WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid human population

  1. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  2. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  3. Rapid enrichment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific polyclonal T cell populations for adoptive immunotherapy of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Annemieke; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Vermeij, Pieter; Offringa, Rienk; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). Cervical cancer is associated with an ineffective host immune response against the HPV16 oncoproteins, characterized by the lack of the strong E6-specific T-helper type 1 (Th1) immunity that is generally present in

  4. Economic analyses of rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1989-01-01

    "Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  5. Africa: rapid population increase retards development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Organization of African Unity (OAU), the African Development Bank (ADB) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) have criticized African governments for not taking the problem of unchecked population growth seriously enough. "Until recently most African governments did not view rapid population growth as a matter for concern," said the OAU assistant secretary-general for political affairs, Machivenyika Mapuranga, at a seminar on 'population and development'. The OAU estimates that an annual average population increase of 3.1% far outstrips Africa's economic growth, which in 1992 was less than 1%. Mapuranga acknowledged that cutting the population increase is an uphill struggle, especially among rural communities. African agriculture is largely labor intensive, sustained by smallholders, which encourages farmers to have more children. Like other wage earners, African farmers look to support from their family when they grow old and, for that reason, the number of children also counts. But with agricultural production growing at an average annual rate of 2.5%, self-sufficiency in food remains an elusive goal. Cities in sub-Saharan Africa are growing much faster than the overall rate of population increase of 3.1% per year. Between 1980 and 1988 the region's urban population increased at the rate of 6.9% a year. Urban areas now account for nearly 30% of the sub-Saharan Africa population, currently put at 680 million. By 2025, approximately 700 million people are expected to live in urban areas. Despite migration to towns, the rural population is expected to rise more than 68%, reaching over 590 million. full text

  6. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  7. The challenges of human population ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical...... of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20-21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create 'age-friendly' societies and promote 'ageing...

  8. Rapid evolution leads to differential population dynamics and top-down control in resurrected Daphnia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitom, Eyerusalem; Kilsdonk, Laurens J; Brans, Kristien; Jansen, Mieke; Lemmens, Pieter; De Meester, Luc

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence of rapid genetic adaptation of natural populations to environmental change, opening the perspective that evolutionary trait change may subsequently impact ecological processes such as population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. To study such eco-evolutionary feedbacks in natural populations, however, requires samples across time. Here, we capitalize on a resurrection ecology study that documented rapid and adaptive evolution in a natural population of the water flea Daphnia magna in response to strong changes in predation pressure by fish, and carry out a follow-up mesocosm experiment to test whether the observed genetic changes influence population dynamics and top-down control of phytoplankton. We inoculated populations of the water flea D. magna derived from three time periods of the same natural population known to have genetically adapted to changes in predation pressure in replicate mesocosms and monitored both Daphnia population densities and phytoplankton biomass in the presence and absence of fish. Our results revealed differences in population dynamics and top-down control of algae between mesocosms harboring populations from the time period before, during, and after a peak in fish predation pressure caused by human fish stocking. The differences, however, deviated from our a priori expectations. An S-map approach on time series revealed that the interactions between adults and juveniles strongly impacted the dynamics of populations and their top-down control on algae in the mesocosms, and that the strength of these interactions was modulated by rapid evolution as it occurred in nature. Our study provides an example of an evolutionary response that fundamentally alters the processes structuring population dynamics and impacts ecosystem features.

  9. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  10. Human population and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed model of human population and carbon utilization is reviewed. Depending on parameter values, one of three possible long-term outcomes is obtained. (1) Atmospheric carbon, (CO 2 ) atm , and human populations equilibrate at positive values. (2) The human population stabilizes, while (CO 2 ) atm increases without bound. (3) The human population goes extinct and atmospheric carbon declines to 0. The final possibility is qualitatively compatible with both 'consensus' views of climate change and the opinions of those who are more impressed with the manifestly adverse consequences of carbon-mitigation to human reproduction and survival

  11. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  12. Thermodynamics and Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses a Fermi-problem exercise through which I take students in several of my college courses. Students work in teams, determining the average daily Caloric needs per person. Then they use insolation values to determine the size of a collection area needed to absorb the previously determined daily energy requirements. Adjustments to the size of the collection area are made based on energy absorption per biological trophic level, as well as the consideration that most diets are a mixture of plant- and animal-derived elements. Finally, using the total amount of farmland available on the planet, students calculate a maximum population value. Although the maximum population values derived herewith should not be considered authoritative, the exercise has three beneficial purposes: 1) a chance to talk about the modeling process and extrapolations, 2) an unexpected application of physics to social contexts, and 3) raising student awareness of population and energy issues.

  13. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  14. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  15. Human Population Influence on the Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, D.

    2004-12-01

    The continued expansion of the human population, now at 6.3 billion projected to reach 12 billion by 2050, is using, destroying, and polluting the very Earth's resources that support human life. Currently the World Health Organization reports that more than 3 billion people are malnourished - largest number ever. Contributing to the malnourishment problem is soil erosion that results in the loss of about 75 billion tons of soil from agriculture each year. More than 99% of all food for the world comes from the land - less than 1% from the oceans and other aquatic ecosystems. Yet agricultural cropland is being abandoned because of soil erosion and salinization and the rapid spread of human settlements. Water is essential for all life and agriculture is the major consumer accounting for more than 70% of freshwater used. Already water shortages are critical in the U.S. and worldwide. Thus far, abundant fossil fuels are supporting the expansion of agricultural productivity as well as industry and transport growth. Yet credible evidence suggests that the supplies of oil and natural gas especially are rapidly diminishing. The development of renewable energy is behind schedule and when developed will only supply only about half of current energy used. If we do not work towards a relative balance between human numbers and essential natural resources, humans will suffer. Human health, productivity and well being, now and for future generations, require the continued availability of our basic resources - soil, water, foods, and energy.

  16. The challenges of human population ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid; Krasnik, Allan; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical, social, public health and public policy challenges, whose full implications on a societal level are only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Some of these implications are discussed in this commentary, an outcome of Cultures of Health and Ageing, a conference co-sponsored by the University of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20–21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create ‘age-friendly’ societies and promote ‘ageing-in-community’? what tools will effectively promote social engagement and prevent social detachment among older individuals? is there a risk that further extension of human lifespan would be a greater burden to the individual and to society than is warranted by the potential benefit of longer life? PMID:25452294

  17. Will human populations be limited by food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy

  18. Rapid Cycling Genomic Selection in a Multiparental Tropical Maize Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuecai; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Burgueño, Juan; Olsen, Michael; Buckler, Edward; Atlin, Gary; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Vargas, Mateo; San Vicente, Félix; Crossa, José

    2017-07-05

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is the first to show realized genetic gains of rapid cycling genomic selection (RCGS) for four recombination cycles in a multi-parental tropical maize population. Eighteen elite tropical maize lines were intercrossed twice, and self-pollinated once, to form the cycle 0 (C 0 ) training population. A total of 1000 ear-to-row C 0 families was genotyped with 955,690 genotyping-by-sequencing SNP markers; their testcrosses were phenotyped at four optimal locations in Mexico to form the training population. Individuals from families with the best plant types, maturity, and grain yield were selected and intermated to form RCGS cycle 1 (C 1 ). Predictions of the genotyped individuals forming cycle C 1 were made, and the best predicted grain yielders were selected as parents of C 2 ; this was repeated for more cycles (C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 ), thereby achieving two cycles per year. Multi-environment trials of individuals from populations C 0, C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 , together with four benchmark checks were evaluated at two locations in Mexico. Results indicated that realized grain yield from C 1 to C 4 reached 0.225 ton ha -1 per cycle, which is equivalent to 0.100 ton ha -1  yr -1 over a 4.5-yr breeding period from the initial cross to the last cycle. Compared with the original 18 parents used to form cycle 0 (C 0 ), genetic diversity narrowed only slightly during the last GS cycles (C 3 and C 4 ). Results indicate that, in tropical maize multi-parental breeding populations, RCGS can be an effective breeding strategy for simultaneously conserving genetic diversity and achieving high genetic gains in a short period of time. Copyright © 2017 Zhang et al.

  19. The rapid reproducers paradox: population control and individual procreative rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissenburg, M

    1998-01-01

    This article argues that population policies need to be evaluated from macro and micro perspectives and to consider individual rights. Ecological arguments that are stringent conditions of liberal democracy are assessed against a moral standard. The moral standard is applied to a series of reasons for limiting procreative rights in the cause of sustainability. The focus is directly on legally enforced antinatalist measures and not on indirect policies with incentives and disincentives. The explicit assumption is that population policy violates the fairness to individuals for societal gain and that population policies are incompatible with stringent conditions of liberal democracy. The author identifies the individual-societal tradeoff as the "rapid reproducers paradox." The perfect sustainable population level is either not possible or is a repugnant alternative. 12 ecological arguments are presented, and none are found compatible with notions of a liberal democracy. Three alternative antinatalist options are the acceptance of less rigid and still coercive policies, amendments to the conception of liberal democracy, or loss of hope and choice of noncoercive solutions to sustainability, none of which is found viable. If voluntary abstinence and distributive solutions fail, then frugal demand options and technological supply options both will be necessary.

  20. Adventures in human population biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P T

    1996-01-01

    This article is a memoir of anthropologist Paul Baker's professional life. The introduction notes that the field of anthropology was altered by the impact of World War II when physical anthropologists provided vital information to the military. After the war, the GI bill supported the undergraduate and graduate studies of veterans, including Baker. After describing his academic training at the University of New Mexico and Harvard, Baker details his research training and field work in the desert for the US Climatic Research Laboratory and his work identifying the dead in Japan for the Quartermaster unit. Baker then traces his academic career at the Pennsylvania State University during which he directed two multidisciplinary research efforts for the International Biological Programme, one that sought to understand human adaptability at high altitude in Peru and another that studied migration and modernization in Samoa. Baker's last administrative positions were as staff consultant to the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program and as chair of the US MAB committee. Baker retired from academic life at age 60 in 1987 and has devoted his time to reading and to helping organize professional associations in anthropology, especially those devoted to furthering internationally organized scientific efforts. Baker concludes this memoir by acknowledging the growth and development of the discipline of human population biology.

  1. Rapid evolution in insect pests: the importance of space and time in population genomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissié, Benjamin; Crossley, Michael S; Cohen, Zachary Paul; Schoville, Sean D

    2018-04-01

    Pest species in agroecosystems often exhibit patterns of rapid evolution to environmental and human-imposed selection pressures. Although the role of adaptive processes is well accepted, few insect pests have been studied in detail and most research has focused on selection at insecticide resistance candidate genes. Emerging genomic datasets provide opportunities to detect and quantify selection in insect pest populations, and address long-standing questions about mechanisms underlying rapid evolutionary change. We examine the strengths of recent studies that stratify population samples both in space (along environmental gradients and comparing ancestral vs. derived populations) and in time (using chronological sampling, museum specimens and comparative phylogenomics), resulting in critical insights on evolutionary processes, and providing new directions for studying pests in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Carsten [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: cnowak@senckenberg.de; Vogt, Christian [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: vogt@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Pfenninger, Markus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: pfenninger@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwenk, Klaus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: k.schwenk@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oehlmann, Joerg [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Streit, Bruno [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: streit@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oetken, Matthias [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oetken@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-03-15

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius.

  3. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Vogt, Christian; Pfenninger, Markus; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg; Streit, Bruno; Oetken, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius

  4. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping . Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping

  5. Drastic population fluctuations explain the rapid extinction of the passenger pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Ming; Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Zink, Robert M; Liu, Wei-Chung; Chu, Te-Chin; Huang, Wen-San; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2014-07-22

    To assess the role of human disturbances in species' extinction requires an understanding of the species population history before human impact. The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in the world, with a population size estimated at 3-5 billion in the 1800s; its abrupt extinction in 1914 raises the question of how such an abundant bird could have been driven to extinction in mere decades. Although human exploitation is often blamed, the role of natural population dynamics in the passenger pigeon's extinction remains unexplored. Applying high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain sequences from most of the genome, we calculated that the passenger pigeon's effective population size throughout the last million years was persistently about 1/10,000 of the 1800's estimated number of individuals, a ratio 1,000-times lower than typically found. This result suggests that the passenger pigeon was not always super abundant but experienced dramatic population fluctuations, resembling those of an "outbreak" species. Ecological niche models supported inference of drastic changes in the extent of its breeding range over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. An estimate of acorn-based carrying capacity during the past 21,000 y showed great year-to-year variations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that ecological conditions that dramatically reduced population size under natural conditions could have interacted with human exploitation in causing the passenger pigeon's rapid demise. Our study illustrates that even species as abundant as the passenger pigeon can be vulnerable to human threats if they are subject to dramatic population fluctuations, and provides a new perspective on the greatest human-caused extinction in recorded history.

  6. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  7. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Rolevich, I.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.; Skurat, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of features of formation of the population irradiation doze; definition of collective irradiation dozes of the population of Belarus for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident and forecast of risk of radiation induced diseases; study of influence of the radioactive contamination on agricultural ecosystems; development of technologies of manufacture on the contaminated soils of plant and cattle-breeding production and food products with the permissible contents of radionuclides in according to the requirements of radiation protection; development and perfection of complex technologies, ways and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development and substantiation of actions for increase of radiation security of the population of Belarus; development of combined system of an estimation on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  8. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Minenko, V.F.; Mrochek, A.G.; Rolevich, I.V.; Skurat, V.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of researches is development of methods and means of reduction of radiation risk caused by the Chernobyl accident consequences by means of decrease of both individual and collective dozes by realization of special protective measures. The reconstruction of average collective accumulated irradiation dozes of the inhabitants of the contaminated populated localities of Belarus is carried out; the forecast of development of radiation induced oncologic diseases is given. The laws of formation of annual irradiation dozes are investigated; the prevailing role of internal irradiation dozes in formation of total dose loadings is detected. On this basis a number of practical projects directed on creation of effective land tenure and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production, as well as decontamination technologies and radioactive waste management are executed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  9. Perspectives on Population in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Max; Keller, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A study of human geography begins with the human population. In fact, demographic topics frequently relate to other units in the AP Human Geography course. The three main concepts elaborated upon in this article are (1) the demographic transition model, (2) Malthusian theory and its critics, and (3) pronatalist and antinatalist policies that might…

  10. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  11. Study of human genetic diversity : inferences on population origin and history

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Marc, 1980-

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of human genetic diversity suggest that all modern humans originated from a small population in Africa that expanded rapidly 50,000 years ago to occupy the whole world. While moving into new environments, genetic drift and natural selection affected populations differently, creating genetic structure. By understanding the genetic structure of human populations, we can reconstruct human history and understand the genetic basis of diseases. The work presented here contributes to the on...

  12. Sewage reflects the microbiomes of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J; McLellan, Sandra L; Dila, Deborah K; Vineis, Joseph H; Morrison, Hilary G; Eren, A Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2015-02-24

    Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. The gut microbiota serves important functions in healthy humans. Numerous projects aim to define a healthy gut microbiome and its association with health states. However

  13. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...

  14. Rapid resensitization of purinergic receptor function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Barton, J F; Mayo-Martin, M B; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors. Recently, we demonstrated that both receptors desensitize and internalize in human platelets by differential kinase-dependent mechanisms. To demonstrate whether responses to P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors resensitize in human platelets and determine the role of receptor traffic in this process. These studies were undertaken either in human platelets or in cells stably expressing epitope-tagged P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptor constructs. In this study we show for the first time that responses to both of these receptors can rapidly resensitize following agonist-dependent desensitization in human platelets. Further, we show that in human platelets or in 1321N1 cells stably expressing receptor constructs, the disruption of receptor internalization, dephosphorylation or subsequent receptor recycling is sufficient to block resensitization of purinergic receptor responses. We also show that, in platelets, internalization of both these receptors is dependent upon dynamin, and that this process is required for resensitization of responses. This study is therefore the first to show that both P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, and it reveals that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process.

  15. The Rapid Reproducers Paradox: Population Control and Individual Procreative Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, I consider the impact of population policies on individual rights (in a very broad sense of the word), a topic that has received disproportionately little attention in debates on the legitimacy of population rights. I first concentrate on arguments in favour of very radical

  16. Communication and The Challenges of Rapid Population Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005) which projected the African Population at 1,349 million by 2025 and 1,969 million by 2050. These figures are so frightening that the use of communication to contribute to checking the high population growth is challenged. We discuss ...

  17. Rapid Population Growth-Cause or Result of Global Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    Explosive population growth is a symptom of the world's unjust and inequitable social, political, and economic conditions. The current rate of growth is staggering, particularly in the cities of the underdeveloped countries. While some progress has been made in slowing population growth, several factors still contribute to its momentum. One of…

  18. Rapid Prototyping Human Interfaces Using Stretchable Strain Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiya Yamaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern society with a variety of information electronic devices, human interfaces increase their importance in a boundary of a human and a device. In general, the human is required to get used to the device. Even if the device is designed as a universal device or a high-usability device, the device is not suitable for all users. The usability of the device depends on the individual user. Therefore, personalized and customized human interfaces are effective for the user. To create customized interfaces, we propose rapid prototyping human interfaces using stretchable strain sensors. The human interfaces comprise parts formed by a three-dimensional printer and the four strain sensors. The three-dimensional printer easily makes customized human interfaces. The outputs of the interface are calculated based on the sensor’s lengths. Experiments evaluate three human interfaces: a sheet-shaped interface, a sliding lever interface, and a tilting lever interface. We confirm that the three human interfaces obtain input operations with a high accuracy.

  19. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2014-11-18

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

  20. Human population in the biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, R P; Wisnewski, J; Engelman, R

    2000-04-27

    Biologists have identified 25 areas, called biodiversity hotspots, that are especially rich in endemic species and particularly threatened by human activities. The human population dynamics of these areas, however, are not well quantified. Here we report estimates of key demographic variables for each hotspot, and for three extensive tropical forest areas that are less immediately threatened. We estimate that in 1995 more than 1.1 billion people, nearly 20% of world population, were living within the hotspots, an area covering about 12% of Earth's terrestrial surface. We estimate that the population growth rate in the hotspots (1995-2000) is 1.8% yr(-1), substantially higher than the population growth rate of the world as a whole (1.3% yr(-1)) and above that of the developing countries (1.6% yr(-1)). These results suggest that substantial human-induced environmental changes are likely to continue in the hotspots and that demographic change remains an important factor in global biodiversity conservation. The results also underline the potential conservation significance of the continuing worldwide declines in human fertility and of policies and programs that influence human migration.

  1. A distinct hematopoietic stem cell population for rapid multilineage engraftment in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Stefan; Adair, Jennifer E; Giese, Morgan A; Chan, Yan-Yi; Norgaard, Zachary K; Enstrom, Mark; Haworth, Kevin G; Schefter, Lauren E; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    Hematopoietic reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation is thought to be driven by committed multipotent progenitor cells followed by long-term engrafting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We observed a population of early-engrafting cells displaying HSC-like behavior, which persisted long-term in vivo in an autologous myeloablative transplant model in nonhuman primates. To identify this population, we characterized the phenotype and function of defined nonhuman primate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) subsets and compared these to human HSPCs. We demonstrated that the CD34 + CD45RA - CD90 + cell phenotype is highly enriched for HSCs. This population fully supported rapid short-term recovery and robust multilineage hematopoiesis in the nonhuman primate transplant model and quantitatively predicted transplant success and time to neutrophil and platelet recovery. Application of this cell population has potential in the setting of HSC transplantation and gene therapy/editing approaches. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Rapid divergence of mussel populations despite incomplete barriers to dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Diede L; Prost, Stefan; Bi, Ke; Smith, Lydia L; Armstrong, Ellie E; Aji, Ludi P; Toha, Abdul Hamid A; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Becking, Leontine E

    2018-04-01

    Striking genetic structure among marine populations at small spatial scales is becoming evident with extensive molecular studies. Such observations suggest isolation at small scales may play an important role in forming patterns of genetic diversity within species. Isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-environment and historical priority effects are umbrella terms for a suite of processes that underlie genetic structure, but their relative importance at different spatial and temporal scales remains elusive. Here, we use marine lakes in Indonesia to assess genetic structure and assess the relative roles of the processes in shaping genetic differentiation in populations of a bivalve mussel (Brachidontes sp.). Marine lakes are landlocked waterbodies of similar age (6,000-10,000 years), but with heterogeneous environments and varying degrees of connection to the sea. Using a population genomic approach (double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing), we show strong genetic structuring across populations (range F ST : 0.07-0.24) and find limited gene flow through admixture plots. At large spatial scales (>1,400 km), a clear isolation-by-distance pattern was detected. At smaller spatial scales (connection. We hypothesize that (incomplete) dispersal barriers can cause initial isolation, allowing priority effects to give the numerical advantage necessary to initiate strong genetic structure. Priority effects may be strengthened by local adaptation, which the data may corroborate by showing a high correlation between mussel genotypes and temperature. Our study indicates an often-neglected role of (evolution-mediated) priority effects in shaping population divergence. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Response of human populations to large-scale emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2010-03-01

    Until recently, little quantitative data regarding collective human behavior during dangerous events such as bombings and riots have been available, despite its importance for emergency management, safety and urban planning. Understanding how populations react to danger is critical for prediction, detection and intervention strategies. Using a large telecommunications dataset, we study for the first time the spatiotemporal, social and demographic response properties of people during several disasters, including a bombing, a city-wide power outage, and an earthquake. Call activity rapidly increases after an event and we find that, when faced with a truly life-threatening emergency, information rapidly propagates through a population's social network. Other events, such as sports games, do not exhibit this propagation.

  4. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1994-02-18

    Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the

  5. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of BLAD in Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena Ilie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD is an autosomal recessive disorder with negative impact on dairy cattle breeding. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (A→G, resulting in a single amino acid substitution (aspartic acid → glycine at amino acid 128 in the adhesion molecule CD18. The object of this study was to establish a fast and sensitive molecular genotyping assay to detect BLAD carriers using high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis. We tested animals with known genotypes for BLAD that were previously confirmed by PCR-RFLP method, and then examined the sensitivity of mutation detection using PCR followed by HRM curve analysis. BLAD carriers were readily detectable using HRM assay. Thus, the PCR-HRM genotyping method is a rapid, easily interpretable, reliable and cost-effective assay for BLAD mutant allele detection. This assay can be useful in cattle genotyping and genetic selection.

  6. Statistical Processing Algorithms for Human Population Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COLESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is describing some algoritms for statistic functions aplied to a human population database. The samples are specific for the most interesting periods, when the evolution of statistical datas has spectacolous value. The article describes the most usefull form of grafical prezentation of the results

  7. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lawrence A.; Maurice, Corinne F.; Carmody, Rachel N.; Gootenberg, David B.; Button, Julie E.; Wolfe, Benjamin E.; Ling, Alisha V.; Devlin, A. Sloan; Varma, Yug; Fischbach, Michael A.; Biddinger, Sudha B.; Dutton, Rachel J.; Turnbaugh, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term diet influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut1–5, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here, we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila, and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals2, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi, and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids, and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease6. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles. PMID:24336217

  8. Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

  9. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjit Thanchomnang

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

  10. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1990-07-01

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  11. Rapid and Decentralized Human Waste Treatment by Microwave Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Babel, Sandhya; Boonyarattanakalin, Siwarutt; Koottatep, Thammarat

    2017-07-01

      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of using microwave radiation for the rapid treatment of human feces. Human feces of 1000 g were radiated with a commercially available household microwave oven (with rotation) at different exposure time lengths (30, 50, 60, 70, and 75 mins) and powers (600, 800, and 1000 W). Volume reduction over 90% occurred after 1000 W microwave radiation for 75 mins. Pathogen eradiation performances of six log units or more at a high range of microwave powers were achieved. Treatments with the same energy input of 1000 Wh, but at lower powers with prolonged exposure times, significantly enhanced moisture removal and volume reduction. Microwave radiation caused carbonization and resulted in a more stable end product. The energy content of the samples after microwave treatment at 1000 W and 75 mins is 3517 ± 8.85 calories/g of dried sample, and the product can also be used as compost.

  12. Innovation and the growth of human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, V P; Quiñinao, C; Marquet, P A

    2017-12-05

    Biodiversity is sustained by and is essential to the services that ecosystems provide. Different species would use these services in different ways, or adaptive strategies, which are sustained in time by continuous innovations. Using this framework, we postulate a model for a biological species ( Homo sapiens ) in a finite world where innovations, aimed at increasing the flux of ecosystem services (a measure of habitat quality), increase with population size, and have positive effects on the generation of new innovations (positive feedback) as well as costs in terms of negatively affecting the provision of ecosystem services. We applied this model to human populations, where technological innovations are driven by cumulative cultural evolution. Our model shows that depending on the net impact of a technology on the provision of ecosystem services ( θ ), and the strength of technological feedback ( ξ ), different regimes can result. Among them, the human population can fill the entire planet while maximizing their well-being, but not exhaust ecosystem services. However, this outcome requires positive or green technologies that increase the provision of ecosystem services with few negative externalities or environmental costs, and that have a strong positive feedback in generating new technologies of the same kind. If the feedback is small, then the technological stock can collapse together with the human population. Scenarios where technological innovations generate net negative impacts may be associated with a limited technological stock as well as a limited human population at equilibrium and the potential for collapse. The only way to fill the planet with humans under this scenario of negative technologies is by reducing the technological stock to a minimum. Otherwise, the only feasible equilibrium is associated with population collapse. Our model points out that technological innovations per se may not help humans to grow and dominate the planet. Instead

  13. Global human capital: integrating education and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; KC, Samir

    2011-07-29

    Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios--assuming identical education-specific fertility rates--result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can quantitatively integrate education into standard demographic analysis, thus adding the "quality" dimension.

  14. Integration of effects on human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Harwell, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    It seems possible that several hundred millions of humans could die from the direct effects of nuclear war. The indirect effects could result in the loss of one to several billions of humans. How close the latter projection would come to loss of all humans is problematical, but the current best estimation is that this result would not follow from the physical and societal perturbations currently projected to occur after a large-scale nuclear war. One important issue of scale to keep in mind is the difference between estimating that on a global scale the bases for human support would be undetermined for a particular fraction of the population (e.g., estimating insufficient food to support more than a certain fraction of the current population), and predicting the survival strategies of small groups of people. Projections of global-scale population losses do not mean that even in those areas in which humans would be expected to die, all would suffer the same fate. No analysis have been attempted here concerning the capability of selected humans on a relatively small scale (e.g., individual, family, community level) to find a successful strategy for survival. That a person or group in a combatant country might find a way to escape the effects of radiation, societal disruptions, climatic alterations, and the host of other potential disruptions, and still continue to survive seems possible, even in devastated areas. That billions of people could do so in the absence of a sufficient food support base is impossible. Thus, one needs to distinguish carefully between possible survival strategies on a small scale, and the physical limitations of support for massive numbers of people on a large scale

  15. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Population issues surface at human settlements conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This news brief focuses on the debate about population issues at the UN Conference on Human Settlements, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996. The Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements was adopted by world leaders at the conference. Leaders were committed to programs to improve standards of living, the right of citizens to adequate housing, and the mobilization of new financial resources. Dr. Sadik, as Executive Director of the UN Population Fund, stressed that natural increase accounts for 60% of urban population growth. Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, as UN Secretary General, stressed that over 50% of world population would live in urban centers by the year 2000, and almost 75% might do so by 2025. He indicated that all nations are interrelated; the poor and refugees from political conflict from one country travel to safer and richer countries. Dr. Sadik referred to the agreement at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) on stabilizing world population in the shortest time possible. This would require meeting the needs of men and women for health, education, and the power of personal decision making. The most important item was the satisfaction of women's need for reproductive health information and services and women's power to use services. Dr. Sadik urged that women be given the right to hold and inherit property and to obtain credit. It was pointed out that the language of Habitat's plan of action on population and development issues was frequently bracketed; consequently, the plan suffered from a lack of consensus. The debate between countries would end, if the language were not bracketed. Dr. Sadik recommended family planning for developing sustainable and liveable cities.

  17. Evolutionary forces shaping genomic islands of population differentiation in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofer Tamara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of differentiation among populations depend both on demographic and selective factors: genetic drift and local adaptation increase population differentiation, which is eroded by gene flow and balancing selection. We describe here the genomic distribution and the properties of genomic regions with unusually high and low levels of population differentiation in humans to assess the influence of selective and neutral processes on human genetic structure. Methods Individual SNPs of the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP showing significantly high or low levels of population differentiation were detected under a hierarchical-island model (HIM. A Hidden Markov Model allowed us to detect genomic regions or islands of high or low population differentiation. Results Under the HIM, only 1.5% of all SNPs are significant at the 1% level, but their genomic spatial distribution is significantly non-random. We find evidence that local adaptation shaped high-differentiation islands, as they are enriched for non-synonymous SNPs and overlap with previously identified candidate regions for positive selection. Moreover there is a negative relationship between the size of islands and recombination rate, which is stronger for islands overlapping with genes. Gene ontology analysis supports the role of diet as a major selective pressure in those highly differentiated islands. Low-differentiation islands are also enriched for non-synonymous SNPs, and contain an overly high proportion of genes belonging to the 'Oncogenesis' biological process. Conclusions Even though selection seems to be acting in shaping islands of high population differentiation, neutral demographic processes might have promoted the appearance of some genomic islands since i as much as 20% of islands are in non-genic regions ii these non-genic islands are on average two times shorter than genic islands, suggesting a more rapid erosion by recombination, and iii most loci are

  18. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  19. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  20. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  1. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, avian nest predation, and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic consequences of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) have been widely documented for many populations. The mechanisms underlying such patterns, however, are rarely investigated and yet are critical to understand for effective conservation and management.

  2. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  3. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.

  4. mtDNA variation predicts population size in humans and reveals a major Southern Asian chapter in human prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Gray, Russell D; Drummond, Alexei J

    2008-02-01

    The relative timing and size of regional human population growth following our expansion from Africa remain unknown. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity carries a legacy of our population history. Given a set of sequences, we can use coalescent theory to estimate past population size through time and draw inferences about human population history. However, recent work has challenged the validity of using mtDNA diversity to infer species population sizes. Here we use Bayesian coalescent inference methods, together with a global data set of 357 human mtDNA coding-region sequences, to infer human population sizes through time across 8 major geographic regions. Our estimates of relative population sizes show remarkable concordance with the contemporary regional distribution of humans across Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas, indicating that mtDNA diversity is a good predictor of population size in humans. Plots of population size through time show slow growth in sub-Saharan Africa beginning 143-193 kya, followed by a rapid expansion into Eurasia after the emergence of the first non-African mtDNA lineages 50-70 kya. Outside Africa, the earliest and fastest growth is inferred in Southern Asia approximately 52 kya, followed by a succession of growth phases in Northern and Central Asia (approximately 49 kya), Australia (approximately 48 kya), Europe (approximately 42 kya), the Middle East and North Africa (approximately 40 kya), New Guinea (approximately 39 kya), the Americas (approximately 18 kya), and a second expansion in Europe (approximately 10-15 kya). Comparisons of relative regional population sizes through time suggest that between approximately 45 and 20 kya most of humanity lived in Southern Asia. These findings not only support the use of mtDNA data for estimating human population size but also provide a unique picture of human prehistory and demonstrate the importance of Southern Asia to our recent evolutionary past.

  5. Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Syphilis in High-Risk Populations, Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sabid?, Meritxell; Benzaken, Adele S.; de Andrade Rodrigues, ?nio Jos?; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    : We assessed the acceptability and operational suitability of a rapid point-of-care syphilis test and identified barriers to testing among high-risk groups and healthcare professionals in a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Use of this test could considerably alleviate the impact of syphilis in hard-to-reach populations in the Amazon region of Brazil.

  6. Different level of population differentiation among human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Results Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  7. Different level of population differentiation among human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-14

    During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  8. Rapid recent human evolution and the accumulation of balanced genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    All evolutionary change can be traced to alterations in allele frequencies in populations over time. DNA sequencing on a massive scale now permits us to follow the genetic consequences as our species has diverged from our close relatives and as we have colonized different parts of the world and adapted to them. But it has been difficult to disentangle natural selection from many other factors that alter frequencies. These factors include mutation and intragenic reciprocal recombination, gene conversion, segregation distortion, random drift, and gene flow between populations (these last two are greatly influenced by splits and coalescences of populations over time). The first part of this review examines recent studies that have had some success in dissecting out the role of natural selection, especially in humans and Drosophila. Among many examples, these studies include those that have followed the rapid evolution of traits that may permit adaptation to high altitude in Tibetan and Andean populations. In some cases, directional selection has been so strong that it may have swept alleles close to fixation in the span of a few thousand years, a rapidity of change that is also sometimes encountered in other organisms. The second part of the review summarizes data showing that remarkably few alleles have been carried completely to fixation during our recent evolution. Some of the alleles that have not reached fixation may be approaching new internal equilibria, which would indicate polymorphisms that are maintained by balancing selection. Finally, the review briefly examines why genetic polymorphisms, particularly those that are maintained by negative frequency dependence, are likely to have played an important role in the evolution of our species. A method is suggested for measuring the contribution of these polymorphisms to our gene pool. Such polymorphisms may add to the ability of our species to adapt to our increasingly complex and challenging environment.

  9. Diagnostic evaluation of rapid tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-05-12

    Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is being described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. Differentiating scrub typhus from other endemic diseases like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever, typhoid, etc. is difficult due to overlapping clinical features and a lower positivity for eschars in Asian populations. Hence, the diagnosis heavily relies on laboratory tests. Costs and the need of technical expertise limit the wide use of indirect immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence assays, ELISA and PCR. The Weil-Felix test is the most commonly used and least expensive serological test, but lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Hence, the diagnosis of scrub typhus is often delayed or overlooked. With due consideration of the cost, rapidity, single test result and simplicity of interpretation, rapid diagnostic tests have come into vogue. However, evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed to justify or discourage their use. Research studies are needed to find the most suitable test in terms of the rapidity of the result, simplicity of the procedure, ease of interpretation and cost to be used in the Indian populace.

  10. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  11. Six rapid assessments of alcohol and other substance use in populations displaced by conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelekan Moruf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use among populations displaced by conflict is a neglected area of public health. Alcohol, khat, benzodiazepine, opiate, and other substance use have been documented among a range of displaced populations, with wide-reaching health and social impacts. Changing agendas in humanitarian response-including increased prominence of mental health and chronic illness-have so far failed to be translated into meaningful interventions for substance use. Methods Studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in six different settings of protracted displacement, three in Africa (Kenya, Liberia, northern Uganda and three in Asia (Iran, Pakistan, and Thailand. We used intervention-oriented qualitative Rapid Assessment and Response methods, adapted from two decades of experience among non-displaced populations. The main sources of data were individual and group interviews conducted with a culturally representative (non-probabilistic sample of community members and service providers. Results Widespread use of alcohol, particularly artisanally-produced alcohol, in Kenya, Liberia, Uganda, and Thailand, and opiates in Iran and Pakistan was believed by participants to be linked to a range of health, social and protection problems, including illness, injury (intentional and unintentional, gender-based violence, risky behaviour for HIV and other sexually transmitted infection and blood-borne virus transmission, as well as detrimental effects to household economy. Displacement experiences, including dispossession, livelihood restriction, hopelessness and uncertain future may make communities particularly vulnerable to substance use and its impact, and changing social norms and networks (including the surrounding population may result in changed - and potentially more harmful-patterns of use. Limited access to services, including health services, and exclusion from relevant host population programmes, may exacerbate the harmful consequences

  12. Rapid latex agglutination test for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a user-friendly latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis. The assay was obtained by coating colored latex beads with Brucella lipopolysaccharides and drying of the activated beads onto white agglutination cards. Individual cards were sealed in a

  13. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n=264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200−600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline regions, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance. PMID:16712815

  14. Transcriptome sequencing from diverse human populations reveals differentiated regulatory architecture.

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    Alicia R Martin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sequencing efforts have documented extensive genetic variation within the human genome. However, our understanding of the origins, global distribution, and functional consequences of this variation is far from complete. While regulatory variation influencing gene expression has been studied within a handful of populations, the breadth of transcriptome differences across diverse human populations has not been systematically analyzed. To better understand the spectrum of gene expression variation, alternative splicing, and the population genetics of regulatory variation in humans, we have sequenced the genomes, exomes, and transcriptomes of EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 45 individuals in the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP. The populations sampled span the geographic breadth of human migration history and include Namibian San, Mbuti Pygmies of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Algerian Mozabites, Pathan of Pakistan, Cambodians of East Asia, Yakut of Siberia, and Mayans of Mexico. We discover that approximately 25.0% of the variation in gene expression found amongst individuals can be attributed to population differences. However, we find few genes that are systematically differentially expressed among populations. Of this population-specific variation, 75.5% is due to expression rather than splicing variability, and we find few genes with strong evidence for differential splicing across populations. Allelic expression analyses indicate that previously mapped common regulatory variants identified in eight populations from the International Haplotype Map Phase 3 project have similar effects in our seven sampled HGDP populations, suggesting that the cellular effects of common variants are shared across diverse populations. Together, these results provide a resource for studies analyzing functional differences across populations by estimating the degree of shared gene expression, alternative splicing, and

  15. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-04

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown.

  16. Chromosome surveys of human populations: between epidemiology and anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    It is commonly held that after 1945 human genetics turned medical and focussed on the individual rather than on the study of human populations that had become discredited. However, a closer look at the research practices at the time quickly reveals that human population studies, using old and new tools, prospered in this period. The essay focuses on the rise of chromosome analysis as a new tool for the study of human populations. It reviews a broad array of population studies ranging from newborn screening programmes to studies of isolated or 'primitive' people. Throughout, it highlights the continuing role of concerns and opportunities raised by the propagation of atomic energy for civilian and military uses, the collection of large data bases and computers, and the role of international organisations like the World Health Organisation and the International Biological Programme in shaping research agendas and carving out a space for human heredity in the postwar era. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Growth of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli during Human Urinary Tract Infection

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    Valerie S. Forsyth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC strains cause most uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs. These strains are a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC strains that infect extraintestinal sites, including urinary tract, meninges, bloodstream, lungs, and surgical sites. Here, we hypothesize that UPEC isolates adapt to and grow more rapidly within the urinary tract than other E. coli isolates and survive in that niche. To date, there has not been a reliable method available to measure their growth rate in vivo. Here we used two methods: segregation of nonreplicating plasmid pGTR902, and peak-to-trough ratio (PTR, a sequencing-based method that enumerates bacterial chromosomal replication forks present during cell division. In the murine model of UTI, UPEC strain growth was robust in vivo, matching or exceeding in vitro growth rates and only slowing after reaching high CFU counts at 24 and 30 h postinoculation (hpi. In contrast, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU strains tended to maintain high growth rates in vivo at 6, 24, and 30 hpi, and population densities did not increase, suggesting that host responses or elimination limited population growth. Fecal strains displayed moderate growth rates at 6 hpi but did not survive to later times. By PTR, E. coli in urine of human patients with UTIs displayed extraordinarily rapid growth during active infection, with a mean doubling time of 22.4 min. Thus, in addition to traditional virulence determinants, including adhesins, toxins, iron acquisition, and motility, very high growth rates in vivo and resistance to the innate immune response appear to be critical phenotypes of UPEC strains.

  18. Rapid, automated mosaicking of the human corneal subbasal nerve plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnav, Yash J; Rucker, Stuart A; Saharia, Keshav; McNamara, Nancy A

    2017-11-27

    Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is an in vivo technique used to study corneal nerve morphology. The largest proportion of nerves innervating the cornea lie within the subbasal nerve plexus, where their morphology is altered by refractive surgery, diabetes and dry eye. The main limitations to clinical use of CCM as a diagnostic tool are the small field of view of CCM images and the lengthy time needed to quantify nerves in collected images. Here, we present a novel, rapid, fully automated technique to mosaic individual CCM images into wide-field maps of corneal nerves. We implemented an OpenCV image stitcher that accounts for corneal deformation and uses feature detection to stitch CCM images into a montage. The method takes 3-5 min to process and stitch 40-100 frames on an Amazon EC2 Micro instance. The speed, automation and ease of use conferred by this technique is the first step toward point of care evaluation of wide-field subbasal plexus (SBP) maps in a clinical setting.

  19. Genetic evidence for a Paleolithic human population expansion in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David E.; Goldstein, David B.

    1998-01-01

    Human populations have undergone dramatic expansions in size, but other than the growth associated with agriculture, the dates and magnitudes of those expansions have never been resolved. Here, we introduce two new statistical tests for population expansion, which use variation at a number of unlinked genetic markers to study the demographic histories of natural populations. By analyzing genetic variation in various aboriginal populations from throughout the world, we show highly significant evidence for a major human population expansion in Africa, but no evidence of expansion outside of Africa. The inferred African expansion is estimated to have occurred between 49,000 and 640,000 years ago, certainly before the Neolithic expansions, and probably before the splitting of African and non-African populations. In showing a significant difference between African and non-African populations, our analysis supports the unique role of Africa in human evolutionary history, as has been suggested by most other genetic work. In addition, the missing signal in non-African populations may be the result of a population bottleneck associated with the emergence of these populations from Africa, as postulated in the “Out of Africa” model of modern human origins. PMID:9653150

  20. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, Francesco; Stewart, Barclay T; Palmer, Jennifer J; Grundy, Chris

    2013-01-23

    Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons' camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to "gold standard" reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2-5 working person-days. In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method's development.

  1. Rapidly progressive periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaim, K.A.; Javed, F.; Askar, A.; Rasheed, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Severe periodontal inflammation with generalized dental plaque accumulation, spontaneous and severe gingival bleeding, fungal infection, and inter dental papillae necrosis are presented in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bite-wing radiographs revealed a generalized horizontal alveolar bone loss of 7-8 millimetres in both arches. Erythematous patches were noted on the gingival mucosa in both jaws. DNA testing was performed to identify the periodontopathogens. The patient had no signs or symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This case-report presents the massive periodontal destruction that occurred in a patient infected with HIV. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients infected with HIV should be regularly monitored to aid in early detection and to provide proper management of periodontal inflammatory conditions to minimize its destruction. (author)

  2. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.Keywords: animal products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, meat, milk, nutrients.

