ingredients of plant extracts in adequate quantities for spectral and biological analysis was the basis

  14. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water using an immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate technique (United States)

    Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Cireddu, J.V.


    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine a rapid method for detecting Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water. Methods and Results: Water samples were assayed for E. coli and enterococci by traditional and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) methods. Three sample treatments were evaluated for the IMS/ATP method: double filtration, single filtration, and direct analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis showed strong, significant, linear relations between IMS/ATP and traditional methods for all sample treatments; strongest linear correlations were with the direct analysis (r = 0.62 and 0.77 for E. coli and enterococci, respectively). Additionally, simple linear regression was used to estimate bacteria concentrations as a function of IMS/ATP results. The correct classification of water-quality criteria was 67% for E. coli and 80% for enterococci. Conclusions: The IMS/ATP method is a viable alternative to traditional methods for faecal-indicator bacteria. Significance and Impact of the Study: The IMS/ATP method addresses critical public health needs for the rapid detection of faecal-indicator contamination and has potential for satisfying US legislative mandates requiring methods to detect bathing water contamination in 2 h or less. Moreover, IMS/ATP equipment is considerably less costly and more portable than that for molecular methods, making the method suitable for field applications. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  15. Inexpensive robots used to teach dc circuits and electronics (United States)

    Sidebottom, David L.


    This article describes inexpensive, autonomous robots, built without microprocessors, used in a college-level introductory physics laboratory course to motivate student learning of dc circuits. Detailed circuit descriptions are provided as well as a week-by-week course plan that can guide students from elementary dc circuits, through Kirchhoff's laws, and into simple analog integrated circuits with the motivational incentive of building an autonomous robot that can compete with others in a public arena.

  16. Inexpensive transparent nanoelectrode for crystalline silicon solar cells


    Peng, Qiang; Pei, Ke; Han, Bing; Li, Ruopeng; Zhou, Guofu; Liu, Jun-Ming; Kempa, Krzysztof; Gao, Jinwei


    We report an easily manufacturable and inexpensive transparent conductive electrode for crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. It is based on a silver nanoparticle network self-forming in the valleys between the pyramids of a textured solar cell surface, transformed into a nanowire network by sintering, and subsequently ?buried? under the silicon surface by a metal-assisted chemical etching. We have successfully incorporated these steps into the conventional c-Si solar cell manufacturing pro...

  17. Technique for the estimation of surface temperatures from embedded temperature sensing for rapid, high energy surface deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott Alan


    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, highenergy surface deposition process can be di cult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves tting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature 20 C.

  18. Correction of hemifacial microsomia with the help of mirror imaging and a rapid prototyping technique: case report. (United States)

    Zhou, Libin; He, Lisheng; Shang, Hongtao; Liu, Guicai; Zhao, Jinlong; Liu, Yanpu


    A 23-year-old man presented with an 8-year history of unilateral hemifacial microsomia. A three-dimensional model of the maxillofacial bones was generated after acquisition of helical computed tomographic data. A customised implant model was designed by projecting a mirror image of the healthy mandible on to the three-dimensional model. A resin model of the implant was then made using a rapid prototyping machine. A polymeric biomaterial was sculpted according to the model and implanted into the affected side of the mandible to restore his facial symmetry. The hemifacial microsomia was corrected and a symmetrical facial contour obtained. No complications developed during the 6-year follow-up.

  19. Plasmonic Thermal Decomposition/Digestion of Proteins: A Rapid On-Surface Protein Digestion Technique for Mass Spectrometry Imaging. (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Basile, Franco


    A method based on plasmon surface resonance absorption and heating was developed to perform a rapid on-surface protein thermal decomposition and digestion suitable for imaging mass spectrometry (MS) and/or profiling. This photothermal process or plasmonic thermal decomposition/digestion (plasmonic-TDD) method incorporates a continuous wave (CW) laser excitation and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to induce known thermal decomposition reactions that cleave peptides and proteins specifically at the C-terminus of aspartic acid and at the N-terminus of cysteine. These thermal decomposition reactions are induced by heating a solid protein sample to temperatures between 200 and 270 °C for a short period of time (10-50 s per 200 μm segment) and are reagentless and solventless, and thus are devoid of sample product delocalization. In the plasmonic-TDD setup the sample is coated with Au-NPs and irradiated with 532 nm laser radiation to induce thermoplasmonic heating and bring about site-specific thermal decomposition on solid peptide/protein samples. In this manner the Au-NPs act as nanoheaters that result in a highly localized thermal decomposition and digestion of the protein sample that is independent of the absorption properties of the protein, making the method universally applicable to all types of proteinaceous samples (e.g., tissues or protein arrays). Several experimental variables were optimized to maximize product yield, and they include heating time, laser intensity, size of Au-NPs, and surface coverage of Au-NPs. Using optimized parameters, proof-of-principle experiments confirmed the ability of the plasmonic-TDD method to induce both C-cleavage and D-cleavage on several peptide standards and the protein lysozyme by detecting their thermal decomposition products with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The high spatial specificity of the plasmonic-TDD method was demonstrated by using a mask to digest designated sections of

  20. Development of Rapid, Continuous Calibration Techniques and Implementation as a Prototype System for Civil Engineering Materials Evaluation (United States)

    Scott, M. L.; Gagarin, N.; Mekemson, J. R.; Chintakunta, S. R.


    Until recently, civil engineering material calibration data could only be obtained from material sample cores or via time consuming, stationary calibration measurements in a limited number of locations. Calibration data are used to determine material propagation velocities of electromagnetic waves in test materials for use in layer thickness measurements and subsurface imaging. Limitations these calibration methods impose have been a significant impediment to broader use of nondestructive evaluation methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In 2006, a new rapid, continuous calibration approach was designed using simulation software to address these measurement limitations during a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research and development effort. This continuous calibration method combines a digitally-synthesized step-frequency (SF)-GPR array and a data collection protocol sequence for the common midpoint (CMP) method. Modeling and laboratory test results for various data collection protocols and materials are presented in this paper. The continuous-CMP concept was finally implemented for FHWA in a prototype demonstration system called the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system in 2009. Data from the continuous-CMP protocol is processed using a semblance/coherency analysis to determine material propagation velocities. Continuously calibrated pavement thicknesses measured with the APE system in 2009 are presented. This method is efficient, accurate, and cost-effective.

  1. A technique for rapid source apportionment applied to ambient organic aerosol measurements from a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available We present a rapid method for apportioning the sources of atmospheric organic aerosol composition measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry methods. Here, we specifically apply this new analysis method to data acquired on a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG system. Gas chromatograms are divided by retention time into evenly spaced bins, within which the mass spectra are summed. A previous chromatogram binning method was introduced for the purpose of chromatogram structure deconvolution (e.g., major compound classes (Zhang et al., 2014. Here we extend the method development for the specific purpose of determining aerosol samples' sources. Chromatogram bins are arranged into an input data matrix for positive matrix factorization (PMF, where the sample number is the row dimension and the mass-spectra-resolved eluting time intervals (bins are the column dimension. Then two-dimensional PMF can effectively do three-dimensional factorization on the three-dimensional TAG mass spectra data. The retention time shift of the chromatogram is corrected by applying the median values of the different peaks' shifts. Bin width affects chemical resolution but does not affect PMF retrieval of the sources' time variations for low-factor solutions. A bin width smaller than the maximum retention shift among all samples requires retention time shift correction. A six-factor PMF comparison among aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS, TAG binning, and conventional TAG compound integration methods shows that the TAG binning method performs similarly to the integration method. However, the new binning method incorporates the entirety of the data set and requires significantly less pre-processing of the data than conventional single compound identification and integration. In addition, while a fraction of the most oxygenated aerosol does not elute through an underivatized TAG analysis, the TAG binning method does have the ability to achieve molecular level

  2. Quantification of video-taped images in microcirculation research using inexpensive imaging software (Adobe Photoshop). (United States)

    Brunner, J; Krummenauer, F; Lehr, H A


    Study end-points in microcirculation research are usually video-taped images rather than numeric computer print-outs. Analysis of these video-taped images for the quantification of microcirculatory parameters usually requires computer-based image analysis systems. Most software programs for image analysis are custom-made, expensive, and limited in their applicability to selected parameters and study end-points. We demonstrate herein that an inexpensive, commercially available computer software (Adobe Photoshop), run on a Macintosh G3 computer with inbuilt graphic capture board provides versatile, easy to use tools for the quantification of digitized video images. Using images obtained by intravital fluorescence microscopy from the pre- and postischemic muscle microcirculation in the skinfold chamber model in hamsters, Photoshop allows simple and rapid quantification (i) of microvessel diameters, (ii) of the functional capillary density and (iii) of postischemic leakage of FITC-labeled high molecular weight dextran from postcapillary venules. We present evidence of the technical accuracy of the software tools and of a high degree of interobserver reliability. Inexpensive commercially available imaging programs (i.e., Adobe Photoshop) provide versatile tools for image analysis with a wide range of potential applications in microcirculation research.

  3. A cleavable silica-binding affinity tag for rapid and inexpensive protein purification. (United States)

    Coyle, Brandon L; Baneyx, François


    We describe a new affinity purification tag called Car9 that confers proteins to which it is fused micromolar affinity for unmodified silica. When appended to the C-terminus of GFPmut2 through a flexible linker, Car9 promotes efficient adsorption to silica gel and the fusion protein can be released from the particles by incubation with L-lysine. Using a silica gel column and the lysine elution approach in fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) mode, Car9-tagged versions of GFPmut2, mCherry and maltose binding protein (MBP) can be recovered from clarified lysates with a purity of 80-90%. Capitalizing on silica's ability to handle large pressure drops, we further show that it is possible to go from cell lysates to purified protein in less than 15 min using a fully disposable device. Finally, we demonstrate that the linker-Car9 region is susceptible to proteolysis by E. coli OmpT and take advantage of this observation to excise the C-terminal extension of GFPmut2-Car9 by incubating purified fusion protein with cells that overproduce the outer membrane protease OmpT. The set of strategies described herein, should reduce the cost of affinity purification by at least 10-fold, cut down purification times to minutes, and allow for the production of proteins with native (or nearly native) termini from their C-terminally-tagged versions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rapid and inexpensive fabrication of polymeric microfluidic devices via toner transfer masking (United States)

    Easley, Christopher J.; Benninger, Richard K. P.; Shaver, Jesse H.; Head, W. Steven; Piston, David W.


    Summary An alternative fabrication method is presented for production of masters for single- or multilayer polymeric microfluidic devices in a standard laboratory environment, precluding the need for a cleanroom. This toner transfer masking (TTM) method utilizes an office laser printer to generate a toner pattern which is thermally transferred to a metal master to serve as a mask for etching. With master fabrication times as little as one hour (depending on channel depth) using commercially-available equipment and supplies, this approach should make microfluidic technology more widely accessible to the non-expert—even the non-scientist. The cost of fabrication consumables was estimated to be < $1 per master, over an order of magnitude decrease in consumable costs compared to standard photolithography. In addition, the use of chemical etching allows accurate control over the height of raised features (i.e., channel depths), allowing the flexibility to fabricate multiple depths on a single master with little added time. Resultant devices are shown capable of pneumatic valving, three-dimensional channel formation (using layer-connecting vias), droplet fluidics, and cell imaging and staining. The multiple-depth capabilities of the method are proven useful for cellular analysis by fabrication of handheld, disposable devices used for trapping and imaging of live murine pancreatic islets. The precise fluidic control provided by the microfluidic platform allows subsequent fixing and staining of these cells without significant movement, thus spatial correlation of imaging and staining is attainable—even with rare alpha cells that constitute only ∼10% of the islet cells. PMID:19350094

  5. A Rapid and Inexpensive Bioassay to Evaluate the Decontamination of Organophosphates (United States)


    weather natu- rally over time. Actual chemical degradation of the tox- in often relied on harsh chemicals such as calcium oxide and chlorine dioxide ...Using Chlorine Dioxide Fumigant and Liquid Oxidant Technologies. Research Triangle Park, NC: US Environmental Protection Agency; February 2008...The insects were raised in 946.4 ml canning jars on a diet of whole wheat fl our and baker’s yeast (10:1 mixture). The center of the jar lid was

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction and rapid isolation of ursolic acid from the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida Maiden and its quantification using HPLC-diode array technique. (United States)

    Verma, Subash C; Jain, Chhoten L; Kumari, Amita; Padhi, Madan M; Devalla, Ramesh B


    Ursolic acid (UA) is the most important bioactive phytoconstituent of Eucalyptus × hybrida Maiden leaves and exhibits anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction technique was employed for rapid isolation of UA from the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida and simultaneously HPLC-diode array method was developed for the quantification of UA. Effects of several experimental parameters on the extraction efficiencies of UA, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power and extraction time, were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be 20 mL of a mixture of chloroform/methanol, 60:40; liquid-to-material ratio, 4:1; preleaching time, 10 min; microwave power, 600 W; temperature, 50°C; and microwave irradiation time, 5 min. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of UA was found to be 1.95 ± 0.08% in the dry leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida. The results showed that microwave-assisted extraction is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than the conventional method. It is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method and it may be used for rapid isolation and quantification of UA and other important phytoconstituents present in the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Feasibility study on production of Metal Matrix Composite (MMC material for Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM tools using Rapid Prototyping (RP technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin S.


    Full Text Available In common practice, tools for EDM have traditionally been made by machining copper or graphite to the required profile using CNC machines. Increasing the degree of complexity of any tooling design for any operations results in a corresponding increase in time and cost required. With the advent of rapid prototyping techniques, the problem of making tools with complex shapes becomes much simpler and easy. The main aim of this research was to develop new EDM electrode material through a novel approach by rapid prototyping (RP technique. In this study, the potential application of copper (Cu reinforced alumina (Al2O3 fabricated with various compositions as an EDM electrode was investigated. The electrodes were fabricated by Canon PIXMA IP 1800 printer and underwent sintering temperature at 85 % and 95 % melting point of copper. The EDMed workpiece was aluminium and the electrodes surface was analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM. Findings showed that the electrode with Cu - 0 vol. %Al2O3 composite and sintered at temperature 977 °C resulted in highest metal removal rate (MRR and lowest electrode wear rate (EWR while Cu – 10 vol. %Al2O3 composite and sintered at temperature 977 °C revealed a better surface finish than other electrodes. An increase in Al2O3 content in general will increase the hardness of tool, as a trade-off, the conductivity was reduced.

  8. A novel photoinduced electron transfer (PET) primer technique for rapid real-time PCR detection of Cryptosporidium spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothikumar, N., E-mail:; Hill, Vincent R.


    Highlights: •Uses a single-labeled fluorescent primer for real-time PCR. •The detection sensitivity of PET PCR was comparable to TaqMan PCR. •Melt curve analysis can be performed to confirm target amplicon production. •Conventional PCR primers can be converted to PET PCR primers. -- Abstract: We report the development of a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide primer that can be used to monitor real-time PCR. The primer has two parts, the 3′-end of the primer is complimentary to the target and a universal 17-mer stem loop at the 5′-end forms a hairpin structure. A fluorescent dye is attached to 5′-end of either the forward or reverse primer. The presence of guanosine residues at the first and second position of the 3′ dangling end effectively quenches the fluorescence due to the photo electron transfer (PET) mechanism. During the synthesis of nucleic acid, the hairpin structure is linearized and the fluorescence of the incorporated primer increases several-fold due to release of the fluorescently labeled tail and the absence of guanosine quenching. As amplicons are synthesized during nucleic acid amplification, the fluorescence increase in the reaction mixture can be measured with commercially available real-time PCR instruments. In addition, a melting procedure can be performed to denature the double-stranded amplicons, thereby generating fluorescence peaks that can differentiate primer dimers and other non-specific amplicons if formed during the reaction. We demonstrated the application of PET-PCR for the rapid detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum DNA. Comparison with a previously published TaqMan® assay demonstrated that the two real-time PCR assays exhibited similar sensitivity for a dynamic range of detection of 6000–0.6 oocysts per reaction. PET PCR primers are simple to design and less-expensive than dual-labeled probe PCR methods, and should be of interest for use by laboratories operating in resource

  9. Rapid paediatric fluid resuscitation: a randomised controlled trial comparing the efficiency of two provider-endorsed manual paediatric fluid resuscitation techniques in a simulated setting. (United States)

    Cole, Evan T; Harvey, Greg; Urbanski, Sara; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana; Parker, Melissa J


    Manual techniques of intravascular fluid administration are commonly used during paediatric resuscitation, although it is unclear which technique is most efficient in the hands of typical healthcare providers. We compared the rate of fluid administration achieved with the disconnect-reconnect and push-pull manual syringe techniques for paediatric fluid resuscitation in a simulated setting. This study utilised a randomised crossover trial design and enrolled 16 consenting healthcare provider participants from a Canadian paediatric tertiary care centre. The study was conducted in a non-clinical setting using a model simulating a 15 kg child in decompensated shock. Participants administered 900 mL (60 mL/kg) of normal saline to the simulated patient using each of the two techniques under study. The primary outcome was the rate of fluid administration, as determined by two blinded independent video reviewers. We also collected participant demographic data and evaluated other secondary outcomes including total volume administered, number of catheter dislodgements, number of technical errors, and subjective and objective measures of provider fatigue. All 16 participants completed the trial. The mean (SD) rate of fluid administration (mL/s) was greater for the disconnect-reconnect technique at 1.77 (0.145) than it was for the push-pull technique at 1.62 (0.226), with a mean difference of 0.15 (95% CI 0.055 to 0.251; p=0.005). There was no difference in mean volume administered (p=0.778) or participant self-reported fatigue (p=0.736) between techniques. No catheter dislodgement events occurred. The disconnect-reconnect technique allowed for the fastest rate of fluid administration, suggesting that use of this technique may be preferable in situations requiring rapid resuscitation. These findings may help to inform future iterations of paediatric resuscitation guidelines. This trial was registered at [NCT01774214] prior to enrolling the first

  10. A comparative study of standard intensity-modulated radiotherapy and RapidArc planning techniques for ipsilateral and bilateral head and neck irradiation. (United States)

    Pursley, Jennifer; Damato, Antonio L; Czerminska, Maria A; Margalit, Danielle N; Sher, David J; Tishler, Roy B


    The purpose of this study was to investigate class solutions using RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning for ipsilateral and bilateral head and neck (H&N) irradiation, and to compare dosimetric results with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. A total of 14 patients who received ipsilateral and 10 patients who received bilateral head and neck irradiation were retrospectively replanned with several volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques. For ipsilateral neck irradiation, the volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques included two 360° arcs, two 360° arcs with avoidance sectors around the contralateral parotid, two 260° or 270° arcs, and two 210° arcs. For bilateral neck irradiation, the volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques included two 360° arcs, two 360° arcs with avoidance sectors around the shoulders, and 3 arcs. All patients had a sliding-window-delivery intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan that was used as the benchmark for dosimetric comparison. For ipsilateral neck irradiation, a volumetric-modulated arc therapy technique using two 360° arcs with avoidance sectors around the contralateral parotid was dosimetrically comparable to intensity-modulated radiotherapy, with improved conformity (conformity index = 1.22 vs 1.36, p irradiation, 3-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques were dosimetrically comparable to intensity-modulated radiotherapy while also avoiding irradiation through the shoulders. All volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques required fewer monitor units than sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy to deliver treatment, with an average reduction of 35% for ipsilateral plans and 67% for bilateral plans. Thus, for ipsilateral head and neck irradiation a volumetric-modulated arc therapy technique using two 360° arcs with avoidance sectors around the contralateral parotid is recommended. For bilateral neck irradiation, 2- or 3-arc techniques are dosimetrically comparable to

  11. An Inexpensive Interferometric Setup for Measuring Microscopic Displacements (United States)

    Alanís, Elvio; Romero, Graciela; Martínez, Carlos; Álvarez, Liliana; Salazar, Germán


    In an interesting article published in an issue of The Physics Teacher, Reichert gives some didactic examples about static friction force between a plastic block and a wooden plane on which it rests. To explain the experiments, he uses a simple model based on a microscopic "elastic band" that connects the atoms of both surfaces. Reichert remarks that "the block moves, albeit a microscopic distance," and that it would be helpful if the student could see these displacements. In another paragraph he states that "measuring it (displacement) requires delicate and expensive optical instruments." Effectively, a measurement of such small displacements generally requires interferometric devices. At our university, we teach basic physics and we are aware of the difficulties that beginners have grasping the concepts involved in static friction force. At the same time, as our research field is related to optics metrology, we could not ignore Reichert's statement. Could we design an experimental device to measure the microscopic displacement referred to by Reichert, keeping it inexpensive and easy to implement? Incidentally, in the same issue of The Physics Teacher, Sawicki2 gives an excellent example of how, with a few common elements, a simple experiment of interferometric measurement can be put within students' reach. In this paper, we suggest the use of a simple interferometric device, built with very common and inexpensive elements, and describe an experiment on static friction force in which the instrument is applied to measure microscopic displacements.

  12. Blenderized feeding formulas with nutritious and inexpensive foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lança BENTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To propose an inexpensive blenderized tube feeding formula consisting of foods with standard nutritional composition that meets the nutritional requirements of individuals aged more than 51 years. Methods: The enteral diets were formulated mainly with fresh foods and tested for their physical (homogeneity, stability, osmolality, pH, and flow rate and chemical (moisture, ash, protein, lipids, energy, crude fiber, vitamin C, calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc characteristics. The cost was determined by surveying item prices in supermarkets and stores that specialize in nutritional support. Results: The blenderized tube feeding formula was stable and homogeneous, and had slightly acidic pH, hypertonic osmolality (603mOsm/kg, and flow rate comparable with gravity drip (21 minutes. Proximate composition analysis indicated appropriate levels of proteins, lipids, vitamin C, and zinc. The mean cost of 2000kcal of the standard blenderized tube feeding formula was R$ 12.3±1.4, which is 70% cheaper than the mean cost of similar commercial enteral formulas. Conclusion: The planned diet can be an excellent choice for patients using blenderized tube feeding formulas as it consisted of habitual food items, had physical and nutritional quality, and was inexpensive.

  13. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique and comparison with quantitative real-time PCR for the rapid visual detection of canine neosporosis. (United States)

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Thammasonthijarern, Nipa; Roobthaisong, Amonrattana; Udonsom, Ruenruetai; Popruk, Supaluk; Siri, Sukhontha; Mori, Hirotake; Sukthana, Yaowalark


    Dogs are the definitive hosts of Neospora caninum and play an important role in the transmission of the parasite. Despite the high sensitivity of existing molecular tools such as quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), these techniques are not suitable for use in many countries because of equipment costs and difficulties in implementing them for field diagnostics. Therefore, we developed a simplified technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), for the rapid visual detection of N. caninum. LAMP specificity was evaluated using a panel containing DNA from a range of different organisms. Sensitivity was evaluated by preparing 10-fold serial dilutions of N. caninum tachyzoites and comparing the results with those obtained using qPCR. Assessment of the LAMP results was determined by recognition of a colour change after amplification. The usefulness of the LAMP assay in the field was tested on 396 blood and 115 faecal samples from dogs, and one placenta from a heifer collected in Lopburi, Nakhon Pathom, Sa Kaeo, and Ratchaburi provinces, Thailand. Specificity of the LAMP technique was shown by its inability to amplify DNA from non-target pathogens or healthy dogs. The detection limit was the equivalent of one genome for both LAMP and qPCR. LAMP and qPCR detected positive N. caninum infection in 15 of 396 (3.8%) blood samples; LAMP detected 9/115 (7.8%) positive faecal samples, while qPCR detected 5/115 (4.3%) positive faecal samples. The placental tissue was shown to be positive by both techniques. Agreement between LAMP and qPCR was perfect in blood samples (kappa value, 1.00) and substantial in faecal samples (kappa value, 0.697). This is the first known LAMP assay developed for the amplification of N. caninum. The technique effectively and rapidly detected the parasite with high sensitivity and specificity and was cost-effective. This assay could be used in the field to confirm the diagnosis of canine or bovine neosporosis.

  14. Increasing the realism of a laparoscopic box trainer: a simple, inexpensive method. (United States)

    Hull, Louise; Kassab, Eva; Arora, Sonal; Kneebone, Roger


    Simulation-based training in medical education is increasing. Realism is an integral element of creating an engaging, effective training environment. Although physical trainers offer a low-cost alternative to expensive virtual reality (VR) simulators, many lack in realism. The aim of this research was to enhance the realism of a laparoscopic box trainer by using a simple, inexpensive method. Digital images of the abdominal cavity were captured from a VR simulator. The images were printed onto a laminated card that lined the bottom and sides of the box-trainer cavity. The standard black neoprene material that encloses the abdominal cavity was replaced with a skin-colored silicon model. The realism of the modified box trainer was assessed by surgeons, using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Results suggest that the modified box trainer was more realistic than a standard box trainer alone. Incorporating this technique in the training of laparoscopic skills is an inexpensive means of emulating surgical reality that may enhance the engagement of the learner in simulation.

  15. Rapid and quantitative evaluation of the effect of process variables on the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of phenol using experimental design techniques and parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. (United States)

    Bosco, Marta; Larrechi, M Soledad


    A 2(3) factorial design has been used to analyze the effect of pH, the nature of the catalyst, and the concentration of the substrate on the rate constant of the photodegradation reaction of phenol. The main effects of the considered variables and their interaction are discussed. The significance of the effects has been corroborated using an ANOVA test. The values of phenol concentrations, used to calculate the rate constant, and the concentrations of intermediates were obtained by applying parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis to the data obtained from monitoring the process by means of excitation-emission fluorescence (EEM). The proposed methodology, which combines experimental design and multivariate techniques, is a rapid alternative for study of chemical kinetics.

  16. Accurate reconstruction of discontinuous mandible using a reverse engineering/computer-aided design/rapid prototyping technique: a preliminary clinical study. (United States)

    Zhou, Li-bin; Shang, Hong-tao; He, Li-sheng; Bo, Bin; Liu, Gui-cai; Liu, Yan-pu; Zhao, Jin-long


    To improve the reconstructive surgical outcome of a discontinuous mandibular defect, we used reverse engineering (RE), computer-aided design (CAD), and rapid prototyping (RP) technique to fabricate customized mandibular trays to precisely restore the mandibular defects. Autogenous bone grafting was also used to restore the bony continuity for occlusion rehabilitation. Six patients who had undergone block resection of the mandible underwent reconstruction using a custom titanium tray combining autogenous iliac grafts. The custom titanium tray was made using a RE/CAD/RP technique. A virtual 3-dimensional model was obtained by spiral computed tomography scanning. The opposite side of the mandible was mirrored to cover the defect area to restore excellent facial symmetry. A bone grafting tray was designed from the mirrored image and manufactured using RP processing and casting. The mandibular defects were restored using the trays in combination of autologous iliac grafting. An implant denture was made for 1 of the 6 patients at 24 weeks postoperatively for occlusion rehabilitation. The trays fabricated using this technique fit well in all 6 patients. The reconstructive procedures were easy and time saving. Satisfactory facial symmetry was restored. No severe complications occurred in the 5 patients without occlusion rehabilitation during a mean 50-month follow-up period. The reconstruction in the patient with occlusion lasted for only 1 year and failed eventually because of bone resorption and infection. Mandibular reconstruction was facilitated using the RE/CAD/RP technique. Satisfactory esthetic results were achieved. However, the rigidity of the cast tray could cause severe stress shielding to the grafts, which could lead to disuse atrophy. Therefore, some modification is needed for functional reconstruction. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid speciation of iron by on-line coupling of short column capillary electrophoresis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the collision cell technique. (United States)

    Li, Bao-Hui; Yan, Xiu-Ping


    A method for rapid speciation analysis of iron was developed by on-line coupling of short column capillary electrophoresis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The collision cell technique was used to eliminate argon-based polyatomic interferences and a Micromist nebulizer was employed to increase the nebulization efficiency. Rapid speciation analysis of Fe(II) and Fe(III) was achieved within 1 min by short column capillary electrophoresis in a 14 cm x 50 microm id capillary at 28 kV voltage with a mixture of 15 mmol/L tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane + 1 mmol/L 1,10-phenanthroline + 1 mmol/L EDTA (pH 8.6) as running electrolyte. The precisions (RSD, n = 5) of migration time and peak area for Fe(II) and Fe(III) were in the range of 1.0 - 2.6 and 1.9 - 3.9%, respectively. The limits of detection (3sigma) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) were 10.0 and 8.3 microg/L, respectively.

  18. Integrated techniques for rapid and highly-efficient development and production of ultra-deep tight sand gas reservoirs of Keshen 8 Block in the Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwen Jiang


    Full Text Available The unusually ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure gas reservoirs in the Keshen 8 Block on the Kelasu structural belt of the Tarim Basin are also featured by high temperature, well-developed fault fissures, huge thickness, tight matrix, complex oil–water distribution, etc., which brings about great difficulties to reserves evaluation and further development. In view of this, an overall study was made on the fine description of reservoir fractures and their seepage mechanism, technical problems were being tackled on seismic data processing and interpretation of complex and high & steep structural zones, optimal development design, safe & rapid drilling and completion wells, reservoir stimulation, dynamic monitoring, etc. to promote the development level of such ultra-deep tight gas reservoirs, and 22 complete sets of specific techniques were formulated in the fields of high-efficiency well spacing, safe and fast drilling, recovery enhancement by well completion transformation, efficient development of optimization design, and so on. Through the technical progress and innovative management of integrated exploration & development, reserves evaluation and productivity construction have been completed on the Keshen 8 Block in the last three years of the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015, as a result, rapid and high-efficiency productivity construction is realized, and a new area is explored in the development of ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure fractured tight sand gas reservoirs. This study is of great reference to the development of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  19. Immediate mandibular reconstruction via patient-specific titanium mesh tray using electron beam melting/CAD/rapid prototyping techniques: One-year follow-up. (United States)

    Farid Shehab, Mohamed; Hamid, Nabila Mohammed Abdel; Askar, Nevien Abdullatif; Elmardenly, Ahmed Mokhtar


    Immediate mandibular reconstruction was performed using a patient-specific titanium mesh tray fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) /rapid prototyping techniques. Patient-specific titanium trays were virtually designed and fabricated using EBM technology/rapid prototyping for patients requiring mandibular resection and immediate reconstruction using an iliac crest bone graft. Dental implants were placed in the grafted sites and the patients received prosthetic rehabilitation with a follow-up of one year. Clinical data, postoperative bone formation and complications were evaluated. A symmetric appearance of facial contours was achieved. The titanium tray incorporated the particulate iliac crest bone graft that provided significant bone formation (mean 18.97 ± 1.45 mm) and predictable results. Stability of the dental implants was achieved. The patient-specific titanium meshes and immediate particulate autogenous bone graft showed satisfactory clinical and surgical results in improving patients' quality of life and decreasing the overall treatment time with adequate functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from fractional renal accumulation of iodinated contrast material: a convenient and rapid single-kidney CT-GFR technique. (United States)

    Yuan, XiaoDong; Tang, Wei; Shi, WenWei; Yu, Libao; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Qing; You, Shan; Wu, Ning; Ao, Guokun; Ma, Tingting


    To develop a convenient and rapid single-kidney CT-GFR technique. One hundred and twelve patients referred for multiphasic renal CT and 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging Gates-GFR measurement were prospectively included and randomly divided into two groups of 56 patients each: the training group and the validation group. On the basis of the nephrographic phase images, the fractional renal accumulation (FRA) was calculated and correlated with the Gates-GFR in the training group. From this correlation a formula was derived for single-kidney CT-GFR calculation, which was validated by a paired t test and linear regression analysis with the single-kidney Gates-GFR in the validation group. In the training group, the FRA (x-axis) correlated well (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) with single-kidney Gates-GFR (y-axis), producing a regression equation of y = 1665x + 1.5 for single-kidney CT-GFR calculation. In the validation group, the difference between the methods of single-kidney GFR measurements was 0.38 ± 5.57 mL/min (p = 0.471); the regression line is identical to the diagonal (intercept = 0 and slope = 1) (p = 0.727 and p = 0.473, respectively), with a standard deviation of residuals of 5.56 mL/min. A convenient and rapid single-kidney CT-GFR technique was presented and validated in this investigation. • The new CT-GFR method takes about 2.5 min of patient time. • The CT-GFR method demonstrated identical results to the Gates-GFR method. • The CT-GFR method is based on the fractional renal accumulation of iodinated CM. • The CT-GFR method is achieved without additional radiation dose to the patient.

  1. A novel inexpensive murine model of oral chronic digitalization. (United States)

    Helber, Izo; Kanashiro, Rosemeire M; Alarcon, Ernesto A; Antonio, Ednei L; Tucci, Paulo J F


    A novel inexpensive murine model of oral administration of digitoxin (100 micro g/kg per day) added to routine chow is described. Serum digitoxin levels achieved after oral (n = 5; 116 +/- 14 ng/mL) and subcutaneous (n = 5; 124 +/- 11 ng/mL) administration were similar. A significant increase in the maximal left ventricular pressure rise of treated (n = 9) compared with control (n = 6) rats (dP/dt: 8956 +/- 233 vs 7980 +/- 234 mmHg/s, respectively; P = 0.01) characterized the positive inotropic action of digitoxin. In addition, no differences were observed in treated compared with control rats with regard to the electrocardiogram and systolic and diastolic left ventricular pressures.

