WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid human behavioral

  1. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  2. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  3. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  4. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  5. Characteristics of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Frandsen, Rune Asger Vestergaard; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with Parkinsonian disorders, but is also reported in narcolepsy. Most patients...... of hypocretin deficiency. Thus, hypocretin deficiency is linked to the two major disturbances of REM sleep motor regulation in narcolepsy: RBD and cataplexy. Moreover, it is likely that hypocretin deficiency independently predicts periodic limb movements in REM and NREM sleep, probably via involvement...... of the dopaminergic system. This supports the hypothesis that an impaired hypocretin system causes general instability of motor regulation during wakefulness, REM and NREM sleep in human narcolepsy. We propose that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor tone control during wakefulness and sleep in humans...

  6. Challenges in human behavior understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different

  7. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  8. Fuel cladding behavior under rapid loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, K.; Karlsson, J.; Stjärnsäter, J.; Schrire, D.; Ledergerber, G.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Hallstadius, L.

    2016-02-01

    A modified burst test (MBT) was used in an extensive test program to characterize fuel cladding failure behavior under rapid loading conditions. The MBT differs from a normal burst test with the use of a driver tube to simulate the expansion of a fuel pellet, thereby producing a partial strain driven deformation condition similar to that of a fuel pellet expansion in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). A piston/cylinder assembly was used to pressurize the driver tube. By controlling the speed and distance the piston travels the loading rate and degree of sample deformation could be controlled. The use of a driver tube with a machined gauge section localizes deformation and allows for continuous monitoring of the test sample diameter change at the location of maximum hoop strain, during each test. Cladding samples from five irradiated fuel rods were tested between 296 and 553 K and loading rates from 1.5 to 3.5/s. The test rods included variations of Zircaloy-2 with different liners and ZIRLO, ranging in burn-up from 41 to 74 GWd/MTU. The test results show cladding ductility is strongly temperature and loading rate dependent. Zircaloy-2 cladding ductility degradation due to operational hydrogen pickup started to recover at approximately 358 K for test condition used in the study. This recovery temperature is strongly loading rate dependent. At 373 K, ductility recovery was small for loading rates less than 8 ms equivalent RIA pulse width, but longer than 8 ms the ductility recovery increased exponentially with increasing pulse width, consistent with literature observations of loading rate dependent brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition temperature. The cladding ductility was also observed to be strongly loading rate/pulse width dependent for BWR cladding below the BTD temperature and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cladding at both 296 and 553 K.

  9. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2018-04-01

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  11. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  12. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  13. Integration of human behavior expectations in training: human behavior simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeso Torices, E.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of operating experience in nuclear Sta Maria de Garona point to fundamental human factor. After evaluation of the Peer Review, reinforcing behavior expectations was identified as improvement area. The human behavior simulator aims at minimizing human error. Making teamwork practices ensures that the equipment itself reinforces their behavior and performance in the work of the Central. The scope of practice to perform on the simulator includes all phases of execution. The team should analyze the best way to run, the impact of it on the ground and interaction with other sections, being the simulator training environment the situation closer to reality.

  14. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  15. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  16. The Consequences of Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hodgson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is founded on a complex interaction of influences that derive from sources both extraneous and intrinsic to the brain. It is the ways these various influences worked together in the past to fashion modern human cognition that can help elucidate the probable course of future human endeavor. A particular concern of this chapter is the way cognition has been shaped and continues to depend on prevailing environmental and ecological conditions. Whether the human predicament can be regarded simply as another response to such conditions similar to that of other organisms or something special will also be addressed. More specifically, it will be shown that, although the highly artificial niche in which most humans now live has had profound effects on ways of thinking, constraints deriving from a shared evolutionary heritage continue to have substantial effects on behavior. The way these exigencies interact will be explored in order to understand the implications for the future wellbeing of humanity.

  17. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  18. Morbidities in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Mayer, Geert; Ju, Yo-El

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD, RBD without any obvious comorbid major neurological disease), is strongly associated with numerous comorbid conditions. The most prominent is that with neurodegenerative disorders, especially synuclein-mediated disorders, above all...... function, neuropsychiatric manifestations and sleep complaints. Furthermore, patients with PD and RBD may have worse prognosis in terms of impaired cognitive function and overall morbidity/mortality; in dementia, the presence of RBD is strongly associated with clinical hallmarks and pathological findings...

  19. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    at the Technical University of Denmark. The data set includes face-to-face interaction (Bluetooth), communication (calls and texts), mobility (GPS), social network (Facebook), and general background information including a psychological profile (questionnaire). This thesis presents my work on the Social Fabric...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived....... Evidence is provided, which implies that the asymmetry is caused by a self-enhancement in the initiation dynamics. These results have implications for the formation of social networks and the dynamics of the links. It is shown that the Big Five Inventory (BFI) representing a psychological profile only...

  20. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping . Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping

  1. Nonlinear dynamics in human behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huys, Raoul [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Jirsa, Viktor K. (eds.) [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Humans engage in a seemingly endless variety of different behaviors, of which some are found across species, while others are conceived of as typically human. Most generally, behavior comes about through the interplay of various constraints - informational, mechanical, neural, metabolic, and so on - operating at multiple scales in space and time. Over the years, consensus has grown in the research community that, rather than investigating behavior only from bottom up, it may be also well understood in terms of concepts and laws on the phenomenological level. Such top down approach is rooted in theories of synergetics and self-organization using tools from nonlinear dynamics. The present compendium brings together scientists from all over the world that have contributed to the development of their respective fields departing from this background. It provides an introduction to deterministic as well as stochastic dynamical systems and contains applications to motor control and coordination, visual perception and illusion, as well as auditory perception in the context of speech and music. (orig.)

  2. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  3. [Parkinson Disease With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy.

  4. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have...... recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been...... identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson's disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep-wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement...

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however...... with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic...

  6. How hardwired is human behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, N

    1998-01-01

    Time and time again managers have tried to eliminate hierarchies, politics, and interorganizational rivalry--but to no avail. Why? Evolutionary psychologists would say that they are working against nature--emotional and behavioral "hardwiring" that is the legacy of our Stone Age ancestors. In this evolutionary psychology primer for executives, Nigel Nicholson explores many of the Science's central tenets. Of course, evolutionary psychology is still an emerging discipline, and its strong connection with the theory of natural selection has sparked significant controversy. But, as Nicholson suggests, evolutionary psychology is now well established enough that its insights into human instinct will prove illuminating to anyone seeking to understand why people act the way they do in organizational settings. Take gossip. According to evolutionary psychology, our Stone Age ancestors needed this skill to survive the socially unpredictable conditions of the Savannah Plain. Thus, over time, the propensity to gossip became part of our mental programming. Executives trying to eradicate gossip at work might as well try to change their employees' musical tastes. Better to put one's energy into making sure the "rumor mill" avoids dishonesty or unkindness as much as possible. Evolutionary psychology also explores the dynamics of the human group. Clans on the Savannah Plain, for example, appear to have had no more than 150 members. The message for managers? People will likely be most effective in small organizational units. As every executive knows, it pays to be an insightful student of human nature. Evolutionary psychology adds another important chapter to consider.

  7. Fracture behavior of human molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Amanda J; Lee, James J-W; Bush, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Despite the durability of human teeth, which are able to withstand repeated loading while maintaining form and function, they are still susceptible to fracture. We focus here on longitudinal fracture in molar teeth-channel-like cracks that run along the enamel sidewall of the tooth between the gum line (cemento-enamel junction-CEJ) and the occlusal surface. Such fractures can often be painful and necessitate costly restorative work. The following study describes fracture experiments made on molar teeth of humans in which the molars are placed under axial compressive load using a hard indenting plate in order to induce longitudinal cracks in the enamel. Observed damage modes include fractures originating in the occlusal region ('radial-median cracks') and fractures emanating from the margin of the enamel in the region of the CEJ ('margin cracks'), as well as 'spalling' of enamel (the linking of longitudinal cracks). The loading conditions that govern fracture behavior in enamel are reported and observations made of the evolution of fracture as the load is increased. Relatively low loads were required to induce observable crack initiation-approximately 100 N for radial-median cracks and 200 N for margin cracks-both of which are less than the reported maximum biting force on a single molar tooth of several hundred Newtons. Unstable crack growth was observed to take place soon after and occurred at loads lower than those calculated by the current fracture models. Multiple cracks were observed on a single cusp, their interactions influencing crack growth behavior. The majority of the teeth tested in this study were noted to exhibit margin cracks prior to compression testing, which were apparently formed during the functional lifetime of the tooth. Such teeth were still able to withstand additional loading prior to catastrophic fracture, highlighting the remarkable damage containment capabilities of the natural tooth structure.

  8. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  9. Rapid resensitization of purinergic receptor function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Barton, J F; Mayo-Martin, M B; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors. Recently, we demonstrated that both receptors desensitize and internalize in human platelets by differential kinase-dependent mechanisms. To demonstrate whether responses to P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors resensitize in human platelets and determine the role of receptor traffic in this process. These studies were undertaken either in human platelets or in cells stably expressing epitope-tagged P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptor constructs. In this study we show for the first time that responses to both of these receptors can rapidly resensitize following agonist-dependent desensitization in human platelets. Further, we show that in human platelets or in 1321N1 cells stably expressing receptor constructs, the disruption of receptor internalization, dephosphorylation or subsequent receptor recycling is sufficient to block resensitization of purinergic receptor responses. We also show that, in platelets, internalization of both these receptors is dependent upon dynamin, and that this process is required for resensitization of responses. This study is therefore the first to show that both P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, and it reveals that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process.

  10. Human behavioral contributions to climate change: psychological and contextual drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact, primarily through patterns of reproduction and consumption. We identify and distinguish individual, societal, and behavioral predictors of environmental impact. Relevant research in these areas (as well as areas that would be aided by greater attention by psychologists) are reviewed. We conclude by highlighting ethical issues that emerge when considering how to address human behavioral contributions to climate change.

  11. Rapid Prototyping Human Interfaces Using Stretchable Strain Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiya Yamaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern society with a variety of information electronic devices, human interfaces increase their importance in a boundary of a human and a device. In general, the human is required to get used to the device. Even if the device is designed as a universal device or a high-usability device, the device is not suitable for all users. The usability of the device depends on the individual user. Therefore, personalized and customized human interfaces are effective for the user. To create customized interfaces, we propose rapid prototyping human interfaces using stretchable strain sensors. The human interfaces comprise parts formed by a three-dimensional printer and the four strain sensors. The three-dimensional printer easily makes customized human interfaces. The outputs of the interface are calculated based on the sensor’s lengths. Experiments evaluate three human interfaces: a sheet-shaped interface, a sliding lever interface, and a tilting lever interface. We confirm that the three human interfaces obtain input operations with a high accuracy.

  12. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaogang; Zhou, Dehu; Lin, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior, company and government policy, it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  13. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  14. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  15. Neurogenomics and the role of a large mutational target on rapid behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Craig E; Kulathinal, Rob J

    2016-11-08

    Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage. However, unlike other rapidly evolving functional systems such as sperm-egg interactions and immune defense, the genetic basis of rapid behavioral change remains elusive. Here we propose that the rapid divergence and widespread novelty of innate and adaptive behavior is primarily a function of its genomic architecture. Specifically, we hypothesize that the broad diversity of behavioral phenotypes present at micro- and macroevolutionary scales is promoted by a disproportionately large mutational target of neurogenic genes. We present evidence that these large neuro-behavioral targets are significant and ubiquitous in animal genomes and suggest that behavior's novelty and rapid emergence are driven by a number of factors including more selection on a larger pool of variants, a greater role of phenotypic plasticity, and/or unique molecular features present in large genes. We briefly discuss the origins of these large neurogenic genes, as they relate to the remarkable diversity of metazoan behaviors, and highlight key consequences on both behavioral traits and neurogenic disease across, respectively, evolutionary and ontogenetic time scales. Current approaches to studying the genetic mechanisms underlying rapid phenotypic change primarily focus on identifying signatures of Darwinian selection in protein-coding regions. In contrast

  16. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease.

  17. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease

  18. [Electromyography Analysis of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Fumiya; Takada, Hiroki; Nakayama, Meiho

    2018-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG), which records physiological phenomena including brain waves, breathing status, and muscle tonus, is useful for the diagnosis of sleep disorders as a gold standard. However, measurement and analysis are complex for several specific sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Usually, brain waves during REM sleep indicate an awakening pattern under relaxed conditions of skeletal and antigravity muscles. However, these muscles are activated during REM sleep when patients suffer from RBD. These activated muscle movements during REM, so-called REM without atonia (RWA) recorded by PSG, may be related to a neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease. Thus, careful analysis of RWA is significant not only physically, but also clinically. Commonly, manual viewing measurement analysis of RWA is time-consuming. Therefore, quantitative studies on RWA are rarely reported. A software program, developed from Microsoft Office Excel ® , was used to semiautomatically analyze the RWA ratio extracted from PSG to compare with manual viewing measurement analysis. In addition, a quantitative muscle tonus study was carried out to evaluate the effect of medication on RBD patients. Using this new software program, we were able to analyze RWA on the same cases in approximately 15 min as compared with 60 min in the manual viewing measurement analysis. This software program can not only quantify RWA easily but also identify RWA waves for either phasic or tonic bursts. We consider that this software program will support physicians and scientists in their future research on RBD. We are planning to offer this software program for free to physicians and scientists.

  19. Rapid assessment of sexual behavior, drug use, human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted diseases in northern thai youth using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing and noninvasive specimen collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, F; Supawitkul, S; Kilmarx, P H; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Young, N L; Manopaiboon, C; Mock, P A; Korattana, S; Mastro, T D

    2001-07-01

    Drug use, unwanted pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and sexually transmitted diseases are serious health problems among Thai youth. The gravity of these problems demands high-quality data to direct public health policy and prevention programs. Previous studies of stigmatized behaviors have been hampered by participation bias and underreporting. To evaluate sexual behavior, disease, and drug use, we used audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and noninvasive specimen collection methods. We also evaluated effectiveness of these methods in minimizing participation bias and underreporting. In late 1999, students aged 15 to 21 years attending 3 vocational schools were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Consenting students completed a classroom-based ACASI interview using a confidential code number system. Oral fluid specimens were tested for HIV antibodies, and urine was tested for chlamydial and gonococcal nucleic acids, methamphetamines, and opiates. Of 1736 invited students, 1725 (99%) agreed to participate. Of these, 48% of the male students and 43% of the female students reported ever having had sexual intercourse. Overall, the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.6 among male participants (median: 2) and 2.8 among female participants (median: 1). Consistent use of condoms with steady partners was reported by 16% of male participants and 11% of female participants who had such partners. Of all male participants, 7% had ever paid for sex, 3% had ever sold sex, and 7% had ever been coerced to have sex. Of all female participants, 3% had ever sold sex and 21% had ever been coerced to have sex. Among women with a history of sexual intercourse, 27% reported at least 1 pregnancy. Of these pregnancies, 83% were terminated. Among those with sexual intercourse experience, the prevalence of HIV infection was 0.5%; of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 0.4%; and of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, 5%. Twenty

  20. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lawrence A.; Maurice, Corinne F.; Carmody, Rachel N.; Gootenberg, David B.; Button, Julie E.; Wolfe, Benjamin E.; Ling, Alisha V.; Devlin, A. Sloan; Varma, Yug; Fischbach, Michael A.; Biddinger, Sudha B.; Dutton, Rachel J.; Turnbaugh, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term diet influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut1–5, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here, we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila, and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals2, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi, and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids, and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease6. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles. PMID:24336217

  1. Machine Understanding of Human Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should

  2. Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

  3. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjit Thanchomnang

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.

  4. Fast human behavior analysis for scene understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior analysis has become an active topic of great interest and relevance for a number of applications and areas of research. The research in recent years has been considerably driven by the growing level of criminal behavior in large urban areas and increase of terroristic actions. Also,

  5. Rapid and Decentralized Human Waste Treatment by Microwave Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Babel, Sandhya; Boonyarattanakalin, Siwarutt; Koottatep, Thammarat

    2017-07-01

      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of using microwave radiation for the rapid treatment of human feces. Human feces of 1000 g were radiated with a commercially available household microwave oven (with rotation) at different exposure time lengths (30, 50, 60, 70, and 75 mins) and powers (600, 800, and 1000 W). Volume reduction over 90% occurred after 1000 W microwave radiation for 75 mins. Pathogen eradiation performances of six log units or more at a high range of microwave powers were achieved. Treatments with the same energy input of 1000 Wh, but at lower powers with prolonged exposure times, significantly enhanced moisture removal and volume reduction. Microwave radiation caused carbonization and resulted in a more stable end product. The energy content of the samples after microwave treatment at 1000 W and 75 mins is 3517 ± 8.85 calories/g of dried sample, and the product can also be used as compost.

  6. Rapid sensing of l-leucine by human and murine hypothalamic neurons: Neurochemical and mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeley, Nicholas; Kirwan, Peter; Darwish, Tamana; Arnaud, Marion; Evans, Mark L; Merkle, Florian T; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Blouet, Clemence

    2018-04-01

    Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration. A neurochemically diverse subset of both mouse and human hypothalamic neurons responded rapidly to l-leucine. Consistent with l-leucine's anorexigenic role, we found that 25% of mouse MBH POMC neurons were activated by l-leucine. 10% of MBH NPY neurons were inhibited by l-leucine, and leucine rapidly reduced AGRP secretion, providing a mechanism for the rapid leucine-induced inhibition of foraging behavior in rodents. Surprisingly, none of the candidate mechanisms previously implicated in hypothalamic leucine sensing (K ATP channels, mTORC1 signaling, amino-acid decarboxylation) were involved in the acute activity changes produced by l-leucine. Instead, our data indicate that leucine-induced neuronal activation involves a plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel, whereas leucine-induced neuronal inhibition is mediated by inhibition of a store-operated Ca 2+ current. A subset of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus rapidly respond to physiological changes in extracellular leucine concentration. Leucine can produce both increases and decreases in neuronal Ca 2+ concentrations in a neurochemically-diverse group of neurons, including some POMC and NPY/AGRP neurons. Our data reveal that leucine can signal through novel mechanisms to rapidly

  7. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  8. Human genetics and sleep behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guangsen; Wu, David; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2017-06-01

    Why we sleep remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. In the past few years, great advances have been made to better understand this phenomenon. Human genetics has contributed significantly to this movement, as many features of sleep have been found to be heritable. Discoveries about these genetic variations that affect human sleep will aid us in understanding the underlying mechanism of sleep. Here we summarize recent discoveries about the genetic variations affecting the timing of sleep, duration of sleep and EEG patterns. To conclude, we also discuss some of the sleep-related neurological disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and the potential challenges and future directions of human genetics in sleep research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene; Hassenkam, Tue; P, Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...