  3. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from 3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (-6 with relative “deficiency” of -3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the -6 / -3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  4. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  5. Human population exposure to cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Lowder, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Critical evaluations of existing data on cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and in interplanetary space have been carried out in order to estimate the exposure of the world's population to this important component of natural background radiation. Data on population distribution and mean terrain heights on a 1 x 1 degree grid have been folded in to estimate regional and global dose distributions. The per caput annual dose equivalent at ground altitudes is estimated to be 270 μSv from charged particles and 50 μSv from neutrons. More than 100 million people receive more than 1 mSv in a year, and two million in excess of 5 mSv. Aircraft flight crews and frequent flyers receive an additional annual dose equivalent in the order of 1 mSv, though the global per caput annual dose equivalent from airplane flights is only about 1 μSv. Future space travellers on extended missions are likely to receive dose equivalents in the range 0.11 Sv, with the possibility of higher doses at relatively high dose rates from unusually large solar flares. These results indicate a critical need for a better understanding of the biological significance of chronic neutron and heavy charged particle exposure. (author)

  6. 3D virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to satisfy the vast custom-made character demand of 3D virtual human and the rapid modeling in the field of 3D virtual reality, a new virtual human top-down rapid modeling method is put for-ward in this paper based on the systematic analysis of the current situation and shortage of the virtual hu-man modeling technology. After the top-level realization of virtual human hierarchical structure frame de-sign, modular expression of the virtual human and parameter design for each module is achieved gradu-al-level downwards. While the relationship of connectors and mapping restraints among different modules is established, the definition of the size and texture parameter is also completed. Standardized process is meanwhile produced to support and adapt the virtual human top-down rapid modeling practice operation. Finally, the modeling application, which takes a Chinese captain character as an example, is carried out to validate the virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism. The result demonstrates high modelling efficiency and provides one new concept for 3D virtual human geometric mod-eling and texture modeling.

  7. Unique mitochondrial DNA lineages in Irish stickleback populations: cryptic refugium or rapid recolonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Mark; Harrod, Chris; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Prodöhl, Paulo A

    2014-06-01

    Repeated recolonization of freshwater environments following Pleistocene glaciations has played a major role in the evolution and adaptation of anadromous taxa. Located at the western fringe of Europe, Ireland and Britain were likely recolonized rapidly by anadromous fishes from the North Atlantic following the last glacial maximum (LGM). While the presence of unique mitochondrial haplotypes in Ireland suggests that a cryptic northern refugium may have played a role in recolonization, no explicit test of this hypothesis has been conducted. The three-spined stickleback is native and ubiquitous to aquatic ecosystems throughout Ireland, making it an excellent model species with which to examine the biogeographical history of anadromous fishes in the region. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to examine the presence of divergent evolutionary lineages and to assess broad-scale patterns of geographical clustering among postglacially isolated populations. Our results confirm that Ireland is a region of secondary contact for divergent mitochondrial lineages and that endemic haplotypes occur in populations in Central and Southern Ireland. To test whether a putative Irish lineage arose from a cryptic Irish refugium, we used approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). However, we found no support for this hypothesis. Instead, the Irish lineage likely diverged from the European lineage as a result of postglacial isolation of freshwater populations by rising sea levels. These findings emphasize the need to rigorously test biogeographical hypothesis and contribute further evidence that postglacial processes may have shaped genetic diversity in temperate fauna.

  8. Rapid molecular evolution of human bocavirus revealed by Bayesian coalescent inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; De Maddalena, Chiara; Canuti, Marta; Zappa, Alessandra; Amendola, Antonella; Lai, Alessia; Galli, Massimo; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a linear single-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Parvoviridae family that has recently been isolated from the upper respiratory tract of children with acute respiratory infection. All of the strains observed so far segregate into two genotypes (1 and 2) with a low level of polymorphism. Given the recent description of the infection and the lack of epidemiological and molecular data, we estimated the virus's rates of molecular evolution and population dynamics. A dataset of forty-nine dated VP2 sequences, including also eight new isolates obtained from pharyngeal swabs of Italian patients with acute respiratory tract infections, was submitted to phylogenetic analysis. The model parameters, evolutionary rates and population dynamics were co-estimated using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, and site-specific positive and negative selection was also investigated. Recombination was investigated by seven different methods and one suspected recombinant strain was excluded from further analysis. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of HBoV was 8.6x10(-4)subs/site/year, and that of the 1st+2nd codon positions was more than 15 times less than that of the 3rd codon position. Viral population dynamics analysis revealed that the two known genotypes diverged recently (mean tMRCA: 24 years), and that the epidemic due to HBoV genotype 2 grew exponentially at a rate of 1.01year(-1). Selection analysis of the partial VP2 showed that 8.5% of sites were under significant negative pressure and the absence of positive selection. Our results show that, like other parvoviruses, HBoV is characterised by a rapid evolution. The low level of polymorphism is probably due to a relatively recent divergence between the circulating genotypes and strong purifying selection acting on viral antigens.

  9. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  10. Human population genetics and “ancestrality” business

    OpenAIRE

    André Langaney

    2009-01-01

    Following the foundation of theoretical population genetics by Wright, Fischer, Haldane and Malécot, in the first half of the 20th century, applied human population genetics developed with great success with the improvement and accumulation of new technologies to measure genetic polymorphism, first through protein polymorphisms since the 1960’s, then through DNA typing and sequencing since the 1980’s. The field of population genetics and biological anthropology was developed by a handful of d...

  11. PGG.Population: a database for understanding the genomic diversity and genetic ancestry of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Gao, Yang; Liu, Jiaojiao; Xue, Zhe; Lu, Yan; Deng, Lian; Tian, Lei; Feng, Qidi; Xu, Shuhua

    2018-01-04

    There are a growing number of studies focusing on delineating genetic variations that are associated with complex human traits and diseases due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. However, identifying and prioritizing disease-associated causal variants relies on understanding the distribution of genetic variations within and among populations. The PGG.Population database documents 7122 genomes representing 356 global populations from 107 countries and provides essential information for researchers to understand human genomic diversity and genetic ancestry. These data and information can facilitate the design of research studies and the interpretation of results of both evolutionary and medical studies involving human populations. The database is carefully maintained and constantly updated when new data are available. We included miscellaneous functions and a user-friendly graphical interface for visualization of genomic diversity, population relationships (genetic affinity), ancestral makeup, footprints of natural selection, and population history etc. Moreover, PGG.Population provides a useful feature for users to analyze data and visualize results in a dynamic style via online illustration. The long-term ambition of the PGG.Population, together with the joint efforts from other researchers who contribute their data to our database, is to create a comprehensive depository of geographic and ethnic variation of human genome, as well as a platform bringing influence on future practitioners of medicine and clinical investigators. PGG.Population is available at https://www.pggpopulation.org. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  13. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D

    2016-10-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski . It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range.

  14. Monitoring the welfare of polar bear populations in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Patyk, Kelly A.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Most programs for monitoring the welfare of wildlife populations support efforts aimed at reaching discrete management objectives, like mitigating conflict with humans. While such programs can be effective, their limited scope may preclude systemic evaluations needed for large-scale conservation initiatives, like the recovery of at-risk species. We discuss select categories of metrics that can be used to monitor how polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are responding to the primary threat to their long-term persistence—loss of sea ice habitat due to the unabated rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG; e.g., CO2) concentrations—that can also provide information on ecosystem function and health. Monitoring key aspects of polar bear population dynamics, spatial behavior, health and resiliency can provide valuable insight into ecosystem state and function, and could be a powerful tool for achieving Arctic conservation objectives, particularly those that have transnational policy implications.

  15. Human heredity after 1945: moving populations centre stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny; de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    The essays in this issue look at the contested history of human heredity after 1945 from a new analytical angle, that of populations and the ways in which they were constructed and studied. One consequence of this approach is that we do not limit our attention to the disciplinary study of genetics. After the Second World War, populations became a central topic for an array of fields, including demography, anthropology, epidemiology, and public health. Human heredity had a role in all of these: demographers carried out mental surveys in efforts to distinguish hereditary from environmental factors, doctors screened newborns and tested pregnant women for chromosome disorders; anthropologists collected blood from remote locations to gain insights into the evolutionary history of human populations; geneticists monitored people exposed to radiation. Through this work, populations were labelled as clinical, normal, primitive, pure, vulnerable or exotic. We ask: how were populations chosen, who qualified as members, and how was the study of human heredity shaped by technical, institutional and geopolitical conditions? By following the practical and conceptual work to define populations as objects of research, the essays trace the circulation of practices across different fields and contexts, bringing into view new actors, institutions, and geographies. By doing so the collection shows how human heredity research was linked to the broader politics of the postwar world, one profoundly conditioned by Cold War tensions, by nationalist concerns, by colonial and post-colonial struggles, by modernisation projects and by a new internationalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Ion Torrent sequencing technology for rapid clinical human leucocyte antigen typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Sandra G; Chong, Winnie; Brown, Colin J; Navarrete, Cristina V

    2018-06-05

    The development of techniques to define the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region has proven to be challenging due to its high level of polymorphism. Within a clinical laboratory, a technique for high-resolution HLA typing, which is rapid and cost effective is essential. NGS has provided a rapid, high-resolution HLA typing solution, which has reduced the number of HLA ambiguities seen with other typing methods. In this study, the One Lambda NXType NGS kit was tested on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. A total of 362 registry donors from four ethnic populations (Europeans, South Asians, Africans and Chinese) were NGS HLA typed across 9-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1,-DRB345 -DQB1 and -DPB1). Concordance rates of 91%-98% were obtained (for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1) when compared to historical PCR-SSO HLA types, and the identification of uncommon alleles such as A*24:07:01 and C*04:82 were observed. A turnaround time of four days was achieved for typing 44 samples. However, some limitations were observed; primer locations did not allow all ambiguities to be resolved for HLA Class II where Exon I and IV amplification are needed (HLA-DRB1*04:07:01/04:92, HLA-DRB1*09:01:02/*09:21 and HLA-DRB1*12:01:01/*12:10). This study has demonstrated high-resolution typing by NGS can be achieved in an acceptable turnaround time for a clinical laboratory; however, the Ion Torrent workflow has some technical limitations that should be addressed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Patterns of cis regulatory variation in diverse human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of gene expression variation has long been studied with the aim to understand the landscape of regulatory variants, but also more recently to assist in the interpretation and elucidation of disease signals. To date, many studies have looked in specific tissues and population-based samples, but there has been limited assessment of the degree of inter-population variability in regulatory variation. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a total of 726 individuals from 8 global populations from the HapMap3 project and correlated gene expression levels with HapMap3 SNPs located in cis to the genes. We describe the influence of ancestry on gene expression levels within and between these diverse human populations and uncover a non-negligible impact on global patterns of gene expression. We further dissect the specific functional pathways differentiated between populations. We also identify 5,691 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs after controlling for both non-genetic factors and population admixture and observe that half of the cis-eQTLs are replicated in one or more of the populations. We highlight patterns of eQTL-sharing between populations, which are partially determined by population genetic relatedness, and discover significant sharing of eQTL effects between Asians, European-admixed, and African subpopulations. Specifically, we observe that both the effect size and the direction of effect for eQTLs are highly conserved across populations. We observe an increasing proximity of eQTLs toward the transcription start site as sharing of eQTLs among populations increases, highlighting that variants close to TSS have stronger effects and therefore are more likely to be detected across a wider panel of populations. Together these results offer a unique picture and resource of the degree of differentiation among human populations in functional regulatory variation and provide an estimate for

  18. Neutral Theory: From Complex Population History to Natural Selection and Sociocultural Phenomena in Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Heyer, Evelyne

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a synthetic view on how Kimura's Neutral theory has helped us gaining insight on the different evolutionary forces that shape human evolution. We put this perspective in the frame of recent emerging challenges: the use of whole genome data for reconstructing population histories, natural selection on complex polygenic traits, and integrating cultural processes in human evolution.

  19. Characterization of RNA isolated from eighteen different human tissues: results from a rapid human autopsy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas G; Whetzel, Alexis M; Serrano, Geidy; Sue, Lucia I; Lue, Lih-Fen; Beach, Thomas G

    2016-09-01

    Many factors affect the integrity of messenger RNA from human autopsy tissues including postmortem interval (PMI) between death and tissue preservation and the pre-mortem agonal and disease states. In this communication, we describe RNA isolation and characterization of 389 samples from 18 different tissues from elderly donors who were participants in a rapid whole-body autopsy program located in Sun City, Arizona ( www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org ). Most tissues were collected within a PMI of 2-6 h (median 3.15 h; N = 455), but for this study, tissue from cases with longer PMIs (1.25-29.25 h) were included. RNA quality was assessed by RNA integrity number (RIN) and total yield (ng RNA/mg tissue). RIN correlated with PMI for heart (r = -0.531, p = 0.009) and liver (r = -558, p = 0.0017), while RNA yield correlated with PMI for colon (r = -485, p = 0.016) and skin (r = -0.460, p = 0.031). RNAs with the lowest integrity were from skin and cervix where 22.7 and 31.4 % of samples respectively failed to produce intact RNA; by contrast all samples from esophagus, lymph node, jejunum, lung, stomach, submandibular gland and kidney produced RNA with measurable RINs. Expression levels in heart RNA of 4 common housekeeping normalization genes showed significant correlations of Ct values with RIN, but only one gene, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase, showed a correlation of Ct with PMI. There were no correlations between RIN values obtained for liver, adrenal, cervix, esophagus and lymph node and those obtained from corresponding brain samples. We show that high quality RNA can be produced from most human autopsy tissues, though with significant differences between tissues and donors. The RNA stability and yield did not depend solely on PMI; other undetermined factors are involved, but these do not include the age of the donor.

  20. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  1. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Learning about human population history from ancient and modern genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Mark; Krause, Johannes

    2011-08-18

    Genome-wide data, both from SNP arrays and from complete genome sequencing, are becoming increasingly abundant and are now even available from extinct hominins. These data are providing new insights into population history; in particular, when combined with model-based analytical approaches, genome-wide data allow direct testing of hypotheses about population history. For example, genome-wide data from both contemporary populations and extinct hominins strongly support a single dispersal of modern humans from Africa, followed by two archaic admixture events: one with Neanderthals somewhere outside Africa and a second with Denisovans that (so far) has only been detected in New Guinea. These new developments promise to reveal new stories about human population history, without having to resort to storytelling.

  3. The rapid identification of human influenza neuraminidase N1 and N2 subtypes by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, I G; McCaig, M; Durrant, C; Shaw, R

    2006-11-10

    An ELISA assay was developed to allow the rapid and accurate identification of human influenza A N1 and N2 neuraminidases. Initial testing using a fetuin pre-coating of wells correctly identified 81.7% of the neuraminidase type from a series of human A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and A(H3N2) viruses. This result could be improved to detect the neuraminidase subtype of almost all human influenza A viruses from a large panel of viruses isolated from 2000 to 2005, if the fetuin pre-coating was removed and the viruses were coated directly onto wells. This method is simple, rapid and can be used to screen large numbers of currently circulating human influenza A viruses for their neurraminidase subtype and is a good alternative to RT-PCR.

  4. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  5. Biobanks in the United States: how to identify an undefined and rapidly evolving population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Gregory J; Whipple, Warren; Cadigan, R Jean; Henderson, Gail E

    2012-12-01

    As part of a larger organizational study, we sought to survey biobanks in the United States. However, we encountered two problems with this population. First, no common definition of biobanks exists. Second, no census is available of these facilities from which to sample in order to implement a survey. In light of these problems, we employed a multifaceted approach using electronic searches of PubMed, RePORTER, and Google. In addition, we systematically searched for biobanks housed within universities that have NIH-designated Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). We expanded this part of the search by looking for biobanks among all members of the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC). Finally, we added banks to our database found previously by other researchers and banks found via correspondence with our colleagues. Our search strategy produced a database of 624 biobanks for which we were able to confirm contact information in order to conduct our online survey. Another 140 biobanks were identified but did not respond to our requests to confirm their existence or contact information. In order to maximize both the uniqueness of banks found and the greatest return on effort for each search, we suggest targeting resources that are already organized. In our work, these included the CTSA, AAMC, and part of the Google searches. We contend that our search provides a model for analysis of new fields of research and/or rapidly evolving industries. Furthermore, our approach demonstrates that with the appropriate tools it is possible to develop a systematic and comprehensive database to investigate undefined populations.

  6. Rapid assessment of trachoma in underserved population of Car-Nicobar Island, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the burden of trachoma and its related risk factors amongst the native population of Car-Nicobar Island in India. METHODS: Rapid assessment for trachoma was conducted in ten villages of Car-Nicobar Island according to standard WHO guidelines. An average of 50 children aged 1-9 years were assessed clinically for signs of active trachoma and facial cleanliness in each village. Additionally, all adults above 15 years of age in these households were examined for evidence of trachomatous trichiasis and corneal opacity. Environmental risk factors contributing to trachoma like limited access to potable water & functional latrine, presence of animal pen and garbage within the Nicobari hut were also noted in all villages. RESULTS: Out of a total of fifteen villages in Car-Nicobar Island, ten villages were selected for trachoma survey depending on evidence of socio-developmental indicators like poverty and decreased access to water, sanitation and healthcare facilities. The total population of the selected clusters was 7277 in the ten villages. Overall, 251 of 516 children (48.6%;CI: 46.5-55.1 had evidence of follicular stage of trachoma and 11 children (2.1%;CI:1.0-3.4 had evidence of inflammatory stage of trachoma. Nearly 15%(CI:12.1-18.3 children were noted to have unclean faces in the ten villages. Trachomatous trichiasis was noted in 73 adults (1.0%;CI:0.8-1.2. The environmental sanitation was not found to be satisfactory in the surveyed villages mainly due to the co-habitance of Nicobari people with domestic animals like pigs, hens, goats, dogs, cats etc in most (96.4% of the households. CONCLUSION: Active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis was observed in all the ten villages surveyed, wherein trachoma control measures are needed.

  7. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Elinor K.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

  8. Changes in the etiology of valvular heart disease in the rapidly aging Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun-Young; Seo, Su Ra; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the changes in the causes of valvular heart disease between 2006 and 2011 in Korea. Data were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2006 through 2011. These data consisted of primary diagnoses related to valvular heart disease regardless of other conditions. Valvular heart disease included non-rheumatic mitral valve disorders, non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders, rheumatic mitral valve disorders, and rheumatic aortic valve disorders. Overall, the age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart disease was 70.6 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 110.3 in 2011. This represented an increase from 42.2 to 65.2 in women and from 28.4 to 45.1 in men. In particular, there was a greater increase in prevalence in patients aged 65 years or older compared with groups aged 20-44 years or 45-64 years for both genders. The age-standardized cumulative prevalence of rheumatic valve disease did not change dramatically between 2006 and 2011. The overall age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart diseases increased between 2006 and 2011, especially in individuals older than 65 years. These changes should be considered in future designs of cardiovascular healthcare services in countries with a rapidly aging population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid assessment of populations trends of invasive species: Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA, ED

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA is a powerful analytical approach for biodi-versity management. Its main advan-tages are due to its intuitive processing and visualization, since mathematical workflow is conceptually similar to the widely accepted Principal Components Analysis. Detailed analyses of popula-tion trends with mathematical tools are often difficult to achieve for managers by a number of reasons (large numbers or areas monitored, large number of species, insufficient statistics skills, strong knowledge level in demographic analyses, etc.. SSA has been used since the 1970’s in signal processing to clarify signal vs. noisy information, but it has also been used in climate change analy-sis and other developmental areas. Be-sides, SSA is a rapid-learning method for technicians and managers with medium level of mathematical knowledge. Free software in Unix environment is avail-able. Unfortunately, no free and friendly software is available for Win-dows SO. Although R package may offer solutions for really advanced users, it does not fit real work situations for managers of biological invasions. Cater-pillar (Gistat Group, Ltd is by now, the best option found by the author in terms of price, facility for results inter-pretation and time consumed in learn-ing. The main disadvantage is the poor content of tutorial files

  10. Population and prehistory II: space-limited human populations in constant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleston, Cedric O; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2008-09-01

    We present a population model to examine the forces that determined the quality and quantity of human life in early agricultural societies where cultivable area is limited. The model is driven by the non-linear and interdependent relationships between the age distribution of a population, its behavior and technology, and the nature of its environment. The common currency in the model is the production of food, on which age-specific rates of birth and death depend. There is a single non-trivial equilibrium population at which productivity balances caloric needs. One of the most powerful controls on equilibrium hunger level is fertility control. Gains against hunger are accompanied by decreases in population size. Increasing worker productivity does increase equilibrium population size but does not improve welfare at equilibrium. As a case study we apply the model to the population of a Polynesian valley before European contact.

  11. A rapid radioassay for human IgG produced in lymphocyte in vitro culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, D.R.; Shale, D.J.; Tomlinson, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Protein A bearing Staphylococcus aureus was used to develop a solid-phase radioassay for IgG immunoglobulins. The assay was specifically optimised for use in vitro human lymphocyte culture work. Compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for IgG produced in lymphocyte culture, this assay had a similar performance profile and the advantages of rapidity and technical ease. (Auth.)

  12. Casein kinase II is elevated in solid human tumours and rapidly proliferating non-neoplastic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münstermann, U; Fritz, G; Seitz, G

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase CKII (i.e. casein kinase II, CKII, NII) is expressed at a higher level in rapidly proliferating tissues and in solid human tumours (e.g. colorectal carcinomas) when compared to the corresponding non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. This could be shown by (a) Western blotting of cellular...

  13. Rapid detection of human parechoviruses in clinical samples by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Kimberley; Molenkamp, Richard; van der Ham, Alwin; Wolthers, Katja; Beld, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) have been associated with severe conditions such as neonatal sepsis and meningitis in young children. Rapid identification of an infectious agent in such serious conditions in these patients is essential for adequate decision making regarding treatment and

  14. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  15. DNA methylation-based variation between human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have proved that DNA methylation affects regulation of gene expression and development. Epigenome-wide studies have reported variation in methylation patterns between populations, including Caucasians, non-Caucasians (Blacks), Hispanics, Arabs, and numerous populations of the African continent. Not only has DNA methylation differences shown to impact externally visible characteristics, but is also a potential biomarker for underlying racial health disparities between human populations. Ethnicity-related methylation differences set their mark during early embryonic development. Genetic variations, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors, such as age, dietary folate, socioeconomic status, and smoking, impacts DNA methylation levels, which reciprocally impacts expression of phenotypes. Studies show that it is necessary to address these external influences when attempting to differentiate between populations since the relative impacts of these factors on the human methylome remain uncertain. The present review summarises several reported attempts to establish the contribution of differential DNA methylation to natural human variation, and shows that DNA methylation could represent new opportunities for risk stratification and prevention of several diseases amongst populations world-wide. Variation of methylation patterns between human populations is an exciting prospect which inspires further valuable research to apply the concept in routine medical and forensic casework. However, trans-generational inheritance needs to be quantified to decipher the proportion of variation contributed by DNA methylation. The future holds thorough evaluation of the epigenome to understand quantification, heritability, and the effect of DNA methylation on phenotypes. In addition, methylation profiling of the same ethnic groups across geographical locations will shed light on conserved methylation differences in populations.

  16. Evidence of Recent Intricate Adaptation in Human Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeyoung Park

    Full Text Available Recent human adaptations have shaped population differentiation in genomic regions containing putative functional variants, mostly located in predicted regulatory elements. However, their actual functionalities and the underlying mechanism of recent adaptation remain poorly understood. In the current study, regions of genes and repeats were investigated for functionality depending on the degree of population differentiation, FST or ΔDAF (a difference in derived allele frequency. The high FST in the 5´ or 3´ untranslated regions (UTRs, in particular, confirmed that population differences arose mainly from differences in regulation. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL analyses using lymphoblastoid cell lines indicated that the majority of the highly population-specific regions represented cis- and/or trans-eQTL. However, groups having the highest ΔDAFs did not necessarily have higher proportions of eQTL variants; in these groups, the patterns were complex, indicating recent intricate adaptations. The results indicated that East Asian (EAS and European populations (EUR experienced mutual selection pressures. The mean derived allele frequency of the high ΔDAF groups suggested that EAS and EUR underwent strong adaptation; however, the African population in Africa (AFR experienced slight, yet broad, adaptation. The DAF distributions of variants in the gene regions showed clear selective pressure in each population, which implies the existence of more recent regulatory adaptations in cells other than lymphoblastoid cell lines. In-depth analysis of population-differentiated regions indicated that the coding gene, RNF135, represented a trans-regulation hotspot via cis-regulation by the population-specific variants in the region of selective sweep. Together, the results provide strong evidence of actual intricate adaptation of human populations via regulatory manipulation.

  17. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Peter K.; Esko, Tonu; Mattsson, Hannele; Eklund, Niina; Gandin, Ilaria; Nutile, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U.; Schurmann, Claudia; Smith, Albert V.; Zhang, Weihua; Okada, Yukinori; Stancakova, Alena; Faul, Jessica D.; Zhao, Wei; Bartz, Traci M.; Concas, Maria Pina; Franceschini, Nora; Enroth, Stefan; Vitart, Veronique; Trompet, Stella; Guo, Xiuqing; Chasman, Daniel I.; O'Connel, Jeffrey R.; Corre, Tanguy; Nongmaithem, Suraj S.; Chen, Yuning; Mangino, Massimo; Ruggiero, Daniela; Traglia, Michela; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Kacprowski, Tim; Bjonnes, Andrew; van der Spek, Ashley; Wu, Ying; Giri, Anil K.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Wang, Lihua; Hofer, Edith; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; McLeod, Olga; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Pattaro, Cristian; Verweij, Niek; Baumbach, Clemens; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Warren, Helen R.; Vuckovic, Dragana; Mei, Hao; Bouchard, Claude; Perry, John R. B.; Cappellani, Stefania; Mirza, Saira S.; Benton, Miles C.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Medland, Sarah E.; Lind, PenelopeA.; Malerba, Giovanni; Drong, Alexander; Yengo, Loic; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhi, Degui; van der Most, Peter J.; Shriner, Daniel; Maegi, Reedik; Hemani, Gibran; Karaderi, Tugce; Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Tian; Demuth, Ilja; Zhao, Jing Hua; Meng, Weihua; Lataniotis, Lazaros; van der Laan, Sander W.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Wood, Andrew R.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Hall, LeanneM.; Salvi, Erika; Yazar, Seyhan; Carstensen, Lisbeth; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Abney, Mark; Afzal, Uzma; Allison, Matthew A.; Amin, Najaf; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Barr, R. Graham; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Campbell, Archie; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chan, Yingleong; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Chen, Y. -D. Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John; Correa, Adolfo; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; Doerr, Marcus; Ehret, Georg; Ellis, Stephen B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ford, Ian; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Friedrich, Nele; Geller, Frank; Scotland, Generation; Gillham-Nasenya, Irina; Gottesman, Omri; Graff, Misa; Grodstein, Francine; Gu, Charles; Haley, Chris; Hammond, Christopher J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heikkila, Kauko; Hocking, Lynne J.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Joensuu, Anni; Johansson, Asa; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahonen, Mika; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kerr, Shona M.; Khan, Nazir M.; Koellinger, Philipp; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Manraj K.; Kubo, Michiaki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lahti, Jari; Launer, Lenore J.; Lea, Rodney A.; Lehne, Benjamin; Lehtimaki, Terho; Liewald, David C. M.; Lind, Lars; Loh, Marie; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; London, Stephanie J.; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Loukola, Anu; Lu, Yingchang; Lumley, Thomas; Lundqvist, Annamari; Mannisto, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Masciullo, Corrado; Matchan, Angela; Mathias, Rasika A.; Matsuda, Koichi; Meigs, James B.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Mentch, Frank D.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montasser, May E.; Montgomery, GrantW.; Morrison, Alanna; Myers, Richard H.; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; Nieminen, Markku S.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connor, George T.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmas, Walter R.; Pankow, James S.; Patarcic, Inga; Pavani, Francesca; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pietilainen, Kirsi; Poulter, Neil; Prokopenko, Inga; Ralhan, Sarju; Redmond, Paul; Rich, Stephen S.; Rissanen, Harri; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rose, Richard; Sala, Cinzia; Salako, Babatunde; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Saxena, Richa; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Laura J.; Scott, William R.; Sennblad, Bengt; Seshadri, Sudha; Sever, Peter; Shrestha, Smeeta; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Soranzo, Nicole; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Southam, Lorraine; Stanton, Alice V.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Strauch, Konstantin; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Suderman, Matthew J.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tang, Sian-Tsun; Taylor, Kent D.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Toeglhofer, Anna Maria; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tsernikova, Natalia; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Vlieg, Astrid van Hylckama; van Setten, Jessica; Vasankari, Tuula; Vedantam, Sailaja; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Vozzi, Diego; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ware, Erin B.; Wentworth-Shields, William; Whitfield, John B.; Wild, Sarah; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yao, Jie; Zaza, Gianluigi; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Salem, Rany M.; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Samani, Nilesh J.; Cusi, Daniele; Mackey, David A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Froguel, Philippe; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ferrucci, Luigi; Scott, Robert A.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Bertram, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Toenjes, Anke; Munroe, Patricia B.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Arnett, Donna K.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Balkau, Beverley; Gambaro, Giovanni; Morris, Andrew P.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Wright, Margie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hunt, Steven C.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Tiemeier, Henning; Pirastu, Nicola; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Perusse, Louis; Wilson, James G.; Girotto, Giorgia; Caulfield, Mark J.; Raitakari, Olli; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gieger, Christian; van der Harst, Pim; Hicks, Andrew A.; Kraft, Peter; Sinisalo, Juha; Knekt, Paul; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Hamsten, Anders; Schmidt, Reinhold; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Becker, Diane M.; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boehnke, Michael; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Teumer, Alexander; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Metspalu, Andres; Gasparini, Paolo; Ulivi, Sheila; Ober, Carole; Toniolo, Daniela; Rudan, Igor; Porteous, David J.; Ciullo, Marina; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Dupuis, Josee; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Wright, Alan F.; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Vollenweider, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sattar, Naveed; Gyllensten, Ulf; North, Kari E.; Pirastu, Mario; Psaty, Bruce M.; Weir, David R.; Laakso, Markku; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Takahashi, Atsushi; Chambers, John C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Strachan, David P.; Campbell, Harry; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Perola, Markus; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders(1), and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness(2). However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less

  18. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Joshi (Peter); T. Esko (Tõnu); H. Mattsson (Hannele); N. Eklund (Niina); I. Gandin (Ilaria); T. Nutile; A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Schurmann (Claudia); G.D. Smith; W. Zhang (Weihua); Y. Okada (Yukinori); A. Stancáková (Alena); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); W. Zhao (Wei); T.M. Bartz (Traci M.); M.P. Concas (Maria Pina); N. Franceschini (Nora); S. Enroth (Stefan); V. Vitart (Veronique); S. Trompet (Stella); X. Guo (Xiuqing); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); J.R. O'Connel (Jeffrey R.); T. Corre (Tanguy); S.S. Nongmaithem (Suraj S.); Y. Chen (Yuning); M. Mangino (Massimo); D. Ruggiero; M. Traglia (Michela); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); T. Kacprowski (Tim); A. Bjonnes (Andrew); A. van der Spek (Ashley); Y. Wu (Ying); A.K. Giri (Anil K.); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); L. Wang (Lihua); E. Hofer (Edith); C.A. Rietveld (Niels); O. McLeod (Olga); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); C. Pattaro (Cristian); N. Verweij (Niek); C. Baumbach (Clemens); A. Abdellaoui (Abdel); H. Warren (Helen); D. Vuckovic (Dragana); H. Mei (Hao); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.R.B. Perry (John); S. Cappellani (Stefania); S.S. Mirza (Saira); M.C. Benton (Miles C.); U. Broeckel (Ulrich); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); P.A. Lind (Penelope); G. Malerba (Giovanni); A. Drong (Alexander); L. Yengo (Loic); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); D. Zhi (Degui); P.J. van der Most (Peter); D. Shriner (Daniel); R. Mägi (Reedik); G. Hemani; T. Karaderi (Tugce); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); T. Liu (Tian); I. Demuth (Ilja); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); W. Meng (Weihua); L. Lataniotis (Lazaros); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); A.R. Wood (Andrew); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); L.M. Hall (Leanne M.); E. Salvi (Erika); S. Yazar (Seyhan); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); H.G. De Haan (Hugoline G.); M. Abney (Mark); U. Afzal (Uzma); M.A. Allison (Matthew); N. Amin (Najaf); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert W.); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); R.G. Barr (Graham); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); S. Bergmann (Sven); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin P.); A. Campbell (Archie); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Y. Chan (Yingleong); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); C. Chen (Constance); Y.-D.I. Chen (Y.-D. Ida); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); A. Correa (Adolfo); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); G.D. Smith; G. Davies (Gail); M. Dörr (Marcus); G.B. Ehret (Georg); S.B. Ellis (Stephen B.); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Ford; C.S. Fox (Caroline); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); N. Friedrich (Nele); F. Geller (Frank); G. Scotland (Generation); I. Gillham-Nasenya (Irina); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); F. Grodstein (Francine); C. Gu (Charles); C. Haley (Chris); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); S.E. Harris (Sarah); T.B. Harris (Tamara); N. Hastie (Nick); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); E. Ingelsson (Erik); A. Joensuu (Anni); A. Johansson (Åsa); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); M. Kähönen (Mika); Y. Kamatani (Yoichiro); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); S.M. Kerr (Shona); N.M. Khan (Nazir M.); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); H.A. Koistinen (Heikki A.); M.K. Kooner (Manraj K.); M. Kubo (Michiaki); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Lahti (Jari); L.J. Launer (Lenore); R.A. Lea (Rodney A.); B. Lehne (Benjamin); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L. Lind (Lars); M. Loh (Marie); M.L. Lokki; S.J. London (Stephanie J.); S.J. Loomis (Stephanie J.); A. Loukola (Anu); Y. Lu (Yingchang); T. Lumley (Thomas); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); S. Männistö (Satu); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); C. Masciullo (Corrado); A. Matchan (Angela); J. Mathias (Jasmine); K. Matsuda (Koichi); J.B. Meigs (James); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Menni (Cristina); F.D. Mentch (Frank); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); M.E. Montasser (May E.); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); R.H. Myers (Richard); R. Nadukuru (Rajiv); P. Navarro (Pau); M. Nalis (Mari); M.S. Nieminen (Markku S.); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); G.T. O'Connor (George); A. Ogunniyi (Adesola); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); W. Palmas (Walter); J.S. Pankow (James); I. Patarcic (Inga); F. Pavani (Francesca); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); N.R. Poulter (Neil); I. Prokopenko (Inga); S. Ralhan (Sarju); P. Redmond (Paul); S.S. Rich (Stephen S.); H. Rissanen (Harri); A. Robino (Antonietta); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); R.J. Rose (Richard J.); C. Sala (Cinzia); B. Salako (Babatunde); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.-P. Sarin; R. Saxena (Richa); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); L.J. Scott (Laura); W.R. Scott (William R.); B. Sennblad (Bengt); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P. Sever (Peter); S. Shrestha (Smeeta); B.H. Smith (Blair); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); N. Soranzo (Nicole); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); L. Southam (Lorraine); A. Stanton (Alice); M.G. Stathopoulou (Maria G); K. Strauch (Konstantin); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); M.J. Suderman (Matthew J.); N. Tandon (Nikhil); S.-T. Tang (Sian-Tsun); K.D. Taylor (Kent D.); B. Tayo (Bamidele); A.M. Töglhofer (Anna Maria); M. Tomaszewski (Maciej); N. Tsernikova (Natalia); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); A. van Hylckama Vlieg (Astrid); J. van Setten (Jessica); T. Vasankari (Tuula); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); E. Vlachopoulou (Efthymia); D. Vozzi (Diego); E. Vuoksimaa (Eero); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); W. Wentworth-Shields (William); J. Whitfield (John); S. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); C.S. Yajnik (Chittaranjan S.); J. Yao (Jie); G. Zaza (Gianluigi); X. Zhu (Xiaofeng); R.M. Salem (Rany); M. Melbye (Mads); H. Bisgaard (Hans); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); D. Cusi (Daniele); D.A. Mackey (David A.); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); P. Froguel (Philippe); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); S.F.A. Grant (Struan F.A.); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); R.A. Scott (Robert); A.D. Morris (Andrew); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); G.V. Dedoussis (George V.); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Bertram (Lars); U. Lindenberger (Ulman); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); A. Tönjes (Anke); P. Munroe (Patricia); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); C. Rotimi (Charles); D.K. Arnett (Donna); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); B. Balkau (Beverley); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); A.P. Morris (Andrew); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); S.C. Hunt (Steven); J.M. Starr (John); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); L.R. Griffiths (Lyn R.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); N. Pirastu (Nicola); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L. Perusse (Louis); J.G. Wilson (James); S. Girotto; M. Caulfield (Mark); O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); C. Gieger (Christian); P. van der Harst; A.A. Hicks (Andrew); P. Kraft (Peter); J. Sinisalo (Juha); P. Knekt; M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.K.E. Magnusson (Patrik K. E.); A. Hamsten (Anders); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); D.M. Becker (Diane); D. Bharadwaj (Dwaipayan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); M. Boehnke (Michael); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D.K. Sanghera (Dharambir); A. Teumer (Alexander); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); A. Metspalu (Andres); P. Gasparini (Paolo); S. Ulivi (Shelia); C. Ober (Carole); D. Toniolo (Daniela); I. Rudan (Igor); D.J. Porteous (David J.); M. Ciullo; T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Hayward (Caroline); J. Dupuis (Josée); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A. Wright (Alan); G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); P. Vollenweider (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); N. Sattar (Naveed); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); K.E. North (Kari); M. Pirastu (Mario); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); D.R. Weir (David); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Takahashi (Atsushi); J.C. Chambers (John C.); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); D.P. Strachan (David P.); H. Campbell (Harry); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M. Perola (Markus); O. Polasek (Ozren); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHomozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is

  19. Radiation exposure and radiation hazards of human population. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present Part I provides a survey on the various sources of natural and artificial radiation exposure of human population. Furthermore, biological radiation effects and radiation damages are surveyed. In an appendix, radiation types, radiation doses, and radiation dose units are explained. (orig./GSCH) [de

  20. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  1. Alu repeats as markers for human population genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bazan, H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 97.9% nucleotide identity with each other and an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence. HS Alu family members are thought to be derived from a single source ``master`` gene, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 in. and 3 in. unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allows the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of an Alu repeat. Individual HS Alu sequences were found to be either monomorphic or dimorphic for the presence or absence of each repeat. The monomorphic HS Alu family members inserted in the human genome after the human/great ape divergence (which is thought to have occurred 4--6 million years ago), but before the radiation of modem man. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem man (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project as well. HS Alu family member insertion dimorphism differs from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) because individuals share HS Alu family member insertions based upon identity by descent from a common ancestor as a result of a single event which occurred one time within the human population. The VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times within a population and are identical by state only.

  2. Population Dynamics of Early Human Migration in Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank N Vahia

    Full Text Available Early human migration is largely determined by geography and human needs. These are both deterministic parameters when small populations move into unoccupied areas where conflicts and large group dynamics are not important. The early period of human migration into the British Isles provides such a laboratory which, because of its relative geographical isolation, may allow some insights into the complex dynamics of early human migration and interaction.We developed a simulation code based on human affinity to habitable land, as defined by availability of water sources, altitude, and flatness of land, in choosing the path of migration. Movement of people on the British island over the prehistoric period from their initial entry points was simulated on the basis of data from the megalithic period. Topographical and hydro-shed data from satellite databases was used to define habitability, based on distance from water bodies, flatness of the terrain, and altitude above sea level. We simulated population movement based on assumptions of affinity for more habitable places, with the rate of movement tempered by existing populations. We compared results of our computer simulations with genetic data and show that our simulation can predict fairly accurately the points of contacts between different migratory paths. Such comparison also provides more detailed information about the path of peoples' movement over ~2000 years before the present era.We demonstrate an accurate method to simulate prehistoric movements of people based upon current topographical satellite data. Our findings are validated by recently-available genetic data. Our method may prove useful in determining early human population dynamics even when no genetic information is available.

  3. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Graña-Miraglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  4. Integrating common and rare genetic variation in diverse human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Schaffner, Stephen F; Yu, Fuli; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bonnen, Penelope E; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Deloukas, Panos; Gabriel, Stacey B; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hunt, Sarah; Inouye, Michael; Jia, Xiaoming; Palotie, Aarno; Parkin, Melissa; Whittaker, Pamela; Yu, Fuli; Chang, Kyle; Hawes, Alicia; Lewis, Lora R; Ren, Yanru; Wheeler, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Muzny, Donna Marie; Barnes, Chris; Darvishi, Katayoon; Hurles, Matthew; Korn, Joshua M; Kristiansson, Kati; Lee, Charles; McCarrol, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Keinan, Alon; Montgomery, Stephen B; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Soranzo, Nicole; Bonnen, Penelope E; Gibbs, Richard A; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Keinan, Alon; Price, Alkes L; Yu, Fuli; Anttila, Verneri; Brodeur, Wendy; Daly, Mark J; Leslie, Stephen; McVean, Gil; Moutsianas, Loukas; Nguyen, Huy; Schaffner, Stephen F; Zhang, Qingrun; Ghori, Mohammed J R; McGinnis, Ralph; McLaren, William; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Schaffner, Stephen F; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Grossman, Sharon R; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Hostetter, Elizabeth B; Sabeti, Pardis C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Foster, Morris W; Gordon, Deborah R; Licinio, Julio; Manca, Maria Cristina; Marshall, Patricia A; Matsuda, Ichiro; Ngare, Duncan; Wang, Vivian Ota; Reddy, Deepa; Rotimi, Charles N; Royal, Charmaine D; Sharp, Richard R; Zeng, Changqing; Brooks, Lisa D; McEwen, Jean E

    2010-09-02

    Despite great progress in identifying genetic variants that influence human disease, most inherited risk remains unexplained. A more complete understanding requires genome-wide studies that fully examine less common alleles in populations with a wide range of ancestry. To inform the design and interpretation of such studies, we genotyped 1.6 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,184 reference individuals from 11 global populations, and sequenced ten 100-kilobase regions in 692 of these individuals. This integrated data set of common and rare alleles, called 'HapMap 3', includes both SNPs and copy number polymorphisms (CNPs). We characterized population-specific differences among low-frequency variants, measured the improvement in imputation accuracy afforded by the larger reference panel, especially in imputing SNPs with a minor allele frequency of populations supports deeper interrogation of genomic variation and its role in human disease, and serves as a step towards a high-resolution map of the landscape of human genetic variation.