  2. Development and validation of inexpensive, automated, dynamic flux chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Almand-Hunter


    Full Text Available We developed and validated an automated, inexpensive, and continuous multiple-species gas-flux monitoring system that can provide data for a variety of relevant atmospheric pollutants, including O3, CO2, and NOx. Validation consisted of conducting concurrent gas-phase dry-deposition experiments, using both dynamic flux chambers and an eddy-covariance system, in a grassy clearing in the Duke Forest (Chapel Hill, NC. Experiments were carried out in June and September under a variety of meteorological conditions. Ozone-deposition measurements from the two methods matched very well (4–10% difference in mean flux rate when the leaf-area index (LAI inside the chambers was representative of the average LAI in the field. The dynamic flux chambers can be considered an accurate measurement system under these conditions.

  3. Inexpensive transparent nanoelectrode for crystalline silicon solar cells (United States)

    Peng, Qiang; Pei, Ke; Han, Bing; Li, Ruopeng; Zhou, Guofu; Liu, Jun-Ming; Kempa, Krzysztof; Gao, Jinwei


    We report an easily manufacturable and inexpensive transparent conductive electrode for crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. It is based on a silver nanoparticle network self-forming in the valleys between the pyramids of a textured solar cell surface, transformed into a nanowire network by sintering, and subsequently "buried" under the silicon surface by a metal-assisted chemical etching. We have successfully incorporated these steps into the conventional c-Si solar cell manufacturing process, from which we have eliminated the expensive screen printing and firing steps, typically used to make the macro-electrode of conducting silver fingers. The resulting, preliminary solar cell achieved power conversion efficiency only 14 % less than the conventionally processed c-Si control cell. We expect that a cell with an optimized processing will achieve at least efficiency of the conventional commercial cell, but at significantly reduced manufacturing cost.

  4. Application of computer-aided three-dimensional skull model with rapid prototyping technique in repair of zygomatico-orbito-maxillary complex fracture. (United States)

    Li, Wei Zhong; Zhang, Mei Chao; Li, Shao Ping; Zhang, Lei Tao; Huang, Yu


    With the advent of CAD/CAM and rapid prototyping (RP), a technical revolution in oral and maxillofacial trauma was promoted to benefit treatment, repair of maxillofacial fractures and reconstruction of maxillofacial defects. For a patient with zygomatico-facial collapse deformity resulting from a zygomatico-orbito-maxillary complex (ZOMC) fracture, CT scan data were processed by using Mimics 10.0 for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The reduction design was aided by 3D virtual imaging and the 3D skull model was reproduced using the RP technique. In line with the design by Mimics, presurgery was performed on the 3D skull model and the semi-coronal incision was taken for reduction of ZOMC fracture, based on the outcome from the presurgery. Postoperative CT and images revealed significantly modified zygomatic collapse and zygomatic arch rise and well-modified facial symmetry. The CAD/CAM and RP technique is a relatively useful tool that can assist surgeons with reconstruction of the maxillofacial skeleton, especially in repairs of ZOMC fracture.

  5. Accuracy and precision of polyurethane dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional subtractive rapid prototyping method with an intraoral scanning technique. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young


    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of polyurethane (PUT) dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional (3D) subtractive rapid prototyping (RP) method with an intraoral scanning technique by comparing linear measurements obtained from PUT models and conventional plaster models. Ten plaster models were duplicated using a selected standard master model and conventional impression, and 10 PUT models were duplicated using the 3D subtractive RP technique with an oral scanner. Six linear measurements were evaluated in terms of x, y, and z-axes using a non-contact white light scanner. Accuracy was assessed using mean differences between two measurements, and precision was examined using four quantitative methods and the Bland-Altman graphical method. Repeatability was evaluated in terms of intra-examiner variability, and reproducibility was assessed in terms of inter-examiner and inter-method variability. The mean difference between plaster models and PUT models ranged from 0.07 mm to 0.33 mm. Relative measurement errors ranged from 2.2% to 7.6% and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.96, when comparing plaster models and PUT models. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement. The accuracy and precision of PUT dental models for evaluating the performance of oral scanner and subtractive RP technology was acceptable. Because of the recent improvements in block material and computerized numeric control milling machines, the subtractive RP method may be a good choice for dental arch models.

  6. Detection of the coliform bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. in water by a sensitive and rapid immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technique (United States)

    Yu, H.; Bruno, J.


    Hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other fecal coliform bacteria, such as species of Salmonella, could pose a serious health threat in contaminated water resources. Traditional bacterial culture methods and ELISA based assays for identification of fecal coliforms are relatively slow and ambiguous. Polymerase chain reaction of extracted DNA from such bacteria and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) methods appear promising for this application. Although PCR can be a definitive identification technique, it is relatively time consuming when compared to IMS. In this work, the IMS technique has been coupled with an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology to separate specific bacteria from their media and quantitatively detect the bacteria within one hour. The sensitivity of the IMS-ECL assay for E.coli O157 strain and Salmonella sp. is as low as 10 - 100 cells/mL in water samples. In addition, IMS was accomplished in dense washings of food and environmental samples followed by ECL assay. These results suggest strongly use of the IMS-ECL methodology for rapid and facile screening of various bacterial contaminations in water resources or other environmental samples for the low level presence of pathogenic coliforms.

  7. Synthesis of high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires with an inexpensive handcrafted electrochemical setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Ali, E-mail:, E-mail: [Nuclear Science and Technology Institute (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saramad, Shahyar; Setayeshi, Saeed [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this work, high aspect ratio zinc oxide nanowires are synthesized using templated one-step electrodeposition technique. Electrodeposition of the nanowires is done using a handcrafted electronic system. Nuclear track-etched polycarbonate membrane is used as a template to form the high aspect ratio nanowires. The result of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy shows that nanowires with a good crystallinity and an aspect ratio of more than 30 can be achieved in a suitable condition. The height of electrodeposited nanowires reaches to about 11 μm. Based on the obtained results, high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires can be formed using inexpensive electrodeposition setup with an acceptable quality.

  8. Fabrication of Nanostructured Omniphobic and Superomniphobic Surfaces with Inexpensive CO2Laser Engraver. (United States)

    Pendurthi, Anudeep; Movafaghi, Sanli; Wang, Wei; Shadman, Soran; Yalin, Azer P; Kota, Arun K


    Superomniphobic surfaces (i.e., surfaces that are extremely repellent to both high surface tension liquids like water and low surface tension liquid like oils) can be fabricated through a combination of surface chemistry that imparts low solid surface energy with a re-entrant surface texture. Recently, surface texturing with lasers has received significant attention because laser texturing is scalable, solvent-free, and can produce a monolithic texture on virtually any material. In this work, we fabricated nanostructured omniphobic and superomniphobic surfaces with a variety of materials using a simple, inexpensive and commercially available CO 2 laser engraver. Further, we demonstrated that the nanostructured omniphobic and superomniphobic surfaces fabricated using our laser texturing technique can be used to design patterned surfaces, surfaces with discrete domains of the desired wettability, and on-surface microfluidic devices.

  9. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber. (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke


    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  10. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Katagiri

    Full Text Available Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W x 1.8 m (D x 2 m (H, providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant

  11. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines. (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du


    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A lightweight, inexpensive robotic system for insect vision. (United States)

    Sabo, Chelsea; Chisholm, Robert; Petterson, Adam; Cope, Alex


    Designing hardware for miniaturized robotics which mimics the capabilities of flying insects is of interest, because they share similar constraints (i.e. small size, low weight, and low energy consumption). Research in this area aims to enable robots with similarly efficient flight and cognitive abilities. Visual processing is important to flying insects' impressive flight capabilities, but currently, embodiment of insect-like visual systems is limited by the hardware systems available. Suitable hardware is either prohibitively expensive, difficult to reproduce, cannot accurately simulate insect vision characteristics, and/or is too heavy for small robotic platforms. These limitations hamper the development of platforms for embodiment which in turn hampers the progress on understanding of how biological systems fundamentally work. To address this gap, this paper proposes an inexpensive, lightweight robotic system for modelling insect vision. The system is mounted and tested on a robotic platform for mobile applications, and then the camera and insect vision models are evaluated. We analyse the potential of the system for use in embodiment of higher-level visual processes (i.e. motion detection) and also for development of navigation based on vision for robotics in general. Optic flow from sample camera data is calculated and compared to a perfect, simulated bee world showing an excellent resemblance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Porcine sebaceous cyst model: an inexpensive, reproducible skin surgery simulator. (United States)

    Bowling, Jonathan; Botting, Jonathan


    Surgical simulators are an established part of surgical training and are regularly used as part of the objective structured assessment of technical skills. Specific artificial skin models representing cutaneous pathology are available, although they are expensive when compared with pigskin. The limitations of artificial skin models include their difficulty in representing lifelike cutaneous pathology. Our aim was to devise an inexpensive, reproducible surgical simulator that provides the most lifelike representation of the sebaceous cyst. materials and methods: Pigskin, either pig's feet/trotters or pork belly, was incised, and a paintball was inserted subcutaneously and fixed with cyanoacrylic glue. This model has regularly been used in cutaneous surgical courses that we have organized. Either adding more cyanoacrylic glue or allowing more time for the paint ball to absorb fluid from surrounding tissue can also adjust the degree of difficulty. The degree of correlation with lifelike cutaneous pathology is such that we recommend that all courses involved in basic skin surgery should consider using the porcine sebaceous cyst model when teaching excision of sebaceous cysts.

  14. Indigenous inexpensive practice models for skill development in neuroendoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitin Bajaj


    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurosurgery is a branch having a tough learning curve. Residents generally get very less hands-on exposure for advanced procedures like neuroendoscopy. With the limited number of cadavers available and ethical issues associated with animal models, practice models, and simulators are becoming the able alternative. Most of these simulators are very costly. We tried to build indigenous inexpensive practice models that can help in developing most of the skills of neuroendoscopy. Materials and Methods: Models were built for learning hand-eye coordination, dexterity, instrument manipulation, cutting, fine dissection, keyhole concept, drilling, and simulation of laminectomy and ligamentum flavum resection. These were shown in the neuroendoscopic fellowship program conducted in authors' institute, and trainees' responses were recorded. Results: Both novice and experienced neuroendoscopic surgeons validated the models. There was no significant difference between their responses (P = 0.791. Conclusion: Indigenous innovative models can be used to learn and teach neuroendoscopic skills. The presented models were reliable, valid, eco-friendly, highly cost-effective, portable, easily made and can be kept in one's chamber for practicing.

  15. Indigenous Inexpensive Practice Models for Skill Development in Neuroendoscopy. (United States)

    Bajaj, Jitin; Yadav, Yad Ram; Pateriya, Anurag; Parihar, Vijay; Ratre, Shailendra; Dubey, Amitesh


    Neurosurgery is a branch having a tough learning curve. Residents generally get very less hands-on exposure for advanced procedures like neuroendoscopy. With the limited number of cadavers available and ethical issues associated with animal models, practice models, and simulators are becoming the able alternative. Most of these simulators are very costly. We tried to build indigenous inexpensive practice models that can help in developing most of the skills of neuroendoscopy. Models were built for learning hand-eye coordination, dexterity, instrument manipulation, cutting, fine dissection, keyhole concept, drilling, and simulation of laminectomy and ligamentum flavum resection. These were shown in the neuroendoscopic fellowship program conducted in authors' institute, and trainees' responses were recorded. Both novice and experienced neuroendoscopic surgeons validated the models. There was no significant difference between their responses (P = 0.791). Indigenous innovative models can be used to learn and teach neuroendoscopic skills. The presented models were reliable, valid, eco-friendly, highly cost-effective, portable, easily made and can be kept in one's chamber for practicing.

  16. Advanced Visualization and Interactive Display Rapid Innovation and Discovery Evaluation Research (VISRIDER) Program Task 6: Point Cloud Visualization Techniques for Desktop and Web Platforms (United States)



  17. Dosimetric difference amongst 3 techniques: TomoTherapy, sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc radiotherapy in the treatment of late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). (United States)

    Lee, Francis Kar-ho; Yip, Celia Wai-yi; Cheung, Frankie Chun-hung; Leung, Alex Kwok-cheung; Chau, Ricky Ming-chun; Ngan, Roger Kai-cheong


    To investigate the dosimetric difference amongst TomoTherapy, sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc radiotherapy in the treatment of late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten patients with late-stage (Stage III or IV) NPC treated with TomoTherapy or IMRT were selected for the study. Treatment plans with these 3 techniques were devised according to departmental protocol. Dosimetric parameters for organ at risk and treatment targets were compared between TomoTherapy and IMRT, TomoTherapy and RapidArc, and IMRT and RapidArc. Comparison amongst the techniques was done by statistical tests on the dosimetric parameters, total monitor unit (MU), and expected delivery time. All 3 techniques achieved similar target dose coverage. TomoTherapy achieved significantly lower doses in lens and mandible amongst the techniques. It also achieved significantly better dose conformity to the treatment targets. RapidArc achieved significantly lower dose to the eye and normal tissue, lower total MU, and less delivery time. The dosimetric advantages of the 3 techniques were identified in the treatment of late-stage NPC. This may serve as a guideline for selection of the proper technique for different clinical cases. © 2013 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists Published by American Association of Medical Dosimetrists All rights reserved.

  18. A rapid, solid phase extraction (SPE technique for the extraction and gas chromatographic determination lindane pesticide residue in tissue and milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticide contamination in feed can cause residue in animal product (tissue and milk, so its become a problem in food safety. Solid phase extraction (SPE has been carried out for determination organochlorine pesticide residues in food animal production. The technique was rapid, not costly and produce limited amount of hazardous-waste. Samples were homogenized with acetonitrile trough cartridge C18, eluted in fluorocyl column with 2% ether-petroleum or acetonitrile fortissue and milk samples respectively. The recoveries of tissue sample by addition lindane standard solution: 0.50 and 1.00 μg are 85.10 and 103.10% respectively, while that of milk with the addition of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 μg are 83.80, 88.69 and 91.24% respectively. Three replicates were carried out for every sample. According of validation criteria of FAO/IAEA the recovery for analysis of pesticide residues was 70-110%. Therefore, the method is applicable.

  19. Rapid determination of wastewater BOD{sub 5} using a spectrophotometric technique; Una metodologia spettrofotometrica per la determinazione rapida del BOD{sub 5} dei liquami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, S. [Montalto Uffugo Univ. della Calabria, Montalto Uffugo, Cosenza (Italy). Dipt di Difesa del Suolo


    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) is one of the most widely used measurement of the biodegradable content of wastewater. This parameter is adopted both in the present environmental legislation to control water pollution and in the design of the units of wastewater treatment plants. The conventional BOD{sub 5} test takes 5 days as it involves the direct measure of oxygen consumption by microorganisms in this period of time. Some innovative techniques have been developed in order to reduce this long response time, but their substrate specific results joined with complex operational requirements limit their utilization to particular cases (Riedel et al. 1990; Brookman 1996; Reynolds, 1997). In the present work the results of experimental tests, performed in order to evaluate the possibility of determining BOD{sub 5} by a more rapid analytical technique, are presented. By means of a relatively cheap and simple spectrophotometric technique using Fluorescein Diacetate it is possible to obtain BOD{sub 5} values in few hours and with a precision comparable to the conventional methods. [Italian] Il BOD{sub 5} e' uno dei parametri piu' frequentemente utilizzati per caratterizzare il carico inquinante di un refluo organico. La sua determinazione e' generalmente ottenuta come misura diretta della quantita' di ossigeno sottratto in 5 giorni dai batteri all'ambiente circostante. Alcune tecniche analitiche alternative a quelle convenzionali sono state proposte per ridurre i tempi necessari alla determinazione del BOD{sub 5}, ma la loro risposta specifica per determinati substrati e la relativa complessita' di applicazione ne hanno limitato l'impiego a casi particolari (Riedel et al. 1990; Brookman 1996; Reynolds, 1997). Nell'ambito del presente lavoro vengon descritti i risultati di una serie di sperimentazioni condotte per verificare la possibilita' di ridurre i tempi necessari alla determinazione del BOD{sub 5} di campioni di

  20. A rapid tattoo removal technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol. (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Kochhar, Atul M; Mahajan, Khushbu Goel; Garg, Vijay K


    Tattoo removal has evolved over the years and though Q-switched laser is the 'workhorse' laser, it invariably requires multiple sittings, which are dependent on numerous factors, including the skin colour, location of the tattoo, age of the tattoo, colour of pigment used, associated fibrosis and the kind of tattoo treated. Though ablative lasers, both pulsed CO2 and Er:YAG, have been used for recalcitrant tattoos, very few studies have been done comparing them with pigment-specific lasers. Our study was based on the premise that ablating the epidermis overlying the tattoo pigment with Er:YAG could help in gaining better access to the pigment which would enable the Q-switched laser to work effectively with less beam scattering. A study of rapid tattoo removal (RTR) technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol. This prospective study was undertaken during 2010-13 at a laser Clinic in the Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. A total of 10 patients were recruited, 5 of amateur tattoo and 5 of professional tattoo. After informed consent each tattoo was arbitrarily 'split' into two parts. One part was treated with QS Nd:YAG laser(1064 nm) and the other part with Er:YAG laser immediately followed by the QS Nd:YAG. The laser treatments were repeated at 6-week intervals until the tattoo pigment had cleared. On the combination side in subsequent sittings only the QS Nd:YAG was used, to minimize repetitive ablation. To ensure consistency in the intervention methods a trained dermatologist who was independent of the treatment delivery randomly rated 10% of the procedures. The mean improvement achieved by the Q-switched laser (2.93) was less than the combination laser (3.85) side (p = 0.001) and needed more sessions (3.8 vs. 1.6; p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the improvement on the combination side till the second session. On the combination side patients required a maximum of 2 sessions

  1. In vitro and in vivo performance of bioactive Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA implants fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique. (United States)

    Choy, Man Tik; Tang, Chak Yin; Chen, Ling; Wong, Chi Tak; Tsui, Chi Pong


    Failure of the bone-implant interface in a joint prosthesis is a main cause of implant loosening. The introduction of a bioactive substance, hydroxyapatite (HA), to a metallic bone-implant may enhance its fixation on human bone by encouraging direct bone bonding. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites with a reproducible porous structure (porosity of 27% and pore size of 6-89 μm) were successfully fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique. This method allows the biocomposites to be fabricated in a short period of time under ambient conditions. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites exhibited a compressive strength of 93 MPa, compressive modulus of 2.9 GPa and microhardness of 556 HV which are close to those of the human cortical bone. The in vitro preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite showed that the composite surface could provide a biocompatible environment for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation without any cytotoxic effects. This is among the first attempts to study the in vivo performance of load-bearing Ti6Al4V/TiC and Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites in a live rabbit. The results indicated that the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite had a better bone-implant interface compared with the Ti6Al4V/TiC implant. Based on the microstructural features, the mechanical properties, and the in vitro and in vivo test results from this study, the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites have the potential to be employed in load-bearing orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ZnO as an Efficient and Inexpensive Catalyst for One Pot Synthesis of 2, 4, 5 -Triphenyl-1H - imidazole Derivatives at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babasaheb P. Bandgar


    Full Text Available An improved and rapid one pot synthesis of 2,4,6-triphenyl-1H-imidazoles on condensation with benzil, aromatic aldehyde and NH4OAc has been carried out using ZnO as an efficient and inexpensive catalyst in high yield at room temperature. The short reaction time, good yields (60-93%, environmental friendly procedure, mild reaction condition and convenient operation are important advantage of these synthetic methods.

  3. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    fast and inexpensive supply for polymer master models and a ceramic shaping method that enables the replication of the RP model into multiple ceramic materials within a short time. (Knitter et al 1999). 2. Rapid prototyping process chains. The manufacturing of ceramic microparts presented here set out with the 3D-CAD ...

  4. Inexpensive Open-Source Data Logging in the Field (United States)

    Wickert, A. D.


    I present a general-purpose open-source field-capable data logger, which provides a mechanism to develop dense networks of inexpensive environmental sensors. This data logger was developed as a low-power variant of the Arduino open-source development system, and is named the ALog ("Arduino Logger") BottleLogger (it is slim enough to fit inside a Nalgene water bottle) version 1.0. It features an integrated high-precision real-time clock, SD card slot for high-volume data storage, and integrated power switching. The ALog can interface with sensors via six analog/digital pins, two digital pins, and one digital interrupt pin that can read event-based inputs, such as those from a tipping-bucket rain gauge. We have successfully tested the ALog BottleLogger with ultrasonic rangefinders (for water stage and snow accumulation and melt), temperature sensors, tipping-bucket rain gauges, soil moisture and water potential sensors, resistance-based tools to measure frost heave, and cameras that it triggers based on events. The source code for the ALog, including functions to interface with a a range of commercially-available sensors, is provided as an Arduino C++ library with example implementations. All schematics, circuit board layouts, and source code files are open-source and freely available under GNU GPL v3.0 and Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported licenses. Through this work, we hope to foster a community-driven movement to collect field environmental data on a budget that permits citizen-scientists and researchers from low-income countries to collect the same high-quality data as researchers in wealthy countries. These data can provide information about global change to managers, governments, scientists, and interested citizens worldwide. Watertight box with ALog BottleLogger data logger on the left and battery pack with 3 D cells on the right. Data can be collected for 3-5 years on one set of batteries.

  5. Liver Cancer Detection by a Simple, Inexpensive and Effective Immunosensor with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congo Tak-Shing Ching


    Full Text Available Regular monitoring of blood α-fetoprotein (AFP and/or carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA levels is important for the routine screening of liver cancer. However, AFP and CEA have a much lower specificity than des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP to detect liver cancer. Therefore, the study reported here was designed, to develop a screen-printed DCP immunosensor incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles, for accurate determination of DCP. The designed immunosensor shows low detection limits for the detection of DCP: 0.440 ng/mL (based on impedance measurement, 0.081 ng/mL (based on real part of impedance measurement and 0.078 ng/mL (based on imaginary part of impedance measurement, within the range of 3.125 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. In addition, there was little interference to DCP determination by molecules such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, glucose, urea, and uric acid. It is therefore concluded that the DCP immunosensor developed and reported here is simple, inexpensive and effective, and shows promise in the rapid screening of early-stage liver cancer at home with a point-of-care approach.

  6. Microscopic characterization of particle size and shape: an inexpensive and versatile method. (United States)

    Houghton, M E; Amidon, G E


    A variety of methods exists for measuring individual particle dimensions as a means of characterizing particle size, size distribution, and shape. The equipment described in this report belongs to the class of semiautomatic non-TV-interfaced analyzers. Unlike many existing image analysis systems, three-dimensional form measurements and texture data for the calculation of particle size and shape parameters can be determined easily and directly from each particle profile using this system. Essentially all data are collected directly from the particle and recorded by the computer with no intermediate steps. Much of the system consists of general-purpose and relatively inexpensive, commercially available hardware and software. Using this method, particle size, size distribution, and qualitative or quantitative shape information can easily and rapidly be obtained simultaneously. Particle length and width characterization, for example, can take less than 15 min. The equipment is versatile and flexible in measurements and calculations. The size and shape parameters to be measured are determined by the researcher and not the instrument. The ease with which this information can be obtained from small samples early in the development process makes it a valuable tool for the formulator.

  7. Efficient steam generation by inexpensive narrow gap evaporation device for solar applications. (United States)

    Morciano, Matteo; Fasano, Matteo; Salomov, Uktam; Ventola, Luigi; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro


    Technologies for solar steam generation with high performance can help solving critical societal issues such as water desalination or sterilization, especially in developing countries. Very recently, we have witnessed a rapidly growing interest in the scientific community proposing sunlight absorbers for direct conversion of liquid water into steam. While those solutions can possibly be of interest from the perspective of the involved novel materials, in this study we intend to demonstrate that efficient steam generation by solar source is mainly due to a combination of efficient solar absorption, capillary water feeding and narrow gap evaporation process, which can also be achieved through common materials. To this end, we report both numerical and experimental evidence that advanced nano-structured materials are not strictly necessary for performing sunlight driven water-to-vapor conversion at high efficiency (i.e. ≥85%) and relatively low optical concentration (≈10 suns). Coherently with the principles of frugal innovation, those results unveil that solar steam generation for desalination or sterilization purposes may be efficiently obtained by a clever selection and assembly of widespread and inexpensive materials.

  8. Sensitivity of rapid influenza antigen tests in the diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1)2009 compared with the standard rRT-PCR technique during the 2009 pandemic in Turkey. (United States)

    Ciblak, Meral Akcay; Kanturvardar, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Bozkaya, Emel; Yenen, O Sadi; Badur, Selim


    The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) technique has been used as the reference technique for the diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1)2009 virus infections. However, rapid influenza diagnostics tests (RIDTs) have been considered in the diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1)2009 by some healthcare institutions in Turkey due to their ease of use and generation of fast results. Nevertheless, their low sensitivity has caused concern during the control of the pandemic. This study aimed to determine the sensitivity of 4 different rapid tests available on the market in Turkey in the diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1)2009 infections compared to the reference rRT-PCR technique. One hundred and four patient samples that tested positive and 88 samples that tested negative for pandemic (H1N1)2009 by rRT-PCR were tested with RIDTs available on the market. The sensitivity of the rapid tests ranged from 31.7% to 50% depending on the brand of RIDT. Specificity ranged from 97.7% to 100%. Currently available RIDTs are not sensitive enough and could lead physicians to delay the treatment of patients, adversely affecting control efforts to mitigate the pandemic. Therefore, these tests should only be used for screening, and negative results should not rule out influenza. More sensitive and rapid point-of-care techniques are needed to meet the demands of point-of-care testing.

  9. In vitro and in vivo performance of bioactive Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA implants fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Man Tik; Tang, Chak Yin, E-mail:; Chen, Ling; Wong, Chi Tak; Tsui, Chi Pong


    Failure of the bone–implant interface in a joint prosthesis is a main cause of implant loosening. The introduction of a bioactive substance, hydroxyapatite (HA), to a metallic bone–implant may enhance its fixation on human bone by encouraging direct bone bonding. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites with a reproducible porous structure (porosity of 27% and pore size of 6–89 μm) were successfully fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique. This method allows the biocomposites to be fabricated in a short period of time under ambient conditions. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites exhibited a compressive strength of 93 MPa, compressive modulus of 2.9 GPa and microhardness of 556 HV which are close to those of the human cortical bone. The in vitro preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite showed that the composite surface could provide a biocompatible environment for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation without any cytotoxic effects. This is among the first attempts to study the in vivo performance of load-bearing Ti6Al4V/TiC and Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites in a live rabbit. The results indicated that the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite had a better bone–implant interface compared with the Ti6Al4V/TiC implant. Based on the microstructural features, the mechanical properties, and the in vitro and in vivo test results from this study, the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites have the potential to be employed in load-bearing orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Ti6Al4V/TiC and Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites were fabricated by microwave sintering. • Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA exhibited mechanical properties close to human cortical bone. • Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA could provide a biocompatible environment for bone cell growth. • Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA showed a better bone–implant interface than Ti6Al4V/TiC. • Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA could be used for bone replacement under load-bearing conditions.

  10. Construction of an Inexpensive Copper Heat-Pipe Oven (United States)

    Grove, T. T.; Hockensmith, W. A.; Cheviron, N.; Grieser, W.; Dill, R.; Masters, M. F.


    We present a new, low-cost method of building an all copper heat-pipe oven that increases the practicality of this device in advanced undergraduate instructional labs. The construction parts are available at local hardware and plumbing supply stores, and the assembly techniques employed are simple and require no machining. (Contains 1 footnote, 3…

  11. A simple and inexpensive "cell dissociation sieve-tissue grinder" apparatus. (United States)

    Pai, K; Sundar, S


    A simple and inexpensive cell dissociation sieve-tissue grinder apparatus consisting essentially of stainless steel sieve (the one popularly used for sieving tea leaves) and a glass syringe plunger acting as pestle, is described for making single cell suspension.

  12. A Computationally Inexpensive Optimal Guidance via Radial-Basis-Function Neural Network for Autonomous Soft Landing on Asteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Optimal guidance is essential for the soft landing task. However, due to its high computational complexities, it is hardly applied to the autonomous guidance. In this paper, a computationally inexpensive optimal guidance algorithm based on the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN is proposed. The optimization problem of the trajectory for soft landing on asteroids is formulated and transformed into a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP. Combining the database of initial states with the relative initial co-states, an RBFNN is trained offline. The optimal trajectory of the soft landing is determined rapidly by applying the trained network in the online guidance. The Monte Carlo simulations of soft landing on the Eros433 are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance algorithm.

  13. A Computationally Inexpensive Optimal Guidance via Radial-Basis-Function Neural Network for Autonomous Soft Landing on Asteroids. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Keping; Zhao, Bo; Li, Yuanchun


    Optimal guidance is essential for the soft landing task. However, due to its high computational complexities, it is hardly applied to the autonomous guidance. In this paper, a computationally inexpensive optimal guidance algorithm based on the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is proposed. The optimization problem of the trajectory for soft landing on asteroids is formulated and transformed into a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP). Combining the database of initial states with the relative initial co-states, an RBFNN is trained offline. The optimal trajectory of the soft landing is determined rapidly by applying the trained network in the online guidance. The Monte Carlo simulations of soft landing on the Eros433 are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance algorithm.

  14. Commercially Available Rapid Methods for Detection of Selected Food-borne Pathogens. (United States)

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Dudley, Edward G; Doores, Stephanie; Cutter, Catherine N


    Generally, the enumeration and isolation of food-borne pathogens is performed using culture-dependent methods. These methods are sensitive, inexpensive, and provide both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the microorganisms present in a sample, but these are time-consuming. For this reason, researchers are developing new techniques that allow detection of food pathogens in shorter period of time. This review identifies commercially available methods for rapid detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food samples. Three categories are discussed: immunologically based methods, nucleic acid-based assays, and biosensors. This review describes the basic mechanism and capabilities of each method, discusses the difficulties of choosing the most convenient method, and provides an overview of the future challenges for the technology for rapid detection of microorganisms.

  15. An Inexpensive Universal Mouth Props, Saliva Ejector and Tongue Retractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Shriram Sharma


    Full Text Available Throughout the field of dentistry, chairside procedures must be managed to simultaneously achieve a number of objectives. Dentists, orthodontists, prosthodontists, endodontists and the like must provide patient comfort while at the same time accomplishing complex therapeutic treatment procedures within the confines of the oral cavity. The clinician must also manage a number of peripheral factors while he or she focuses on achieving worthwhile, long-lasting treatment results. The clinician must strive to minimize such factors as the amount of chairside time required to accomplish various treatment goals, the amount of auxiliary staff assistance required as well as overall practice overhead to ensure that such professional services remain economically practical for all involved. All of these factors drive dental professionals to embrace improved chairside systems, armamentarium, techniques and procedures that save time, improve results and reduce costs. One aspect of such dental practice economics addressed by the present invention involves procedures such as scaling, root planning, crown and bridge procedures, restorative dentistry and direct bonding must be accomplished. Such procedures typically demand that a dry field be achieved and maintained from the beginning to the end of procedures. In such cases, side access, visibility and maintaining dry conditions within the oral environment are essential for the successful treatment results.

  16. Low-cost Method for Obtaining Medical Rapid Prototyping Using Desktop 3D printing: A Novel Technique for Mandibular Reconstruction Planning. (United States)

    Velasco, Ignacio; Vahdani, Soheil; Ramos, Hector


    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is relatively a new technology with clinical applications, which enable us to create rapid accurate prototype of the selected anatomic region, making it possible to plan complex surgery and pre-bend hardware for individual surgical cases. This study aimed to express our experience with the use of medical rapid prototype (MRP) of the maxillofacial region created by desktop 3D printer and its application in maxillofacial reconstructive surgeries. Three patients with benign mandible tumors were included in this study after obtaining informed consent. All patient's maxillofacial CT scan data was processed by segmentation and isolation software and mandible MRP was printed using our desktop 3D printer. These models were used for preoperative surgical planning and prebending of the reconstruction plate. MRP created by desktop 3D printer is a cost-efficient, quick and easily produced appliance for the planning of reconstructive surgery. It can contribute in patient orientation and helping them in a better understanding of their condition and proposed surgical treatment. It helps surgeons for pre-operative planning in the resection or reconstruction cases and represent an excellent tool in academic setting for residents training. The pre-bended reconstruction plate based on MRP, resulted in decreased surgery time, cost and anesthesia risks on the patients. Key words: 3D printing, medical modeling, rapid prototype, mandibular reconstruction, ameloblastoma.