  11. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  13. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  14. Discrimination of complex human behavior by pigeons (Columba livia and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A J Qadri

    Full Text Available The cognitive and neural mechanisms for recognizing and categorizing behavior are not well understood in non-human animals. In the current experiments, pigeons and humans learned to categorize two non-repeating, complex human behaviors ("martial arts" vs. "Indian dance". Using multiple video exemplars of a digital human model, pigeons discriminated these behaviors in a go/no-go task and humans in a choice task. Experiment 1 found that pigeons already experienced with discriminating the locomotive actions of digital animals acquired the discrimination more rapidly when action information was available than when only pose information was available. Experiments 2 and 3 found this same dynamic superiority effect with naïve pigeons and human participants. Both species used the same combination of immediately available static pose information and more slowly perceived dynamic action cues to discriminate the behavioral categories. Theories based on generalized visual mechanisms, as opposed to embodied, species-specific action networks, offer a parsimonious account of how these different animals recognize behavior across and within species.

  15. From rapid place learning to behavioral performance: a key role for the intermediate hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bast

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid place encoding by hippocampal neurons, as reflected by place-related firing, has been intensely studied, whereas the substrates that translate hippocampal place codes into behavior have received little attention. A key point relevant to this translation is that hippocampal organization is characterized by functional-anatomical gradients along the septotemporal axis: Whereas the ability of hippocampal neurons to encode accurate place information declines from the septal to temporal end, hippocampal connectivity to prefrontal and subcortical sites that might relate such place information to behavioral-control processes shows an opposite gradient. We examined in rats the impact of selective lesions to relevant parts of the hippocampus on behavioral tests requiring place learning (watermaze procedures and on in vivo electrophysiological models of hippocampal encoding (long-term potentiation [LTP], place cells. We found that the intermediate hippocampus is necessary and largely sufficient for behavioral performance based on rapid place learning. In contrast, a residual septal pole of the hippocampus, although displaying intact electrophysiological indices of rapid information encoding (LTP, precise place-related firing, and rapid remapping, failed to sustain watermaze performance based on rapid place learning. These data highlight the important distinction between hippocampal encoding and the behavioral performance based on such encoding, and suggest that the intermediate hippocampus, where substrates of rapid accurate place encoding converge with links to behavioral control, is critical to translate rapid (one-trial place learning into navigational performance.

  16. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  17. Human Guidance Behavior Decomposition and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feit, Andrew James

    Trained humans are capable of high performance, adaptable, and robust first-person dynamic motion guidance behavior. This behavior is exhibited in a wide variety of activities such as driving, piloting aircraft, skiing, biking, and many others. Human performance in such activities far exceeds the current capability of autonomous systems in terms of adaptability to new tasks, real-time motion planning, robustness, and trading safety for performance. The present work investigates the structure of human dynamic motion guidance that enables these performance qualities. This work uses a first-person experimental framework that presents a driving task to the subject, measuring control inputs, vehicle motion, and operator visual gaze movement. The resulting data is decomposed into subspace segment clusters that form primitive elements of action-perception interactive behavior. Subspace clusters are defined by both agent-environment system dynamic constraints and operator control strategies. A key contribution of this work is to define transitions between subspace cluster segments, or subgoals, as points where the set of active constraints, either system or operator defined, changes. This definition provides necessary conditions to determine transition points for a given task-environment scenario that allow a solution trajectory to be planned from known behavior elements. In addition, human gaze behavior during this task contains predictive behavior elements, indicating that the identified control modes are internally modeled. Based on these ideas, a generative, autonomous guidance framework is introduced that efficiently generates optimal dynamic motion behavior in new tasks. The new subgoal planning algorithm is shown to generate solutions to certain tasks more quickly than existing approaches currently used in robotics.

  18. Rapid behavioral and genomic responses to social opportunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S Burmeister

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1, a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance.

  19. Integrating Humanism and Behaviorism: Toward Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1974-01-01

    The current emphasis on performance criteria in training programs and in professional services poses a threat to the humanistically oriented helper. This article suggests a behavioral humanism as the desired solution to the dilemma and proposes some guidelines for formulating and implementing such a synthetic system. (Author)

  20. Research opportunities in human behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. M. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Extant information on the subject of psychological aspects of manned space flight are reviewed; NASA's psychology research program is examined; significant gaps in knowledge are identified; and suggestions are offered for future research program planning. Issues of human behavior and performance related to the United States space station, to the space shuttle program, and to both near and long term problems of a generic nature in applicable disciplines of psychology are considered. Topics covered include: (1) human performance requirements for a 90 day mission; (2) human perceptual, cognitive, and motor capabilities and limitations in space; (3) crew composition, individual competencies, crew competencies, selection criteria, and special training; (4) environmental factors influencing behavior; (5) psychosocial aspects of multiperson space crews in long term missions; (6) career determinants in NASA; (7) investigational methodology and equipment; and (8) psychological support.

  1. Human behavioral corollary on industrial workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazil, I.; Kirmani, Z.U.; Hanif, M.; Saeed, A.; Khurshid, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights a number of initiatives taken for the introduction of behavior-based safety concepts and customized process control solutions to encourage and instill safe behavior in employees at Attock Refinery Limited (ARL), Morgah Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A Safety culture is entirely dependent on the attitude of employees towards safety. After all, those who actually perform the work are responsible for their safety as well as that of those around them, and also for any accident that occurs whilst they work. In 2005, ARL established a Health Safety Environment (HSE) Department reporting directly to the CEO and it now stands transformed into the HSEQ Department with Quality having been added to its portfolio, with the logic that it is the Quality of our systems and processes that also determines the possibility or otherwise of safe/unsafe behavior. The need was felt to measure, analyze and then control unsafe behavior at the workplace. In spite of providing safety systems and necessary hardware, incident data shows that the majority of misfortunes are triggered by employees' unsafe attitude, proclivity to take shortcuts and intuitive-based decisions, bypassing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Human behavior is a very complex subject as it is linked not only to the workplace environment but has origins from home and upbringing as well. An attempt was, nevertheless, necessary to develop a tool of customized behavioral assessment tool in order to gauge the employees' behavior. On a scale of 1-100, marks were allocated to areas including safety attitude within the department(s), working conditions, supervisor's behavior towards worker safety, job loyalty, personal attitude towards job safety, seriousness towards safety, training and the employees' view about the HSEQ department. This study, based on one-on-one interviews with employees, yielded what we will term employees' potential towards unsafe behaviors, which would facilitate subsequent planning and

  2. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  3. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  4. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... saline, cyclic testing was performed in the pre-yield region at different strain rates, and the elastic response was determined by a stepwise stress relaxation test. The elastic stress-strain response corresponded to a second-order polynomial fit, while the viscous response showed a linear dependence...

  5. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Schlicht

    Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.

  6. Rapid decreases in preoptic aromatase activity and brain monoamine concentrations after engaging in male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, C A; Dalla, C; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Baillien, M; Dejace, C; Ball, G F; Balthazart, J

    2005-09-01

    In Japanese quail, as in rats, the expression of male sexual behavior over relatively long time periods (days to weeks) is dependent on the local production of estradiol in the preoptic area via the aromatization of testosterone. On a short-term basis (minutes to hours), central actions of dopamine as well as locally produced estrogens modulate behavioral expression. In rats, a view of and sexual interaction with a female increase dopamine release in the preoptic area. In quail, in vitro brain aromatase activity (AA) is rapidly modulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylations that are likely to occur in vivo as a result of changes in neurotransmitter activity. Furthermore, an acute estradiol injection rapidly stimulates copulation in quail, whereas a single injection of the aromatase inhibitor vorozole rapidly inhibits this behavior. We hypothesized that brain aromatase and dopaminergic activities are regulated in quail in association with the expression of male sexual behavior. Visual access as well as sexual interactions with a female produced a significant decrease in brain AA, which was maximal after 5 min. This expression of sexual behavior also resulted in a significant decrease in dopaminergic as well as serotonergic activity after 1 min, which returned to basal levels after 5 min. These results demonstrate for the first time that AA is rapidly modulated in vivo in parallel with changes in dopamine activity. Sexual interactions with the female decreased aromatase and dopamine activities. These data challenge established views about the causal relationships among dopamine, estrogen action, and male sexual behavior.

  7. Using 3D Printing for Rapid Prototyping of Characterization Tools for Investigating Powder Blend Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirschberg, Cosima; Boetker, Johan P; Rantanen, Jukka

    2018-01-01

    of complex powder behavior, such as mixing process and segregation phenomenon. An approach based on the fast prototyping of new powder handling geometries and interfacing solutions for process analytical tools is reported. This study utilized 3D printing for rapid prototyping of customized geometries...... the percolation thresholds. Blends with a paracetamol wt% above the percolation threshold were subsequently investigated in relation to their segregation behavior. Rapid prototyping using 3D printing allowed designing two funnels with tailored flow behavior (funnel flow) of model formulations, which could...... blend were monitored during blending. Rapid prototyping allowed for fast modification of powder testing geometries and easy interfacing with process analytical tools, opening new possibilities for more detailed powder characterization....

  8. Nanoindentation creep behavior of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Hong; Swain, Michael V

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the indentation creep behavior of human enamel was investigated with a nanoindentation system and a Berkovich indenter at a force of 250 mN with one-step loading and unloading method. A constant hold period of 900 s was incorporated into each test at the maximum load as well at 5 mN minimum load during unloading. The indentation creep at the maximum load and creep recovery at the minimum load was described with a double exponential function and compared with other classic viscoelastic models (Debye/Maxwell and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts). Indentation creep rate sensitivity, m, of human enamel was measured for the first time with a value of approximately 0.012. Enamel displayed both viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior similar to that of bone. These results indicate that, associated with entrapment of particulates between teeth under functional loading and sliding wear conditions, the enamel may inelastically deform but recover upon its release. This behavior may be important in explaining the excellent wear resistance, antifatigue, and crack resistant abilities of natural tooth structure. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large......-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response....

  10. Modeling the exergy behavior of human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutenedjian Mady, Carlos Eduardo; Silva Ferreira, Maurício; Itizo Yanagihara, Jurandir; Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de

    2012-01-01

    Exergy analysis is applied to assess the energy conversion processes that take place in the human body, aiming at developing indicators of health and performance based on the concepts of exergy destroyed rate and exergy efficiency. The thermal behavior of the human body is simulated by a model composed of 15 cylinders with elliptical cross section representing: head, neck, trunk, arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. For each, a combination of tissues is considered. The energy equation is solved for each cylinder, being possible to obtain transitory response from the body due to a variation in environmental conditions. With this model, it is possible to obtain heat and mass flow rates to the environment due to radiation, convection, evaporation and respiration. The exergy balances provide the exergy variation due to heat and mass exchange over the body, and the exergy variation over time for each compartments tissue and blood, the sum of which leads to the total variation of the body. Results indicate that exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency decrease over lifespan and the human body is more efficient and destroys less exergy in lower relative humidities and higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► In this article it is indicated an overview of the human thermal model. ► It is performed the energy and exergy analysis of the human body. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency decreases with lifespan. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency are a function of environmental conditions.

  11. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First......Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males....... A bivariate analysis indicated significant shared genetic variance between NumCh and FirstTry....

  12. Exogenous Testosterone Rapidly Increases Aggressive Behavior in Dominant and Impulsive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Geniole, Shawn N; Ortiz, Triana L; Bird, Brian M; Videto, Amber; Bonin, Pierre L

    2017-08-15

    Although traditional wisdom suggests that baseline levels of testosterone (T) promote aggressive behavior, decades of research have produced findings that have been largely weak and inconsistent. However, more recent experimental work suggests that exogenous administration of T rapidly potentiates amygdala and hypothalamus responses to angry facial expressions. Notably, these brain regions are rich in androgen receptors and play a key role in modulating aggressive behavior in animal models. The present experiment extends this work by examining whether acutely increasing T potentiates aggressive behavior in men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design, healthy adult men (n = 121) were administered either T or placebo, and subsequently engaged in a well-validated decision-making game that measures aggressive behavior in response to social provocation. In light of prior correlational research, we also assessed the extent to which T's effects on aggressive behavior would depend on variability in trait dominance and/or trait self-control. Exogenous T on its own did not modulate aggressive behavior. However, T's effects on aggression were strongly influenced by variation in trait dominance and trait self-control. Specifically, T caused an increase in aggressive behavior, but only among men scoring relatively high in trait dominance or low in trait self-control. These findings are the first to demonstrate that T can rapidly (within 60 minutes) potentiate aggressive behavior, but only among men with dominant or impulsive personality styles. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New learning following reactivation in the human brain: targeting emotional memories through rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2014-11-18

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

  15. Understanding human behavior in times of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    The Third Geneva Convention reflects on the values of humanism, declaring the rights of humaneness, honor, and protection before torture and final discharge of war prisoners after the end of a war. These days, the occurrences in Baghdad Central Detention Center (formerly known as Abu Ghraib Prison), the actions of British soldiers in Basra, and the inflamed public discussion of whether torture might be an appropriate method to obtain crucial information from terrorists put the Third Geneva Convention back in the spotlight. The aforementioned occurrences raise questions regarding the psychological mass phenomena that make us vulnerable to think and to act against our education, habits, and beliefs. Only an understanding of these phenomena will help us to act against behavior we condemn. This article is an attempt to show how cognition of societies and individuals slowly changes during longer conflicts. Furthermore, it tries to summarize the possibilities we have to confront these tendencies.

  16. Investigating rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in Parkinson's disease using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Melehan, Kerri; Yee, Brendon J; Coeytaux, Alessandra; Gilat, Moran; Lewis, Simon J G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate diagnosis is essential for managing this condition. Furthermore, the emergence of idiopathic RBD in later life can represent a premotor feature, heralding the development of PD. Reliable, accurate methods for identifying RBD may offer a window for early intervention. This study sought to identify whether the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and three questionnaires focused on dream enactment were able to correctly identify patients with REM without atonia (RWA), the neurophysiological hallmark of RBD. Forty-six patients with PD underwent neurological and sleep assessment in addition to completing the RBDSQ, the RBD single question (RBD1Q), and the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). The REM atonia index was derived for all participants as an objective measure of RWA. Patients identified to be RBD positive on the RBDSQ did not show increased RWA on polysomnography (80% sensitivity and 55% specificity). However, patients positive for RBD on questionnaires specific to dream enactment correctly identified higher degrees of RWA and improved the diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires. This study suggests that the RBDSQ does not accurately identify RWA, essential for diagnosing RBD in PD. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-report measures of RBD need to focus questions on dream enactment behavior to better identify RWA and RBD. Further studies are needed to develop accurate determination and quantification of RWA in RBD to improve management of patients with PD in the future. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla M. Wassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of Aedes caspius mosquitoes are incriminated to be a potential reservoir of “Rift Valley Fever Virus” (RVF during interepizootic periods in Egypt. Ae. caspius contains two distinct forms which are morphologically indistinguishable but differ in physiology and behavior; Ae. caspius form (a requires a blood meal for each egg batch(anautogeny, is unable to mate in confined spaces(eurygamous. The second form (b lays egg batch without blood meal (autogenous and can mate in confined spaces (stenogamous. In this work, we collected the autogenous and anautogenous forms of Ae. caspius from two different breeding habitats in the Qalyubia Governorate. Analysis of the Drosophila ace-Orthologous acetylecholinesterase gene revealed that a single polymorphic region characterized each species. Based on this region, specific primers were used to amplify the entire section of intron II, sections of Exon 2 and Exon 3 of ace-2 gene for differentiating the complex species of mosquitoes. The amplicons of anautogenous form sized 441 pb and increase 116 bp than autogenous form of Ae. caspius. High rates of point mutations were addressed; deletion/insertion events are 120 bases. The transversion mutations were 44 bases and were relatively close to the transtion mutations 43 base. The genetic distance was 0.01 between the two forms.

  18. Enabling rapid behavioral ecotoxicity studies using an integrated lab-on-a-chip systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicity tests are gaining an increasing recognition in environmental toxicology. Behavior of sensitive bioindicator species can change rapidly in response to an acute exposure to contaminants and thus has a much higher sensitivity as compared to conventional LC50 mortality tests. Furthermore, behavioral endpoints seems to be very good candidates to develop early-warning biomonitoring systems needed for rapid chemical risk assessment. Behavioral tests are non-invasive, fast, do not harm indicator organisms (behavioural changes are very rapid) and are thus fully compatible with 3R (Replacement - Reduction - Refinement) principle encouraging alternatives to conventional animal testing. These characteristics are essential when designing improved ecotoxicity tests for chemical risk assessment. In this work, we present a pilot development of miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for studying toxin avoidance behaviors of small aquatic crustaceans. As an investigative tool, LOCs represent a new direction that may miniaturize and revolutionize behavioral ecotoxicology. Specifically our innovative microfluidic prototype: (i) enables convening "caging" of specimens for real-time videomicroscopy; (ii) eliminates the evaporative water loss thus providing an opportunity for long-term behavioral studies; (iii) exploits laminar fluid flow under low Reynolds numbers to generate discrete domains and gradients enabling for the first time toxin avoidance studies on small aquatic crustaceans; (iv) integrates off-the-chip mechatronic interfaces and video analysis algorithms for single animal movement analysis. We provide evidence that by merging innovative bioelectronic and biomicrofluidic technologies we can deploy inexpensive and reliable systems for culture, electronic tracking and complex computational analysis of behavior of bioindicator organisms.

  19. A Model of Rapid Radicalization Behavior Using Agent-Based Modeling and Quorum Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Noah; Drucker, Nick; Campbell, Kenyth

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of radicalization, especially rapid radicalization, has become increasingly important to US policy in the past several years. Traditionally, radicalization is considered a slow process, but recent social and political events demonstrate that the process can occur quickly. Examining this rapid process, in real time, is impossible. However, recreating an event using modeling and simulation (M&S) allows researchers to study some of the complex dynamics associated with rapid radicalization. We propose to adapt the biological mechanism of quorum sensing as a tool to explore, or possibly explain, rapid radicalization. Due to the complex nature of quorum sensing, M&S allows us to examine events that we could not otherwise examine in real time. For this study, we employ Agent Based Modeling (ABM), an M&S paradigm suited to modeling group behavior. The result of this study was the successful creation of rapid radicalization using quorum sensing. The Battle of Mogadishu was the inspiration for this model and provided the testing conditions used to explore quorum sensing and the ideas behind rapid radicalization. The final product has wider applicability however, using quorum sensing as a possible tool for examining other catalytic rapid radicalization events.