  5. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    E.D. Karimuribo; B. Jones; M.I. Matee; D.M. Kambarage; S. Mounier-Jack; M.M. Rweyemamu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam) while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency pre...

  6. Human population growth offsets climate-driven increase in woody vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody...... an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km2), mostly in humid zones. Increases in woody cover were associated with low population growth, and were driven by increases in CO2 in the humid zones and by increases in precipitation in drylands, whereas decreases in woody...... cover were associated with high population growth. The spatially distinct pattern of these opposing trends reflects, first, the natural response of vegetation to precipitation and atmospheric CO2, and second, deforestation in humid areas, minor in size but important for ecosystem services...

  7. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline D; Fumagalli, Matteo; Li, Bo; Harris, Kelley; Xiong, Zijun; Zhou, Long; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Somel, Mehmet; Babbitt, Courtney; Wray, Greg; Li, Jianwen; He, Weiming; Wang, Zhuo; Fu, Wenjing; Xiang, Xueyan; Morgan, Claire C; Doherty, Aoife; O'Connell, Mary J; McInerney, James O; Born, Erik W; Dalén, Love; Dietz, Rune; Orlando, Ludovic; Sonne, Christian; Zhang, Guojie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-08

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyper-lipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479-343 thousand years BP. We find that genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger positive selection than in brown bears; nine of the top 16 genes under strong positive selection are associated with cardiomyopathy and vascular disease, implying important reorganization of the cardiovascular system. One of the genes showing the strongest evidence of selection, APOB, encodes the primary lipoprotein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL); functional mutations in APOB may explain how polar bears are able to cope with life-long elevated LDL levels that are associated with high risk of heart disease in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid sensing of l-leucine by human and murine hypothalamic neurons: Neurochemical and mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeley, Nicholas; Kirwan, Peter; Darwish, Tamana; Arnaud, Marion; Evans, Mark L; Merkle, Florian T; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Blouet, Clemence

    2018-04-01

    Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration. A neurochemically diverse subset of both mouse and human hypothalamic neurons responded rapidly to l-leucine. Consistent with l-leucine's anorexigenic role, we found that 25% of mouse MBH POMC neurons were activated by l-leucine. 10% of MBH NPY neurons were inhibited by l-leucine, and leucine rapidly reduced AGRP secretion, providing a mechanism for the rapid leucine-induced inhibition of foraging behavior in rodents. Surprisingly, none of the candidate mechanisms previously implicated in hypothalamic leucine sensing (K ATP channels, mTORC1 signaling, amino-acid decarboxylation) were involved in the acute activity changes produced by l-leucine. Instead, our data indicate that leucine-induced neuronal activation involves a plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel, whereas leucine-induced neuronal inhibition is mediated by inhibition of a store-operated Ca 2+ current. A subset of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus rapidly respond to physiological changes in extracellular leucine concentration. Leucine can produce both increases and decreases in neuronal Ca 2+ concentrations in a neurochemically-diverse group of neurons, including some POMC and NPY/AGRP neurons. Our data reveal that leucine can signal through novel mechanisms to rapidly

  9. The population in China’s earthquake-prone areas has increased by over 32 million along with rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Huang, Qingxu; Dou, Yinyin; Tu, Wei; Liu, Jifu

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessments of the population exposed to seismic hazard are crucial in seismic risk mapping. Recent rapid urbanization in China has resulted in substantial changes in the size and structure of the population exposed to seismic hazard. Using the latest population census data and seismic maps, this work investigated spatiotemporal changes in the exposure of the population in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China from 1990 to 2010. In the context of rapid urbanization and massive rural-to-urban migration, nearly one-tenth of the Chinese population in 2010 lived in MSHAs. From 1990 to 2010, the MSHA population increased by 32.53 million at a significantly higher rate of change (33.6%) than the national average rate (17.7%). The elderly population in MSHAs increased by 81.4%, which is much higher than the group’s national growth rate of 58.9%. Greater attention should be paid to the demographic changes in earthquake-prone areas in China.

  10. Parallel selection on TRPV6 in human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Hughes

    Full Text Available We identified and examined a candidate gene for local directional selection in Europeans, TRPV6, and conclude that selection has acted on standing genetic variation at this locus, creating parallel soft sweep events in humans. A novel modification of the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH test was utilized, which compares EHH for a single allele across populations, to investigate the signature of selection at TRPV6 and neighboring linked loci in published data sets for Europeans, Asians and African-Americans, as well as in newly-obtained sequence data for additional populations. We find that all non-African populations carry a signature of selection on the same haplotype at the TRPV6 locus. The selective footprints, however, are significantly differentiated between non-African populations and estimated to be younger than an ancestral population of non-Africans. The possibility of a single selection event occurring in an ancestral population of non-Africans was tested by simulations and rejected. The putatively-selected TRPV6 haplotype contains three candidate sites for functional differences, namely derived non-synonymous substitutions C157R, M378V and M681T. Potential functional differences between the ancestral and derived TRPV6 proteins were investigated by cloning the ancestral and derived forms, transfecting cell lines, and carrying out electrophysiology experiments via patch clamp analysis. No statistically-significant differences in biophysical channel function were found, although one property of the protein, namely Ca(2+ dependent inactivation, may show functionally relevant differences between the ancestral and derived forms. Although the reason for selection on this locus remains elusive, this is the first demonstration of a widespread parallel selection event acting on standing genetic variation in humans, and highlights the utility of between population EHH statistics.

  11. Parallel selection on TRPV6 in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David A; Tang, Kun; Strotmann, Rainer; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prenen, Jean; Nilius, Bernd; Stoneking, Mark

    2008-02-27

    We identified and examined a candidate gene for local directional selection in Europeans, TRPV6, and conclude that selection has acted on standing genetic variation at this locus, creating parallel soft sweep events in humans. A novel modification of the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test was utilized, which compares EHH for a single allele across populations, to investigate the signature of selection at TRPV6 and neighboring linked loci in published data sets for Europeans, Asians and African-Americans, as well as in newly-obtained sequence data for additional populations. We find that all non-African populations carry a signature of selection on the same haplotype at the TRPV6 locus. The selective footprints, however, are significantly differentiated between non-African populations and estimated to be younger than an ancestral population of non-Africans. The possibility of a single selection event occurring in an ancestral population of non-Africans was tested by simulations and rejected. The putatively-selected TRPV6 haplotype contains three candidate sites for functional differences, namely derived non-synonymous substitutions C157R, M378V and M681T. Potential functional differences between the ancestral and derived TRPV6 proteins were investigated by cloning the ancestral and derived forms, transfecting cell lines, and carrying out electrophysiology experiments via patch clamp analysis. No statistically-significant differences in biophysical channel function were found, although one property of the protein, namely Ca(2+) dependent inactivation, may show functionally relevant differences between the ancestral and derived forms. Although the reason for selection on this locus remains elusive, this is the first demonstration of a widespread parallel selection event acting on standing genetic variation in humans, and highlights the utility of between population EHH statistics.

  12. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high...... level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine....

  13. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Basu, Niladri; Bustamante, Paco; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Hopkins, William A.; Kidd, Karen A.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.

  14. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Macdonald, David W.; Packer, Craig

    2015-01-01

    At a regional scale, lion populations in West, Central, and East Africa are likely to suffer a projected 50% decline over the next two decades, whereas lion populations are only increasing in southern Africa. Many lion populations are either now gone or expected to disappear within the next few decades to the extent that the intensively managed populations in southern Africa may soon supersede the iconic savannah landscapes in East Africa as the most successful sites for lion conservation. Th...

  15. Parallel selection on TRPV6 in human populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, David A; Tang, Kun; Strotmann, Rainer; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prenen, Jean; Nilius, Bernd; Stoneking, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We identified and examined a candidate gene for local directional selection in Europeans, TRPV6, and conclude that selection has acted on standing genetic variation at this locus, creating parallel soft sweep events in humans. A novel modification of the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test was utilized, which compares EHH for a single allele across populations, to investigate the signature of selection at TRPV6 and neighboring linked loci in published data sets for Europeans, Asians an...

  16. Human population studies and the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    This essay draws attention to the role of the WHO in shaping research agendas in the biomedical sciences in the postwar era. It considers in particular the genetic studies of human populations that were pursued under the aegis of the WHO from the late 1950s to 1970s. The study provides insights into how human and medical genetics entered the agenda of the WHO. At the same time, the population studies become a focus for tracking changing notions of international relations, cooperation, and development and their impact on research in biology and medicine in the post-World War I era. After a brief discussion of the early history of the WHO and its position in Cold War politics, the essay considers the WHO program in radiation protection and heredity and how the genetic study of "vanishing" human populations and a world-wide genetic study of newborns fitted this broader agenda. It then considers in more detail the kind of support offered by the WHO for these projects. The essay highlights the role of single individuals in taking advantage of WHO support for pushing their research agendas while establishing a trend towards cooperative international projects in biology.

  17. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D; Kennedy, Chris A

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai-the world's most densely populated megacity-at 6.5 W m -2 , surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m -2 ) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m -2 ). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  18. The impact of rapid evolution on population dynamics in the wild: experimental test of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Reznick, David N; Hare, J Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Rapid evolution challenges the assumption that evolution is too slow to impact short-term ecological dynamics. This insight motivates the study of 'Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics' or how evolution and ecological processes reciprocally interact on short time scales. We tested how rapid evolution impacts concurrent population dynamics using an aphid (Myzus persicae) and an undomesticated host (Hirschfeldia incana) in replicated wild populations. We manipulated evolvability by creating non-evolving (single clone) and potentially evolving (two-clone) aphid populations that contained genetic variation in intrinsic growth rate. We observed significant evolution in two-clone populations whether or not they were exposed to predators and competitors. Evolving populations grew up to 42% faster and attained up to 67% higher density, compared with non-evolving control populations but only in treatments exposed to competitors and predators. Increased density also correlates with relative fitness of competing clones suggesting a full eco-evolutionary dynamic cycle defined as reciprocal interactions between evolution and density. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Reference man models based on normal data from human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro; Kawamura, Hisao

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative description of the physical, and metabolic parameters of the human body is the very basic for internal dosimetry. Compilation of anatomical and other types of data Asian populations for internal (and external) dosimetry is of grate significance because of the potential spread of nuclear energy use in the Asian region and the major contribution of the region to the world population (about 58%). It has been observed that some differences exist for habitat, race, body sizes and pattern of food consumption. In the early stage of revision of ICRP Reference man by the Task Group, Characteristics of the human body of non-European populations received considerable attention as well as those of the European populations of different sexes and ages. In this context, an IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program on Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man endorsed. In later stages of reference Man revision, anatomical data for Asians was discusses together with those of European populations, presumably due to ICRP's decision of unanimous use of the Reference Man for radiation protection. Reference man models for adults and 15, 10, 5, 1, 0 year-old males and females of Asian populations were developed for use in internal and external dosimetry. Based on the concept of ICRP Reference Man (Publication 23), the reference values were derived from the normal organ mass data for Japanese and statistical data on the physique and nutrition of Japanese and Chinese. Also incorporated were variations in physical measurements, as observed in the above mentioned IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program. The work was partly carried out within the activities of the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. The weight of the skeleton was adjusted following the revised values in Publication 70. This paper will report basic shared and non-shared characteristics of Reference Man' for Asians and ICRP Reference Man. (author)

  20. Adaptations to local environments in modern human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Choongwon; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    After leaving sub-Saharan Africa around 50000-100000 years ago, anatomically modern humans have quickly occupied extremely diverse environments. Human populations were exposed to further environmental changes resulting from cultural innovations, such as the spread of farming, which gave rise to new selective pressures related to pathogen exposures and dietary shifts. In addition to changing the frequency of individual adaptive alleles, natural selection may also shape the overall genetic architecture of adaptive traits. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of adaptive human phenotypes based on insights from the studies of lactase persistence, skin pigmentation and high-altitude adaptation. These adaptations evolved in parallel in multiple human populations, providing a chance to investigate independent realizations of the evolutionary process. We suggest that the outcome of adaptive evolution is often highly variable even under similar selective pressures. Finally, we highlight a growing need for detecting adaptations that did not follow the classical sweep model and for incorporating new sources of genetic evidence such as information from ancient DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygala, Frank; Korablev, Nikolay; Ansorge, Hermann; Fickel, Joerns; Isomursu, Marja; Elmeros, Morten; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Baltrunaite, Laima; Balciauskas, Linas; Saarma, Urmas; Schulze, Christoph; Borkenhagen, Peter; Frantz, Alain C.

    2016-01-01

    The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species’ dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large ‘central’ population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations. PMID:27064784

  2. Factors associated with willingness to accept oral fluid HIV rapid testing among most-at-risk populations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmiao Xun

    Full Text Available The availability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing provides an approach that may have the potential to expand HIV testing in China, especially among most-a-risk populations. There are few investigations about the acceptability of oral fluid HIV testing among most-at-risk populations in China.A cross-sectional study with men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients was conducted in three cities of Shandong province, China from 2011 to 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face questionnaire.About 71% of participants were willing to accept the oral fluid HIV rapid testing, and home HIV testing was independently associated with acceptability of the new testing method among MSM, FSW and VCT clients (AOR of 4.46, 3.19 and 5.74, respectively. Independent predictors of oral fluid HIV rapid testing acceptability among MSM were having ever taken an oral fluid HIV rapid test (AOR= 15.25, having ever taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.07, and education level (AOR= 1.74. Engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors (AOR= 1.68 was an independent predictor of acceptability for FSW. Having taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.85 was an independent predictor of acceptability for VCT clients. The primary concern about the oral fluid HIV testing was accuracy. The median price they would pay for the testing ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 U.S. dollars.High acceptability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing was shown among most-at-risk populations. Findings provide support for oral rapid HIV testing as another HIV prevention tool, and provide a backdrop for the implementation of HIV home testing in the near future. Appropriate pricing and increased public education through awareness campaigns that address concerns about the accuracy and safety of the oral fluid HIV rapid testing may help increase acceptability and use among most-at-risk populations in China.

  3. Paper-based device for rapid typing of secondary human blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaosi; Then, Whui Lyn; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of bioactive paper for typing of secondary human blood groups. Our recent work on using bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying haemagglutination of red blood cells. The primary human blood groups, i.e., ABO and RhD groups, have been successfully typed with this method. Clinically, however, many secondary blood groups can also cause fatal blood transfusion accidents, despite the fact that the haemagglutination reactions of secondary blood groups are generally weaker than those of the primary blood groups. We describe the design of a user-friendly sensor for rapid typing of secondary blood groups using bioactive paper. We also present mechanistic insights into interactions between secondary blood group antibodies and red blood cells obtained using confocal microscopy. Haemagglutination patterns under different conditions are revealed for optimization of the assay conditions.

  4. Rapid detection of human fecal Eubacterium species and related genera by nested PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, A; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rDNA gene sequence specific for seven Eubacterium spp. and Eggerthella lenta that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed, and used for direct detection of these species in seven human feces samples. Three species of Eggerthella lenta, Eubacterium rectale, and Eubacterium eligens were detected from seven fecal samples. Eubacterium biforme was detected from six samples. It was reported that E. rectale, E. eligens, and E. biforme were difficult to detect by traditional culture method, but the nested PCR method is available for the detection of these species. This result shows that the nested PCR method utilizing a universal primer pair, followed by amplification with species-specific primers, would allow rapid detection of Eubacterium species in human feces.

  5. Rapid Development of Specialty Population Registries and Quality Measures from Electronic Health Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vaishnavi; Fish, Jason S; Mutz, Jacqueline M; Carrington, Angela R; Lai, Ki; Davis, Lisa S; Youngblood, Josh E; Rauschuber, Mark R; Flores, Kathryn A; Sara, Evan J; Bhat, Deepa G; Willett, DuWayne L

    2017-01-01

    Creation of a new electronic health record (EHR)-based registry often can be a "one-off" complex endeavor: first developing new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, followed by developing registry-specific data extractions from the EHR for analysis. Each development phase typically has its own long development and testing time, leading to a prolonged overall cycle time for delivering one functioning registry with companion reporting into production. The next registry request then starts from scratch. Such an approach will not scale to meet the emerging demand for specialty registries to support population health and value-based care. To determine if the creation of EHR-based specialty registries could be markedly accelerated by employing (a) a finite core set of EHR data collection principles and methods, (b) concurrent engineering of data extraction and data warehouse design using a common dimensional data model for all registries, and (c) agile development methods commonly employed in new product development. We adopted as guiding principles to (a) capture data as a byproduct of care of the patient, (b) reinforce optimal EHR use by clinicians, (c) employ a finite but robust set of EHR data capture tool types, and (d) leverage our existing technology toolkit. Registries were defined by a shared condition (recorded on the Problem List) or a shared exposure to a procedure (recorded on the Surgical History) or to a medication (recorded on the Medication List). Any EHR fields needed - either to determine registry membership or to calculate a registry-associated clinical quality measure (CQM) - were included in the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) shared dimensional data model. Extract-transform-load (ETL) code was written to pull data at defined "grains" from the EHR into the EDW model. All calculated CQM values were stored in a single Fact table in the EDW crossing all registries. Registry-specific dashboards were created in the EHR to display both

  6. Rapid Detection and Identification of Human Hookworm Infections through High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. Methods Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. Conclusion The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species. PMID:22844538

  7. Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution melting (HRM analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. METHODS: Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. CONCLUSION: The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species.

  8. Rapid detection and subtyping of human influenza A viruses and reassortants by pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mo Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the continuing co-circulation of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A viruses with seasonal H3N2 viruses, rapid and reliable detection of newly emerging influenza reassortant viruses is important to enhance our influenza surveillance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel pyrosequencing assay was developed for the rapid identification and subtyping of potential human influenza A virus reassortants based on all eight gene segments of the virus. Except for HA and NA genes, one universal set of primers was used to amplify and subtype each of the six internal genes. With this method, all eight gene segments of 57 laboratory isolates and 17 original specimens of seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses were correctly matched with their corresponding subtypes. In addition, this method was shown to be capable of detecting reassortant viruses by correctly identifying the source of all 8 gene segments from three vaccine production reassortant viruses and three H1N2 viruses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, this pyrosequencing assay is a sensitive and specific procedure for screening large numbers of viruses for reassortment events amongst the commonly circulating human influenza A viruses, which is more rapid and cheaper than using conventional sequencing approaches.

  9. Rapid detection and subtyping of human influenza A viruses and reassortants by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi-Mo; Caldwell, Natalie; Barr, Ian G

    2011-01-01

    Given the continuing co-circulation of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A viruses with seasonal H3N2 viruses, rapid and reliable detection of newly emerging influenza reassortant viruses is important to enhance our influenza surveillance. A novel pyrosequencing assay was developed for the rapid identification and subtyping of potential human influenza A virus reassortants based on all eight gene segments of the virus. Except for HA and NA genes, one universal set of primers was used to amplify and subtype each of the six internal genes. With this method, all eight gene segments of 57 laboratory isolates and 17 original specimens of seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses were correctly matched with their corresponding subtypes. In addition, this method was shown to be capable of detecting reassortant viruses by correctly identifying the source of all 8 gene segments from three vaccine production reassortant viruses and three H1N2 viruses. In summary, this pyrosequencing assay is a sensitive and specific procedure for screening large numbers of viruses for reassortment events amongst the commonly circulating human influenza A viruses, which is more rapid and cheaper than using conventional sequencing approaches.

  10. Systematic Three-Dimensional Coculture Rapidly Recapitulates Interactions between Human Neurons and Astrocytes

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    Robert Krencik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human astrocytes network with neurons in dynamic ways that are still poorly defined. Our ability to model this relationship is hampered by the lack of relevant and convenient tools to recapitulate this complex interaction. To address this barrier, we have devised efficient coculture systems utilizing 3D organoid-like spheres, termed asteroids, containing pre-differentiated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived astrocytes (hAstros combined with neurons generated from hPSC-derived neural stem cells (hNeurons or directly induced via Neurogenin 2 overexpression (iNeurons. Our systematic methods rapidly produce structurally complex hAstros and synapses in high-density coculture with iNeurons in precise numbers, allowing for improved studies of neural circuit function, disease modeling, and drug screening. We conclude that these bioengineered neural circuit model systems are reliable and scalable tools to accurately study aspects of human astrocyte-neuron functional properties while being easily accessible for cell-type-specific manipulations and observations. : In this article, Krencik and colleagues show that high-density cocultures of pre-differentiated human astrocytes with induced neurons, from pluripotent stem cells, elicit mature characteristics by 3–5 weeks. This provides a faster and more defined alternative method to organoid cultures for investigating human neural circuit function. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, synapses, coculture, three-dimensional spheres, organoids, disease modeling

  11. Biological effects of alpha radiation on a human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorleifson, E.M.; Marro, L.; Tracy, B.L.; Wilkinson, D.; Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Leach, K.; Ford, B.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the environment, natural and man-made sources of radioactive material can become integrated into the food chain. Polonium-210 is a significant source of radiation exposure to caribou and to northern human populations who are dependent on caribou for a major portion of their meat supply. Previous work has shown that humans consuming caribou meat containing measurable quantities of polonium-210 can incorporate a substantial fraction of the radionuclide (Thomas et. al.). Conventional chromosome aberration analysis of blood samples collected from 40 individuals who routinely consumed caribou meat was performed to measure genetic damage from the ingested radioactive material. At least 500 metaphase spreads were analysed for each of 39 individuals. Radiation-specific chromosomal aberrations such as dicentrics and rings were scored and their frequencies were compared to the range of aberrations observed in non-caribou consuming populations. This study was designed to address the possible impact of environmental polonium-210 on background radiation health effects in humans

  12. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency preparedness were collected from all wards (n = 22, human health facilities (n = 40 and livestock facilities in the two districts using interview checklists and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics for resources were calculated and mapped by district. Kibaha district had a higher human population density, more health workers, better equipped health facilities and better communication and transport systems. On the other hand, Ngorongoro had a higher population of livestock and more animal health facilities but a poorer ratio of animal health workers to livestock. The average ratio of health personnel to population in catchment areas of the health facilities was 1:147 (range of 1:17−1:1200. The ratio of personnel to human population was significantly higher in Kibaha (1:95 than in Ngorongoro (1:203 district (p = 0 < 0.001. Considering the limited resources available to both human and animal health sectors and their different strengths and weaknesses there are opportunities for greater collaboration and resource-sharing between human and animal health for improved surveillance and emergency-preparedness.

  13. Demography and dog-human relationships of the dog population in Zimbabwean communal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R; Bingham, J

    2000-10-14

    Dogs are Zimbabwe's primary vector for rabies, and the majority live in communal lands (traditional agropastoralist rural areas). In 1994, a household questionnaire survey was conducted to provide baseline data on the demography and dog-human relationships of the dogs in the communal lands. The survey showed that all the dogs were owned, and there was no evidence of a feral population. They were unrestricted and semi-dependent on people. The numbers of dogs per capita varied little in each communal land, resulting in higher dog densities in communal lands with higher human densities, and indicating that people were not intolerant of dogs at higher densities. The population turnover was rapid: the life expectancy of the dogs was 1.1 years, the mean age 2.0 years, and 71.8 per cent died in their first year. The population was heavily skewed towards juveniles, with 40.8 per cent aged less than 12 months. Despite the high juvenile mortality, the population was growing by 6.52 per cent per annum. It was estimated that in 1994 there were 1.36 million dogs in communal lands.

  14. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-03-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990-2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005-2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Landscape requirements of a primate population in a human-dominated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Tali S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction As urban and rural land development become widespread features of the global landscape so an understanding of the landscape requirements of displaced and isolated wildlife species becomes increasingly important for conservation planning. In the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, rapid human population growth, and the associated urban and rural land transformation, threatens the sustainability of the local chacma baboon population. Here we analyse spatial data collected from nine of the 12 extant troops to determine their population-level landscape requirements. We use hurdle models to ascertain the key landscape features influencing baboon occurrence and abundance patterns on two hierarchical spatial scales. Results Both spatial scales produced similar results that were ecologically reliable and interpretable. The models indicated that baboons were more likely to occur, and be more abundant, at low altitudes, on steep slopes and in human-modified habitats. The combination of these landscape variables provides baboons with access to the best quality natural and anthropogenic food sources in close proximity to one another and suitable sleeping sites. Surface water did not emerge as an influential landscape feature presumably as the area is not water stressed. Conclusions The model results indicate that land development in the Cape Peninsula has pushed baboons into increasingly marginal natural habitat while simultaneously providing them with predictable and easily accessible food sources in human-modified habitats. The resultant spatial competition between humans and baboons explains the high levels of human-baboon conflict and further erosion of the remaining land fragments is predicted to exacerbate competition. This study demonstrates how the quantification of animal landscape requirements can provide a mechanism for identifying priority conservation areas at the human-wildlife interface.

  16. Stabilization process of human population: a descriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, A K; Krotki, K J

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to inquire into the process of stabilization of a human population. The same age distribution distorted by past variations in fertility is subjected to several fixed schedules of fertility. The schedules are different from each other monotonically over a narrow range. The primary concern is with the process, almost year by year, through which the populations become stable. There is particular interest in the differential impact in the same original age distribution of the narrowly different fixed fertility schedules. The exercise is prepared in 3 stages: general background of the process of stabilization; methodology and data used; and analysis and discussion of the stabilization process. Among the several approaches through which the analysis of stable population is possible, 2 are popular: the integral equation and the projection matrix. In this presentation the interest is in evaluating the effects of fertility on the stabilization process of a population. Therefore, only 1 initial age distribution and only 1 life table but a variety of narrowly different schedules of fertility have been used. Specifically, the U.S. 1963 female population is treated as the initial population. The process of stabilization is viewed in the light of the changes in the slopes between 2 successive age groups of an age distribution. A high fertility schedule with the given initial age distribution and mortality level overcomes the oscillations more quickly than the low fertility schedule. Simulation confirms the intuitively expected positive relationship between the mean of the slope and the level of fertility. The variance of the slope distribution is an indicator of the aging of the distribution.

  17. Human Population Decline in North America during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. G.; Goodyear, A. C.; Stafford, T. W., Jr.; Kennett, J.; West, A.

    2009-12-01

    There is ongoing debate about a possible human population decline or contraction at the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) at 12.9 ka. We used two methods to test whether the YD affected human population levels: (1) frequency analyses of Paleoindian projectile points, and (2) summed probability analyses of radiocarbon (14C) dates. The results suggest that a significant decline or reorganization of human populations occurred at 12.9 ka, continued through the initial centuries of the YD chronozone, then rebounded by the end of the YD. FREQUENCY ANALYSES: This method employed projectile point data from the Paleoindian Database of the Americas (PIDBA, http://pidba.utk.edu). We tallied diagnostic projectile points and obtained larger totals for Clovis points than for immediately post-Clovis points, which share an instrument-assisted fluting technique, typically using pressure or indirect percussion. Gainey, Vail, Debert, Redstone, and Cumberland point-styles utilized this method and are comparable to the Folsom style. For the SE U.S., the ratio of Clovis points (n=1993) to post-Clovis points (n=947) reveals a point decline of 52%. For the Great Plains, a comparison of Clovis and fluted points (n=4020) to Folsom points (n=2527) shows a point decline of 37%, which may translate into a population contraction of similar magnitude. In addition, eight major Clovis lithic quarry sites in the SE U.S. exhibit little to no evidence for immediate post-Clovis occupations, implying a major population decline. SUMMED PROBABILITIES: This method involved calibrating relevant 14C dates and combining the probabilities, after which major peaks and troughs in the trends are assumed to reflect changes in human demographics. Using 14C dates from Buchanan et al. (2008), we analyzed multiple regions, including the Southeast and Great Plains. Contrary to Buchanan et al., we found an abrupt, statistically significant decline at 12.9 ka, followed 200 to 900 years later by a rebound in the number of

  18. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Rapid Prototyped Three-Dimensional Hydroxyapatite/Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canciani, Elena; Dellavia, Claudia; Ferreira, Lorena Maria; Giannasi, Chiara; Carmagnola, Daniela; Carrassi, Antonio; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2016-05-01

    In the study, we assess a rapid prototyped scaffold composed of 30/70 hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP) loaded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to determine cell proliferation, differentiation toward osteogenic lineage, adhesion and penetration on/into the scaffold.In this in vitro study, hASCs isolated from fat tissue discarded after plastic surgery were expanded, characterized, and then loaded onto the scaffold. Cells were tested for: viability assay (Alamar Blue at days 3, 7 and Live/Dead at day 32), differentiation index (alkaline phosphatase activity at day 14), scaffold adhesion (standard error of the mean analysis at days 5 and 18), and penetration (ground sections at day 32).All the hASC populations displayed stemness markers and the ability to differentiate toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.Cellular vitality increased between 3 and 7 days, and no inhibitory effect by HA/β-TCP was observed. Under osteogenic stimuli, scaffold increased alkaline phosphatase activity of +243% compared with undifferentiated samples. Human adipose-derived stem cells adhered on HA/β-TCP surface through citoplasmatic extensions that occupied the macropores and built networks among them. Human adipose derived stem cells were observed in the core of HA/β-TCP. The current combination of hASCs and HA/β-TCP scaffold provided encouraging results. If authors' data will be confirmed in preclinical models, the present engineering approach could represent an interesting tool in treating large bone defects.

  19. History of Smallpox and Its Spread in Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thèves, Catherine; Crubézy, Eric; Biagini, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns.Paleomicrobiology dedicated to variola virus is restricted to few studies, most unsuccessful, involving ancient material. Only one recent approach allowed the identification of viral DNA fragments from lung tissue of a 300-year-old body excavated from permafrost in Eastern Siberia; phylogenetic analysis revealed that this ancient strain was distinct from those described during the 20th century.

  20. Detection and monitoring of human bocavirus 1 infection by a new rapid antigen test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.L. Bruning

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically relevant diagnosis of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1 is challenging, as the virus is frequently detected in asymptomatic patients, and cofindings with other respiratory viruses are common. The clinical value of current diagnostic methods, such as PCR, is therefore low, and alternative diagnostic strategies are needed. We describe for the first time the use of an antigen detection assay for the rapid identification of HBoV1 in a paediatric patient with respiratory tract infection symptoms. We estimate the duration of active HBoV1 infection to be 6 days.

  1. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT2 receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of AT2 receptors in mitochondria and their role in NO generation and cell aging were recently demonstrated in various human and mouse non-tumour cells. We investigated the intracellular distribution of AT2 receptors including their presence in mitochondria and the role in the induction...... agonist, Compound 21 (C21) penetrates the cell membrane of quiescent SK-UT-1 cells, activates intracellular AT2 receptors and induces rapid cell death; approximately 70% of cells died within 24 h. The cells, which escaped from the cell death, displayed activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, i...

  2. Flow induced dispersion analysis rapidly quantifies proteins in human plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nicklas N; Andersen, Nina Z; Østergaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive quantification of protein based biomarkers and drugs is a substantial challenge in diagnostics and biopharmaceutical drug development. Current technologies, such as ELISA, are characterized by being slow (hours), requiring relatively large amounts of sample and being subject...... to cumbersome and expensive assay development. In this work a new approach for quantification based on changes in diffusivity is presented. The apparent diffusivity of an indicator molecule interacting with the protein of interest is determined by Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) in a hydrodynamic flow system...... in a blood plasma matrix), fully automated, and being subject to a simple assay development. FIDA is demonstrated for quantification of the protein Human Serum Albumin (HSA) in human plasma as well as for quantification of an antibody against HSA. The sensitivity of the FIDA assay depends on the indicator...

  3. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T B; Macdonald, David W; Packer, Craig

    2015-12-01

    We compiled all credible repeated lion surveys and present time series data for 47 lion (Panthera leo) populations. We used a Bayesian state space model to estimate growth rate-λ for each population and summed these into three regional sets to provide conservation-relevant estimates of trends since 1990. We found a striking geographical pattern: African lion populations are declining everywhere, except in four southern countries (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe). Population models indicate a 67% chance that lions in West and Central Africa decline by one-half, while estimating a 37% chance that lions in East Africa also decline by one-half over two decades. We recommend separate regional assessments of the lion in the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species: already recognized as critically endangered in West Africa, our analysis supports listing as regionally endangered in Central and East Africa and least concern in southern Africa. Almost all lion populations that historically exceeded ∼ 500 individuals are declining, but lion conservation is successful in southern Africa, in part because of the proliferation of reintroduced lions in small, fenced, intensively managed, and funded reserves. If management budgets for wild lands cannot keep pace with mounting levels of threat, the species may rely increasingly on these southern African areas and may no longer be a flagship species of the once vast natural ecosystems across the rest of the continent.

  4. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  5. Rapid kinetics of lysis in human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity: some implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.T.; Babbitt, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    The entire lytic process of natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity against sensitive target cells can occur rapidly, within minutes. This was demonstrated by 51 chromium release and in single-cell assays. At the cellular level, most of the target cell lysis occurred within 15-30 min after binding to effector cells. The enriched natural killer cell subpopulation of lymphocytes obtained by Percoll density gradient centrifugation (containing greater than 70% large granular lymphocytes (LGL)) was the most rapidly lytic population by 51 chromium release. However, in the single-cell assay, the rate of lysis of bound target cells was quite similar for the LGL-enriched effector subpopulation and the higher density subpopulation of effector cells recognized previously. Both the light and dense effector cells contained similar numbers of target binding cells. Therefore, that the light subpopulation effected lysis more rapidly and to a greater extent than the dense subpopulation suggested that the low-density effector cells probably recycled more rapidly than those of higher density. This was corroborated by the finding that when conjugates were formed at 29 degrees C for the single-cell assay, a significant number of dead unconjugated targets could be observed only on the slides made with the LGL-enriched effector cells but not on those made with dense effector cell. Lysis continued to increase in the chromium-release assay probably because of recycling, recruitment, and/or heterogeneity of the effector cells, and/or because of heterogeneity or delayed death of the target cells

  6. Characterization of rapid recovery from γ-ray damage in plateau-phase human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Tomkinson, K.N.; Little, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid recovery was investigated in density-inhibited, stationary-phase human diploid cells subcultured to low density at various times after a single dose of radiation. The influence of total dose, postirradiation temperature, and cell-to-cell contact on recovery was examined. The cultures were exposed to 60 Co γ rays at a dose rate of 50 rad per second. When the irradiation and postirradiation temperatures were maintained at 25 or 37 0 C, recovery, as manifested by an enhancement in survival, was similar during the first 30 min, whereas it was reduced at later times in the 25 0 C compared with the 37 0 C cultures. This result suggests the existence of different rapidly and slowly acting components to recovery. No recovery was noted at any time with incubation at 4 0 C. The recovery observed in density-inhibited cultures was consistently greater than that in less dense cultures, suggesting an effect of cell-to-cell contact and cell cycle distribution. Following single doses of 200 to 900 rad, progressive enhancement in relative recovery occurred with increasing doses over a period of 2 to 90 min, illustrating the importance of the relationship of the dose to the rapid recovery process

  7. Rapid alterations of cell cycle control proteins in human T lymphocytes in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel Cora S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In our study we aimed to identify rapidly reacting gravity-responsive mechanisms in mammalian cells in order to understand if and how altered gravity is translated into a cellular response. In a combination of experiments using "functional weightlessness" provided by 2D-clinostats and real microgravity provided by several parabolic flight campaigns and compared to in-flight-1g-controls, we identified rapid gravity-responsive reactions inside the cell cycle regulatory machinery of human T lymphocytes. In response to 2D clinorotation, we detected an enhanced expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 protein within minutes, less cdc25C protein expression and enhanced Ser147-phosphorylation of cyclinB1 after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Additionally, during 2D clinorotation, Tyr-15-phosphorylation occurred later and was shorter than in the 1 g controls. In CD3/CD28-stimulated primary human T cells, mRNA expression of the cell cycle arrest protein p21 increased 4.1-fold after 20s real microgravity in primary CD4+ T cells and 2.9-fold in Jurkat T cells, compared to 1 g in-flight controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor curcumin was able to abrogate microgravity-induced p21 mRNA expression, whereas expression was enhanced by a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Therefore, we suppose that cell cycle progression in human T lymphocytes requires Earth gravity and that the disturbed expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins could contribute to the breakdown of the human immune system in space.

  8. Epidemiology of human leukocyte antigens among omani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, Issa; Metry, Abdul Massiah; Al Ismaili, Faisal; Hola, Alan; Shaheen, Faissal; Fakhoury, Hana; Hannawi, Suad

    2017-01-01

    Oman is located on the Southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and its population has high levels of consanguinity. Human leukocytic antigen (HLA) typing analysis in human population holds unexploited potential for elucidating the genetic causes of human disease and possibly leads to personalized medicine. This is a retrospective, descriptive study evaluating HLA frequencies of Omani individuals who underwent workup for kidney transplantation at the Royal Hospital (RH) from 2005 to 2016. Data on 870 subjects were collected from the Oman kidney transplant registry at RH as well from electronic medical record system. The mean age (standard deviation) years for the cohort were 33.2 (13.0). Males constituted 56.3% (490) while females constituted 43.7% (380). Seven HLA-A alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total alleles. Of which, HLA-A2 contributed the highest frequency (24%), followed by HLA A11 (9.4%), and A32 (8.1%). Ten alleles accounted for 70% of HLA-B alleles. Of which, HLA-B51 was the most common (18.9%), followed by HLA-B-35 (13.6%), and HLA-B8 (7.9%). Seven HLA-DRB1 alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total HLA DRB1 alleles, of which HLA- DRB1*16 contributed the highest frequency (29.56%). This was followed by HLA-DRB1*03 (14.57%) and HLA-DRB1*11 (9.48%). While three alleles accounted for more than 75% of the total HLA DQB1alleles. Of which, HLA-DQB1*05 contributed the highest frequency (37.56%). This was followed by allele HLA-DQB1*02 (26.48%) and HLA-DQB1*03 (17.18%). This study showed considerable heterogeneity in both HLA Class I and Class II antigens, which reflects admixture of our population with rest of old world countries. Despite the high levels of consanguinity, this population is genetically highly heterogeneous. These findings may be useful for transplantation programs, noncommunicable diseases, epidemiology of HLA linked diseases, pharmacogenomics, and anthropology.

  9. Epidemiology of human leukocyte antigens among omani population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Al Salmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oman is located on the Southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and its population has high levels of consanguinity. Human leukocytic antigen (HLA typing analysis in human population holds unexploited potential for elucidating the genetic causes of human disease and possibly leads to personalized medicine. This is a retrospective, descriptive study evaluating HLA frequencies of Omani individuals who underwent workup for kidney transplantation at the Royal Hospital (RH from 2005 to 2016. Data on 870 subjects were collected from the Oman kidney transplant registry at RH as well from electronic medical record system. The mean age (standard deviation years for the cohort were 33.2 (13.0. Males constituted 56.3% (490 while females constituted 43.7% (380. Seven HLA-A alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total alleles. Of which, HLA-A2 contributed the highest frequency (24%, followed by HLA A11 (9.4%, and A32 (8.1%. Ten alleles accounted for 70% of HLA-B alleles. Of which, HLA-B51 was the most common (18.9%, followed by HLA-B-35 (13.6%, and HLA-B8 (7.9%. Seven HLA-DRB1 alleles accounted for more than 70% of the total HLA DRB1 alleles, of which HLA- DRB1*16 contributed the highest frequency (29.56%. This was followed by HLA-DRB1*03 (14.57% and HLA-DRB1*11 (9.48%. While three alleles accounted for more than 75% of the total HLA DQB1alleles. Of which, HLA-DQB1*05 contributed the highest frequency (37.56%. This was followed by allele HLA-DQB1*02 (26.48% and HLA-DQB1*03 (17.18%. This study showed considerable heterogeneity in both HLA Class I and Class II antigens, which reflects admixture of our population with rest of old world countries. Despite the high levels of consanguinity, this population is genetically highly heterogeneous. These findings may be useful for transplantation programs, noncommunicable diseases, epidemiology of HLA linked diseases, pharmacogenomics, and anthropology.

  10. The development of old age human resource under the background of population ageing in china

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xin; Xu, Jian-pei

    2007-01-01

    China is the country that has the most population in quantity of the world. Rapidly growing population has brought about enormous pressure on the social and economic development. Thus population control is always one of the population policies focuses in our country. However, China has not succeed in escaping out from the pressure of population control, another challenge-population ageing is coming. This challenge also can bring the great impact on the whole social and economic development. M...

  11. The Philippine Parliamentarians Conference on Human Survival, Population and Development. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Proceedings of the 1st Philippine Parliamentarians' Conference on Human Survival, Population and Development (PARLCON '88) are summarized in this report. Conference participants included the House and Senate, government officials, representatives of nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, the diplomatic corps and the media. A message from the President was read, referring the "silent emergency" of malnutrition and infant mortality of over 100,000 yearly. The events taking place were a statement of objectives, a Senate Resolution welcoming the convening of the conference, an opening ceremony, a posthumous award to R. M. Sales, executive director of the UNFPA, and a final a plan of action. Much of the content of the above events was duplicated in the final plan, which was formulated in 17 points. Some of these key points were: recognition of the need for quality of life, the detrimental effect of rapid population growth on development, the right of spouses to plan family size within their ethical beliefs, and the need for political will to address development concerns. The conference recommended that parliament and local governments strive for a consensus on national policy regarding population; ensure that economic gains are not decimated by population growth, protect the environment, develop social and industrial infrastructure in outlying areas, pursue national self-reliance, promote the human right of choosing desired family size, endorse the small family norm, empower women by educational and income generating opportunities, gather national data on population, strengthen the Population Commission, support nongovernmental agencies that provide family planning services, and promote education on family planning.