  17. An inexpensive underwater mine countermeasures simulator with real-time 3D after action review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stone


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a concept capability demonstration pilot study, the aim of which was to investigate how inexpensive gaming software and hardware technologies could be exploited in the development and evaluation of a simulator prototype for training Royal Navy mine clearance divers, specifically focusing on the detection and accurate reporting of the location and condition of underwater ordnance. The simulator was constructed using the Blender open source 3D modelling toolkit and game engine, and featured not only an interactive 3D editor for underwater scenario generation by instructors, but also a real-time, 3D After Action Review (AAR system for formative assessment and feedback. The simulated scenarios and AAR architecture were based on early human factors observations and briefings conducted at the UK's Defence Diving School (DDS, an organisation that provides basic military diving training for all Royal Navy and Army (Royal Engineers divers. An experimental pilot study was undertaken to determine whether or not basic navigational and mine detection components of diver performance could be improved as a result of exposing participants to the AAR system, delivered between simulated diving scenarios. The results suggest that the provision of AAR was accompanied by significant performance improvements in the positive identification of simulated underwater ordnance (in contrast to non-ordnance objects and on participants' description of their location, their immediate in-water or seabed context and their structural condition. Only marginal improvements were found with participants' navigational performance in terms of their deviation accuracies from a pre-programmed expert search path. Overall, this project contributes to the growing corpus of evidence supporting the development of simulators that demonstrate the value of exploiting open source gaming software and the significance of adopting established games design

  18. Cast Off expansion plan by rapid improvement through Optimization tool design, Tool Parameters and using Six Sigma’s ECRS Technique (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.; Saravanan, R.


    Powerful management concepts step-up the quality of the product, time saving in producing the product thereby increase the production rate, improves tools and techniques, work culture, work place and employee motivation and morale. In this paper discussed about the case study of optimizing the tool design, tool parameters to cast off expansion plan according ECRS technique. The proposed designs and optimal tool parameters yielded best results and meet the customer demand without expansion plan. Hence the work yielded huge savings of money (direct and indirect cost), time and improved the motivation and more of employees significantly.

  19. High-throughput screening techniques for rapid PEG-based precipitation of IgG4 mAb from clarified cell culture supernatant. (United States)

    Knevelman, Carol; Davies, Jim; Allen, Lee; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J


    Locating optimal protein precipitation conditions for complex biological feed materials is problematic. This article describes the application of a series of high-throughput platforms for the rapid identification and selection of conditions for the precipitation of an IgG(4) monoclonal antibody (mAb) from a complex feedstock using only microliter quantities of material. The approach uses 96-microwell filter plates combined with high-throughput analytical methods and a method for well volume determination for product quantification. The low material, time and resource requirements facilitated the use of a full factorial Design of Experiments (DoE) for the rapid investigation into how critical parameters impact the IgG(4) precipitation. To aid the DoE, a set of preliminary range-finding studies were conducted first. Data collected through this approach describing Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) precipitation of the IgG(4) as a function of mAb concentration, precipitant concentration, and pH are presented. Response surface diagrams were used to explore interactions between parameters and to inform selection of the most favorable conditions for maximum yield and purification. PEG concentrations required for maximum yield and purity were dependant on the IgG(4) concentration; however, concentrations of 14 to 20% w/v, pH 6.5, gave optimal levels of yield and purity. Application of the high-throughput approach enabled 1,155 conditions to be examined with less than 1 g of material. The level of insights gained over such a short time frame is indicative of the power of microwell experimentation in allowing the rapid identification of appropriate processing conditions for key bioprocess operations. Copyright 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  20. Development of rubber forming as a rapid thermoforming technique for continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. Quality control by process control. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robroek, L.M.J.


    The principal goal of the thesis is twofold: the understanding of the fundamental deformation processes of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics during a manufacturing cycle of two- or three-dimensional products made from flat laminates; and the development of an efficient thermoforming technique for manufacturing high quality thermoplastic composite products. (Copyright (c) 1994 by L.M.J. Robroek, Structures and Materials Laboratory.)

  1. Rapid Communication: Ranking dairy cows for methane emissions measured using respiration chamber or GreenFeed techniques during early, peak, and late lactation. (United States)

    Rischewski, J; Bielak, A; Nürnberg, G; Derno, M; Kuhla, B


    Our objective was to compare the ranking of dairy cows according to their methane (CH) emissions as measured by a respiration chamber (RC) technique and the GreenFeed (GF) technique during 3 periods in second lactation. Two-day CH measurements in a RC performed in wk 3, 14, and 42 of lactation were flanked by GF measurements for 20 (period 1 [P1]), 35 (period 2 [P2]), and 35 (period 3 [P3]) days, respectively, before and after RC measurement. This gave the total duration of CH measurements using the GF system of 40, 70, and 70 d for P1, P2, and P3, respectively. Mean daily CH production (g/d) of the 8 dairy cows was 346, 439, and 430 using the RC technique and 338, 378, and 416 using the GF system during P1, P2, and P3, respectively. Average daily CH production determined by the GF technique was 2.4, 13.8, and 3.2% lower in P1, P2, and P3, respectively. Methane normalized to DMI continuously increased from P1 to P3 when measured in a RC, whereas it was lowest during P2 when measured by the GF method. Ranking of the cows according to CH production, CH/energy-corrected milk yield (ECM; CH/ECM), and CH/DMI differed between periods no matter which method was used. Cluster analysis including all 3 periods, however, identified the same cows with the highest and lowest CH production determined either by the RC technique or the GF system. In conclusion, multiple CH measurements at different stages of lactation are necessary for reliable discrimination of highest and lowest CH emitting cows and the GF system may be used to discriminate the extremes.

  2. Correction of a severe facial asymmetry with computerized planning and with the use of a rapid prototyped surgical template: a case report/technique article. (United States)

    Seres, Laszlo; Varga, Endre; Kocsis, Andras; Rasko, Zoltan; Bago, Balazs; Varga, Endre; Piffko, Jozsef


    Management of significant facial asymmetry presents a challenge due to the geometric complexity of the bony and other facial structures. Manual model surgery is an essential part of treatment planning but it can be complicated, time-consuming and may contain potential errors. Computer-aided surgery has revolutionized the correction of maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to report a case of facial asymmetry when computerised simulation surgery was performed instead of manual model surgery and a virtually planned wafer splint was fabricated. A 26-year-old male was presented with a severe right-sided hemimandibular elongation. Following presurgical orthodontics high-resolution computer tomography scan was performed. The stack images were reformatted into a three-dimensional structure. Virtual Le Fort-I osteotomy was performed and the symmetry of the maxilla was corrected with the help of a three-dimensional planning software. A virtual intermediate surgical wafer was designed and produced with three-dimensional rapid prototyping technology. The mandible was rotated into the correct position following virtual bilateral sagittal split osteotomy to visualize the movements of the osteotomised mandibular segments. The two-jaw procedure was performed according to the virtual plan. The facial symmetry was improved significantly and stable occlusion was achieved. This complex case shows the advantages of computer-aided surgical planning and three-dimensional rapid prototyping for the correction of facial asymmetries.

  3. UHPLC-TOFMS coupled with chemometric method as a powerful technique for rapid exploring of differentiating components between two Ziziphus species. (United States)

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Zhu, Zhenhua; Qian, Yefei; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan


    To rapidly explore the differentiating components and the potential chemical markers for discrimination between those Chinese medicinal herbs with similar chemical characteristics, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-TOFMS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis method was proposed and validated by using two Ziziphus species (Z. jujuba and Z. jujuba var. spinosa) as the model herbs. After the samples were analyzed using UHPLC-TOFMS, the data sets of retention time (RT)-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were further processed with orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to holistically compare the difference between the fruits of these two Ziziphus species, and to generate an S-plot. Those compounds correlating to the points at the two ends of "S" were regarded as the most differentiating components between these two kinds of samples. By comparing the mass/UV spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds, these components were finally characterized as zizyberenalic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, pomonic acid and rutin, and these compounds would be the potential chemical markers for discrimination of these jujube products. The results suggested that this newly established approach could be used to rapidly determine the subtle differences and explore the potential chemical markers for differentiation within the herbs with similar chemical ingredients. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Monosegment ALPPS: A new variant of the techniques for rapid hepatic regeneration. Critical review of the initial results of our series. (United States)

    Montalvá Orón, Eva María; Maupoey Ibáñez, Javier; Bañuelos Carrillo, Rómulo; Boscà Robledo, Andrea; Orbis Castellanos, Juan Francisco; Moya Herraiz, Ángel; Ballester Vallés, Carmen; Pérez Rojas, Judith; Aparicio Urtasun, Jorge; López-Andújar, Rafael


    Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel surgical technique that provides fast and effective growth of liver remnant volume, allowing surgical resection of hepatic lesions initially considered unresectable. Short and long-term results and the convenience of carrying out this technique are issues that still remain under debate while waiting for the final outcomes of the multicenter registries with larger number of cases. The aim of this paper is to describe, from a critical point of view, the outcomes of the cases performed at our center (n=8). On the other hand, it is possible to leave only one hepatic segment as a liver remnant and we illustrate this new surgical procedure (ALPPS monosegment) performed in one patient. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid and Easy Histological Evaluation of Alveolar Human Bone Quality at Dental Implant Sites Using a Nondecalcified Frozen Cryofilm Section Technique: A Technical Report. (United States)

    Ito, Yuichi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Kanou, Miwa; Takahashi-Nakagawa, Yasuko; Nakajima, Yoichiro; Sunano, Akihiro; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Takaaki


    The evaluation of bone quality at the site of the alveolar bone for a dental implant is very important. This study presents an easy technique for direct evaluation of alveolar bone quality using nondecalcified cryofilm frozen sections on human alveolar bone core samples. Core samples harvested from alveolar bone were immediately frozen in cooled hexanen and slowly cut using a disposable tungsten carbide blade; the sliced sections were collected with adhesive cryofilms. Staining was performed using von toluidine blue and von Kossa for microscopic observations. All core samples clearly showed bone structure components of cortical bone, trabecular bone, bone marrow, blood vessels, and bone-related cells. These results suggest the efficacy of a nondecalcified cryofilm frozen section technique for histological observation of surgical implant sites.

  6. Closed Loop Experiment Manager (CLEM—An Open and Inexpensive Solution for Multichannel Electrophysiological Recordings and Closed Loop Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananel Hazan


    Full Text Available There is growing need for multichannel electrophysiological systems that record from and interact with neuronal systems in near real-time. Such systems are needed, for example, for closed loop, multichannel electrophysiological/optogenetic experimentation in vivo and in a variety of other neuronal preparations, or for developing and testing neuro-prosthetic devices, to name a few. Furthermore, there is a need for such systems to be inexpensive, reliable, user friendly, easy to set-up, open and expandable, and possess long life cycles in face of rapidly changing computing environments. Finally, they should provide powerful, yet reasonably easy to implement facilities for developing closed-loop protocols for interacting with neuronal systems. Here, we survey commercial and open source systems that address these needs to varying degrees. We then present our own solution, which we refer to as Closed Loop Experiments Manager (CLEM. CLEM is an open source, soft real-time, Microsoft Windows desktop application that is based on a single generic personal computer (PC and an inexpensive, general-purpose data acquisition board. CLEM provides a fully functional, user-friendly graphical interface, possesses facilities for recording, presenting and logging electrophysiological data from up to 64 analog channels, and facilities for controlling external devices, such as stimulators, through digital and analog interfaces. Importantly, it includes facilities for running closed-loop protocols written in any programming language that can generate dynamic link libraries (DLLs. We describe the application, its architecture and facilities. We then demonstrate, using networks of cortical neurons growing on multielectrode arrays (MEA that despite its reliance on generic hardware, its performance is appropriate for flexible, closed-loop experimentation at the neuronal network level.

  7. Rapid profiling and structural characterization of bioactive compounds and their distribution in different parts of Berberis petiolaris Wall. ex G. Don applying hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques. (United States)

    Singh, A; Bajpai, V; Srivastava, M; Arya, K R; Kumar, B


    Berberis petiolaris Wall. is a lesser known medicinal plant, belonging to the family Berberidaceae. The genus Berberis is known for many biological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal, etc. There are not many reports of the isolation of components from Berberis petiolaris. This study aims to seek identification, characterization and quantification of components. A method was developed for rapid screening of phytochemicals using high-pressure liquid chromatography hyphenated with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). Suitable collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) methods were developed for structural investigation of alkaloids, flavanoids and other classes of compounds using nine reference standards for authentication. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods were developed for quantitative study of five constituents using triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/QqLIT-MS/MS). On the basis of HPLC retention behavior and fragmentation pathways obtained by high-resolution MS and MS/MS, 32 compounds were identified and characterized in different parts of Berberis petiolaris. Quantitative studies of chlorogenic acid, magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and berberine were also completed successfully. Rapid and accurate HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and UPLC/ESI-QqLIT-MS/MS methods were established for identification, characterization and quantification of phytochemicals in the ethanolic extract of Berberis petiolaris. These methods, therefore, can be used for studies on phytochemical variation in different parts of the plant. Principle components analysis (PCA) may be used for plant part discrimination. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack


    .... However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically...

  9. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis


    Erin K. Hanson; Jack Ballantyne


    Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is an example of such a molecular-based appro...

  10. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack


    .... However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically...

  11. Microfilter paper method for 17. cap alpha. -hydroxyprogesterone radioimmunoassay: its application for rapid screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia. [Tritium tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, S.; Hotchkiss, J.; Drash, A.L.; Levine, L.S.; New, M.I.


    A new micromethod for measuring a steroid in blood collected on filter paper has been developed. The method is easy and rapid and has the specificity, accuracy and precision of RIA in whole plasma. Less than 20 of blood is required, and, therefore, samples may be obtained with heel prick. This method has been applied to the determination of 17..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone (17..cap alpha..-OH-P) for screening patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. There was excellent correlation (r = .94) between the values of 17..cap alpha..-OH-P obtained by microfilter paper method and those from plasma samples of cord (40 +- 13 ng/ml) and neonatal blood (<3.6 ng/ml) in normal infants. In six neonates at risk for CAH the diagnosis was made utilizing the microfilter paper method. 17..cap alpha..-OH-P concentrations were highly elevated in both filter paper eluates of whole blood (67 to 360 ng/ml of plasma) and simultaneously obtained plasma concentration (74 to 395 ng/ml) in affected infants. The concentrations of 17..cap alpha..-OH-P remained unchanged in dried filter paper blood when stored at room temperature for up to 21 days. Thus, filter paper with dried blood may be sent for steroid assay by mail. The ease with which samples may be transported and the minute amount of sample necessary make this method a promising screening test for CAH.

  12. An Inexpensive and Simple Method to Demonstrate Soil Water and Nutrient Flow (United States)

    Nichols, K. A.; Samson-Liebig, S.


    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are concepts that are being widely used but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. The objectives of this manuscript were to develop simple and inexpensive methodologies to both qualitatively and quantitatively estimate water infiltration rates (IR),…

  13. A Simplified and Inexpensive Method for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in Water. (United States)

    Austin, John


    A modified Winkler method for determining dissolved oxygen in water is described. The method does not require use of a burette or starch indicator, is simple and inexpensive and can be used in the field or laboratory. Reagents/apparatus needed and specific procedures are included. (JN)

  14. An optimized inexpensive emollient mixture improves barrier repair in murine skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Man


    Conclusion: Since the individual ingredients in this mixture are inexpensive, this optimized mixture shows promise as a means of reducing neonatal mortality in low-income settings, but it also could be more widely used to prevent skin disorders associated with permeability and antimicrobial barrier abnormalities.

  15. An Inexpensive Family Index of Risk for Mood Issues Improves Identification of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (United States)

    Algorta, Guillermo Perez; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Phelps, James; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos; Findling, Robert L.


    Family history of mental illness provides important information when evaluating pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). However, such information is often challenging to gather within clinical settings. This study investigates the feasibility and utility of gathering family history information using an inexpensive method practical for outpatient…

  16. An efficient, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for herbal samples like Cinchona bark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Honoré; Holmfred, Else Skovgaard; Cornett, Claus


    An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. The grinder was constructed to be able to provide various particle sizes, to be easy to clean, and to have a minimum of d...

  17. Studying an inexpensive wire discone antenna as a candidate for TVWS spectrum monitoring / sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA


    Full Text Available discone antenna. AntennaCraft model ST4 is exampled as an inexpensive candidate for spectrum monitoring and sensing in UHF frequency band. The study was done by both simulation and measurements, with well matching results. The candidate antenna was found...

  18. Short report: evaluation of a simple and inexpensive photometric device for the measurement of hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrmann, Steffen; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Esser, Gilbert; Trinkle, Cordula; Issifou, Saadou; Grobusch, Martin P.; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G.


    We have evaluated the accuracy of a simple and inexpensive photometric device (DHT) for the estimation of the blood concentration of hemoglobin by comparison with an automated, high-resolution, flow cytometry-based hematology analyzer (CellDyn 3000) and a centrifugal quantitative buffy coat

  19. A Computer-Interfaced Drop Counter as an Inexpensive Fraction Collector for Column Chromatography (United States)

    Nash, Barbara T.


    A computer-interfaced drop counter is described that serves as an inexpensive alternative to a fraction collector for column chromatography experiments. Undergraduate biochemistry laboratories frequently do not have the budget to purchase fraction collectors. Protocols that call for the manual measurement of fraction volumes as well as the manual…

  20. Using a Raspberry Pi as a Versatile and Inexpensive Display Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Iglesias


    Full Text Available This article covers the process by which a library took some unused equipment and added a cheap computing device to produce very inexpensive but effective electronic signage. Hardware and software issues as well as a step-by-step guide through the process are included.

  1. Design and evaluation of an inexpensive radiation shield for monitoring surface air temperatures (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Anna E. Klene; Robert F. Keefe; Gretchen G. Moisen


    Inexpensive temperature sensors are widely used in agricultural and forestry research. This paper describes a low-cost (~3 USD) radiation shield (radshield) designed for monitoring surface air temperatures in harsh outdoor environments. We compared the performance of the radshield paired with low-cost temperature sensors at three sites in western Montana to several...

  2. Using Inexpensive Technology and Multimedia to Improve Science Education in Rural Communities of Nepal (United States)

    Neupane, Sujaya


    This article explores an ongoing project that promotes science education in rural communities of western Nepal by using affordable technology. With the advent of inexpensive technology and multimedia resources, teaching materials for science education can be accessed with a much smaller budget than was previously possible. A preliminary survey…

  3. A Simple and Inexpensive Function Generator and a Four-Electrode Cell for Cyclic Voltammetry. (United States)

    Albahadily, F. N.; Mottola, Horacio A.


    Describes construction and operation of an inexpensive signal generator and a four-electrode electrochemical cell for use in voltammetric experiments. Also describes construction and operation of a four-electrode electrochemical cell used to illustrate elimination (or minimization) of background currents due to electrochemical reactions by species…

  4. Integration of New Observation Techniques, Remote Sensing, and High Resolution Modelling for Improved Quantification of Rapid Environmental Change at a Canadian Arctic Watershed (United States)

    Marsh, P.; Toure, A.; Baltzer, J. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Berg, A. A.; Derksen, C.; Walker, B.; Wilcox, E.


    Multi-decade observations at a research watershed in the western Canadian Arctic has demonstrated rapid environmental change, but has also shown that our quantification of, and understanding of, these changes is greatly limited by both the large errors involved in many observation data sets and the limitations of standard models to operate at the extremely high resolution required. This paper will outline an expanding research program being developed at the Trail Valley Creek research watershed south of Tuktoyaktuk, NWT with the gaol to overcome these limitations. Although this watershed has existing high quality observations, the following example will illustrate the challenges faced in understanding the ongoing changes. As might be expected, the climate at this location is dramatically warming, but it is also drying, and the active layer is deepening, shrub patches are both infilling and expanding, the end of winter snow cover is expanding in shrub patches and possibly decreasing in slope drifts, and snowmelt rate is changing. However, the resulting decrease in streamflow and delayed melt runoff, is unexpected and hard to explain. Although we can postulate why these changes are occurring, the observations at this site, among the best in the Canadian Arctic, are not sufficient to allow us to fully explain the ongoing changes. Our experience at Trail Valley Creek suggests that in order to improve our understanding and predictive ability, we need enhanced field observations and models. This paper will outline how we are developing such a program at Trail Valley Creek with field observations across a range of scales (a network of cosmic ray sensors, eddy covariance measurements, and sap flow sensors for example); enhanced remote sensing using lidar, optical and radar methods from Unmanned Aerial Systems, aircraft and satellites; and high resolution, physics based, snow, permafrost and hydrologic models.

  5. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive


    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  6. Preliminary studies on the use of solid-phase immunosorbent techniques for the rapid detection of Wesselsbron virus (WSLV) IgM by haemagglutination-inhibition. (United States)

    Baba, S S; Fagbami, A H; Ojeh, C K


    Serum samples from 446 randomly selected persons belonging to different age groups and locations in Nigeria were tested for the presence of WSLV IgM using the flavivirus haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test adopted to the solid-phase immunosorbent technique (SPIT). 61 (14%) persons had IgM to WSLV only, while 9 (2%) persons had heterologous IgM to WSLV and two other flaviviruses, namely yellow fever and Uganda S viruses. There was a high prevalence of IgM in people of younger age groups than those in older groups. The majority of the IgM positive sera (67 (96%) of the 70 positive sera reacted to high titres (>21:80). With the conventional HI tests, 314 (70%) of the total sera tested had HI antibodies to one or more flaviviruses (yellow fever, West Nile, Potiskum, Zika and Uganda S) out of which 305/314 (97%) had antibodies to 3 or more flaviviruses used in the tests. Although SPIT may not be as sensitive as the conventional HI test, it was found to be more specific and could be adopted for the detection of early WSLV infections in flavivirus hyperendemic environments.

  7. Rapid evaluation technique to differentiate mushroom disease-related moulds by detecting microbial volatile organic compounds using HS-SPME-GC-MS. (United States)

    Radványi, Dalma; Gere, Attila; Jókai, Zsuzsa; Fodor, Péter


    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyse microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) of mushroom disease-related microorganisms. Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillum fungicola var. fungicola, and Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum species, which are typically harmful in mushroom cultivation, were examined, and Agaricus bisporus (bisporic button mushroom) was also examined as a control. For internal standard, a mixture of alkanes was used; these were introduced as the memory effect of primed septa in the vial seal. Several different marker compounds were found in each sample, which enabled us to distinguish the different moulds and the mushroom mycelium from each other. Monitoring of marker compounds enabled us to investigate the behaviour of moulds. The records of the temporal pattern changes were used to produce partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models that enabled determination of the exact time of contamination (the infection time of the media). Using these evaluation techniques, the presence of mushroom disease-related fungi can be easily detected and monitored via their emitted MVOCs.

  8. Rapid Analysis Procedures for Triglycerides and Fatty Acids as Pentyl and Phenethyl Esters for the Detection of Butter Adulteration Using Chromatographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Naviglio


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of three methods for quality control, fraud detection, and authentication of butter fat and other oils/fats using chromatographic techniques, with one method for triglycerides and two methods for fatty acids (FAs. The procedure for the analysis of triglycerides requires only dissolution of the sample in n-hexane and gas chromatography (GC analysis using a capillary column. The second method is based on the transesterification of triglycerides as pentyl esters in a single-step reaction using sodium pentanoate in pentanol. The reaction proceeds at room temperature and is similar to the potassium hydroxide-catalysed transesterification of triglycerides with methanol and even more similar to the sodium methoxide method and sodium butanoate method. The advantage of using pentyl esters includes reducing the volatility of short-chain FAs, and substantial recoveries were obtained compared with methyl ester analysis. The third method involves the transesterification of triglycerides in fat through reaction with 2-phenylethanol in a single step; 2-phenylethanol possesses a chromophore, and the phenethyl esters formed are analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection.

  9. Rapid hydrolysis of proteins and peptides by means of microwave technology and its application to amino acid analysis. (United States)

    Chen, S T; Chiou, S H; Chu, Y H; Wang, K T


    A rapid heating method of hydrolysis by the use of microwave oven has been applied to amino acid analysis of proteins and peptides. This convenient method has been compared with the conventional 6 N HCl hydrolysis at 110 degrees for 24 h. The advantages of this new method are its expedition and the accurate and comparable results as compared to the tedious conventional technique. The method provides a rapid processing of multiple samples within minutes instead of days and inexpensive access to the important data of amino acid compositions of proteins by the commonly used microwave oven. The necessary change in the design of hydrolysis vials and the safety precautions accompanying this novel use of microwave acid-digestion method are also described.

  10. Rapid Prototyping of Electrically Small Spherical Wire Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.


    It is shown how modern rapid prototyping technologies can be applied for quick and inexpensive, but still accurate, fabrication of electrically small wire antennas. A well known folded spherical helix antenna and a novel spherical zigzag antenna have been fabricated and tested, exhibiting the imp...

  11. Rapid adsorption of toxic Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using multiwall carbon nanotubes synthesized by microwave chemical vapor deposition technique. (United States)

    Mubarak, Nabisab Mujawar; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Abdullah, Ezzat Chan; Jayakumar, Natesan Subramanian


    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using a tubular microwave chemical vapor deposition technique, using acetylene and hydrogen as the precursor gases and ferrocene as catalyst. The novel MWCNT samples were tested for their performance in terms of Pb(II) binding. The synthesized MWCNT samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis, and the adsorption of Pb(II) was studied as a function of pH, initial Pb(II) concentration, MWCNT dosage, agitation speed, and adsorption time, and process parameters were optimized. The adsorption data followed both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. On the basis of the Langmuir model, Qmax was calculated to be 104.2mg/g for the microwave-synthesized MWCNTs. In order to investigate the dynamic behavior of MWCNTs as an adsorbent, the kinetic data were modeled using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations. Different thermodynamic parameters, viz., ∆H(0), ∆S(0) and ∆G(0) were evaluated and it was found that the adsorption was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (99.9%) of Pb(II) are at pH5, MWCNT dosage 0.1g, agitation speed 160r/min and time of 22.5min with the initial concentration of 10mg/L. Our results proved that microwave-synthesized MWCNTs can be used as an effective Pb(II) adsorbent due to their high adsorption capacity as well as the short adsorption time needed to achieve equilibrium. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Rapid identification of Mycobacterium species by lectin agglutination. (United States)

    Athamna, Abed; Cohen, Dani; Athamna, Muhammad; Ofek, Itzhak; Stavri, Henriette


    The purpose of the present study is to explore the possibility that plant lectins can be used for the development of rapid and inexpensive technique for differentiation of mycobacterial species. The method is based on interaction between mycobacteria and lectins as visualized by agglutination in a microtiter plate. We employed 18 mycobacterium species and determined the minimal lectin concentration (MLC) of 23 different lectins. For some of the bacteria as a high as 1000 microg/ml of one or more lectins were required to induce agglutination, while for other strains as low as 1.95 microg/ml of the lectin were needed. A unique pattern of agglutination was observed for each species over a range of 62-1000 microg/ml lectin concentrations. There were little or no variations in MLC within strains (intraspecies) of each of two species tested. In contrast, there were marked interspecies variations in MLC. Analysis of the MLC showed that the highest score of interspecies differences with 23 lectins was obtained at 125 microg/ml lectin concentration. At this concentration it was found that the pattern of agglutinations with only two lectins was sufficient to differentiate mycobacterium species from each other. Because the bacteria-lectin interaction is adaptable to various methods of visualization, our findings may set the stage for developing a rapid and reliable tool to differentiate mycobacterium species.

  13. Optimizing end-to-end system performance for millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy of protostars : wideband heterodyne receivers and sideband-deconvolution techniques for rapid molecular-line surveys (United States)

    Sumner, Matthew Casey

    This thesis describes the construction, integration, and use of a new 230-GHz ultra-wideband heterodyne receiver, as well as the development and testing of a new sideband-deconvolution algorithm, both designed to enable rapid, sensitive molecular-line surveys. The 230-GHz receiver, known as Z-Rex, is the first of a new generation of wideband receivers to be installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Intended as a proof-of-concept device, it boasts an ultra-wide IF output range of sim 6 - 18 GHz, offering as much as a twelvefold increase in the spectral coverage that can be achieved with a single LO setting. A similarly wideband IF system has been designed to couple this receiver to an array of WASP2 spectrometers, allowing the full bandwidth of the receiver to be observed at low resolution, ideal for extra-galactic redshift surveys. A separate IF system feeds a high-resolution 4-GHz AOS array frequently used for performing unbiased line surveys of galactic objects, particularly star-forming regions. The design and construction of the wideband IF system are presented, as is the work done to integrate the receiver and the high-resolution spectrometers into a working system. The receiver is currently installed at the CSO where it is available for astronomers' use. In addition to demonstrating wideband design principles, the receiver also serves as a testbed for a synthesizer-driven, active LO chain that is under consideration for future receiver designs. Several lessons have been learned, including the importance of driving the final amplifier of the LO chain into saturation and the absolute necessity of including a high-Q filter to remove spurious signals from the synthesizer output. The on-telescope performance of the synthesizer-driven LO chain is compared to that of the Gunn-oscillator units currently in use at the CSO. Although the frequency agility of the synthesized LO chain gives it a significant advantage for unbiased line surveys, the cleaner

  14. An easy and inexpensive method for quantitative analysis of endothelial damage by using vital dye staining and Adobe Photoshop software. (United States)

    Saad, Hisham A; Terry, Mark A; Shamie, Neda; Chen, Edwin S; Friend, Daniel F; Holiman, Jeffrey D; Stoeger, Christopher


    We developed a simple, practical, and inexpensive technique to analyze areas of endothelial cell loss and/or damage over the entire corneal area after vital dye staining by using a readily available, off-the-shelf, consumer software program, Adobe Photoshop. The purpose of this article is to convey a method of quantifying areas of cell loss and/or damage. Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty corneal transplant surgery was performed by using 5 precut corneas on a human cadaver eye. Corneas were removed and stained with trypan blue and alizarin red S and subsequently photographed. Quantitative assessment of endothelial damage was performed by using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The average difference for cell area damage for analyses performed by 1 observer twice was 1.41%. For analyses performed by 2 observers, the average difference was 1.71%. Three masked observers were 100% successful in matching the randomized stained corneas to their randomized processed Adobe images. Vital dye staining of corneal endothelial cells can be combined with Adobe Photoshop software to yield a quantitative assessment of areas of acute endothelial cell loss and/or damage. This described technique holds promise for a more consistent and accurate method to evaluate the surgical trauma to the endothelial cell layer in laboratory models. This method of quantitative analysis can probably be generalized to any area of research that involves areas that are differentiated by color or contrast.

  15. Agar Plates Made from Common Supermarket Substances and Bacillus subtilis Natto as an Inexpensive Approach to Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Josef Scharfenberg


    Full Text Available To address the possible limitations that financial restrictions may have on students’ independent experimentation at school, we developed and implemented an inexpensive approach for basic microbiology education. We describe four nutrient agars consisting only of everyday substances available from the supermarket or online that we developed to replace standard agars and specific agars. Additionally, we selected Bacillus subtilis natto as an example of a pure-culture species. Our tip first reports the four supermarket-substance agar variants; second, it suggests utilizing them to introduce basic microbiological techniques; and third, it introduces B. subtilis natto in the context of the antibacterial effects of antibiotics as well as of supermarket products which students can bring to class from home. We implemented our approach in microbiology education at school as well as in pre-service teacher education and in in-service teacher professional development courses at our university. Finally, our paper provides worksheets for all the experiments. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices. If the soil plates described in the activity are opened, a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 is required.

  16. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered (United States)

    Desrosier, James


    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  17. Inexpensive, realtime tele-ultrasound using a commercial, web-based video streaming device. (United States)

    Paulus, Yannis M; Thompson, Noel P


    We have devised an inexpensive, web-based tele-ultrasound system using commercially-available video streaming equipment. We examined the spatial and grey scale resolution, and the delay time of the system. The receiving PC was tested at various distances from the transmitting site, from 3.2 km to 4828 km. Standard resolution targets and echocardiography movie strips recorded on DVDs were used to assess the image quality. A qualitative assessment was made by an expert sonographer. As the distance between the transmitter and the receiver increased, the scan smoothness decreased and the delay increased. At a distance of 3.2 km the delay was 2-3 s, and at 4828 km it was 10-15 s. The delay was short enough to allow realtime guidance of the scanning technician by telephone. The system allows inexpensive, readily available, realtime tele-ultrasonography.

  18. An inexpensive spectroscopic beam monitor for hard X-ray synchrotron applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, A [Science Payload and Advanced Concepts Office, ESA/ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Andersson, S [Science Payload and Advanced Concepts Office, ESA/ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hartog, R den [Science Payload and Advanced Concepts Office, ESA/ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Quarati, F [Science Payload and Advanced Concepts Office, ESA/ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Webb, A [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Welter, E [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D 22607 Hamburg (Germany)


    We describe an inexpensive beam monitor for hard X-ray synchrotron applications which has good spectroscopic abilities and can operate without cooling. The device is centred on an inexpensive, commercial off-the-shelf, large area (1.2 x 1.2 mm{sup 2}) Si photodiode operated in single counting mode. Measurements carried out at the HASYLAB synchrotron research facility have shown that it is fully spectroscopic across the energy range 8 keV to 100 keV with a measured energy resolution of {approx} 1.2 keV FWHM at room temperature. The measured resolutions were found to be the same under pencil-beam and full-area illumination, indicating uniform crystallinity and stoichiometry of the bulk. The low cost, simplicity and performance of the detector make it suitable for a wider range of applications, e.g., in undergraduate laboratory experiments.