  20. Rapid steroid influences on visually guided sexual behavior in male goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Louis-David; Bond, Julia; Thompson, Richmond R.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of steroid hormones to rapidly influence cell physiology through nongenomic mechanisms raises the possibility that these molecules may play a role in the dynamic regulation of social behavior, particularly in species in which social stimuli can rapidly influence circulating steroid levels. We therefore tested if testosterone (T), which increases in male goldfish in response to sexual stimuli, can rapidly influence approach responses towards females. Injections of T stimulated approach responses towards the visual cues of females 30–45 min after the injection but did not stimulate approach responses towards stimulus males or affect general activity, indicating that the effect is stimulus-specific and not a secondary consequence of increased arousal. Estradiol produced the same effect 30–45 min and even 10–25 min after administration, and treatment with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole blocked exogenous T’s behavioral effect, indicating that T’s rapid stimulation of visual approach responses depends on aromatization. We suggest that T surges induced by sexual stimuli, including preovulatory pheromones, rapidly prime males to mate by increasing sensitivity within visual pathways that guide approach responses towards females and/or by increasing the motivation to approach potential mates through actions within traditional limbic circuits. PMID:19751737

  1. Rapid latex agglutination test for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a user-friendly latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis. The assay was obtained by coating colored latex beads with Brucella lipopolysaccharides and drying of the activated beads onto white agglutination cards. Individual cards were sealed in a

  2. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  3. The Charlie Sheen Effect on Rapid In-home Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Leas, Eric C; Caputi, Theodore L; Dredze, Mark; Althouse, Benjamin M; Noar, Seth M; Ayers, John W

    2017-07-01

    One in eight of the 1.2 million Americans living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unaware of their positive status, and untested individuals are responsible for most new infections. As a result, testing is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy and must be accelerated when opportunities are presented. Web searches for HIV spiked around actor Charlie Sheen's HIV-positive disclosure. However, it is unknown whether Sheen's disclosure impacted offline behaviors like HIV testing. The goal of this study was to determine if Sheen's HIV disclosure was a record-setting HIV prevention event and determine if Web searches presage increases in testing allowing for rapid detection and reaction in the future. Sales of OraQuick rapid in-home HIV test kits in the USA were monitored weekly from April 12, 2014, to April 16, 2016, alongside Web searches including the terms "test," "tests," or "testing" and "HIV" as accessed from Google Trends. Changes in OraQuick sales around Sheen's disclosure and prediction models using Web searches were assessed. OraQuick sales rose 95% (95% CI, 75-117; p sales than expected around Sheen's disclosure, surpassing World AIDS Day by a factor of about 7. Moreover, Web searches mirrored OraQuick sales trends (r = 0.79), demonstrating their ability to presage increases in testing. The "Charlie Sheen effect" represents an important opportunity for a public health response, and in the future, Web searches can be used to detect and act on more opportunities to foster prevention behaviors.

  4. Stress prompts habit behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-06-03

    Instrumental behavior can be controlled by goal-directed action-outcome and habitual stimulus-response processes that are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Based on previous findings showing that stress modulates the interaction of "cognitive" and "habit" memory systems, we asked in the presented study whether stress may coordinate goal-directed and habit processes in instrumental learning. For this purpose, participants were exposed to stress (socially evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition before they were trained to perform two instrumental actions that were associated with two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of these food outcomes was selectively devalued as subjects were saturated with that food. Next, subjects were presented the two instrumental actions in extinction. Stress before training in the instrumental task rendered participants' behavior insensitive to the change in the value of the food outcomes, that is stress led to habit performance. Moreover, stress reduced subjects' explicit knowledge of the action-outcome contingencies. These results demonstrate for the first time that stress promotes habits at the expense of goal-directed performance in humans.

  5. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n=264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200−600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline regions, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance. PMID:16712815

  6. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotion expression in human punishment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Erte; Houser, Daniel

    2005-05-17

    Evolutionary theory reveals that punishment is effective in promoting cooperation and maintaining social norms. Although it is accepted that emotions are connected to punishment decisions, there remains substantial debate over why humans use costly punishment. Here we show experimentally that constraints on emotion expression can increase the use of costly punishment. We report data from ultimatum games, where a proposer offers a division of a sum of money and a responder decides whether to accept the split, or reject and leave both players with nothing. Compared with the treatment in which expressing emotions directly to proposers is prohibited, rejection of unfair offers is significantly less frequent when responders can convey their feelings to the proposer concurrently with their decisions. These data support the view that costly punishment might itself be used to express negative emotions and suggest that future studies will benefit by recognizing that human demand for emotion expression can have significant behavioral consequences in social environments, including families, courts, companies, and markets.

  8. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  9. Clinical features of Parkinson’s disease with and without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Ondo, William G.; Wu, Yun-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are two distinct clinical diseases but they share some common pathological and anatomical characteristics. This study aims to confirm the clinical features of RBD in Chinese PD patients. Methods One hundred fifty PD patients were enrolled from the Parkinson`s disease and Movement Disorders Center in  Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital from January 2013 to August 2014. This study examined P...

  10. Rapid, automated mosaicking of the human corneal subbasal nerve plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnav, Yash J; Rucker, Stuart A; Saharia, Keshav; McNamara, Nancy A

    2017-11-27

    Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is an in vivo technique used to study corneal nerve morphology. The largest proportion of nerves innervating the cornea lie within the subbasal nerve plexus, where their morphology is altered by refractive surgery, diabetes and dry eye. The main limitations to clinical use of CCM as a diagnostic tool are the small field of view of CCM images and the lengthy time needed to quantify nerves in collected images. Here, we present a novel, rapid, fully automated technique to mosaic individual CCM images into wide-field maps of corneal nerves. We implemented an OpenCV image stitcher that accounts for corneal deformation and uses feature detection to stitch CCM images into a montage. The method takes 3-5 min to process and stitch 40-100 frames on an Amazon EC2 Micro instance. The speed, automation and ease of use conferred by this technique is the first step toward point of care evaluation of wide-field subbasal plexus (SBP) maps in a clinical setting.

  11. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  12. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  13. Rapidly progressive periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaim, K.A.; Javed, F.; Askar, A.; Rasheed, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Severe periodontal inflammation with generalized dental plaque accumulation, spontaneous and severe gingival bleeding, fungal infection, and inter dental papillae necrosis are presented in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bite-wing radiographs revealed a generalized horizontal alveolar bone loss of 7-8 millimetres in both arches. Erythematous patches were noted on the gingival mucosa in both jaws. DNA testing was performed to identify the periodontopathogens. The patient had no signs or symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This case-report presents the massive periodontal destruction that occurred in a patient infected with HIV. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients infected with HIV should be regularly monitored to aid in early detection and to provide proper management of periodontal inflammatory conditions to minimize its destruction. (author)

  14. Fight or flight? Dream content during sleepwalking/sleep terrors vs. rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; de Fontréaux, Alix Noël; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Brion, Agnès; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Dreams enacted during sleepwalking or sleep terrors (SW/ST) may differ from those enacted during rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Subjects completed aggression, depression, and anxiety questionnaires. The mentations associated with SW/ST and RBD behaviors were collected over their lifetime and on the morning after video polysomnography (PSG). The reports were analyzed for complexity, length, content, setting, bizarreness, and threat. Ninety-one percent of 32 subjects with SW/ST and 87.5% of 24 subjects with RBD remembered an enacted dream (121 dreams in a lifetime and 41 dreams recalled on the morning). These dreams were more complex and less bizarre, with a higher level of aggression in the RBD than in SW/ST subjects. In contrast, we found low aggression, anxiety, and depression scores during the daytime in both groups. As many as 70% of enacted dreams in SW/ST and 60% in RBD involved a threat, but there were more misfortunes and disasters in the SW/ST dreams and more human and animal aggressions in the RBD dreams. The response to these threats differed, as the sleepwalkers mostly fled from a disaster (and 25% fought back when attacked), while 75% of RBD subjects counterattacked when assaulted. The dreams setting included their bedrooms in 42% SW/ST dreams, though this finding was exceptional in the RBD dreams. Different threat simulations and modes of defense seem to play a role during dream-enacted behaviors (e.g., fleeing a disaster during SW/ST, counterattacking a human or animal assault during RBD), paralleling and exacerbating the differences observed between normal dreaming in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) vs rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute administration of fluoxetine normalizes rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, but not depressive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Tu, Zhi-Cai; Xu, Xing-Yuan; Li, Rui; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2012-01-01

    In humans, depression is associated with altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact nature of the relationship between depressive behaviors and sleep abnormalities is debated. In this study, bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was carried out to create a model of depression in rats. The sleep-wake profiles were assayed using a cutting-edge sleep bioassay system, and depressive behaviors were evaluated by open field and forced swimming tests. The monoamine content and monoamine metabolite levels in the brain were determined by a HPLC-electrochemical detection system. OBX rats exhibited a significant increase in REM sleep, especially between 15:00 and 18:00 hours during the light period. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately abolished the OBX-induced increase in REM sleep, but hyperactivity in the open field test and the time spent immobile in the forced swimming test remained unchanged. Neurochemistry studies revealed that acute administration of fluoxetine increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT decreased in almost all regions of the brain. These results indicate that acute administration of fluoxetine can reduce the increase in REM sleep but does not change the depressive behaviors in OBX rats, suggesting that there was no causality between REM sleep abnormalities and depressive behaviors in OBX rats. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Modeling Individual Cyclic Variation in Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Emma; Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2018-04-01

    Cycles are fundamental to human health and behavior. Examples include mood cycles, circadian rhythms, and the menstrual cycle. However, modeling cycles in time series data is challenging because in most cases the cycles are not labeled or directly observed and need to be inferred from multidimensional measurements taken over time. Here, we present Cyclic Hidden Markov Models (CyH-MMs) for detecting and modeling cycles in a collection of multidimensional heterogeneous time series data. In contrast to previous cycle modeling methods, CyHMMs deal with a number of challenges encountered in modeling real-world cycles: they can model multivariate data with both discrete and continuous dimensions; they explicitly model and are robust to missing data; and they can share information across individuals to accommodate variation both within and between individual time series. Experiments on synthetic and real-world health-tracking data demonstrate that CyHMMs infer cycle lengths more accurately than existing methods, with 58% lower error on simulated data and 63% lower error on real-world data compared to the best-performing baseline. CyHMMs can also perform functions which baselines cannot: they can model the progression of individual features/symptoms over the course of the cycle, identify the most variable features, and cluster individual time series into groups with distinct characteristics. Applying CyHMMs to two real-world health-tracking datasets-of human menstrual cycle symptoms and physical activity tracking data-yields important insights including which symptoms to expect at each point during the cycle. We also find that people fall into several groups with distinct cycle patterns, and that these groups differ along dimensions not provided to the model. For example, by modeling missing data in the menstrual cycles dataset, we are able to discover a medically relevant group of birth control users even though information on birth control is not given to the model.

  17. Goal inferences about robot behavior : goal inferences and human response behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broers, H.A.T.; Ham, J.R.C.; Broeders, R.; De Silva, P.; Okada, M.

    2014-01-01

    This explorative research focused on the goal inferences human observers draw based on a robot's behavior, and the extent to which those inferences predict people's behavior in response to that robot. Results show that different robot behaviors cause different response behavior from people.

  18. 3D virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to satisfy the vast custom-made character demand of 3D virtual human and the rapid modeling in the field of 3D virtual reality, a new virtual human top-down rapid modeling method is put for-ward in this paper based on the systematic analysis of the current situation and shortage of the virtual hu-man modeling technology. After the top-level realization of virtual human hierarchical structure frame de-sign, modular expression of the virtual human and parameter design for each module is achieved gradu-al-level downwards. While the relationship of connectors and mapping restraints among different modules is established, the definition of the size and texture parameter is also completed. Standardized process is meanwhile produced to support and adapt the virtual human top-down rapid modeling practice operation. Finally, the modeling application, which takes a Chinese captain character as an example, is carried out to validate the virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism. The result demonstrates high modelling efficiency and provides one new concept for 3D virtual human geometric mod-eling and texture modeling.

  19. A bilinear elastic constitutive model applied for midpalatal suture behavior during rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Carvalho Trojan Serpe

    Full Text Available Introduction : This study aims to evaluate the influence of the biomechanical behavior of the midpalatal suture (MPS during the rapid maxillary expansion (RME when modeled by the Finite Element Method. Methods Four simulation alternatives are discussed and, for each analysis, the suture is considered as a functional unit with a different mechanical behavior: (i without MPS elements, (ii MPS with Young's modulus (E equal to 1 MPa, (ii MPS with E equal to 0.01 MPa and (iv MPS with bilinear elastic behavior. Results The stress analysis showed that, when MPS is not considered in the model, stress peaks are reduced in magnitude and their distribution is restricted to a smaller area when compared to the model with the inclusion of MPS (E=1 MPa. The increased suture stiffness also has a direct influence on MPS displacements after 30 expander activations. Conclusion The consideration of the MPS in RME computer models influences greatly the calculated displacements between the suture bone ends, even as the stress levels in maxillary structures. Furthermore, as proposed for the described model, the elastic bilinear behavior assigned to MPS allows coherent prediction of stresses and displacements results, being a good representation for this suture overall behavior.

  20. Research progress on the pathogenesis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-yang JIANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a sleep disorder characterized by the disappearance of muscle relaxation and enacting one's dreams during rapid eye movement (REM, with most of the dreams being violent or aggressive. Prevalence of RBD, based on population, is 0.38%-2.01%, but it becomes much higher in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially α - synucleinopathies. RBD may herald the emergence of α-synucleinopathies by decades, thus it may be used as an effective early marker of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarized the progress on the pathogenesis of RBD and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.10.003

  1. Rapid resetting of human peripheral clocks by phototherapy during simulated night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marc; Boudreau, Philippe; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2017-11-24

    A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled to either a control (dim light) or a bright light group. Blood was sampled at baseline and on the 4 th day of simulated night shift. In response to a night-oriented schedule, the phase of PER1 and BMAL1 rhythms in PBMCs was delayed by ~2.5-3 h (P shift was observed for the other clock genes and the central markers. Three cycles of 8-h bright light induced significant phase delays (P night-oriented schedule and a rapid resetting effect of nocturnal bright light exposure on peripheral clocks.

  2. Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): a hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane X; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual's necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration: Improvement with Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Fernandes do Prado, Lucila Bizari; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes; Povoas Barsottini, Orlando Graziani; Pedroso, José Luiz

    2016-01-01

    To report two female patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) related to breast cancer that presented with rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and improved sleep symptoms with immunotherapy. The two patients were evaluated through clinical scale and polysomnography before and after therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin. RBD was successfully treated with immunotherapy in both patients. Score on the RBD screening questionnaire dropped from 10 to 1 or 0, allied with the normalization of polysomnographic findings. A marked improvement in RBD after immunotherapy in PCD raises the hypothesis that secondary RBD may be an immune-mediated sleep disorder. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder as an outlier detection problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Nikolic, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is a strong early marker of Parkinson's disease and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia and/or dream enactment. Because these measures are subject to individual interpretation, there is consequently need...... for quantitative methods to establish objective criteria. This study proposes a semiautomatic algorithm for the early detection of Parkinson's disease. This is achieved by distinguishing between normal REM sleep and REM sleep without atonia by considering muscle activity as an outlier detection problem. METHODS......: Sixteen healthy control subjects, 16 subjects with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder, and 16 subjects with periodic limb movement disorder were enrolled. Different combinations of five surface electromyographic channels, including the EOG, were tested. A muscle activity score was automatically...

  5. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414571-07$15.00/0.

  6. Characterization of RNA isolated from eighteen different human tissues: results from a rapid human autopsy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas G; Whetzel, Alexis M; Serrano, Geidy; Sue, Lucia I; Lue, Lih-Fen; Beach, Thomas G

    2016-09-01

    Many factors affect the integrity of messenger RNA from human autopsy tissues including postmortem interval (PMI) between death and tissue preservation and the pre-mortem agonal and disease states. In this communication, we describe RNA isolation and characterization of 389 samples from 18 different tissues from elderly donors who were participants in a rapid whole-body autopsy program located in Sun City, Arizona ( www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org ). Most tissues were collected within a PMI of 2-6 h (median 3.15 h; N = 455), but for this study, tissue from cases with longer PMIs (1.25-29.25 h) were included. RNA quality was assessed by RNA integrity number (RIN) and total yield (ng RNA/mg tissue). RIN correlated with PMI for heart (r = -0.531, p = 0.009) and liver (r = -558, p = 0.0017), while RNA yield correlated with PMI for colon (r = -485, p = 0.016) and skin (r = -0.460, p = 0.031). RNAs with the lowest integrity were from skin and cervix where 22.7 and 31.4 % of samples respectively failed to produce intact RNA; by contrast all samples from esophagus, lymph node, jejunum, lung, stomach, submandibular gland and kidney produced RNA with measurable RINs. Expression levels in heart RNA of 4 common housekeeping normalization genes showed significant correlations of Ct values with RIN, but only one gene, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase, showed a correlation of Ct with PMI. There were no correlations between RIN values obtained for liver, adrenal, cervix, esophagus and lymph node and those obtained from corresponding brain samples. We show that high quality RNA can be produced from most human autopsy tissues, though with significant differences between tissues and donors. The RNA stability and yield did not depend solely on PMI; other undetermined factors are involved, but these do not include the age of the donor.

  7. From Annotated Multimodal Corpora to Simulated Human-Like Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Multimodal corpora prove useful at different stages of the development process of embodied conversational agents. Insights into human-human communicative behaviors can be drawn from such corpora. Rules for planning and generating such behavior in agents can be derived from this information....... And even the evaluation of human-agent interactions can rely on corpus data from human-human communication. In this paper, we exemplify how corpora can be exploited at the different development steps, starting with the question of how corpora are annotated and on what level of granularity. The corpus data...