  12. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management.

  13. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomonitoring a human population inhabiting nearby a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, J.; Pereira, R.; Pinto, F.; Caetano, T.; Silva, A.; Carvalheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human population environmentally exposed to uranium mining wastes. ► Significantly higher levels of manganese and uranium in peripheral blood samples. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts in exposed individuals. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas. - Abstract: Environmental exposure to uranium and its daughter radionuclides, has been linked to several negative effects such as those related with important physiological processes, like hematopoiesis, and may also be associated with genotoxicity effects. Herein, genotoxic effects, immunotoxicity, trace elements and C reactive protein (CRP) analyses, were performed in peripheral blood samples collected from individuals of a population living near a deactivated uranium mine. C reactive protein analysis was performed to exclude candidates with active inflammatory processes from further evaluations. DNA damage and immunotoxicity (immunophenotyping and immune cell counts) were evaluated by comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Significant DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood samples from volunteers living in the Cunha Baixa village. A significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts were observed in the individuals from the Cunha Baixa village, when compared with individuals from the reference site. Uranium and manganese levels were significantly higher in the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants. On the other hand, zinc levels were significantly lower in those individuals when compared with the volunteers from the control village. Results suggest that inhabitants from Cunha Baixa have a higher risk of suffering from serious diseases such as cancer, since high DNA damages were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes and also decreased levels of NK and T cells, which play an essential role in the defense against tumor growth

  15. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km{sup 2} near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the

  16. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km 2 near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the parish has been

  17. Human Mobility Analysis for Extracting Local Interactions under Rapid Socio-Economic Transformation in Dawei, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Kimijima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides knowledge about impacts of a socio-economic transformation in a rapidly urbanizing environment. This study assesses a long-term mobility data which uses a face-to-face questionnaire and GPS logger-based method of data collection for extracting socio-economic impacts from the rapid transformation. Conversion of mobility related information such as travel distance, direction, and time from the questionnaire survey into spatiotemporal information was carried out by developing an algorithm. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study in Dawei Special Economic Zone, Myanmar was conducted. The results show that the questionnaire-based mobility data can be associated with GPS-based mobility data and diverse mobility patterns are found for different social groups in the stage of urban formation. The results enabled an understanding of the human dynamics in interactions, which can be used for monitoring rural sustainability and its challenges in the future with the background of the accelerated project development in the area.

  18. A bottom-up model of spatial attention predicts human error patterns in rapid scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Mundhenk, T Nathan; Baldi, Pierre; Koch, Christof; Itti, Laurent

    2007-07-20

    Humans demonstrate a peculiar ability to detect complex targets in rapidly presented natural scenes. Recent studies suggest that (nearly) no focal attention is required for overall performance in such tasks. Little is known, however, of how detection performance varies from trial to trial and which stages in the processing hierarchy limit performance: bottom-up visual processing (attentional selection and/or recognition) or top-down factors (e.g., decision-making, memory, or alertness fluctuations)? To investigate the relative contribution of these factors, eight human observers performed an animal detection task in natural scenes presented at 20 Hz. Trial-by-trial performance was highly consistent across observers, far exceeding the prediction of independent errors. This consistency demonstrates that performance is not primarily limited by idiosyncratic factors but by visual processing. Two statistical stimulus properties, contrast variation in the target image and the information-theoretical measure of "surprise" in adjacent images, predict performance on a trial-by-trial basis. These measures are tightly related to spatial attention, demonstrating that spatial attention and rapid target detection share common mechanisms. To isolate the causal contribution of the surprise measure, eight additional observers performed the animal detection task in sequences that were reordered versions of those all subjects had correctly recognized in the first experiment. Reordering increased surprise before and/or after the target while keeping the target and distractors themselves unchanged. Surprise enhancement impaired target detection in all observers. Consequently, and contrary to several previously published findings, our results demonstrate that attentional limitations, rather than target recognition alone, affect the detection of targets in rapidly presented visual sequences.

  19. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline; Fumagalli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyperlipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and sho...

  20. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  1. Assessing radiologic risk for population due to human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Al.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Hirica, O.

    2002-01-01

    The most important factor in assessing radiologic risk is ensuring scientific means for evaluation of the radioactive release impact upon humans and organisms. To evaluate quantitatively this impact not only knowledge of radioactivity distribution in these dynamical systems is necessary but also understanding the transfer mechanisms between ecosystem components is needed. Thus a complete radioecologic study appear to be very complex and needs defining the source term, dynamic description of radionuclides behavior in the ecosystem, estimation of radiation doses in the major components of the ecosystem and finally the effects of radiation doses upon different parts of the systems. A diagram of the steps implied in evaluation of the effects due to radioactive effluent release in the environment is presented and discussed. The following steps are described: - identification of radioactive sources, as well as their input rate. Presence of noxious materials such as heavy metals or some organic compounds should be taken into account to assess the synergetic or antagonistic interactions; - determination of space-time distribution of release radionuclides; - estimation of dose rates and radiation exposure of population; - estimation of radiation dose effects upon individuals, population and ecosystems. This fourth step implies: experimental field or laboratory studies to determine the somatic/genetic response to radiation as a function of the exposure dose; following-up and interpretation of the organism response to dose or dose rates in terms of radiation-induce changes in the population life cycles; forecasting the irradiation effects upon population or communities within environment. Finally, this evaluation is completed by the decision making process implying a society acceptance of the forecast and/or observed effects

  2. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study - Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearse A Keane

    Full Text Available To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness.In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available "spectral domain" OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon. Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL. This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion.67,321 participants (134,642 eyes in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days.We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging.

  3. Metabolomics applied to diabetes-lessons from human population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggi, Sonia; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-12-01

    The 'classical' distribution of type 2 diabetes (T2D) across the globe is rapidly changing and it is no longer predominantly a disease of middle-aged/elderly adults of western countries, but it is becoming more common through Asia and the Middle East, as well as increasingly found in younger individuals. This global altered incidence of T2D is most likely associated with the spread of western diets and sedentary lifestyles, although there is still much debate as to whether the increased incidence rates are due to an overconsumption of fats, sugars or more generally high-calorie foods. In this context, understanding the interactions between genes of risk and diet and how they influence the incidence of T2D will help define the causative pathways of the disease. This review focuses on the use of metabolomics in large cohort studies to follow the incidence of type 2 diabetes in different populations. Such approaches have been used to identify new biomarkers of pre-diabetes, such as branch chain amino acids, and associate metabolomic profiles with genes of known risk in T2D from large scale GWAS studies. As the field develops, there are also examples of meta-analysis across metabolomics cohort studies and cross-comparisons with different populations to allow us to understand how genes and diet contribute to disease risk. Such approaches demonstrate that insulin resistance and T2D have far reaching metabolic effects beyond raised blood glucose and how the disease impacts systemic metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of travel restrictions in the rapid containment of human influenza: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Ana LP; Otete, Harmony E; Beck, Charles R; Dolan, Gayle P; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of internal and international travel restrictions in the rapid containment of influenza. Methods We conducted a systematic review according to the requirements of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Health-care databases and grey literature were searched and screened for records published before May 2014. Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were undertaken by two researchers independently. Results were synthesized in a narrative form. Findings The overall risk of bias in the 23 included studies was low to moderate. Internal travel restrictions and international border restrictions delayed the spread of influenza epidemics by one week and two months, respectively. International travel restrictions delayed the spread and peak of epidemics by periods varying between a few days and four months. Travel restrictions reduced the incidence of new cases by less than 3%. Impact was reduced when restrictions were implemented more than six weeks after the notification of epidemics or when the level of transmissibility was high. Travel restrictions would have minimal impact in urban centres with dense populations and travel networks. We found no evidence that travel restrictions would contain influenza within a defined geographical area. Conclusion Extensive travel restrictions may delay the dissemination of influenza but cannot prevent it. The evidence does not support travel restrictions as an isolated intervention for the rapid containment of influenza. Travel restrictions would make an extremely limited contribution to any policy for rapid containment of influenza at source during the first emergence of a pandemic virus. PMID:25552771

  5. Rapid determination of human globin chains using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jun-Hui; Tian, Pei-Ling; Luo, Wei-Hao; Wu, Bing-Yi; Xiong, Fu; Zhou, Wan-Jun; Wei, Xiang-Cai; Xu, Xiang-Min

    2012-07-15

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of human globin chains is an important tool for detecting thalassemias and hemoglobin variants. The challenges of this method that limit its clinical application are a long analytical time and complex sample preparation. The aim of this study was to establish a simple, rapid and high-resolution RP-HPLC method for the separation of globin chains in human blood. Red blood cells from newborns and adults were diluted in deionized water and injected directly onto a micro-jupiter C18 reversed-phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm) with UV detection at 280 nm. Under the conditions of varying pH or the HPLC gradient, the globin chains (pre-β, β, δ, α, (G)γ and (A)γ) were denatured and separated from the heme groups in 12 min with a retention time coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 0.11 to 1.29% and a peak area CV between 0.32% and 4.86%. Significant differences (P<0.05) among three groups (normal, Hb H and β thalassemia) were found in the area ratio of α/pre-β+β applying the rapid elution procedure, while P≥0.05 was obtained between the normal and α thalassemia silent/trait group. Based on the ANOVA results, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the δ/β and α/pre-β+β area ratios showed a sensitivity of 100.0%, and a specificity of 100.0% for indicating β thalassemia carriers, and a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.6% for the prediction of hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease. The proposed cut-off was 0.026 of δ/β for β thalassemia carriers and 0.626 of α/pre-β+β for Hb H disease. In addition, abnormal hemoglobin hemoglobin E (Hb E) and Hb Westmead (Hb WS) were successfully identified using this RP-HPLC method. Our experience in developing this RP-HPLC method for the rapid separation of human globin chains could be of use for similar work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A rapid and efficient DNA extraction protocol from fresh and frozen human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Pokhraj; Das, Avishek; Dutta, Somit; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Different methods available for extraction of human genomic DNA suffer from one or more drawbacks including low yield, compromised quality, cost, time consumption, use of toxic organic solvents, and many more. Herein, we aimed to develop a method to extract DNA from 500 μL of fresh or frozen human blood. Five hundred microliters of fresh and frozen human blood samples were used for standardization of the extraction procedure. Absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, respectively, (A 260 /A 280 ) were estimated to check the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA sample. Qualitative assessment of the extracted DNA was checked by Polymerase Chain reaction and double digestion of the DNA sample. Our protocol resulted in average yield of 22±2.97 μg and 20.5±3.97 μg from 500 μL of fresh and frozen blood, respectively, which were comparable to many reference protocols and kits. Besides yielding bulk amount of DNA, our protocol is rapid, economical, and avoids toxic organic solvents such as Phenol. Due to unaffected quality, the DNA is suitable for downstream applications. The protocol may also be useful for pursuing basic molecular researches in laboratories having limited funds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2006-09-05

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality. Differential gender mortality has been a documented problem for decades and led to reports in the early 1990s of 100 million "missing women" across the developing world. Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mid-1980s. Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone. The large cohorts of "surplus" males now reaching adulthood are predominantly of low socioeconomic class, and concerns have been expressed that their lack of marriageability, and consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and violence, threatening societal stability and security. Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance.

  8. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km 2 near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km 2 , three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The demography statistics show

  9. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km{sup 2} near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km{sup 2}, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The

  10. Interactions with human nutrition and other indices of population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The contamination of food is an important pathway involved in the internal combination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the amount of a certain food consumed. Semi-natural and natural ecosystems are of special interest in this content because they can provide critical pathways for radionuclide transfer to humans, and they can also act as temporary sinks or long-term sources for radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere. From the viewpoint of population health, another important role is played by the countermeasures. The reference values commonly adopted in radiation protection are conservative and they have been established for planning practices that could provide future sources of irradiation. After a large release of radionuclides, the evaluation of the problem must be as realistic as possible, otherwise the countermeasures will imply consequences worse than those produced by the accident itself (without any further intervention). This criterion was clearly stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but it was frequently neglected after the Chernobyl accident. The results of a survey on the number of induced abortions following this incident are reported. These suggest that moral and ethical problems are involved above and beyond any economical implications. (Author)

  11. Cross-population myelination covariance of human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Nanyin

    2017-09-01

    Cross-population covariance of brain morphometric quantities provides a measure of interareal connectivity, as it is believed to be determined by the coordinated neurodevelopment of connected brain regions. Although useful, structural covariance analysis predominantly employed bulky morphological measures with mixed compartments, whereas studies of the structural covariance of any specific subdivisions such as myelin are rare. Characterizing myelination covariance is of interest, as it will reveal connectivity patterns determined by coordinated development of myeloarchitecture between brain regions. Using myelin content MRI maps from the Human Connectome Project, here we showed that the cortical myelination covariance was highly reproducible, and exhibited a brain organization similar to that previously revealed by other connectivity measures. Additionally, the myelination covariance network shared common topological features of human brain networks such as small-worldness. Furthermore, we found that the correlation between myelination covariance and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was uniform within each resting-state network (RSN), but could considerably vary across RSNs. Interestingly, this myelination covariance-RSFC correlation was appreciably stronger in sensory and motor networks than cognitive and polymodal association networks, possibly due to their different circuitry structures. This study has established a new brain connectivity measure specifically related to axons, and this measure can be valuable to investigating coordinated myeloarchitecture development. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4730-4743, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; DeVitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

    2011-04-01

    Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

  13. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire. PMID:26961705

  14. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin

    2016-03-10

    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire.

  15. New learning following reactivation in the human brain: targeting emotional memories through rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of three commercial rapid tests for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Baki, A; Kamarudin, R

    2003-08-01

    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.

  17. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Tiansheng; Yin, Xiao; Zhang, Chengling; Chen, Jia; Tian, Yanping; Liu, Jinliang

    2017-08-29

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be classified to five phylogenetic lineages, basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and Orchis. To understand the genetic structure of TuMV from radish in China, the 3'-terminal genome of 90 TuMV isolates were determined and analyzed with other available Chinese isolates. The results showed that the Chinese TuMV isolates from radish formed three groups: Asian-BR, basal-BR and world-B. More than half of these isolates (52.54%) were clustered to basal-BR group, and could be further divided into three sub-groups. The TuMV basal-BR isolates in the sub-groups I and II were genetically homologous with Japanese ones, while those in sub-group III formed a distinct lineage. Sub-populations of TuMV basal-BR II and III were new emergent and in a state of expansion. The Chinese TuMV radish populations were under negative selection. Gene flow between TuMV populations from Tai'an, Weifang and Changchun was frequent. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

  18. Rapid detection of human infections with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kison, P.V.; Russo, J.E.; Zasadny, K.R.; Braun, D.K.; Wahl, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) for rapid detection of human infections. Eleven patients who were known or suspected to be harboring various infections were studied with FDG-PET. Dynamic scans over the putative infection sites were performed immediately after FDG (370 MBq) injection through 60 min, and static images including multiple projection images were then obtained. FDG uptake was assessed visually into four grades (0, normal; 1, probably normal; 2, probably abnormal; 3, definitely abnormal). For the semiquantitative index of FDG uptake in infections, the standardized uptake value of FDG normalized to the predicted lean body mass (SUV-lean, SUL) was determined from the images obtained at 50-60 min after FDG injection. PET results were compared with final clinical diagnoses. Eleven lesions in eight patients, which were interpreted as grade 2 or 3 by FDG-PET, were all concordant with active infectious foci. The SUL values of infections ranged from 0.97 to 6.69. In two patients, FDG-PET correctly showed no active infection. In one patient, it was difficult to detect infectious foci by FDG-PET due to substantial normal background uptake of FDG. In total, FDG-PET correctly diagnosed the presence or absence of active infection in 10 of 11 patients. Fusion images of PET with computed tomography showed the most intense FDG uptake to be within an abscess wall. In conclusion, FDG-PET appears to be a promising modality for rapid imaging of active human infections. More extensive clinical evaluation is warranted to determine the accuracy of this method. (orig.)

  19. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  20. Rapid growth and genetic diversity retention in an isolated reintroduced black bear population in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M.; Cox, John J.; Clark, Joseph D.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Hast, John T.; Gibbs, Dan; Strunk, Michael; Dobey, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Animal reintroductions are important tools of wildlife management to restore species to their historical range, and they can also create unique opportunities to study population dynamics and genetics from founder events. We used non-invasive hair sampling in a systematic, closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study design at the Big South Fork (BSF) area in Kentucky during 2010 and Tennessee during 2012 to estimate the demographic and genetic characteristics of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population that resulted from a reintroduced founding population of 18 bears in 1998. We estimated 38 (95% CI: 31–66) and 190 (95% CI: 170–219) bears on the Kentucky and Tennessee study areas, respectively. Based on the Tennessee abundance estimate alone, the mean annual growth rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 17.4–19.5%) from 1998 to 2012. We also compared the genetic characteristics of bears sampled during 2010–2012 to bears in the population during 2000–2002, 2–4 years following reintroduction, and to the source population. We found that the level of genetic diversity since reintroduction as indicated by expected heterozygosity (HE) remained relatively constant (HE(source, 2004) = 0.763, HE(BSF, 2000–2002) = 0.729, HE(BSF, 2010–2012) = 0.712) and the effective number of breeders (NB) remained low but had increased since reintroduction in the absence of sufficient immigration (NB(BSF, 2000–2002) = 12, NB(BSF, 2010–2012)  = 35). This bear population appears to be genetically isolated, but contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of genetic diversity loss or other deleterious genetic effects typically observed from small founder groups. We attribute that to high initial genetic diversity in the founder group combined with overlapping generations and rapid population growth. Although the population remains relatively small, the reintroduction using a small founder group appears to be demographically and genetically

  1. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective nonlethal population control method but is limited in scope due to expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. Method of study This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Results Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. Conclusion The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multi-year contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats. PMID:21501281

  2. How we learn to make decisions: rapid propagation of reinforcement learning prediction errors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigolson, Olav E; Hassall, Cameron D; Handy, Todd C

    2014-03-01

    Our ability to make decisions is predicated upon our knowledge of the outcomes of the actions available to us. Reinforcement learning theory posits that actions followed by a reward or punishment acquire value through the computation of prediction errors-discrepancies between the predicted and the actual reward. A multitude of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that rewards and punishments evoke neural responses that appear to reflect reinforcement learning prediction errors [e.g., Krigolson, O. E., Pierce, L. J., Holroyd, C. B., & Tanaka, J. W. Learning to become an expert: Reinforcement learning and the acquisition of perceptual expertise. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1833-1840, 2009; Bayer, H. M., & Glimcher, P. W. Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal. Neuron, 47, 129-141, 2005; O'Doherty, J. P. Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 769-776, 2004; Holroyd, C. B., & Coles, M. G. H. The neural basis of human error processing: Reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 109, 679-709, 2002]. Here, we used the brain ERP technique to demonstrate that not only do rewards elicit a neural response akin to a prediction error but also that this signal rapidly diminished and propagated to the time of choice presentation with learning. Specifically, in a simple, learnable gambling task, we show that novel rewards elicited a feedback error-related negativity that rapidly decreased in amplitude with learning. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of a reward positivity at choice presentation, a previously unreported ERP component that has a similar timing and topography as the feedback error-related negativity that increased in amplitude with learning. The pattern of results we observed mirrored the output of a computational model that we implemented to compute reward

  3. 21 century perspective in radiation protection of humans and human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 21 century ionizing radiation is applied in all field of human activities. In parallel, the radiobiology and radiation medicine are developing as separate branches for the purposes of the radiation protection: for risk estimation and regulation of the human irradiation. Main features of radiation protection at the beginning of the century are: 1.Well developed conservative theoretical background, based on the linear non-threshold concept 'dose-effect' towards the carcinogenesis and genetic effects; 2. Developed international and national structures, including organizations as ICRP, UNSCEAR, ICRU, IAEA, WHO, FAO, BEIR, OECD/NEA, ILO, NCRP, NRPB etc. 3. Detailed regulative legislation for all cases of human irradiation, combines with effective control structures. Ionizing radiation is the most strictly regulated factor affecting humans among the all adverse impacts of the living environment. The expectations for the radiation protection in 21 century are: 1. A radical reassessment of the concept for low doses and the linear non-threshold concept since data for existing of a threshold on the human population level. 2. Taking into consideration of the the adaptation to the irradiation, comparable with the natural radiation background. 3. Taking into consideration of the radiation hormesis, which are now ignored by the risk theory. 4. Clarification of the questions of the genetic effects, which are not yet determined for the human population. 5. Radical solutions of the radioactive waste problem, which will be crucial for the future of the nuclear energy production. 6. Gradual overcoming of the fear from ionizing radiation, which is an important social factor

  4. Human papilloma virus prevalence in a multiethnic screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K; Ghanem, Tamer; Stachler, Robert; Gardner, Glendon; Jones, Lamont; Schweitzer, Vanessa P; Hall, Francis; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J

    2013-03-01

    The goal was to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV16 using saliva in a screening population in Detroit, Michigan. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect HPV16 in saliva DNA from 349 screening subjects without head and neck cancer (HNC), 156 with HNC, and 19 controls. Cut points for human papilloma virus (HPV) positivity were >0 and >0.001 copy/cell. Proportions were compared between groups using exact χ(2) or Fisher exact tests (P 0, each group had an overall HPV prevalence of more than 5%, with a higher prevalence of 30.8% in the HNC patient group. At a cut point >0.001, the prevalence was lower: 0% in the control, 1.2% in the screening, and 16.7% in the HNC group. In the latter, for both cut points, HPV prevalence was different across sites (0, women in the screening group had a higher prevalence of HPV than did men (P = .010), and at >0.001, the prevalence was higher for men in the HNC group than for women (P = .035). In the screening group, at >0, only African Americans had a higher prevalence than Caucasian Americans (P = .025). In the screening group, a 6.9% and 1.2% screening rate was noted at cut points >0 and >0.001, respectively. The results provide data to inform public health considerations of the feasibility of saliva as a screening tool in at-risk populations with the long-term goal of prophylactic vaccination against oral HPV.

  5. Incidence and related factors of traffic accidents among the older population in a rapidly aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kimyong; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Jang, Soong-nang

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of traffic accidents and find related factors among the older population. We used the cross-sectional data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS), which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 and completed by 680,202 adults aged 19 years or more. And we used individuals aged 60 years or above (n=210,914). The incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as number of traffic accidents experienced per thousand per year by a number of factors including age, sex, residential area, education, employment status, and diagnosis with chronic diseases. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each potential risk factor adjusted for the others. Incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as 11.74/1,000 per year for men, and 7.65/1,000 per year for women. It tended to decline as age increased among women; compared to the youngest old age group (60-64), the older old groups (70-74 and 80+) were at lower risk for traffic accidents. Depressive symptom was the strongest predictor for both men (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.28-2.61) and women (1.70, 1.23-2.35). Risk of traffic accident was greater in employed men (1.76, 1.40-2.22) and women diagnosis with arthritis (1.36, 1.06-1.75). Given that the incidence of and factors associated with traffic accidents differ between men and women, preventive strategies, such as driver education and traffic safety counseling for older adults, should be modified in accordance with these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human population growth offsets climate-driven increase in woody vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martin; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Peñuelas, Josep; Tian, Feng; Schurgers, Guy; Verger, Aleixandre; Mertz, Ole; Palmer, John R B; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-03-06

    The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody vegetation. There is thus an incomplete understanding of how woody vegetation responds to socio-economic and environmental change. Here we used a passive microwave Earth observation data set to document two different trends in land area with woody cover for 1992-2011: 36% of the land area (6,870,000 km 2 ) had an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km 2 ), mostly in humid zones. Increases in woody cover were associated with low population growth, and were driven by increases in CO 2 in the humid zones and by increases in precipitation in drylands, whereas decreases in woody cover were associated with high population growth. The spatially distinct pattern of these opposing trends reflects, first, the natural response of vegetation to precipitation and atmospheric CO 2 , and second, deforestation in humid areas, minor in size but important for ecosystem services, such as biodiversity and carbon stocks. This nuanced picture of changes in woody cover challenges widely held views of a general and ongoing reduction of the woody vegetation in Africa.

  7. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  8. Rapid effects of phytoestrogens on human colonic smooth muscle are mediated by oestrogen receptor beta.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated consumption of dietary phytoestrogens with beneficial effects on colon, breast and prostate cancers. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms are responsible for anti-carcinogenic effects but, until now, the effect on human colon was assumed to be passive and remote. No direct effect on human colonic smooth muscle has previously been described. Institutional research board approval was granted. Histologically normal colon was obtained from the proximal resection margin of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended under 1g of tension in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After an equilibration period, tissues were exposed to diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER beta agonist) and 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT) (ER alpha agonist) or to the synthetic phytoestrogen compounds genistein (n=8), daidzein (n=8), fisetin (n=8) and quercetin (n=8) in the presence or absence of fulvestrant (oestrogen receptor antagonist). Mechanism of action was investigated by inhibition of downstream pathways. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce contractile activity. Tension was recorded isometrically. Phytoestrogens inhibit carbachol-induced colonic contractility. In keeping with a non-genomic, rapid onset direct action, the effect was within minutes, reversible and similar to previously described actions of 17 beta oestradiol. No effect was seen in the presence of fulvestrant indicating receptor modulation. While the DPN exerted inhibitory effects, PPT did not. The effect appears to be reliant on a p38\\/mitogen activated protein kinase mediated induction of nitric oxide production in colonic smooth muscle. The present data set provides the first description of a direct effect of genistein, daidzein, fisetin and quercetin on human colonic smooth muscle. The presence of ER in colonic smooth muscle has been functionally proven and the beta

  9. Rapid identification of emerging human-pathogenic Sporothrix species with rolling circle amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Messias Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix infections are emerging as an important human and animal threat among otherwise healthy patients, especially in Brazil and China. Correct identification of sporotrichosis agents is beneficial for epidemiological surveillance, enabling implementation of adequate public-health policies and guiding antifungal therapy. In areas of limited resources where sporotrichosis is endemic, high-throughput detection methods that are specific and sensitive are preferred over phenotypic methods that usually result in misidentification of closely related Sporothrix species. We sought to establish rolling circle amplification (RCA as a low-cost screening tool for species-specific identification of human-pathogenic Sporothrix. We developed six species-specific padlock probes targeting polymorphisms in the gene encoding calmodulin. BLAST-searches revealed candidate probes that were conserved intraspecifically; no significant homology with sequences from humans, mice, plants or microorganisms outside members of Sporothrix were found. The accuracy of our RCA-based assay was demonstrated through the specificity of probe-template binding to 25 S. brasiliensis, 58 S. schenckii, 5 S. globosa, 1 S. luriei, 4 S. mexicana, and 3 S. pallida samples. No cross reactivity between closely related species was evident in vitro, and padlock probes yielded 100% specificity and sensitivity down to 3 x 10 6 copies of the target sequence. RCA-based speciation matched identifications via phylogenetic analysis of the gene encoding calmodulin and the rDNA operon (kappa 1.0; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.0, supporting its use as a reliable alternative to DNA sequencing. This method is a powerful tool for rapid identification and specific detection of medically relevant Sporothrix, and due to its robustness has potential for ecological studies.

  10. Genotoxic thresholds, DNA repair, and susceptibility in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gareth J.S.; Zair, Zoulikha; Johnson, George E.; Doak, Shareen H.

    2010-01-01

    considered. In terms of industrial exposures to known mutagens, knowing the dose relationships and protective mechanisms involved, offers the possibility of screening workers for susceptibility to mutation through examining DNA repair gene polymorphisms. Hence, thresholds may exist for certain mutagens, but there will undoubtedly be human subpopulations who are more at risk from low dose exposures than others and who should not be exposed, if possible. By studying polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, susceptible individuals may be identified, and additional safety factors appropriately targeted to these populations.

  11. Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiwei; Yu Xinyuan; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an endocrine disruptor, can induce a variety of signaling events including the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. In this study, the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER) in these events was evaluated in three human breast caner cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. The Cd-induced signal activation patterns in the three cell lines mimicked those exhibited in response to 17β-estradiol. Specifically, treatment of MCF-7 cells, that express ERα, ERβ and GPR30, to 0.5-10 μM Cd for only 2.5 min resulted in transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cd also triggered a gradual increase and sustained activation of AKT during the 60 min treatment period. In SK-BR-3 cells, that express only GPR30, Cd also caused a transient activation of ERK1/2, but not of AKT. In contrast, in MDA-MB-231 cells, that express only ERβ, Cd was unable to cause rapid activation of either ERK1/2 or AKT. A transient phosphorylation of ERα was also observed within 2.5 min of Cd exposure in the MCF-7 cells. While the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, did not prevent the effect of Cd on these signals, specific siRNA against hERα significantly reduced Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2 and completely blocked the activation of AKT. It is concluded that Cd, like estradiol, can cause rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT and that these signaling events are mediated by possible interaction with membrane ERα and GPR30, but not ERβ

  12. The Charlie Sheen Effect on Rapid In-home Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Leas, Eric C; Caputi, Theodore L; Dredze, Mark; Althouse, Benjamin M; Noar, Seth M; Ayers, John W

    2017-07-01

    One in eight of the 1.2 million Americans living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unaware of their positive status, and untested individuals are responsible for most new infections. As a result, testing is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy and must be accelerated when opportunities are presented. Web searches for HIV spiked around actor Charlie Sheen's HIV-positive disclosure. However, it is unknown whether Sheen's disclosure impacted offline behaviors like HIV testing. The goal of this study was to determine if Sheen's HIV disclosure was a record-setting HIV prevention event and determine if Web searches presage increases in testing allowing for rapid detection and reaction in the future. Sales of OraQuick rapid in-home HIV test kits in the USA were monitored weekly from April 12, 2014, to April 16, 2016, alongside Web searches including the terms "test," "tests," or "testing" and "HIV" as accessed from Google Trends. Changes in OraQuick sales around Sheen's disclosure and prediction models using Web searches were assessed. OraQuick sales rose 95% (95% CI, 75-117; p sales than expected around Sheen's disclosure, surpassing World AIDS Day by a factor of about 7. Moreover, Web searches mirrored OraQuick sales trends (r = 0.79), demonstrating their ability to presage increases in testing. The "Charlie Sheen effect" represents an important opportunity for a public health response, and in the future, Web searches can be used to detect and act on more opportunities to foster prevention behaviors.

  13. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J

    2010-09-29

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  14. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Creel

    Full Text Available Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  15. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside.

  16. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice B. de Marques

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs in the world’s largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC are broken down into two main classes—strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil’s national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside.

  17. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world’s largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes—strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil’s national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  18. HIV rapid diagnostic testing by lay providers in a key population-led health service programme in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkanya, Rapeeporn; Pankam, Tippawan; Wolf, Shauna; Pattanachaiwit, Supanit; Jantarapakde, Jureeporn; Pengnongyang, Supabhorn; Thapwong, Prasopsuk; Udomjirasirichot, Apichat; Churattanakraisri, Yutthana; Prawepray, Nanthika; Paksornsit, Apiluk; Sitthipau, Thidadaow; Petchaithong, Sarayut; Jitsakulchaidejt, Raruay; Nookhai, Somboon; Lertpiriyasuwat, Cheewanan; Ongwandee, Sumet; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2018-01-01

    Introduction:  Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for HIV has a quick turn-around time, which increases the proportion of people testing who receive their result. HIV RDT in Thailand has traditionally been performed only by medical technologists (MTs), which is a barrier to its being scaled up. We evaluated the performance of HIV RDT conducted by trained lay providers who were members of, or worked closely with, a group of men who have sex with men (MSM) and with transgender women (TG) communities, and compared it to tests conducted by MTs. Methods:  Lay providers received a 3-day intensive training course on how to perform a finger-prick blood collection and an HIV RDT as part of the Key Population-led Health Services (KPLHS) programme among MSM and TG. All the samples were tested by lay providers using Alere Determine HIV 1/2. HIV-reactive samples were confirmed by DoubleCheckGold Ultra HIV 1&2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2. All HIV-positive and 10% of HIV-negative samples were re-tested by MTs using Serodia HIV 1/2. Results:  Of 1680 finger-prick blood samples collected and tested using HIV RDT by lay providers in six drop-in centres in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chonburi and Songkhla, 252 (15%) were HIV-positive. MTs re-tested these HIV-positive samples and 143 randomly selected HIV-negative samples with 100% concordant test results. Conclusion:  Lay providers in Thailand can be trained and empowered to perform HIV RDT as they were found to achieve comparable results in sample testing with MTs. Based on the task-shifting concept, this rapid HIV testing performed by lay providers as part of the KPLHS programme has great potential to enhance HIV prevention and treatment programmes among key at-risk populations.

  19. Epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human enterovirus 71 among Thai populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important pathogen caused large outbreaks in Asian-Pacific region with severe neurological complications and may lead to death in young children. Understanding of the etiological spectrum and epidemic changes of enterovirus and population’s immunity against EV71 are crucial for the implementation of future therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Results A total of 1,182 patients who presented with the symptoms of hand foot and mouth disease (67.3%) or herpangina (HA) (16.7%) and admitted to the hospitals during 2008-2013 were tested for enterovirus using pan-enterovirus PCR targeting 5′-untranslated region and specific PCR for viral capsid protein 1 gene. Overall, 59.7% were pan-enterovirus positive comprising 9.1% EV71 and 31.2% coxsackievirus species A (CV-A) including 70.5% CV-A6, 27.6% CV-A16, 1.1% CV-A10, and 0.8% CV-A5. HFMD and HA occurred endemically during 2008-2011. The number of cases increased dramatically in June 2012 with the percentage of the recently emerged CV-A6 significantly rose to 28.4%. Co-circulation between different EV71 genotypes was observed during the outbreak. Total of 161 sera obtained from healthy individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against EV71 subgenotype B5 (EV71-B5) using microneutralization assay. The seropositive rate of EV71-B5 was 65.8%. The age-adjusted seroprevalence for individuals was found to be lowest in children aged >6 months to 2 years (42.5%). The seropositive rate remained relatively low in preschool children aged > 2 years to 6 years (48.3%) and thereafter increased sharply to more than 80% in individuals aged > 6 years. Conclusions This study describes longitudinal data reflecting changing patterns of enterovirus prevalence over 6 years and demonstrates high seroprevalences of EV71-B5 NAb among Thai individuals. The rate of EV71 seropositive increased with age but without gender-specific significant difference. We identified

  20. Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J; Brunier, Guillaume; Besset, Manon; Goichot, Marc; Dussouillez, Philippe; Nguyen, Van Lap

    2015-10-08

    As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world's third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia's most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of the delta and many more are now planned. We quantify from high-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images large-scale shoreline erosion and land loss between 2003 and 2012 that now affect over 50% of the once strongly advancing >600 km-long delta shoreline. Erosion, with no identified change in the river's discharge and in wave and wind conditions over this recent period, is consistent with: (1) a reported significant decrease in coastal surface suspended sediment from the Mekong that may be linked to dam retention of its sediment, (2) large-scale commercial sand mining in the river and delta channels, and (3) subsidence due to groundwater extraction. Shoreline erosion is already responsible for displacement of coastal populations. It is an additional hazard to the integrity of this Asian mega delta now considered particularly vulnerable to accelerated subsidence and sea-level rise, and will be exacerbated by future hydropower dams.

  1. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-02-23

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling.

  2. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414571-07$15.00/0.

  3. Social learning and human mate preferences: a potential mechanism for generating and maintaining between-population diversity in attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Caldwell, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by studies demonstrating mate-choice copying effects in non-human species, recent studies of attractiveness judgements suggest that social learning also influences human preferences. In the first part of our article, we review evidence for social learning effects on preferences in humans and other animals. In the second part, we present new empirical evidence that social learning not only influences the attractiveness of specific individuals, but can also generalize to judgements of previously unseen individuals possessing similar physical traits. The different conditions represent different populations and, once a preference arises in a population, social learning can lead to the spread of preferences within that population. In the final part of our article, we discuss the theoretical basis for, and possible impact of, biases in social learning whereby individuals may preferentially copy the choices of those with high status or better access to critical information about potential mates. Such biases could mean that the choices of a select few individuals carry the greatest weight, rapidly generating agreement in preferences within a population. Collectively, these issues suggest that social learning mechanisms encourage the spread of preferences for certain traits once they arise within a population and so may explain certain cross-cultural differences. PMID:21199841

  4. Recombination gives a new insight in the effective population size and the history of the old world human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melé, Marta; Javed, Asif; Pybus, Marc; Zalloua, Pierre; Haber, Marc; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Jin, Li; Yang, Yajun; Pitchappan, R M; Arunkumar, G; Parida, Laxmi; Calafell, Francesc; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    The information left by recombination in our genomes can be used to make inferences on our recent evolutionary history. Specifically, the number of past recombination events in a population sample is a function of its effective population size (Ne). We have applied a method, Identifying Recombination in Sequences (IRiS), to detect specific past recombination events in 30 Old World populations to infer their Ne. We have found that sub-Saharan African populations have an Ne that is approximately four times greater than those of non-African populations and that outside of Africa, South Asian populations had the largest Ne. We also observe that the patterns of recombinational diversity of these populations correlate with distance out of Africa if that distance is measured along a path crossing South Arabia. No such correlation is found through a Sinai route, suggesting that anatomically modern humans first left Africa through the Bab-el-Mandeb strait rather than through present Egypt.

  5. Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry for rapid recognition of human lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiping; Chen, Liru; Zhou, Wei; Chingin, Konstantin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhu, Tenggao; Wen, Hua; Ding, Jianhua; Xu, Jianjun; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-05-01

    Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry (TSI-MS) directly on small tissue samples has been shown to provide highly specific molecular information. In this study, we apply this method to the analysis of 38 pairs of human lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue (cancer) and adjacent normal lung tissue (normal). The main components of pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, m/z 757.47), phosphatidylcholine (POPC, m/z 782.52), oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC, m/z 808.49), and arachidonic acid stearoyl phosphatidylcholine (SAPC, m/z 832.43), were identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Monte Carlo sampling partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to distinguish full-mass-range mass spectra of cancer samples from the mass spectra of normal tissues. With 5 principal components and 30 - 40 Monte Carlo samplings, the accuracy of cancer identification in matched tissue samples reached 94.42%. Classification of a tissue sample required less than 1 min, which is much faster than the analysis of frozen sections. The rapid, in situ diagnosis with minimal sample consumption provided by TSI-MS is advantageous for surgeons. TSI-MS allows them to make more informed decisions during surgery.

  6. Caffeine increases the velocity of rapid eye movements in unfatigued humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Turuwhenua, Jason; Hess, Robert F; Gant, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    Caffeine is a widely used dietary stimulant that can reverse the effects of fatigue on cognitive, motor and oculomotor function. However, few studies have examined the effect of caffeine on the oculomotor system when homeostasis has not been disrupted by physical fatigue. This study examined the influence of a moderate dose of caffeine on oculomotor control and visual perception in participants who were not fatigued. Within a placebo-controlled crossover design, 13 healthy adults ingested caffeine (5 mg·kg -1 body mass) and were tested over 3 h. Eye movements, including saccades, smooth pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus, were measured using infrared oculography. Caffeine was associated with higher peak saccade velocities (472 ± 60° s -1 ) compared to placebo (455 ± 62° s -1 ). Quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus were also significantly faster with caffeine, whereas pursuit eye movements were unchanged. Non-oculomotor perceptual tasks (global motion and global orientation processing) were unaffected by caffeine. These results show that oculomotor control is modulated by a moderate dose of caffeine in unfatigued humans. These effects are detectable in the kinematics of rapid eye movements, whereas pursuit eye movements and visual perception are unaffected. Oculomotor functions may be sensitive to changes in central catecholamines mediated via caffeine's action as an adenosine antagonist, even when participants are not fatigued.

  7. Rapid resetting of human peripheral clocks by phototherapy during simulated night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marc; Boudreau, Philippe; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2017-11-24

    A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled to either a control (dim light) or a bright light group. Blood was sampled at baseline and on the 4 th day of simulated night shift. In response to a night-oriented schedule, the phase of PER1 and BMAL1 rhythms in PBMCs was delayed by ~2.5-3 h (P shift was observed for the other clock genes and the central markers. Three cycles of 8-h bright light induced significant phase delays (P night-oriented schedule and a rapid resetting effect of nocturnal bright light exposure on peripheral clocks.

  8. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  9. Rapid changes in transcription profiles of the Plasmodium yoelii yir multigene family in clonal populations: lack of epigenetic memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Cunningham

    Full Text Available The pir multigene family, found in the genomes of Plasmodium vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species, encode variant antigens that could be targets of the immune response. Individual parasites of the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii, selected by micromanipulation, transcribe only 1 to 3 different pir (yir suggesting tight transcriptional control at the level of individual cells. Using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that despite this very restricted transcription in a single cell, many yir genes are transcribed throughout the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle. The timing and level of transcription differs between genes, with some being more highly transcribed in ring and trophozoite stages, whereas others are more highly transcribed in schizonts. Infection of immunodeficient mice with single infected erythrocytes results in populations of parasites each with transcriptional profiles different from that of the parent parasite population and from each other. This drift away from the original 'set' of transcribed genes does not appear to follow a preset pattern and "epigenetic memory" of the yir transcribed in the parent parasite can be rapidly lost. Thus, regulation of pir gene transcription may be different from that of the well-characterised multigene family, var, of Plasmodium falciparum.