  19. An inexpensive spectroscopic beam monitor for hard X-ray synchrotron applications

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, A; Den Hartog, R; Quarati, F; Webb, A; Welter, E; HASYLAB at DESY, Hamburg, Germany


    We describe an inexpensive beam monitor for hard X-ray synchrotron applications which has good spectroscopic abilities and can operate without cooling. The device is centred on an inexpensive, commercial off-the-shelf, large area (1.2 × 1.2 mm2) Si photodiode operated in single counting mode. Measurements carried out at the HASYLAB synchrotron research facility have shown that it is fully spectroscopic across the energy range 8 keV to 100 keV with a measured energy resolution of ~ 1.2 keV FWHM at room temperature. The measured resolutions were found to be the same under pencil-beam and full-area illumination, indicating uniform crystallinity and stoichiometry of the bulk. The low cost, simplicity and performance of the detector make it suitable for a wider range of applications, e.g., in undergraduate laboratory experiments.

  20. Simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices for the generation of monodisperse multiple emulsions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang


    Droplet-based microfluidic devices have become a preferred versatile platform for various fields in physics, chemistry and biology. Polydimethylsiloxane soft lithography, the mainstay for fabricating microfluidic devices, usually requires the usage of expensive apparatus and a complex manufacturing procedure. Here, we report the design and fabrication of simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices based on microscope glass slides and pulled glass capillaries, for generating monodisperse multiple emulsions. The advantages of our method lie in a simple manufacturing procedure, inexpensive processing equipment and flexibility in the surface modification of the designed microfluidic devices. Different types of devices have been designed and tested and the experimental results demonstrated their robustness for preparing monodisperse single, double, triple and multi-component emulsions. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Using inexpensive Jell-O chips for hands-on microfluidics education. (United States)

    Yang, Cheng Wei T; Ouellet, Eric; Lagally, Eric T


    As the field of microfluidics continues to grow, there is an increasing demand for public education about this technology. This article presents a quick, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for teaching microfluidics to younger students and the general public. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at .).

  2. Computationally Inexpensive Approach for Pitch Control of Offshore Wind Turbine on Barge Floating Platform


    Shan Zuo; Song, Y. D.; Lei Wang; Qing-wang Song


    Offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) has gained increasing attention during the past decade because of the offshore high-quality wind power and complex load environment. The control system is a tradeoff between power tracking and fatigue load reduction in the above-rated wind speed area. In allusion to the external disturbances and uncertain system parameters of OFWT due to the proximity to load centers and strong wave coupling, this paper proposes a computationally inexpensive robust adapti...

  3. Measurement of neural signals from inexpensive, wireless and dry EEG systems. (United States)

    Grummett, T S; Leibbrandt, R E; Lewis, T W; DeLosAngeles, D; Powers, D M W; Willoughby, J O; Pope, K J; Fitzgibbon, S P


    Electroencephalography (EEG) is challenged by high cost, immobility of equipment and the use of inconvenient conductive gels. We compared EEG recordings obtained from three systems that are inexpensive, wireless, and/or dry (no gel), against recordings made with a traditional, research-grade EEG system, in order to investigate the ability of these 'non-traditional' systems to produce recordings of comparable quality to a research-grade system. The systems compared were: Emotiv EPOC (inexpensive and wireless), B-Alert (wireless), g.Sahara (dry) and g.HIamp (research-grade). We compared the ability of the systems to demonstrate five well-studied neural phenomena: (1) enhanced alpha activity with eyes closed versus open; (2) visual steady-state response (VSSR); (3) mismatch negativity; (4) P300; and (5) event-related desynchronization/synchronization. All systems measured significant alpha augmentation with eye closure, and were able to measure VSSRs (although these were smaller with g.Sahara). The B-Alert and g.Sahara were able to measure the three time-locked phenomena equivalently to the g.HIamp. The Emotiv EPOC did not have suitably located electrodes for two of the tasks and synchronization considerations meant that data from the time-locked tasks were not assessed. The results show that inexpensive, wireless, or dry systems may be suitable for experimental studies using EEG, depending on the research paradigm, and within the constraints imposed by their limited electrode placement and number.

  4. Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project Mr. Eric J. Paulson-Vehicle Analyst Rocket Propulsion Division Combustion devices Branch build axisymmetric cold flow nozzle test articles using plastic-based inexpensive rapid additive manufacturing – Feasible to rapid prototype lobed...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2015-March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test

  5. The financial impact of the incorporation of IMRT and RapidArc™ techniques on shielding calculation of a linear accelerator; O impacto financeiro da incorporacao das tecnicas de IMRT e RapidArc™ no calculo de blindagem de um acelerador linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maira R.; Silveira, Thiago B.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Trindade, Cassia; Martins, Lais P.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Given the new methodology introduced in the shielding calculation due to recent modulated techniques in radiotherapy treatment, it became necessary to evaluate the impact of changes in the accelerator routine using such techniques. Based on a group of 30 patients from the National Cancer Institute (INCA) the workload multiplier factors for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT factor) and for RapidArc™ (RA factor) were established. Four different routines in a 6 MV generic accelerator were proposed to estimate the impact of these modified workloads in the building cost of the secondary barriers. The results indicate that if 50% of patients are treating with IMRT, the secondary barrier becomes 14,1% more expensive than the barrier calculated for conformal treatments exclusive. While RA, in the same proportion, leads to a barrier only 3,7% more expensive. Showing that RA can, while reducing treatment time, increase the proportion of patients treated with modulation technique, without increasing the cost of the barrier, when compared with IMRT. (author)

  6. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ


    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  7. Microwave extraction-isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (ME-IRIS): a novel technique for rapid extraction and in-line analysis of δ18O and δ2H values of water in plants, soils and insects. (United States)

    Munksgaard, Niels C; Cheesman, Alexander W; Wurster, Chris M; Cernusak, Lucas A; Bird, Michael I


    Traditionally, stable isotope analysis of plant and soil water has been a technically challenging, labour-intensive and time-consuming process. Here we describe a rapid single-step technique which combines Microwave Extraction with Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy (ME-IRIS). Plant, soil and insect water is extracted into a dry air stream by microwave irradiation within a sealed vessel. The water vapor thus produced is carried to a cooled condensation chamber, which controls the water vapor concentration and flow rate to the spectrometer. Integration of the isotope signals over the whole analytical cycle provides quantitative δ(18)O and δ(2) H values for the initial liquid water contained in the sample. Calibration is carried out by the analysis of water standards using the same apparatus. Analysis of leaf and soil water by cryogenic vacuum distillation and IRMS was used to validate the ME-IRIS data. Comparison with data obtained by cryogenic distillation and IRMS shows that the new technique provides accurate water isotope data for leaves from a range of field-grown tropical plant species. However, two exotic nursery plants were found to suffer from spectral interferences from co-extracted organic compounds. The precision for extracted leaf, stem, soil and insect water was typically better than ±0.3 ‰ for δ(18)O and ±2 ‰ for δ(2) H values, and better than ±0.1 ‰ for δ(18)O and ±1 ‰ for δ(2) H values when analyzing water standards. The effects of sample size, microwave power and duration and sample-to-sample memory on isotope values were assessed. ME-IRIS provides rapid and low-cost extraction and analysis of δ(18)O and δ(2) H values in plant, soil and insect water (≈10-15 min for samples yielding ≈ 0.3 mL of water). The technique can accommodate whole leaves of many plant species. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A tunable high-pass filter for simple and inexpensive size-segregation of sub-10-nm nanoparticles (United States)

    Surawski, N. C.; Bezantakos, S.; Barmpounis, K.; Dallaston, M. C.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Biskos, G.


    Recent advanced in the fields of nanotechnology and atmospheric sciences underline the increasing need for sizing sub-10-nm aerosol particles in a simple yet efficient way. In this article, we develop, experimentally test and model the performance of a High-Pass Electrical Mobility Filter (HP-EMF) that can be used for sizing nanoparticles suspended in gaseous media. Experimental measurements of the penetration of nanoparticles having diameters down to ca 1nm through the HP-EMF are compared with predictions by an analytic, a semi-empirical and a numerical model. The results show that the HP-EMF effectively filters nanoparticles below a threshold diameter with an extremely high level of sizing performance, while it is easier to use compared to existing nanoparticle sizing techniques through design simplifications. What is more, the HP-EMF is an inexpensive and compact tool, making it an enabling technology for a variety of applications ranging from nanomaterial synthesis to distributed monitoring of atmospheric nanoparticles.

  9. A Simple and Inexpensive Electrochemical Assay for the Identification of Nitrogen Containing Explosives in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Erickson


    Full Text Available We report a simple and inexpensive electrochemical assay using a custom built hand-held potentiostat for the identification of explosives. The assay is based on a wipe test and is specifically designed for use in the field. The prototype instrument designed to run the assay is capable of performing time-resolved electrochemical measurements including cyclic square wave voltammetry using an embedded microcontroller with parts costing roughly $250 USD. We generated an example library of cyclic square wave voltammograms of 12 compounds including 10 nitroaromatics, a nitramine (RDX, and a nitrate ester (nitroglycine, and designed a simple discrimination algorithm based on this library data for identification.

  10. Data Science Innovations That Streamline Development, Documentation, Reproducibility, and Dissemination of Models in Computational Thermodynamics: An Application of Image Processing Techniques for Rapid Computation, Parameterization and Modeling of Phase Diagrams (United States)

    Ghiorso, M. S.


    Computational thermodynamics (CT) represents a collection of numerical techniques that are used to calculate quantitative results from thermodynamic theory. In the Earth sciences, CT is most often applied to estimate the equilibrium properties of solutions, to calculate phase equilibria from models of the thermodynamic properties of materials, and to approximate irreversible reaction pathways by modeling these as a series of local equilibrium steps. The thermodynamic models that underlie CT calculations relate the energy of a phase to temperature, pressure and composition. These relationships are not intuitive and they are seldom well constrained by experimental data; often, intuition must be applied to generate a robust model that satisfies the expectations of use. As a consequence of this situation, the models and databases the support CT applications in geochemistry and petrology are tedious to maintain as new data and observations arise. What is required to make the process more streamlined and responsive is a computational framework that permits the rapid generation of observable outcomes from the underlying data/model collections, and importantly, the ability to update and re-parameterize the constitutive models through direct manipulation of those outcomes. CT procedures that take models/data to the experiential reference frame of phase equilibria involve function minimization, gradient evaluation, the calculation of implicit lines, curves and surfaces, contour extraction, and other related geometrical measures. All these procedures are the mainstay of image processing analysis. Since the commercial escalation of video game technology, open source image processing libraries have emerged (e.g., VTK) that permit real time manipulation and analysis of images. These tools find immediate application to CT calculations of phase equilibria by permitting rapid calculation and real time feedback between model outcome and the underlying model parameters.

  11. Rapid and facile preparation of zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) oxide by microwave-solvothermal technique and its catalytic activity in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anchieta, Chayene G.; Severo, Eric C.; Rigo, Caroline; Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Kuhn, Raquel C., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Muller, Edson I.; Flores, Erico M.M. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Moreira, Regina F.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianópolis (Brazil); Foletto, Edson L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil)


    In this work zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) oxide was rapidly and easily prepared by microwave-solvothermal route and its catalytic property in photo-Fenton reaction was evaluated. The effects of microwave heating time and power on the properties of produced particles were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms were the techniques used for characterizing the solid products. The synthesized material was tested as a catalyst in the degradation of the textile dye molecule by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. Characterization results showed that the microwave heating time and power have significant influences on the formation of the phase spinel as well as on its physical properties. The reaction results showed that the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide has good photocatalytic activity, which can be attributed to high surface area and pore volume, and large pore size. The ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide produced by the microwave irradiation exhibited promising photocatalytic activity for the removal of textile dye, reaching nearly 100% of decolorization at 40 min and 60% of mineralization at 240 min. Therefore, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles rapidly prepared by the microwave route have the potential for use in treatment of textile wastewater by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. - Highlights: • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by microwave-solvothermal method. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by different microwave heating times and powers. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was used as heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst. • Degradation of Procion red dye using heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was highly efficient to degrade textile dye under visible light.

  12. Why flies? Inexpensive public engagement exercises to explain the value of basic biomedical research on Drosophila melanogaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stefan R. Pulver; Paola Cognigni; Barry Denholm; Caroline Fabre; Wendy X. W. Gu; Gerit Linneweber; Lucia Prieto-Godino; Vasja Urbančič; Maarten Zwart; Irene Miguel-Aliaga


    .... Here, we present a set of simple, inexpensive public outreach exercises aimed at explaining to the public why basic research on one particular invertebrate, the insect Drosophila melanogaster, is valuable...

  13. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N


    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  14. A quick inexpensive laboratory method in acute paracetamol poisoning could improve risk assessment, management and resource utilization (United States)

    Senarathna, S.M.D.K. Ganga; Ranganathan, Shalini S.; Buckley, Nick; Soysa, S.S.S.B.D. Preethi; Fernandopulle, B. M. Rohini


    Objectives: Acute paracetamol poisoning is an emerging problem in Sri Lanka. Management guidelines recommend ingested dose and serum paracetamol concentrations to assess the risk. Our aim was to determine the usefulness of the patient's history of an ingested dose of >150 mg/kg and paracetamol concentration obtained by a simple colorimetric method to assess risk in patients with acute paracetamol poisoning. Materials and Methods: Serum paracetamol concentrations were determined in 100 patients with a history of paracetamol overdose using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC); (reference method). The results were compared to those obtained with a colorimetric method. The utility of risk assessment by reported dose ingested and colorimetric analysis were compared. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the history of ingested dose was 0.578 and there was no dose cut-off providing useful risk categorization. Both analytical methods had less than 5% intra- and inter-batch variation and were accurate on spiked samples. The time from blood collection to result was six times faster and ten times cheaper for colorimetry (30 minutes, US$2) than for HPLC (180 minutes, US$20). The correlation coefficient between the paracetamol levels by the two methods was 0.85. The agreement on clinical risk categorization on the standard nomogram was also good (Kappa = 0.62, sensitivity 81%, specificity 89%). Conclusions: History of dose ingested alone greatly over-estimated the number of patients who need antidotes and it was a poor predictor of risk. Paracetamol concentrations by colorimetry are rapid and inexpensive. The use of these would greatly improve the assessment of risk and greatly reduce unnecessary expenditure on antidotes. PMID:23087506

  15. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  16. Simulation training for medical emergencies in the dental setting using an inexpensive software application. (United States)

    Kishimoto, N; Mukai, N; Honda, Y; Hirata, Y; Tanaka, M; Momota, Y


    Every dental provider needs to be educated about medical emergencies to provide safe dental care. Simulation training is available with simulators such as advanced life support manikins and robot patients. However, the purchase and development costs of these simulators are high. We have developed a simulation training course on medical emergencies using an inexpensive software application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the educational effectiveness of this course. Fifty-one dental providers participated in this study from December 2014 to March 2015. Medical simulation software was used to simulate a patient's vital signs. We evaluated participants' ability to diagnose and treat vasovagal syncope or anaphylaxis with an evaluation sheet and conducted a questionnaire before and after the scenario-based simulation training. The median evaluation sheet score for vasovagal syncope increased significantly from 7/9 before to 9/9 after simulation training. The median score for anaphylaxis also increased significantly from 8/12 to 12/12 (P simulation training. This simulation course improved participants' ability to diagnose and treat medical emergencies and improved their confidence. This course can be offered inexpensively using a software application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Inexpensive Aerial Photogrammetry for Studies of Whales and Large Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Dawson


    Full Text Available We describe a simple system enabling accurate measurement of swimming marine mammals and other large vertebrates from low-altitude single-frame photogrammetry via inexpensive modifications to a “prosumer” unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV equipped with gimballed micro4/3 camera and 25 mm lens. Image scale is established via an independently powered LIDAR/GPS data-logging system recording altitude and GPS location at 1 Hz. Photogrammetric calibration of the camera and lens allowed distortion parameters to be rigorously accounted for during image analysis, via a custom-programmed Graphical User Interface (GUI running in MATLAB. The datalogger, camera calibration methods and measurement software are adaptable to a wide range of UAV platforms. Mean LIDAR accuracy, measured from 10 bridges 9–39 m above water, was 99.9%. We conducted 136 flights in New Zealand's subantarctic Auckland Islands to measure southern right whales. Mean lengths of 10 individual whales, each photographed between 7 and 15 times, had CVs (SD/mean ranging from 0.5 to 1.8% (mean = 1.2%. Repeated measurements of a floating reference target showed a mean error of c.1%. Our system is relatively inexpensive, easily put together, produces accurate, repeatable measurements from single vertical images, and hence is applicable to a wide range of ecological questions in marine and terrestrial habitats.

  18. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin L. Cooper


    Full Text Available Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm’s innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties.

  19. Rapid intrinsic fluorescence method for direct identification of pathogens in blood cultures. (United States)

    Walsh, John D; Hyman, Jay M; Borzhemskaya, Larisa; Bowen, Ann; McKellar, Caroline; Ullery, Michael; Mathias, Erin; Ronsick, Christopher; Link, John; Wilson, Mark; Clay, Bradford; Robinson, Ron; Thorpe, Thurman; van Belkum, Alex; Dunne, W Michael


    A positive blood culture is a critical result that requires prompt identification of the causative agent. This article describes a simple method to identify microorganisms from positive blood culture broth within the time taken to perform a Gram stain (identification of the etiologic agent may benefit the clinical management of sepsis. Further evaluation is now warranted to determine the performance of the method using clinical blood culture specimens. Physicians often require the identity of the infective agent in order to make life-saving adjustments to empirical therapy or to switch to less expensive and/or more targeted antimicrobials. However, standard identification procedures take up to 2 days after a blood culture is signaled positive, and even most rapid molecular techniques take several hours to provide a result. Other techniques are faster (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight [MALDI-TOF] mass spectrometry) but require time-consuming manual processing steps and expensive equipment. There remains a clear need for a simple, inexpensive method to rapidly identify microorganisms directly from positive blood cultures. The promising new method described in this research article can identify microorganisms in minutes by optical spectroscopy, thus permitting the lab to simultaneously report the presence of a positive blood culture and the organism's identity.

  20. Terahertz Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald


    Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

  1. A Simple Inexpensive Bridgman-Stockbarger Crystal Growth System for Organic Materials (United States)

    Choi, J.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Wang, W. S.; Metzl, R.; Bhat, K.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.


    Direct observation of solid-liquid interface is important for the directional solidification to determine the desired interface shape by controlling the growth parameters. To grow good quality single crystals of novel organic nonlinear optical materials, a simple inexpensive Bridgman-Stockbarger (BS) crystal growth system has been designed and fabricated. Two immiscible liquids have been utilized to create two zones for this crystal growth system. Bulk single crystals of benzil derivative and n-salicylidene-aniline have been successfully grown in this system. The optimum lowering rate has been found to be 0.1 mm/h for the flat interface. Results on the crystal growth and other parameters of the grown crystals are presented.

  2. Inexpensive Monocular Pico-Projector-based Augmented Reality Display for Surgical Microscope. (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Becker, Brian C; Riviere, Cameron N


    This paper describes an inexpensive pico-projector-based augmented reality (AR) display for a surgical microscope. The system is designed for use with Micron, an active handheld surgical tool that cancels hand tremor of surgeons to improve microsurgical accuracy. Using the AR display, virtual cues can be injected into the microscope view to track the movement of the tip of Micron, show the desired position, and indicate the position error. Cues can be used to maintain high performance by helping the surgeon to avoid drifting out of the workspace of the instrument. Also, boundary information such as the view range of the cameras that record surgical procedures can be displayed to tell surgeons the operation area. Furthermore, numerical, textual, or graphical information can be displayed, showing such things as tool tip depth in the work space and on/off status of the canceling function of Micron.

  3. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen (United States)

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard


    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Pinho


    Full Text Available Introduction: Measuring knee extensors' power in elderly population is crucial but not accessible to everyone. Objective: To provide a method to calculate knee extensors' power in a conventional knee extension machine. Method: Thirteen sedentary elderly women (69.3±4.1 years performed six knee extensions as fast as possible. Kinematic data, an anthropometric model and Newtonian mechanics was used to write movement equations that allowed calculating knee extensors' power and work. The reliability was assessed by variables' coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient and standard measurement error. Results: Knee extensors' peak power and work values obtained were in agreement with the literature. We found high intraclass ICC values for both variables (93% and 97%, respectively and low normalized SEM (10.13% and 2.09%, respectively. Conclusion: We provided an inexpensive method to assess a major physical dysfunction indicator in older adults which can also be used to evaluate the progression of an intervention.

  5. An Inexpensive Radiosonde Chilled Mirror Sensor: An Old Technology With New Impact (United States)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)


    The availability of an inexpensive chilled mirror dewpoint sensor has made improved atmospheric relative humidity measurements accessible. Comparisons between the chilled mirror sensor and routine radiosonde sensors have provided new information on the limitation and reliability of the routine measurements. The chilled mirror has observed detailed moisture profiles at cirrus cloud levels when cirrus was not visible, a feature that routine sensors fail to observe. Comparison measurements between the chilled mirror, the carbon resistive (hygristor) and, the capacitive sensors will be discussed. Measurements from three locations (Wallops Island; Andros Island, Bahamas; and Camborne, UK) will be highlighted. It is conceivable that the chilled mirror sensor, when its capability is fully understood, may be sufficiently reliable to serve as a reference.

  6. A new and inexpensive temperature-measuring system. Application to photovoltaic solar facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohorquez, Miguel Angel Martinez; Enrique Gomez, Juan Manuel; Andujar Marquez, Jose Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, Carretera Huelva - Palos de la, Frontera S/N, 21819 Huelva (Spain)


    This article presents the design, construction and testing of a new and inexpensive digital sensor-based temperature-measuring system, whose principal characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation and easy scaling, and all this at a very low cost. This new digital sensor-based measuring system overcomes the traditional problems of digital measuring sensors, offering characteristics similar to Pt100-based measuring systems, and therefore can be used in any installation where reliable temperature measurement is necessary. It is especially suitable for installations where cost is a deciding factor in the choice of measuring system. It presents a practical application of the developed instrumentation system for use in photovoltaic solar facilities. This new temperature-measuring system has been registered in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office with the number P200803364. (author)

  7. Terbium fluorescence as a sensitive, inexpensive probe for UV-induced damage in nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Yazbi, Amira F.; Loppnow, Glen R., E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simple, inexpensive, mix-and-read assay for positive detection of DNA damage. •Recognition of undamaged DNA via hybridization to a hairpin probe. •Terbium(III) fluorescence reports the amount of damage by binding to ssDNA. •Tb/hairpin is a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for DNA damage. -- Abstract: Much effort has been focused on developing methods for detecting damaged nucleic acids. However, almost all of the proposed methods consist of multi-step procedures, are limited, require expensive instruments, or suffer from a high level of interferences. In this paper, we present a novel simple, inexpensive, mix-and-read assay that is generally applicable to nucleic acid damage and uses the enhanced luminescence due to energy transfer from nucleic acids to terbium(III) (Tb{sup 3+}). Single-stranded oligonucleotides greatly enhance the Tb{sup 3+} emission, but duplex DNA does not. With the use of a DNA hairpin probe complementary to the oligonucleotide of interest, the Tb{sup 3+}/hairpin probe is applied to detect ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage. The hairpin probe hybridizes only with the undamaged DNA. However, the damaged DNA remains single-stranded and enhances the intrinsic fluorescence of Tb{sup 3+}, producing a detectable signal directly proportional to the amount of DNA damage. This allows the Tb{sup 3+}/hairpin probe to be used for sensitive quantification of UV-induced DNA damage. The Tb{sup 3+}/hairpin probe showed superior selectivity to DNA damage compared to conventional molecular beacons probes (MBs) and its sensitivity is more than 2.5 times higher than MBs with a limit of detection of 4.36 ± 1.2 nM. In addition, this probe is easier to synthesize and more than eight times cheaper than MBs, which makes its use recommended for high-throughput, quantitative analysis of DNA damage.

  8. Computationally Inexpensive Incorporation of Solute Transport Physics into Pore-Network Models (United States)

    Mehmani, Y.; Oostrom, M.


    Several modeling approaches have been developed in the literature for simulating solute transport at the pore scale. This includes "direct modeling" where the fundamental equations are solved directly on the actual pore-scale geometry (obtained from digital images). These methods, even though very accurate, come at a high computational cost. A pore-network representation of the pore-scale geometry is a first step in reducing the computational cost. However, the geometric simplification is typically accompanied by a secondary simplification of the physics of the problem (contributing to their inaccuracy). This is seen in the widely-used "mixed-cell method" which has simplifications in two key components: 1) intra-pore mixing, and 2) inter-pore rate expressions. Nevertheless, the method is popular because it is computationally inexpensive, allowing for examining larger and more representative computational domains. In this work, we explore two novel methods for circumventing the aforementioned limitations of the mixed-cell method (intra-pore mixing and inter-pore rate expressions); all while making an effort to keep the computational cost low. We show that while intra-pore mixing can be accurately taken into account, correcting for the inter-pore rate expressions has fundamental implications on the applicability of Eulerian pore-network models and the interpretation of the results obtained therefrom. Despite recent important progress in the development of accurate and robust direct modeling tools, there is a need in the literature for simple, accurate, and inexpensive models both from a scientific as well as a practical point of view.

  9. Inexpensive and versatile measurement tools using purpose-made capillary electrophoresis devices coupled with contactless conductivity detection: A view from the case study in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Anh Duong


    Full Text Available In this study, the development of purpose-made capillary electrophoresis (CE devices with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D as a simple and inexpensive measurement tool and its applications for water monitoring, food control and pharmaceutical analyses in Vietnam are reviewed. The combination of CE and C4D, both relying on the control of the movements of ions in an electrical field, can be realizable even with a modest financial budget and limited experimental skills and expertise. Different CE-C4D configurations designed and developed for various applications were highlighted. Some perspectives for a wider recognition of its potential in Vietnam and for rendering this technique as an analytical tool for the population are discussed.

  10. Improvements and Variants of the Multiple Antigen Blot Assay-MABA: An Immunoenzymatic Technique for Simultaneous Antigen and Antibody Screening. (United States)

    Noya, Oscar; Losada, Sandra; Toledo, Marilyan; Gauna, Adriana; Lorenzo, María Angelita; Bermúdez, Henry; de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón


    This simple, versatile, reliable, reproducible, multipurpose, and inexpensive technique is based on the adhesion of different antigens to a single nitrocellulose strip using, as template, an acrylic device containing 28 parallel channels. The inclusion of channels containing normal human serum improves the quality control of this assay. Antigen-sensitized nitrocellulose strips are cut perpendicularly to the antigen-rows, exposed to immune sera followed by the appropriate conjugate. Positive signals are recorded using chemiluminescent or precipitable colorimetric substrates. This assay allows the simultaneous qualitative demonstration of antigenicity and immunogenicity of antigens obtained as synthetic peptides, recombinant molecules, or crude preparations, with high sensitivity and specificity. Its major value is based on the rapid and simultaneous comparative evaluation of various antigenic preparations allowing the diagnosis of a variety of infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases. It can in general be used to detect any type of antibody or circulating antigen. Some improvements and variants of the original technique are included.

  11. A visual training tool for the Photoload sampling technique (United States)

    Violet J. Holley; Robert E. Keane


    This visual training aid is designed to provide Photoload users a tool to increase the accuracy of fuel loading estimations when using the Photoload technique. The Photoload Sampling Technique (RMRS-GTR-190) provides fire managers a sampling method for obtaining consistent, accurate, inexpensive, and quick estimates of fuel loading. It is designed to require only one...

  12. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia


    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  13. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID) (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.


    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  14. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.


    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  15. Efficacy of hand held, inexpensive UV light sources on Acanthamoeba, causative organism in amoebic keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cometa


    Full Text Available Ivan Cometa1, Andrew Rogerson1, Scott Schatz21Department of Biology, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, USA; 2Arizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Multipurpose lens cleaning solutions (MPS fail to consistently kill or inactivate Acanthamoeba cysts and UV irradiation, while effective at high doses, can damage contact lenses. The present study considered synergy of action between MPS and hand-held inexpensive (ie, relatively weak UV irradiation units. Regardless of disinfection method recently formed cysts (<10 days were far more susceptible to treatment than mature cysts (>14 days. This has important implications for future protocols on testing methods for killing amoebae. The study also showed that cysts of different strains (two tested, FLA2 and P120 are variable in their response to MPS, presumably reflecting differences in cyst wall structure and thus permeability to the disinfectant. On the other hand, the effect of UV irradiation was not wall structure dependent. A 6-hour treatment with MPS alone killed trophic amoebae but failed to kill any mature cysts. Cysts of strain FLA2 were killed after 24 hours with MPS but cysts of strain P120 survived. UV irradiation with the larger 4 W unit killed all cysts after 7 minutes and was more effective than the smaller battery-powered unit (after 10 minutes about 50% of cysts were killed. When the larger unit was used with the MPS disinfection, all trophozoites were killed using UV for 3 minutes and MPS for 1 hour. The resistant P120 cysts remained a challenge but a 2- to 4-minute UV treatment followed by MPS for 3 or 6 hours reduced mature cyst survival by about 50%. The small unit in combination with MPS was less effective but did reduce the time required to kill trophic amoebae in MPS (6 hours MPS alone versus 3 hours MPS with a 1-minute UV treatment. In short, inexpensive UV units do enhance MPS disinfection and future lens cleaning systems

  16. Inexpensive, Low Power, Open-Source Data Logging in the Field (United States)

    Sandell, C. T.; Wickert, A. D.


    Collecting a robust data set of environmental conditions with commercial equipment is often cost prohibitive. I present the ALog, a general-purpose, inexpensive, low-power, open-source data logger that has proven its durability on long-term deployments in the harsh conditions of high altitude glaciers and humid river deltas. The ALog was developed to fill the need for a capable, rugged, easy-to-use, inexpensive, open-source hardware targeted at long-term remote deployment in nearly any environment. Building on the popular Arduino platform, the hardware features a high-precision clock, full size SD card slot for high-volume data storage, screw terminals, six analog inputs, two digital inputs, one digital interrupt, 3.3V and 5V power outputs, and SPI and I2C communication capability. The design is focused on extremely low power consumption allowing the Alog to be deployed for years on a single set of common alkaline batteries. The power efficiency of the Alog eliminates the difficulties associated with field power collection including additional hardware and installation costs, dependence on weather conditions, possible equipment failure, and the transport of bulky/heavy equipment to a remote site. Battery power increases suitable data collection sites (too shaded for photovoltaics) and allows for low profile installation options (including underground). The ALog has gone through continuous development with over four years of successful data collection in hydrologic field research. Over this time, software support for a wide range of sensors has been made available such as ultrasonic rangefinders (for water level, snow accumulation and glacial melt), temperature sensors (air and groundwater), humidity sensors, pyranometers, inclinometers, rain gauges, soil moisture and water potential sensors, resistance-based tools to measure frost heave, and cameras that trigger on events. The software developed for use with the ALog allows simple integration of established

  17. Furuncular myiasis: a simple and rapid method for extraction of intact Dermatobia hominis larvae. (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K; Keystone, Jay S; Kain, Kevin C


    We report a case of furuncular myiasis complicated by Staphylococcus aureus infection and beta-hemolytic streptococcal cellulitis. The Dermatobia hominis larva that caused this lesion could not be extracted using standard methods, including suffocation and application of lateral pressure, and surgery was contraindicated because of cellulitis. The botfly maggot was completely and rapidly extracted with an inexpensive, disposable, commercial venom extractor.

  18. Inexpensive designer antigen for anti-HIV antibody detection with high sensitivity and specificity. (United States)

    Talha, Sheikh M; Salminen, Teppo; Chugh, Deepti A; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Soukka, Tero; Pettersson, Kim; Khanna, Navin


    A novel recombinant multiepitope protein (MEP) has been designed that consists of four linear, immunodominant, and phylogenetically conserved epitopes, taken from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-encoded antigens that are used in many third-generation immunoassay kits. This HIV-MEP has been evaluated for its diagnostic potential in the detection of anti-HIV antibodies in human sera. A synthetic MEP gene encoding these epitopes, joined by flexible peptide linkers in a single open reading frame, was designed and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant HIV-MEP was purified using a single affinity step, yielding >20 mg pure protein/liter culture, and used as the coating antigen in an in-house immunoassay. Bound anti-HIV antibodies were detected by highly sensitive time-resolved fluorometry, using europium(III) chelate-labeled anti-human antibody. The sensitivity and specificity of the HIV-MEP were evaluated using Boston Biomedica worldwide HIV performance, HIV seroconversion, and viral coinfection panels and were found to be comparable with those of commercially available anti-HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. The careful choice of epitopes, high epitope density, and an E. coli-based expression system, coupled with a simple purification protocol and the use of europium(III) chelate-labeled tracer, provide the capability for the development of an inexpensive diagnostic test with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils. (United States)

    Worthington, Max J H; Kucera, Renata L; Albuquerque, Inês S; Gibson, Christopher T; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D; Campbell, Jonathan A; Alboaiji, Salah F K; Muller, Katherine A; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ippolito, Samuel J; Lewis, David A; Quinton, Jamie S; Ellis, Amanda V; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M


    Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low-cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by-product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury-capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi-kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. A stable and inexpensive wavelength reference for precise wavelength calibration of radial velocity spectrographs (United States)

    Feger, Tobias; Ireland, Michael J.; Bento, Joao; Bacigalupo, Carlos


    We present a stable, inexpensive wavelength reference, based on a white-light interferometer for the use on current and future (arrays of) diffraction-limited radial velocity (RV) spectrographs. The primary aim of using an interferometer is to obtain a dense sinusoidal wavelength reference with spectral coverage between 450-650 nm. Its basic setup consists of an unbalanced fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) that creates an interference pattern in the spectral domain due to superposition of phase delayed light, set by a fixed optical path-length difference (OPD). To achieve long-term stability, the interferometer is actively locked to a stable atomic line. The system operates in closed-loop using a thermo-optic modulator as the phase feedback component. We conducted stability measurements by superimposing the wavelength reference with thorium-argon (ThAr) emission lines and found the differential RMS shift to be ~5 m s-1 within 30 minute bins in an experiment lasting 5 hours.