  8. Rasmussen's model of human behavior in laparoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S; Alwayn, I; Hosman, R J A W; Stassen, H G

    2003-08-01

    Compared to aviation, where virtual reality (VR) training has been standardized and simulators have proven their benefits, the objectives, needs, and means of VR training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) still have to be established. The aim of the study presented is to introduce Rasmussen's model of human behavior as a practical framework for the definition of the training objectives, needs, and means in MIS. Rasmussen distinguishes three levels of human behavior: skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behaviour. The training needs of a laparoscopic novice can be determined by identifying the specific skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior that is required for performing safe laparoscopy. Future objectives of VR laparoscopy trainers should address all three levels of behavior. Although most commercially available simulators for laparoscopy aim at training skill-based behavior, especially the training of knowledge-based behavior during complications in surgery will improve safety levels. However, the cost and complexity of a training means increases when the training objectives proceed from the training of skill-based behavior to the training of complex knowledge-based behavior. In aviation, human behavior models have been used successfully to integrate the training of skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior in a full flight simulator. Understanding surgeon behavior is one of the first steps towards a future full-scale laparoscopy simulator.

  9. First contacts and the common behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Van Brakel, Jaap

    2005-01-01

    In this paper my aim is to shed light on the common behavior of human beings by looking at '' first contacts '': the situation where people with unshared histories first meet (who don't speak one an others' language, don't have access to interpreters, etc.). The limits of the human life form are given by what is similar in the common behavior(s) of human beings. But what is similar should not be understood as something that is biologically or psychologically or transcendentally shared by all ...

  10. The rapid identification of human influenza neuraminidase N1 and N2 subtypes by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, I G; McCaig, M; Durrant, C; Shaw, R

    2006-11-10

    An ELISA assay was developed to allow the rapid and accurate identification of human influenza A N1 and N2 neuraminidases. Initial testing using a fetuin pre-coating of wells correctly identified 81.7% of the neuraminidase type from a series of human A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and A(H3N2) viruses. This result could be improved to detect the neuraminidase subtype of almost all human influenza A viruses from a large panel of viruses isolated from 2000 to 2005, if the fetuin pre-coating was removed and the viruses were coated directly onto wells. This method is simple, rapid and can be used to screen large numbers of currently circulating human influenza A viruses for their neurraminidase subtype and is a good alternative to RT-PCR.

  11. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  12. A rapid radioassay for human IgG produced in lymphocyte in vitro culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, D.R.; Shale, D.J.; Tomlinson, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Protein A bearing Staphylococcus aureus was used to develop a solid-phase radioassay for IgG immunoglobulins. The assay was specifically optimised for use in vitro human lymphocyte culture work. Compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for IgG produced in lymphocyte culture, this assay had a similar performance profile and the advantages of rapidity and technical ease. (Auth.)

  13. Casein kinase II is elevated in solid human tumours and rapidly proliferating non-neoplastic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münstermann, U; Fritz, G; Seitz, G

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase CKII (i.e. casein kinase II, CKII, NII) is expressed at a higher level in rapidly proliferating tissues and in solid human tumours (e.g. colorectal carcinomas) when compared to the corresponding non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. This could be shown by (a) Western blotting of cellular...

  14. Rapid detection of human parechoviruses in clinical samples by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Kimberley; Molenkamp, Richard; van der Ham, Alwin; Wolthers, Katja; Beld, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) have been associated with severe conditions such as neonatal sepsis and meningitis in young children. Rapid identification of an infectious agent in such serious conditions in these patients is essential for adequate decision making regarding treatment and

  15. Science and Human Behavior, dualism, and conceptual modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G E

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior is in part an attempt to solve psychology's problem with mind-body dualism by revising our everyday mentalistic conceptual scheme. In the case of descriptive mentalism (the use of mentalistic terms to describe behavior), Skinner offers behavioral "translations." In contrast, Skinner rejects explanatory mentalism (the use of mental concepts to explain behavior) and suggests how to replace it with a behaviorist explanatory framework. For experiential mentalism, Skinner presents a theory of verbal behavior that integrates the use of mentalistic language in first-person reports of phenomenal experience into a scientific framework.

  16. Discrete time modelization of human pilot behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, D.; Soulatges, D.

    1975-01-01

    This modelization starts from the following hypotheses: pilot's behavior is a time discrete process, he can perform only one task at a time and his operating mode depends on the considered flight subphase. Pilot's behavior was observed using an electro oculometer and a simulator cockpit. A FORTRAN program has been elaborated using two strategies. The first one is a Markovian process in which the successive instrument readings are governed by a matrix of conditional probabilities. In the second one, strategy is an heuristic process and the concepts of mental load and performance are described. The results of the two aspects have been compared with simulation data.

  17. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care-O-bot, ...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots....

  18. Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds with Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutikov, Artem B.; Gurijala, Anvesh

    2015-01-01

    Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we demonstrated the excellent blending of biodegradable, amphiphilic poly(D,L-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) (PELA) triblock co-polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the fabrication of high-quality rapid prototyped 3D macroporous composite scaffolds using an unmodified consumer-grade 3D printer. The rapid prototyped HA-PELA composite scaffolds and the PELA control (without HA) swelled (66% and 44% volume increases, respectively) and stiffened (1.38-fold and 4-fold increases in compressive modulus, respectively) in water. To test the hypothesis that the hydration-induced physical changes can translate into self-fixation properties of the scaffolds within a confined defect, a straightforward in vitro pull-out test was designed to quantify the peak force required to dislodge these scaffolds from a simulated cylindrical defect at dry versus wet states. Consistent with our hypothesis, the peak fixation force measured for the PELA and HA-PELA scaffolds increased 6-fold and 15-fold upon hydration, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that

  19. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion. PMID:24039277

  20. Human Nonverbal Behaviors, Empathy, and Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, T. Thorne

    Nonverbal behavior is an important aspect of the film and is one of the several tools that a director uses to communicate to an audience the characters' feelings and relationships. By adding to this information their own personal responses, viewers often experience strong feelings. With reference to the social psychological research of nonverbal…

  1. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous

  2. Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Margot Stern; Parsons, William S.

    This unit for junior and senior high school students presents techniques and materials for studying about the holocaust of World War II. Emphasis in the guide is on human behavior and the role of the individual within society. Among the guide's 18 objectives are for students to examine society's influence on individual behavior, place Hitler's…

  3. Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas; Quek, F.; Yang, Yie

    2006-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should

  4. Electroencephalographic findings related with mild cognitive impairment in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Taeko; Matsuura, Masato; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-12-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) slowing have been reported as common findings of idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and α-synucleinopathies. The objective of this study is to clarify the relation between MCI and physiological markers in iRBD. Cross-sectional study. Yoyogi Sleep Disorder Center. Thirty-one patients with iRBD including 17 younger patients with iRBD (younger than 70 y) and 17 control patients for the younger patients with iRBD. N/A. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and n-polysomnogram (PSG) were conducted of all participants. In patients with iRBD, the factors associated with MCI were explored among parameters of REM sleep without atonia (RWA), score of Sniffin' Sticks Test (threshold-discrimination-identification [TDI] score), RBD morbidity, and RBD severity evaluated with the Japanese version of the RBD questionnaire (RBDQ-JP). The younger iRBD group showed significantly lower alpha power during wake and lower MoCA score than the age-matched control group. MCI was detected in 13 of 17 patients (76.5%) on MoCA in this group. Among patients wtih iRBD, the MoCA score negatively correlated with age, proportion of slow wave sleep, TDI score, and EEG spectral power. Multiple regression analysis provided the following equation: MoCA score = 50.871-0.116*age -5.307*log (δ power during REM sleep) + 0.086*TDI score (R² = 0.598, P sleep), and 0.357 for TDI score (F = 9.900, P sleep and olfactory dysfunction, was revealed to be associated with cognitive decline in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

  5. Relationships between Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Clinical Assessments, Biomarkers, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Li; Liu, Jiang-Hong; Zhan, Shu-Qin

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and loss of muscle atonia during rapid eye movement sleep. RBD is closely related to α-synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Many studies have investigated the markers of imaging and neurophysiological, genetic, cognitive, autonomic function of RBD and their predictive value for neurodegenerative diseases. This report reviewed the progress of these studies and discussed their limitations and future research directions. Data Sources: Using the combined keywords: “RBD”, “neurodegenerative disease”, “Parkinson disease”, and “magnetic resonance imaging”, the PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was conducted up to January 1, 2018. Study Selection: A total of 150 published articles were initially identified citations. Of the 150 articles, 92 articles were selected after further detailed review. This study referred to all the important English literature in full. Results: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SCARB2 (rs6812193) and MAPT (rs12185268) were significantly associated with RBD. The olfactory loss, autonomic dysfunction, marked electroencephalogram slowing during both wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep, and cognitive impairments were potential predictive markers for RBD conversion to neurodegenerative diseases. Traditional structural imaging studies reported relatively inconsistent results, whereas reduced functional connectivity between the left putamen and substantia nigra and dopamine transporter uptake demonstrated by functional imaging techniques were relatively consistent findings. Conclusions: More longitudinal studies should be conducted to evaluate the predictive value of biomarkers of RBD. Moreover, because the glucose and dopamine metabolisms are not specific for assessing cognitive cognition, the molecular metabolism directly related to cognition should be investigated

  6. Human body scents: do they influence our behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner, Sophie; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    Pheromonal communication in the animal world has been of great research interest for a long time. While extraordinary discoveries in this field have been made, the importance of the human sense of smell was of far lower interest. Humans are seen as poor smellers and therefore research about human olfaction remains quite sparse compared with other animals. Nevertheless amazing achievements have been made during the past 15 years. This is a collection of available data on this topic and a controversial discussion on the role of putative human pheromones in our modem way of living. While the focus was definitely put on behavioral changes evoked by putative human pheromones this article also includes other important aspects such as the possible existence of a human vomeronasal organ. If pheromones do have an influence on human behavior there has to be a receptor organ. How are human body scents secreted and turned into odorous substances? And how can con-specifics detect those very odors and transmit them to the brain? Apart from that the most likely candidates for human pheromones are taken on account and their impact on human behavior is shown in various detail.

  7. Reconceptualizing Social Work Behaviors from a Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Although the human rights philosophy has relevance for many segments of the social work curriculum, the latest version of accreditation standards only includes a few behaviors specific to human rights. This deficit can be remedied by incorporating innovations found in the social work literature, which provides a wealth of material for…

  8. Impulse control disorder and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Yu, Huan; Croisier-Langenier, Muriel; Rossignol, Alexia; Charif, Mahmoud; Geny, Christian; Carlander, Bertrand; Cochen De Cock, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between ICD and RBD is still not yet understood and the results from the current literature are contradictory in PD. We aimed to explore the association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and impulse control disorder in Parkinson's disease. Ninety-eight non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease underwent one night of video-polysomnography recording. The diagnosis of RBD was established according to clinical and polysomnographic criteria. Impulse control disorders were determined by a gold standard, semi-structured diagnostic interview. Half of the patients (n = 49) reported clinical history of RBD while polysomnographic diagnosis of RBD was confirmed in 31.6% of the patients (n = 31). At least one impulse control disorder was identified in 21.4% of patients, 22.6% with RBD and 20.9% without. Logistic regression controlling for potential confounders indicated that both clinical RBD (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.07-1.48, P = 0.15) and polysomnographic confirmed RBD diagnoses (OR = 0.1.28, 95% CI = 0.31-5.33, P = 0.34) were not associated with impulse control disorder. In Parkinson's disease, REM Sleep Behavior Disorder is not associated with impulse control disorder. The results of our study do not support the notion that PSG-confirmed RBD and ICD share a common pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennum P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Poul Jennum, Julie AE Christensen, Marielle Zoetmulder Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. Keywords: motor control, brain stem, hypothalamus, hypocretin

  10. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie AE; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. PMID:27186147

  11. Do patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder have a disease-specific personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Taeko; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsuura, Masato

    2012-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurs idiopathically (iRBD), frequently representing a prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous reports have described that patients with PD have premorbid personality profiles such as industriousness, inflexibility, cautiousness, and lack of novelty seeking. As well, psychological stress often aggravates RBD symptoms. These phenomena encouraged us to investigate personality profiles in iRBD patients. In this study, 53 patients with iRBD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. We used the revised version of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PIR) to measure the personality of these subjects, and the 5 domains and the 30 facets of the NEO-PIR were compared between the two groups. Within the iRBD group, we investigated the association between RBD variables, e.g. the proportion of REM sleep without atonia (RWA/REM), length of RBD morbidity, frequency of vocalization or abnormal behavior, and the variables of NEO-PIR. In the patients, olfactory function was significantly lower than that of healthy controls, but the inventory differences were not significant. The inventory showed no association with any RBD variable, or the existence of aggravation of these symptoms triggered by psychological stress, or olfactory dysfunction. These results suggest that RBD patients do not have a personality profile that might predict PD development. The personality profile itself cannot explain the psychological-stress-dependent aggravation of RBD symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurohormones, Brain, and Behavior: A Comparative Approach to Understanding Rapid Neuroendocrine Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisi, Rebecca M; Saldanha, Colin J

    2015-08-01

    The definition of a hormone has been in part delineated by its journey to distant receptor targets. Following activation of a receptor, a subsequent reaction facilitates the regulation of physiology and, ultimately, behavior. However, a growing number of studies report that hormones can influence these events at a previously underappreciated high speed. With the potential to act as neurotransmitters, the definition of a hormone and its mechanisms of action are evolving. In this symposium, we united scientists who use contemporary molecular, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches to study aspects of rapid hormone action in a broad array of systems across different levels of biological organization. What emerged was an overwhelming consensus that the use of integrative and comparative approaches fuels discovery and increases our understanding of de novo hormone synthesis, local actions of neurohormones, and subsequent effects on neuroplasticity and behavior. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  14. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  15. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Where to look? Automating attending behaviors of virtual human characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra Khullar, S.; Badler, N. I.

    2001-01-01

    This research proposes a computational framework for generating visual attending behavior in an embodied simulated human agent. Such behaviors directly control eye and head motions, and guide other actions such as locomotion and reach. The implementation of these concepts, referred to as the AVA, draws on empirical and qualitative observations known from psychology, human factors and computer vision. Deliberate behaviors, the analogs of scanpaths in visual psychology, compete with involuntary attention capture and lapses into idling or free viewing. Insights provided by implementing this framework are: a defined set of parameters that impact the observable effects of attention, a defined vocabulary of looking behaviors for certain motor and cognitive activity, a defined hierarchy of three levels of eye behavior (endogenous, exogenous and idling) and a proposed method of how these types interact.

  17. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  18. Comparison of Object Recognition Behavior in Human and Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Schmidt, Kailyn

    2015-01-01

    Although the rhesus monkey is used widely as an animal model of human visual processing, it is not known whether invariant visual object recognition behavior is quantitatively comparable across monkeys and humans. To address this question, we systematically compared the core object recognition behavior of two monkeys with that of human subjects. To test true object recognition behavior (rather than image matching), we generated several thousand naturalistic synthetic images of 24 basic-level objects with high variation in viewing parameters and image background. Monkeys were trained to perform binary object recognition tasks on a match-to-sample paradigm. Data from 605 human subjects performing the same tasks on Mechanical Turk were aggregated to characterize “pooled human” object recognition behavior, as well as 33 separate Mechanical Turk subjects to characterize individual human subject behavior. Our results show that monkeys learn each new object in a few days, after which they not only match mean human performance but show a pattern of object confusion that is highly correlated with pooled human confusion patterns and is statistically indistinguishable from individual human subjects. Importantly, this shared human and monkey pattern of 3D object confusion is not shared with low-level visual representations (pixels, V1+; models of the retina and primary visual cortex) but is shared with a state-of-the-art computer vision feature representation. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys and humans share a common neural shape representation that directly supports object perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To date, several mammalian species have shown promise as animal models for studying the neural mechanisms underlying high-level visual processing in humans. In light of this diversity, making tight comparisons between nonhuman and human primates is particularly critical in determining the best use of nonhuman primates to

  19. Human computing and machine understanding of human behavior: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pentland, Alex; Huang, Thomas S.; Huang, Th.S.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing should be about anticipatory user interfaces

  20. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  1. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high...... level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine....

  2. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Basu, Niladri; Bustamante, Paco; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Hopkins, William A.; Kidd, Karen A.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.

  3. Contrasting expressions of aggressive behavior released by lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodzka, J; Hedberg, C E; Mann, G L; Morrison, A R

    1998-06-01

    Whether damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ace) contributes to the predatorylike attack sometimes observed in rapid eye movement sleep without atonia (REM-A), created in cats by bilateral pontine lesions, was examined. Such lesions eliminate REM sleep skeletal muscle atonia and release elaborate behavior. Unilateral damage to the Ace alone increased affective defensive aggressive behavior toward humans and conspecifics without altering predatory behavior in wakefulness. Pontine lesions added at loci normally not leading to aggression induced predatorylike attacks in REM-A as well as the waking affective defense. Alterations of autonomic activity, the absence of relevant environmental stimuli in REM-A, or both may explain the state-related differences.

  4. Modeling Human Steering Behavior During Path Following in Teleoperation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirinejad, Hossein; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Ersal, Tulga

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a behavioral model representing the human steering performance in teleoperated unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). Human steering performance in teleoperation is considerably different from the performance in regular onboard driving situations due to significant communication delays in teleoperation systems and limited information human teleoperators receive from the vehicle sensory system. Mathematical models capturing the teleoperation performance are a key to making the development and evaluation of teleoperated UGV technologies fully simulation based and thus more rapid and cost-effective. However, driver models developed for the typical onboard driving case do not readily address this need. To fill the gap, this paper adopts a cognitive model that was originally developed for a typical highway driving scenario and develops a tuning strategy that adjusts the model parameters in the absence of human data to reflect the effect of various latencies and UGV speeds on driver performance in a teleoperated path-following task. Based on data collected from a human subject test study, it is shown that the tuned model can predict both the trend of changes in driver performance for different driving conditions and the best steering performance of human subjects in all driving conditions considered. The proposed model with the tuning strategy has a satisfactory performance in predicting human steering behavior in the task of teleoperated path following of UGVs. The established model is a suited candidate to be used in place of human drivers for simulation-based studies of UGV mobility in teleoperation systems.