  10. Population Divergence in Venom Bioactivities of Elapid Snake Pseudonaja textilis: Role of Procoagulant Proteins in Rapid Rodent Prey Incapacitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skejić, Jure; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at how toxic proteins in venoms of adult Australian eastern Brown snakes Pseudonaja textilis from South Australian and Queensland populations interact with physiological functions of the lab SD rat Rattus norvegicus. Circulatory collapse and incoagulable blood occurred instantly after injection of venom under the dorsal skin of anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats in an imitation of a P. textilis bite. Intravenous injection of purified P. textilis (Mackay, QLD) venom prothrombin activator proteins caused instant failure of circulation, testifying of high toxicity of these proteins and suggesting their role in rapid incapacitation of rodent prey. The hypothesis is further supported by circulatory collapse occurring instantly despite artificial respiration in envenomed rats and the finding of extremely high venom procoagulant potency in rat plasma. LC-MS and physiology assays revealed divergent venom composition and biological activity of South Australian (Barossa locality) and Queensland (Mackay locality) populations, which may be driven by selection for different prey. The Queensland venom of P. textilis was found to be more procoagulant and to exhibit predominately presynaptic neurotoxicity, while the South Australian venom contained diverse postsynaptic type II and III α-neurotoxins in addition to the presynaptic neurotoxins and caused significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. LC-MS analysis found evidence of multiple coagulation factor X-like proteins in P. textilis venoms, including a match to P. textilis coagulation factor X isoform 2, previously known to be expressed only in the liver. PMID:23691135

  11. Rapidly rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in Chinese population: epidemiology in Shanghai during 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuhui; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Chunfang; Li, Pin; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jun; Gu, Xuefan; Wang, Xiaodong; Shen, Shuixian; Zhi, Dijing; Lu, Zhong; Ye, Rong; Cheng, Ruoqian; Xi, Li; Li, Xiaojing; Zheng, Zhangqian; Zhang, Miaoying; Luo, Feihong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate incidence trend of childhood type 1 diabetes in Shanghai, a megalopolis in east China. We established a population-based retrospective registry for the disease in the city's registered population during 1997-2011 and collected 622 incident type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years. Standardized incidence rates and 95 % CI were estimated by applying the capture-recapture method and assuming Poisson distribution. Incidence trend was analyzed using the Poisson regression model. The mean annual incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years. We did not observe significant difference in incidence between boys and girls. The incidence is unstable and had a mean annual increase 14.2 % per year during the studied period. A faster annual increase was observed in boys, warmer seasons, and in the outer regions of the city. If present trends continue, the number of new type 1 diabetes cases will double from 2016 to 2020, and prevalent cases will sextuple by 2025. Our results showed the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was rising rapidly in Shanghai. More studies are needed to analyze incidence changes in other regions of China for appropriate allocation of healthcare resources.

  12. Population divergence in venom bioactivities of elapid snake Pseudonaja textilis: role of procoagulant proteins in rapid rodent prey incapacitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Skejić

    Full Text Available This study looked at how toxic proteins in venoms of adult Australian eastern Brown snakes Pseudonaja textilis from South Australian and Queensland populations interact with physiological functions of the lab SD rat Rattus norvegicus. Circulatory collapse and incoagulable blood occurred instantly after injection of venom under the dorsal skin of anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats in an imitation of a P. textilis bite. Intravenous injection of purified P. textilis (Mackay, QLD venom prothrombin activator proteins caused instant failure of circulation, testifying of high toxicity of these proteins and suggesting their role in rapid incapacitation of rodent prey. The hypothesis is further supported by circulatory collapse occurring instantly despite artificial respiration in envenomed rats and the finding of extremely high venom procoagulant potency in rat plasma. LC-MS and physiology assays revealed divergent venom composition and biological activity of South Australian (Barossa locality and Queensland (Mackay locality populations, which may be driven by selection for different prey. The Queensland venom of P. textilis was found to be more procoagulant and to exhibit predominately presynaptic neurotoxicity, while the South Australian venom contained diverse postsynaptic type II and III α-neurotoxins in addition to the presynaptic neurotoxins and caused significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. LC-MS analysis found evidence of multiple coagulation factor X-like proteins in P. textilis venoms, including a match to P. textilis coagulation factor X isoform 2, previously known to be expressed only in the liver.

  13. Alu polymerase chain reaction: A method for rapid isolation of human-specific sequences from complex DNA sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.L.; Ledbetter, S.A.; Corbo, L.; Victoria, M.F.; Ramirez-Solis, R.; Webster, T.D.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Caskey, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Current efforts to map the human genome are focused on individual chromosomes or smaller regions and frequently rely on the use of somatic cell hybrids. The authors report the application of the polymerase chain reaction to direct amplification of human DNA from hybrid cells containing regions of the human genome in rodent cell backgrounds using primers directed to the human Alu repeat element. They demonstrate Alu-directed amplification of a fragment of the human HPRT gene from both hybrid cell and cloned DNA and identify through sequence analysis the Alu repeats involved in this amplification. They also demonstrate the application of this technique to identify the chromosomal locations of large fragments of the human X chromosome cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome and the general applicability of the method to the preparation of DNA probes from cloned human sequences. The technique allows rapid gene mapping and provides a simple method for the isolation and analysis of specific chromosomal regions

  14. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Vicki B; Castle, Philip E; Jenison, Steven A; Hunt, William C; Kim, Jane J; Cuzick, Jack; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Du, Ruofei; Robertson, Michael; Norville, Scott; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2017-06-01

    A substantial effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines on reducing HPV-related cervical disease is essential before modifying clinical practice guidelines in partially vaccinated populations. To determine the population-based cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) trends when adjusting for changes in cervical screening practices that overlapped with HPV vaccination implementation. The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry, which captures population-based estimates of both cervical screening prevalence and CIN, was used to compute CIN trends from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014. Under New Mexico Administrative Code, the New Mexico HPV Pap Registry, a statewide public health surveillance program, receives mandatory reporting of all cervical screening (cytologic and HPV testing) and any cervical, vulvar, and vaginal histopathological findings for all women residing in New Mexico irrespective of outcome. Prespecified outcome measures included low-grade CIN (grade 1 [CIN1]) and high-grade CIN (grade 2 [CIN2] and grade 3 [CIN3]). From 2007 to 2014, a total of 13 520 CIN1, 4296 CIN2, and 2823 CIN3 lesions were diagnosed among female individuals 15 to 29 years old. After adjustment for changes in cervical screening across the period, reductions in the CIN incidence per 100 000 women screened were significant for all grades of CIN among female individuals 15 to 19 years old, dropping from 3468.3 to 1590.6 for CIN1 (annual percentage change [APC], -9.0; 95% CI, -12.0 to -5.8; P women 20 to 24 years old, dropping from 1027.7 to 627.1 (APC, -6.3; 95% CI, -10.9 to -1.4; P = .02). Population-level decreases in CIN among cohorts partially vaccinated for HPV may be considered when clinical practice guidelines for cervical cancer screening are reassessed. Evidence is rapidly growing to suggest that further increases in raising the age to start screening are imminent, one step toward integrating screening and vaccination.

  15. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  16. Immunochromatographic Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M and G lateral flow assays for rapid serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Henk L.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Solera, Javier; Clavijo, Encarnacion; Diaz, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    To fulfill the need for a simple and rapid diagnostic test for human brucellosis, we used the immunochromatographic lateral flow assay format to develop two assays, one for the detection of Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and one for the detection of Brucella-specific IgG

  17. Rapid production of human liver scaffolds for functional tissue engineering by high shear stress oscillation-decellularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazza, G. (Giuseppe); Al-Akkad, W. (Walid); Telese, A. (Andrea); Longato, L. (Lisa); Urbani, L. (Luca); Robinson, B. (Benjamin); Hall, A. (Andrew); Kong, K. (Kenny); Frenguelli, L. (Luca); Marrone, G. (Giusi); Willacy, O. (Oliver); Shaeri, M. (Mohsen); A.J. Burns (Alan); Malago, M. (Massimo); Gilbertson, J. (Janet); Rendell, N. (Nigel); Moore, K. (Kevin); Hughes, D. (David); Notingher, I. (Ioan); Jell, G. (Gavin); Del Rio Hernandez, A. (Armando); P. de Coppi (Paolo); Rombouts, K. (Krista); Pinzani, M. (Massimo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe development of human liver scaffolds retaining their 3-dimensional structure and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) composition is essential for the advancement of liver tissue engineering. We report the design and validation of a new methodology for the rapid and accurate production of

  18. Rapid disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals with adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.; Veugelers, P. J.; Keet, I. P.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Miedema, F.; Lange, J. M.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relation between the occurrence of adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) prophylaxis and the subsequent course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a cohort of homosexual men. Adverse reactions to TMP-SMZ were associated with a more rapid

  19. Human population structure detection via multilocus genotype clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starmer Joshua

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a hierarchical clustering algorithm for using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP genetic data to assign individuals to populations. The method does not assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage equilibrium among loci in sample population individuals. Results We show that the algorithm can assign sample individuals highly accurately to their corresponding ethnic groups in our tests using HapMap SNP data and it is also robust to admixed populations when tested with Perlegen SNP data. Moreover, it can detect fine-scale population structure as subtle as that between Chinese and Japanese by using genome-wide high-diversity SNP loci. Conclusion The algorithm provides an alternative approach to the popular STRUCTURE program, especially for fine-scale population structure detection in genome-wide association studies. This is the first successful separation of Chinese and Japanese samples using random SNP loci with high statistical support.

  20. Using Population Data to Address the Human Dimensions of Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Mageean; J.G. Bartlett

    1999-01-01

    In recent years researchers and policy makers have identified population-environment interactions as crucial to issues of ecology, economic development, and human welfare. It seems clear that human populations and demands on the environment are driving ecological change in such areas as global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, biodiversity loss, land degradation...

  1. BREATHING FIRE: HOW STELLAR FEEDBACK DRIVES RADIAL MIGRATION, RAPID SIZE FLUCTUATIONS, AND POPULATION GRADIENTS IN LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Geha, Marla; Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M star  = 2 × 10 6  − 5 × 10 10 M ⊙ ) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ∼1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong fluctuations in the global potential, transferring energy to all stars. These processes produce several dramatic effects. First, galaxies’ effective radii can fluctuate by factors of >2 over ∼200 Myr, and these rapid size fluctuations can account for much of the observed scatter in the radius at fixed M star . Second, the cumulative effects of many outflow/infall episodes steadily heat stellar orbits, causing old stars to migrate outward most strongly. This age-dependent radial migration mixes—and even inverts—intrinsic age and metallicity gradients. Thus, the galactic-archaeology approach of calculating radial star formation histories from stellar populations at z = 0 can be severely biased. These effects are strongest at M star  ≈ 10 7–9.6 M ⊙ , the same regime where feedback most efficiently cores galaxies. Thus, detailed measurements of stellar kinematics in low-mass galaxies can strongly constrain feedback models and test baryonic solutions to small-scale problems in ΛCDM

  2. BREATHING FIRE: HOW STELLAR FEEDBACK DRIVES RADIAL MIGRATION, RAPID SIZE FLUCTUATIONS, AND POPULATION GRADIENTS IN LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA USA (United States); Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André, E-mail: kareem.el-badry@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M{sub star} = 2 × 10{sup 6} − 5 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ∼1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong fluctuations in the global potential, transferring energy to all stars. These processes produce several dramatic effects. First, galaxies’ effective radii can fluctuate by factors of >2 over ∼200 Myr, and these rapid size fluctuations can account for much of the observed scatter in the radius at fixed M{sub star}. Second, the cumulative effects of many outflow/infall episodes steadily heat stellar orbits, causing old stars to migrate outward most strongly. This age-dependent radial migration mixes—and even inverts—intrinsic age and metallicity gradients. Thus, the galactic-archaeology approach of calculating radial star formation histories from stellar populations at z = 0 can be severely biased. These effects are strongest at M{sub star} ≈ 10{sup 7–9.6} M{sub ⊙}, the same regime where feedback most efficiently cores galaxies. Thus, detailed measurements of stellar kinematics in low-mass galaxies can strongly constrain feedback models and test baryonic solutions to small-scale problems in ΛCDM.

  3. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form.

  4. Improved Mapping of Human Population and Settlements through Integration of Remote Sensing and Socioeconomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.; MacManus, K.; Vinay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The diversity of data on human settlements, infrastructure, and population continues to grow rapidly, with recent releases of data products based on a range of different remote sensing data sources as well as census and administrative data. We report here on recent improvements in data from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) and partner organizations, aimed at supporting both interdisciplinary research and real-world applications. The fourth version of SEDAC's Gridded Population of the World (GPWv4) now includes variables for age categories, gender, and urban/rural location, and has also been integrated with the Global Human Settlements (GHS) data developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission to produce a GHS-POP grid for the years 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2015. Through a collaboration between Facebook's Connectivity Lab and the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), High Resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL) data derived from 50-cm DigitalGlobe imagery are now available for selected developing countries at 30-m resolution. SEDAC is also developing interactive mapping and analysis tools to facilitate visualization and access to these often large and complex data products. For example, SEDAC has collaborated with scientists from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to release the Global Man-made Impervious Surfaces & Settlement Extents from Landsat data at 30-m resolution through an innovative map interface. We also summarize recent progress in developing an international data collective that is bringing together both data developers and data users from the public and private sectors to collaborate on expanding data access and use, improving data quality and documentation, facilitating data intercomparison and integration, and sharing of resources and capabilities.

  5. Evaluation of Performance of Two Rapid Tests for Detection of HIV-1 and -2 in High- and Low-Prevalence Populations in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Mark M; Njoku, Ogbonnaya S; Shutt, Ashley; Malia, Jennifer; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Milazzo, Mark; Suleiman, Aminu; Ogundeji, Amos A; Nelson, Robert; Ayemoba, Ojor R; O'Connell, Robert J; Singer, Darrell E; Michael, Nelson L; Peel, Sheila A

    2015-11-01

    The availability of reliable human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1/2) rapid tests in resource-limited settings represents an important advancement in the accurate diagnosis of HIV infection and presents opportunities for implementation of effective prevention and treatment interventions among vulnerable populations. A study of the potential target populations for future HIV vaccine studies examined the prevalence of HIV infections at six selected sites in Nigeria and evaluated the use of two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for HIV. The populations included market workers at sites adjacent to military installations and workers at highway settlements (truck stops) who may have a heightened risk of HIV exposure. Samples from 3,187 individuals who provided informed consent were tested in parallel using the Determine (DT) and Stat-Pak (SP) RDTs; discordant results were subjected to the Uni-Gold (UG) RDT as a tiebreaker. The results were compared to those of a third-generation enzyme immunoassay screen with confirmation of repeat reactive samples by HIV-1 Western blotting. One participant was HIV-2 infected, yielding positive results on both RDTs. Using the laboratory algorithm as a gold standard, we calculated sensitivities of 98.5% (confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 99.8%) for DT and 98.1% (CI, 96.7 to 99.6%) for SP and specificities of 98.7% (CI, 98.3 -99.1%) for DT and 99.8% (CI, 99.6 to 100%) for SP. Similar results were obtained when the sites were stratified into those of higher HIV prevalence (9.4% to 22.8%) versus those of lower prevalence (3.2% to 7.3%). A parallel two-test algorithm requiring both DT and SP to be positive resulted in the highest sensitivity (98.1%; CI, 96.7 to 99.6%) and specificity (99.97%; CI, 99.9 to 100%) relative to those for the reference laboratory algorithm. Copyright © 2015, Manak et al.

  6. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Practical, sensitive, effective, human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. When available, such assays should allow us to fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. We will be able to validate the role of somatic mutations in carcinogenesis, to identify environmental factors that affect human germ cells, to integrate the effects of complex mixtures and the environment in the human subject, and to identify people who are hypersusceptible to genetic injury. Human cellular mutational assays, particularly when combined with cytogenetic and heritable mutational tests, promise to play pivotal roles in estimating the risk from low-dose radiation and chemical exposures. These combined methods avoid extrapolations of dose and from species to species, and may be sensitive enough and credible enough to permit politically, socially and scientifically acceptable risk management. 16 references

  7. The influence of population mobility on human settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleophas Lado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some of the characteristics of world's population mobility, cultural environment and changing societies. Some of the national and international problems associated with population data collection and enumeration are explored including transient and temporary population movements. In analyzing population mobility and demographic transition, Zelinky's hypothesis is used as a conceptual framework applicable in both Developed and Developing countries. The findings of the study focused mainly on some of government policies and implications essential for rural-orientated and urban-orientated development programmes. It is emphasized that to achieve some of the socio-economic development objectives in any nation, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all the processes of mobility to match the various government policies of the redistribution.

  8. Population migration and the spread of types 1 and 2 human immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T C

    1994-03-29

    Over 14 million people are estimated to be infected with the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV), with nearly three-fourths of the infected persons residing in developing countries. One factor responsible for dissemination of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 worldwide was the intense migration of individuals, from rural to urban centers with subsequent return migration and internationally due to civil wars, tourism, business purposes, and the drug trade. In sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 1980, urban centers with more than 500,000 inhabitants increased from 3 to 28, and more than 75 military coups occurred in 30 countries. The result was a massive migration of rural inhabitants to urban centers concomitant with the spread of HIV-1 to large population centers. With the associated demographic, economic, and social changes, an epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV-1 was ignited. Migratory patterns were also responsible for the spread of endemic HIV-2 to neighboring West African countries and eventually to Europe, the Americans, and India. Although Southeast Asia was the last region in which HIV-1 was introduced, it has the greatest potential for rapid spread due to population density and inherent risk behaviors. Thus, the migration of poor, rural, and young sexually active individuals to urban centers coupled with large international movements of HIV-infected individuals played a prominent role in the dissemination of HIV globally. The economic recession has aggravated the transmission of HIV by directly increasing the population at risk through increased urban migration, disruption of rural families and cultural values, poverty, and prostitution and indirectly through a decrease in health care provision. Consequently, social and economic reform as well as sexual behavior education need to be intensified if HIV transmission is to be controlled.

  9. R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from rapid progressors lacking X4 strains do not possess X4-type pathogenicity in human thymus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkowitz, R. D.; van't Wout, A. B.; Kootstra, N. A.; Moreno, M. E.; Linquist-Stepps, V. D.; Bare, C.; Stoddart, C. A.; Schuitemaker, H.; McCune, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Some individuals infected with only R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 progress to AIDS as quickly as individuals harboring X4 strains. We determined that three R5 viruses were much less pathogenic than an X4 virus in SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, suggesting that R5 virus-mediated rapid

  10. Population specific biomarkers of human aging: a big data study using South Korean, Canadian and Eastern European patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Kochetov, Kirill; Putin, Evgeny; Cortese, Franco; Aliper, Alexander; Lee, Won-Suk; Ahn, Sung-Min; Uhn, Lee; Skjodt, Neil; Kovalchuk, Olga; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-11

    Accurate and physiologically meaningful biomarkers for human aging are key to assessing anti-aging therapies. Given ethnic differences in health, diet, lifestyle, behaviour, environmental exposures and even average rate of biological aging, it stands to reason that aging clocks trained on datasets obtained from specific ethnic populations are more likely to account for these potential confounding factors, resulting in an enhanced capacity to predict chronological age and quantify biological age. Here we present a deep learning-based hematological aging clock modeled using the large combined dataset of Canadian, South Korean and Eastern European population blood samples that show increased predictive accuracy in individual populations compared to population-specific hematologic aging clocks. The performance of models was also evaluated on publicly-available samples of the American population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition, we explored the association between age predicted by both population-specific and combined hematological clocks and all-cause mortality. Overall, this study suggests a) the population-specificity of aging patterns and b) hematologic clocks predicts all-cause mortality. Proposed models added to the freely available Aging.AI system allowing improved ability to assess human aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  11. Female human pluripotent stem cells rapidly lose X chromosome inactivation marks and progress to a skewed methylation pattern during culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, M; Seriola, A; Barbé, L; Santalo, J; Veiga, A; Dée, K; Van Haute, L; Sermon, K; Spits, C

    2016-04-01

    Does a preferential X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern exist in female human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and does the pattern change during long-term culture or upon differentiation? We identified two independent phenomena that lead to aberrant XCI patterns in female hPSC: a rapid loss of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and long non-coding X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) expression during culture, often accompanied by erosion of XCI-specific methylation, and a frequent loss of random XCI in the cultures. Variable XCI patterns have been reported in female hPSC, not only between different hPSC lines, but also between sub-passages of the same cell line, however the reasons for this variability remain unknown. Moreover, while non-random XCI-linked DNA methylation patterns have been previously reported, their origin and extent have not been investigated. We investigated the XCI patterns in 23 human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, during long-term culture and after differentiation, by gene expression analysis, histone modification assessment and study of DNA methylation. The presence and location of H3K27me3 was studied by immunofluorescence, XIST expression by real-time PCR, and mono- or bi-allelic expression of X-linked genes was studied by sequencing of cDNA. XCI-specific DNA methylation was analysed using methylation-sensitive restriction and PCR, and more in depth by massive parallel bisulphite sequencing. All hPSC lines showed XCI, but we found a rapid loss of XCI marks during the early stages of in vitro culture. While this loss of XCI marks was accompanied in several cases by an extensive erosion of XCI-specific methylation, it did not result in X chromosome reactivation. Moreover, lines without strong erosion of methylation frequently displayed non-random DNA methylation, which occurred independently from the loss of XCI marks. This bias in X chromosome DNA methylation did not appear as a passenger event driven by clonal culture

  12. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references

  13. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-06-29

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.

  14. Improvements to Rapfish: a rapid evaluation technique for fisheries integrating ecological and human dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, T J; Lam, M E; Ainsworth, C; Martindale, A; Nakamura, K; Perry, R I; Ward, T

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports recent developments in Rapfish, a normative, scalable and flexible rapid appraisal technique that integrates both ecological and human dimensions to evaluate the status of fisheries in reference to a norm or goal. Appraisal status targets may be sustainability, compliance with a standard (such as the UN code of conduct for responsible fisheries) or the degree of progress in meeting some other goal or target. The method combines semi-quantitative (e.g. ecological) and qualitative (e.g. social) data via multiple evaluation fields, each of which is assessed through scores assigned to six to 12 attributes or indicators: the scoring method allows user flexibility to adopt a wide range of utility relationships. For assessing sustainability, six evaluation fields have been developed: ecological, technological, economic, social, ethical and institutional. Each field can be assessed directly with a set of scored attributes, or several of the fields can be dealt with in greater detail using nested subfields that themselves comprise multidimensional Rapfish assessments (e.g. the hierarchical institutional field encompasses both governance and management, including a detailed analysis of legality). The user has the choice of including all or only some of the available sustainability fields. For the attributes themselves, there will rarely be quantitative data, but scoring allows these items to be estimated. Indeed, within a normative framework, one important advantage with Rapfish is transparency of the rigour, quality and replicability of the scores. The Rapfish technique employs a constrained multidimensional ordination that is scaled to situate data points within evaluation space. Within each evaluation field, results may be presented as a two-dimensional plot or in a one-dimensional rank order. Uncertainty is expressed through the probability distribution of Monte-Carlo simulations that use the C.L. on each original observation. Overall results of the

  15. Population genetic analysis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cama, Vitaliano; Feng, Yaoyu; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Genotyping based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer has revealed significant genetic diversity in Enterocytozoonbieneusi. Thus far, the population genetics of E. bieneusi and its significance in the epidemiology of microsporidiosis have not been examined. In this study, a multilocus sequence typing of E. bieneusi in AIDS patients in Lima, Peru was conducted, using 72 specimens previously genotyped as A, D, IV, EbpC, WL11, Peru7, Peru8, Peru10 and Peru11 at the internal transcribed spacer locus. Altogether, 39 multilocus genotypes were identified among the 72 specimens. The observation of strong intragenic linkage disequilibria and limited genetic recombination among markers were indicative of an overall clonal population structure of E. bieneusi. Measures of pair-wise intergenic linkage disequilibria and a standardised index of association (IAS) based on allelic profile data further supported this conclusion. Both sequence-based and allelic profile-based phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of two genetically isolated groups in the study population, one (group 1) containing isolates of the anthroponotic internal transcribed spacer genotype A, and the other (group 2) containing isolates of multiple internal transcribed spacer genotypes (mainly genotypes D and IV) with zoonotic potential. The measurement of linkage disequilibria and recombination indicated group 2 had a clonal population structure, whereas group 1 had an epidemic population structure. The formation of the two sub-populations was confirmed by STRUCTURE and Wright's fixation index (FST) analyses. The data highlight the power of MLST in understanding the epidemiology of E. bieneusi. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Impact of sperm capacitation on various populations of human spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Díaz, C; Suárez Juárez, M; Díaz, M A; Ayala Ruiz, A

    1989-02-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the impact of spermatic capacitation on different spermatozooa populations, 49 samples of semen, before and after in vitro spermatic capacitation with Ham F-10 medium, were studied; motility of cells was evaluated according to WHO criteria. There was diminution of percentage of immobile cells, 27.8 to 20.0, as well as increase in population of cells with more mobility, 28.6% to 39.1%. Both difference were statistically significant (p = less than 0.05 and p = less than 0.005, respectively). These data suggest that spermatic capacitacion activates "in cascade" all groups of gametes.

  17. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr T. M. Saeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases.

  18. The evidence of the rugoscopy effectiveness as a human identification method in patients submitted to rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Ana A; Scoralick, Raquel A; Naressi, Suely C M; Moraes, Mari E L; Daruge, Eduardo; Daruge, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of rugoscopy as a human identification method, even when the patient is submitted to rapid palatal expansion, which in theory would introduce doubt. With this intent, the Rugoscopic Identity was obtained for each subject using the classification formula proposed by Santos based on the intra-oral casts made before and after treatment from patients who were subjected to palatal expansion. The casts were labeled with the patients' initials and randomly arranged for studying. The palatine rugae kept the same patterns in every case studied. The technical error of the intra-evaluator measurement provided a confidence interval of 95%, making rugoscopy a reliable identification method for patients who were submitted to rapid palatal expansion, because even in the presence of intra-oral changes owing to the use of palatal expanders, the palatine rugae retained the biological and technical requirements for the human identification process. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Demographic changes and marker properties affect detection of human population differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichwankul Kittipong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating genetically between populations is valuable for admixture and population stratification detection and in understanding population history. This is easy to achieve for major continental populations, but not for closely related populations. It has been claimed that a large marker panel is necessary to reliably distinguish populations within a continent. We investigated whether empirical genetic differentiation could be accomplished efficiently among three Asian populations (Hmong, Thai, and Chinese using a small set of highly variable markers (15 tetranucleotide and 17 dinucleotide repeats. Results Hmong could be differentiated from Thai and Chinese based on multi-locus genotypes, but Thai and Chinese were indistinguishable from each other. We found significant evidence for a recent population bottleneck followed by expansion in the Hmong that was not present in the Thai or Chinese. Tetranucleotide repeats were less useful than dinucleotide repeat markers in distinguishing between major continental populations (Asian, European, and African while both successfully distinguished Hmong from Thai and Chinese. Conclusion Demographic history contributes significantly to robust detection of intracontinental population structure. Populations having experienced a rapid size reduction may be reliably distinguished as a result of a genetic drift -driven redistribution of population allele frequencies. Tetranucleotide markers, which differ from dinucleotide markers in mutation mechanism and rate, are similar in information content to dinucleotide markers in this situation. These factors should be considered when identifying populations suitable for gene mapping studies and when interpreting interpopulation relationships based on microsatellite markers.

  20. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  1. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by

  2. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Smith, Kristine M; Ramirez, Sara D; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P; Brunner, Jesse L; Goldberg, Caren S; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  3. Genome-wide diversity and differentiation in New World populations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais C de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Americas were the last continent colonized by humans carrying malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum from the New World shows very little genetic diversity and greater linkage disequilibrium, compared with its African counterparts, and is clearly subdivided into local, highly divergent populations. However, limited available data have revealed extensive genetic diversity in American populations of another major human malaria parasite, P. vivax.We used an improved sample preparation strategy and next-generation sequencing to characterize 9 high-quality P. vivax genome sequences from northwestern Brazil. These new data were compared with publicly available sequences from recently sampled clinical P. vivax isolates from Brazil (BRA, total n = 11 sequences, Peru (PER, n = 23, Colombia (COL, n = 31, and Mexico (MEX, n = 19.We found that New World populations of P. vivax are as diverse (nucleotide diversity π between 5.2 × 10-4 and 6.2 × 10-4 as P. vivax populations from Southeast Asia, where malaria transmission is substantially more intense. They display several non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (some of them previously undescribed in genes known or suspected to be involved in antimalarial drug resistance, such as dhfr, dhps, mdr1, mrp1, and mrp-2, but not in the chloroquine resistance transporter ortholog (crt-o gene. Moreover, P. vivax in the Americas is much less geographically substructured than local P. falciparum populations, with relatively little between-population genome-wide differentiation (pairwise FST values ranging between 0.025 and 0.092. Finally, P. vivax populations show a rapid decline in linkage disequilibrium with increasing distance between pairs of polymorphic sites, consistent with very frequent outcrossing. We hypothesize that the high diversity of present-day P. vivax lineages in the Americas originated from successive migratory waves and subsequent admixture between parasite lineages from geographically

  4. Genome-wide diversity and differentiation in New World populations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thais C; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Menezes, Maria José; Gonçalves-Lopes, Raquel M; Bastos, Melissa S; Lima, Nathália F; Barbosa, Susana; Gerber, Alexandra L; Loss de Morais, Guilherme; Berná, Luisa; Phelan, Jody; Robello, Carlos; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Alves, João Marcelo P; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2017-07-01

    The Americas were the last continent colonized by humans carrying malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum from the New World shows very little genetic diversity and greater linkage disequilibrium, compared with its African counterparts, and is clearly subdivided into local, highly divergent populations. However, limited available data have revealed extensive genetic diversity in American populations of another major human malaria parasite, P. vivax. We used an improved sample preparation strategy and next-generation sequencing to characterize 9 high-quality P. vivax genome sequences from northwestern Brazil. These new data were compared with publicly available sequences from recently sampled clinical P. vivax isolates from Brazil (BRA, total n = 11 sequences), Peru (PER, n = 23), Colombia (COL, n = 31), and Mexico (MEX, n = 19). We found that New World populations of P. vivax are as diverse (nucleotide diversity π between 5.2 × 10-4 and 6.2 × 10-4) as P. vivax populations from Southeast Asia, where malaria transmission is substantially more intense. They display several non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (some of them previously undescribed) in genes known or suspected to be involved in antimalarial drug resistance, such as dhfr, dhps, mdr1, mrp1, and mrp-2, but not in the chloroquine resistance transporter ortholog (crt-o) gene. Moreover, P. vivax in the Americas is much less geographically substructured than local P. falciparum populations, with relatively little between-population genome-wide differentiation (pairwise FST values ranging between 0.025 and 0.092). Finally, P. vivax populations show a rapid decline in linkage disequilibrium with increasing distance between pairs of polymorphic sites, consistent with very frequent outcrossing. We hypothesize that the high diversity of present-day P. vivax lineages in the Americas originated from successive migratory waves and subsequent admixture between parasite lineages from geographically diverse sites

  5. Genome-wide diversity and differentiation in New World populations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thais C.; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Menezes, Maria José; Gonçalves-Lopes, Raquel M.; Bastos, Melissa S.; Lima, Nathália F.; Barbosa, Susana; Gerber, Alexandra L.; Loss de Morais, Guilherme; Berná, Luisa; Phelan, Jody; Robello, Carlos; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Americas were the last continent colonized by humans carrying malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum from the New World shows very little genetic diversity and greater linkage disequilibrium, compared with its African counterparts, and is clearly subdivided into local, highly divergent populations. However, limited available data have revealed extensive genetic diversity in American populations of another major human malaria parasite, P. vivax. Methods We used an improved sample preparation strategy and next-generation sequencing to characterize 9 high-quality P. vivax genome sequences from northwestern Brazil. These new data were compared with publicly available sequences from recently sampled clinical P. vivax isolates from Brazil (BRA, total n = 11 sequences), Peru (PER, n = 23), Colombia (COL, n = 31), and Mexico (MEX, n = 19). Principal findings/Conclusions We found that New World populations of P. vivax are as diverse (nucleotide diversity π between 5.2 × 10−4 and 6.2 × 10−4) as P. vivax populations from Southeast Asia, where malaria transmission is substantially more intense. They display several non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (some of them previously undescribed) in genes known or suspected to be involved in antimalarial drug resistance, such as dhfr, dhps, mdr1, mrp1, and mrp-2, but not in the chloroquine resistance transporter ortholog (crt-o) gene. Moreover, P. vivax in the Americas is much less geographically substructured than local P. falciparum populations, with relatively little between-population genome-wide differentiation (pairwise FST values ranging between 0.025 and 0.092). Finally, P. vivax populations show a rapid decline in linkage disequilibrium with increasing distance between pairs of polymorphic sites, consistent with very frequent outcrossing. We hypothesize that the high diversity of present-day P. vivax lineages in the Americas originated from successive migratory waves and subsequent admixture between

  6. Large Country-Lot Quality Assurance Sampling : A New Method for Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation of Health, Nutrition and Population Programs at Sub-National Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hedt, Bethany L.; Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Sampling theory facilitates development of economical, effective and rapid measurement of a population. While national policy maker value survey results measuring indicators representative of a large area (a country, state or province), measurement in smaller areas produces information useful for managers at the local level. It is often not possible to disaggregate a national survey to obt...

  7. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and appropriate therapy. In this study, rolling circle amplification (RCA) is introduced as a sensitive, specific and reproducible isothermal DNA amplification technique for rapid molecular identification of six of the most virulent species (Rhizopus microsporus, R. arrhizus var. arrhizus, R. arrhizus var. delemar, Mucor irregularis, Mucor circinelloides, Lichtheimia ramosa, Lichtheimia corymbifera). DNAs of target species were successfully amplified, with no cross reactivity between species. RCA can be considered as a rapid detection method with high specificity and sensitivity, suitable for large screening. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Sampling populations of humans across the world: ELSI issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Kirby, Emily S

    2012-01-01

    There are an increasing number of population studies collecting data and samples to illuminate gene-environment contributions to disease risk and health. The rising affordability of innovative technologies capable of generating large amounts of data helps achieve statistical power and has paved the way for new international research collaborations. Most data and sample collections can be grouped into longitudinal, disease-specific, or residual tissue biobanks, with accompanying ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI). Issues pertaining to consent, confidentiality, and oversight cannot be examined using a one-size-fits-all approach-the particularities of each biobank must be taken into account. It remains to be seen whether current governance approaches will be adequate to handle the impact of next-generation sequencing technologies on communication with participants in population biobanking studies.

  9. Rapid Categorization of Human and Ape Faces in 9-Month-Old Infants Revealed by Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Hoehl, Stefanie; Pauen, Sabina; Rossion, Bruno

    2017-10-02

    This study investigates categorization of human and ape faces in 9-month-olds using a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) paradigm while measuring EEG. Categorization responses are elicited only if infants discriminate between different categories and generalize across exemplars within each category. In study 1, human or ape faces were presented as standard and deviant stimuli in upright and inverted trials. Upright ape faces presented among humans elicited strong categorization responses, whereas responses for upright human faces and for inverted ape faces were smaller. Deviant inverted human faces did not elicit categorization. Data were best explained by a model with main effects of species and orientation. However, variance of low-level image characteristics was higher for the ape than the human category. Variance was matched to replicate this finding in an independent sample (study 2). Both human and ape faces elicited categorization in upright and inverted conditions, but upright ape faces elicited the strongest responses. Again, data were best explained by a model of two main effects. These experiments demonstrate that 9-month-olds rapidly categorize faces, and unfamiliar faces presented among human faces elicit increased categorization responses. This likely reflects habituation for the familiar standard category, and stronger release for the unfamiliar category deviants.

  10. Local extinction and recolonization, species effective population size, and modern human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Elise; Hawks, John; Relethford, John H

    2004-10-01

    A primary objection from a population genetics perspective to a multiregional model of modern human origins is that the model posits a large census size, whereas genetic data suggest a small effective population size. The relationship between census size and effective size is complex, but arguments based on an island model of migration show that if the effective population size reflects the number of breeding individuals and the effects of population subdivision, then an effective population size of 10,000 is inconsistent with the census size of 500,000 to 1,000,000 that has been suggested by archeological evidence. However, these models have ignored the effects of population extinction and recolonization, which increase the expected variance among demes and reduce the inbreeding effective population size. Using models developed for population extinction and recolonization, we show that a large census size consistent with the multiregional model can be reconciled with an effective population size of 10,000, but genetic variation among demes must be high, reflecting low interdeme migration rates and a colonization process that involves a small number of colonists or kin-structured colonization. Ethnographic and archeological evidence is insufficient to determine whether such demographic conditions existed among Pleistocene human populations, and further work needs to be done. More realistic models that incorporate isolation by distance and heterogeneity in extinction rates and effective deme sizes also need to be developed. However, if true, a process of population extinction and recolonization has interesting implications for human demographic history.

  11. After The Tsunami: Human Rights of Vulnerable Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Laurel; Stover, Eric; Weinstein, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    The tsunami of December 26, 2004 devastated thousands of communities along the coastline of the Indian Ocean. More than 240,000 people were killed, with tens of thousands missing and presumed dead, and more than a million people displaced. Immediately following the tsunami, international aid agencies feared that human traffickers might seize the opportunity to compel those most vulnerable (women, children, and migrant workers) into situations of forced labor. Fortunately, few incidents of tra...

  12. Movement prediction using accelerometers in a human population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, L.; He, Bing; Koster, A

    2016-01-01

    We introduce statistical methods for predicting the types of human activity at sub-second resolution using triaxial accelerometry data. The major innovation is that we use labeled activity data from some subjects to predict the activity labels of other subjects. To achieve this, we normalize the ...... as those obtained using their own labeled dictionaries. These findings indicate that prediction of activity types for data collected during natural activities of daily living may actually be possible. © 2015, The International Biometric Society...

  13. Evaluation of the clinical utility of a rapid blood test for human leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, C. K.; Sugathan, Sheela; Kuriakose, Mariamma; Abdoel, Theresia; Smits, Henk L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid assay device for the detection of Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies was applied on whole blood samples collected from a group of consecutive patients admitted with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis to a district hospital in Kerala, India. The hospital is located in an

  14. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and

  15. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-08-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. delta(15)N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. δ 15 N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis.

  17. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  18. An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollard, Katherine S; Salama, Sofie R; Lambert, Nelle

    2006-01-01

    in the developing human neocortex from 7 to 19 gestational weeks, a crucial period for cortical neuron specification and migration. HAR1F is co-expressed with reelin, a product of Cajal-Retzius neurons that is of fundamental importance in specifying the six-layer structure of the human cortex. HAR1 and the other...

  19. Elided Populations: A Baseline Survey on Human Trafficking in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2017-01-01

    -regional, as well as inter-regional trafficking, is available. This study seeks to build synergy in the counter-trafficking efforts in Kenya. In so doing it aims to in the overall identify gaps in combating and responding to human trafficking and offer programmatic recommendations/suggestions particularly for IRC......Trafficking in persons is a crime. It is gaining momentum in the continent and particularly in Kenya and also attracting the attention of actors who are working to combat it. This focus shows the multiplicity of actors working together to prosecute, prevent and protect. Evidence of both intra...

  20. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  1. Population level evidence for seasonality of the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korownyk, Christina; Liu, Fangwei; Garrison, Scott

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether human body odors undergo seasonal modulation. We utilized google trends search volume from the United States of America from January 1, 2010 to June 24, 2017 for a number of predetermined body odors. Regression modeling of time series data was completed. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of the variability in Internet searches for each unpleasant odor (about the mean) that is explained by a seasonal model. We determined that the seasonal (sinusoidal) model provided a significantly better fit than the null model (best straight line fit) for all searches relating to human body odors (P odor, 60% of the variability in search volume for foot odor, and 58% of the variability in search volume for bad breath. Flatulence and bad breath tended to peak in January, foot odor in February, and Axillary odor in July. We conclude that searching by the general public for information on unpleasant body odors undergoes substantial seasonal variation, with the timing of peaks and troughs varying with the body part involved. The symptom burden of such smells may have a similar seasonal variation, as might the composition of the commensal bacterial microflora that play a role in creating them.

  2. Gut bifidobacteria populations in human health and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arboleya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from the childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum are generally dominant in infants whereas Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more dominant in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effect of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria can be associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria composition changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence in commonly known disease states.

  3. Biomarkers of genetic damage in human populations exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiassa, Delia; Manas, Fernando; Bosch, Beatriz; Gentile, Natalia; Bernardi, Natali; Gorla, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pesticides on human, animal and environmental health has been cause of concern in the scientific community for a long time. Numerous studies have reported that pesticides are not harmless and that their use can lead to harmful biological effects in the medium and long term, in exposed human and animals, and their offspring. The importance of early detection of genetic damage is that it allows us to take the necessary measures to reduce or eliminate the exposure to the deleterious agent when damage is still reversible, and thus to prevent and to diminish the risk of developing tumors or other alterations. In this paper we reviewed the main concepts in the field, the usefulness of genotoxicity studies and we compiled studies performed during the last twenty years on genetic monitoring of people occupationally exposed to pesticides. we think that genotoxicity tests, including that include chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchanges and comet assays, should be considered as essential tools in the implementation of complete medical supervision for people exposed to potential environmental pollutants, particularly for those living in the same place as others who were others have already developed some type of malignancy. This action is particularly important at early stages to prevent the occurrence of tumors, especially from environmental origins.

  4. Detection of Elevated Signaling Amino Acids in Human Diabetic Vitreous by Rapid Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Jen Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated glutamate is implicated in the pathology of PDR. The ability to rapidly assess the glutamate and amino acid content of vitreous provides a more complete picture of the chemical changes occurring at the diabetic retina and may lead to a better understanding of the pathology of PDR. Vitreous humor was collected following vitrectomies of patients with PDR and control conditions of macular hole or epiretinal membrane. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to quantify glutamate and arginine. The analysis is relatively fast (<6 minutes and utilizes a poly(ethyleneoxide and sodium dodecylsulfate run buffer. Both amino acid levels show significant increases in PDR patients versus controls and are comparable to other reports. The levels of vitreal glutamate vary inversely with the degree of observed hemorrhage. The results demonstrate a rapid method for assessment of a number of amino acids to characterize the chemical changes at the diabetic retina to better understand tissue changes and potentially identify new treatments.