  1. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  2. Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Accuracy of an Inexpensive Water Temperature Logger

    KAUST Repository

    Lentz, S. J.


    Onset\\'s HOBO U22 Water Temp Pros are small, reliable, relatively inexpensive, self-contained temperature loggers that are widely used in studies of oceans, lakes, and streams. An in-house temperature bath calibration of 158 Temp Pros indicated root-mean-square (RMS) errors ranging from 0.01° to 0.14°C, with one value of 0.23°C, consistent with the factory specifications. Application of a quadratic calibration correction substantially reduced the RMS error to less than 0.009°C in all cases. The primary correction was a bias error typically between -0.1° and 0.15°C. Comparison of water temperature measurements from Temp Pros and more accurate temperature loggers during two oceanographic studies indicates that calibrated Temp Pros have an RMSerror of~0.02°C throughout the water column at night and beneath the surface layer influenced by penetrating solar radiation during the day. Larger RMS errors (up to 0.08°C) are observed near the surface during the day due to solar heating of the black Temp Pro housing. Errors due to solar heating are significantly reduced by wrapping the housing with white electrical tape. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

  3. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Barnett


    Full Text Available We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs in immunochromatographic (lateral flow assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format.

  4. Sustainable Electrochemically-Mediated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization with Inexpensive Non-Platinum Electrodes. (United States)

    Fantin, Marco; Lorandi, Francesca; Isse, Abdirisak A; Gennaro, Armando


    Electrochemically-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (eATRP) of oligo(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate in water is investigated on glassy carbon, Au, Ti, Ni, NiCr and SS304. eATRPs are performed both in divided and undivided electrochemical cells operating under either potentiostatic or galvanostatic mode. The reaction is fast, reaching high conversions in ≈4 h, and yields polymers with dispersity <1.2 and molecular weights close to the theoretical values. Most importantly, eATRP in a highly simplified setup (undivided cell under galvanostatic mode) with inexpensive nonnoble metals, such as NiCr and SS304, as cathode is well-controlled. Additionally, these electrodes neither release harmful ions in solution nor react directly with the CX chain end and can be reused several times. It is demonstrated that Pt can be replaced with cheaper, and more readily available materials without negatively affecting eATRP performance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Sustainable Hypersaline Microbial Fuel Cells: Inexpensive Recyclable Polymer Supports for Carbon Nanotube Conductive Paint Anodes. (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Shivel, Nelson D; Sifat, Iram; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Minteer, Shelley D


    Microbial fuel cells are an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, but to be commercially viable and sustainable, the electrode materials must be inexpensive, recyclable, and reliable. In this study, recyclable polymeric supports were explored for the development of anode electrodes to be applied in single-chamber microbial fuel cells operated in field under hypersaline conditions. The support was covered with a carbon nanotube (CNT) based conductive paint, and biofilms were able to colonize the electrodes. The single-chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes delivered a reproducible power output after 15 days of operation to achieve 12±1 mW m -2 at a current density of 69±7 mA m -2 . The decrease of the performance in long-term experiments was mostly related to inorganic precipitates on the cathode electrode and did not affect the performance of the anode, as shown by experiments in which the cathode was replaced and the fuel cell performance was regenerated. The results of these studies show the feasibility of polymeric supports coated with CNT-based paint for microbial fuel cell applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. An Inexpensive Way of Teaching Uncertainty and Mineral Exploration Drilling in the Classroom (United States)

    Aquino, J. S.


    This presentation is all about inexpensive ways of teaching uncertainty and mineral exploration drilling in the classroom. These labs were developed as an off-shoot of my years of mineral industry experience before I transitioned to geoscience education. I have developed several classroom lab exercises that relate to the role of modeling, uncertainty and prediction in mineral exploration. These lessons are mostly less expensive ($construct several geologic sections that will "model" the shape of the hidden orebody. Using bamboo skewers as their drilling equipment, students then commence their drilling and along the way learn the importance of drill spacing in decreasing uncertainty or increasing confidence. Lastly, the mineral separation lab gives them an opportunity to design another experiment that mimics mineral processing and learns a valuable lesson on the difficulties in recovery and how it relates to entropy (no such thing as 100% recoverability). The last two labs can be further enhanced with economic analysis through incorporation of drilling and processing costs. Students further appreciate the world of of mineral exploration with several YouTube videos on the use of 3D and 4D GIS mine modeling softwares. However at the same time, I forewarn them about the dangers on the dependence to these visually attractive computer-generated products without field verification or the fidelity to the ground-based and drillcore-based observations.

  7. Design of an inexpensive integrating sphere student laboratory setup for the optical characterization of light sources (United States)

    Leloup, Frédéric B.; Leyre, Sven; Bauwens, Eva; Van den Abeele, Toon; Hanselaer, Peter


    In this paper, the design of an inexpensive integrating sphere setup is presented, enabling students to perform optical characterization of light sources with reasonable accuracy, in a student laboratory context. Instead of using an expensive sphere with magnesium oxide or barium sulfate coating, a cheap polystyrene sphere is employed. In combination with a low-cost USB spectroradiometer, the system enables the direct measurement of the spectral radiant power of a light source. In addition to the radiant power, the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, and distinctive colorimetric quantities (colour coordinates, colour temperature, and colour rendering index) can be determined. Besides a description of the equipment used, the experimental measurement procedure and some typical measurement results are presented. A comparison between the data and the results obtained with scientific metrology instrumentation indicates reasonable accuracy. As a result, it can be concluded that the purpose of the presented experiments, being that students become acquainted with applications of radiometry and photometry, and with data collection and data analysis as in a professional context, is fully achieved with the described test setup.

  8. Short report: evaluation of a simple and inexpensive photometric device for the measurement of hemoglobin. (United States)

    Borrmann, Steffen; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Esser, Gilbert; Trinkle, Cordula; Issifou, Saadou; Grobusch, Martin P; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G


    We have evaluated the accuracy of a simple and inexpensive photometric device (DHT) for the estimation of the blood concentration of hemoglobin by comparison with an automated, high-resolution, flow cytometry-based hematology analyzer (CellDyn 3000) and a centrifugal quantitative buffy coat hematology system (QBC I). We have analyzed the hemoglobin values of 163 individual blood samples. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the methods agreed only poorly: mean differences were 1.0 g/dL with limits of agreement (LOA) of -1.2 g/dL to 3.2 g/dL for the comparison of DHT and CellDyn measurements, 0.5 g/dL with LOA of -2.0 g/dL to 3.0 g/dL for the comparison of DHT with QBC measurements, and 0.5 g/dL with LOA of -1.1 g/dL to 2.1 g/dL for the comparison of QBC with CellDyn measurements. We conclude that the poor agreement of the DHT with the CellDyn does not permit the use of the DHT for critical hemoglobin measurements, particularly in transfusion services.

  9. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  10. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer. (United States)

    Shen, Bailey Y; Mukai, Shizuo


    Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm × 91mm × 45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  11. A Portable, Inexpensive, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Based on the Raspberry Pi® Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Y. Shen


    Full Text Available Purpose. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras allow retinal photography without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil. However, currently available nonmydriatic fundus cameras are bulky, not portable, and expensive. Taking advantage of recent advances in mobile technology, we sought to create a nonmydriatic fundus camera that was affordable and could be carried in a white coat pocket. Methods. We built a point-and-shoot prototype camera using a Raspberry Pi computer, an infrared-sensitive camera board, a dual infrared and white light light-emitting diode, a battery, a 5-inch touchscreen liquid crystal display, and a disposable 20-diopter condensing lens. Our prototype camera was based on indirect ophthalmoscopy with both infrared and white lights. Results. The prototype camera measured 133mm×91mm×45mm and weighed 386 grams. The total cost of the components, including the disposable lens, was $185.20. The camera was able to obtain good-quality fundus images without pharmacologic dilation of the pupils. Conclusion. A fully functional, inexpensive, handheld, nonmydriatic fundus camera can be easily assembled from a relatively small number of components. With modest improvements, such a camera could be useful for a variety of healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in settings where a traditional table-mounted nonmydriatic fundus camera would be inconvenient.

  12. Tools for physiology labs: an inexpensive high-performance amplifier and electrode for extracellular recording. (United States)

    Land, B R; Wyttenbach, R A; Johnson, B R


    The cost of electronic equipment can be a critical barrier to including neurophysiology exercises in biology teaching programs. We describe the construction of a simple and inexpensive AC preamplifier with performance comparable to that of commercial products. The amplifier consists of two integrated circuits in five stages: differential input, fixed gain, variable gain (100 or 1000), low-pass filter (5 or 20 kHz), and 50 or 60 Hz notch filter. We compared our amplifier with two commercial units, the A-M Systems Model 1700 and the Grass P15. The quality of extracellular recording from a typical student preparation (spontaneously active crayfish motor nerve) was the same for all three amplifiers, although our amplifier has slightly higher internal noise than the P15 and slightly lower common-mode rejection than the 1700 and P15. In addition, we describe a simple suction electrode for extracellular nerve recording. It is easily constructed from readily available materials and uses a disposable plastic pipette tip, instead of the traditional glass tip, to contact the nerve. This tip is easily replaced if broken or clogged, and can be adapted to different recording conditions by selecting a different tip size or stretching the plastic. Development of this equipment is part of an ongoing project to promote neuroscience education by expanding the neurophysiology options available to laboratory instructors.

  13. Effective, Safe, and Inexpensive Microscale Ultrasonic Setup for Teaching and Research Labs (United States)

    Montaña, Angel M.; Grima, Pedro M.


    Ultrasound has been used as a source of energy in chemical reactions to increase both reaction rate and product yield. Ultrasonic horns can be used for this purpose on the laboratory scale. A homemade, safe, effective, and inexpensive reactor for ultrasonic horns with applications in microscale experiments in teaching and research laboratories is presented here. The vessel has two side necks for the insertion of either a flexible temperature probe, an inert-gas line adapter, or a septum to take samples from the reaction mixture. The reactor design allows work with small volumes (2-3 mL) optimal for microscale reactions. The tip of the sonication probe easily reaches the bottom of the vessel, producing vigorous agitation throughout the reaction medium. The design also facilitates temperature modulation with an external cooling bath, allowing reactions at low temperatures. This homemade reactor vessel for ultrasonic horns has only one-sixth the cost of the standard commercial reactors. The microscale sonication setup is safer than larger units because of its robust single-piece construction and easy placement in a protection shield cabinet, and the reduced hazards inherent in running reactions on a small scale. An experimental procedure is included to illustrate the applicability of the system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahjalal Khandaker


    Full Text Available In this investigation, locally available and inexpensive Taro and Water Hyacinth were used as biosorbents to remove chromium from synthetic wastewater. The removal of this metal ion from water in the batch and column method have been studied and discussed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm studies were also carried out. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the data follow both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Scanning Electronic Microscopic image was also used to understand the surface characteristics of biosorbent before and after biosorption studies. Effects of various factors such as pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate initial concentration, particle size etc. were analyzed. The initial concentrations of chromium were considered 5-30mgL-1 in batch method and only 4mgL-1 in column method. The maximum chromium adsorbed was 1.64 mgg-1 and 4.44 mgg-1 in Batch method and 1.15 mgg-1 and 0.75 mgg-1 in Column method. Batch and Column desorption and regeneration studies were conducted. Column desorption studies indicated that both of these biosorbents could be reused for removing heavy metals. Results of the laboratory experiments show that the performance of Taro and Water Hyacinth prove that they can effectively be used as low cost biosorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater.KEYWORDS:   adsorption; chromium removal; Taro; water hyacinth; batch method; column studies

  15. An inexpensive Arduino-based LED stimulator system for vision research. (United States)

    Teikari, Petteri; Najjar, Raymond P; Malkki, Hemi; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Dumortier, Dominique; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M


    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are being used increasingly as light sources in life sciences applications such as in vision research, fluorescence microscopy and in brain-computer interfacing. Here we present an inexpensive but effective visual stimulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and open-source Arduino microcontroller prototyping platform. The main design goal of our system was to use off-the-shelf and open-source components as much as possible, and to reduce design complexity allowing use of the system to end-users without advanced electronics skills. The main core of the system is a USB-connected Arduino microcontroller platform designed initially with a specific emphasis on the ease-of-use creating interactive physical computing environments. The pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal of Arduino was used to drive LEDs allowing linear light intensity control. The visual stimulator was demonstrated in applications such as murine pupillometry, rodent models for cognitive research, and heterochromatic flicker photometry in human psychophysics. These examples illustrate some of the possible applications that can be easily implemented and that are advantageous for students, educational purposes and universities with limited resources. The LED stimulator system was developed as an open-source project. Software interface was developed using Python with simplified examples provided for Matlab and LabVIEW. Source code and hardware information are distributed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL, version 3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Computationally Inexpensive Approach for Pitch Control of Offshore Wind Turbine on Barge Floating Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zuo


    Full Text Available Offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT has gained increasing attention during the past decade because of the offshore high-quality wind power and complex load environment. The control system is a tradeoff between power tracking and fatigue load reduction in the above-rated wind speed area. In allusion to the external disturbances and uncertain system parameters of OFWT due to the proximity to load centers and strong wave coupling, this paper proposes a computationally inexpensive robust adaptive control approach with memory-based compensation for blade pitch control. The method is tested and compared with a baseline controller and a conventional individual blade pitch controller with the “NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine” being mounted on a barge platform run on FAST and Matlab/Simulink, operating in the above-rated condition. It is shown that the advanced control approach is not only robust to complex wind and wave disturbances but adaptive to varying and uncertain system parameters as well. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in reducing power fluctuations, fatigue loads and platform vibration as compared to the conventional individual blade pitch control.

  17. Computationally inexpensive approach for pitch control of offshore wind turbine on barge floating platform. (United States)

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Y D; Wang, Lei; Song, Qing-wang


    Offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) has gained increasing attention during the past decade because of the offshore high-quality wind power and complex load environment. The control system is a tradeoff between power tracking and fatigue load reduction in the above-rated wind speed area. In allusion to the external disturbances and uncertain system parameters of OFWT due to the proximity to load centers and strong wave coupling, this paper proposes a computationally inexpensive robust adaptive control approach with memory-based compensation for blade pitch control. The method is tested and compared with a baseline controller and a conventional individual blade pitch controller with the "NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine" being mounted on a barge platform run on FAST and Matlab/Simulink, operating in the above-rated condition. It is shown that the advanced control approach is not only robust to complex wind and wave disturbances but adaptive to varying and uncertain system parameters as well. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in reducing power fluctuations, fatigue loads and platform vibration as compared to the conventional individual blade pitch control.

  18. The suitcase simulation: an effective and inexpensive psychiatric nursing teaching activity. (United States)

    Masters, Joan C; Kane, Mary Frances; Pike, Mary Ellen


    A tabletop simulation was developed as a patient safety activity that involved checking in a patient admitted to a psychiatric care unit. Students were second-degree (n = 79) and traditional (n = 53) BSN students. They were given suitcases or backpacks containing various items, and following a fictional hospital policy, they had to decide whether to give the items to the patient, place them in a secured area, or send them to the pharmacy or security personnel. The activity was evaluated using the Simulation Effectiveness Tool (SET) and two open-ended questions. Students reported that they found the simulation to be enjoyable and a good learning experience. Checking in a patient's belongings is not an activity students typically perform, but the simulation can help prepare them for situations they will experience in the workplace. This inexpensive activity can easily be adapted for staff orientation and competencies. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 52(8), 39-44.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Development of an inexpensive optical method for studies of dental erosion process in vitro (United States)

    Nasution, A. M. T.; Noerjanto, B.; Triwanto, L.


    Teeth have important roles in digestion of food, supporting the facial-structure, as well as in articulation of speech. Abnormality in teeth structure can be initiated by an erosion process due to diet or beverages consumption that lead to destruction which affect their functionality. Research to study the erosion processes that lead to teeth's abnormality is important in order to be used as a care and prevention purpose. Accurate measurement methods would be necessary as a research tool, in order to be capable for quantifying dental destruction's degree. In this work an inexpensive optical method as tool to study dental erosion process is developed. It is based on extraction the parameters from the 3D dental visual information. The 3D visual image is obtained from reconstruction of multiple lateral projection of 2D images that captured from many angles. Using a simple motor stepper and a pocket digital camera, sequence of multi-projection 2D images of premolar tooth is obtained. This images are then reconstructed to produce a 3D image, which is useful for quantifying related dental erosion parameters. The quantification process is obtained from the shrinkage of dental volume as well as surface properties due to erosion process. Results of quantification is correlated to the ones of dissolved calcium atom which released from the tooth using atomic absorption spectrometry. This proposed method would be useful as visualization tool in many engineering, dentistry, and medical research. It would be useful also for the educational purposes.

  20. Inexpensive Method of Testing Ambient and Thermally Elevated Resistive and Piezoresistive Thin-Film Pressure Gauges (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher; Rae, Philip; Heatwole, Eric; Tasker, Douglas; Los Alamos National Labortatory Team


    Manganin is an alloy that changes resistance when subjected to high-pressure, but is insensitive to temperature changes. Resistance curves as a function of pressure for these gauges have been established. Another commonly used piezoresistive pressure sensor are thin-film carbon gauges, which are more pressure sensitive than manganin gauges. Carbon gauge response in high temperature is not well quantified. The current research is focused on verifying these established resistance curves as well as verifying this specific experimental configuration. In this research the carbon gauges' resistance change is measured for thermally elevated gauges. In this setup a 20 mm caliber gun drove planar copper projectiles at the gauge, which was embedded in a copper anvil. The Hugoniot relationship allows for a comparison between observed and theoretical pressure over a pressure range 5 to 20 GPa for manganin gauges and 1 to 5 GPa for carbon gauges. The comparison between the data obtained in this research and that of others shows that the pressure-resistance curve of manganin does to not vary between lots of manganin. Additionally, the data shows that this setup is a relatively inexpensive quick means of testing gauge response to high-pressure shocks and is suitable for elevated temperature.

  1. Computationally Inexpensive Approach for Pitch Control of Offshore Wind Turbine on Barge Floating Platform (United States)

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Y. D.; Wang, Lei; Song, Qing-wang


    Offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) has gained increasing attention during the past decade because of the offshore high-quality wind power and complex load environment. The control system is a tradeoff between power tracking and fatigue load reduction in the above-rated wind speed area. In allusion to the external disturbances and uncertain system parameters of OFWT due to the proximity to load centers and strong wave coupling, this paper proposes a computationally inexpensive robust adaptive control approach with memory-based compensation for blade pitch control. The method is tested and compared with a baseline controller and a conventional individual blade pitch controller with the “NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine” being mounted on a barge platform run on FAST and Matlab/Simulink, operating in the above-rated condition. It is shown that the advanced control approach is not only robust to complex wind and wave disturbances but adaptive to varying and uncertain system parameters as well. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in reducing power fluctuations, fatigue loads and platform vibration as compared to the conventional individual blade pitch control. PMID:24453834

  2. Non-Destructive Detection and Separation of Radiation Damaged Cells in Miniaturized, Inexpensive Device Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a clear and well-identified need for rapid, efficient, non-destructive detection and isolation of radiation damaged cells. Available commercial technologies...

  3. Simple and Inexpensive 3D Printed Filter Fluorometer Designs: User-Friendly Instrument Models for Laboratory Learning and Outreach Activities (United States)

    Porter, Lon A., Jr.; Chapman, Cole A.; Alaniz, Jacob A.


    In this work, a versatile and user-friendly selection of stereolithography (STL) files and computer-aided design (CAD) models are shared to assist educators and students in the production of simple and inexpensive 3D printed filter fluorometer instruments. These devices are effective resources for supporting active learners in the exploration of…

  4. Conditioned withdrawal in goldfish: a simple and inexpensive preparation for the study of classical fear conditioning in vertebrates. (United States)

    Barela, Peter B


    Summary.-A preparation for the study of classical fear conditioning in vertebrates is described. Its unique features are that it is inexpensive and easy to construct and operate. The following classical conditioning phenomena are demonstrated using this preparation: excitatory conditioning, extinction, contextual conditioning, blocking, a conditioned inhibition discrimination, and latent inhibition.

  5. Why Flies? Inexpensive Public Engagement Exercises to Explain the Value of Basic Biomedical Research on "Drosophila melanogaster" (United States)

    Pulver, Stefan R.; Cognigni, Paola; Denholm, Barry; Fabre, Caroline; Gu, Wendy X. W.; Linneweber, Gerit; Prieto-Godino, Lucia; Urbancic, Vasja; Zwart, Maarten; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene


    Invertebrate model organisms are powerful systems for uncovering conserved principles of animal biology. Despite widespread use in scientific communities, invertebrate research is often severely undervalued by laypeople. Here, we present a set of simple, inexpensive public outreach exercises aimed at explaining to the public why basic research on…

  6. Stats on the Cheap: Using Free and Inexpensive Internet Resources to Enhance the Teaching of Statistics and Research Methods (United States)

    Hartnett, Jessica L.


    The present article describes four free or inexpensive Internet-based activities that can be used to supplement statistics/research methods/general psychology classes. Each activity and subsequent homework assessment is described, as well as homework performance outcome and student opinion data for each activity. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  8. A new rapid method for Clostridium difficile DNA extraction and detection in stool: toward point-of-care diagnostic testing. (United States)

    Freifeld, Alison G; Simonsen, Kari A; Booth, Christine S; Zhao, Xing; Whitney, Scott E; Karre, Teresa; Iwen, Peter C; Viljoen, Hendrik J


    We describe a new method for the rapid diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection, with stool sample preparation and DNA extraction by heat and physical disruption in a single-use lysis microreactor (LMR), followed by a rapid PCR amplification step. All steps can be accomplished in stool samples with discordant EIA results (GDH(+)/toxin(-)) were tested by both the LMR/PCR assay and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification test (LAMP) (Illumigene C. difficile; Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH). In 64/69 EIA-discordant samples, LAMP and LMR/PCR results matched (both positive in 29 sample and both negative in 35 samples); in the remaining 5 samples, results were discrepant between the LAMP assay (all five negative) and the LMR/PCR assay (all 5 positive). Overall, LMR/PCR testing matched the current algorithm of EIA and/or LAMP reflex testing in 193/198 (97.5%) samples. The present proof-of-concept study suggests that the novel LMR/PCR technique described here may be developed as an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable point-of-care diagnostic test for C. difficile infection and other infectious diseases. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Continued Development Of An Inexpensive Simulator Based CT Scanner For Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning (United States)

    Peschmann, K. R.; Parker, D. L.; Smith, V.


    An abundant number of different CT scanner models has been developed in the past ten years, meeting increasing standards of performance. From the beginning they remained a comparatively expensive piece of equipment. This is due not only to their technical complexity but is also due to the difficulties involved in assessing "true" specifications (avoiding "overde-sign"). Our aim has been to provide, for Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning, a low cost CT scanner system featuring large freedom in patient positioning. We have taken advantage of the concurrent tremendously increased amount of knowledge and experience in the technical area of CT1 . By way of extensive computer simulations we gained confidence that an inexpensive C-arm simulator gantry and a simple one phase-two pulse generator in connection with a standard x-ray tube could be used, without sacrificing image quality. These components have been complemented by a commercial high precision shaft encoder, a simple and effective fan beam collimator, a high precision, high efficiency, luminescence crystal-silicon photodiode detector with 256 channels, low noise electronic preamplifier and sampling filter stages, a simplified data aquisition system furnished by Toshiba/ Analogic and an LSI 11/23 microcomputer plus data storage disk as well as various smaller interfaces linking the electrical components. The quality of CT scan pictures of phantoms,performed by the end of last year confirmed that this simple approach is working well. As a next step we intend to upgrade this system with an array processor in order to shorten recon-struction time to one minute per slice. We estimate that the system including this processor could be manufactured for a selling price of $210,000.

  10. Development and testing of a multiwell plates absorbance reader for clinical analysis using inexpensive webcam (United States)

    Castillo, Jimmy; Gutierrez, Hector; Vitta, Yosmery; Martinez, Mauro; Fernandez, Alberto


    Biochemical analysis and clinical tests like glucose, hemoglobin, cholesterol, iron, etc. are crucial for early illness diagnosis like diabetes, anemia and coronary deceases. These tests usually are done in state of the art instruments in well equipped laboratories in health centers. In some cases, these instruments are not portable, so they are not recommended for clinical field studies in remote areas. The present work shows a portable low-cost prototype of multi-well plates reader designed for clinical analysis. A Light Emission Diodes (LEDs) array is used as excitation source and an inexpensive webcam as detector. The light source illuminates the 96 well plates and the webcam take the image with 640x480 pixels. The data is acquired and processed by using a portable computer. 96 samples can be read including blanks and calibration standards simultaneously. Light absorption data are processed using a MatLab software designed in our laboratory to obtain calibration curves, standards lectures and samples concentration. The system was evaluated using different analytes series solutions: Neutral Red, Cooper (II) Ammonia Complex and Methyl Orange. The results shows that it is possible to measure few micro liters of solutions with adequate exactitude and precision of less than 3%. As possible analytical clinical application, iron determination was performed using Fe(III) Thiocyanate complex. This method is usually applied in serum samples analysis. The sensibility achieved with the proposed instrumentation configurations allows the analysis of iron in serum samples in the references values normal range (0.75 - 1.5 mg/L) in human.

  11. Bioprinted chitosan-gelatin thermosensitive hydrogels using an inexpensive 3D printer. (United States)

    Roehm, Kevin D; Madihally, Sundararajan V


    The primary bottleneck in bioprinting cell-laden structures with carefully controlled spatial relation is a lack of biocompatible inks and printing conditions. In this regard, we explored using thermogelling chitosan-gelatin (CG) hydrogel as a novel bioprinting ink; CG hydrogels is unique in that it undergoes a spontaneous phase change at physiological temperature, and does not need post-processing. In addition, we used a low cost (<$800) compact 3D printer, and modified with a new extruder to print using disposable syringes and hypodermic needles. We investigated i) the effect of concentration of CG on gelation characteristics, ii) solution preparation steps (centrifugation, mixing, and degassing) on printability and fiber formation, iii) the print bed temperature profiles via IR imaging and grid-based assessment using thermocouples, iv) the effect of feed rate (10 to 480 cm/min), flow rate (15 to 60 L/min) and needle height (70 to 280m) on fiber size and characteristics, and v) the distribution of neuroblastoma cells in printed fibers, and the viability after five days in culture. We used agarose gel to create uniform print surfaces to maintain a constant gap with the needle tip. These results showed that degassing the solution, and precooling the solution was necessary for obtaining continuous fibers. Fiber size decreased from 760µm, to 243µm as the feed rate increased from 10cm/min to 100cm/min. Bed temperature played the greatest role in fiber size, followed by feed rate. Increased needle height initially decreased fiber size but then increased showing an optimum. Cells were well distributed within the fibers and exhibited excellent viability and no contamination after 5 days. Overall we printed 3D, sterile, cell laden structures with an inexpensive bioprinter and a novel ink, without post-processing. The bioprinter described here and the novel CG hydrogels have significant potential as an ink for bioprinitng various cell-laden structures. © 2017 IOP

  12. SEMAT — The Next Generation of Inexpensive Marine Environmental Monitoring and Measurement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Stevens


    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a “smart” wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT’s goals, which include: (1 The ability to adapt and evolve; (2 Underwater wireless communications; (3 Short-range wireless power transmission; (4 Plug and play components; (5 Minimal deployment expertise; (6 Near real-time analysis tools; and (7 Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments.

  13. Leukocyte count in peripheral arterial disease: A simple, reliable, inexpensive approach to cardiovascular risk prediction. (United States)

    Giugliano, Giuseppe; Brevetti, Gregorio; Lanero, Simona; Schiano, Vittorio; Laurenzano, Eugenio; Chiariello, Massimo


    An elevated leukocyte count is widely proven to predict cardiovascular risk in healthy subjects and coronary patients, but its prognostic role in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has received scarce attention. To assess the impact of leukocyte count on the incidence of major cardiovascular events in PAD, and verify whether it adds to the prognostic power of the ankle/brachial index (ABI). The occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke was prospectively assessed in 259 consecutive PAD patients. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis and the bootstrap approach were used to identify the best cut-offs to predict the outcome, and hazard ratios (HRs) and c-statistics to assess the ability to classify risk. During a median follow-up of 30.0 months, 28 patients had an event. Adjusted Cox analyses performed on total and differential leukocyte counts, showed that only total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil count (NC), considered as continuous variables, were associated with increased cardiovascular risk (HR=1.35, p7.7 x10(9)/L or NC>4.6 x 10(9)/L had a higher risk of about 5-fold vs patients with ABI>0.63 plus TLC< or =7.7 x 10(9)/L (p<0.01) or NC < or = 4.6 x 10(9)/L (p<0.01). The c-statistic for ABI was 0.61, similar to those for TLC (0.63) and NC (0.66). However, it significantly increased to 0.70 and 0.69 for the models incorporating ABI and TLC or ABI and NC, respectively (p<0.05 for both vs ABI alone). TLC and NC, which are inexpensive and reliable tests, predict major cardiovascular events in PAD, and add to the prognostic power of ABI, currently the most powerful prognostic indicator in these patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time Resolved Thermal Diffusivity of Seasonal Snow Determined from Inexpensive, Easily-Implemented Temperature Measurements (United States)

    Oldroyd, H. J.; Higgins, C. W.; Huwald, H.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.


    Thermal diffusivity of snow is an important physical property associated with key hydrological phenomena such as snow melt and heat and water vapor exchange with the atmosphere. These phenomena have broad implications in studies of climate and heat and water budgets on many scales. However, direct measurements of snow thermal diffusivity require coupled point measurements of thermal conductivity and density, which are nonstationary due to snow metamorphism. Furthermore, thermal conductivity measurements are typically obtained with specialized heating probes or plates and snow density measurements require digging snow pits. Therefore, direct measurements are difficult to obtain with high enough temporal resolution such that direct comparisons with atmospheric conditions can be made. This study uses highly resolved (7.5 to 10 cm for depth and 1min for time) temperature measurements from the Plaine Morte glacier in Switzerland as initial and boundary conditions to numerically solve the 1D heat equation and iteratively optimize for thermal diffusivity. The method uses flux boundary conditions to constrain thermal diffusivity such that spuriously high values in thermal diffusivity are eliminated. Additionally, a t-test ensuring statistical significance between solutions of varied thermal diffusivity result in further constraints on thermal diffusivity that eliminate spuriously low values. The results show that time resolved (1 minute) thermal diffusivity can be determined from easily implemented and inexpensive temperature measurements of seasonal snow with good agreement to widely used parameterizations based on snow density. This high time resolution further affords the ability to explore possible turbulence-induced enhancements to heat and mass transfer in the snow.

  15. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.


    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  16. Rapid PCR Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 398 by Targeting the Restriction-Modification System Carrying sau1-hsdS1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegger, M.; Lindsay, J.A.; Moodley, A.; Skov, R.; Broens, E.M.; Guardabassi, L.