  5. Talking with a Virtual Human : Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these

  6. Validation of an integrated software for the detection of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Stefani, Ambra; Hackner, Heinz; Mitterling, Thomas; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep without atonia (RWA) is the polysomnographic hallmark of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). To partially overcome the disadvantages of manual RWA scoring, which is time consuming but essential for the accurate diagnosis of RBD, we aimed to validate software specifically developed and integrated with polysomnography for RWA detection against the gold standard of manual RWA quantification. Academic referral center sleep laboratory. Polysomnographic recordings of 20 patients with RBD and 60 healthy volunteers were analyzed. N/A. Motor activity during REM sleep was quantified manually and computer assisted (with and without artifact detection) according to Sleep Innsbruck Barcelona (SINBAR) criteria for the mentalis ("any," phasic, tonic electromyographic [EMG] activity) and the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle (phasic EMG activity). Computer-derived indices (with and without artifact correction) for "any," phasic, tonic mentalis EMG activity, phasic FDS EMG activity, and the SINBAR index ("any" mentalis + phasic FDS) correlated well with the manually derived indices (all Spearman rhos 0.66-0.98). In contrast with computerized scoring alone, computerized scoring plus manual artifact correction (median duration 5.4 min) led to a significant reduction of false positives for "any" mentalis (40%), phasic mentalis (40.6%), and the SINBAR index (41.2%). Quantification of tonic mentalis and phasic FDS EMG activity was not influenced by artifact correction. The computer algorithm used here appears to be a promising tool for REM sleep behavior disorder detection in both research and clinical routine. A short check for plausibility of automatic detection should be a basic prerequisite for this and all other available computer algorithms. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Rapid video-referenced ratings of reciprocal social behavior in toddlers: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Glowinski, Anne L; Jacob, Theodore; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Drain, Caroline E; Holzhauer, Kieran E; Hariprasad, Vaishnavi; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Mortenson, Erika L; Sant, Sayli M; Cole, Lyndsey; Siegel, Satchel A; Zhang, Yi; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C; Constantino, John N

    2015-12-01

    Reciprocal social behavior (RSB) is a developmental prerequisite for social competency, and deficits in RSB constitute a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although clinical screeners categorically ascertain risk of ASD in early childhood, rapid methods for quantitative measurement of RSB in toddlers are not yet established. Such measurements are critical for tracking developmental trajectories and incremental responses to intervention. We developed and validated a 20-min video-referenced rating scale, the video-referenced rating of reciprocal social behavior (vrRSB), for untrained caregivers to provide standardized ratings of quantitative variation in RSB. Parents of 252 toddler twins [Monozygotic (MZ) = 31 pairs, Dizygotic (DZ) = 95 pairs] ascertained through birth records, rated their twins' RSB at two time points, on average 6 months apart, and completed two developmental measures, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory Short Form (MCDI-s). Scores on the vrRSB were fully continuously distributed, with excellent 6-month test-retest reliability ([intraclass correlation coefficient] ICC = 0.704, p CHAT (t = -8.588, df = 31, p < .000), incrementally improved from 18-24 months, and were inversely correlated with receptive and expressive vocabulary on the MCDI-s. Like quantitative autistic trait ratings in school-aged children and adults, toddler scores on the vrRSB are continuously distributed and appear highly heritable. These ratings exhibited minimal measurement error, high inter-individual stability, and developmental progression in RSB as children matured from 18-24 months, supporting their potential utility for serially quantifying the severity of early autistic syndromes over time and in response to intervention. In addition, these findings inform the genetic-environmental structure of RSB in early typical development. © 2015 Association for Child and

  8. Clinical features of Parkinson's disease with and without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Ondo, William G; Wu, Yun-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are two distinct clinical diseases but they share some common pathological and anatomical characteristics. This study aims to confirm the clinical features of RBD in Chinese PD patients. One hundred fifty PD patients were enrolled from the Parkinson`s disease and Movement Disorders Center in  Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital from January 2013 to August 2014. This study examined PD patients with or without RBD as determined by the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ), assessed motor subtype by Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) III at "on" state, and compared the sub-scale scores representing tremor, rigidity, appendicular and axial. Investigators also assessed the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Parkinson's disease Sleep Scale (PDSS). One hundred fourty one PD patients entered the final study. 30 (21.28%) PD patients had probable RBD (pRBD) diagnosed with a RBDSQ score of 6 or above. There were no significant differences for age, including age of PD onset and PD duration, gender, smoking status, alcohol or coffee use, presence of anosmia or freezing, UPDRS III, and H-Y stages between the pRBD + and pRBD - groups. pRBD + group had lower MMSE scores, higher PDSS scores, and pRBD + PD patients had more prominent proportion in anxiety, depression, constipation, hallucination and a greater prevalence of orthostatic hypotension. pRBD + PD patients exhibited greater changes in non-motor symptoms. However, there was no increase in motor deficits.

  9. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in treatment-naïve Parkinson disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomhause, Lucie; Dujardin, Kathy; Duhamel, Alain; Delliaux, Marie; Derambure, Philippe; Defebvre, Luc; Monaca Charley, Christelle

    2013-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a risk factor for dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. The objectives of our study were to prospectively evaluate the frequency of RBD in a sample of treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed PD patients and compare sleep characteristics and cognition in RBD and non-RBD groups. Fifty-seven newly diagnosed PD patients were consecutively recruited in a university medical center. All patients underwent two overnight polysomnography (PSG) sessions and were diagnosed with RBD according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Revision criteria. Daytime sleepiness was measured in a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Cognition was assessed in a standard neuropsychologic examination. Seventeen PD patients (30%) met the criteria for RBD. The RBD patients and non-RBD patients did not significantly differ in mean age, gender ratio, disease duration, motor symptom subtype and severity, total sleep time, percentage of REM sleep, apnea-hypopnea index, mean oxygen saturation, and importantly cognitive performance. However, non-RBD patients had a significantly shorter mean daytime sleep latency than RBD patients (15 vs. 18 min, respectively; P=.014). A high frequency of RBD was found in our sample of 57 newly diagnosed PD patients. At this stage in the disease, RBD was not found to be associated with other sleep disorders or cognitive decline. Follow-up is needed to assess the risk for developing dementia in early-stage PD patients with RBD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The "RAPID" cognitive-behavioral therapy program for inattentive children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-CQuestionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to measure outcome. Eighty-eight parents/carers, their children (age 8-11), and teachers at mainstream primary schools in London participated by completing the RATE-C Questionnaires; 48 participated in the group treatment following which the Questionnaires were readministered together with a semistructured interview. The intervention had a completion rate of 92%. Postgroup interviews supported the acceptability of a direct intervention with young children. Reliability of the RATE-C Total scores was excellent for parent/carer, child, and teacher ratings; postintervention parent/carer ratings indicated significant improvement on scales of attention, emotion, and conduct with medium to large effect. The results support the reliability of the RATE-C Scales, and feasibility and acceptability of the RAPID intervention.

  11. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species’ reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets’ behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets’ social cognition and communication are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are amongst only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this review, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior and communication, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and communication. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in nearly all neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27100195

  12. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviourists believe human capital is seen as the potential in people. They believe that the human resource in the organization are intangible assets embodied in the employees, not the people themselves. Behavioral economics emphasizes that people aren’t owned by the company, only their abilities and skills made available to the employer on the basis of certain legal relations which holds it to manage these assets in a rational way. Recognition of behavioral economics also highlights the aspects of development and human capital perspective, which appear in the may resource Staff in the future. These may be limited to: raise, awareness of capacity, internal aspirations, motives. Human capital management is nothing but a recognition of the relevant characteristics of the potential held within the company Staff and correct its use. As a consequence, it can bring tangible benefits to the organization.

  13. Paper-based device for rapid typing of secondary human blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaosi; Then, Whui Lyn; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of bioactive paper for typing of secondary human blood groups. Our recent work on using bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying haemagglutination of red blood cells. The primary human blood groups, i.e., ABO and RhD groups, have been successfully typed with this method. Clinically, however, many secondary blood groups can also cause fatal blood transfusion accidents, despite the fact that the haemagglutination reactions of secondary blood groups are generally weaker than those of the primary blood groups. We describe the design of a user-friendly sensor for rapid typing of secondary blood groups using bioactive paper. We also present mechanistic insights into interactions between secondary blood group antibodies and red blood cells obtained using confocal microscopy. Haemagglutination patterns under different conditions are revealed for optimization of the assay conditions.

  14. Rapid detection of human fecal Eubacterium species and related genera by nested PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, A; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rDNA gene sequence specific for seven Eubacterium spp. and Eggerthella lenta that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed, and used for direct detection of these species in seven human feces samples. Three species of Eggerthella lenta, Eubacterium rectale, and Eubacterium eligens were detected from seven fecal samples. Eubacterium biforme was detected from six samples. It was reported that E. rectale, E. eligens, and E. biforme were difficult to detect by traditional culture method, but the nested PCR method is available for the detection of these species. This result shows that the nested PCR method utilizing a universal primer pair, followed by amplification with species-specific primers, would allow rapid detection of Eubacterium species in human feces.

  15. Rapid Detection and Identification of Human Hookworm Infections through High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. Methods Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. Conclusion The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species. PMID:22844538

  16. Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution melting (HRM analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. METHODS: Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. CONCLUSION: The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species.

  17. Rapid detection and subtyping of human influenza A viruses and reassortants by pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mo Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the continuing co-circulation of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A viruses with seasonal H3N2 viruses, rapid and reliable detection of newly emerging influenza reassortant viruses is important to enhance our influenza surveillance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel pyrosequencing assay was developed for the rapid identification and subtyping of potential human influenza A virus reassortants based on all eight gene segments of the virus. Except for HA and NA genes, one universal set of primers was used to amplify and subtype each of the six internal genes. With this method, all eight gene segments of 57 laboratory isolates and 17 original specimens of seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses were correctly matched with their corresponding subtypes. In addition, this method was shown to be capable of detecting reassortant viruses by correctly identifying the source of all 8 gene segments from three vaccine production reassortant viruses and three H1N2 viruses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, this pyrosequencing assay is a sensitive and specific procedure for screening large numbers of viruses for reassortment events amongst the commonly circulating human influenza A viruses, which is more rapid and cheaper than using conventional sequencing approaches.

  18. Rapid detection and subtyping of human influenza A viruses and reassortants by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi-Mo; Caldwell, Natalie; Barr, Ian G

    2011-01-01

    Given the continuing co-circulation of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A viruses with seasonal H3N2 viruses, rapid and reliable detection of newly emerging influenza reassortant viruses is important to enhance our influenza surveillance. A novel pyrosequencing assay was developed for the rapid identification and subtyping of potential human influenza A virus reassortants based on all eight gene segments of the virus. Except for HA and NA genes, one universal set of primers was used to amplify and subtype each of the six internal genes. With this method, all eight gene segments of 57 laboratory isolates and 17 original specimens of seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses were correctly matched with their corresponding subtypes. In addition, this method was shown to be capable of detecting reassortant viruses by correctly identifying the source of all 8 gene segments from three vaccine production reassortant viruses and three H1N2 viruses. In summary, this pyrosequencing assay is a sensitive and specific procedure for screening large numbers of viruses for reassortment events amongst the commonly circulating human influenza A viruses, which is more rapid and cheaper than using conventional sequencing approaches.

  19. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous...

  20. Systematic Three-Dimensional Coculture Rapidly Recapitulates Interactions between Human Neurons and Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krencik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human astrocytes network with neurons in dynamic ways that are still poorly defined. Our ability to model this relationship is hampered by the lack of relevant and convenient tools to recapitulate this complex interaction. To address this barrier, we have devised efficient coculture systems utilizing 3D organoid-like spheres, termed asteroids, containing pre-differentiated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived astrocytes (hAstros combined with neurons generated from hPSC-derived neural stem cells (hNeurons or directly induced via Neurogenin 2 overexpression (iNeurons. Our systematic methods rapidly produce structurally complex hAstros and synapses in high-density coculture with iNeurons in precise numbers, allowing for improved studies of neural circuit function, disease modeling, and drug screening. We conclude that these bioengineered neural circuit model systems are reliable and scalable tools to accurately study aspects of human astrocyte-neuron functional properties while being easily accessible for cell-type-specific manipulations and observations. : In this article, Krencik and colleagues show that high-density cocultures of pre-differentiated human astrocytes with induced neurons, from pluripotent stem cells, elicit mature characteristics by 3–5 weeks. This provides a faster and more defined alternative method to organoid cultures for investigating human neural circuit function. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, synapses, coculture, three-dimensional spheres, organoids, disease modeling

  1. [Syndrome of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and nocturia in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodel, M R; Ukraintseva, Yu V; Yakhno, N N

    Parasomnia, a syndrome of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), is a common non-motor impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The relationship between RBD with other symptoms of PD affecting night sleep, in particular, nocturia, is understudied. An aim of the study was to determine the symptoms related to night sleep disturbances in PD patients with RBD and assess the dynamics of these disturbances with the disease progression taking into account RBD onset. One hundred and forty patients (72 male and 68 female) with PD without dementia (mean age 61.98±0.79 years, PD stage - 2.35±0.05, duration 5.82±90.65 years) were examined. Motor disorders were assessed with the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), sleep disturbances and frequent night urinations were evaluated with the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS). The diagnosis of probable RBD was based on reports of patients or their relatives on the dream-related motor activity and vocalization. Quality-of-life was evaluated with the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Patients were followed up after 2.5 years. Probable RBD was diagnosed in 46.43% of patients, including 30.77%, who developed the syndrome before the manifestation of motor symptoms, 16.92% patients with simultaneous development of RBD and motor symptoms and 52.31% with RBD development >2 years after motor disorders. Patients with RBD differed from those without parasomnia by the higher severity of nocturia. After 2.5 years of follow-up, the severity of disease was greater in patients with RBD assessed by UPDRS, quality-of-life indices, severity of nocturia and episodes of nocturia. The highest frequency of episodes of nocturia was noted in patients with early onset of RBD before the manifestation of motor symptoms. RBD in patients with PD is associated with the rapid progress of nocturia, higher degree of worsening of daily activities and deterioration of quality of life. The relationship between RBD

  2. Novelty, Stress, and Biological Roots in Human Market Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sarapultsev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004. From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007. An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  3. STOP-Bang Questionnaire in Patients with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hwan Ji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective The snoring, tiredness, observed apnea, and high blood pressure– body mass index, age, neck circumference, and gender (STOP-Bang questionnaire is known as a simple but useful tool for the diagnosis of high-risk obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. However, the utility of STOP-Bang questionnaire in rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD populations is not validated. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in patients with RBD at high risk for OSA. Methods We collected data from 65 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with RBD in a tertiary sleep center (20 women; mean age, 64.3 ± 12.5 years. All the patients visited sleep center with complaints of abnormal behavior during sleep, and underwent testing with STOP-Bang questionnaire and polysomnography. The diagnosis of RBD was based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition. We diagnosed OSA when apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was at least 5/h. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted. Results The mean AHI was 18.2 ± 16.5/h, and 75.4% (n = 49 had an AHI ≥ 5. The STOP-Bang (threshold ≥ 3 identified 70.7% of patients as high risk for OSA, and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 81.6, 62.5, 87, and 52.6%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC was 0.79 (p < 0.001. The STOP (threshold ≥ 2 identified 70.7% of patients at high risk for OSA, and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 75.5, 87.5, 94.9, and 53.8%, respectively. The AUC was 0.86 (p < 0.001. A pairwise comparison of ROC curve between STOP-Bang and STOP was insignificant (p = 0.145. Conclusions In RBD population, the STOP-Bang or STOP questionnaire is a useful screening tool to identify patients at high risk for OSA.

  4. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.-M.; Gavrila, D.; Keyson, D.V.; Maher, M.L.; Streitz, N.; Cheok, A.; Augusto, J.C.; Wichert, R.; Englebienne, G.; Aghajan, H.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left

  5. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  6. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  7. Data Mining and Visualization of Large Human Behavior Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea

    and credit card transactions – have provided us new sources for studying our behavior. In particular smartphones have emerged as new tools for collecting data about human activity, thanks to their sensing capabilities and their ubiquity. This thesis investigates the question of what we can learn about human...... behavior from this rich and pervasive mobile sensing data. In the first part, we describe a large-scale data collection deployment collecting high-resolution data for over 800 students at the Technical University of Denmark using smartphones, including location, social proximity, calls and SMS. We provide...... an overview of the technical infrastructure, the experimental design, and the privacy measures. The second part investigates the usage of this mobile sensing data for understanding personal behavior. We describe two large-scale user studies on the deployment of self-tracking apps, in order to understand...

  8. Assessing Human Judgment of Computationally Generated Swarming Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harvey

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based swarm systems, aiming to replicate the flocking behavior of birds, were first introduced by Reynolds in 1987. In his initial work, Reynolds noted that while it was difficult to quantify the dynamics of the behavior from the model, observers of his model immediately recognized them as a representation of a natural flock. Considerable analysis has been conducted since then on quantifying the dynamics of flocking/swarming behavior. However, no systematic analysis has been conducted on human identification of swarming. In this paper, we assess subjects’ assessment of the behavior of a simplified version of Reynolds’ model. Factors that affect the identification of swarming are discussed and future applications of the resulting models are proposed. Differences in decision times for swarming-related questions asked during the study indicate that different brain mechanisms may be involved in different elements of the behavior assessment task. The relatively simple but finely tunable model used in this study provides a useful methodology for assessing individual human judgment of swarming behavior.

  9. Detection and monitoring of human bocavirus 1 infection by a new rapid antigen test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.L. Bruning

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically relevant diagnosis of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1 is challenging, as the virus is frequently detected in asymptomatic patients, and cofindings with other respiratory viruses are common. The clinical value of current diagnostic methods, such as PCR, is therefore low, and alternative diagnostic strategies are needed. We describe for the first time the use of an antigen detection assay for the rapid identification of HBoV1 in a paediatric patient with respiratory tract infection symptoms. We estimate the duration of active HBoV1 infection to be 6 days.

  10. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT2 receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of AT2 receptors in mitochondria and their role in NO generation and cell aging were recently demonstrated in various human and mouse non-tumour cells. We investigated the intracellular distribution of AT2 receptors including their presence in mitochondria and the role in the induction...... agonist, Compound 21 (C21) penetrates the cell membrane of quiescent SK-UT-1 cells, activates intracellular AT2 receptors and induces rapid cell death; approximately 70% of cells died within 24 h. The cells, which escaped from the cell death, displayed activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, i...