  5. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carnesecchi

    Full Text Available The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2 addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  6. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Malbouyres, Marilyne; de Mets, Richard; Balland, Martial; Beauchef, Gallic; Vié, Katell; Chamot, Christophe; Lionnet, Claire; Ruggiero, Florence; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2) addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  7. Rapid Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2 by Use of an Improved Piezoelectric Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Virginia; Branch, Darren W.; Edwards, Thayne L.; Larson, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Disasters can create situations in which blood donations can save lives. However, in emergency situations and when resources are depleted, on-site blood donations require the rapid and accurate detection of blood-borne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). Techniques such as PCR and antibody capture by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for HIV-1 and HIV-2 are precise but time-consuming and require sophisticated equipment that is not compatible with emergency point-of-care requirements. We describe here a prototype biosensor based on piezoelectric materials functionalized with specific antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2. We show the rapid and accurate detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in both simple and complex solutions, including human serum, and in the presence of a cross-confounding virus. We report detection limits of 12 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50s) for HIV-1 and 87 TCID50s for HIV-2. The accuracy, precision of measurements, and operation of the prototype biosensor compared favorably to those for nucleic acid amplification. We conclude that the biosensor has significant promise as a successful point-of-care diagnostic device for use in emergency field applications requiring rapid and reliable testing for blood-borne pathogens. PMID:23515541

  8. A Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Human Toxocariasis Developed Using Three Toxocara canis Recombinant Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Tan Farrizam, Siti Naqiuyah; Abdul Karim, Izzati Zahidah; Noordin, Rahmah

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis is still a challenge especially in developing endemic countries with polyparasitism. In this study, three Toxocara canis recombinant antigens, rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120, were expressed and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) dipsticks. The concordance of the results of the rapid test (comprising three dipsticks) with a commercial IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) was compared against the concordance of two other commercial IgG-ELISA kits (Bordier, Switzerland and NovaTec, Germany) with the Cypress kit. Using Toxocara- positive samples, the concordance of the dipstick dotted with rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120 was 41.4% (12/29), 51.7% (15/29), and 72.4% (21/29), respectively. When positivity with any dipstick was considered as an overall positive rapid test result, the concordance with the Cypress kit was 93% (27/29). Meanwhile, when compared with the results of the Cypress kit, the concordance of IgG-ELISA from NovaTec and Bordier was 100% (29/29) and 89.7% (26/29), respectively. Specific IgG4 has been recognized as a marker of active infection for several helminthic diseases; therefore, the two non-concordant results of the rapid test when compared with the NovaTec IgG-ELISA kit may be from samples of people with non-active infection. All the three dipsticks showed 100% (50/50) concordance with the Cypress kit when tested with serum from individuals who were healthy and with other infections. In conclusion, the lateral flow rapid test is potentially a good, fast, and easy test for toxocariasis. Next, further validation studies and development of a test with the three antigens in one dipstick will be performed.

  9. New Regions of the Human Genome Linked to Skin Color Variation in Some African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first study of its kind, an international team of genomics researchers has identified new regions of the human genome that are associated with skin color variation in some African populations, opening new avenues for research on skin diseases and cancer in all populations.

  10. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  11. Poor man’s 1000 genome project: Recent human population expansion confounds the detection of disease alleles in 7,098 complete mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hie Lim eKim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of the human population has caused the accumulation of rare genetic variants that may play a role in the origin of genetic diseases. However, it is challenging to identify those rare variants responsible for specific diseases without genetic data from an extraordinarily large population sample. Here we focused on the accumulated data from the human mitochondrial (mt genome sequences because this data provided 7,098 whole genomes for analysis. In this dataset we identified 6,110 single nucleotide variants (SNVs and their frequency and determined that the best-fit demographic model for the 7,098 genomes included severe population bottlenecks and exponential expansions of the non-African population. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of mt genomes in order to ascertain the behavior of deleterious mutations. We found that such deleterious mutations barely survived during population expansion. We derived the threshold frequency of a deleterious mutation in separate African, Asian, and European populations and used it to identify pathogenic mutations in our dataset. Although threshold frequency was very low, the proportion of variants showing a lower frequency than that threshold was 82%, 83%, and 91% of the total variants for the African, Asian, and European populations, respectively. Within these variants, only 18 known pathogenic mutations were detected in the 7,098 genomes. This result showed the difficulty of detecting a pathogenic mutation within an abundance of rare variants in the human population, even with a large number of genomes available for study.

  12. The evolution of wealth transmission in human populations: a stochastic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustins, G; Etienne, L; Ferrer, R; Godelle, B; Rousset, F; Ferdy, J-B; Pitard, E

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success and survival are influenced by wealth in human populations. Wealth is transmitted to offsprings and strategies of transmission vary over time and among populations, the main variation being how equally wealth is transmitted to children. Here we propose a model where we simulate both the dynamics of wealth in a population and the evolution of a trait that determines how wealth is transmitted from parents to offspring, in a darwinian context

  13. A highly variable segment of human subterminal 16p reveals a history of population growth for modern humans outside Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Santos; Armour, John A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We have sequenced a highly polymorphic subterminal noncoding region from human chromosome 16p13.3, flanking the 5′ end of the hypervariable minisatellite MS205, in 100 chromosomes sampled from different African and Euroasiatic populations. Coalescence analysis indicates that the time to the most recent common ancestor (approximately 1 million years) predates the appearance of anatomically modern human forms. The root of the network describing this variability lies in Africa. African populations show a greater level of diversity and deeper branches. Most Euroasiatic variability seems to have been generated after a recent out-of-Africa range expansion. A history of population growth is the most likely scenario for the Euroasiatic populations. This pattern of nuclear variability can be reconciled with inferences based on mitochondrial DNA. PMID:11158547

  14. Strategies to work with HLA data in human populations for histocompatibility, clinical transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A; Vidan-Jeras, B; Nunes, J M

    2012-01-01

    QUESTIONNAIRE' has been finalized and is available for the whole HLA community. WG2 (HLA typing standards for population genetics analyses) recommends retaining maximal information when reporting HLA typing results. Rather than using the National Marrow Donor Program coding system, all ambiguities should...... and fundamental research. Such improvements involve finding consensual strategies to characterize human populations and samples and report HLA molecular typings and ambiguities; proposing user-friendly access to databases and computer tools and defining minimal requirements related to ethical aspects. The overall......-Weinberg equilibrium and selective neutrality on data containing any number and kind of ambiguities. WG4 (Ethical issues) proposes to adopt thorough general principles for any HLA population study to ensure that it conforms to (inter)national legislation or recommendations/guidelines. All HLA-NET guidelines and tools...

  15. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid Identification of Emerging Human-Pathogenic Sporothrix Species with Rolling Circle Amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Anderson M; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo P

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix infections are emerging as an important human and animal threat among otherwise healthy patients, especially in Brazil and China. Correct identification of sporotrichosis agents is beneficial for epidemiological surveillance, enabling implementation of adequate public-health policies and

  17. Mitochondrial DNA signature for range-wide populations of Bicyclus anynana suggests a rapid expansion from recent refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike A de Jong

    Full Text Available This study investigates the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the afrotropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Samples from six wild populations covering most of the species range from Uganda to South Africa were compared for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit gene (COI. Molecular diversity indices show overall high mtDNA diversity for the populations, but low nucleotide divergence between haplotypes. Our results indicate relatively little geographic population structure among the southern populations, especially given the extensive distributional range and an expectation of limited gene flow between populations. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events. Tajima's D test and Fu's F(S test both suggested recent population growth for the populations. The results were only significant for the southernmost populations when applying Tajima's D, but Fu's F(S indicated significant deviations from neutrality for all populations except the one closest to the equator. Based on our own findings and those from pollen and vegetation studies, we hypothesize that the species range of B. anynana was reduced to equatorial refugia during the last glacial period, and that the species expanded southwards during the past 10.000 years. These results provide crucial background information for studies of phenotypic and molecular adaptation in wild populations of B. anynana.

  18. Major impact: a global population policy can advance human development in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, R S

    1992-12-01

    In Tokyo, Japan, former president of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, addressed the Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute Symposium in April 1992. He reiterated a statement he made during his first presentation as president of the World Bank in September 1968--rapid population growth is the leading obstacle to economic growth and social well-being for people living in developing countries. He called for both developed and developing countries to individually and collectively take immediate action to reduce population growth rates, otherwise coercive action will be needed. Rapid population growth prevents countries from achieving sustainable development and jeopardizes our physical environment. It also exacerbates poverty, does not improve the role and status of women, adversely affects the health of children, and does not allow children a chance at a quality life. Even if developing countries were to quickly adopt replacement level fertility rates, high birth rates in the recent past prevent them from reducing fast population growth for decades. For example, with more than 60% of females in Kenya being at least 19 years old (in Sweden they represent just 23%), the population would continue to grow rapidly for 70 years if immediate reduction to replacement level fertility occurred. Mr. McNamara emphasized than any population program must center on initiating or strengthening extensive family planning programs and increasing the rate of economic and social progress. Successful family planning programs require diverse enough family planning services and methods to meet the needs of various unique populations, stressing of family planning derived health benefits to women and children, participation of both the public and private sectors, and political commitment. McNamara calculated that a global family planning program for the year 2000 would cost about US$8 billion. He added that Japan should increase its share of funds to population growth

  19. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  20. Anthropogenics: Human influence on global and genetic homogenization of parasite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution, abundance, and diversity of life on Earth have been greatly shaped by human activities. This is no truer than in the geographic expansion of parasites; however, measuring the extent to which humans have influenced the dissemination and population structure of parasites has been cha...

  1. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  2. Spatial relationship between human population density, land use intensity and biodiversity in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vačkář, David; Chobot, K.; Orlitová, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 9 (2012), s. 1279-1290 ISSN 0921-2973 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : species richness * landscape diversity * human population density * human appropriation of net primary production * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2012

  3. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  4. Rapid Generation of Human Genetic Loss-of-Function iPSC Lines by Simultaneous Reprogramming and Gene Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Tidball

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Specifically ablating genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs allows for studies of gene function as well as disease mechanisms in disorders caused by loss-of-function (LOF mutations. While techniques exist for engineering such lines, we have developed and rigorously validated a method of simultaneous iPSC reprogramming while generating CRISPR/Cas9-dependent insertions/deletions (indels. This approach allows for the efficient and rapid formation of genetic LOF human disease cell models with isogenic controls. The rate of mutagenized lines was strikingly consistent across experiments targeting four different human epileptic encephalopathy genes and a metabolic enzyme-encoding gene, and was more efficient and consistent than using CRISPR gene editing of established iPSC lines. The ability of our streamlined method to reproducibly generate heterozygous and homozygous LOF iPSC lines with passage-matched isogenic controls in a single step provides for the rapid development of LOF disease models with ideal control lines, even in the absence of patient tissue.

  5. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  6. Rapid and efficient CRISPR/Cas9 gene inactivation in human neurons during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation and direct reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Alicia; Luoni, Mirko; Giannelli, Serena G; Radice, Isabella; Iannielli, Angelo; Cancellieri, Cinzia; Di Berardino, Claudia; Regalia, Giulia; Lazzari, Giovanna; Menegon, Andrea; Taverna, Stefano; Broccoli, Vania

    2016-11-18

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a rapid and customizable tool for gene editing in mammalian cells. In particular, this approach has widely opened new opportunities for genetic studies in neurological disease. Human neurons can be differentiated in vitro from hPSC (human Pluripotent Stem Cells), hNPCs (human Neural Precursor Cells) or even directly reprogrammed from fibroblasts. Here, we described a new platform which enables, rapid and efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome targeting simultaneously with three different paradigms for in vitro generation of neurons. This system was employed to inactivate two genes associated with neurological disorder (TSC2 and KCNQ2) and achieved up to 85% efficiency of gene targeting in the differentiated cells. In particular, we devised a protocol that, combining the expression of the CRISPR components with neurogenic factors, generated functional human neurons highly enriched for the desired genome modification in only 5 weeks. This new approach is easy, fast and that does not require the generation of stable isogenic clones, practice that is time consuming and for some genes not feasible.

  7. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  8. RAPID-COMMUNICATION Genetic diversity and differentiation in natural populations of Arapaima gigas from lower Amazon revealed by microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi-Gomes, P F; Melo, N; Palheta, G; Guerreiro, S; Amador, M; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, A K; Santos, S; Hamoy, I

    2017-02-08

    Genetic variability is one of the important criteria for species conservation decisions. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and the population differentiation of two natural populations of Arapaima gigas, a species with a long history of being commercially exploited. We collected 87 samples of A. gigas from Grande Curuai Lake and Paru Lake, located in the Lower Amazon region of Amazônia, Brazil, and genotyped these samples using a multiplex panel of microsatellite markers. Our results showed that the populations of A. gigas analyzed had high levels of genetic variability, which were similar to those described in previous studies. These two populations had a significant population differentiation supported by the estimates of F ST and R ST (0.06), by Bayesian analysis (K = 2), and by population assignment tests, which revealed a moderate genetic distance.

  9. Rapid radioimmunoassay of human apolipoproteins C-II and C-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, S; Oestlund-Lindqvist, A M; Vessby, B [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1984-06-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is an activator of lipoprotein lipase, while apo C-III has the ability to inhibit apo C-II activated lipolysis. In order to study further the relationship between lipoprotein lipase mediated hydrolysis and the serum concentrations of apo C-II and apo C-III radioimmunoassays for these apolipoproteins have been developed. Formalin-treated Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I was used for immunoprecipitation and were shown to give rapid uptake of immune complexes that could easily be harvested by centrifugation. The assays were shown to be sensitive (10 ..mu..g/1), specific, precise (inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation below 10%), rapid (completed in less than 6 h) and simple to perform. Delipidation of serum and lipoproteins had no effect on the results, indicating that the immunologically active sites of apo C-II and apo C-III are exposed to the aqueous environment under assay conditions. Serum apo C-II and apo C-III levels of normolipidaemic subjects were approximately 25 mg/1 and 110 mg/1, respectively. Highly significant positive correlations were found between VLDL apo C-II and VLDL apo C-III, respectively, and VLDL triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and total serum TG. There was also a highly significant correlation between the HDL cholesterol concentration and the HDL apo C-III concentration.

  10. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  11. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics and athleticogenomics: a brief look at a rapidly changing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2008-09-01

    Since Hugh Montgomery discovered the first of what are now nearly 200 "fitness genes", together with rapid advances in human gene therapy, there is now a real prospect of the use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and suggests a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport.

  12. Demographics of an ornate box turtle population experiencing minimal human-induced disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, S.J.; Iverson, J.B.; Savidge, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Human-induced disturbances may threaten the viability of many turtle populations, including populations of North American box turtles. Evaluation of the potential impacts of these disturbances can be aided by long-term studies of populations subject to minimal human activity. In such a population of ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) in western Nebraska, we examined survival rates and population growth rates from 1981-2000 based on mark-recapture data. The average annual apparent survival rate of adult males was 0.883 (SE = 0.021) and of adult females was 0.932 (SE = 0.014). Minimum winter temperature was the best of five climate variables as a predictor of adult survival. Survival rates were highest in years with low minimum winter temperatures, suggesting that global warming may result in declining survival. We estimated an average adult population growth rate (????) of 1.006 (SE = 0.065), with an estimated temporal process variance (????2) of 0.029 (95% CI = 0.005-0.176). Stochastic simulations suggest that this mean and temporal process variance would result in a 58% probability of a population decrease over a 20-year period. This research provides evidence that, unless unknown density-dependent mechanisms are operating in the adult age class, significant human disturbances, such as commercial harvest or turtle mortality on roads, represent a potential risk to box turtle populations. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Climate variability, human wildlife conflict and population dynamics of lions Panthera leo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkel, Martina

    2013-04-01

    Large carnivores are threatened by habitat loss, declining prey populations and direct persecution. Pride dynamics of eight lion prides in the centre of the Etosha National Park, Namibia are described during a 16-year study. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the number of adult and subadult lions declined continuously to two third of its initial population size, and reached a new equilibrium in the 1990s. Pride sizes decreased from 6.3 adult females in 1989 to 2.8 lionesses in 1997. While the number of adult females declined continuously, the number of adult males, subadult females and subadult males remained constant over the years. A severe drought period, lasting for more than 20 years, led to declining prey populations inside the lions' territory. Besides declining prey populations, conflict with humans at the border of Etosha puts substantial pressure onto the lion population: 82 % of all known lion mortalities were caused by humans, and most of these consisted of adult females (28 %) and subadult males (29 %). I postulate that the considerable decline in the lion population is a response to declining prey populations, and although the human predator conflict is severe, it does not seem to limit the size of Etosha's lion population.

  14. Anthropogenics: human influence on global and genetic homogenization of parasite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Dante S; Hoberg, Eric; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, abundance, and diversity of life on Earth have been greatly shaped by human activities. This includes the geographic expansion of parasites; however, measuring the extent to which humans have influenced the dissemination and population structure of parasites has been challenging. In-depth comparisons among parasite populations extending to landscape-level processes affecting disease emergence have remained elusive. New research methods have enhanced our capacity to discern human impact, where the tools of population genetics and molecular epidemiology have begun to shed light on our historical and ongoing influence. Only since the 1990s have parasitologists coupled morphological diagnosis, long considered the basis of surveillance and biodiversity studies, with state-of-the-art tools enabling variation to be examined among, and within, parasite populations. Prior to this time, populations were characterized only by phenotypic attributes such as virulence, infectivity, host range, and geographical location. The advent of genetic/molecular methodologies (multilocus allozyme electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction-DNA [PCR-DNA] fragments analysis, DNA sequencing, DNA microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, etc.) have transformed our abilities to reveal variation among, and within, populations at local, regional, landscape, and global scales, and thereby enhanced our understanding of the biosphere. Numerous factors can affect population structure among parasites, e.g., evolutionary and ecological history, mode of reproduction and transmission, host dispersal, and life-cycle complexity. Although such influences can vary considerably among parasite taxa, anthropogenic factors are demonstrably perturbing parasite fauna. Minimal genetic structure among many geographically distinct (isolated) populations is a hallmark of human activity, hastened by geographic introductions, environmental perturbation, and global warming. Accelerating

  15. Risk factors for human-directed canine aggression in a referral level clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, M; Casey, R A; Loftus, B A; Blackwell, E J

    2017-07-07

    Risk factors for human-directed aggression were investigated using retrospective analysis of data from a referral-level clinical behaviour population in the UK. A sample of 200 cases involving human-directed canine aggression and 200 control cases involving no instance of human-directed aggression were selected at random from a population of 746 cases. The final model suggested that clinical cases with human-directed aggression were significantly younger than those presenting with other undesired behaviours (P=0.008) and that male dogs were 1.4 times more likely to be aggressive towards human beings than female dogs (P=0.019). Dogs were 1.7 times more likely to be aggressive towards people if they had attended more than five puppy classes than if they had never attended puppy class (P=0.015) and that dogs were 2.8 times more likely to be aggressive towards human beings if there was another dog between 0 months and 24 months of age in the home (P=0.004). These factors only account for 7 per cent to 10 per cent of the variance between the human-directed aggression population and the control population, but factors such as attendance at puppy classes and numbers of dogs in the household suggest the need for longitudinal studies to investigate temporal relationships.

  16. Rapid Development of Specialty Population Registries and Quality Measures from Electronic Health Record Data*. An Agile Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vaishnavi; Fish, Jason S; Mutz, Jacqueline M; Carrington, Angela R; Lai, Ki; Davis, Lisa S; Youngblood, Josh E; Rauschuber, Mark R; Flores, Kathryn A; Sara, Evan J; Bhat, Deepa G; Willett, DuWayne L

    2017-06-14

    Creation of a new electronic health record (EHR)-based registry often can be a "one-off" complex endeavor: first developing new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, followed by developing registry-specific data extractions from the EHR for analysis. Each development phase typically has its own long development and testing time, leading to a prolonged overall cycle time for delivering one functioning registry with companion reporting into production. The next registry request then starts from scratch. Such an approach will not scale to meet the emerging demand for specialty registries to support population health and value-based care. To determine if the creation of EHR-based specialty registries could be markedly accelerated by employing (a) a finite core set of EHR data collection principles and methods, (b) concurrent engineering of data extraction and data warehouse design using a common dimensional data model for all registries, and (c) agile development methods commonly employed in new product development. We adopted as guiding principles to (a) capture data as a byproduct of care of the patient, (b) reinforce optimal EHR use by clinicians, (c) employ a finite but robust set of EHR data capture tool types, and (d) leverage our existing technology toolkit. Registries were defined by a shared condition (recorded on the Problem List) or a shared exposure to a procedure (recorded on the Surgical History) or to a medication (recorded on the Medication List). Any EHR fields needed - either to determine registry membership or to calculate a registry-associated clinical quality measure (CQM) - were included in the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) shared dimensional data model. Extract-transform-load (ETL) code was written to pull data at defined "grains" from the EHR into the EDW model. All calculated CQM values were stored in a single Fact table in the EDW crossing all registries. Registry-specific dashboards were created in the EHR to display

  17. A Boom for Whom? Exploring the Impacts of a Rapid Increase in the Male Population Upon Women's Services in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gretchen; Tofa, Matalena; Finlayson, Mary; U'Ren, Julie

    2016-05-03

    A rapidly expanding natural-resource extraction industry and a growing military presence mean an increasingly male-skewed population for the city of Darwin, Australia. This has sparked concerns about the potential for increased violence against women. In this article, we present qualitative research detailing the views of 13 participants from 10 women's support services in the Darwin area. We argue that women's support services bear witness to and are tasked with responding to the impacts of population change on women, yet their work is undermined by uncertainties that stem from neoliberal funding rationales and limited demands on companies to address social issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. A rapid and simple method for cryopreservation of human liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, R; Olinga, Peter; Hof, I.H; de Jager, M.H; Verwillegen, W.A; Slooff, M.JH; Meijer, D.K F; Groothuis, Geny; Koster, H

    1. Precision-cut liver slices represent a suitable and convenient in vitro preparation for studying metabolism and toxicity mechanisms of drugs and toxic chemicals. Particularly in the case of human liver slices, cryopreservation would enable more efficient utilization of this scarce and irregularly

  19. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  20. Rapid increase of bile salt secretion is associated with bile duct injury after human liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuken, Erwin; Visser, Dorien; Kuipers, Folkert; Blokzijl, Hans; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; de Jong, Koert P.; Peeters, Paul M. J. G.; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Slooff, Maarten J. H.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Biliary strictures are a serious cause of morbidity after liver transplantation. We have studied the role of altered bile composition as a mechanism of bile duct injury after human liver transplantation. METHODS: In 28 liver transplant recipients, bile samples were collected daily

  1. Rapid increase of bile salt secretion is associated with bile duct injury after human liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuken, E; Visser, D; Kuipers, F; Blokzijl, H; Leuvenink, HGD; de Jong, KP; Peeters, PMJG; Jansen, PLM; Slooff, MJH; Gouw, ASH; Porte, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: Biliary strictures are a serious cause of morbidity after liver transplantation. We have studied the role of altered bile composition as a mechanism of bile duct injury after human liver transplantation. Methods: In 28 liver transplant recipients, bile samples were collected daily

  2. Polymer based biosensor for rapid electrochemical detection of virus infection of human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Poulsen, Claus R.; Jain, Titoo

    2011-01-01

    The demand in the field of medical diagnostics for simple, cost efficient and disposable devices is growing. Here, we present a label free, all-polymer electrochemical biosensor for detection of acute viral disease. The dynamics of a viral infection in human cell culture was investigated in a mic...

  3. RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERLEUKIN-6 INDUCES A RAPID AND REVERSIBLE ANEMIA IN CANCER-PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEKEN, J; MULDER, NH; VELLENGA, E; LIMBURG, PC; PIERS, DA; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    Initial studies have shown that recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) induces anemia. Until now, the pathophysiologic mechanism of this induced anemia has been unknown. To unravel the underlying mechanism, we examined 15 cancer patients receiving rhIL-6 as an antitumor immunotherapy in a phase II

  4. Optimising land use and consumption of livestock products in the human diet with an increasing human population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Land use related to food production is generally quantified using product-based life cycle assessments. We, however, quantified land use of diet scenarios with a land use optimization model. Energy and protein requirement of human populations, varying from 15 to 30 mil-lion people, were met with the

  5. Rapid population decline in red knots : fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego,

  6. Human regional cerebral blood flow during rapid-eye-movement sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Holm, S; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    Owing to the coupling between CBF and neuronal activity, regional CBF is a reflection of neural activity in different brain regions. In this study we measured regional CBF during polysomnographically well-defined rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep by the use of single photon emission computerized...... tomography and the new tracer 99mTc-dl-hexamethylpropyleneamine. Eleven healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 27 years were studied. CBF was measured on separate nights during REM sleep and during EEG-verified wakefulness. On awakening from REM sleep, all subjects reported visual dreams. During REM sleep...... dream experiences. On the other hand, the reduced involvement of the inferior frontal cortex observed during REM sleep might explain the poor temporal organization and bizarreness often experienced in dreams....

  7. Rapid tachyphylaxis of the glucagon-like peptide 1-induced deceleration of gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Kemmeries, Guido; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    DESIGN AND METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers (25 ± 4 years old, BMI: 24.6 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were examined with intravenous infusion of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)) or placebo over 8.5 h. Two liquid mixed meals were administered at a 4-h interval. Gastric emptying was determined, and blood samples were...... drawn frequently. RESULTS: GLP-1 decelerated gastric emptying significantly more after the first meal compared with the second meal (P = 0.01). This was associated with reductions in pancreatic polypeptide levels (marker of vagal activation) after the first but not the second meal (P ... but increased after the second test meal (P gastric emptying is subject to rapid tachyphylaxis at the level of vagal nervous activation. As a consequence, postprandial glucose control by GLP-1 is attenuated after its chronic administration...

  8. Translating human genetics into mouse: the impact of ultra-rapid in vivo genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Tomomi; Imahashi, Risa; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2014-01-01

    Gene-targeted mutant animals, such as knockout or knockin mice, have dramatically improved our understanding of the functions of genes in vivo and the genetic diversity that characterizes health and disease. However, the generation of targeted mice relies on gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is a time-consuming, laborious, and expensive process. The recent groundbreaking development of several genome editing technologies has enabled the targeted alteration of almost any sequence in any cell or organism. These technologies have now been applied to mouse zygotes (in vivo genome editing), thereby providing new avenues for simple, convenient, and ultra-rapid production of knockout or knockin mice without the need for ES cells. Here, we review recent achievements in the production of gene-targeted mice by in vivo genome editing. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  9. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

  10. Remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep but not the nocturnal melatonin surge in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Aucutt-Walter, Natalie; Divittore, Nicole; King, Tonya; Bixler, Edward O; Cronin, Arthur J

    2008-04-01

    Postoperative patients are sleep deprived. Opioids, commonly administered for postoperative pain control, are often mistakenly considered inducers of naturally occurring sleep. This study describes the effect of the opioid remifentanil on nocturnal sleep in healthy volunteers. In addition, this study tests the hypothesis that opioid-induced sleep disturbance is caused by a circadian pacemaker disturbance, reflected by suppressed nocturnal plasma concentration of melatonin. Polysomnography was performed in 10 volunteers from 11:00 pm to 7:00 am for four nights at 6-day intervals. On two nights, remifentanil (0.01-0.04 microg x kg x min) was infused from 10:30 pm to 7:00 am, and either a placebo capsule or 3.0 mg melatonin was administered at 10:30 pm. On two additional nights, saline was infused, and the placebo or melatonin capsules were administered at 10:30 pm. Blood was drawn at 12:00 am, 3:00 am, and 6:00 am to measure the plasma concentration of melatonin and cortisol. A repeated-measures analysis of variance model was used to determine the effect of remifentanil on sleep stages, the effect of remifentanil on the plasma concentration of melatonin, and the effect of exogenous melatonin on remifentanil-induced sleep disturbance. Remifentanil inhibited rapid eye movement sleep (14.1 +/- 7.2% to 3.9 +/- 6.9%). The amount of slow wave sleep decreased from 6.8 +/- 7.6% to 3.2 +/- 6.1%, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Remifentanil did not decrease melatonin concentration. Melatonin administration did not prevent remifentanil-induced sleep disturbance. An overnight constant infusion of remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep without suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  11. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration

  12. Overview of Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster provides an overview of three key lines of ongoing work at EPA/ORD/NCEA-CIN: Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard collaboration.

  13. Rapid, Directed Differentiation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic or Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, LP; Clegg, DO

    2017-01-01

    We describe a robust method to direct the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). The purpose of providing a detailed and thorough protocol is to clearly demonstrate each step and to make this readily available to researchers in the field. This protocol results in a homogenous layer of RPE with minimal or no manual dissection needed. The method presented here has been shown to be effective for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and human embry...

  14. Evaluation of the Tactical Human Optimization, Rapid Rehabilitation, and Reconditioning Program (THOR3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    0.3-0.9). Evidence from this evaluation suggests that ARSOF Soldiers may benefit from participation in THOR3 compared to other human performance...factor that was not modifiable and one of the strongest risk factors for injury. Evidence from this evaluation suggests that Soldiers may benefit from...a Motorized Vehicle 7 2 Walking or Hiking 7 2 Rough Housing or Fighting 3 1 Stepping/Climbing 1 < 1 Repairing or maintaining equipment 1

  15. Rapid Evolution from the First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis to Chronic Pancreatitis in Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Elie Aoun; Adam Slivka; Dionysios J Papachristou; David C Whitcomb; Ferga C Gleeson; Georgios I Papachristou

    2007-01-01

    Context Growing evidence suggests that recurrent acute pancreatitis leads to chronic pancreatitis, but this sequence is seldom reported in human subjects. The sentinel acute pancreatitis event hypothesis suggests that an initial episode of acute pancreatitis is the first step in a complicated series of events ultimately leading to chronic pancreatitis. Objective To identify patients who evolved from recurrent acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Setting The Severity of Acute Pancreatit...

  16. A Rapid and Simple Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Human Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanabara, Yutaro; Ueda, Yutaka

    2016-11-22

    A rapid, simple method for detecting foodborne pathogenic bacteria in human feces is greatly needed. Here, we examined the efficacy of a method that employs a combination of a commercial PCR master mix, which is insensitive to PCR inhibitors, and a DNA extraction method which used sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), and Tween 20 to counteract the inhibitory effects of SDBS on the PCR assay. This method could detect the target genes (stx1 and stx2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, invA of Salmonella Enteritidis, tdh of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, gyrA of Campylobacter jejuni, ceuE of Campylobacter coli, SEA of Staphylococcus aureus, ces of Bacillus cereus, and cpe of Clostridium perfringens) in a fecal suspension containing 1.0 × 10 1 to 1.0 × 10 3 CFU/ml. Furthermore, the assay was neither inhibited nor influenced by individual differences among the fecal samples of 10 subjects or fecal concentration (40-160 mg/ml in the fecal suspension). When we attempted to detect the genes of pathogenic bacteria in 4 actual clinical cases, we found that this method was more sensitive than standard culture method. These results showed that this assay is a rapid, simple detection method for foodborne pathogenic bacteria in human feces.

  17. Reconstructing human pancreatic differentiation by mapping specific cell populations during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramond, Cyrille; Glaser, Nicolas; Berthault, Claire

    2017-01-01

    . Endocrine maturation progresses by up-regulating SUSD2 and lowering ECAD levels. Finally, in vitro differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells mimics key in vivo events. Our work paves the way to extend our understanding of the origin of mature human pancreatic......Information remains scarce on human development compared to animal models. Here, we reconstructed human fetal pancreatic differentiation using cell surface markers. We demonstrate that at 7weeks of development, the glycoprotein 2 (GP2) marks a multipotent cell population that will differentiate...... cell types and how such lineage decisions are regulated....

  18. Key populations and human rights in the context of HIV services rendition in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; DeBruin, Debra

    2017-08-02

    In line with its half century old penal code, Ghana currently criminalizes and penalizes behaviors of some key populations - populations deemed to be at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers (SWs) fit into this categorization. This paper provides an analysis of how enactment and implementation of rights-limiting laws not only limit rights, but also amplify risk and vulnerability to HIV in key and general populations. The paper derives from a project that assessed the ethics sensitivity of key documents guiding Ghana's response to its HIV epidemic. Assessment was guided by leading frameworks from public health ethics, and relevant articles from the international bill of rights. Ghana's response to her HIV epidemic does not adequately address the rights and needs of key populations. Even though the national response has achieved some public health successes, palpable efforts to address rights issues remain nascent. Ghana's guiding documents for HIV response include no advocacy for decriminalization, depenalization or harm reduction approaches for these key populations. The impact of rights-restricting codes on the nation's HIV epidemic is real: criminalization impedes key populations' access to HIV prevention and treatment services. Given that they are bridging populations, whatever affects the Ghanaian key populations directly, affects the general population indirectly. The right to the highest attainable standard of health, without qualification, is generally acknowledged as a fundamental human right. Unfortunately, this right currently eludes the Ghanaian SW and MSM. The paper endorses decriminalization as a means of promoting this right. In the face of opposition to decriminalization, the paper proposes specific harm reduction strategies as approaches to promote health and uplift the diminished rights of key populations. Thus the authors call on Ghana to remove impediments to

  19. Implementation of universal rapid human immunodeficiency virus screening on labor and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Stacia; Huang, Chun-Chih; Fries, Melissa; Scott, Rachel K

    2018-03-01

    A case of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at a medical center in Washington, DC, resulted in the implementation of universal opt-out rapid testing of patients admitted for delivery. This article evaluates the policy's efficacy and implementation. We evaluated the implementation using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. We could not evaluate decrease in MTCT rate secondary to low sample size ( n  = 3324) and no true-positive results. Patients not tested ( n  = 458) were predominately secondary to physician omission (93.7%) and were more likely to be White ( p  < 0.01) and older ( p  < 0.01). There was a negative relationship with physician omission over time. The policy was successfully implemented with decreasing proportions of patients not tested. Earlier inclusion of testing into standard admission orders and nurse-based approach may have expedited adoption. Given the low incidence of new HIV diagnosis in labor, we were unable to assess decrease in MTCT.

  20. Rapid kinetics of dehalogenation promoted by iodotyrosine deiodinase from human thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyk, Kostyantyn D; Ballou, David P; Rokita, Steven E

    2015-07-28

    Reductive dehalogenation such as that catalyzed by iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) is highly unusual in aerobic organisms but necessary for iodide salvage from iodotyrosine generated during thyroxine biosynthesis. Equally unusual is the dependence of this process on flavin. Rapid kinetics have now been used to define the basic processes involved in IYD catalysis. Time-dependent quenching of flavin fluorescence was used to monitor halotyrosine association to IYD. The substrates chloro-, bromo-, and iodotyrosine bound with similar rate constants (kon) ranging from 1.3 × 10(6) to 1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Only the inert substrate analogue fluorotyrosine exhibited a significantly (5-fold) slower kon (0.3 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). All data fit a standard two-state model and indicated that no intermediate complex accumulated during closure of the active site lid induced by substrate. Subsequent halide elimination does not appear to limit reactions of bromo- and iodotyrosine since both fully oxidized the reduced enzyme with nearly equivalent second-order rate constants (7.3 × 10(3) and 8.6 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively) despite the differing strength of their carbon-halogen bonds. In contrast to these substrates, chlorotyrosine reacted with the reduced enzyme approximately 20-fold more slowly and revealed a spectral intermediate that formed at approximately the same rate as the bromo- and iodotyrosine reactions.

  1. Sensitivity of human auditory cortex to rapid frequency modulation revealed by multivariate representational similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanisse, Marc F; DeSouza, Diedre D

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the extent, magnitude, and pattern of brain activity in response to rapid frequency-modulated sounds. We examined this by manipulating the direction (rise vs. fall) and the rate (fast vs. slow) of the apparent pitch of iterated rippled noise (IRN) bursts. Acoustic parameters were selected to capture features used in phoneme contrasts, however the stimuli themselves were not perceived as speech per se. Participants were scanned as they passively listened to sounds in an event-related paradigm. Univariate analyses revealed a greater level and extent of activation in bilateral auditory cortex in response to frequency-modulated sweeps compared to steady-state sounds. This effect was stronger in the left hemisphere. However, no regions showed selectivity for either rate or direction of frequency modulation. In contrast, multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) revealed feature-specific encoding for direction of modulation in auditory cortex bilaterally. Moreover, this effect was strongest when analyses were restricted to anatomical regions lying outside Heschl's gyrus. We found no support for feature-specific encoding of frequency modulation rate. Differential findings of modulation rate and direction of modulation are discussed with respect to their relevance to phonetic discrimination.

  2. 99mTechnetium labelled vasoactive intestinal peptide analogue for rapid localization of tumours in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Pallela, V.; Marcus, C.S.; Diggles, L.; Pham, H.L.; Ahdoot, R.; Kalinowski, E.A.; Saeed, S.; Minami, C.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, imaging tumours with receptor specific biomolecules has been the focus of increasing interest. VIP has a high affinity for specific receptors that are expressed in high density on a large number of malignant tumours. VIP was modified (TP 3654) without compromising its biological activity, and labelled with 99m Tc. Pharmacokinetics and feasibility studies were performed in three normal volunteers and 11 patients with a history of cancer. Imaging was performed for up to two h post-injection. Within 24 h after injection of 99m Tc-TP 3654 (10-15 mCi/5 μg), approximately 70% of the tracer cleared through the kidneys, and 20% through the liver. Blood clearance was rapid. No adverse reaction was noted in any subjects. All known tumours were clearly delineated within 20 min. Findings were compared with the results of 99m Tc-MIBI, CT, MRI, or histology. There was concordance in nine patients. In the other two, only the VIP scan was positive for tumours known to express VIP receptors. The early results of imaging tumours with 99m Tc-VIP are promising and warrant further studies. (author)

  3. Long-Term Bird Assemblage Trends in Areas of High and Low Human Population Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, K.; Romagosa, C.M.; Williams, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding globally, and the impact of high human population density (HHPD) on bird species richness remains unresolved. Studies primarily focus on species richness along an urban-to-rural gradient; however, some studies have analyzed larger-scale patterns and found results that contrast with those obtained at smaller scales. To move the discussion beyond static species richness patterns, we analyzed the effect of HHPD on bird assemblage dynamics (year-to-year extinction probability, turnover, changes in species richness) across the United States over a 25-year period. We found that bird assemblages in both high and low human population density areas changed significantly over the period of record. Specifically, bird assemblages increased in species richness on average. Assemblage change in areas of HHPD was not significantly different from assemblage change in areas with LHPD. These results suggest that human population density alone does not alter the persistence of avian assemblage patterns.

  4. Preservation and rapid purification of DNA from decomposing human tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Amy; Rahman, Elizabeth; Canela, Cassandra; Gangitano, David; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree

    2016-11-01

    One of the key features to be considered in a mass disaster is victim identification. However, the recovery and identification of human remains are sometimes complicated by harsh environmental conditions, limited facilities, loss of electricity and lack of refrigeration. If human remains cannot be collected, stored, or identified immediately, bodies decompose and DNA degrades making genotyping more difficult and ultimately decreasing DNA profiling success. In order to prevent further DNA damage and degradation after collection, tissue preservatives may be used. The goal of this study was to evaluate three customized (modified TENT, DESS, LST) and two commercial DNA preservatives (RNAlater and DNAgard ® ) on fresh and decomposed human skin and muscle samples stored in hot (35°C) and humid (60-70% relative humidity) conditions for up to three months. Skin and muscle samples were harvested from the thigh of three human cadavers placed outdoors for up to two weeks. In addition, the possibility of purifying DNA directly from the preservative solutions ("free DNA") was investigated in order to eliminate lengthy tissue digestion processes and increase throughput. The efficiency of each preservative was evaluated based on the quantity of DNA recovered from both the "free DNA" in solution and the tissue sample itself in conjunction with the quality and completeness of downstream STR profiles. As expected, DNA quantity and STR success decreased with time of decomposition. However, a marked decrease in DNA quantity and STR quality was observed in all samples after the bodies entered the bloat stage (approximately six days of decomposition in this study). Similar amounts of DNA were retrieved from skin and muscle samples over time, but slightly more complete STR profiles were obtained from muscle tissue. Although higher amounts of DNA were recovered from tissue samples than from the surrounding preservative, the average number of reportable alleles from the "free DNA" was

  5. Mapping the Human Planet: Integrating Settlement, Infrastructure, and Population Data to Support Sustainable Development, Climate, and Disaster Data Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.; Downs, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    A central issue in international efforts to address climate change, large-scale disaster risk, and overall sustainable development is the exposure of human settlements and population to changing climate patterns and a range of geological, climatological, technological, and other hazards. The present and future location of human activities is also important in mitigation and adaptation to climate change, and to ensuring that we "leave no one behind" in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the international community in September 2015. The extent and quality of built infrastructure are key factors in the mortality, morbidity, and economic impacts of disasters, and are simultaneously essential to sustainable development. Earth observations have great potential to improve the coverage, consistency, timeliness, and richness of data on settlements, infrastructure, and population, in ways that complement existing and emerging forms of socioeconomic data collection such as censuses, surveys, and cell phone and Internet traffic. Night-time lights from the Suomi-NPP satellite may be able to provide near real-time data on occupance and economic activity. New "big data" capabilities make it possible to rapidly process high-resolution (50-cm) imagery to detect structures and changes in structures, especially in rural areas where other data are limited. A key challenge is to ensure that these types of data can be translated into forms useful in a range of applications and for diverse user communities, including national statistical offices, local government planners, development and humanitarian organizations, community groups, and the private sector. We report here on efforts, in coordination with the GEO Human Planet Initiative, to develop new data on settlements, infrastructure, and population, together with open data services and tools, to support disaster risk assessment, climate vulnerability analysis, and sustainable development decision making.