    A PCR targeting sau1-hsdS1 was developed for rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398). High sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) were shown by evaluating the test on a large strain collection (n = 1,307). We recommend this test for accurate, rapid, and inexpensive

  17. Area 2: Inexpensive Monitoring and Uncertainty Assessment of CO2 Plume Migration using Injection Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Sanjay [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    In-depth understanding of the long-term fate of CO₂ in the subsurface requires study and analysis of the reservoir formation, the overlaying caprock formation, and adjacent faults. Because there is significant uncertainty in predicting the location and extent of geologic heterogeneity that can impact the future migration of CO₂ in the subsurface, there is a need to develop algorithms that can reliably quantify this uncertainty in plume migration. This project is focused on the development of a model selection algorithm that refines an initial suite of subsurface models representing the prior uncertainty to create a posterior set of subsurface models that reflect injection performance consistent with that observed. Such posterior models can be used to represent uncertainty in the future migration of the CO₂ plume. Because only injection data is required, the method provides a very inexpensive method to map the migration of the plume and the associated uncertainty in migration paths. The model selection method developed as part of this project mainly consists of assessing the connectivity/dynamic characteristics of a large prior ensemble of models, grouping the models on the basis of their expected dynamic response, selecting the subgroup of models that most closely yield dynamic response closest to the observed dynamic data, and finally quantifying the uncertainty in plume migration using the selected subset of models. The main accomplishment of the project is the development of a software module within the SGEMS earth modeling software package that implements the model selection methodology. This software module was subsequently applied to analyze CO₂ plume migration in two field projects – the In Salah CO₂ Injection project in Algeria and CO₂ injection into the Utsira formation in Norway. These applications of the software revealed that the proxies developed in this project for quickly assessing the dynamic characteristics of the reservoir were

  18. Microbial fuel cells for inexpensive continuous in-situ monitoring of groundwater quality. (United States)

    Velasquez-Orta, S B; Werner, D; Varia, J C; Mgana, S


    Online monitoring of groundwater quality in shallow wells to detect faecal or organic pollution could dramatically improve understanding of health risks in unplanned peri-urban settlements. Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are devices able to generate electricity from the organic matter content in faecal pollution making them suitable as biosensors. In this work, we evaluate the suitability of four microbial fuel cell systems placed in different regions of a groundwater well for the low-cost monitoring of a faecal pollution event. Concepts created include the use of a sediment/bulk liquid MFC (SED/BL), a sediment/sediment MFC (SED/SED), a bulk liquid/air MFC (BL/Air), and a bulk liquid/bulk liquid MFC (BL/BL). MFC electrodes assembly aimed to use inexpensive, durable, materials, which would produce a signal after a contamination event without external energy or chemical inputs. All MFC configurations were responsive to a contamination event, however SED/SED and BL/Air MFC concepts failed to deliver a reproducible output within the tested period of time. BL/BL MFC and SED/BL MFCs presented an increase in the average current after contamination from -0.75 ± 0.35 μA to -0.66 ± 0.41 μA, and 0.07 ± 0.2 mA to 0.11 ± 0.03 mA, respectively. Currents produced by the SED/BL MFC (SMFC) were considerably higher than for the BL/BL MFCs, making them more responsive, readable and graphically visible. A factorial design of experiments (DOE) was applied to evaluate which environmental and design factors had the greatest effect on current response in a contamination event. Within the ranges of variables tested, salinity, temperature and external resistance, only temperature presented a statistically significant effect (p = 0.045). This showed that the biosensor response would be sensitive to fluctuations in temperature but not to changes in salinity, or external resistances produced from placing electrodes at different distances within a groundwater well. Copyright

  19. Design of a digital interactive configuration, flexible and inexpensive, for monitoring the movements of people in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Costa


    Full Text Available We aim to introduce here the idea and the first results of a still ongoing research regarding the setup of a flexible and inexpensive digital interactive configuration, which has the goal of tracking the position and routes of a certain amount of subjects inside a medium or large closed space. The configuration appears to be adequate especially for the monitoring of museums spaces, exhibitions and showrooms.

  20. Modified use of methylene blue in the tissue compression technique to detect sarcocysts in meat-producing animals. (United States)

    Ng, Yit Han; Subramaniam, Vellayan; Lau, Yee Ling


    Sarcocystosis in meat-producing animals is a major cause of reduced productivity in many countries, especially those that rely on agriculture. Although several diagnostic methods are available to detect sarcocystosis, many are too time-consuming for routine use in abattoirs and meat inspection centers, where large numbers of samples need to be tested. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of the methylene blue tissue preparation, unstained tissue preparation and nested PCR in the detection of sarcocysts in tissue samples. Approximately three-fold more sarcocysts were detected in methylene blue-stained tissue compared to unstained controls (McNemar's test: Pmethylene blue can be used in tissue compression as a rapid, safe, and inexpensive technique for the detection of ruminant sarcocystosis in abattoirs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy for rapid and accurate identification of Yeasts isolated from human and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taha


    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate identification of yeast is increasingly important to stipulate the appropriate therapy thus reducing morbidity and mortality related to yeast infections. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques (infrared (IR and Raman could provide potential alternatives to conventional typing methods, because they constitute a rapid, inexpensive and highly specific spectroscopic fingerprint through-which microorganism can be identified. The present study evaluate (FTIR spectroscopy as a sensitive and effective assay for the identification of the most frequent yeast species isolated from human and animals. One hundred and twenty-eight yeasts isolated from infected human mouths/vaginas, chronic diseased cows, crop mycosis in chicken and soil contaminated with pigeon droppings were phenotypically identified. Using universal primers, ITS1/ITS4, we have amplified ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA regions for 39 yeast isolates as representative samples. The PCR products were digested with restriction enzyme MspI and examined by PCR-RFLP, which was an efficient technique for identification of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichosporon asahii. Further, identification of the same 39 isolates were done by FTIR spectroscopy and considered as reference for other strains by comparison of their FTIR spectra. The current study has sharply demonstrated the significant spectral differences between the various examined species of Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Geotrichum isolated from different sources. Decisively, our research has confirmed that FTIR spectroscopy is a promising diagnostic tool, because of its sensitivity, rapidity, high differentiation capacity and simplicity compared to conventional/molecular techniques.

  2. A Readily Available, Inexpensive, and Reusable Simulation Model for Teaching Ultrasound-Guided Abscess Identification and Drainage. (United States)

    Augenstein, Julie A; Yoshida, Hiromi; Lo, Mark D; Solari, Patrick


    The use of point-of-care ultrasonography as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for soft tissue infections has been shown to be superior to clinical judgment alone in determining the presence or absence of an occult abscess. As ultrasound-guided procedures become standard of care, there is an increasing demand to develop better and inexpensive simulation models to educate trainees. To date, there are no low-cost models for abscess simulation that can be constructed with minimal preparation time, be reused, and withstand multiple procedural attempts. To create an inexpensive, readily available, and reusable homemade ultrasound phantom that simulates a superficial soft tissue abscess and can be easily constructed. We experimented with precooked polenta to create a model that would appear similar to human soft tissue under ultrasound examination. Paintballs were embedded in the polenta and evaluated at different depths until a sonographically satisfactory phantom abscess model was obtained. The use of a precooked commercial polenta phantom and commercial paintballs required minimal preparation and closely replicated a superficial soft tissue abscess on ultrasonographic examination. Various paintball brands and sizes were evaluated to confirm ease of reproducibility. The polenta can be reshaped easily and the model may be punctured or incised multiple times. A homemade high-fidelity simulation phantom that simulates an abscess in superficial soft tissue can be made inexpensively in <5 min and reused for numerous trainees. This model allows for training for procedures such as ultrasound-guided abscess drainage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Efficiency of an inexpensive liquid-based cytology performed by cytocentrifugations: a comparative study using the histology as reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbar Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although liquid-based cytology (LBC is now recommended for cervical cancer screening, it requires expensive automated devices and materials. To evaluate the efficiency of inexpensive LBC methods relying on an inexpensive fixative liquid, Easyfix®, we compared the results obtained by the liquid-based cytology (LBC diagnoses performed by cytocentrifugations (Papspin® and Turbitec® with those obtained by histology. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficiency of the fixative liquid, Easyfix®, to preserve HPV DNA in the collected samples. Method 266 LBC were compared with 174 colposcopies and 91 Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP. Among the LBC, 51 were performed using the Papspin® system and 215 were performed using the Turbitec® system. To control the quality of the preservation liquid, Easyfix®, we correlated the results of HCII assays with those of HPV PCR. Results For Papspin® and Turbitec® systems, the sensitivities were respectively 82.6% (95% CI: 61.2–95.0%, p Conclusion LBC performed by cytocentrifugations are inexpensive, reduce inadequate smears, show excellent efficiency and allow HPV detection by molecular biology.

  4. A new technique for the diagnosis of mycetoma using fixed blocks of aspirated material. (United States)

    Yousif, B M; Fahal, A H; Shakir, M Y


    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the use of the cell block technique as a safe, accurate and quick tool for the cytodiagnosis of mycetoma. The study included 240 patients with suspected mycetoma. The suspected lesion was aspirated and the aspirated material was processed to form cell blocks. The cell blocks were processed as described for routine tissue histopathological examination. Haematoxylin/eosin-stained sections were reviewed to identify the morphological features of the mycetoma grains and the different inflammatory tissue reactions. The findings were compared with those seen in histopathological sections. The different mycetoma grains showed distinct morphological features on the cell block that were identical to those seen in histopathological sections. Distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma and their classification according to the causative agent were possible. The cell block technique had sensitivities of 87.5% and 85.7% for eumycetoma and actinomycetoma, respectively, and there were no statistical differences in the findings obtained by the cell block and histopathological techniques. The technique is simple, rapid, specific, sensitive and inexpensive. It can be used in the routine diagnosis of mycetoma and to obtain grains for culture identification. The cell blocks can be preserved for a long period for future studies.

  5. Rapid, low-cost photogrammetry to monitor volcanic eruptions: an example from Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Crider, Juliet G.; Schilling, Steve P.; Dzurisin, Daniel


    We describe a low-cost application of digital photogrammetry using commercially available photogrammetric software and oblique photographs taken with an off-the-shelf digital camera to create sequential digital elevation models (DEMs) of a lava dome that grew during the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) volcano. Renewed activity at MSH provided an opportunity to devise and test this method, because it could be validated against other observations of this well-monitored volcano. The datasets consist of oblique aerial photographs (snapshots) taken from a helicopter using a digital single-lens reflex camera. Twelve sets of overlapping digital images of the dome taken during 2004–2007 were used to produce DEMs and to calculate lava dome volumes and extrusion rates. Analyses of the digital images were carried out using photogrammetric software to produce three-dimensional coordinates of points identified in multiple photos. The evolving morphology of the dome was modeled by comparing successive DEMs. Results were validated by comparison to volume measurements derived from traditional vertical photogrammetric surveys by the US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory. Our technique was significantly less expensive and required less time than traditional vertical photogrammetric techniques; yet, it consistently yielded volume estimates within 5% of the traditional method. This technique provides an inexpensive, rapid assessment tool for tracking lava dome growth or other topographic changes at restless volcanoes.

  6. Rapid and inexpensive detection of common HBB gene mutations in Tunisian population by high-resolution melting analysis: implication for molecular diagnosis. (United States)

    Ouragini, Houyem; Haddad, Faten; Darragi, Imen; Abbes, Salem


    In Tunisia, β-thalassemia is a common hereditary disease with a carrying rate of 2.21%. Up to now, detection of responsible mutations was made by laborious, expensive, and/or time consuming methods. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a specific assay for detection of the two most frequent mutations in Tunisian population, the IVS-I-110 (G → A) and Cd39 (C → T) mutations. In this study, we optimize high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) conditions for these mutations, using control DNAs. Then, we evaluate the strength of this methodology by screening a cohort of patients with β-thalassemia. All examined reference DNA samples were unambiguously distinguished from each other. For the blinded test, the results were completely compatible with direct sequencing, performed after the HRMA. As HRMA represents a highly sensitive and high-throughput gene scanning method, it can provide timely diagnosis at low cost for effective clinical management of β-thalassemia.

  7. Development and application of a rapid, user-friendly, and inexpensive method to detect Dehalococcoides sp. reductive dehalogenase genes from groundwater. (United States)

    Kanitkar, Yogendra H; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Hatzinger, Paul B; Hashsham, Syed A; Cupples, Alison M


    TaqMan probe-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) specific to the biomarker reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes is a widely accepted molecular biological tool (MBT) for determining the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. in groundwater samples from chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. However, there are significant costs associated with this MBT. In this study, we describe an approach that requires only low-cost laboratory equipment (a bench top centrifuge and a water bath) and requires less time and resources compared to qPCR. The method involves the concentration of biomass from groundwater, without DNA extraction, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the cell templates. The amplification products are detected by a simple visual color change (orange/green). The detection limits of the assay were determined using groundwater from a contaminated site. In addition, the assay was tested with groundwater from three additional contaminated sites. The final approach to detect RDase genes, without DNA extraction or a thermal cycler, was successful to 1.8 × 10(5) gene copies per L for vcrA and 1.3 × 10(5) gene copies per L for tceA. Both values are below the threshold recommended for effective in situ dechlorination.

  8. An economic approach for L-(+) lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 using inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources. (United States)

    Altaf, Md; Venkateshwar, M; Srijana, M; Reddy, G


    Development of cost-effective production medium by applying statistical designs for single-step fermentation of starch (corn flour - CF) to L-(+) lactic acid, using inexpensive nitrogen sources as substitutes for peptone and yeast extract in MRS medium by amylolytic Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening various available crude starches (flours) for L-(+) lactic acid production by Lact. amylophilus GV6 using red lentil flour (RL) and bakers yeast cells (YC) as substitutes for commercial peptone and yeast extract in MRS medium in anaerobic submerged fermentation. Of all the tested flours, CF was found to be the most significant. Central composite rotatable design was employed to determine maximum production of L-(+) lactic acid at optimum values of process variables, CF, RL, YC, CaCO(3) and incubation period (IP). minitab analyses showed that lactic acid production was significantly affected by the linear terms CF, RL, CaCO(3) and IP. The interactions of CF-RL, CF-YC, CF-CaCO(3), RL-YC and RL-CaCO(3) and the square terms CF and IP were significant. The maximum lactic acid production of 29 g/37 g of starch present in 50 g of CF was obtained at optimized concentrations of CF 5%, RL 0.7%, YC 0.8%, CaCO(3) 0.8% and IP 2.9 days. Successful application of Plackett-Burman design helped in identifying CF as the best carbon source among the tested flours for L-(+) lactic acid production using inexpensive nitrogen sources. Further optimization of the process variables by response surface methods (RSMs) led to maximum production of lactic acid (29 g lactic acid from 37 g of starch present in 50 g of flour). Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 showed 78.4% lactic acid production efficiency (g lactic acid produced/g starch taken) and 96% lactic acid yield efficiency (g lactic acid produced/g starch utilized). Information from the present studies provides a better understanding on production of L-(+) lactic acid on fermentation of

  9. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin


    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  10. Case Report: Comparison of three techniques used to characterize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, adapting prompt, sensitive and inexpensive diagnostic techniques will without doubt clamp down on the menace of the disease. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from laying chickens (layers) receiving aqueous extract of balsam apple (Momordica balsamina) was done using the ...

  11. Novel technique for passing tendon grafts through bone tunnels. (United States)

    Levy, Jeffrey A; Farber, Gerald L; Taylor, Kenneth F


    Anatomic reconstruction in orthopedic surgery often requires the passage of soft tissue through bone tunnels. Difficulties may arise due to anatomic constraints surrounding the bone tunnels or the graft size. The authors present a novel technique for passing tendon grafts through bone tunnels that is simple, readily available, effective, and comparatively inexpensive. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton


    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many

  13. Rapid visualization of latent fingermarks using gold seed-mediated enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Su


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fingermarks are one of the most important and useful forms of physical evidence in forensic investigations. However, latent fingermarks are not directly visible, but can be visualized due to the presence of other residues (such as inorganic salts, proteins, polypeptides, enzymes and human metabolites which can be detected or recognized through various strategies. Convenient and rapid techniques are still needed to provide obvious contrast between the background and the fingermark ridges and to then visualize latent fingermark with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity. Results In this work, lysozyme-binding aptamer-conjugated Au nanoparticles (NPs are used to recognize and target lysozyme in the fingermark ridges, and Au+-complex solution is used as a growth agent to reduce Au+ from Au+ to Au0 on the surface of the Au NPs. Distinct fingermark patterns were visualized on a range of professional forensic within 3 min; the resulting images could be observed by the naked eye without background interference. The entire processes from fingermark collection to visualization only entails two steps and can be completed in less than 10 min. The proposed method provides cost and time savings over current fingermark visualization methods. Conclusions We report a simple, inexpensive, and fast method for the rapid visualization of latent fingermarks on the non-porous substrates using Au seed-mediated enhancement. Au seed-mediated enhancement is used to achieve the rapid visualization of latent fingermarks on non-porous substrates by the naked eye without the use of expensive or sophisticated instruments. The proposed approach offers faster detection and visualization of latent fingermarks than existing methods. The proposed method is expected to increase detection efficiency for latent fingermarks and reduce time requirements and costs for forensic investigations.

  14. Rapid detection of Ganoderma-infected oil palms by microwave ergosterol extraction with HPLC and TLC. (United States)

    Muniroh, M S; Sariah, M; Zainal Abidin, M A; Lima, N; Paterson, R R M


    Detection of basal stem rot (BSR) by Ganoderma of oil palms was based on foliar symptoms and production of basidiomata. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays-Polyclonal Antibody (ELISA-PAB) and PCR have been proposed as early detection methods for the disease. These techniques are complex, time consuming and have accuracy limitations. An ergosterol method was developed which correlated well with the degree of infection in oil palms, including samples growing in plantations. However, the method was capable of being optimised. This current study was designed to develop a simpler, more rapid and efficient ergosterol method with utility in the field that involved the use of microwave extraction. The optimised procedure involved extracting a small amount of Ganoderma, or Ganoderma-infected oil palm suspended in low volumes of solvent followed by irradiation in a conventional microwave oven at 70°C and medium high power for 30s, resulting in simultaneous extraction and saponification. Ergosterol was detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The TLC method was novel and provided a simple, inexpensive method with utility in the field. The new method was particularly effective at extracting high yields of ergosterol from infected oil palm and enables rapid analysis of field samples on site, allowing infected oil palms to be treated or culled very rapidly. Some limitations of the method are discussed herein. The procedures lend themselves to controlling the disease more effectively and allowing more effective use of land currently employed to grow oil palms, thereby reducing pressure to develop new plantations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)


    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  16. A new digestion and chemical separation technique for rapid and highly reproducible determination of Lu/Hf and Hf isotope ratios in geological materials by mc-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, J.A.; Ulfbeck, D.


    A new digestion procedure and chemical separation technique has been developed for measurement of Lu/Hf and Hf isotope ratios that does not require high-pressure bombs or use of HF or HClO acids. Samples are digested in dilute HCl or HNO after flux-fusion at 1100 °C in the presence of lithium...

  17. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley


    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  18. A simple, non-invasive and inexpensive method for evaluating the displacement of local tissue surfaces: from vascular changes to muscle contraction. (United States)

    Roatta, S; Deriu, F; Artusio, E; Passatore, M


    This paper describes a non-invasive, very inexpensive method of estimating tissue displacements of various origin that is easy and fast to set up. This technique utilizes an inductive proximity sensor (IPS), which is a non-contact length transducer measuring the distance between its probe and a metal target. Its working principle is based on the electromagnetic coupling originating between the sensor probe, a source of high-frequency magnetic field, and the metal target where parasitic currents take place. The linear working range of the IPS model used here is 0.1 to 6 mm probe-target distance, its resolution is about 2 microns. The IPS has been employed on rabbits and humans to measure the displacement of a target glued to the skin of various body areas with respect to the fixed probe of the sensor. Its high resolution, together with an extensive working range, allows the evaluation of numerous physiological events which produce displacements ranging from 2 microns -- to 9 mm, reflecting either tissue volume changes or movements. In particular, an interesting application is to monitor, through volume variations, the extent and the time course of local vascular modifications induced by manoeuvres which elicit changes in vasomotor tone; vascular filling, tissue swelling etc. Therefore, this measure may be considered a 'surface plethysmography' record. In addition, the contractions of skeletal muscles, under either isotonic or isometric conditions, can be estimated through this sensor. This system may therefore find applications for research purposes and practical demonstrations to students.

  19. Using the AD12-ICT rapid-format test to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens in comparison to Og4C3-ELISA and nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopy techniques. (United States)

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly; Hafez, Mohamad Abdul


    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) continues to be a major source of permanent disability and an impediment to socio-economic development in 73 countries where more than 1 billion people are at risk and over 120 millions are infected. The global drive to eliminate LF necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable and rapid diagnostic tests. This study aimed to assess the performance of the AD12 rapid format immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens, against the combined gold standard: TropBio Og4C3-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which detects circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and the nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopic examination. This prospective case-control study involved 647 asymptomatic migrant workers from filariasis-endemic countries. Of these specimens, 32 were positive for microfilaremia using the membrane filtration and microscopy, 142 positive by ELISA (of which 32 had microfilaremia), and 128 positive by the ICT (of which 31 had microfilaremia). The performance of the ICT was calculated against 32 true-positive and 90 true-negative cases. For the detection of CFA, the ICT had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-103), specificity 100% (95% CI 100-100), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100% (95% CI 100-100), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 99% (95% CI 97-101); and the total accuracy of the test was 99% (95% CI 98-101). The agreement between ICT and ELISA in detecting W. bancrofti antigens was excellent (kappa = 0.934; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the AD12-ICT test for the detection of W. bancrofti-CFA was sensitive and specific and comparable to the performance of ELISA. The ICT would be a useful additional test to facilitate the proposed strategies for control and elimination of LF. Because it is rapid, simple to perform, and does not require the use of special equipment, the ICT may be most appropriate in screening programs and in monitoring the possible risk of introducing

  20. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)


    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  1. Dosimetric study of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer and comparison with 3-dimensional conformal technique for definitive radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France); Falk, Alexander T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Auberdiac, Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinique Claude Bernard, Albi (France); Cartier, Lysian; Vallard, Alexis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France); Ollier, Edouard [Department of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France); Trone, Jane-Chloé; Khodri, Moustapha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France); Chargari, Cyrus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital d’instruction de Armées du Val-de-Grâce, Paris (France); Magné, Nicolas, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France)


    Introduction: For patients with cervical cancer, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves target coverage and allows dose escalation while reducing the radiation dose to organs at risk (OARs). In this study, we compared dosimetric parameters among 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), “step-and-shoot” IMRT, and volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in a series of patients with cervical cancer receiving definitive radiotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 patients with histologically proven cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) from December 2008 to March 2010 at our department were selected for this study. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) were delineated following the guidelines of the Gyn IMRT consortium that included cervix, uterus, parametrial tissues, and the pelvic nodes including presacral. The median age was 57 years (range: 30 to 85 years). All 10 patients had squamous cell carcinoma with Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB-IIIB. All patients were treated by VMAT. OAR doses were significantly reduced for plans with intensity-modulated technique compared with 3D-CRT except for the dose to the vagina. Between the 2 intensity-modulated techniques, significant difference was observed for the mean dose to the small intestine, to the benefit of VMAT (p < 0.001). There was no improvement in terms of OARs sparing for VMAT although there was a tendency for a slightly decreased average dose to the rectum: − 0.65 Gy but not significant (p = 0.07). The intensity modulation techniques have many advantages in terms of quality indexes, and particularly OAR sparing, compared with 3D-CRT. Following the ongoing technologic developments in modern radiotherapy, it is essential to evaluate the intensity-modulated techniques on prospective studies of a larger scale.

  2. Light-driven organocatalysis using inexpensive, nontoxic Bi2O3 as the photocatalyst. (United States)

    Riente, Paola; Matas Adams, Alba; Albero, Josep; Palomares, Emilio; Pericàs, Miquel A


    The development of enantioselective catalytic processes that make use of sunlight as the energy source and nontoxic, affordable materials as catalysts represents one of the new and rapidly evolving areas in chemical research. The direct asymmetric α-alkylation of aldehydes with α-bromocarbonyl compounds can be successfully achieved by combining bismuth-based materials as low-band-gap photocatalysts with the second-generation MacMillan imidazolidinone as the chiral catalyst and simulated sunlight as a low-cost and clean energy source. This reaction also proceeded with high efficiency when the reaction vial was exposed to the morning sunlight on a clear September day in Tarragona, Spain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons (United States)

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.


    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  4. Hemozoin detection may provide an inexpensive, sensitive, 1-minute malaria test that could revolutionize malaria screening. (United States)

    Grimberg, Brian T; Grimberg, Kerry O


    Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites' waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test.

  5. Auramine orange stain with fluorescence microscopy is a rapid and sensitive technique for the detection of cervical lymphadenitis due to mycobacterial infection using fine needle aspiration cytology: a case series. (United States)

    Cheng, Alan G; Chang, Anthony; Farwell, D Greg; Agoff, S Nicholas


    We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the auramine orange (AO) stain in diagnosing mycobacterial cervical adenitis (MCA) from fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. A retrospective review of 19 patients evaluated at 2 urban hospitals from 2000 to 2003 for suspected MCA. FNA specimens were inoculated to culture media and had direct smears stained by the auramine acid fast method. Mycobacteria were identified in 16 (84.2%) of 19 AO-stained FNA specimens, with results available within 4 hours. Corresponding cultures were positive for mycobacteria in 12 specimens, 9 tuberculous and 3 nontuberculous, and grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the 3 AO-negative specimens. Three of the 4 patients with negative cultures had previously taken anti-mycobacterial medications. The AO stain with fluorescence microscopy is a sensitive and rapid method for detecting tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. It is a valuable tool for the otolaryngologists and pathologists in the diagnosis of MCA.

  6. In-store marketing of inexpensive foods with good nutritional quality in disadvantaged neighborhoods: increased awareness, understanding, and purchasing. (United States)

    Gamburzew, Axel; Darcel, Nicolas; Gazan, Rozenn; Dubois, Christophe; Maillot, Matthieu; Tomé, Daniel; Raffin, Sandrine; Darmon, Nicole


    Consumers often do not understand nutrition labels or do not perceive their usefulness. In addition, price can be a barrier to healthy food choices, especially for socio-economically disadvantaged individuals. A 6-month intervention combined shelf labeling and marketing strategies (signage, prime placement, taste testing) to draw attention to inexpensive foods with good nutritional quality in two stores located in a disadvantaged neighborhood in Marseille (France). The inexpensive foods with good nutritional quality were identified based on their nutrient profile and their price. Their contribution to customers' spending on food was assessed in the two intervention stores and in two control stores during the intervention, as well as in the year preceding the intervention (n = 6625). Exit survey (n = 259) and in-depth survey (n = 116) were used to assess customers' awareness of and perceived usefulness of the program, knowledge of nutrition, understanding of the labeling system, as well as placement-, taste- and preparation-related attractiveness of promoted products. Matched purchasing data were used to assess the contribution of promoted products to total food spending for each customer who participated in the in-depth survey. The contribution of inexpensive foods with good nutritional quality to customers' total food spending increased between 2013 and 2014 for both the control stores and the intervention stores. This increase was significantly higher in the intervention stores than in the control stores for fruits and vegetables (p = 0.001) and for starches (p = 0.011). The exit survey revealed that 31 % of customers had seen the intervention materials; this percentage increased significantly at the end of the intervention (p good nutritional quality may improve food purchasing behaviors in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  7. ZnO and copper indium chalcogenide heterojunctions prepared by inexpensive methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berruet, M., E-mail: [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Di Iorio, Y. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Troviano, M. [Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas (PROBIEN, CONICET-UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, Q8300IBX Neuquén (Argentina); Vázquez, M. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina)


    Solution-based techniques were used to prepare ZnO/CuIn(Se, S){sub 2} heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes. A duplex layer of ZnO (compact + porous) was electrodeposited. Chalcogenide thin films were deposited using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR). By subsequent thermal treatments in two different atmospheres, CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) and CuInSe{sub 2−x}S{sub x} (CISeS) were obtained. The composition and morphology of the annealed films were characterized by GXRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM. Devices prepared with CISe and CISeS show a clear photo-response. The introduction of a buffer layer of TiO{sub 2} into the ZnO/chalcogenide interface was necessary to detect photocurrent. The presence of CISeS improves the response of the cell, with higher values of short circuit current density, open circuit potential and fill factor. These promising results show that it is possible to prepare photovoltaic heterojunctions by depositing chalcogenides onto porous ZnO substrates using low-cost solution-based techniques. - Highlights: • Heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes were prepared using solution-based techniques. • The devices comprised a double layer of ZnO and CuInSe{sub 2} or CuInSe{sub 0.4}S{sub 1.6}. • A TiO{sub 2} buffer layer in the ZnO/chalcogenide interface is necessary to detect photocurrent. • The incorporation of S improved the response of the photovoltaic heterojunction.

  8. Application and design of inexpensive small earth terminals for satellite communications (United States)

    Hossein Sharifi, M.; Pourmand, B.

    Different applications of miniearth terminals (MET) for various satellite communication networks are discussed, and then the steps that must be taken to design a reliable satellite system using METs are specified. The main emphasis of the paper is on the various applications of the METs, selection of access method, modulation scheme, power requirement, and performance analysis. Depending on the application, the miniearth terminals may be designed to be used in the networks with any of the following access techniques: SCPC, MC-TDMA, TDM, satellite switch TDMA, random multiple access or some forms of hybrid demand assignment multiple access methods constituted of frequency time or spatial separation.

  9. Sensitive and inexpensive digital DNA analysis by microfluidic enrichment of rolling circle amplified single-molecules. (United States)

    Kühnemund, Malte; Hernández-Neuta, Iván; Sharif, Mohd Istiaq; Cornaglia, Matteo; Gijs, Martin A M; Nilsson, Mats


    Single molecule quantification assays provide the ultimate sensitivity and precision for molecular analysis. However, most digital analysis techniques, i.e. droplet PCR, require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation for molecule compartmentalization, amplification and analysis. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) provides a simpler means for digital analysis. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of RCA assays has until now been limited by inefficient detection methods. We have developed a simple microfluidic strategy for enrichment of RCA products into a single field of view of a low magnification fluorescent sensor, enabling ultra-sensitive digital quantification of nucleic acids over a dynamic range from 1.2 aM to 190 fM. We prove the broad applicability of our analysis platform by demonstrating 5-plex detection of as little as ∼1 pg (∼300 genome copies) of pathogenic DNA with simultaneous antibiotic resistance marker detection, and the analysis of rare oncogene mutations. Our method is simpler, more cost-effective and faster than other digital analysis techniques and provides the means to implement digital analysis in any laboratory equipped with a standard fluorescent microscope. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. The fundamentals of flying: simple and inexpensive strategies for employing Drosophila genetics in neuroscience teaching laboratories. (United States)

    Pulver, Stefan R; Berni, Jimena


    Drosophila researchers have developed a powerful suite of genetic techniques for studying the neural basis of animal behavior. Many of these tools can be exported to neuroscience teaching laboratories (Berni et al., 2010; Pulver et al., 2011a,b), but often neuroscience educators lack the basic knowledge and resources to obtain, generate and rear transgenic fruit flies on their own. Fly researchers in turn may take for granted resources that are readily available in research laboratories, but out of reach for educators. Our goal is to provide a primer for neuroscience educators who want to incorporate Drosophila genetics into their teaching, but have limited knowledge of fruit fly genetics, and/or small budgets. First we review the available methods for manipulating gene expression in Drosophila. Then we provide educators with blueprints for obtaining transgenic animals tailored for specific types of teaching modules. We outline simple techniques for rearing transgenic Drosophila, performing genetic crosses, and preparing a teaching laboratory without the use of expensive animal-care facilities. Overall, we try to break down the practical barriers educators may face when integrating modern neurogenetic experiments into teaching laboratories.

  11. A Simple, Reliable, and Inexpensive Intraoperative External Expansion System for Enhanced Autologous Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo M. Oranges


    Full Text Available External volume expansion of the recipient site by suction has been proposed as a way of improving fat graft survival. The objective of this study was to present an innovative and simple intraoperative external expansion system to enhance small-volume autologous fat grafting (40–80 mL and to discuss its background and its mechanism of action. In this system, expansion is performed using a complete vacuum delivery system known as the Kiwi VAC-6000M with a PalmPump (Clinical Innovations. The recipient site is rapidly expanded intraoperatively 10 times for 30 seconds each with a negative pressure of up to 550 mm Hg before autologous fat injection. During this repetitive stimulation, the tissues become grossly expanded, developing macroscopic swelling that regresses slowly over the course of hours following the cessation of the stimulus. The system sets various mechanisms in motion, including scar release, mechanical stimulation, edema, ischemia, and inflammation, which provide an environment conducive for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. In order to maintain the graft construct in its expansive state, all patients are encouraged postoperatively to use the Kiwi three times daily for one minute per session over the course of three days. The handling of this system is simple for both the patients and the surgeon. Satisfactory clinical outcomes have been achieved without significant complications.

  12. Step-by-step guide to building an inexpensive 3D printed motorized positioning stage for automated high-content screening microscopy. (United States)

    Schneidereit, Dominik; Kraus, Larissa; Meier, Jochen C; Friedrich, Oliver; Gilbert, Daniel F


    High-content screening microscopy relies on automation infrastructure that is typically proprietary, non-customizable, costly and requires a high level of skill to use and maintain. The increasing availability of rapid prototyping technology makes it possible to quickly engineer alternatives to conventional automation infrastructure that are low-cost and user-friendly. Here, we describe a 3D printed inexpensive open source and scalable motorized positioning stage for automated high-content screening microscopy and provide detailed step-by-step instructions to re-building the device, including a comprehensive parts list, 3D design files in STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data) and STL (Standard Tessellation Language) format, electronic circuits and wiring diagrams as well as software code. System assembly including 3D printing requires approx. 30h. The fully assembled device is light-weight (1.1kg), small (33×20×8cm) and extremely low-cost (approx. EUR 250). We describe positioning characteristics of the stage, including spatial resolution, accuracy and repeatability, compare imaging data generated with our device to data obtained using a commercially available microplate reader, demonstrate its suitability to high-content microscopy in 96-well high-throughput screening format and validate its applicability to automated functional Cl(-)- and Ca(2+)-imaging with recombinant HEK293 cells as a model system. A time-lapse video of the stage during operation and as part of a custom assembled screening robot can be found at Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A promising split-lesion technique for rapid tattoo removal using a novel sequential approach of a single sitting of pulsed CO(2) followed by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm). (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Bansal, Shivani; Goel, Khushbu


    Laser tattoo removal conventionally uses Q-switched (QS) lasers, but they require multiple sittings, and the end results depend largely on the type of tattoo treated. In pigmented skin, due to the competing epidermal pigment results, laser results in tattoo are slow and inadequate. To evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of ultrapulse CO2 and QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser in the treatment of tattoos in Indian skin. A split-lesion trial was carried out in five patients, with the left side of tattoos receiving the QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and the right side, a sequential combination of Up CO2 and QS Nd: YAG at 6 weeks interval with a maximum of six sittings. Outcome assessment was carried out by a blinded assessor using standardized photography. An assessment of physician improvement score, side-effects score, and patient satisfaction score was taken during and at the end of the study. There was a statistically significant improvement on the combination side(physician improvement score -3.7 vs. 1.87: P = 0.0019) which occurred earlier with fewer sittings (1.7 vs. 6). There was no statistically significant difference in the side effects. A combination of an Up CO2 laser with QS Nd: YAG laser is a promising tool for rapid and effective removal of blue-black/blue amateur tattoo in pigmented skin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Using Modern And Inexpensive Tools In the Classroom To Teach Spectroscopy And To Do Exciting Citizen Science On Astronomical Objects (United States)

    Field, T.