  11. Flow induced dispersion analysis rapidly quantifies proteins in human plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nicklas N; Andersen, Nina Z; Østergaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive quantification of protein based biomarkers and drugs is a substantial challenge in diagnostics and biopharmaceutical drug development. Current technologies, such as ELISA, are characterized by being slow (hours), requiring relatively large amounts of sample and being subject...... to cumbersome and expensive assay development. In this work a new approach for quantification based on changes in diffusivity is presented. The apparent diffusivity of an indicator molecule interacting with the protein of interest is determined by Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) in a hydrodynamic flow system...... in a blood plasma matrix), fully automated, and being subject to a simple assay development. FIDA is demonstrated for quantification of the protein Human Serum Albumin (HSA) in human plasma as well as for quantification of an antibody against HSA. The sensitivity of the FIDA assay depends on the indicator...

  12. Characterization of rapid recovery from γ-ray damage in plateau-phase human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Tomkinson, K.N.; Little, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid recovery was investigated in density-inhibited, stationary-phase human diploid cells subcultured to low density at various times after a single dose of radiation. The influence of total dose, postirradiation temperature, and cell-to-cell contact on recovery was examined. The cultures were exposed to 60 Co γ rays at a dose rate of 50 rad per second. When the irradiation and postirradiation temperatures were maintained at 25 or 37 0 C, recovery, as manifested by an enhancement in survival, was similar during the first 30 min, whereas it was reduced at later times in the 25 0 C compared with the 37 0 C cultures. This result suggests the existence of different rapidly and slowly acting components to recovery. No recovery was noted at any time with incubation at 4 0 C. The recovery observed in density-inhibited cultures was consistently greater than that in less dense cultures, suggesting an effect of cell-to-cell contact and cell cycle distribution. Following single doses of 200 to 900 rad, progressive enhancement in relative recovery occurred with increasing doses over a period of 2 to 90 min, illustrating the importance of the relationship of the dose to the rapid recovery process

  13. Rapid alterations of cell cycle control proteins in human T lymphocytes in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel Cora S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In our study we aimed to identify rapidly reacting gravity-responsive mechanisms in mammalian cells in order to understand if and how altered gravity is translated into a cellular response. In a combination of experiments using "functional weightlessness" provided by 2D-clinostats and real microgravity provided by several parabolic flight campaigns and compared to in-flight-1g-controls, we identified rapid gravity-responsive reactions inside the cell cycle regulatory machinery of human T lymphocytes. In response to 2D clinorotation, we detected an enhanced expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 protein within minutes, less cdc25C protein expression and enhanced Ser147-phosphorylation of cyclinB1 after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Additionally, during 2D clinorotation, Tyr-15-phosphorylation occurred later and was shorter than in the 1 g controls. In CD3/CD28-stimulated primary human T cells, mRNA expression of the cell cycle arrest protein p21 increased 4.1-fold after 20s real microgravity in primary CD4+ T cells and 2.9-fold in Jurkat T cells, compared to 1 g in-flight controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor curcumin was able to abrogate microgravity-induced p21 mRNA expression, whereas expression was enhanced by a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Therefore, we suppose that cell cycle progression in human T lymphocytes requires Earth gravity and that the disturbed expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins could contribute to the breakdown of the human immune system in space.

  14. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  15. Human Mobility Analysis for Extracting Local Interactions under Rapid Socio-Economic Transformation in Dawei, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Kimijima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides knowledge about impacts of a socio-economic transformation in a rapidly urbanizing environment. This study assesses a long-term mobility data which uses a face-to-face questionnaire and GPS logger-based method of data collection for extracting socio-economic impacts from the rapid transformation. Conversion of mobility related information such as travel distance, direction, and time from the questionnaire survey into spatiotemporal information was carried out by developing an algorithm. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study in Dawei Special Economic Zone, Myanmar was conducted. The results show that the questionnaire-based mobility data can be associated with GPS-based mobility data and diverse mobility patterns are found for different social groups in the stage of urban formation. The results enabled an understanding of the human dynamics in interactions, which can be used for monitoring rural sustainability and its challenges in the future with the background of the accelerated project development in the area.

  16. A bottom-up model of spatial attention predicts human error patterns in rapid scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Mundhenk, T Nathan; Baldi, Pierre; Koch, Christof; Itti, Laurent

    2007-07-20

    Humans demonstrate a peculiar ability to detect complex targets in rapidly presented natural scenes. Recent studies suggest that (nearly) no focal attention is required for overall performance in such tasks. Little is known, however, of how detection performance varies from trial to trial and which stages in the processing hierarchy limit performance: bottom-up visual processing (attentional selection and/or recognition) or top-down factors (e.g., decision-making, memory, or alertness fluctuations)? To investigate the relative contribution of these factors, eight human observers performed an animal detection task in natural scenes presented at 20 Hz. Trial-by-trial performance was highly consistent across observers, far exceeding the prediction of independent errors. This consistency demonstrates that performance is not primarily limited by idiosyncratic factors but by visual processing. Two statistical stimulus properties, contrast variation in the target image and the information-theoretical measure of "surprise" in adjacent images, predict performance on a trial-by-trial basis. These measures are tightly related to spatial attention, demonstrating that spatial attention and rapid target detection share common mechanisms. To isolate the causal contribution of the surprise measure, eight additional observers performed the animal detection task in sequences that were reordered versions of those all subjects had correctly recognized in the first experiment. Reordering increased surprise before and/or after the target while keeping the target and distractors themselves unchanged. Surprise enhancement impaired target detection in all observers. Consequently, and contrary to several previously published findings, our results demonstrate that attentional limitations, rather than target recognition alone, affect the detection of targets in rapidly presented visual sequences.

  17. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Gordon J.; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions.

  18. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    Full Text Available Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana and elk (Cervus elephus in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk, lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  19. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...... of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based...

  20. Tensile behavior change depending on the microstructure of a Fe-Cu alloy produced from rapidly solidified powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakisawa, Hideki; Minagawa, Kazumi; Halada, Kohmei

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between consolidating temperature and the tensile behavior of iron alloy produced from Fe-Cu rapidly solidified powder is investigated. Fe-Cu powder fabricated by high-pressure water atomization was consolidated by heavy rolling at 873-1273 K. Microstructural changes were observed and tensile behavior was examined. Tensile behavior varies as the consolidating temperature changes, and these temperature-dependent differences depend on the morphology of the microstructure on the order of micrometers. The sample consolidated at 873 K shows a good strength/elongation balance because the powder microstructure and primary powder boundaries are maintained. The samples consolidated at the higher temperatures have a microstructure of recrystallized grains, and these recrystallized samples show the conventional relationship between tensile behavior and grain size in ordinal bulk materials

  1. The effects of interventions targeting multiple health behaviors on smoking cessation outcomes: a rapid realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; deRuiter, Wayne K; Lingam, Mathangee; Corrin, Tricia; Dragonetti, Rosa; Manson, Heather; Taylor, Valerie H; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ebnahmady, Arezoo; Melamed, Osnat C; Rodak, Terri; Hahn, Margaret; Selby, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Health behaviors directly impact the health of individuals, and populations. Since individuals tend to engage in multiple unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, and eating an unhealthy diet simultaneously, many large community-based interventions have been implemented to reduce the burden of disease through the modification of multiple health behaviors. Smoking cessation can be particularly challenging as the odds of becoming dependent on nicotine increase with every unhealthy behavior a smoker exhibits. This paper presents a protocol for a rapid realist review which aims to identify factors associated with effectively changing tobacco use and target two or more additional unhealthy behaviors. An electronic literature search will be conducted using the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Web of Science. Two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts for relevant research, and the selected full papers will be used to extract data and assess the quality of evidence. Throughout this process, the rapid realist approach proposed by Saul et al., 2013 will be used to refine our initial program theory and identify contextual factors and mechanisms that are associated with successful multiple health behavior change. This review will provide evidence-based research on the context and mechanisms that may drive the success or failure of interventions designed to support multiple health behavior change. This information will be used to guide curriculum and program development for a government funded project on improving smoking cessation by addressing multiple health behaviors in people in Canada. PROSPERO CRD42017064430.

  2. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  3. Modeling human behaviors and reactions under dangerous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions of different people; capturing different motion postures by the Eagle Digital System; establishing 3D character animation models; establishing 3D models for the scene; planning the scenario and the contents; and programming within Virtools Dev. Programming within Virtools Dev is subdivided into modeling dangerous events, modeling character's perceptions, modeling character's decision making, modeling character's movements, modeling character's interaction with environment and setting up the virtual cameras. The real-time simulation of human reactions in hazardous environments is invaluable in military defense, fire escape, rescue operation planning, traffic safety studies, and safety planning in chemical factories, the design of buildings, airplanes, ships and trains. Currently, human motion modeling can be realized through established technology, whereas to integrate perception and intelligence into virtual human's motion is still a huge undertaking. The challenges here are the synchronization of motion and intelligence, the accurate modeling of human's vision, smell, touch and hearing, the diversity and effects of emotion and personality in decision making. There are three types of software platforms which could be employed to realize the motion and intelligence within one system, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  4. THE PREREQUISITES OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN HUMAN ONTOGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Sozinova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of moral attitudes toward unrelated individuals from different social groups may provide insights into the role of biological and cultural factors in prosocial behavior. Children (3–11 years old, N=80 were presented with moral dilemmas describing a conflict of interests between a con-specific (human and another species (animals or aliens. Participants were asked to evaluate the behavior of a human in terms of ‘good’ and ‘bad’, and to choose whom they would help: a human aggressor who benefits at the expense of a victim in vital need, or the victim. Results showed that the older children preferred to help non-human victims significantly more often than the younger children. The evaluation of human actions was related to the proportion of such preferences. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of kin selection theory, group selection theory and the system-evolutionary approach. The implications of the study for moral education are suggested.

  5. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting

    2007-11-01

    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  6. DTIC Review: Human, Social, Cultural and Behavior Modeling. Volume 9, Number 1 (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...: Human, Social, Cultural and Behavior (HSCB) models are designed to help understand the structure, interconnections, dependencies, behavior, and trends associated with any collection of individuals...

  7. Training together: how another human's presence affects behavior during virtual human-based team training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite research showing that team training can lead to strong improvements in team performance, logistical difficulties can prevent team training programs from being adopted on a large scale. A proposed solution to these difficulties is the use of virtual humans to replace missing teammates. Existing research evaluating the use of virtual humans for team training has been conducted in settings involving a single human trainee. However, in the real world multiple human trainees would most likely train together. In this paper, we explore how the presence of a second human trainee can alter behavior during a medical team training program. Ninety-two nurses and surgical technicians participated in a medical training exercise, where they worked with a virtual surgeon and virtual anesthesiologist to prepare a simulated patient for surgery. The agency of the nurse and the surgical technician were varied between three conditions: human nurses and surgical technicians working together; human nurses working with a virtual surgical technician; and human surgical technicians working with a virtual nurse. Variations in agency did not produce statistically significant differences in the training outcomes, but several notable differences were observed in other aspects of the team's behavior. Specifically, when working with a virtual nurse, human surgical technicians were more likely to assist with speaking up about patient safety issues that were outside of their normal responsibilities; human trainees spent less time searching for a missing item when working with a virtual partner, likely because the virtual partner was physically unable to move throughout the room and assist with the searching process; and more breaks in presence were observed when two human teammates were present. These results show that some behaviors may be influenced by the presence of multiple human trainees, though these behaviors may not impinge on core training goals. When

  8. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  9. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  10. ON THE R-CURVE BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN TOOTH ENAMEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is function of distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0...

  11. Deformation Behavior of Human Dentin under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Zaytsev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation behavior of a human dentin under compression including size and rate effects is studied. No difference between mechanical properties of crown and root dentin is found. It is mechanically isotropic high elastic and strong hard tissue, which demonstrates considerable plasticity and ability to suppress a crack growth. Mechanical properties of dentin depend on a shape of samples and a deformation rate.

  12. Rapid determination of human globin chains using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jun-Hui; Tian, Pei-Ling; Luo, Wei-Hao; Wu, Bing-Yi; Xiong, Fu; Zhou, Wan-Jun; Wei, Xiang-Cai; Xu, Xiang-Min

    2012-07-15

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of human globin chains is an important tool for detecting thalassemias and hemoglobin variants. The challenges of this method that limit its clinical application are a long analytical time and complex sample preparation. The aim of this study was to establish a simple, rapid and high-resolution RP-HPLC method for the separation of globin chains in human blood. Red blood cells from newborns and adults were diluted in deionized water and injected directly onto a micro-jupiter C18 reversed-phase column (250 mm × 4.6 mm) with UV detection at 280 nm. Under the conditions of varying pH or the HPLC gradient, the globin chains (pre-β, β, δ, α, (G)γ and (A)γ) were denatured and separated from the heme groups in 12 min with a retention time coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 0.11 to 1.29% and a peak area CV between 0.32% and 4.86%. Significant differences (P<0.05) among three groups (normal, Hb H and β thalassemia) were found in the area ratio of α/pre-β+β applying the rapid elution procedure, while P≥0.05 was obtained between the normal and α thalassemia silent/trait group. Based on the ANOVA results, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the δ/β and α/pre-β+β area ratios showed a sensitivity of 100.0%, and a specificity of 100.0% for indicating β thalassemia carriers, and a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.6% for the prediction of hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease. The proposed cut-off was 0.026 of δ/β for β thalassemia carriers and 0.626 of α/pre-β+β for Hb H disease. In addition, abnormal hemoglobin hemoglobin E (Hb E) and Hb Westmead (Hb WS) were successfully identified using this RP-HPLC method. Our experience in developing this RP-HPLC method for the rapid separation of human globin chains could be of use for similar work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human behavior recognition using a context-free grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Andrea; Conci, Nicola; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2014-05-01

    Automatic recognition of human activities and behaviors is still a challenging problem for many reasons, including limited accuracy of the data acquired by sensing devices, high variability of human behaviors, and gap between visual appearance and scene semantics. Symbolic approaches can significantly simplify the analysis and turn raw data into chains of meaningful patterns. This allows getting rid of most of the clutter produced by low-level processing operations, embedding significant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between incoming sequences and models. We propose a symbolic approach to learn and detect complex activities through the sequences of atomic actions. Compared to previous methods based on context-free grammars, we introduce several important novelties, such as the capability to learn actions based on both positive and negative samples, the possibility of efficiently retraining the system in the presence of misclassified or unrecognized events, and the use of a parsing procedure that allows correct detection of the activities also when they are concatenated and/or nested one with each other. An experimental validation on three datasets with different characteristics demonstrates the robustness of the approach in classifying complex human behaviors.

  14. A rapid and efficient DNA extraction protocol from fresh and frozen human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Pokhraj; Das, Avishek; Dutta, Somit; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Different methods available for extraction of human genomic DNA suffer from one or more drawbacks including low yield, compromised quality, cost, time consumption, use of toxic organic solvents, and many more. Herein, we aimed to develop a method to extract DNA from 500 μL of fresh or frozen human blood. Five hundred microliters of fresh and frozen human blood samples were used for standardization of the extraction procedure. Absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, respectively, (A 260 /A 280 ) were estimated to check the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA sample. Qualitative assessment of the extracted DNA was checked by Polymerase Chain reaction and double digestion of the DNA sample. Our protocol resulted in average yield of 22±2.97 μg and 20.5±3.97 μg from 500 μL of fresh and frozen blood, respectively, which were comparable to many reference protocols and kits. Besides yielding bulk amount of DNA, our protocol is rapid, economical, and avoids toxic organic solvents such as Phenol. Due to unaffected quality, the DNA is suitable for downstream applications. The protocol may also be useful for pursuing basic molecular researches in laboratories having limited funds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  16. Targeted disruption in mice of a neural stem cell-maintaining, KRAB-Zn finger-encoding gene that has rapidly evolved in the human lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Chieh Chien

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of the physical and behavioral traits that separate humans from other primates is a challenging but intriguing topic. The adaptive functions of the expansion and/or reduction in human brain size have long been explored. From a brain transcriptome project we have identified a KRAB-Zn finger protein-encoding gene (M003-A06 that has rapidly evolved since the human-chimpanzee separation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of different human tissues indicates that M003-A06 expression is enriched in the human fetal brain in addition to the fetal heart. Furthermore, analysis with use of immunofluorescence staining, neurosphere culturing and Western blotting indicates that the mouse ortholog of M003-A06, Zfp568, is expressed mainly in the embryonic stem (ES cells and fetal as well as adult neural stem cells (NSCs. Conditional gene knockout experiments in mice demonstrates that Zfp568 is both an NSC maintaining- and a brain size-regulating gene. Significantly, molecular genetic analyses show that human M003-A06 consists of 2 equilibrated allelic types, H and C, one of which (H is human-specific. Combined contemporary genotyping and database mining have revealed interesting genetic associations between the different genotypes of M003-A06 and the human head sizes. We propose that M003-A06 is likely one of the genes contributing to the uniqueness of the human brain in comparison to other higher primates.

  17. The Human Factor: Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Humanized Perception in Moral Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states (“humanization”) seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim’s perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons’ lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others’ perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more “human-like” persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions. PMID:23082194

  18. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  19. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire. PMID:26961705

  20. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin

    2016-03-10

    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire.

  1. Evaluation of three commercial rapid tests for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Baki, A; Kamarudin, R

    2003-08-01

    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.

  2. Rapid detection of human infections with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kison, P.V.; Russo, J.E.; Zasadny, K.R.; Braun, D.K.; Wahl, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) for rapid detection of human infections. Eleven patients who were known or suspected to be harboring various infections were studied with FDG-PET. Dynamic scans over the putative infection sites were performed immediately after FDG (370 MBq) injection through 60 min, and static images including multiple projection images were then obtained. FDG uptake was assessed visually into four grades (0, normal; 1, probably normal; 2, probably abnormal; 3, definitely abnormal). For the semiquantitative index of FDG uptake in infections, the standardized uptake value of FDG normalized to the predicted lean body mass (SUV-lean, SUL) was determined from the images obtained at 50-60 min after FDG injection. PET results were compared with final clinical diagnoses. Eleven lesions in eight patients, which were interpreted as grade 2 or 3 by FDG-PET, were all concordant with active infectious foci. The SUL values of infections ranged from 0.97 to 6.69. In two patients, FDG-PET correctly showed no active infection. In one patient, it was difficult to detect infectious foci by FDG-PET due to substantial normal background uptake of FDG. In total, FDG-PET correctly diagnosed the presence or absence of active infection in 10 of 11 patients. Fusion images of PET with computed tomography showed the most intense FDG uptake to be within an abscess wall. In conclusion, FDG-PET appears to be a promising modality for rapid imaging of active human infections. More extensive clinical evaluation is warranted to determine the accuracy of this method. (orig.)