  6. Characterization of distinct mesenchymal-like cell populations from human skeletal muscle in situ and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecourt, Severine, E-mail: severine.lecourt@sls.aphp.fr [UPMC/AIM UMR S 974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); INSERM U974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); CNRS UMR 7215, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Marolleau, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: Marolleau.Jean-Pierre@chu-amiens.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); CHU Amiens Hopital Sud, Service d' Hematologie Clinique, UPJV, Amiens (France); Fromigue, Olivia, E-mail: olivia.fromigue@larib.inserm.fr [INSERM U606, Universite Paris 07, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Vauchez, Karine, E-mail: k.vauchez@institut-myologie.org [UPMC/AIM UMR S 974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); INSERM U974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); CNRS UMR 7215, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Genzyme S.A.S., Saint-Germain en Laye (France); Andriamanalijaona, Rina, E-mail: rinandria@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie des Tissus Conjonctifs, Faculte de Medecine, Caen (France); Ternaux, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.ternaux@orange.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Lacassagne, Marie-Noelle, E-mail: mnlacassagne@free.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Robert, Isabelle, E-mail: isa-robert@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Boumediene, Karim, E-mail: karim.boumediene@unicaen.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie des Tissus Conjonctifs, Faculte de Medecine, Caen (France); Chereau, Frederic, E-mail: fchereau@pervasistx.com [Myosix S.A., Saint-Germain en Laye (France); Marie, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.marie@larib.inserm.fr [INSERM U606, Universite Paris 07, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); and others

    2010-09-10

    Human skeletal muscle is an essential source of various cellular progenitors with potential therapeutic perspectives. We first used extracellular markers to identify in situ the main cell types located in a satellite position or in the endomysium of the skeletal muscle. Immunohistology revealed labeling of cells by markers of mesenchymal (CD13, CD29, CD44, CD47, CD49, CD62, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD15 in this study), myogenic (CD56), angiogenic (CD31, CD34, CD106, CD146), hematopoietic (CD10, CD15, CD34) lineages. We then analysed cell phenotypes and fates in short- and long-term cultures of dissociated muscle biopsies in a proliferation medium favouring the expansion of myogenic cells. While CD56{sup +} cells grew rapidly, a population of CD15{sup +} cells emerged, partly from CD56{sup +} cells, and became individualized. Both populations expressed mesenchymal markers similar to that harboured by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In differentiation media, both CD56{sup +} and CD15{sup +} cells shared osteogenic and chondrogenic abilities, while CD56{sup +} cells presented a myogenic capacity and CD15{sup +} cells presented an adipogenic capacity. An important proportion of cells expressed the CD34 antigen in situ and immediately after muscle dissociation. However, CD34 antigen did not persist in culture and this initial population gave rise to adipogenic cells. These results underline the diversity of human muscle cells, and the shared or restricted commitment abilities of the main lineages under defined conditions.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Rapid-Acting Insulin Analogs in Special Populations with Type 1 Diabetes or Gestational Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Sukumar, Nithya; Rafnsson, Snorri B

    2018-01-01

    Med, EMBASE and Cochrane Reviews were searched electronically, and their bibliographies examined to identify suitable studies for review and inclusion in a meta-analysis. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that reported data on relevant clinical outcomes. A different reviewer abstracted data...... concerns. Meta-analysis indicated severe hypoglycemic events were comparable for rapid-acting insulin analogs versus RHI (risk difference: 0.00 [95% confidence interval - 0.01; 0.01]). In the pregnancy group, insulin lispro and insulin aspart were safe and effective for both mother and fetus, with glycemic......INTRODUCTION: To assess the efficacy and safety of three available rapid-acting insulin analogs (insulins lispro, aspart and glulisine, respectively) in pregnant women, children/adolescents and people using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Pub...

  8. Genetic diversity and natural selection footprints of the glycine amidinotransferase gene in various human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asifullah; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Yuan, Kai; Xu, Shuhua

    2016-01-05

    The glycine amidinotransferase gene (GATM) plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues and is associated with multiple clinically important phenotypes. However, the genetic diversity of the GATM gene remains poorly understood within and between human populations. Here we analyzed the 1,000 Genomes Project data through population genetics approaches and observed significant genetic diversity across the GATM gene among various continental human populations. We observed considerable variations in GATM allele frequencies and haplotype composition among different populations. Substantial genetic differences were observed between East Asian and European populations (FST = 0.56). In addition, the frequency of a distinct major GATM haplotype in these groups was congruent with population-wide diversity at this locus. Furthermore, we identified GATM as the top differentiated gene compared to the other statin drug response-associated genes. Composite multiple analyses identified signatures of positive selection at the GATM locus, which was estimated to have occurred around 850 generations ago in European populations. As GATM catalyzes the key step of creatine biosynthesis involved in energy metabolism, we speculate that the European prehistorical demographic transition from hunter-gatherer to farming cultures was the driving force of selection that fulfilled creatine-based metabolic requirement of the populations.

  9. Population genetic inference from personal genome data: impact of ancestry and admixture on human genomic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jeffrey M; Gravel, Simon; Byrnes, Jake; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Musharoff, Shaila; Bryc, Katarzyna; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Brisbin, Abra; Sheth, Vrunda; Chen, Rong; McLaughlin, Stephen F; Peckham, Heather E; Omberg, Larsson; Bormann Chung, Christina A; Stanley, Sarah; Pearlstein, Kevin; Levandowsky, Elizabeth; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Auton, Adam; Keinan, Alon; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Russell, Archie; Reynolds, Andy; Clark, Andrew G; Reese, Martin G; Lincoln, Stephen E; Butte, Atul J; De La Vega, Francisco M; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2012-10-05

    Full sequencing of individual human genomes has greatly expanded our understanding of human genetic variation and population history. Here, we present a systematic analysis of 50 human genomes from 11 diverse global populations sequenced at high coverage. Our sample includes 12 individuals who have admixed ancestry and who have varying degrees of recent (within the last 500 years) African, Native American, and European ancestry. We found over 21 million single-nucleotide variants that contribute to a 1.75-fold range in nucleotide heterozygosity across diverse human genomes. This heterozygosity ranged from a high of one heterozygous site per kilobase in west African genomes to a low of 0.57 heterozygous sites per kilobase in segments inferred to have diploid Native American ancestry from the genomes of Mexican and Puerto Rican individuals. We show evidence of all three continental ancestries in the genomes of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and African American populations, and the genome-wide statistics are highly consistent across individuals from a population once ancestry proportions have been accounted for. Using a generalized linear model, we identified subtle variations across populations in the proportion of neutral versus deleterious variation and found that genome-wide statistics vary in admixed populations even once ancestry proportions have been factored in. We further infer that multiple periods of gene flow shaped the diversity of admixed populations in the Americas-70% of the European ancestry in today's African Americans dates back to European gene flow happening only 7-8 generations ago. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel tandem column method for the rapid isolation of radiostrontium from human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Cory A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Mertz, Carol J.; Dietz, Mark L.; Kaminski, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Method for separation and preconcentration of radiostrontium from human urine. ► Recoveries >98%, concentration factor of ca. 50, processing time of nearly 1 h. ► Retention model developed to assist optimization of separations on Diphonix ® column. ► Semi-automated sample preparation device developed. - Abstract: A method has been developed for the isolation of strontium from human urine for subsequent determination in sample volumes as low as 5–20 mL. This method involves the acidification of the sample using methanesulfonic acid and its decolorization using charcoal, treatment of the filtrate with Diphonix ® resin, and subsequent concentration of strontium on Sr resin. Data from retention model simulations provided the initial conditions which were then optimized by actual column separations. Diphonix ® resin was shown to be effective at removing alkali metal ions from the urine matrix under conditions that retain higher valence ions. The suggested processing method provides 99% recovery of Sr 2+ , a concentration factor of 50, and an expected per sample processing time of less than 1 h.

  11. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  12. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughton, Christian G., E-mail: daughton.christian@epa.gov

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to

  13. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughton, Christian G.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to account for

  14. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  15. Population Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients Taking Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jullien, Vincent; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Rey, Elisabeth; Jaffray, Patrick; Krivine, Anne; Moachon, Laurence; Lillo-Le Louet, Agnès; Lescoat, Anne; Dupin, Nicolas; Salmon, Dominique; Pons, Gérard; Urien, Saïk

    2005-01-01

    The influence of renal function on tenofovir pharmacokinetics was investigated in 193 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients by the use of a population approach performed with the nonlinear mixed effects modeling program NONMEM. Tenofovir pharmacokinetics was well described by a two-compartment open model in which the absorption and the distribution rate constants are equal. Typical population estimates of apparent central distribution volume (Vc/F), peripheral distribution volu...

  16. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  17. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Fay

    Full Text Available This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both, and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity, but harder to learn (identification accuracy for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  19. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  20. A new rapid method to measure human platelet cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagroop, I Anita; Persaud, Jahm Want; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Platelet cholesterol (PC) could be used to assess "tissue" cholesterol of patients with vascular disease. However, the methods available so far to measure PC involve a complex extraction process. We developed a rapid method to measure PC and assessed its correlation with serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides (TG), and non-HDL-C. We assessed repeatability (20 times, 3 participants) and reproducibility (8 times, 2 participants). A group of 47 healthy participants was studied. Blood was collected to analyze serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. Citrated blood was used to prepare a platelet pellet. A "clear soup" was produced (by disrupting this pellet using freeze-thaw and sonication cycles) and used to measure PC. Repeatability of PC showed a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.8%. The reproducibility of PC over a period of 2 months was CV 7.5% and 8.1% (8 measurements for 2 participants). The PC of participants with serum LDL-C >2.6 mmol/L (treatment goal recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) was 377 ± 120 μmol/10(12) platelets (n = 25). There was a significant correlation (Spearman, correlation coefficient) of PC (n = 25) with serum LDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), LDL-C/HDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), TG (r(s) = 0.43, P = .03), and non-HDL-C (r(s) = 0.53, P = .007). This technique of measuring PC has the advantage of being reproducible, fast, and simpler than previous methods. Thus, it may be useful for multiple sampling when investigating changes in PC in hypercholesterolemic patients. More extensive evaluation is necessary.

  1. Detection and characterization of polymorphisms in XRCC DNA repair genes in human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staynova, A.; Hadjidekova, V.; Savov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Human population is continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. The main contribution gives the exposure due to medical applications. Nevertheless, most of the damage induced is repaired shortly after exposure by cellular repair systems. The review is focused on the development and application of methods to estimate the character of polymorphisms in repair genes (XRCC1, APE1), involved in single strand breaks repair which is corresponding mainly to the repair of X-ray induced DNA damage. Since, DSB are major factor for chromosomal aberrations formation, the assays described in this review might be useful for the assessment of the radiation risk for human population. (authors)

  2. Genetic population structure accounts for contemporary ecogeographic patterns in tropic and subtropic-dwelling humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Hadley, Craig; Brewis, Alexandra A; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human populations conform to ecogeographic predictions that animals will become more compact in cooler climates and less compact in warmer ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this pattern reflects plastic responses to current environments or genetic differences among populations. Analyzing anthropometric surveys of 232,684 children and adults from across 80 ethnolinguistic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas, we confirm that body surface-to-volume correlates with contemporary temperature at magnitudes found in more latitudinally diverse samples (Adj. R2 = 0.14-0.28). However, far more variation in body surface-to-volume is attributable to genetic population structure (Adj. R2 = 0.50-0.74). Moreover, genetic population structure accounts for nearly all of the observed relationship between contemporary temperature and body surface-to-volume among children and adults. Indeed, after controlling for population structure, contemporary temperature accounts for no more than 4% of the variance in body form in these groups. This effect of genetic affinity on body form is also independent of other ecological variables, such as dominant mode of subsistence and household wealth per capita. These findings suggest that the observed fit of human body surface-to-volume with current climate in this sample reflects relatively large effects of existing genetic population structure of contemporary humans compared to plastic response to current environments.

  3. Genetic population structure accounts for contemporary ecogeographic patterns in tropic and subtropic-dwelling humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hruschka

    Full Text Available Contemporary human populations conform to ecogeographic predictions that animals will become more compact in cooler climates and less compact in warmer ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this pattern reflects plastic responses to current environments or genetic differences among populations. Analyzing anthropometric surveys of 232,684 children and adults from across 80 ethnolinguistic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas, we confirm that body surface-to-volume correlates with contemporary temperature at magnitudes found in more latitudinally diverse samples (Adj. R2 = 0.14-0.28. However, far more variation in body surface-to-volume is attributable to genetic population structure (Adj. R2 = 0.50-0.74. Moreover, genetic population structure accounts for nearly all of the observed relationship between contemporary temperature and body surface-to-volume among children and adults. Indeed, after controlling for population structure, contemporary temperature accounts for no more than 4% of the variance in body form in these groups. This effect of genetic affinity on body form is also independent of other ecological variables, such as dominant mode of subsistence and household wealth per capita. These findings suggest that the observed fit of human body surface-to-volume with current climate in this sample reflects relatively large effects of existing genetic population structure of contemporary humans compared to plastic response to current environments.

  4. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Hongjie; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Hagelberg, Erika; Zhou, Hui

    2013-09-30

    The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations.

  5. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  6. Rapid detection of structural variation in a human genome using nanochannel-based genome mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Hastie, Alex R.; Cao, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    mutations; however, none of the current detection methods are comprehensive, and currently available methodologies are incapable of providing sufficient resolution and unambiguous information across complex regions in the human genome. To address these challenges, we applied a high-throughput, cost......-effective genome mapping technology to comprehensively discover genome-wide SVs and characterize complex regions of the YH genome using long single molecules (>150 kb) in a global fashion. RESULTS: Utilizing nanochannel-based genome mapping technology, we obtained 708 insertions/deletions and 17 inversions larger...... fosmid data. Of the remaining 270 SVs, 260 are insertions and 213 overlap known SVs in the Database of Genomic Variants. Overall, 609 out of 666 (90%) variants were supported by experimental orthogonal methods or historical evidence in public databases. At the same time, genome mapping also provides...

  7. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J

    2010-10-05

    Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  8. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P DeLong

    Full Text Available Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  9. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  10. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; Hubacek, Klaus; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Ruth, Matthias; Sagdeev, Roald; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Shukla, Jagadish; Srebric, Jelena; Yakovenko, Victor M.; Zeng, Ning

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  11. Characterization of the human DNA gut virome across populations with different subsistence strategies and geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Barone, Monica; Castagnetti, Andrea; Biagi, Elena; Gallinella, Giorgio; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    It is a matter of fact that the human gut microbiome also includes a non-bacterial fraction represented by eukaryotic cells and viruses. To further explore the gut microbiome variation in human populations, here we characterized the human DNA viral community from publicly available gut metagenome data sets from human populations with different geographical origin and lifestyle. In particular, such data sets encompass microbiome information from two western urban societies (USA and Italy), as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer communities (the Hadza from Tanzania and Matses from Peru) and one pre-agricultural tribe (Tunapuco from Peru). Our results allowed for the first taxonomic reconstruction of the complex viral metacommunities within the human gut. The core virome structure included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, adenoviruses and anelloviruses. Using Random Forests and a co-occurrence analysis approach, we identified the viruses that distinguished populations according to their geographical origin and/or lifestyle. This paves the way for new research aimed at investigating the biological role of the gut virome in human physiology, and the importance of our viral counterpart in the microbiome-host co-evolutionary process. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of subsidized predators, resource variability, and human population density on desert tortoise populations in the Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Drake, K. Kristina; Walde, Andrew D.; Berry, Kristin H.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Woodman, A. Peter; Boarman, William I.; Medica, Phil A.; Mack, Jeremy S.; Heaton, Jill S.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding predator–prey relationships can be pivotal in the conservation of species. For 2 decades, desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii populations have declined, yet quantitative evidence regarding the causes of declines is scarce. In 2005, Ft. Irwin National Training Center, California, USA, implemented a translocation project including 2 yr of baseline monitoring of desert tortoises. Unusually high predation on tortoises was observed after translocation occurred. We conducted a retrospective analysis of predation and found that translocation did not affect the probability of predation: translocated, resident, and control tortoises all had similar levels of predation. However, predation rates were higher near human population concentrations, at lower elevation sites, and for smaller tortoises and females. Furthermore, high mortality rates were not limited to the National Training Center. In 2008, elevated mortality (as high as 43%) occurred throughout the listed range of the desert tortoise. Although no temporal prey base data are available for analysis from any of the study sites, we hypothesize that low population levels of typical coyote Canis latrans prey (i.e. jackrabbits Lepus californicus and other small animals) due to drought conditions influenced high predation rates in previous years. Predation may have been exacerbated in areas with high levels of subsidized predators. Many historical reports of increased predation, and our observation of a range-wide pattern, may indicate that high predation rates are more common than generally considered and may impact recovery of the desert tortoise throughout its range.

  13. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar, we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations.

  14. Comparison of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Toyota, Risa; Haraki, Shingo; Yano, Hiroyuki; Higashiyama, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshio; Yano, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumihiko; Yatani, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2017-09-27

    Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity can be a normal variant of oromotor activity, which can be exaggerated in patients with sleep bruxism. However, few studies have tested the possibility in naturally sleeping animals to study the neurophysiological mechanisms of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. This study aimed to investigate the similarity of cortical, cardiac and electromyographic manifestations of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep between guinea pigs and human subjects. Polysomnographic recordings were made in 30 freely moving guinea pigs and in eight healthy human subjects. Burst cycle length, duration and activity of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity were compared with those for chewing. The time between R-waves in the electrocardiogram (RR interval) and electroencephalogram power spectrum were calculated to assess time-course changes in cardiac and cortical activities in relation to rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. In animals, in comparison with chewing, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity had a lower burst activity, longer burst duration and longer cycle length (P motor activation in comparison to human subjects. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Progress in rapid detection and identification of unknown human and agricultural pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T; Holzrichter, J F; Milanovich, F P

    1999-01-01

    contained in pathogen systems, such as their full genomic information, can be very helpful in identifying malevolent users. In addition, it is undoubtedly true that an understanding of replication and human or other sensitivity to pathogens will improve our medical understanding of human health in general

  16. A comparison of cryopreservation methods: Slow-cooling vs. rapid-cooling based on cell viability, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and CD34+ enumeration of human umbilical cord blood mononucleated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ferry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finding of human umbilical cord blood as one of the most likely sources of hematopoietic stem cells offers a less invasive alternative for the need of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Due to the once-in-a-life time chance of collecting it, an optimum cryopreservation method that can preserve the life and function of the cells contained is critically needed. Methods Until now, slow-cooling has been the routine method of cryopreservation; however, rapid-cooling offers a simple, efficient, and harmless method for preserving the life and function of the desired cells. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of slow- and rapid-cooling to preserve umbilical cord blood of mononucleated cells suspected of containing hematopoietic stem cells. The parameters used in this study were differences in cell viability, malondialdehyde content, and apoptosis level. The identification of hematopoietic stem cells themselves was carried out by enumerating CD34+ in a flow cytometer. Results Our results showed that mononucleated cell viability after rapid-cooling (91.9% was significantly higher than that after slow-cooling (75.5%, with a p value = 0.003. Interestingly, the malondialdehyde level in the mononucleated cell population after rapid-cooling (56.45 μM was also significantly higher than that after slow-cooling (33.25 μM, with a p value p value = 0.138. However, CD34+ enumeration was much higher in the population that underwent slow-cooling (23.32 cell/μl than in the one that underwent rapid-cooling (2.47 cell/μl, with a p value = 0.001. Conclusions Rapid-cooling is a potential cryopreservation method to be used to preserve the umbilical cord blood of mononucleated cells, although further optimization of the number of CD34+ cells after rapid-cooling is critically needed.

  17. Adaptation to human populations is revealed by within-host polymorphisms in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available CD8(+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs perform a critical role in the immune control of viral infections, including those caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV. As a result, genetic variation at CTL epitopes is strongly influenced by host-specific selection for either escape from the immune response, or reversion due to the replicative costs of escape mutations in the absence of CTL recognition. Under strong CTL-mediated selection, codon positions within epitopes may immediately "toggle" in response to each host, such that genetic variation in the circulating virus population is shaped by rapid adaptation to immune variation in the host population. However, this hypothesis neglects the substantial genetic variation that accumulates in virus populations within hosts. Here, we evaluate this quantity for a large number of HIV-1- (n > or = 3,000 and HCV-infected patients (n > or = 2,600 by screening bulk RT-PCR sequences for sequencing "mixtures" (i.e., ambiguous nucleotides, which act as site-specific markers of genetic variation within each host. We find that nonsynonymous mixtures are abundant and significantly associated with codon positions under host-specific CTL selection, which should deplete within-host variation by driving the fixation of the favored variant. Using a simple model, we demonstrate that this apparently contradictory outcome can be explained by the transmission of unfavorable variants to new hosts before they are removed by selection, which occurs more frequently when selection and transmission occur on similar time scales. Consequently, the circulating virus population is shaped by the transmission rate and the disparity in selection intensities for escape or reversion as much as it is shaped by the immune diversity of the host population, with potentially serious implications for vaccine design.

  18. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fun-gal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, A.; Marcel, T.C.; Confais, J.; Crane, C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Suffert, F.; Walker, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further

  19. Rapid increase in log populations in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2012-01-01

    Down logs provide important ecosystem services in forests and affect surface fuel loads and fire behavior. Amounts and kinds of logs are influenced by factors such as forest type, disturbance regime, forest man-agement, and climate. To quantify potential short-term changes in log populations during a recent global- climate-change type drought, we sampled logs in mixed-...

  20. Validation of the Mini-TQ in a Dutch-speaking population: a rapid assessment for tinnitus-related distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, S; Plazier, M; van der Loo, E; Ost, J; Meeus, O; Van de Heyning, P; De Ridder, D

    2011-01-01

    Up to 30% of the adult population experiences tinnitus at some point in life. The aim of the present study was to validate the Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) in a Dutch-speaking population for measuring tinnitus-related distress and compare it with the extended version normally used in clinical practice and research. We assessed 181 patients at the Tinnitus Research Initiative clinic of Antwerp University Hospital. Twelve items from the TQ chosen by Hiller and Goebel based on the optimal combination of high item correlation, reliability, and sensitivity were selected and correlated to the different subscale and global scores of the TQ. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the Guttman split-half coefficient was used to confirm reliability. Correlation to the global TQ score was .93, internal consistency was .87, and reliability was .89. This study further revealed that the Mini-TQ correlates better with the different subscales of the TQ in the Dutch-speaking population. The convergence validity was confirmed, ensuring that this new instrument measures distress. In addition, the norms suggested by Hiller and Goebel were verified and established. Based on these results, the Mini-TQ is recommended as a valid instrument for evaluating tinnitus-related distress in Dutch-speaking populations for a compact, quick, and economical assessment.

  1. Generation of Human Immunosuppressive Myeloid Cell Populations in Human Interleukin-6 Transgenic NOG Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Hanazawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment contains unique immune cells, termed myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs that suppress host anti-tumor immunity and promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Although these cells are considered a key target of cancer immune therapy, in vivo animal models allowing differentiation of human immunosuppressive myeloid cells have yet to be established, hampering the development of novel cancer therapies. In this study, we established a novel humanized transgenic (Tg mouse strain, human interleukin (hIL-6-expressing NOG mice (NOG-hIL-6 transgenic mice. After transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, the HSC-transplanted NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice (HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice showed enhanced human monocyte/macrophage differentiation. A significant number of human monocytes were negative for HLA-DR expression and resembled immature myeloid cells in the spleen and peripheral blood from HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice, but not from HSC-NOG non-Tg mice. Engraftment of HSC4 cells, a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma-derived cell line producing various factors including IL-6, IL-1β, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, into HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice induced a significant number of TAM-like cells, but few were induced in HSC-NOG non-Tg mice. The tumor-infiltrating macrophages in HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice expressed a high level of CD163, a marker of immunoregulatory myeloid cells, and produced immunosuppressive molecules such as arginase-1 (Arg-1, IL-10, and VEGF. Such cells from HSC-NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice, but not HSC-NOG non-Tg mice, suppressed human T cell proliferation in response to antigen stimulation in in vitro cultures. These results suggest that functional human TAMs can be developed in NOG-hIL-6 Tg mice. This mouse model will contribute to the development of novel cancer immune therapies targeting immunoregulatory

  2. Temperature dependent rapid annealing effect induces amorphous aggregation of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Atta, Ayman M; Al-Lohedan, Hammad; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study represents an analysis of the thermal aggregation of human serum albumin (HSA) induced by novel rosin modified compounds. The aggregation process causes conformational alterations in the secondary and tertiary structures of the proteins. The conversion of globular protein to amorphous aggregates was carried out by spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic techniques to investigate the factors that are responsible for the structural, conformational and morphological alteration in the protein. Our outcome results show that the aggregation of HSA was dependent on the hydrophobicity, charge and temperature, because the formation of amorphous aggregates occurs in the presence of a novel cationic rosin compound, quaternary amine of rosin diethylaminoethyl ester (QRMAE), at 40°C and pH 7.4 (but at 25°C on similar pH value, there was no evidence of aggregate formation). In addition, the parent compound of QRMAE, i.e., abietic acid, and other derivatives such as nonionic rosin compounds [(RMPEG-750) and (RMA-MPEG-750)] do not shows the aggregating property. This work provides precise and necessary information that aid in the understanding the effects of rosin derivative compounds on HSA. This study also restrains important information for athletes, health providers, pharmaceutical companies, industries, and soft drink-processing companies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  4. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and clonal characterisation of a progenitor cell sub-population in normal human articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage displays a poor repair capacity. The aim of cell-based therapies for cartilage defects is to repair damaged joint surfaces with a functional replacement tissue. Currently, chondrocytes removed from a healthy region of the cartilage are used but they are unable to retain their phenotype in expanded culture. The resulting repair tissue is fibrocartilaginous rather than hyaline, potentially compromising long-term repair. Mesenchymal stem cells, particularly bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC, are of interest for cartilage repair due to their inherent replicative potential. However, chondrocyte differentiated BMSCs display an endochondral phenotype, that is, can terminally differentiate and form a calcified matrix, leading to failure in long-term defect repair. Here, we investigate the isolation and characterisation of a human cartilage progenitor population that is resident within permanent adult articular cartilage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Human articular cartilage samples were digested and clonal populations isolated using a differential adhesion assay to fibronectin. Clonal cell lines were expanded in growth media to high population doublings and karyotype analysis performed. We present data to show that this cell population demonstrates a restricted differential potential during chondrogenic induction in a 3D pellet culture system. Furthermore, evidence of high telomerase activity and maintenance of telomere length, characteristic of a mesenchymal stem cell population, were observed in this clonal cell population. Lastly, as proof of principle, we carried out a pilot repair study in a goat in vivo model demonstrating the ability of goat cartilage progenitors to form a cartilage-like repair tissue in a chondral defect. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we propose that we have identified and characterised a novel cartilage progenitor population resident in human articular cartilage which will greatly benefit future cell

  6. High-throughput telomere length quantification by FISH and its application to human population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Vera, Elsa; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-03-27

    A major limitation of studies of the relevance of telomere length to cancer and age-related diseases in human populations and to the development of telomere-based therapies has been the lack of suitable high-throughput (HT) assays to measure telomere length. We have developed an automated HT quantitative telomere FISH platform, HT quantitative FISH (Q-FISH), which allows the quantification of telomere length as well as percentage of short telomeres in large human sample sets. We show here that this technique provides the accuracy and sensitivity to uncover associations between telomere length and human disease.

  7. Rapid Cellular Phenotyping of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes using a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Leyton-Mange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their promise in regenerative medicine, pluripotent stem cells have proved to be faithful models of many human diseases. In particular, patient-specific stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate key features of several life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. For both modeling and regenerative approaches, phenotyping of stem cell-derived tissues is critical. Cellular phenotyping has largely relied upon expression of lineage markers rather than physiologic attributes. This is especially true for cardiomyocytes, in part because electrophysiological recordings are labor intensive. Likewise, most optical voltage indicators suffer from phototoxicity, which damages cells and degrades signal quality. Here we present the use of a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicator, ArcLight, which we demonstrate can faithfully report transmembrane potentials in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate the application of this fluorescent sensor in high-throughput, serial phenotyping of differentiating cardiomyocyte populations and in screening for drug-induced cardiotoxicity.

  8. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kikkas

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity.

  9. Rapid and sensitive multiplex single-tube nested PCR for the identification of five human Plasmodium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Aoi; Kaneko, Akira; Isozumi, Rie; Teramoto, Isao; Kimura, Masatsugu; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium in humans. Microscopy is currently used for pathogen detection, requiring considerable training and technical expertise as the parasites are often difficult to differentiate morphologically. Rapid diagnostic tests are as reliable as microscopy and offer faster diagnoses but possess lower detection limits and are incapable of distinguishing among the parasitic species. To improve global health efforts towards malaria control, a rapid, sensitive, species-specific, and economically viable diagnostic method is needed. In this study, we designed a malaria diagnostic method involving a multiplex single-tube nested PCR targeting Plasmodium mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III and single-stranded tag hybridization chromatographic printed-array strip. The detection sensitivity was found to be at least 40 times higher than that of agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide. This system also enables the identification of both single- and mixed-species malaria infections. The assay was validated with 152 Kenyan samples; using nested PCR as the standard, the assay's sensitivity and specificity were 88.7% and 100.0%, respectively. The turnaround time required, from PCR preparation to signal detection, is 90min. Our method should improve the diagnostic speed, treatment efficacy, and control of malaria, in addition to facilitating surveillance within global malaria eradication programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  11. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundModelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-a...

  12. Human Populations and the World Conservation Strategy. Commission on Ecology Paper Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J.

    This document serves as a supplement to the World Conservation Strategy (WCS) and outlines some of the critical aspects of the interaction between human populations, natural resources, and social and economic conditions. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of planning with people, and on packaging conservation programs so they are more…

  13. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in life cycle impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Struijs, Jaap; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Jan Hendriks, A.; Van De Meent, Dik

    2005-01-01

    The present paper outlines an update of the fate and exposure part of the fate, exposure and effects model USES-LCA. The new fate and exposure module of USES-LCA was applied to calculate human population intake fractions and fate factors of the freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment for 3393

  14. Nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction combined with nanospray mass spectrometry for rapid and facile quantitation of ribonucleosides in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lingzhong; Zhu, Haijing; Guan, Yafeng; Huang, Guangming

    2017-07-01

    A rapid and facile analytical method for quantification of ribonucleosides in human urine was developed by the combination of nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction and nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-MS/MS). Cellulose paper used for microextraction was modified by nano-precision deposition of uniform ultrathin zirconia gel film using a sol-gel process. Due to the large surface area of the cellulose paper and the strong affinity between zirconia and the cis-diol compounds, the target analytes were selectively extracted from the complex matrix. Thus, the detection sensitivity was greatly improved. Typically, the nanocoating cellulose paper was immersed into the diluted urine for selective extraction of target analytes, then the extracted analytes were subjected to nESI-MS/MS detection. The whole analytical procedure could be completed within 10min. The method was evaluated by the determination of ribonucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, uridine, guanosine) in urine sample. The signal intensities of the ribonuclesides extracted by the nanocoating cellulose paper were greatly enhanced by 136-459-folds compared with the one of the unmodified cellulose paper based microextraction. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the four ribonucleosides were in the range of 0.0136-1.258μgL -1 and 0.0454-4.194μgL -1 , respectively. The recoveries of the target nucleosides from spiked human urine were in the range of 75.64-103.49% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.36%. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for rapid and facile determination of endogenous ribonucleosides in urine sample. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Determination of combined sibship indices "gray zone" using 15 STR loci for central Bosnian human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musanovic, Jasmin; Filipovska-Musanovic, Marijana; Kovacevic, Lejla; Buljugic, Dzenisa; Dzehverovic, Mirela; Avdic, Jasna; Marjanovic, Damir

    2012-05-01

    In our previous population studies of Bosnia and Herzegovina human population, we have used autosomal STR, Y-STR, and X-STR loci, as well as Y-chromosome NRY biallelic markers. All obtained results were included in Bosnian referent database. In order of future development of applied population molecular genetics researches of Bosnia and Herzegovina human population, we have examined the effectiveness of 15 STR loci system in determination of sibship by using 15 STR loci and calculating different cut-off points of combined sibship indices (CSI) and distribution of sharing alleles. From the perspective of its application, it is very difficult and complicated to establish strict CSI cut-off values for determination of the doubtless sibship. High statistically significant difference between the means of CSI values and in distribution of alleles sharing in siblings and non-siblings was noticed (P < 0.0001). After constructing the "gray zone", only one false positive result was found in three CSI cut-off levels with the highest percent of determined sibship/non-sibship at the CSI = 0.067, confirming its practical benefit. Concerning the distribution of sharing alleles, it is recommended as an informative estimator for its usage within Bosnia and Herzegovina human population.

  16. Human capital of the child population and its selected determinants: Case study of Lviv city, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantyley Viktoriya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of modern economic and political destabilisation in Ukraine, human capital of the child population is considered as the most reliable indicator of socioeconomic development of the country and its regions. The primary goal of the study is the analysis of health status as the main element of human capital among the child population aged 0-14, and external and family environmental factors influencing this population group in the city of Lviv (in the light of available statistics and materials of the author’s own sociological research. Research results show a potential crisis of human capital among the child population in Lviv city. Results of own field research show a statistically important correlation between the willingness of parents to have more children and the following independent variables: number of members in the household, and the household’s income. The state of health among the child population showed a significant correlation between the following variables: household’s income, life satisfaction among parents, availability of healthcare in the place of residence, financial affordability of healthcare, physical activity among children, influence of noise and unpleasant scents.

  17. Geographic distribution of methyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of human host population isolation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Jorge MB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. This ubiquitous association between H. pylori and humans is thought to be present since the origin of modern humans. The H. pylori genome encodes for an exceptional number of restriction and modifications (R-M systems. To evaluate if R-M systems are an adequate tool to determine the geographic distribution of H. pylori strains, we typed 221 strains from Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, and evaluated the expression of different 29 methyltransferases. Results Independence tests and logistic regression models revealed that ten R-M systems correlate with geographical localization. The distribution pattern of these methyltransferases may have been originated by co-divergence of regional H. pylori after its human host migrated out of Africa. The expression of specific methyltransferases in the H. pylori population may also reflect the genetic and cultural background of its human host. Methyltransferases common to all strains, M. HhaI and M. NaeI, are likely conserved in H. pylori, and may have been present in the bacteria genome since the human diaspora out of Africa. Conclusion This study indicates that some methyltransferases are useful geomarkers, which allow discrimination of bacterial populations, and that can be added to our tools to investigate human migrations.

  18. Rapid reversal of human intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced damage by shedding of injured enterocytes and reepithelialisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep P M Derikx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR is a phenomenon related to physiological conditions (e.g. exercise, stress and to pathophysiological events (e.g. acute mesenteric ischemia, aortic surgery. Although intestinal IR has been studied extensively in animals, results remain inconclusive and data on human intestinal IR are scarce. Therefore, an experimental harmless model for human intestinal IR was developed, enabling us to clarify the sequelae of human intestinal IR for the first time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 30 patients undergoing pancreatico-duodenectomy we took advantage of the fact that in this procedure a variable length of jejunum is removed. Isolated jejunum (5 cm was subjected to 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion. Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein (I-FABP arteriovenous concentration differences across the bowel segment were measured before and after ischemia to assess epithelial cell damage. Tissue sections were collected after ischemia and at 25, 60 and 120 minutes reperfusion and stained with H&E, and for I-FABP and the apoptosis marker M30. Bonferroni's test was used to compare I-FABP differences. Mean (SEM arteriovenous concentration gradients of I-FABP across the jejunum revealed rapidly developing epithelial cell damage. I-FABP release significantly increased from 290 (46 pg/ml before ischemia towards 3,997 (554 pg/ml immediately after ischemia (p<0.001 and declined gradually to 1,143 (237 pg/ml within 1 hour reperfusion (p<0.001. Directly after ischemia the intestinal epithelial lining was microscopically normal, while subepithelial spaces appeared at the villus tip. However, after 25 minutes reperfusion, enterocyte M30 immunostaining was observed at the villus tip accompanied by shedding of mature enterocytes into the lumen and loss of I-FABP staining. Interestingly, within 60 minutes reperfusion the epithelial barrier resealed, while debris of apoptotic, shedded epithelial cells was observed in the lumen

  19. Rapid morphological changes, admixture and invasive success in populations of Ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) established in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gros , Ariane; Samadi , Sarah; Zuccon , Dario; Cornette , Raphaël; Braun , Michael P.; Senar , Juan Carlos; Clergeau , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), native of Asia and Africa, is a very successful invasive species in Europe: it has been present there for over 50 years. A recent study showed that European invasive populations occupy a colder climatic niche than in their native range but the establishment of this tropical species in temperate regions remains unexplained. Two main hypotheses may explain the success of Ring-necked parakeet in Europe: admixture between indi...

  20. Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Andrew; Colledge, Sue; Fuller, Dorian; Fyfe, Ralph; Shennan, Stephen; Stevens, Chris

    2017-12-05

    We consider the long-term relationship between human demography, food production, and Holocene climate via an archaeological radiocarbon date series of unprecedented sampling density and detail. There is striking consistency in the inferred human population dynamics across different regions of Britain and Ireland during the middle and later Holocene. Major cross-regional population downturns in population coincide with episodes of more abrupt change in North Atlantic climate and witness societal responses in food procurement as visible in directly dated plants and animals, often with moves toward hardier cereals, increased pastoralism, and/or gathered resources. For the Neolithic, this evidence questions existing models of wholly endogenous demographic boom-bust. For the wider Holocene, it demonstrates that climate-related disruptions have been quasi-periodic drivers of societal and subsistence change. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. CD146/MCAM defines functionality of human bone marrow stromal stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Zaher, Walid; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of surface markers for prospective isolation of functionally homogenous populations of human skeletal (stromal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) is highly relevant for cell therapy protocols. Thus, we examined the possible use of CD146 to subtype a heterogeneous hMSC...... population. METHODS: Using flow cytometry and cell sorting, we isolated two distinct hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cell populations from the telomerized human bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (hMSC-TERT). Cells were examined for differences in their size, shape and texture by using high...... and adipocytes on the basis of gene expression and protein production of lineage-specific markers. In vivo, hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cells formed bone and bone marrow organ when implanted subcutaneously in immune-deficient mice. Bone was enriched in hMSC-CD146(-) cells (12.6 % versus 8.1 %) and bone...

  2. HIV epidemiology. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Nuno R; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Baele, Guy; Bedford, Trevor; Ward, Melissa J; Tatem, Andrew J; Sousa, João D; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Pépin, Jacques; Posada, David; Peeters, Martine; Pybus, Oliver G; Lemey, Philippe

    2014-10-03

    Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination, and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa (in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo) was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere. Location and dating estimates were validated using the earliest HIV-1 archival sample, also from Kinshasa. The epidemic histories of HIV-1 group M and nonpandemic group O were similar until ~1960, after which group M underwent an epidemiological transition and outpaced regional population growth. Our results reconstruct the early dynamics of HIV-1 and emphasize the role of social changes and transport networks in the establishment of this virus in human populations. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Influence of physical activity in length of life of the human population in the context of changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmetović Zlatko; Romanov Romana; Dimitrić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Since the middle of the last century, the human population has increased exponentially. This trend is evident today. Human population has, for more than half a century been undergoing the period of its intensive development, increasing in number and the average length of life, creating the impression of a better life standard. Looking at the man as a bio-psycho-social being and the interactions it ones through the human population growth is brought in connection with its impact on the environ...

  4. Fine-Scale Human Population Structure in Southern Africa Reflects Ecogeographic Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Caitlin; Kim, Minju; Martin, Alicia R; Bobo, Dean; Gignoux, Christopher R; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G; Henn, Brenna M

    2016-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have established that the KhoeSan populations of southern Africa are distinct from all other African populations and have remained largely isolated during human prehistory until ∼2000 years ago. Dozens of different KhoeSan groups exist, belonging to three different language families, but very little is known about their population history. We examine new genome-wide polymorphism data and whole mitochondrial genomes for >100 South Africans from the ≠Khomani San and Nama populations of the Northern Cape, analyzed in conjunction with 19 additional southern African populations. Our analyses reveal fine-scale population structure in and around the Kalahari Desert. Surprisingly, this structure does not always correspond to linguistic or subsistence categories as previously suggested, but rather reflects the role of geographic barriers and the ecology of the greater Kalahari Basin. Regardless of subsistence strategy, the indigenous Khoe-speaking Nama pastoralists and the N|u-speaking ≠Khomani (formerly hunter-gatherers) share ancestry with other Khoe-speaking forager populations that form a rim around the Kalahari Desert. We reconstruct earlier migration patterns and estimate that the southern Kalahari populations were among the last to experience gene flow from Bantu speakers, ∼14 generations ago. We conclude that local adoption of pastoralism, at least by the Nama, appears to have been primarily a cultural process with limited genetic impact from eastern Africa. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distance from Africa, not climate, explains within-population phenotypic diversity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Lia; Balloux, François; Amos, William; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Manica, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of ancient demography and climate in determining worldwide patterns of human within-population phenotypic diversity is still open to debate. Several morphometric traits have been argued to be under selection by climatic factors, but it is unclear whether climate affects the global decline in morphological diversity with increasing geographical distance from sub-Saharan Africa. Using a large database of male and female skull measurements, we apply an explicit framework to quantify the relative role of climate and distance from Africa. We show that distance from sub-Saharan Africa is the sole determinant of human within-population phenotypic diversity, while climate plays no role. By selecting the most informative set of traits, it was possible to explain over half of the worldwide variation in phenotypic diversity. These results mirror those previously obtained for genetic markers and show that ‘bones and molecules’ are in perfect agreement for humans. PMID:19129123

  7. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  8. A mathematical model of interaction among humans, vampires and werewolves populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarti, Novriana; Nurrizky, Insan; Nuraini, Nuning

    2018-03-01

    In every country there are many fictional creatures depicting evil. In the western world, fictional creatures who often appear in horror stories are vampires and werewolves. Many released movies expose the conflict between humans with one or both creatures. In this paper, the interaction among humans, vampires and werewolves is modeled using a system of differential equations. We consider the stability of equilibrium points of the system that represent four situations; only humans remain or a disease-free condition, either vampires or werewolves are going to extinction, and no population goes extinct. The derived model is implemented for depicting some scenarios in the movie series of Underworld. The model can describe the fluctuation of vampires and werewolves population from the beginning to their extinction at 1500 years since the story started.

  9. The impact of rapid population growth, expanding urbanisation, and other factors on development in sub-Saharan Africa: the contrasting responses of Tanzania and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, M J

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities.