    Spectroscopy is a key tool used in modern astronomical research. But, it's always been a difficult topic to teach or practice because the expense and complexity of the available tools. Over the past few years, there's been somewhat of a revolution in this field as new technologies have applied. In this presentation we'll review some new spectroscopy tools that enable educators, students and citizen scientists to do exciting spectroscopic work. With the addition of a simple, inexpensive grating, it's now possible to capture scientifically significant spectra of astronomical objects with small (6") telescopes and even just a DSLR. See the tools that citizen scientists are using to contribute data to pro-am collaborations around the world. We'll also examine a simple, surprisingly inexpensive, tripod-mounted spectrometer that can be used in the classroom for demonstrations and hands-on labs with gas tubes and other light sources. Both of the above instruments use a software program named RSpec, which is state of the art software suite that is easy to learn and easy to use. In this presentation we'll see these devices in operation and discuss how they can be used by educators to dramatically improve their teaching of this topic. You'll see how these tools can eliminate the frustration of hand-held rainbow foil and plastic spectrometers. And we'll review some exciting examples of astronomical spectra being collected by amateurs and educators.

  15. Inexpensive antimony nanocrystals and their composites with red phosphorus as high-performance anode materials for Na-ion batteries. (United States)

    Walter, Marc; Erni, Rolf; Kovalenko, Maksym V


    Sodium-ion batteries increasingly become of immense research interest as a potential inexpensive alternative to Lithium-ion batteries. Development of high-energy-density negative electrodes (anodes) remains to be a great challenge, especially because of significant differences between lithium and sodium chemistries. Two Na-ion anode materials - antimony (Sb) and phosphorus (P) - have been recently shown to offer excellent cycling stability (Sb) and highest known Na-ion charge storage capacity (P). In this work we report on the synergistic Na-ion storage in a P/Sb/Cu-nanocomposite, produced by mixing inexpensive colloidal Sb nanocrystals with red P and with copper (Cu) nanowires. In comparison to electrodes composed of only phosphorus, such P/Sb/Cu-composite shows much greater cycling stability providing a capacity of above 1100 mAh g(-1) after 50 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 125 mA g(-1). Furthermore, P/Sb/Cu-composite also exhibits excellent rate-capability, with capacity of more than 900 mAh g(-1) at a high charge/discharge current density of 2000 mA g(-1).

  16. A compact, inexpensive infrared laser system for continuous-wave optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves (United States)

    Perkins, William C.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.


    Optical nerve stimulation (ONS) has been commonly performed in the laboratory using high-power, pulsed, infrared (IR) lasers including Holmium:YAG, diode, and Thulium fiber lasers. However, the relatively high cost of these lasers in comparison with conventional electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) equipment may represent a significant barrier to widespread adoption of ONS. Optical stimulation of the prostate cavernous nerves (CN's) has recently been reported using lower cost, continuous-wave (CW), all-fiber-based diode lasers. This preliminary study describes further miniaturization and cost reduction of the ONS system in the form of a compact, lightweight, cordless, and inexpensive IR laser. A 140-mW, 1560-nm diode laser was integrated with a green aiming beam and delivery optics into a compact ONS system. Surface and subsurface ONS was performed in a total of 5 rats, in vivo, with measurement of an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response during CW laser irradiation for 30 s with a spot diameter of 0.7 mm. Short-term, CW ONS of the prostate CN's is feasible using a compact, inexpensive, batterypowered IR laser diode system. This ONS system may represent an alternative to ENS for laboratory studies, and with further development, a handheld option for ONS in the clinic to identify and preserve the CN's during prostate cancer surgery.

  17. Rapid analysis of fungicides in tea infusions using ionic liquid immobilized fabric phase sorptive extraction with the assistance of surfactant fungicides analysis using IL-FPSE assisted with surfactant. (United States)

    Yang, Miyi; Gu, Yihan; Wu, Xiaoling; Xi, Xuefei; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zeng, Haozhe; Zhang, Sanbing; Lu, Runhua; Gao, Haixiang; Li, Jing


    A green, simple, inexpensive, and sensitive ionic liquid immobilized fabric phase sorptive extraction method coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for rapid screening and simultaneous determination of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, cyprodinil and trifloxystrobin) residues in tea infusions. This IL modified extraction fiber is capable of extracting target analytes directly from complicated tea water matrices with the addition of surfactant. A series of extraction conditions were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time approach and orthogonal test. After a series experiments, the optimum conditions were found to be 10% [HIMIM]NTf2 as coating solution, 2min vortex time, 500μL acetonitrile as dispersive solvent and 2min desorption time. Under the above conditions, the proposed technique was applied to detect fungicides from real tea water samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multispectral quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using inexpensive narrowband multicolor LEDs. (United States)

    Dubey, Vishesh; Singh, Gyanendra; Singh, Veena; Ahmad, Azeem; Mehta, Dalip Singh


    We report multispectral phase-shifting interference microscopy for quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells (RBCs). A wide range of wavelengths are covered by means of using multiple color light emitting diodes (LEDs) with narrow spectral bandwidth ranging from violet to deep red color. The multicolor LED light source was designed and operated sequentially, which works as a multispectral scanning light source. Corresponding to each color LED source, five phase-shifted interferograms were recorded sequentially for the measurement of phase maps, as well as the refractive index of RBCs within the entire visible region. The proposed technique provides information about the effect of wavelengths on the morphology and refractive index of human RBCs. The system does not require expensive multiple color filters or any wavelength scanning mechanism along with broadband light source.

  19. An inexpensive, easily constructed, reusable task trainer for simulating ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis. (United States)

    Zerth, Herb; Harwood, Robert; Tommaso, Laura; Girzadas, Daniel V


    Pericardiocentesis is a low-frequency, high-risk procedure integral to the practice of emergency medicine. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is the preferred technique for providing this critical intervention. Traditionally, emergency physicians learned pericardiocentesis in real time, at the bedside, on critically ill patients. Medical education is moving toward simulation for training and assessment of procedures such as pericardiocentesis because it allows learners to practice time-sensitive skills without risk to patient or learner. The retail market for models for pericardiocentesis practice is limited and expensive. We have developed an ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis task trainer that allows the physician to insert a needle under ultrasound guidance, pierce the "pericardial sac" and aspirate "blood." Our model can be simply constructed in a home kitchen, and the overall preparation time is 1 h. Our model costs $20.00 (US, 2008). Materials needed for the construction include 16 ounces of plain gelatin, one large balloon, one golf ball, food coloring, non-stick cooking spray, one wooden cooking skewer, surgical iodine solution, and a 4-quart sized plastic food storage container. Refrigeration and a heat source for cooking are also required. Once prepared, the model is usable for 2 weeks at room temperature and may be preserved an additional week if refrigerated. When the model shows signs of wear, it can be easily remade, by simply recycling the existing materials. The self-made model was well liked by training staff due to accessibility of a simulation model, and by learners of the technique as they felt more at ease performing pericardiocentesis on a live patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostate treatments, 1MRT o RapidArc; Tratamiento de prostata, IMART o RapidArc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro novais, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Cerro Penalver, E.


    Techniques that modulate the dose (as IMRT or RapidArcTM) improve dose homogeneity within the target volume decreasing the dose in healthy organs. The aim of this work is to study the dosimetric differences in prostate radiotherapy treatments with IMRT and RapidArcTM. The results of the 109 patients studied show that plans to RapidArcTM have better coverage, compliance and dose gradient outside the target volume. (Author)

  1. Comparing FTIR and RAPD techniques in the typing of C. albicans in a clinical set-up (United States)

    Sandt, Christophe L.; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Toubas, Dominique; Aubert, Dominique; Lepan, Herve; Lepouse, Claire; Jaussaud, Maryse; Leon, Alain; Pinon, Jean-Michel; Manfait, Michel


    Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, generally though to be of endogenous origin, with however reported outbreaks. Epidemilogy of C. albicans has been studied so far by genotypic methods mainly, including the classical RAPD analysis. Albeit powerful, genotypic techniques are expensive, time consuming and complex to implement. FTIR spectroscopy is simple, rapid, inexpensive and an increasingly used technique for the identification of microorganisms. As a phenotypic method, it provides rapid whole cells 'fingerprinting' using few consumables and can detect very subtle differences between strains of the same species. In this study, C. albicans strains isolated from 50 patients from six hospital units were collected and studied by FTIR spectroscopy and RAPD-PCR. Discrimination of strains was computed using classification algorithms on selected features of the spectral data. Results from 10 patients, for whom iterative sampling was possible, are presented and discussed. Emphasis was laid on the reproducibility of dat for strain-level identification. FTIR analysis shows that (a) the C. albicans spectra were different from one patient to another, (b) seven patients exhibit each a homogeneous group while three patients display each two groups of strains. RAPD-PCR and FTIR analyses correlate quite well showing that FTIR spectroscopy could be a potential epidemiological tool in the control of nosocomial fungal infections.

  2. Rapid Column-Free Enrichment of Mononuclear Cells from Solid Tissues (United States)

    Scoville, Steven D.; Keller, Karen A.; Cheng, Stephanie; Zhang, Michael; Zhang, Xiaoli; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Freud, Aharon G.


    We have developed a rapid negative selection method to enrich rare mononuclear cells from human tissues. Unwanted and antibody-tethered cells are selectively depleted during a Ficoll separation step, and there is no need for magnetic-based reagents and equipment. The new method is fast, customizable, inexpensive, remarkably efficient, and easy to perform, and per sample the overall cost is less than one-tenth the cost associated with a magnetic column-based method. PMID:26223896

  3. Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival through the inexpensive optimization of an existing defibrillation program: OPALS study phase II. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support. (United States)

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Field, B J; Spaite, D W; De Maio, V J; Ward, R; Munkley, D P; Lyver, M B; Luinstra, L G; Campeau, T; Maloney, J; Dagnone, E


    .5%; Pdefibrillation program and US $2400 per life saved annually for maintaining the program. An inexpensive, multifaceted system optimization approach to rapid defibrillation can lead to significant improvements in survival after cardiac arrest in a large BLS-D EMS system.

  4. Esophageal variceal ligation by reloading with inexpensive hemorrhoidal O-ring--is an overtube necessary? (United States)

    Wong, S Y; Ng, F H; Kng, C


    The overtube is the major cause for severe complications during endoscopic variceal ligation with a single-shot ligator. This retrospective study was designed to examine the necessity of the placement of an overtube during elective endoscopic variceal ligation. Thirty-one sessions in 18 patients were analyzed. An overtube was inserted using an over-the-scope technique in 11 sessions (group 1) but was omitted in 20 sessions (group II). The complications, technical difficulties, and operating time were analyzed. Child's grading, the size of the esophageal varices, and the number of rubber bands deployed were comparable in both groups. There was a significantly longer operating time (p < 0.01) and more oropharyngeal injury (p = 0.03) in group I than in group II. Mid esophageal injury, which was associated with resistance in withdrawing the gastroscope from the overtube, occurred in 55% of sessions in group I but in 0% of session in group II. In conclusion, the use of an overtube is associated with more complications, and it can be omitted during elective endoscopic variceal ligation.

  5. Single-step blood direct PCR: A robust and rapid method to diagnose triplet repeat disorders. (United States)

    Singh, Inder; Swarup, Vishnu; Shakya, Sunil; Goyal, Vinay; Faruq, Mohammed; Srivastava, Achal Kumar


    DNA extraction prior to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in genetic diagnoses of triplet repeat disorders (TRDs) is tedious and labour-intensive and has the limitations of sample contamination with foreign DNA, including that from preceding samples. Therefore, we aimed to develop a rapid, robust, and cost-effective method for expeditious genetic investigation of TRDs from whole blood as a DNA template. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 70 clinically suspected patients of progressive ataxia. The conventional method using genomic DNA and single-step Blood-Direct PCR (BD-PCR) method with just 2μl of whole blood sample were tested to amplify triplet repeat expansion in genes related to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 1, 2, 3, 12 and Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Post-PCR, the allele sizes were mapped and repeat numbers were calculated using GeneMapper and macros run in Microsoft Excel programmes. Successful amplification of target regions was achieved in all samples by both methods. The frequency of the normal and mutated allele was concordant between both methods, diagnosing 37% positive for a mutation in either of the candidate genes. The BD-PCR resulted in higher intensities of product peaks of normal and pathogenic alleles. The nearly-accurate sizing of the normal and expanded allele was achieved in a shorter time (4-5h), without DNA extraction and any risk of cross contamination, which suggests the BD-PCR to be a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid method to confirm TRDs. This technique can be introduced in routine diagnostic procedures of other tandem repeat disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of aetiological agents of sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Degl’Innocenti


    Full Text Available Introduction: The MALDI-TOF has recently become part of the methods of microbiological investigation in many laboratories of bacteriology with advantages both practical and economical.The use of this technique for the rapid identification of the causative agents of sepsis is of strategic importance to the ability to provide the clinician with useful information for a prompt and rapid establishment of an empirical antimicrobial “targeted” therapy. Methods: It was tested a total of 343 positive blood culture bottles from 211 patients. The samples after collection were incubated in the BACTEC FX (Becton Dickinson, USA. From these bottles were taken a few milliliters of broth culture and transferred into a vacutainer tube containing gel. This was centrifuged, the supernatant was decanted, and finally recovered the bacterial suspension on the gel. With micro-organisms recovered in this way, after several washes with distilled water, was prepared a slide for microscopic examination with Gram stain, and a plate for mass spectrometry (MS-Vitek, bioMérieux, France.Then, the same samples were inoculated on solid agar media according to the protocol in use in our laboratory.The next day was checked the possible bacterial growth on solid media; we then proceeded to the identification of the colonies by Vitek MS and / or with the system Vitek2 (bioMérieux, France. Results: 258 (75.2% positive vials show concordant results between direct identification and identification after growth on agar. For 83 (24.2% positive bottles there has been full compliance with the microscopic examination but not with culture. In particular, two bottles (0.6% have given complete discordance between the direct identification and that after growth. Conclusions: The protocol we use for the direct identification of organisms responsible for sepsis, directly on positive bottles, seems to be a quick and inexpensive procedure, which in less than 60 minutes can give valuable

  7. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps (United States)

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir


    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  8. Native extracellular matrix-derived semipermeable, optically transparent, and inexpensive membrane inserts for microfluidic cell culture. (United States)

    Mondrinos, Mark J; Yi, Yoon-Suk; Wu, Nan-Kun; Ding, Xueting; Huh, Dongeun


    Semipermeable cell culture membranes are commonly used in multilayered microfluidic devices to mimic the basement membrane in vivo and to create compartmentalized microenvironments for physiological cell growth and differentiation. However, existing membranes are predominantly made up of synthetic polymers, providing limited capacity to replicate cellular interactions with native extracellular matrices that play a crucial role in the induction of physiological phenotypes. Here we describe a new type of cell culture membranes engineered from native extracellular matrix (ECM) materials that are thin, semipermeable, optically transparent, and amenable to integration into microfluidic cell culture devices. Facile and cost-effective fabrication of these membranes was achieved by controlled sequential steps of vitrification that transformed three-dimensional (3D) ECM hydrogels into structurally stable thin films. By modulating the composition of the ECM, our technique provided a means to tune key membrane properties such as optical transparency, stiffness, and porosity. For microfluidic cell culture, we constructed a multilayered microdevice consisting of two parallel chambers separated by a thin membrane insert derived from different types of ECM. This study showed that our ECM membranes supported attachment and growth of various types of cells (epithelial, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells) under perfusion culture conditions. Our data also revealed the promotive effects of the membranes on adhesion-associated intracellular signaling that mediates cell-ECM interactions. Moreover, we demonstrated the use of these membranes for constructing compartmentalized microfluidic cell culture systems to induce physiological tissue differentiation or to replicate interfaces between different tissue types. Our approach provides a robust platform to produce and engineer biologically active cell culture substrates that serve as promising alternatives to conventional synthetic

  9. A simplified LC-MS/MS method for rapid determination of cycloserine in small-volume human plasma using protein precipitation coupled with dilution techniques to overcome matrix effects and its application to a pharmacokinetic study. (United States)

    Mao, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xin; Li, Bingxin; Jin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin


    Matrix effects have been a major concern when developing LC-MS/MS methods for quantitative bioanalysis of cycloserine. Sample handling procedures including solid phase extraction or derivatization have been reported previously by researchers to overcome matrix effects of cycloserine. In the present study, the possibility of reducing matrix effects of cycloserine using protein precipitation coupled with dilution techniques was investigated. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol followed by a 40-fold dilution with methanol-water (50:50, v/v). The analyte and the internal standard (mildronate) were chromatographed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS (100 mm × 2.0 mm, 2.2 μm) column using methanol-0.01% formic acid (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase and detected by multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization. The total run time was only 2 min per sample. The suppression of cycloserine response was reduced with the matrix effects ranging between 80.5 and 87.9%. A lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.300 μg/mL was achieved using only 10 μL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.8% and the accuracy ranged from -2.6 to 6.6%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of cycloserine in 30 healthy Chinese male subjects after oral administration of a single dose of cycloserine at 250, 500 and 750 mg under fasting conditions. The newly developed method is simpler, faster, cost-effective, and more robust than previously reported LC-MS/MS methods.

  10. Polymer Hybrid Photovoltaics for Inexpensive Electricity Generation: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--30 April 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, S. A.


    The project goal is to understand the operating mechanisms underlying the performance of polymer hybrid photovoltaics to enable the development of a photovoltaic with a maximum power conversion efficiency over cost ratio that is significantly greater than current PV technologies. Plastic or polymer-based photovoltaics can have significant cost advantages over conventional technologies in that they are compatible with liquid-based plastic processing and can be assembled onto plastic under atmospheric conditions (ambient temperature and pressure) using standard printing technologies, such as reel-to-reel and screen printing. Moreover, polymer-based PVs are lightweight, flexible, and largely unbreakable, which make shipping, installation, and maintenance simpler. Furthermore, a numerical simulation program was developed (in collaboration with IBM) to fully simulate the performance of multicomponent polymer photovoltaic devices, and a manufacturing method was developed (in collaboration with Add-vision) to inexpensively manufacture larger-area devices.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Enick; Eric J. Beckman; Andrew Hamilton


    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, nonfluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to be completed only when a CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer that was soluble in CO{sub 2} at pressures comparable to the MMP was identified. In the second step, viscosity-enhancing associating groups were to be incorporated into the polymer to make it a viable thickener that exhibited high CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions. This final report documents the CO{sub 2} solubility of a series of commercial and novel polymers composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and, in some cases, nitrogen.

  12. A simple and inexpensive way to document simple husbandry in animal care facilities using QR code scanning. (United States)

    Green, Tyler; Smith, Terry; Hodges, Richard; Fry, W Mark


    Record keeping within research animal care facilities is a key part of the guidelines set forth by national regulatory bodies and mandated by federal laws. Research facilities must maintain records of animal health issues, procedures and usage. Facilities are also required to maintain records regarding regular husbandry such as general animal checks, feeding and watering. The level of record keeping has the potential to generate excessive amounts of paper which must be retained in a fashion as to be accessible. In addition it is preferable not to retain within administrative areas any paper records which may have been in contact with animal rooms. Here, we present a flexible, simple and inexpensive process for the generation and storage of electronic animal husbandry records using smartphone technology over a WiFi or cellular network.

  13. Teaching an Old Material New Tricks: Easy and Inexpensive Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Sample Protection Using Conductive Polymers. (United States)

    Taillon, Joshua A; Ray, Valery; Salamanca-Riba, Lourdes G


    This letter describes an innovative spin-coating system, built from off-the-shelf components, that can easily and inexpensively be integrated into any laboratory environment. Combined with a liquid suspension of conductive polymer, such a "rotary coater" enables simple coating of planar samples to create a physical protective barrier on the sample surface. This barrier aids in charge dissipation during scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging and provides wide-scale protection of the sample surface from ion bombardment during FIB imaging and gas-assisted deposition. This polymer layer replaces the localized and time-consuming electron beam deposition step typically performed during transmission electron microscopy lamella preparation. After observation, the coating can be easily removed, if desired. The described spin-coating procedure has minimal cost while providing repeatable positive results, without the need for expensive commercial coating instrumentation.

  14. A Novel and Inexpensive Method for Measuring Volcanic Plume Water Fluxes at High Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom D. Pering


    Full Text Available Water vapour (H2O is the dominant species in volcanic gas plumes. Therefore, measurements of H2O fluxes could provide valuable constraints on subsurface degassing and magmatic processes. However, due to the large and variable concentration of this species in the background atmosphere, little attention has been devoted to monitoring the emission rates of this species from volcanoes. Instead, the focus has been placed on remote measurements of SO2, which is present in far lower abundances in plumes, and therefore provides poorer single flux proxies for overall degassing conditions. Here, we present a new technique for the measurement of H2O emissions at degassing volcanoes at high temporal resolution (≈1 Hz, via remote sensing with low cost digital cameras. This approach is analogous to the use of dual band ultraviolet (UV cameras for measurements of volcanic SO2 release, but is focused on near infrared absorption by H2O. We report on the field deployment of these devices on La Fossa crater, Vulcano Island, and the North East Crater of Mt. Etna, during which in-plume calibration was performed using a humidity sensor, resulting in estimated mean H2O fluxes of ≈15 kg·s−1 and ≈34 kg·s−1, respectively, in accordance with previously reported literature values. By combining the Etna data with parallel UV camera and Multi-GAS observations, we also derived, for the first time, a combined record of 1 Hz gas fluxes for the three most abundant volcanic gas species: H2O, CO2, and SO2. Spectral analysis of the Etna data revealed oscillations in the passive emissions of all three species, with periods spanning ≈40–175 s, and a strong degree of correlation between the periodicity manifested in the SO2 and H2O data, potentially related to the similar exsolution depths of these two gases. In contrast, there was a poorer linkage between oscillations in these species and those of CO2, possibly due to the deeper exsolution of carbon dioxide, giving

  15. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  16. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew


    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  17. Comparing the results of limited incision technique and standard longitudinal incision technique for carpal tunnel decompression by numerical grading system. (United States)

    Uygur, Fatih; Sever, Celalettin; Yüksel, Fuat


    The carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome. Many different methods have been described for treatment. We performed a novel method to release the carpal tunnel. Subsequently, we compared the surgery results of this novel limited incision technique and the standard longitudinal incision technique by using a 'Numerical Grading System'. There is no reported study about the use of 'Numerical Grading System' for assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome in the literature. The novel technique is simple and effective, employs inexpensive instruments, and has a low complication rate. The aim of this paper is to record a novel limited incision technique and a new assessment method for the carpal tunnel syndrome.

  18. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued


    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  19. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C


    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  20. DNA-based identification of invasive alien species in relation to Canadian federal policy and law, and the basis of rapid-response management. (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V


    Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.

  1. Development and tendency of rapid prototyping technology (United States)

    Yan, Yongnian; Hong, Guodong


    The definition of the rapid prototyping is given in this paper. Various RP processes, which build the prototypes with 2.5 or 3 dimensional layers, are introduced. The relative techniques of RP and the differences between RP technique and CNC manufacturing are analyzed. The paper discusses the RP's applied fields and methods and presents the RP development in the world. According to the idea that requirements determine the developing, the RP's tendency is discussed.

  2. Rapid detection of Clostridium difficile via magnetic bead aggregation in cost-effective polyester microdevices with cell phone image analysis. (United States)

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A; Cabaniss, Scott T; Angotti, Morgan L; Moore, John H; Abhyankar, Mayuresh; Shukla, Nishant; Mills, Daniel L; Kessel, Bryan G; Garner, Gavin T; Swami, Nathan S; Landers, James P


    Pathogen detection has traditionally been accomplished by utilizing methods such as cell culture, immunoassays, and nucleic acid amplification tests; however, these methods are not easily implemented in resource-limited settings because special equipment for detection and thermal cycling is often required. In this study, we present a magnetic bead aggregation assay coupled to an inexpensive microfluidic fabrication technique that allows for cell phone detection and analysis of a notable pathogen in less than one hour. Detection is achieved through the use of a custom-built system that allows for fluid flow control via centrifugal force, as well as manipulation of magnetic beads with an adjustable rotating magnetic field. Cell phone image capture and analysis is housed in a 3D-printed case with LED backlighting and a lid-mounted Android phone. A custom-written application (app.) is employed to interrogate images for the extent of aggregation present following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled to product-inhibited bead aggregation (PiBA) for detection of target sequences. Clostridium difficile is a pathogen of increasing interest due to its causative role in intestinal infections following antibiotic treatment, and was therefore chosen as the pathogen of interest in the present study to demonstrate the rapid, cost-effective, and sequence-specific detection capabilities of the microfluidic platform described herein.

  3. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  4. Rapid Strep Test (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  5. RAPID3? Aptly named! (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M


    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  6. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne


    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  7. An Inexpensive Robotics Laboratory. (United States)

    Inigo, R. M.; Angulo, J. M.


    Describes the design and implementation of a simple robot manipulator. The manipulator has three degrees of freedom and is controlled by a general purpose microcomputer. The basis for the manipulator (which costs under $100) is a simple working model of a crane. (Author/JN)

  8. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.


    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article…

  9. Development of rapid PCR-RFLP technique for identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species differentiation was realized by digestion of the amplified ~195 bp fragments with Sse9I restriction enzyme. The results indicate that 7/7 of Kebab loghmeh, 9/10 of minced meat, 4/8 of beef burger and 2/5 samples of canned stew samples, were contaminated with one of prohibited ruminant species residual.

  10. Using current molecular techniques for rapid differentiation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid fever is responsible for the deaths of many people annually. However, conventional and timeconsuming detection methods for Salmonella Typhi still dominate. By using a molecular based approach, it was possible to identify Salmonella Typhi by amplifying two specific genes (viaB and tyv) and by using RFLP ...

  11. Using current molecular techniques for rapid differentiation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 4, 2009 ... (STF: GTT ATT TCA GCA TAA GGA G) and reverse primers (STR: ACT TGT CCG TGT TTT ACT C) at an annealing temperature of 52°C. In addition, the invA gene was also targeted since it is found in both. Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium, and was used for a multiplex PCR using the forward ...

  12. Modified Dento - Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis Technique for Rapid Canine Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Patil


    Full Text Available Distraction Osteogenesis claims to reduce the duration of treatment as well aid in conservation of anchorage. With the introduction of Dento- alveolar distraction retraction of canine can now be done in about 2-3 weeks with minimal loss of anchorage and little/no root resorption. However, surgical procedure required for dento-alveolar distraction can cause significant swelling and post operative discomfort. Our small modification in the surgical procedure drastically reduces the discomfort and improves patient compliance.

  13. Rapid Runway Repair (RRR) Techniques: A Systems Analysis (United States)


    t ’O " bt .r4 4) -0 a& a a a a a a a a a a a a a am A. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a .1 *.4 ILci0 l f a 0a 0 no a . acN N r. 12 N It Nt in % N2- In...Alexandria. VA NAVFACENGCOM - CHES DIV. FPO- IPL . Washington. DC NAVFACENGCOM - LANT DIV. Code 1632. Norfolk, VA NAVFACENGCOM . NORTHl DIV. Code 04AL

  14. Using molecular techniques for rapid detection of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this experiment, the whole chicken eggs were negative for Salmonella species by SMT. Salmonella enteritidis was dominating among the recovered Salmonella serovars, followed by. Salmonella typhimurium, while only two strains of Salmonella agona and Salmonella newport were isolated. The PCR assay combined ...

  15. Cost-effective and rapid concrete repair techniques. (United States)


    Concrete is a principal component of many transportation structures. While highly durable, a : variety of processes degrade and damage concrete. Replacement is expensive. Many cases : warrant repair instead of replacement. Since many damage processes...

  16. A rapid, non-sacrificial chromosome preparation technique for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 16, 1987 ... Genetic mechanisms of sex determination have been described for a number of species with the complete range from synchronous hermaphroditism through pri- mitive polygenic sex determination to distinct sex chromosomes being exhibited in various fish species. (Atz 1964; Avtalion & Hammerman 1978; ...

  17. Application of Rapid Solidification Techniques to Aluminum Alloys (United States)


    Russ. Met. [4], 58 (1970). 29. E. Blank: Z. Metallkunde 63, 324 (1972). 30. M. H. Jacobs, A. G. Doggett and M. J. Stowell: J. Mater. Sci. 9, 1631 (1974...Ramachandrarao and M. Laridjani: J. Mater. Sci. 9, 434 (1974). 39. P. Ramachandrarao, M. Laridjani and R. W. Cahn: Z. Metallkunde 63, 43 (1972). 40. H

  18. Monitoring of rapid sand filters using an acoustic imaging technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allouche, N.; Simons, D.G.; Rietveld, L.C.


    A novel instrument is developed to acoustically image sand filters used for water treatment and monitor their performance. The instrument consists of an omnidirectional transmitter that generates a chirp with a frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz, and an array of hydrophones. The instrument was

  19. Using molecular techniques for rapid detection of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 1, 2010 ... Key words: Frozen chickens, Salmonella serovars, diagnosis, enrichment, selective, polymerase chain reaction. INTRODUCTION ... that 16 million new cases of typhoid fever occur each year around the world, ..... Ciprofloxacin treatment failure in a case of typhoid fever caused by. Salmonella enterica ...

  20. Liquefied Wood as Inexpensive Precursor-Feedstock for Bio-Mediated Incorporation of (R-3-Hydroxyvalerate into Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koller


    Full Text Available Liquefied wood (LW prepared in a microwave process was applied as a novel; inexpensive precursor feedstock for incorporation of (R-3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV into polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA biopolyesters in order to improve the biopolyester’s material quality; Cupriavidus necator was applied as microbial production strain. For proof of concept, pre-experiments were carried out on a shake flask scale using different mixtures of glucose and LW as carbon source. The results indicate that LW definitely acts as a 3HV precursor, but, at the same time, displays toxic effects on C. necator at concentrations exceeding 10 g/L. Based on these findings, PHA biosynthesis under controlled conditions was performed using a fed-batch feeding regime on a bioreactor scale. As major outcome, a poly(3HB-co-0.8%-3HV copolyester was obtained displaying a desired high molar mass of Mw = 5.39 × 105 g/mol at low molar-mass dispersity (ĐM of 1.53, a degree of crystallinity (Xc of 62.1%, and melting temperature Tm (176.3 °C slightly lower than values reported for poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB homopolyester produced by C. necator; thus, the produced biopolyester is expected to be more suitable for polymer processing purposes.

  1. A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Evaluating the Photovoltaic Potential: Its Validation in Buenos Aires and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Cabezas


    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies requires a precise and detailed quantification of the resource available. Because of the cost of solar stations or limited availability of skilled human resources, in most emerging countries, this assessment is made only on a few points scattered over large areas. We report here a simple and inexpensive method to evaluate the photovoltaic (PV potential for a specific geographic region and a given PV capture technology. The system allows for a direct evaluation of the energy actually obtainable by scaling the measurement array of photovoltaic cells. The proposed measurement system can be installed as a stand-alone unit, or as part of a measurement network, connected to a more sophisticated central hub. The measurement station consists of said PV array (or similar PV array, a resistor, and a portable data logger. The system is calibrated with a device composed of a small array of PV cells, a resistor load bank, and two multimeters. Due to its low cost, this system can be replicated as many times as required with minimal investment. This would make it possible to evaluate the available photovoltaic potential of large regions with accurate and detailed data. Measurements carried out in Buenos Aires and in Antarctica confirm the consistency of the method.