  3. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  4. The Human Factor: Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Humanized Perception in Moral Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional ...

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder--diagnostik, årsager og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical and neu...

  6. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder--diagnostik, årsager og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  7. How we learn to make decisions: rapid propagation of reinforcement learning prediction errors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigolson, Olav E; Hassall, Cameron D; Handy, Todd C

    2014-03-01

    Our ability to make decisions is predicated upon our knowledge of the outcomes of the actions available to us. Reinforcement learning theory posits that actions followed by a reward or punishment acquire value through the computation of prediction errors-discrepancies between the predicted and the actual reward. A multitude of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that rewards and punishments evoke neural responses that appear to reflect reinforcement learning prediction errors [e.g., Krigolson, O. E., Pierce, L. J., Holroyd, C. B., & Tanaka, J. W. Learning to become an expert: Reinforcement learning and the acquisition of perceptual expertise. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1833-1840, 2009; Bayer, H. M., & Glimcher, P. W. Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal. Neuron, 47, 129-141, 2005; O'Doherty, J. P. Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 769-776, 2004; Holroyd, C. B., & Coles, M. G. H. The neural basis of human error processing: Reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 109, 679-709, 2002]. Here, we used the brain ERP technique to demonstrate that not only do rewards elicit a neural response akin to a prediction error but also that this signal rapidly diminished and propagated to the time of choice presentation with learning. Specifically, in a simple, learnable gambling task, we show that novel rewards elicited a feedback error-related negativity that rapidly decreased in amplitude with learning. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of a reward positivity at choice presentation, a previously unreported ERP component that has a similar timing and topography as the feedback error-related negativity that increased in amplitude with learning. The pattern of results we observed mirrored the output of a computational model that we implemented to compute reward

  8. A robust and rapid xenograft model to assess efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents for human acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saland, E; Boutzen, H; Castellano, R; Pouyet, L; Griessinger, E; Larrue, C; Toni, F de; Scotland, S; David, M; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Vergez, F; Barreira, Y; Collette, Y; Récher, C; Sarry, J-E

    2015-01-01

    Relevant preclinical mouse models are crucial to screen new therapeutic agents for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Current in vivo models based on the use of patient samples are not easy to establish and manipulate in the laboratory. Our objective was to develop robust xenograft models of human AML using well-characterized cell lines as a more accessible and faster alternative to those incorporating the use of patient-derived AML cells. Five widely used AML cell lines representing various AML subtypes were transplanted and expanded into highly immunodeficient non-obese diabetic/LtSz-severe combined immunodeficiency IL2Rγ c null mice (for example, cell line-derived xenografts). We show here that bone marrow sublethal conditioning with busulfan or irradiation has equal efficiency for the xenotransplantation of AML cell lines. Although higher number of injected AML cells did not change tumor engraftment in bone marrow and spleen, it significantly reduced the overall survival in mice for all tested AML cell lines. On the basis of AML cell characteristics, these models also exhibited a broad range of overall mouse survival, engraftment, tissue infiltration and aggressiveness. Thus, we have established a robust, rapid and straightforward in vivo model based on engraftment behavior of AML cell lines, all vital prerequisites for testing new therapeutic agents in preclinical studies

  9. Body odor quality predicts behavioral attractiveness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; Kralevich, Alexandra; Ferdenzi, Camille; Saxton, Tamsin K; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Havlicek, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Growing effort is being made to understand how different attractive physical traits co-vary within individuals, partly because this might indicate an underlying index of genetic quality. In humans, attention has focused on potential markers of quality such as facial attractiveness, axillary odor quality, the second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio and body mass index (BMI). Here we extend this approach to include visually-assessed kinesic cues (nonverbal behavior linked to movement) which are statistically independent of structural physical traits. The utility of such kinesic cues in mate assessment is controversial, particularly during everyday conversational contexts, as they could be unreliable and susceptible to deception. However, we show here that the attractiveness of nonverbal behavior, in 20 male participants, is predicted by perceived quality of their axillary body odor. This finding indicates covariation between two desirable traits in different sensory modalities. Depending on two different rating contexts (either a simple attractiveness rating or a rating for long-term partners by 10 female raters not using hormonal contraception), we also found significant relationships between perceived attractiveness of nonverbal behavior and BMI, and between axillary odor ratings and 2D:4D ratio. Axillary odor pleasantness was the single attribute that consistently predicted attractiveness of nonverbal behavior. Our results demonstrate that nonverbal kinesic cues could reliably reveal mate quality, at least in males, and could corroborate and contribute to mate assessment based on other physical traits.

  10. Rapid effects of phytoestrogens on human colonic smooth muscle are mediated by oestrogen receptor beta.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated consumption of dietary phytoestrogens with beneficial effects on colon, breast and prostate cancers. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms are responsible for anti-carcinogenic effects but, until now, the effect on human colon was assumed to be passive and remote. No direct effect on human colonic smooth muscle has previously been described. Institutional research board approval was granted. Histologically normal colon was obtained from the proximal resection margin of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended under 1g of tension in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After an equilibration period, tissues were exposed to diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER beta agonist) and 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT) (ER alpha agonist) or to the synthetic phytoestrogen compounds genistein (n=8), daidzein (n=8), fisetin (n=8) and quercetin (n=8) in the presence or absence of fulvestrant (oestrogen receptor antagonist). Mechanism of action was investigated by inhibition of downstream pathways. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce contractile activity. Tension was recorded isometrically. Phytoestrogens inhibit carbachol-induced colonic contractility. In keeping with a non-genomic, rapid onset direct action, the effect was within minutes, reversible and similar to previously described actions of 17 beta oestradiol. No effect was seen in the presence of fulvestrant indicating receptor modulation. While the DPN exerted inhibitory effects, PPT did not. The effect appears to be reliant on a p38\\/mitogen activated protein kinase mediated induction of nitric oxide production in colonic smooth muscle. The present data set provides the first description of a direct effect of genistein, daidzein, fisetin and quercetin on human colonic smooth muscle. The presence of ER in colonic smooth muscle has been functionally proven and the beta

  11. Rapid identification of emerging human-pathogenic Sporothrix species with rolling circle amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Messias Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix infections are emerging as an important human and animal threat among otherwise healthy patients, especially in Brazil and China. Correct identification of sporotrichosis agents is beneficial for epidemiological surveillance, enabling implementation of adequate public-health policies and guiding antifungal therapy. In areas of limited resources where sporotrichosis is endemic, high-throughput detection methods that are specific and sensitive are preferred over phenotypic methods that usually result in misidentification of closely related Sporothrix species. We sought to establish rolling circle amplification (RCA as a low-cost screening tool for species-specific identification of human-pathogenic Sporothrix. We developed six species-specific padlock probes targeting polymorphisms in the gene encoding calmodulin. BLAST-searches revealed candidate probes that were conserved intraspecifically; no significant homology with sequences from humans, mice, plants or microorganisms outside members of Sporothrix were found. The accuracy of our RCA-based assay was demonstrated through the specificity of probe-template binding to 25 S. brasiliensis, 58 S. schenckii, 5 S. globosa, 1 S. luriei, 4 S. mexicana, and 3 S. pallida samples. No cross reactivity between closely related species was evident in vitro, and padlock probes yielded 100% specificity and sensitivity down to 3 x 10 6 copies of the target sequence. RCA-based speciation matched identifications via phylogenetic analysis of the gene encoding calmodulin and the rDNA operon (kappa 1.0; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.0, supporting its use as a reliable alternative to DNA sequencing. This method is a powerful tool for rapid identification and specific detection of medically relevant Sporothrix, and due to its robustness has potential for ecological studies.

  12. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implications of rapid environmental change for polar bear behavior and sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the Arctic sea ice has functioned as a structural barrier that has limited the nature and extent of interactions between humans and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). However, declining sea ice extent, brought about by global climate change, is increasing the potential for human-polar bear interactions. Loss of sea ice habitat is driving changes to both human and polar bear behavior—it is facilitating increases in human activities (e.g., offshore oil and gas exploration and extraction, trans-Arctic shipping, recreation), while also causing the displacement of bears from preferred foraging habitat (i.e., sea ice over biologically productive shallow) to land in some portions of their range. The end result of these changes is that polar bears are spending greater amounts of time in close proximity to people. Coexistence between humans and polar bears will require imposing mechanisms to manage further development, as well as mitigation strategies that reduce the burden to local communities.

  14. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E

    2017-07-01

    There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce

  15. Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiwei; Yu Xinyuan; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an endocrine disruptor, can induce a variety of signaling events including the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. In this study, the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER) in these events was evaluated in three human breast caner cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. The Cd-induced signal activation patterns in the three cell lines mimicked those exhibited in response to 17β-estradiol. Specifically, treatment of MCF-7 cells, that express ERα, ERβ and GPR30, to 0.5-10 μM Cd for only 2.5 min resulted in transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cd also triggered a gradual increase and sustained activation of AKT during the 60 min treatment period. In SK-BR-3 cells, that express only GPR30, Cd also caused a transient activation of ERK1/2, but not of AKT. In contrast, in MDA-MB-231 cells, that express only ERβ, Cd was unable to cause rapid activation of either ERK1/2 or AKT. A transient phosphorylation of ERα was also observed within 2.5 min of Cd exposure in the MCF-7 cells. While the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, did not prevent the effect of Cd on these signals, specific siRNA against hERα significantly reduced Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2 and completely blocked the activation of AKT. It is concluded that Cd, like estradiol, can cause rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT and that these signaling events are mediated by possible interaction with membrane ERα and GPR30, but not ERβ

  16. Evaluation of Ion Torrent sequencing technology for rapid clinical human leucocyte antigen typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Sandra G; Chong, Winnie; Brown, Colin J; Navarrete, Cristina V

    2018-06-05

    The development of techniques to define the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region has proven to be challenging due to its high level of polymorphism. Within a clinical laboratory, a technique for high-resolution HLA typing, which is rapid and cost effective is essential. NGS has provided a rapid, high-resolution HLA typing solution, which has reduced the number of HLA ambiguities seen with other typing methods. In this study, the One Lambda NXType NGS kit was tested on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. A total of 362 registry donors from four ethnic populations (Europeans, South Asians, Africans and Chinese) were NGS HLA typed across 9-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1,-DRB345 -DQB1 and -DPB1). Concordance rates of 91%-98% were obtained (for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1) when compared to historical PCR-SSO HLA types, and the identification of uncommon alleles such as A*24:07:01 and C*04:82 were observed. A turnaround time of four days was achieved for typing 44 samples. However, some limitations were observed; primer locations did not allow all ambiguities to be resolved for HLA Class II where Exon I and IV amplification are needed (HLA-DRB1*04:07:01/04:92, HLA-DRB1*09:01:02/*09:21 and HLA-DRB1*12:01:01/*12:10). This study has demonstrated high-resolution typing by NGS can be achieved in an acceptable turnaround time for a clinical laboratory; however, the Ion Torrent workflow has some technical limitations that should be addressed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Rapid recent human evolution and the accumulation of balanced genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    All evolutionary change can be traced to alterations in allele frequencies in populations over time. DNA sequencing on a massive scale now permits us to follow the genetic consequences as our species has diverged from our close relatives and as we have colonized different parts of the world and adapted to them. But it has been difficult to disentangle natural selection from many other factors that alter frequencies. These factors include mutation and intragenic reciprocal recombination, gene conversion, segregation distortion, random drift, and gene flow between populations (these last two are greatly influenced by splits and coalescences of populations over time). The first part of this review examines recent studies that have had some success in dissecting out the role of natural selection, especially in humans and Drosophila. Among many examples, these studies include those that have followed the rapid evolution of traits that may permit adaptation to high altitude in Tibetan and Andean populations. In some cases, directional selection has been so strong that it may have swept alleles close to fixation in the span of a few thousand years, a rapidity of change that is also sometimes encountered in other organisms. The second part of the review summarizes data showing that remarkably few alleles have been carried completely to fixation during our recent evolution. Some of the alleles that have not reached fixation may be approaching new internal equilibria, which would indicate polymorphisms that are maintained by balancing selection. Finally, the review briefly examines why genetic polymorphisms, particularly those that are maintained by negative frequency dependence, are likely to have played an important role in the evolution of our species. A method is suggested for measuring the contribution of these polymorphisms to our gene pool. Such polymorphisms may add to the ability of our species to adapt to our increasingly complex and challenging environment.

  18. Rapid Growth of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli during Human Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie S. Forsyth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC strains cause most uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs. These strains are a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC strains that infect extraintestinal sites, including urinary tract, meninges, bloodstream, lungs, and surgical sites. Here, we hypothesize that UPEC isolates adapt to and grow more rapidly within the urinary tract than other E. coli isolates and survive in that niche. To date, there has not been a reliable method available to measure their growth rate in vivo. Here we used two methods: segregation of nonreplicating plasmid pGTR902, and peak-to-trough ratio (PTR, a sequencing-based method that enumerates bacterial chromosomal replication forks present during cell division. In the murine model of UTI, UPEC strain growth was robust in vivo, matching or exceeding in vitro growth rates and only slowing after reaching high CFU counts at 24 and 30 h postinoculation (hpi. In contrast, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU strains tended to maintain high growth rates in vivo at 6, 24, and 30 hpi, and population densities did not increase, suggesting that host responses or elimination limited population growth. Fecal strains displayed moderate growth rates at 6 hpi but did not survive to later times. By PTR, E. coli in urine of human patients with UTIs displayed extraordinarily rapid growth during active infection, with a mean doubling time of 22.4 min. Thus, in addition to traditional virulence determinants, including adhesins, toxins, iron acquisition, and motility, very high growth rates in vivo and resistance to the innate immune response appear to be critical phenotypes of UPEC strains.

  19. Dynamics of rapid dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine versus natural rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Courtney M; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-11-01

    Electrophysiological studies show that distinct subsets of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons differentially encode information about goal-directed behaviors for intravenous cocaine versus natural (food/water) rewards. Further, NAc rapid dopamine signaling occurs on a timescale similar to phasic cell firing during cocaine and natural reward-seeking behaviors. However, it is not known whether dopamine signaling is reinforcer specific (i.e., is released during responding for only one type of reinforcer) within discrete NAc locations, similar to neural firing dynamics. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to measure rapid dopamine release during multiple schedules involving sucrose reward and cocaine self-administration (n = 8 rats) and, in a separate group of rats (n = 6), during a sucrose/food multiple schedule. During the sucrose/cocaine multiple schedule, dopamine increased within seconds of operant responding for both reinforcers. Although dopamine release was not reinforcer specific, more subtle differences were observed in peak dopamine concentration [DA] across reinforcer conditions. Specifically, peak [DA] was higher during the first phase of the multiple schedule, regardless of reinforcer type. Further, the time to reach peak [DA] was delayed during cocaine-responding compared to sucrose. During the sucrose/food multiple schedule, increases in dopamine release were also observed relative to operant responding for both natural rewards. However, peak [DA] was higher relative to responding for sucrose than food, regardless of reinforcer order. Overall, the results reveal the dynamics of rapid dopamine signaling in discrete locations in the NAc across reward conditions, and provide novel insight into the functional role of this system in reward-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Linguistic Mechanisms Cause Rapid Behavior Change. Part Two: How Linguistic Frames Affect Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Written and spoken language contains inherent mechanisms driving motivation. Accessing and modifying psycholinguistic mechanisms, links language frames to changes in behavior within the context of motivational profiling. For example, holding an object like an imported apple feels safe until one is informed it was grown in a toxic waste dump.…

  1. Rapid and Persistent Suppression of Feeding Behavior Induced by Sensitization Training in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Ama; Kelly, Kathleen; Shields-Johnson, Maria; Hajovsky, Julie; Wainwright, Marcy; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    In "Aplysia," noxious stimuli induce sensitization of defensive responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such stimuli also alter nondefensive behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of noxious stimuli on feeding. Strong electric shocks, capable of inducing sensitization, also led to the suppression of feeding. The use of…

  2. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  3. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  4. The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard F.; Cartmill, Matt; Balow, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian hypoglossal canal transmits the nerve that supplies the muscles of the tongue. This canal is absolutely and relatively larger in modern humans than it is in the African apes (Pan and Gorilla). We hypothesize that the human tongue is supplied more richly with motor nerves than are those of living apes and propose that canal size in fossil hominids may provide an indication about the motor coordination of the tongue and reflect the evolution of speech and language. Canals of gracile Australopithecus, and possibly Homo habilis, fall within the range of extant Pan and are significantly smaller than those of modern Homo. The canals of Neanderthals and an early “modern” Homo sapiens (Skhul 5), as well as of African and European middle Pleistocene Homo (Kabwe and Swanscombe), fall within the range of extant Homo and are significantly larger than those of Pan troglodytes. These anatomical findings suggest that the vocal capabilities of Neanderthals were the same as those of humans today. Furthermore, the vocal abilities of Australopithecus were not advanced significantly over those of chimpanzees whereas those of Homo may have been essentially modern by at least 400,000 years ago. Thus, human vocal abilities may have appeared much earlier in time than the first archaeological evidence for symbolic behavior. PMID:9560291

  5. Irrational choice behavior in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Brown, Ella R

    2018-03-01

    Choice behavior in humans has motivated a large body of research with a focus on whether decisions can be considered to be rational. In general, humans prefer having choice, as do a number of other species that have been tested, even though having increased choice does not necessarily yield a positive outcome. Humans have been found to choose an option more often only because the opportunity to select it was diminishing, an example of a deviation from economic rationality. Here we extend this paradigm to nonhuman primates in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying this finding. In this study, we presented two groups of laboratory monkeys, capuchins (Cebus apella) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), as well as human subjects, with a computerized task in which subjects were presented with two differently colored icons. When the subject selected an icon, differing numbers of food pellets were dispensed (or points were assigned), making each icon correspond to a certain level of risk (one icon yielded 1 or 4 pellets/points and the other yielded 2 or 3). Initially, both options remained constantly available and we established choice preference scores for each subject. Then, we assessed preference patterns once the options were not continuously available. Specifically, choosing one icon would cause the other to shrink in size on the screen and eventually disappear if never selected. Selecting it would restore it to its full size. As predicted, humans shifted their risk preferences in the diminishing options phase, choosing to click on both icons more equally in order to keep both options available. At the group level, capuchin monkeys showed this pattern as well, but there was a great deal of individual variability in both capuchins and macaques. The present work suggests that there is some degree of continuity between human and nonhuman primates in the desire to have choice simply for the sake of having choice.