  10. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  11. The need for a rapid and comprehensive adoption of the revised European standard population in cancer incidence comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Dyba, Tadek; Martos, Carmen; Randi, Giorgia; Rooney, Roisin; Bettio, Manola

    2017-09-01

    As cancer incidence varies according to age, it is important to rule out differences in age structures in any comparison. A common way of adjusting for these differences is using direct age standardization, which applies age-specific weights from a standard population. Eurostat has recently introduced a revised European standard population (RESP). The effect of using the new standard, in comparison with that introduced in 1976 [European standard population (ESP)], is evaluated. Cancer incidence data for prostate and testis cancer for Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Iceland from the NORDCAN web site, and for Ireland and Italy-Genoa from Cancer Incidence in five Continents-X, were analyzed. Incidence rates were directly age standardized using ESP and RESP. The RESP conferred greater weight to adults and the elderly than the ESP. For prostate cancer, age-standardized rates computed with RESP are consistently higher by between 50 and 60% than those computed with ESP. However, the use of RESP, instead of ESP, has little impact on the pattern of time trends, the relative ranking of countries, the values of relative risks, or the percentage differences between age-standardized rates. For testis cancer, RESP and ESP provide very similar results because this cancer is more common in young men. Both ESP and RESP are in circulation. It is, therefore, important that European cancer registries reach consensus on a single standard to use to avoid erroneous comparisons of data computed with different standards. Given that Eurostat recently introduced RESP and is using this standard for data collected from the European Union Member States, it would make sense to rally behind RESP.

  12. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M

    2017-01-01

    focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. Methods: We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four...... budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes...... and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs....

  13. Rapid differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes epidemic clones III and IV and their intact compared with heat-killed populations using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond B; Puzey, Kenneth A; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis (chemometrics) could be used to rapidly differentiate epidemic clones (ECs) of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as their intact compared with heat-killed populations. FT-IR spectra were collected from dried thin smears on infrared slides prepared from aliquots of 10 μL of each L. monocytogenes ECs (ECIII: J1-101 and R2-499; ECIV: J1-129 and J1-220), and also from intact and heat-killed cell populations of each EC strain using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared region in a reflectance mode. Chemometric analysis of spectra involved the application of the multivariate discriminant method for canonical variate analysis (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). CVA of the spectra in the wavelength region 4000 to 600 cm(-1) separated the EC strains while LDA resulted in a 100% accurate classification of all spectra in the data set. Further, CVA separated intact and heat-killed cells of each EC strain and there was 100% accuracy in the classification of all spectra when LDA was applied. FT-IR spectral wavenumbers 1650 to 1390 cm(-1) were used to separate heat-killed and intact populations of L. monocytogenes. The FT-IR spectroscopy method allowed discrimination between strains that belong to the same EC. FT-IR is a highly discriminatory and reproducible method that can be used for the rapid subtyping of L. monocytogenes, as well as for the detection of live compared with dead populations of the organism. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis can be used for L. monocytogenes source tracking and for clinical case isolate comparison during epidemiological investigations since the method is capable of differentiating epidemic clones and it uses a library of well-characterized strains. The FT-IR method is potentially less expensive and more rapid compared to genetic

  14. Trichloroethylene-mediated cytotoxicity in human epidermal keratinocytes is mediated by the rapid accumulation of intracellular calcium: Interception by naringenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F; Khan, A Q; Khan, R; Sultana, S

    2016-02-01

    Industrial solvents pose a significant threat to the humankind. The mechanisms of their toxicity still remain in debate. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread industrial solvent responsible for severe liver dysfunction, cutaneous toxicity in occupationally exposed humans. We utilized an in vitro system of human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells in this study to avoid complex cell and extracellular interactions. We report the cytotoxicity of organic solvent TCE in HaCaT and its reversal by a natural flavanone, naringenin (Nar). The cytotoxicity was attributed to the rapid intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)) release, which might lead to the elevation of protein kinase C along with robust free radical generation, instability due to energy depletion, and sensitization of intracellular stress signal transducer nuclear factor κB. These effects were actually seen to induce significant amount of genomic DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, all these effects of TCE were effectively reversed by the treatment of Nar, a natural flavanone. Our studies identify intracellular Ca as a unique target used by organic solvents in the cytotoxicity and highlight the Ca(2+) ion stabilizer properties of Nar. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A Rapid, Simple, and Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantitative Analysis of Levofloxacin in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Notario

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To conduct a bioequivalence study for a copy product of levofloxacin (LEV, a simple and validated analytical method was needed, but the previous developed methods were still too complicated. For this reason, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for LEV quantification in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed under isocratic elution on a Luna Phenomenex® C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column. The mobile phase was comprised of acetonitrile, methanol, and phosphate buffer 25 mM that adjusted at pH 3.0 (13:7:80 v/v/v and pumped at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was performed under UV detector at wavelength of 280 nm. Samples were prepared by adding acetonitrile and followed by centrifugation to precipitate plasma protein. Then followed successively by evaporation and reconstitution step. The optimized method meets the requirements of validation parameters which included linearity (r = 0.995, sensitivity (LLOQ and LOD was 1.77 and 0.57 µg/mL respectively, accuracy (%error above LLOQ ≤ 12% and LLOQ ≤ 20%, precision (RSD ≤ 9%, and robustness in the ranges of 1.77-28.83 µg/mL. Therefore, the method can be used as a routine analysis of LEV in human plasma as well as in bioequivalence study of LEV.

  16. A novel UHPLC method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of daidzein, genistein and equol in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redruello, Begoña; Guadamuro, Lucía; Cuesta, Isabel; Álvarez-Buylla, Jorge R; Mayo, Baltasar; Delgado, Susana

    2015-11-15

    This work reports on a novel method involving reverse-phased ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) plus a spectrophotometric photodiode array/fluorescence (FLR) detection system for determining the concentration of equol and major soy isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) in human urine. The proposed method was validated in terms of its linearity, sensitivity, accuracy (recovery) and precision (intra- and inter-day repeatability). The isoflavone profiles of urine samples from a group of menopausal women following oral soy isoflavone supplementation were determined and compared. Screening for equol-producer status was accomplished with high sensitivity (detection limit of the FLR detector 2.93nM). The method involves a short chromatographic run time compared to conventional HPLC methods while allowing for the simultaneous and reliable quantification of daidzein, genistein and equol in human urine. It also allows for the rapid screening of multiple urine samples when testing for equol production status and checking patient adherence to isoflavone treatment regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Rapid Culture Technique Produces Functional Dendritic-Like Cells from Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies involving dendritic cells (DC as vaccines rely upon the adoptive transfer of DC loaded with exogenous tumour-peptides. This study utilized human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells as progenitors from which functional dendritic-like antigen presenting cells (DLC were generated, that constitutively express tumour antigens for recognition by CD8+ T cells. DLC were generated from AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3 using rapid culture techniques and appropriate cytokines. DLC were evaluated for their cell-surface phenotype, antigen uptake and ability to stimulate allogeneic responder cell proliferation, and production of IFN-γ; compared with DC derived from normal human PBMC donors. KG-1 and MUTZ-3 DLC increased expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR, and MUTZ-3 DLC downregulated CD14 and expressed CD1a. Importantly, both KG-1 and MUTZ-3-derived DLC promoted proliferation of allogeneic responder cells more efficiently than unmodified cells; neither cells incorporated FITC-labeled dextran, but both stimulated IFN-γ production from responding allogeneic CD8+ T cells. Control DC produced from PBMC using the FastDC culture also expressed high levels of critical cell surface ligands and demonstrated good APC function. This paper indicates that functional DLC can be cultured from the AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3, and FastDC culture generates functional KG-1 DLC.

  18. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-β1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  19. Final report on effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Kim, J.B.; Chung, K.H.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, S.R.; Yang, S.Y.

    1980-01-01

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, human life habits, expected individual exposure dose, frequencies of chromosomal aberration, gene frequencies and karyotypes in amphibia, fauna, and radiation sensitivities in microorganisms which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. Kilchonri population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2 km distance from the power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of x-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows: Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana nigromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  20. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES IN IC348: A RAPID DECLINE IN THE POPULATION OF SMALL DUST GRAINS AFTER 1 Myr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Williams, Jonathan P.; Cieza, Lucas A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in the 2-3 Myr old cluster, IC348, with the Submillimeter Array. We observed 85 young stellar objects and detected 10 with 1.3 mm fluxes greater than 2 mJy. The brightest source is a young embedded protostar driving a molecular outflow. The other nine detections are dusty disks around optically visible stars. Our millimeter flux measurements translate into total disk masses ranging from 2 to 6 Jupiter masses. Each detected disk has strong mid-infrared emission in excess of the stellar photosphere and has Hα equivalent widths larger than the average in the cluster and indicative of ongoing gas accretion. The disk mass distribution, however, is shifted by about a factor of 20 to lower masses, compared to that in the ∼1 Myr old Taurus and Ophiuchus regions. These observations reveal the rapid decline in the number of small dust grains in disks with time and probably their concomitant growth beyond millimeter sizes. Moreover, if IC348 is to form planets in the same proportion as detected in the field, these faint millimeter detections may represent the best candidates in the cluster to study the progression from planetesimals to planets.

  1. The Driving Forces of Cultural Complexity : Neanderthals, Modern Humans, and the Question of Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Laurel; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    The forces driving cultural accumulation in human populations, both modern and ancient, are hotly debated. Did genetic, demographic, or cognitive features of behaviorally modern humans (as opposed to, say, early modern humans or Neanderthals) allow culture to accumulate to its current, unprecedented levels of complexity? Theoretical explanations for patterns of accumulation often invoke demographic factors such as population size or density, whereas statistical analyses of variation in cultural complexity often point to the importance of environmental factors such as food stability, in determining cultural complexity. Here we use both an analytical model and an agent-based simulation model to show that a full understanding of the emergence of behavioral modernity, and the cultural evolution that has followed, depends on understanding and untangling the complex relationships among culture, genetically determined cognitive ability, and demographic history. For example, we show that a small but growing population could have a different number of cultural traits from a shrinking population with the same absolute number of individuals in some circumstances.

  2. Rapid, simple and highly sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamsulosin in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, N V S; Vishwottam, K N; Manoj, S; Koteshwara, M; Wishu, S; Varma, D P

    2005-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of tamsulosin (I), a highly selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analyte and internal standard, mosapride (II) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether-dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) using a Glas-Col Multi-Pulse Vortexer. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse phase Waters symmetry C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.03% formic acid-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v). The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 409.1 solidus in circle 228.1 and m/z 422.3 solidus in circle 198.3 were used to measure I and II, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.1-50.0 ng/mL for tamsulosin in human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation was 100 pg/mL with a relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve ranges. A run time of 2.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a throughput of more than 400 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong-McSweeney, D., E-mail: D.B.C.WongMcSweeney@salford.ac.uk [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Woodcock, J.S.; Peris, E.; Waddington, D.C.; Moorhouse, A.T. [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Redel-Macías, M.D. [Dep. Rural Engineering Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure–response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure–response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure–response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure–response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N = 321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. - Highlights: • The human response to construction vibration is assessed in residential environments. • Exposure–response relationships are generated based on survey and semi-empirical vibration estimation. • Annoyance, concern and acceptability are compared as response measures. • Concern and acceptability are viable measures complementing annoyance.

  4. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  5. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Chapelain

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  6. The genome of a Mongolian individual reveals the genetic imprints of Mongolians on modern human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haihua; Guo, Xiaosen; Zhang, Dong; Narisu, Narisu; Bu, Junjie; Jirimutu, Jirimutu; Liang, Fan; Zhao, Xiang; Xing, Yanping; Wang, Dingzhu; Li, Tongda; Zhang, Yanru; Guan, Baozhu; Yang, Xukui; Yang, Zili; Shuangshan, Shuangshan; Su, Zhe; Wu, Huiguang; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Shilin; Bayinnamula, Bayinnamula; Chang, Yuqi; Gao, Ying; Lan, Tianming; Suyalatu, Suyalatu; Huang, Hui; Su, Yan; Chen, Yujie; Li, Wenqi; Yang, Xu; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Wu, Qizhu; Yin, Ye; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-11-05

    Mongolians have played a significant role in modern human evolution, especially after the rise of Genghis Khan (1162[?]-1227). Although the social cultural impacts of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian population have been well documented, explorations of their genome structure and genetic imprints on other human populations have been lacking. We here present the genome of a Mongolian male individual. The genome was de novo assembled using a total of 130.8-fold genomic data produced from massively parallel whole-genome sequencing. We identified high-confidence variation sets, including 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 756,234 short insertions and deletions. Functional SNP analysis predicted that the individual has a pathogenic risk for carnitine deficiency. We located the patrilineal inheritance of the Mongolian genome to the lineage D3a through Y haplogroup analysis and inferred that the individual has a common patrilineal ancestor with Tibeto-Burman populations and is likely to be the progeny of the earliest settlers in East Asia. We finally investigated the genetic imprints of Mongolians on other human populations using different approaches. We found varying degrees of gene flows between Mongolians and populations living in Europe, South/Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. The analyses demonstrate that the genetic impacts of Mongolians likely resulted from the expansion of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century. The genome will be of great help in further explorations of modern human evolution and genetic causes of diseases/traits specific to Mongolians. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. The interplay between human population dynamics and flooding in Bangladesh: a spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Baldassarre, G.; Yan, K.; Ferdous, MD. R.; Brandimarte, L.

    2014-09-01

    In Bangladesh, socio-economic and hydrological processes are both extremely dynamic and inter-related. Human population patterns are often explained as a response, or adaptation strategy, to physical events, e.g. flooding, salt-water intrusion, and erosion. Meanwhile, these physical processes are exacerbated, or mitigated, by diverse human interventions, e.g. river diversion, levees and polders. In this context, this paper describes an attempt to explore the complex interplay between floods and societies in Bangladeshi floodplains. In particular, we performed a spatially-distributed analysis of the interactions between the dynamics of human settlements and flood inundation patterns. To this end, we used flooding simulation results from inundation modelling, LISFLOOD-FP, as well as global datasets of population distribution data, such as the Gridded Population of the World (20 years, from 1990 to 2010) and HYDE datasets (310 years, from 1700 to 2010). The outcomes of this work highlight the behaviour of Bangladeshi floodplains as complex human-water systems and indicate the need to go beyond the traditional narratives based on one-way cause-effects, e.g. climate change leading to migrations.

  8. Common features of sexual dimorphism in the cranial airways of different human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; Godoy, Paula; Rosas, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial system is an important feature of intraspecific variation in recent and fossil humans. Although several studies have reported different morphological patterns of sexual dimorphism in different populations, this study searches for common morphological aspects related to functional anatomy of the respiratory apparatus. 3D geometric morphometrics were used to test the hypothesis that due to higher daily energy expenditure and associated greater respiratory air consumption as well as differences in body composition, males should have absolutely and relatively greater air passages in the bony cranial airways than females. We measured 25 3D landmarks in five populations (N = 212) of adult humans from different geographic regions. Male average cranial airways were larger in centroid sizes than female ones. Males tended to show relatively taller piriform apertures and, more consistently, relatively taller internal nasal cavities and choanae than females. Multivariate regressions and residual analysis further indicated that after standardizing to the same size, males still show relatively larger airway passages than females. Because the dimensions of the choanae are limiting factors for air transmission towards the noncranial part of the respiratory system, the identified sex-specific differences in cranial airways, possibly shared among human populations, may be linked with sex-specific differences in body size, composition, and energetics. These findings may be important to understanding trends in hominin facial evolution. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Human migration is important in the international spread of exotic Salmonella serovars in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Bradshaw, S D; How, R A; Smith, D W

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.

  10. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  11. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  12. HOX and TALE signatures specify human stromal stem cell populations from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, Jacopo; Trombi, Luisa; Spugnesi, Laura; Barachini, Serena; Maroni, Giorgia; Brodano, Giovanni Barbanti; Boriani, Stefano; Valtieri, Mauro; Petrini, Mario; Magli, Maria Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Human stromal stem cell populations reside in different tissues and anatomical sites, however a critical question related to their efficient use in regenerative medicine is whether they exhibit equivalent biological properties. Here, we compared cellular and molecular characteristics of stromal stem cells derived from the bone marrow, at different body sites (iliac crest, sternum, and vertebrae) and other tissues (dental pulp and colon). In particular, we investigated whether homeobox genes of the HOX and TALE subfamilies might provide suitable markers to identify distinct stromal cell populations, as HOX proteins control cell positional identity and, together with their co-factors TALE, are involved in orchestrating differentiation of adult tissues. Our results show that stromal populations from different sources, although immunophenotypically similar, display distinct HOX and TALE signatures, as well as different growth and differentiation abilities. Stromal stem cells from different tissues are characterized by specific HOX profiles, differing in the number and type of active genes, as well as in their level of expression. Conversely, bone marrow-derived cell populations can be essentially distinguished for the expression levels of specific HOX members, strongly suggesting that quantitative differences in HOX activity may be crucial. Taken together, our data indicate that the HOX and TALE profiles provide positional, embryological and hierarchical identity of human stromal stem cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that cell populations derived from different body sites may not represent equivalent cell sources for cell-based therapeutical strategies for regeneration and repair of specific tissues. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Joshi

    Full Text Available Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  14. Distribution of the 3' VNTR polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter gene in world populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R J; Howlett, S; Earl, L; White, N G; McComb, J; Schanfield, M S; Briceno, I; Papiha, S S; Osipova, L; Livshits, G; Leonard, W R; Crawford, M H

    2000-04-01

    A polymorphism with a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) found in the 3' untranslated region of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) was scored in unrelated individuals drawn from 10 geographically widely dispersed populations in order to assess this marker's usefulness in human population genetics. The populations that were analyzed in this study included 4 indigenous groups of Siberia, natives of North and South America, as well as Caucasian and Oceanic groups, most of which represented small-scale societies. A total of 5 DAT1 alleles were seen overall, but only in one Siberian population, the Altai-Kizhi, were all 5 present, and in the Native Americans of Colombia the locus was monomorphic. The most common allele, DAT1*10, ranged in frequency from 52% in Greeks to 100% in South Americans. The high frequency of the DAT1*10 allele (approximately 90%) among Mongoloid groups of north and east Asia distinguishes them from most Caucasian groups. The presence of the rare DAT1*7 allele in relatively high frequency (approximately 5%) among all Siberian groups suggests a close affinity with north Asian groups, especially Mongolians. The presence of the even rarer DAT1*13 allele in one Siberian population, the Altai-Kizhi, reflects this group's long historical contact with Mongolians. The results demonstrated that the DAT1 VNTR polymorphism is useful in investigating population relationships, and that rare alleles at this locus may be particularly valuable in understanding the extent of genetic affinity between neighboring groups and in situations where admixture is suspected. However, because of both the association and linkage of this VNTR locus with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, and its highly restricted polymorphism (usually 3 alleles) in most human groups, the possibility of selection constraints on the DAT1 gene cannot be ignored.

  15. Human-mediated extirpation of the unique Chatham Islands sea lion and implications for the conservation management of remaining New Zealand sea lion populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Collins, Catherine J; Anderson, Christian N K; Maxwell, Justin J; Smith, Ian W G; Robertson, Bruce C; Knapp, Michael; Horsburgh, Katherine Ann; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Scofield, R Paul; Tennyson, Alan J D; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Waters, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    While terrestrial megafaunal extinctions have been well characterized worldwide, our understanding of declines in marine megafauna remains limited. Here, we use ancient DNA analyses of prehistoric (extinct within 200 years due to overhunting, paralleling the extirpation of a similarly large endemic mainland population. Whole mitogenomic analyses confirm substantial intraspecific diversity among prehistoric lineages. Demographic models suggest that even low harvest rates would likely have driven rapid extinction of these lineages. This study indicates that surviving Phocarctos populations are remnants of a once diverse and widespread sea lion assemblage, highlighting dramatic human impacts on endemic marine biodiversity. Our findings also suggest that Phocarctos bycatch in commercial fisheries may contribute to the ongoing population decline. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils and combining with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone defects healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Bihua; Luo, Xueshi; Li, Zhiwen [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhuang, Caiping [Department of Anesthesiology, Huizhou Central People' s Hospital, Huizhou 516001 (China); Li, Lihua, E-mail: tlihuali@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Lu, Lu; Ding, Shan; Tian, Jinhuan [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Collagen biomineralization is regulated by complicated interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. Here, the use of sodium tripolyphosphate to simulate the templating functional motif of the C-terminal fragment of non-collagenous proteins is reported, and a low molecular weight polyacrylic acid served as a sequestration agent to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate into nanoprecursors. Self-assembled collagen fibrils served as a fixed template for achieving rapid biomimetic mineralization in vitro. Results demonstrated that, during the mineralization process, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar hydroxyapatite mineral with collagen fibrils formed and did so via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallization approach in the presence of these dual biomimetic functional analogues. In vitro human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) culture found that the mineralized scaffolds have a better cytocompatibility in terms of cell viability, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteoblasts. A rabbit femoral condyle defect model was established to confirm the ability of the n-HA/collagen scaffolds to facilitate bone regeneration and repair. The images of gross anatomy, MRI, CT and histomorphology taken 6 and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the biomimetic mineralized collagen scaffolds with hUCMSCs can promote the healing speed of bone defects in vivo, and both of the scaffolds groups performing better than the bone defect control group. As new bone tissue formed, the scaffolds degraded and were gradually absorbed. All these results demonstrated that both of the scaffolds and cells have better histocompatibility. - Highlights: • A rapid and facile biomimetic mineralization approach is proposed. • Intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralization of collagen fibrils was achieved. • HA/COL scaffolds promote hUCMSCs adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. • Feasibility of h

  17. Rapid effects of 17beta-estradiol on epithelial TRPV6 Ca2+ channel in human T84 colonic cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2008-11-01

    The control of calcium homeostasis is essential for cell survival and is of crucial importance for several physiological functions. The discovery of the epithelial calcium channel Transient Receptor Potential Vaniloid (TRPV6) in intestine has uncovered important Ca(2+) absorptive pathways involved in the regulation of whole body Ca(2+) homeostasis. The role of steroid hormone 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), in [Ca(2+)](i) regulation involving TRPV6 has been only limited at the protein expression levels in over-expressing heterologous systems. In the present study, using a combination of calcium-imaging, whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and siRNA technology to specifically knockdown TRPV6 protein expression, we were able to (i) show that TRPV6 is natively, rather than exogenously, expressed at mRNA and protein levels in human T84 colonic cells, (ii) characterize functional TRPV6 channels and (iii) demonstrate, for the first time, the rapid effects of E(2) in [Ca(2+)](i) regulation involving directly TRPV6 channels in T84 cells. Treatment with E(2) rapidly (<5 min) enhanced [Ca(2+)](i) and this increase was partially but significantly prevented when cells were pre-treated with ruthenium red and completely abolished in cells treated with siRNA specifically targeting TRPV6 protein expression. These results indicate that when cells are stimulated by E(2), Ca(2+) enters the cell through TRPV6 channels. TRPV6 channels in T84 cells contribute to the Ca(2+) entry\\/signalling pathway that is sensitive to 17beta-estradiol.

  18. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils and combining with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone defects healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Bihua; Luo, Xueshi; Li, Zhiwen; Zhuang, Caiping; Li, Lihua; Lu, Lu; Ding, Shan; Tian, Jinhuan; Zhou, Changren

    2016-01-01

    Collagen biomineralization is regulated by complicated interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. Here, the use of sodium tripolyphosphate to simulate the templating functional motif of the C-terminal fragment of non-collagenous proteins is reported, and a low molecular weight polyacrylic acid served as a sequestration agent to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate into nanoprecursors. Self-assembled collagen fibrils served as a fixed template for achieving rapid biomimetic mineralization in vitro. Results demonstrated that, during the mineralization process, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar hydroxyapatite mineral with collagen fibrils formed and did so via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallization approach in the presence of these dual biomimetic functional analogues. In vitro human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) culture found that the mineralized scaffolds have a better cytocompatibility in terms of cell viability, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteoblasts. A rabbit femoral condyle defect model was established to confirm the ability of the n-HA/collagen scaffolds to facilitate bone regeneration and repair. The images of gross anatomy, MRI, CT and histomorphology taken 6 and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the biomimetic mineralized collagen scaffolds with hUCMSCs can promote the healing speed of bone defects in vivo, and both of the scaffolds groups performing better than the bone defect control group. As new bone tissue formed, the scaffolds degraded and were gradually absorbed. All these results demonstrated that both of the scaffolds and cells have better histocompatibility. - Highlights: • A rapid and facile biomimetic mineralization approach is proposed. • Intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralization of collagen fibrils was achieved. • HA/COL scaffolds promote hUCMSCs adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. • Feasibility of h

  19. The variation field of the radiosensitivity in the human population: hypersensitivity and hypo sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffler, S.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally admitted in the radiotherapy practice that 5% of patients will present serious reactions of normal tissues. Studies made on human population confirm it exists variations of cell radiosensitivity and genetic factors contribute in a significant manner to the observed variations. The researches of markers able to predict the reactions of normal tissues to the therapy focussed on the identification of sensitive sub-group. It is however obvious that exists also a part of the population relatively hypo sensitive. It would be interesting to make studies on the genome to find genes associated to serious reactions of normal tissues to radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  20. Testing human sperm chemotaxis: how to detect biased motion in population assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Armon

    Full Text Available Biased motion of motile cells in a concentration gradient of a chemoattractant is frequently studied on the population level. This approach has been particularly employed in human sperm chemotactic assays, where the fraction of responsive cells is low and detection of biased motion depends on subtle differences. In these assays, statistical measures such as population odds ratios of swimming directions can be employed to infer chemotactic performance. Here, we report on an improved method to assess statistical significance of experimentally determined odds ratios and discuss the strong impact of data correlations that arise from the directional persistence of sperm swimming.

  1. A survey of a population of anaesthesiologists from South India regarding practices for rapid sequence intubation in patients with head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyen Parida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Evidence and utility of the individual steps of the rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation protocols have been debated, especially in the setting of traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this survey was to determine preferences in the current approach to rapid sequence intubation ( RSI in head injury patients among a population of anaesthesiologists from South India. Methods: A questionnaire was E-mailed to all the members of the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists′ South Zone Chapter to ascertain their preferences, experience and comfort level with regard to their use of rapid sequence intubation techniques in adult patients with head injury. Participants were requested to indicate their practices for RSI technique for a head-injured patient upon arrival at the Emergency Medical Services department of their hospital. Results: The total response rate was 56.9% (530/932. Of the total respondents, 35% of the clinicians used cricoid pressure routinely, most respondents (68% stated that they pre-oxygenate the patients for about 3 min prior to RSI, thiopentone (61% and propofol (34% were commonly used prior to intubation. Rocuronium was the muscle relaxant of choice for RSI among the majority (44%, compared to succinylcholine (39%. Statistical analyses were performed after the initial entry onto a spreadsheet. Data were summarised descriptively using frequency distribution. Conclusion: In a rapid sequence intubation situation, the practice differed significantly among anaesthesiologists. Owing to disagreements and paucity of evidence-based data regarding the standards of RSI, it is apparent that RSI practice still has considerable variability in clinical practice.

  2. Inter-chromosomal variation in the pattern of human population genetic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baye Tesfaye M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emerging technologies now make it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of genetic variations in individuals, across the genome. The study of loci at finer scales will facilitate the understanding of genetic variation at genomic and geographic levels. We examined global and chromosomal variations across HapMap populations using 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms to search for the most stratified genomic regions of human populations and linked these regions to ontological annotation and functional network analysis. To achieve this, we used five complementary statistical and genetic network procedures: principal component (PC, cluster, discriminant, fixation index (FST and network/pathway analyses. At the global level, the first two PC scores were sufficient to account for major population structure; however, chromosomal level analysis detected subtle forms of population structure within continental populations, and as many as 31 PCs were required to classify individuals into homogeneous groups. Using recommended population ancestry differentiation measures, a total of 126 regions of the genome were catalogued. Gene ontology and networks analyses revealed that these regions included the genes encoding oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2, hect domain and RLD 2 (HERC2, ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR and solute carrier family 45, member 2 (SLC45A2. These genes are associated with melanin production, which is involved in the development of skin and hair colour, skin cancer and eye pigmentation. We also identified the genes encoding interferon-γ (IFNG and death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1, which are associated with cell death, inflammatory and immunological diseases. An in-depth understanding of these genomic regions may help to explain variations in adaptation to different environments. Our approach offers a comprehensive strategy for analysing chromosome-based population structure and differentiation, and demonstrates the

  3. Effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.

    1979-01-01

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, the fauna of land nocturnal insects, and the karyotypes of amphibian species which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. ''Kilchunri'' population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2km distance from power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of X-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna of nocturnal land insects were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows; Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana migromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, and Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  4. Circadian analysis of large human populations: inferences from the power grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowie, Adam C; Amicarelli, Mario J; Crosier, Caitlin J; Mymko, Ryan; Glass, J David

    2015-03-01

    Few, if any studies have focused on the daily rhythmic nature of modern industrialized populations. The present study utilized real-time load data from the U.S. Pacific Northwest electrical power grid as a reflection of human operative household activity. This approach involved actigraphic analyses of continuously streaming internet data (provided in 5 min bins) from a human subject pool of approximately 43 million primarily residential users. Rhythm analyses reveal striking seasonal and intra-week differences in human activity patterns, largely devoid of manufacturing and automated load interference. Length of the diurnal activity period (alpha) is longer during the spring than the summer (16.64 h versus 15.98 h, respectively; p job-related or other weekday morning arousal cues, substantiating a preference or need to sleep longer on weekends. Finally, a shift in onset time can be seen during the transition to Day Light Saving Time, but not the transition back to Standard Time. The use of grid power load as a means for human actimetry assessment thus offers new insights into the collective diurnal activity patterns of large human populations.

  5. Variable effects of cinder-cone eruptions on prehistoric agrarian human populations in the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Michael H.; Elson, Mark D.; Anderson, Kirk C.; Duffield, Wendell A.; Samples, Terry L.

    2008-10-01

    Two ˜ 900 BP cinder-cone eruptions in the American Southwest affected prehistoric human populations in different ways, mostly because of differences in the eruption styles and area affected. Primary pre-eruption cultural factors that may have led to successful adaptation to the eruptions include decision-making at the family or household level, low investment in site structures, dispersion of agricultural sites in varied environments, and settlement spread over a large area so that those who were less affected could shelter and feed evacuees. Sunset Crater, near Flagstaff, Arizona, produced about 8 km 2 lava flow fields and a ˜ 2300-km 2 tephra blanket in an area that had been settled by prehistoric groups for at least 1000 years. Local subsistence relied on agriculture, primarily maize, and > 30 cm tephra cover rendered 265 km 2 of prime land unfarmable. This area was apparently abandoned for at least several generations. A > 500-km 2 area was probably marked by collapsed roofs and other structural damage from the fallout. If the eruption occurred during the agricultural season, the fallout would also have significantly damaged crops. The eruption did have some benefits to local groups because lower elevation land, which had previously been too dry to farm, became agriculturally productive due to 3-8 cm of tephra 'mulch' and some temporary soil nutrient improvements. This previously uninhabited land became the site of significant year-round settlement and farming, eventually containing some of the largest pueblo structures ever built in the region. New agricultural techniques were developed to manage the fallout mulch. The eruption also affected ceramic production and trading patterns, and volcano-related ritual behavior - the production of maize-impressed lava-spatter agglutinate - was initiated. Little Springs Volcano, about 200 km northwest of Sunset Crater, is a small spatter rampart around a series of vents that produced about 5 km 2 of lava flow fields

  6. COHORT EFFECTS OF SUICIDE MORTALITY ARE SEX SPECIFIC IN THE RAPIDLY DEVELOPED HONG KONG CHINESE POPULATION, 1976-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y; Yip, Benjamin H K; Chan, Sandra S M; Wong, Samuel Y S

    2016-06-01

    To examine temporal variations of age, period, and cohort on suicide mortality rate in Hong Kong (HK) from 1976 to 2010, and speculate the macroenvironmental mechanisms of the observed trends. Poisson age-period-cohort modeling was used to delineate the effects of age, period, and cohort on suicide mortality. Analysis by sex was also conducted to examine if gender difference exists for suicidal behaviours. Age-cohort model provides the best fit to the mortality data, implying that the cohort effect is likely to explain more of the contributions to HK's suicide mortality pattern than the period effect. Risk of suicide mortality increases nonlinearly with age and accelerates after age 65-69 for both sexes. Moreover, the cohort effects differ between the sexes-risk of mortality increases continually for men born after 1961, but no change is observed for women since the 1941 cohort. With increased risk of suicide mortality in younger cohorts and the age effect of suicide mortality, we may see future increase in suicide mortality as these younger cohorts age. Further studies are needed to clarify plausible associations between broader sociohistorical changes in the population impacting psychological risk factors and suicidal behaviour to better inform suicide prevention strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Coral reef degradation is not correlated with local human population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F.; Valdivia, Abel

    2016-07-01

    The global decline of reef-building corals is understood to be due to a combination of local and global stressors. However, many reef scientists assume that local factors predominate and that isolated reefs, far from human activities, are generally healthier and more resilient. Here we show that coral reef degradation is not correlated with human population density. This suggests that local factors such as fishing and pollution are having minimal effects or that their impacts are masked by global drivers such as ocean warming. Our results also suggest that the effects of local and global stressors are antagonistic, rather than synergistic as widely assumed. These findings indicate that local management alone cannot restore coral populations or increase the resilience of reefs to large-scale impacts. They also highlight the truly global reach of anthropogenic warming and the immediate need for drastic and sustained cuts in carbon emissions.

  8. Gene Frequency and Heritability of Rh Blood Group Gene in 44 Human Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of RhD and Rhd alleles of Rh blood group gene was estimated in 44 human populations distributed all over the world from the RhD phenotypic data. The average frequency of RhD and Rhd allele over these populations was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Higher frequency of RhD allele than the expected estimate (0.50 in all the populations, under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium condition assuming equal frequency of both alleles in the initial population, indicated inbreeding at RhD/d locus as well as natural selection for RhD allele. Very high heritability estimate (84.04% of Rh allele frequency revealed that this trait was under weak selection pressure and resulted in greater genetic variation in existing populations. It is consistent with Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection. The results from the present study suggest that inbreeding at RhD/d locus and some other factors (possibly mutation, migration and genetic drift other than natural selection alone played major roles in changing the Rh allele frequency in these populations.

  9. Biodiversity, Extinction, and Humanity’s Future: The Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Human Population and Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Hindmarsh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human actions have altered global environments and reduced biodiversity by causing extinctions and reducing the population sizes of surviving species. Increasing human population size and per capita resource use will continue to have direct and indirect ecological and evolutionary consequences. As a result, future generations will inhabit a planet with significantly less wildlife, reduced evolutionary potential, diminished ecosystem services, and an increased likelihood of contracting infectious disease. The magnitude of these effects will depend on the rate at which global human population and/or per capita resource use decline to sustainable levels and the degree to which population reductions result from increased death rates rather than decreased birth rates.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; André, François-Xavier; Denis, Olivier; Coenye, Tom; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-07-09

    While Staphylococcus epidermidis, as part of the commensal flora, is a well-known human opportunistic pathogen, only little is known about the genetic relatedness of S. epidermidis carriage isolates from animal and human origin. This study aimed to compare S. epidermidis recovered from livestock, livestock-farmers and humans associated with the hospital environment. A total of 193 S. epidermidis isolates from three populations [animals (n=33), farmers (n=86) and hospital-associated (n=74)] were characterized by broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The overall S. epidermidis nasal colonization rate was low in animals (1-9%) but high among farmers (75%). High levels of multi-resistance were found in all populations. Tetracycline resistance was high in animal and farmer isolates; resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim was high in animal and hospital-associated isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis - MRSE isolates were found in all collections, with 22 (67%) MRSE in animals, 44 (51%) MRSE in farmers and 42 (57%) MRSE associated with the hospital-setting. Known SCCmec types and variants were detected in 79% of MRSE; the rest were non-typeable cassettes. In total 79 PFGE-types were found, of which 22 were shared between livestock, farmers and the hospital settings. Clonal complex 2 was predominant in all three populations and most STs corresponded to types previously observed in community and nosocomial S. epidermidis populations. S. epidermidis isolates from livestock, farmers and hospital-setting showed a high level of diversity, but some clones can be found in humans as well as in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide and paternal diversity reveal a recent origin of human populations in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Haber, Marc, 1980-; Martínez Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre A; Elgaaied, Amel Benammar; Comas, David, 1969-

    2013-01-01

    The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete descr...

  12. Genetic radiation effects and natural radioactivity of human population in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1972-01-01

    A study on areas of natural radioactivity is done, covering the genetic effects on human population. The study is done in depth dealing with aspecto such as radioactive area involved, discussion of materials and methods, errors and fallacies, influential factors, models, buildup and natural radioactivity, hypotheses, results and perspectives, etc. It covers 24 localites, 8.572 couples and 43.930 pregnancy cases [pt

  13. Human population and atmospheric carbon dioxide growth dynamics: Diagnostics for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsler, A. D.; Sornette, D.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze the growth rates of human population and of atmospheric carbon dioxide by comparing the relative merits of two benchmark models, the exponential law and the finite-time-singular (FTS) power law. The later results from positive feedbacks, either direct or mediated by other dynamical variables, as shown in our presentation of a simple endogenous macroeconomic dynamical growth model describing the growth dynamics of coupled processes involving human population (labor in economic terms), capital and technology (proxies by CO2 emissions). Human population in the context of our energy intensive economies constitutes arguably the most important underlying driving variable of the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Using some of the best databases available, we perform empirical analyses confirming that the human population on Earth has been growing super-exponentially until the mid-1960s, followed by a decelerated sub-exponential growth, with a tendency to plateau at just an exponential growth in the last decade with an average growth rate of 1.0% per year. In contrast, we find that the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has continued to accelerate super-exponentially until 1990, with a transition to a progressive deceleration since then, with an average growth rate of approximately 2% per year in the last decade. To go back to CO2 atmosphere contents equal to or smaller than the level of 1990 as has been the broadly advertised goals of international treaties since 1990 requires herculean changes: from a dynamical point of view, the approximately exponential growth must not only turn to negative acceleration but also negative velocity to reverse the trend.

  14. A Quantitative Comparison of the Similarity between Genes and Geography in Worldwide Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure. PMID:22927824

  15. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  16. Discovery of rare, diagnostic AluYb8/9 elements in diverse human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feusier, Julie; Witherspoon, David J; Scott Watkins, W; Goubert, Clément; Sasani, Thomas A; Jorde, Lynn B

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic human Alu elements are excellent tools for assessing population structure, and new retrotransposition events can contribute to disease. Next-generation sequencing has greatly increased the potential to discover Alu elements in human populations, and various sequencing and bioinformatics methods have been designed to tackle the problem of detecting these highly repetitive elements. However, current techniques for Alu discovery may miss rare, polymorphic Alu elements. Combining multiple discovery approaches may provide a better profile of the polymorphic Alu mobilome. Alu Yb8/9 elements have been a focus of our recent studies as they are young subfamilies (~2.3 million years old) that contribute ~30% of recent polymorphic Alu retrotransposition events. Here, we update our ME-Scan methods for detecting Alu elements and apply these methods to discover new insertions in a large set of individuals with diverse ancestral backgrounds. We identified 5,288 putative Alu insertion events, including several hundred novel Alu Yb8/9 elements from 213 individuals from 18 diverse human populations. Hundreds of these loci were specific to continental populations, and 23 non-reference population-specific loci were validated by PCR. We provide high-quality sequence information for 68 rare Alu Yb8/9 elements, of which 11 have hallmarks of an active source element. Our subfamily distribution of rare Alu Yb8/9 elements is consistent with previous datasets, and may be representative of rare loci. We also find that while ME-Scan and low-coverage, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) detect different Alu elements in 41 1000 Genomes individuals, the two methods yield similar population structure results. Current in-silico methods for Alu discovery may miss rare, polymorphic Alu elements. Therefore, using multiple techniques can provide a more accurate profile of Alu elements in individuals and populations. We improved our false-negative rate as an indicator of sample quality for future

  17. [The awareness and attitude of population of Kazakhstan to inoculation against human papilloma virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasritdinova, N Yu; Reznik, V L; Kuatbaieva, A M; Kairbaiev, M R

    2016-01-01

    The vaccines against human papilloma virus are a potential tool for prevention of cervix cancer and particular other types of cancer. The high inclusion of target group in applied vaccination program is economically effective and successful activity depending in many instances on reliable knowledge and positive attitude of population to inoculation. The cross-sectional study was carried out using previously developed anonymous questionnaires for various groups of population in four pilot regions of Kazakhstan where national ministry of health proposes for inoculation of girls aged 9-13 years two vaccines against human papilloma virus (four- and two-valence) The data base was organized using software Microsoft Access. The materials were integrated and processed using variation statistics techniques in software IBM SPSS Statistics 19 and applying Student criterion and calculating correlation dependences. Out of all respondents, 66% were aware about existence of human papilloma virus/ the main portion of parents 'female adolescents learned about vaccination against human papilloma virus from Internet and medical workers. The most significant factor preventing implementation of vaccination and the proper perception by respondents was absence of confidence in safety of vaccine. About 54% of parents of female adolescents and 75% of teachers consider vaccine as unsafe. And only 72% of medical workers consider vaccine as safe. Despite known effectiveness of vaccination against human papilloma virus, number of problems exist related to implementation of program. The level of awareness and understanding of different groups of population concerning the role of vaccination in development of oncologic pathology and possibility of prevention of cancer at the expense of vaccination. The intersectoral relationships are to be developed between medicine and education system. The significance of information activities of medical control organs and organizations is to be enhanced.

  18. Genome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Pardis C; Varilly, Patrick; Fry, Ben; Lohmueller, Jason; Hostetter, Elizabeth; Cotsapas, Chris; Xie, Xiaohui; Byrne, Elizabeth H; McCarroll, Steven A; Gaudet, Rachelle; Schaffner, Stephen F; Lander, Eric S; Fra