  2. Poster - Thur Eve - 48: An inexpensive and convenient phantom for quality assurance in image guidance based radiosurgery. (United States)

    Soisson, E


    This work describes the design and use of an inexpensive phantom designed for precision measurements in radiosurgery quality assurance. The main features of this simple phantom include its solid water construction, interchangeable ion chamber holders and film registration system, thus allowing for measurement of small fields with several detectors using the same phantom. The entire phantom was constructed using one 30cm × 30cm × 3cm slab of solid water. The phantom contains a slot that allows for the placement of two small volume ion chambers (liquid and A1SL) via custom inserts near the center of the phantom. In addition, the plug can be filled for film measurements. The phantom can be split down the center to allow for the placement of a film. As opposed to registering film to room based markers, such as lasers, the phantom contains radio-opaque fiducials that puncture the film while also providing a method to register the film images to exported dose planes. In addition to the markers used for film registration, the phantom contains several external beebees that can be used to avoid ambiguity in image registration when using image guidance for setup. This simple phantom contains many features of other much more expensive phantoms designed for this purpose and has been found to be very useful clinically and in departmental research. The key elements of this phantom could be included in several other designs allowing it to be reproduced in other centers. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Bring your own camera to the trap: An inexpensive, versatile, and portable triggering system tested on wild hummingbirds. (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Mickley, James


    The study of animals in the wild offers opportunities to collect relevant information on their natural behavior and abilities to perform ecologically relevant tasks. However, it also poses challenges such as accounting for observer effects, human sensory limitations, and the time intensiveness of this type of research. To meet these challenges, field biologists have deployed camera traps to remotely record animal behavior in the wild. Despite their ubiquity in research, many commercial camera traps have limitations, and the species and behavior of interest may present unique challenges. For example, no camera traps support high-speed video recording. We present a new and inexpensive camera trap system that increases versatility by separating the camera from the triggering mechanism. Our system design can pair with virtually any camera and allows for independent positioning of a variety of sensors, all while being low-cost, lightweight, weatherproof, and energy efficient. By using our specialized trigger and customized sensor configurations, many limitations of commercial camera traps can be overcome. We use this system to study hummingbird feeding behavior using high-speed video cameras to capture fast movements and multiple sensors placed away from the camera to detect small body sizes. While designed for hummingbirds, our application can be extended to any system where specialized camera or sensor features are required, or commercial camera traps are cost-prohibitive, allowing camera trap use in more research avenues and by more researchers.

  4. A Reduction-Based Sensor for Acrolein Conjugates with the Inexpensive Nitrobenzene as an Alternative to Monoclonal Antibody. (United States)

    Takamatsu, Masayuki; Fukase, Koichi; Oka, Ritsuko; Kitazume, Shinobu; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Katsunori


    Acrolein, a highly toxic α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, has been a longstanding key biomarker associated with a range of disorders related to oxidative stresses. One of the most promising methods for detecting acrolein involves the use of antibodies that can recognize the acrolein-lysine conjugate, 3-formyl-3, 4-dehydropiperidines (FDP), within oxidatively stressed cells and tissues from various disease states. We have uncovered here that FDP could reduce nitroarenes in high yields at 100 °C in the presence of excess CaCl2 as a Lewis acid promoter. This unique transformation allowed for the development of a de novo method for detecting levels of FDPs generated from proteins in urine or blood serum samples. Thus we successfully converted a non-fluorescent and inexpensive 4-nitrophthalonitrile probe to the corresponding fluorescent aniline, thereby constituting the concept of fluorescent switching. Its sensitivity level (0.84 nmol/mL) is more than that of ELISA assays (3.13 nmol/mL) and is already equally reliable and reproducible at this early stage of development. More importantly, this method is cost effective and simple to operate, requiring only mixing of samples with a kit solution. Our method thus possesses potential as a future alternative to the more costly and operatively encumbered conventional antibody-based methods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Belton


    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS to model the surface of satellite dish. In this case, the dish was an inexpensive 9m parabolic satellite dish with a mesh surface, and was to be utilised in radio astronomy. The aim of the modelling process was to determine the deviation of the surface away from its true parabolic shape, in order to estimate the surface efficiency with respect to its principal receiving frequency. The main mathematical problems were the optimal and unbiased estimation the orientation of the dish and the fitting of a parabola to the local orientation or coordinate system, which were done by both orthogonal and algebraic minimization using the least-squares method. Due to the mesh structure of the dish, a classification method was also applied to filter out erroneous points being influenced by the supporting structure behind the dish. Finally, a comparison is performed between the ideal parabolic shape, and the data collected from three different temporal intervals.

  6. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J


    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  7. A Brief History of the use of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques in Soil Survey (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, James


    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools and increased the amount and types of data that can be gathered with a single pass. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify included areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales. The future should witness a greater use of multiple-frequency and multiple-coil EMI sensors and integration with other sensors to assess the spatial variability of soil properties. Data analysis

  8. HClO4-SiO2 as a new, highly efficient, inexpensive and reusable catalyst for N-tert-butoxycarbonylation of amines. (United States)

    Chakraborti, Asit K; Chankeshwara, Sunay V


    Perchloric acid adsorbed on silica-gel (HClO4-SiO2) was found to be a new, highly efficient, inexpensive and reusable catalyst for chemoselective N-tert-butoxycarbonylation of amines at room temperature and under solvent-free conditions.

  9. A simple technique for on-table confirmation of locking screw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiographs to confirm whether or not the locking screws were correctly placed. Objective: We present a simple, inexpensive, fool-proof technique that confirms the correct placement of the locking screws on table thus allowing for revision at the time of surgery in case the locking screw missed the locking hole in the nail.

  10. Dating Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absolute dating technique (such as stylistic affiliation, association with datable deposits, amino acid study of protein in pigments, and direct radiocarbon dating of the organic fraction of pigments or desert varnish).

  11. Rapid HIV testing for developing countries: the challenge of false-negative tests (United States)

    Yogev, Ram


    It is a common practice in resource-constrained countries to accept two positive rapid HIV antibody test results as diagnostic for HIV infection. Because these tests are inexpensive and results are obtained quickly, they are recommended by the WHO to "scale-up" HIV testing to increase the number of people tested. The negative predictive value of rapid HIV tests is so high that negative results are considered conclusive despite the fact that false-negative results can occur in several situations. While the specificity and sensitivity of rapid HIV tests in resource-rich countries is acceptable, there are only limited data about their performance in resource-constrained countries. The challenges of rapid HIV testing in these situations will be discussed.

  12. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  13. Inexpensive Ultrasound Demonstrations as Analogs of Radio Diffraction in the field : Huygens Probe Bistatic experiment on Titan and the Sea Interferometer (Invited) (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.


    The wave nature of electromagnetic radiation can be exploited in a number of astronomical and remote sensing methods, but is often challenging to visualize in the classroom. One approach with conveniently-inexpensive components is to use sound as an analog. Readily-available ultrasonic transducers at 40 kHz can be driven with a 555 oscillator and received intensity detected with an op-amp and visualized with a digital voltmeter, a lightbulb, or even acoustically. The wavelength of 9mm is convenient for tabletop experiments, with a relevant example being Lloyds Mirror, the interference of a direct wave from a source just above a surface with the reflected wave. As a distant receiver moves in angle through this interference pattern, a series of peaks and nulls in recorded intensity can be interpreted as the height of the transmitter and the reflectivity (i.e. with some assumptions, the roughness) of the reflecting surface. This $10 experiment will be demonstrated at the poster. Such an observation was (serendipitously) made in 2005 after the landing of the Huygens probe on the surface of Titan, where the radio signal measured by Cassini as it set on the horizon as seen from the probe underwent sharp dips in strength that were inverted into a precise measurement of the post-impact probe height. A similar technique in reverse was applied a half century earlier in early Australian radio astronomy to measure the position and width of astrophysical sources from a single clifftop antenna. Ultrasound can be convenient to emulate other radio work, exploiting Doppler effects and (for pulsed sources, like those used in rangers for amateur robotics) propagation time rather than diffraction. Some experiments on tracking Frisbees as an analog for measuring planetary winds by tracking descent probes, and on bistatic delay/Doppler scatterometry as in the CYGNSS GPS-based experiment to measure hurricane winds via sea state, will also be discussed. Huygens probe on the surface of

  14. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.


    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  15. Rapid Sediment Characterization of PCB With Elisa: An Immunoassay Technique a Rapid Sediment Characterization (RSC) Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ta, Nick


    ...) immunoassay test kits for screening of PCBs in sediment samples. Traditional sampling and analysis methods of marine ecosystems, namely sediment, do not always provide the information needed in a timely and cost effective manner...

  16. Decomposition techniques (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.


    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  17. Lateral flow microarrays: a novel platform for rapid nucleic acid detection based on miniaturized lateral flow chromatography


    Carter, Darren J.; Cary, R. Bruce


    Widely used nucleic acid assays are poorly suited for field deployment where access to laboratory instrumentation is limited or unavailable. The need for field deployable nucleic acid detection demands inexpensive, facile systems without sacrificing information capacity or sensitivity. Here we describe a novel microarray platform capable of rapid, sensitive nucleic acid detection without specialized instrumentation. The approach is based on a miniaturized lateral flow device that makes use of...

  18. Highly specific detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in human stool samples by undemanding and inexpensive phase contrast microscopy. (United States)

    Ignatius, Ralf; Klemm, Thomas; Zander, Steffen; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Kimmig, Peter; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Regnath, Thomas


    To compare phase contrast microscopy (PCM) of unstained slides for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts with a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of cryptosporidial antigen in human stool samples, we prospectively analysed by both methods 463 fresh human stool samples obtained from diarrhoeic patients between July and October 2014. Compared with the EIA, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of PCM were 88.9 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 66.0-98.1 %), 100 % (95 % CI, 99.0-100 %), 100 % (95 % CI, 77.3-100 %) and 99.6 % (95 % CI, 98.3-100 %), respectively. Additionally, we retrospectively examined with PCM 65 fixed stool samples that had been collected in 2010 from mostly asymptomatic Rwandan children <5 years of age; 14 of these samples had previously yielded positive results with a highly sensitive real-time (RT)-PCR. PCM detected cryptosporidia in 5/14 RT-PCR-positive samples, and notably, also in one of 51 RT-PCR-negative samples, which was subsequently confirmed by acid-fast staining. Positive and negative percent agreement of PCM with RT-PCR were 35.7 % (95 % CI, 16.2-61.4 %) and 98.0 % (95 % CI, 88.7-100 %), respectively. Positive PCM results were associated with higher RT-PCR cycle threshold values (p = 0.044). In conclusion, PCM offers a highly specific, undemanding and inexpensive method for the laboratory diagnosis of acute human cryptosporidiosis independent of the causative Cryptosporidium species.

  19. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  20. 3D dynamic displacement-field measurement for structural health monitoring using inexpensive RGB-D based sensor (United States)

    Abdelbarr, Mohamed; Chen, Yulu Luke; Jahanshahi, Mohammad R.; Masri, Sami F.; Shen, Wei-Men; Qidwai, Uvais A.


    The advent of inexpensive digital cameras with depth sensing capabilities (RGB-D cameras) has opened the door to numerous useful applications that need quantitative measures of dynamic fields whose simultaneous time history quantification (at many points as dictated by the resolution of the camera) provides capabilities that were previously accessible only through expensive sensors (e.g., laser scanners). This paper presents a comprehensive experimental and computational study to evaluate the performance envelope of a representative RGB-D sensor (the first generation of Kinect sensor) with the aim of assessing its suitability for the class of problems encountered in the structural dynamics field, where reasonably accurate information of evolving displacement fields (as opposed to few discrete locations) that have simultaneous dynamic planar translational motion with significant rotational (torsional) components. This study investigated the influence of key system parameters of concern in selecting an appropriate sensor for such structural dynamic applications, such as amplitude range, spectral content of the dynamic displacements, location and orientation of sensors relative to target structure, fusing of measurements from multiple sensors, sensor noise effects, rolling-shutter effects, etc. The calibration results show that if the observed displacement field generates discrete (pixel) sensor measurements with sufficient resolution (observed displacements more than 10 mm) beyond the sensor noise floor, then the subject sensors can typically provide reasonable accuracy for transnational motion (about 5%) when the frequency range of the evolving field is within about 10 Hz. However, the expected error for torsional measurements is around 6% for static motion and 10% for dynamic rotation for measurements greater than 5°.

  1. Chicken feather hydrolysate as an inexpensive complex nitrogen source for PHA production by Cupriavidus necator on waste frying oils. (United States)

    Benesova, P; Kucera, D; Marova, I; Obruca, S


    The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as a potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol.% of FH prepared by microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l-1 feather was added. In this case, the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation. A positive impact of FH was also observed for accumulation of copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when sodium propionate was used as a precursor. The copolymer has superior processing and mechanical properties in comparison with PHB homopolymer. The application of FH eliminated the inhibitory effect of propionate and resulted in altered content of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in copolymer. Therefore, the hydrolysed feather can serve as an excellent complex source of nitrogen for the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Moreover, by the combination of two inexpensive types of waste, such as waste frying oil and feather hydrolysate, it is possible to produce PHA with substantially improved efficiency and sustainability. Millions of tons of feathers, important waste product of poultry-processing industry, are disposed off annually without any further benefits. Thus, there is an inevitable need for new technologies that enable ecologically and economically sensible processing of this waste. Herein, we report that alkali-hydrolysed feathers can be used as a complex nitrogen source considerably improving polyhydroxyalkanoates production on waste frying oil employing Cupriavidus necator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  3. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides (United States)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.


    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  4. Rapid 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing of polymicrobial clinical samples for diagnosis of complex bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Salipante

    Full Text Available Classifying individual bacterial species comprising complex, polymicrobial patient specimens remains a challenge for culture-based and molecular microbiology techniques in common clinical use. We therefore adapted practices from metagenomics research to rapidly catalog the bacterial composition of clinical specimens directly from patients, without need for prior culture. We have combined a semiconductor deep sequencing protocol that produces reads spanning 16S ribosomal RNA gene variable regions 1 and 2 (∼360 bp with a de-noising pipeline that significantly improves the fraction of error-free sequences. The resulting sequences can be used to perform accurate genus- or species-level taxonomic assignment. We explore the microbial composition of challenging, heterogeneous clinical specimens by deep sequencing, culture-based strain typing, and Sanger sequencing of bulk PCR product. We report that deep sequencing can catalog bacterial species in mixed specimens from which usable data cannot be obtained by conventional clinical methods. Deep sequencing a collection of sputum samples from cystic fibrosis (CF patients reveals well-described CF pathogens in specimens where they were not detected by standard clinical culture methods, especially for low-prevalence or fastidious bacteria. We also found that sputa submitted for CF diagnostic workup can be divided into a limited number of groups based on the phylogenetic composition of the airway microbiota, suggesting that metagenomic profiling may prove useful as a clinical diagnostic strategy in the future. The described method is sufficiently rapid (theoretically compatible with same-day turnaround times and inexpensive for routine clinical use.

  5. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K


    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  6. Rapid Prototyping in PVS (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)


    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  7. Miscellaneous Techniques (United States)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

  8. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert


    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  9. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis Using a Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jy Ben


    Conclusion: The microarray method provides a more accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for bacterial meningitis compared to traditional culture methods. Clinical application of this new technique may reduce the potential risk of delay in treatment.

  10. Rapid die manufacturing using direct laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the work undertaken at the CSIR on the issue of rapid die manufacturing through the application and evaluation of a rapid prototyping technique and coating technologies applied to die components of a high pressure casting die...

  11. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill (United States)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  12. Thumb ultrasound: Technique and pathologies (United States)

    Singh, Jatinder P; Kumar, Shwetam; Kathiria, Atman V; Harjai, Rachit; Jawed, Akram; Gupta, Vikas


    Ultrasound is ideally suited for the assessment of complex anatomy and pathologies of the thumb. Focused and dynamic thumb ultrasound can provide a rapid real-time diagnosis and can be used for guided treatment in certain clinical situations. We present a simplified approach to scanning technique for thumb-related pathologies and illustrate a spectrum of common and uncommon pathologies encountered. PMID:27857468


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Levin


    Full Text Available Significant efforts are invested by rescue agencies worldwide to save human lives during natural and man-made emergency situations including those that happen in wilderness locations. These emergency situations include but not limited to: accidents with alpinists, mountainous skiers, people hiking and lost in remote areas. Sometimes in a rescue operation hundreds of first responders are involved to save a single human life. There are two critical issues where geospatial imaging can be a very useful asset in rescue operations support: 1 human detection and 2 confirming a fact that detected a human being is alive. International group of researchers from the Unites States and Poland collaborated on a pilot research project devoted to identify a feasibility of use for the human detection and alive-human state confirmation small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs and inexpensive forward looking infrared (FLIR sensors. Equipment price for both research teams was below $8,000 including 3DR quadrotor UAV and Lepton longwave infrared (LWIR imager which costs around $250 (for the US team; DJI Inspire 1 UAS with commercial Tamarisc-320 thermal camera (for the Polish team. Specifically both collaborating groups performed independent experiments in the USA and Poland and shared imaging data of on the ground and airborne electro-optical and FLIR sensor imaging collected. In these experiments dead bodies were emulated by use of medical training dummies. Real humans were placed nearby as live human subjects. Electro-optical imagery was used for the research in optimal human detection algorithms. Furthermore, given the fact that a dead human body after several hours has a temperature of the surrounding environment our experiments were challenged by the SUAS data optimization, i.e., distance from SUAV to object so that the FLIR sensor is still capable to distinguish temperature differences between a dummy and a real human. Our experiments indicated feasibility of

  14. Soft tissue models: easy and inexpensive flexible 3D printing as a help in surgical planning of cardiovascular disorders (United States)

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Ezon, David S.; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Dodd, Nicholas; Heinle, Jeffrey; Mckenzie, Dean E.; Annapragada, Ananth


    We developed a technology that allows a simple desktop 3D printer with dual extruder to fabricate 3D flexible models of Major AortoPulmonary Collateral Arteries. The study was designed to assess whether the flexible 3D printed models could help during surgical planning phase. Simple FDM 3D printers are inexpensive, versatile in use and easy to maintain, but complications arise when the designed model is complex and has tubular structures with small diameter less than 2mm. The advantages of FDM printers are cost and simplicity of use. We use precisely selected materials to overcome the obstacles listed above. Dual extruder allows to use two different materials while printing, which is especially important in the case of fragile structures like pulmonary vessels and its supporting structures. The latter should not be removed by hand to avoid a truncation of the model. We utilize the water soluble PVA as a supporting structure and Poro-Lay filament for flexible model of AortoPulmonary collateral arteries. Poro-Lay filament is different as compared to all the other flexible ones like polymer-based. Poro-Lay is rigid while printing and this allows printing of structures small in diameter. It achieves flexibility after washing out of printed model with water. It becomes soft in touch and gelatinous. Using both PVA and Poro-Lay gives a huge advantage allowing to wash out the supporting structures and achieve flexibility in one washing operation, saving time and avoiding human error with cleaning the model. We evaluated 6 models for MAPCAS surgical planning study. This approach is also cost-effective - an average cost of materials for print is less than $15; models are printed in facility without any delays. Flexibility of 3D printed models approximate soft tissues properly, mimicking Aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Second utilization models has educational value for both residents and patients' family. Simplification of 3D flexible process could help in other models

  15. A facile inexpensive route for SnS thin film solar cells with SnS{sub 2} buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Minna Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Pejjai, Babu [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jeon, Chan-Wook [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chinho, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna Reddy, K.T., E-mail: [Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India)


    Graphical abstract: PYS spectra of SnS/SnS{sub 2} interface and the related band diagram. - Highlights: • A low cost SnS solar cell is developed using chemical bath deposition. • We found E{sub I} & χ of SnS (5.3 eV & 4.0 eV) and SnS{sub 2} (6.9 eV & 4.1 eV) films from PYS. • Band offsets of 0.1 eV (E{sub c}) and 1.6 eV (E{sub v}) are estimated for SnS/SnS{sub 2} junction. • SnS based solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 0.51%. - Abstract: Environment-friendly SnS based thin film solar cells with SnS{sub 2} as buffer layer were successfully fabricated from a facile inexpensive route, chemical bath deposition (CBD). Layer studies revealed that as-grown SnS and SnS{sub 2} films were polycrystalline; (1 1 1)/(0 0 1) peaks as the preferred orientation; 1.3 eV/2.8 eV as optical band gaps; and showed homogeneous microstructure with densely packed grains respectively. Ionization energy and electron affinity values were found by applying photoemission yield spectroscopy (PYS) to the CBD deposited SnS and SnS{sub 2} films for the first time. These values obtained as 5.3 eV and 4.0 eV for SnS films; 6.9 eV and 4.1 eV for SnS{sub 2} films. The band alignment of SnS/SnS{sub 2} junction showed TYPE-II heterostructure. The estimated conduction and valance band offsets were 0.1 eV and 1.6 eV respectively. The current density–voltage (J–V) measurements of the cell showed open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.12 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 10.87 mA cm{sup −2}, fill factor (FF) of 39% and conversion efficiency of 0.51%.

  16. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation


    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell


    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  17. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin


    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  18. Rapid, sensitive and reproducible method for point-of-collection screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer with novel optimized sample well (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Michel K.; Holroyd, Steve E.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Simpson, M. Cather; Williams, David E.


    Point-of-care diagnostics are of interest in the medical, security and food industry, the latter particularly for screening food adulterated for economic gain. Milk adulteration continues to be a major problem worldwide and different methods to detect fraudulent additives have been investigated for over a century. Laboratory based methods are limited in their application to point-of-collection diagnosis and also require expensive instrumentation, chemicals and skilled technicians. This has encouraged exploration of spectroscopic methods as more rapid and inexpensive alternatives. Raman spectroscopy has excellent potential for screening of milk because of the rich complexity inherent in its signals. The rapid advances in photonic technologies and fabrication methods are enabling increasingly sensitive portable mini-Raman systems to be placed on the market that are both affordable and feasible for both point-of-care and point-of-collection applications. We have developed a powerful spectroscopic method for rapidly screening liquid milk for sucrose and four nitrogen-rich adulterants (dicyandiamide (DCD), ammonium sulphate, melamine, urea), using a combined system: a small, portable Raman spectrometer with focusing fibre optic probe and optimized reflective focusing wells, simply fabricated in aluminium. The reliable sample presentation of this system enabled high reproducibility of 8% RSD (residual standard deviation) within four minutes. Limit of detection intervals for PLS calibrations ranged between 140 - 520 ppm for the four N-rich compounds and between 0.7 - 3.6 % for sucrose. The portability of the system and reliability and reproducibility of this technique opens opportunities for general, reagentless adulteration screening of biological fluids as well as milk, at point-of-collection.

  19. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino


    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  20. Rapid cleanup of bacterial DNA from samples containing aerosol contaminants (United States)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Kracke, Suzanne K.; Emanuel, Peter A.; Valdes, James J.


    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an in vitro enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA sequences from organisms. Detection of DNA using gene probes allows for absolute identification not only of specific organisms, but also of genetic material in recombinant organisms. PCR is an exquisite biological method for detecting bacteria in aerosol samples. A major challenge facing detection of DNA from field samples is that they are almost sure to contain impurities, especially impurities that inhibit amplification through PCR. DNA is being extracted from air, sewage/stool samples, food, sputum, a water and sediment; however, multi- step, time consuming methods are required to isolate the DNA from the surrounding contamination. This research focuses on developing a method for rapid cleanup of DNA which combines extraction and purification of DNA while, at the same time, removing inhibitors from 'dirty samples' to produce purified, PCR-ready DNA. GeneReleaser produces PCR-ready DNA in a rapid five-minute protocol. GeneReleaser resin was able to clean up sample contain micrograms of typical aerosol and water contaminants. The advantages of using GR are that it is rapid, inexpensive, requires one-step, uses no hazardous material and produces PCR-ready DNA.

  1. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe


    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  2. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean


    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon....

  3. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR


    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  4. Remote Sensing of Almond and Walnut Tree Canopy Temperatures Using an Inexpensive Infrared Sensor on a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (United States)

    Crawford, Kellen Ethan

    Improving water use efficiency in agriculture will become increasingly important in the face of decreasing water resources and a growing population. Increasing water use efficiency, or water productivity, has been shown to greatly reduce irrigation water usage in many orchard crops with little to no impact on yield. In some specialty crops, improving water productivity can even lead to a higher value crop. Current irrigation practices depend largely on uniform applications of water over large fields with varying degrees of heterogeneity. As a result, much of the field receives more water than it needs. A system to monitor the needs of each plant or smaller groups of plants within the field would be helpful in distributing irrigation water according to each plant or group of plants' needs. Such a system would help conserve water resources. Stomatal conductance is a good indicator of plant water-based stress, as it is the main response a plant has to limit transpiration-related water losses. The difference between leaf temperature and air temperature, when adjusted for environmental conditions, can give a good indication of stomatal conductance. Recent efforts at UC Davis have employed a handheld sensor suite to measure leaf temperature and other environmental variables like wind speed, air temperature, and humidity in almond and walnut trees. Though effective, this method requires walking or driving through the orchard and measuring several leaves on a given tree, so it is impractical for large-scale monitoring. Satellite and aircraft can measure canopy temperatures remotely, but these applications typically do not have the spatial resolution for precise monitoring or the temporal resolution necessary for irrigation decisions, and they are too expensive and impractical for smaller-scale farms. A smaller unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) could employ the same methods as satellite and larger aircraft-based systems, but relatively inexpensively and at a scale catered to

  5. Polyjet technology applications for rapid tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udroiu Razvan


    Full Text Available Polymer Jetting (PolyJet has proved to be one of the most accurate additive manufacturing technologies, in order to manufacture rapid tools. Rapid Tooling (RT is different from conventional tooling as follow: manufacturing time is shorter, the cost is much less, but the tool life is shorter and tolerances are wider. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study between the soft tools (silicon moulds and hard tools (acrylic thermoplastic moulds based on the Polymer Jetting technology. Thus, two types of moulds have been made in order to manufacture a test part. Reaction injection moulding (RIM and casting techniques were used to fill these moulds with resins that simulate the plastic injection materials. Rapid tooling applications, such as indirect tooling and direct tooling, based on PolyJet technology were experimentally investigated.

  6. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique


    Awkash Kumar; Rashmi S. Patil; Anil Kumar Dikshit; Rakesh Kumar


    Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance...

  7. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method


    Ryu, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Woong; Kim, Geun-Dong; Rhee, Hae-Ik


    Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid–liquid extraction and liquid–liquid extraction in test tubes ...

  8. Rapid Measurement of Tectonic Deformation Using Structure-from-Motion (United States)

    Pickering, A.; DeLong, S.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Hecker, S.; Prentice, C. S.; Schwartz, D. P.; Sickler, R. R.


    Rapid collection and distribution of accurate surface slip data after earthquakes can support emergency response, help coordinate scientific response, and constrain coseismic slip that can be rapidly overprinted by postseismic slip, or eliminated as evidence of surface deformation is repaired or obscured. Analysis of earthquake deformation can be achieved quickly, repeatedly and inexpensively with the use of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Traditional methods of measuring surface slip (e.g. manual measurement with tape measures) have proven inconsistent and irreproducible, and sophisticated methods such as laser scanning require specialized equipment and longer field time. Here we present a simple, cost-effective workflow for rapid, three-dimensional imaging and measurement of features affected by earthquake rupture. As part of a response drill performed by the USGS and collaborators on May 11, 2016, geologists documented offset cultural features along the creeping Hayward Fault in northern California, in simulation of a surface-rupturing earthquake. We present several photo collections from smart phones, tablets, and DSLR cameras from a number of locations along the fault collected by users with a range of experience. Using professionally calibrated photogrammetric scale bars we automatically and accurately scale our 3D models to 1 mm accuracy for precise measurement in three dimensions. We then generate scaled 3D point clouds and extract offsets from manual measurement and multiple linear regression for comparison with collected terrestrial scanner data. These results further establish dense photo collection and SfM processing as an important, low-cost, rapid means of quantifying surface deformation in the critical hours after a surface-rupturing earthquake and emphasize that researchers with minimal training can rapidly collect three-dimensional data that can be used to analyze and archive the surface effects of damaging earthquakes.

  9. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.


    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  10. Right-Rapid-Rough (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig


    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  11. Rapid mapping of volumetric errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulewich, D.; Hale, L.; Yordy, D.


    This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to mapping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) modeling the relationship between the volumetric error and the current state of the machine; (2) acquiring error data based on length measurements throughout the work volume; and (3) optimizing the model to the particular machine.

  12. Lab-on-a-Chip Device for Rapid Measurement of Vitamin D Levels. (United States)

    Peter, Harald; Bistolas, Nikitas; Schumacher, Soeren; Laurisch, Cecilia; Guest, Paul C; Höller, Ulrich; Bier, Frank F


    Lab-on-a-chip assays allow rapid analysis of one or more molecular analytes on an automated user-friendly platform. Here we describe a fully automated assay and readout for measurement of vitamin D levels in less than 15 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics platform. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 [25(OH)D 3 ]) dilution series in buffer were successfully tested down to 2 ng/mL. This could be applied in the future as an inexpensive point-of-care analysis for patients suffering from a variety of conditions marked by vitamin D deficiencies.

  13. Rapid assessment methodology in NORM measurements from building materials of Uzbekistan. (United States)

    Safarov, A A; Safarov, A N; Azimov, A N; Darby, I G


    Utilizing low cost NaI(Tl) scintillation detector systems we present methodology for the rapid screening of building material samples and the determination of their Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq). Materials from Uzbekistan as a representative developing country have been measured and a correction coefficient for Radium activity is deduced. The use of the correction coefficient offers the possibility to decrease analysis times thus enabling the express measurement of a large quantity of samples. The reduction in time, cost and the use of inexpensive equipment can democratize the practice of screening NORM in building materials in the international community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New techniques in CT angiography. (United States)

    Lell, Michael M; Anders, Katharina; Uder, Michael; Klotz, Ernst; Ditt, Hendrik; Vega-Higuera, Fernando; Boskamp, Tobias; Bautz, Werner A; Tomandl, Bernd F


    Computed tomographic (CT) angiography has been improved significantly with the introduction of four- to 64-section spiral CT scanners, which offer rapid acquisition of isotropic data sets. A variety of techniques have been proposed for postprocessing of the resulting images. The most widely used techniques are multiplanar reformation (MPR), thin-slab maximum intensity projection, and volume rendering. Sophisticated segmentation algorithms, vessel analysis tools based on a centerline approach, and automatic lumen boundary definition are emerging techniques; bone removal with thresholding or subtraction algorithms has been introduced. These techniques increasingly provide a quality of vessel analysis comparable to that achieved with intraarterial three-dimensional rotational angiography. Neurovascular applications for these various image postprocessing methods include steno-occlusive disease, dural sinus thrombosis, vascular malformations, and cerebral aneurysms. However, one should keep in mind the potential pitfalls of these techniques and always double-check the final results with source or MPR imaging. .(c) RSNA, 2006.

  15. Layer-by-layer assembly as a versatile bottom-up nanofabrication technique for exploratory research and realistic application. (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ji, Qingmin


    The layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption technique offers an easy and inexpensive process for multilayer formation and allows a variety of materials to be incorporated within the film structures. Therefore, the LbL assembly method can be regarded as a versatile bottom-up nanofabrication technique. Research fields concerned with LbL assembly have developed rapidly but some important physicochemical aspects remain uninvestigated. In this review, we will introduce several examples from physicochemical investigations regarding the basics of this method to advanced research aimed at practical applications. These are selected mostly from recent reports and should stimulate many physical chemists and chemical physicists in the further development of LbL assembly. In order to further understand the mechanism of the LbL assembly process, theoretical work, including thermodynamics calculations, has been conducted. Additionally, the use of molecular dynamics simulation has been proposed. Recently, many kinds of physicochemical molecular interactions, including hydrogen bonding, charge transfer interactions, and stereo-complex formation, have been used. The combination of the LbL method with other fabrication techniques such as spin-coating, spraying, and photolithography has also been extensively researched. These improvements have enabled preparation of LbL films composed of various materials contained in well-designed nanostructures. The resulting structures can be used to investigate basic physicochemical phenomena where relative distances between interacting groups is of great importance. Similarly, LbL structures prepared by such advanced techniques are used widely for development of functional systems for physical applications from photovoltaic devices and field effect transistors to biochemical applications including nano-sized reactors and drug delivery systems.

  16. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking. (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C


    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  18. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP


    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  19. Introducing ultrasound-guided vein catheterization into clinical practice: A step-by-step guide for organizing a hands-on training program with inexpensive handmade models. (United States)

    Di Domenico, S; Licausi, M; Porcile, E; Piaggio, F; Troilo, B; Centanaro, M; Valente, U


    Central vein catheterization (CVC) plays a central role in hospital patient management. Compared with the use of traditional anatomical landmarks, ultrasound-guidance is associated with higher CVC success rates, fewer complications, and more rapid central venous access. The use of US-guided CVC in clinical practice has not become widespread, largely because anesthesiology and general surgery residents receive limited training in this technique. To increase the use of US-guided CVC in our surgical department, we organized a hands-on training program based on the use of handmade models. Three different models were constructed using plastic food-storage containers, segments of rubber tourniquet and silastic tubing (to simulate vessels), and agar gelatin. The hands-on training course allowed progressive acquisition of the basic hand-eye coordination skills necessary for performing US-guided venipuncture. The overall cost for each model was less than €5.00. The models described in this report are useful tools for teaching US-guided CVC. Thanks to their low-cost, they can be widely used to facilitate the introduction of this technique in clinical practice.

  20. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S


    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.