  6. The impact of near-miss events on betting behavior: An examination of casino rapid roulette play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Sundali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine how almost winning in roulette affects subsequent betting behavior. Our main finding is heterogeneity in gambler behavior with some gamblers less likely to bet on numbers that were near misses on the prior spin and other gamblers more likely to bet on near miss numbers. Using a unique data set from the game rapid roulette, we model the likelihood of a gambler betting on a near miss number while controlling for the favorite number bias and the likelihood of a number being a near miss. We also find no evidence that near misses in roulette leads to gamblers extending the time spent gambling or to the placing of more bets.

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder--diagnostik, årsager og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...... and neurological disease. RBD is related to brainstem pathology. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that RBD is frequently related to Parkinsonian disorders and narcolepsy. This article reviews recent knowledge about RBD with focus on the diagnostic process and management....

  8. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-02-23

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling.

  9. Effects of cigarette smoking on human aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherek, D R

    1984-01-01

    Nicotine administered by smoking experimental cigarettes produced decreases in two types of aggressive responses elicited by low and high frequency subtractions of money which were attributed to another "person". The suppressing effects of smoking different doses of nicotine on aggressive responses was dose-dependent, in that smoking the high dose of nicotine produced more suppression than smoking the low dose. The ostensible subtraction of money from another "person", the more aggressive response option available to research subjects, was generally more sensitive to the suppressing effects of nicotine than aggressive noise delivery responses. Although this effect could be attributed to another constituent of tobacco, the dose-dependent effect observed with these cigarettes which contained the same amount of tar suggest the effects are due to nicotine. The relatively selective suppression of aggressive behavior observed in humans in the present study is highly consistent with the effects of nicotine observed in a number of infrahuman species. Nicotine has been found to suppress aggressive behavior in ants (Kostowski 1968), rats (Silverman 1971), and cats (Berntson et. al. 1976). In addition, nicotine has been observed to suppress shock elicited fighting in rats (Driscoll, Baettig 1981; Rodgers 1979; Waldbillig 1980) as well as shock elicited biting in monkeys (Hutchinson, Emley 1973). The importance of determining specificity of drug action on aggressive behavior has been repeatedly emphasized in the field of behavioral pharmacology (Sidman 1959; Cook, Kelleher 1963; Thompson, Boren 1977; Miczek, Krsiak 1979). One method employed to evaluate drug specificity and identify a general non-specific excitatory or depressant drug effect is to determine the drug effect on more than one response option which is available to the subject (Sidman 1959). In this study, the same doses of nicotine which suppressed aggressive responding increased nonaggressive monetary

  10. Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry for rapid recognition of human lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiping; Chen, Liru; Zhou, Wei; Chingin, Konstantin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhu, Tenggao; Wen, Hua; Ding, Jianhua; Xu, Jianjun; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-05-01

    Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry (TSI-MS) directly on small tissue samples has been shown to provide highly specific molecular information. In this study, we apply this method to the analysis of 38 pairs of human lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue (cancer) and adjacent normal lung tissue (normal). The main components of pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, m/z 757.47), phosphatidylcholine (POPC, m/z 782.52), oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC, m/z 808.49), and arachidonic acid stearoyl phosphatidylcholine (SAPC, m/z 832.43), were identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Monte Carlo sampling partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to distinguish full-mass-range mass spectra of cancer samples from the mass spectra of normal tissues. With 5 principal components and 30 - 40 Monte Carlo samplings, the accuracy of cancer identification in matched tissue samples reached 94.42%. Classification of a tissue sample required less than 1 min, which is much faster than the analysis of frozen sections. The rapid, in situ diagnosis with minimal sample consumption provided by TSI-MS is advantageous for surgeons. TSI-MS allows them to make more informed decisions during surgery.

  11. Caffeine increases the velocity of rapid eye movements in unfatigued humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Turuwhenua, Jason; Hess, Robert F; Gant, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    Caffeine is a widely used dietary stimulant that can reverse the effects of fatigue on cognitive, motor and oculomotor function. However, few studies have examined the effect of caffeine on the oculomotor system when homeostasis has not been disrupted by physical fatigue. This study examined the influence of a moderate dose of caffeine on oculomotor control and visual perception in participants who were not fatigued. Within a placebo-controlled crossover design, 13 healthy adults ingested caffeine (5 mg·kg -1 body mass) and were tested over 3 h. Eye movements, including saccades, smooth pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus, were measured using infrared oculography. Caffeine was associated with higher peak saccade velocities (472 ± 60° s -1 ) compared to placebo (455 ± 62° s -1 ). Quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus were also significantly faster with caffeine, whereas pursuit eye movements were unchanged. Non-oculomotor perceptual tasks (global motion and global orientation processing) were unaffected by caffeine. These results show that oculomotor control is modulated by a moderate dose of caffeine in unfatigued humans. These effects are detectable in the kinematics of rapid eye movements, whereas pursuit eye movements and visual perception are unaffected. Oculomotor functions may be sensitive to changes in central catecholamines mediated via caffeine's action as an adenosine antagonist, even when participants are not fatigued.

  12. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  13. Reduced sympathetic activity in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Mehlsen, Jesper; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    More than 50% of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) will develop Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia. In a previous study, we found attenuated heart rate responses in iRBD and Parkinson's disease patients during sleep. The current study aimed to evaluate heart rate...... variability further in order to identify possible changes in these components during wakefulness and sleep in patients with iRBD and Parkinson's disease....

  14. Rapid emergence of free-riding behavior in new pediatric immunization programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Bauch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mathematical models have formalized how free-rider effects can threaten the stability of high vaccine coverage levels under established voluntary vaccination programs. However, little research has addressed the question of when free-riding begins to develop when a new vaccine is first introduced in a population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we combine a game theoretical model of vaccinating behavior with an age-structured compartmental model to analyze rational vaccinating behavior in the first years of a universal immunization program, where a new vaccine is free to all children of a specified age. The model captures how successive birth cohorts face different epidemiological landscapes that have been shaped by the vaccinating decisions of previous birth cohorts, resulting in a strategic interaction between individuals in different birth cohorts. The model predicts a Nash equilibrium coverage level of for the first few birth cohorts under the new program. However, free-riding behavior emerges very quickly, with the Nash equilibrium vaccine coverage dropping significantly within 2-5 years after program initiation. Subsequently, a rich set of coupled dynamics between infection prevalence and vaccinating behaviors is possible, ranging from relatively stable (but reduced coverage in later birth cohorts to wide fluctuations in vaccine coverage from one birth cohort to the next. Individual tolerance for vaccine risk also starts out at relatively high levels before dropping significantly within a few years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that even relatively new immunization programs can be vulnerable to drops in vaccine coverage caused by vaccine scares and exacerbated by herd immunity effects, necessitating vigilance from the start.

  15. Alu polymerase chain reaction: A method for rapid isolation of human-specific sequences from complex DNA sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.L.; Ledbetter, S.A.; Corbo, L.; Victoria, M.F.; Ramirez-Solis, R.; Webster, T.D.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Caskey, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Current efforts to map the human genome are focused on individual chromosomes or smaller regions and frequently rely on the use of somatic cell hybrids. The authors report the application of the polymerase chain reaction to direct amplification of human DNA from hybrid cells containing regions of the human genome in rodent cell backgrounds using primers directed to the human Alu repeat element. They demonstrate Alu-directed amplification of a fragment of the human HPRT gene from both hybrid cell and cloned DNA and identify through sequence analysis the Alu repeats involved in this amplification. They also demonstrate the application of this technique to identify the chromosomal locations of large fragments of the human X chromosome cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome and the general applicability of the method to the preparation of DNA probes from cloned human sequences. The technique allows rapid gene mapping and provides a simple method for the isolation and analysis of specific chromosomal regions

  16. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.; Versnel, H.

    2014-01-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological

  17. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunochromatographic Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M and G lateral flow assays for rapid serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Henk L.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Solera, Javier; Clavijo, Encarnacion; Diaz, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    To fulfill the need for a simple and rapid diagnostic test for human brucellosis, we used the immunochromatographic lateral flow assay format to develop two assays, one for the detection of Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and one for the detection of Brucella-specific IgG

  19. Rapid production of human liver scaffolds for functional tissue engineering by high shear stress oscillation-decellularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazza, G. (Giuseppe); Al-Akkad, W. (Walid); Telese, A. (Andrea); Longato, L. (Lisa); Urbani, L. (Luca); Robinson, B. (Benjamin); Hall, A. (Andrew); Kong, K. (Kenny); Frenguelli, L. (Luca); Marrone, G. (Giusi); Willacy, O. (Oliver); Shaeri, M. (Mohsen); A.J. Burns (Alan); Malago, M. (Massimo); Gilbertson, J. (Janet); Rendell, N. (Nigel); Moore, K. (Kevin); Hughes, D. (David); Notingher, I. (Ioan); Jell, G. (Gavin); Del Rio Hernandez, A. (Armando); P. de Coppi (Paolo); Rombouts, K. (Krista); Pinzani, M. (Massimo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe development of human liver scaffolds retaining their 3-dimensional structure and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) composition is essential for the advancement of liver tissue engineering. We report the design and validation of a new methodology for the rapid and accurate production of

  20. Rapid disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals with adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.; Veugelers, P. J.; Keet, I. P.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Miedema, F.; Lange, J. M.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relation between the occurrence of adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) prophylaxis and the subsequent course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a cohort of homosexual men. Adverse reactions to TMP-SMZ were associated with a more rapid

  1. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes ( TAS2Rs ) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  2. Visual investigation of transient fuel behavior under a rapid heating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    1981-10-01

    An in-reactor experimental research on fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions is being conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The optical system in which a non-browning lens periscope is directly installed in the test section was successfully developed for photographing transient fuel behavior. Several phenomena which had never been revealed before were observed in the slow motion pictures taken in the NSRR experiments which were performed in the water and air environments. As for incipient failure mechanism for an unirradiated fuel rod under RIA conditions, brittle fracture of the cladding during quenching is dominant. However, a split cracking possibly occurs during even red hot state of the cladding. It is considered that the crack is generated by the local internal pressure increase at the specified region blocked up due to the melting of the cladding inner surface. The film boiling is unexpectablly violent specially in the early stage of the transient, and film thickness becomes 5 -- 6 mm at maximum. The observed thick vapor film can not be explained by the conventional theory, but the effect of hydrogen which is produced by Zircaloy-water reaction is reasonably explained to form thick film in the report. The molten fuel was expelled from the cladding in the experiment which was performed in an air environment. The expelled fuel fragmented due to possibly initial motion effect, not mechanical collision effect, because Weber number is smaller than the critical value. (author)

  3. Controlling human corneal stromal stem cell contraction to mediate rapid cell and matrix organization of real architecture for 3-dimensional tissue equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhey, Dev; Phillips, James B; Daniels, Julie T; Kureshi, Alvena K

    2018-02-01

    The architecture of the human corneal stroma consists of a highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with keratocytes. Their progenitor cells; corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) are located at the periphery, in the limbal stroma. A highly organized corneal ECM is critical for effective transmission of light but this structure may be compromised during injury or disease, resulting in loss of vision. Re-creating normal organization in engineered tissue equivalents for transplantation often involves lengthy culture times that are inappropriate for clinical use or utilisation of synthetic substrates that bring complications such as corneal melting. CSSC have great therapeutic potential owing to their ability to reorganize a disorganized matrix, restoring transparency in scarred corneas. We examined CSSC contractile behavior to assess whether this property could be exploited to rapidly generate cell and ECM organization in Real Architecture For 3D Tissues (RAFT) tissue equivalents (TE) for transplantation. Free-floating collagen gels were characterized to assess contractile behavior of CSSC and establish optimum cell density and culture times. To mediate cell and collagen organization, tethered collagen gels seeded with CSSC were cultured and subsequently stabilized with the RAFT process. We demonstrated rapid creation of biomimetic RAFT TE with tunable structural properties. These displayed three distinct regions of varying degrees of cellular and collagen organization. Interestingly, increased organization coincided with a dramatic loss of PAX6 expression in CSSC, indicating rapid differentiation into keratocytes. The organized RAFT TE system could be a useful bioengineering tool to rapidly create an organized ECM while simultaneously controlling cell phenotype. For the first time, we have demonstrated that human CSSC exhibit the phenomenon of cellular self-alignment in tethered collagen gels. We found this mediated rapid co-alignment of collagen fibrils

  4. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  5. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological markers of motor inhibition during human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Julie; Greenhouse, Ian; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies in humans have shown that many behaviors engage processes that suppress excitability within the corticospinal tract. Inhibition of the motor output pathway has been extensively studied in the context of action stopping, where a planned movement needs to be abruptly aborted. Recent TMS work has also revealed markers of motor inhibition during the preparation of movement. Here, we review the evidence for motor inhibition during action stopping and action preparation, focusing on studies that have used TMS to monitor changes in the excitability of the corticospinal pathway. We discuss how these physiological results have motivated theoretical models of how the brain selects actions, regulates movement initiation and execution, and switches from one state to another. PMID:28341235

  7. Rapid molecular evolution of human bocavirus revealed by Bayesian coalescent inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; De Maddalena, Chiara; Canuti, Marta; Zappa, Alessandra; Amendola, Antonella; Lai, Alessia; Galli, Massimo; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a linear single-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Parvoviridae family that has recently been isolated from the upper respiratory tract of children with acute respiratory infection. All of the strains observed so far segregate into two genotypes (1 and 2) with a low level of polymorphism. Given the recent description of the infection and the lack of epidemiological and molecular data, we estimated the virus's rates of molecular evolution and population dynamics. A dataset of forty-nine dated VP2 sequences, including also eight new isolates obtained from pharyngeal swabs of Italian patients with acute respiratory tract infections, was submitted to phylogenetic analysis. The model parameters, evolutionary rates and population dynamics were co-estimated using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, and site-specific positive and negative selection was also investigated. Recombination was investigated by seven different methods and one suspected recombinant strain was excluded from further analysis. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of HBoV was 8.6x10(-4)subs/site/year, and that of the 1st+2nd codon positions was more than 15 times less than that of the 3rd codon position. Viral population dynamics analysis revealed that the two known genotypes diverged recently (mean tMRCA: 24 years), and that the epidemic due to HBoV genotype 2 grew exponentially at a rate of 1.01year(-1). Selection analysis of the partial VP2 showed that 8.5% of sites were under significant negative pressure and the absence of positive selection. Our results show that, like other parvoviruses, HBoV is characterised by a rapid evolution. The low level of polymorphism is probably due to a relatively recent divergence between the circulating genotypes and strong purifying selection acting on viral antigens.

  8. A Hidden Markov Movement Model for rapidly identifying behavioral states from animal tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whoriskey, Kim; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    2017-01-01

    by fitting it to real tracks from a grey seal, lake trout, and blue shark, as well as to simulated data. 4. The HMMM is a fast and reliable tool for making meaningful inference from animal movement data that is ideally suited for ecologists who want to use the popular DCRWS implementation for highly accurate......1. Electronic telemetry is frequently used to document animal movement through time. Methods that can identify underlying behaviors driving specific movement patterns can help us understand how and why animals use available space, thereby aiding conservation and management efforts. For aquatic...... animal tracking data with significant measurement error, a Bayesian state-space model called the first-Difference Correlated Random Walk with Switching (DCRWS) has often been used for this purpose. However, for aquatic animals, highly accurate tracking data of animal movement are now becoming more common...

  9. Rapid generation of OPC-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells for treating spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Sung; Jung, Se Jung; Lee, Jae Souk; Lim, Bo Young; Kim, Hyun Ah; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Leem, Joong Woo

    2017-07-28

    Remyelination via the transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) has been considered as a strategy to improve the locomotor deficits caused by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, enormous efforts have been made to derive OPCs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), and significant progress in the transplantation of such cells in SCI animal models has been reported. The current methods generally require a long period of time (>2 months) to obtain transplantable OPCs, which hampers their clinical utility for patients with SCI. Here we demonstrate a rapid and efficient method to differentiate hPSCs into neural progenitors that retain the features of OPCs (referred to as OPC-like cells). We used cell sorting to select A2B5-positive cells from hPSC-derived neural rosettes and cultured the selected cells in the presence of signaling cues, including sonic hedgehog, PDGF and insulin-like growth factor-1. This method robustly generated neural cells positive for platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) and NG2 (~90%) after 4 weeks of differentiation. Behavioral tests revealed that the transplantation of the OPC-like cells into the spinal cords of rats with contusive SCI at the thoracic level significantly improved hindlimb locomotor function. Electrophysiological assessment revealed enhanced neural conduction through the injury site. Histological examination showed increased numbers of axon with myelination at the injury site and graft-derived myelin formation with no evidence of tumor formation. Our method provides a cell source from hPSCs that has the potential to recover motor function following SCI.

  10. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-04

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown.

  11. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  12. AUTHENTICITY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN FREUD AND HEIDEGGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ ŞTEFAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research theme is the question of the authenticity of human behavior examined from two perspectives: the psychoanalytical one, developed by Sigmund Freud, and the one of philosophy of being embodied by Martin Heidegger. As concerns the Freudian psychoanalysis, I am primarily interested in the conflict among: self, ego, and superego. Because of the requisitions of the supergo, the subject mostly behaves according to the censorships imposed by this psychic instance. The self, dominated by sexuality and aggressiveness, exhibits the pulsional tendency to manifest itself in the conscious behavior of the individual. As regards the Heideggerian endeavor, I am interested in distinguishing between the authentic and non-authentic existences. In Heidegger’s vision, the nonauthentic existence manifests when we are living together with the others in society. This is the horizon of the impersonal “as it is done”, the Heideggerian das Man, which may be understood by the three dimensions: curiosity, ambiguity, and chatter. The authentic existence manifests when the individuals live on their own, in privacy, and acknowledge the fact that their existence develops over a strictly determined time period, the imminent confrontation with their own death coming closer and closer.

  13. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhamre, Hanna; Thorvaldsson, Anna; Enochson, Lars; Walkenström, Pernilla; Lindahl, Anders; Brittberg, Mats; Gatenholm, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  14. Post-oral sugar detection rapidly and chemospecifically modulates taste-guided behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that post-oral sugar sensing rapidly stimulates ingestion. Here, we explored the specificity with which early-phase post-oral sugar sensing influenced ingestive motivation. In experiment 1, rats were trained to associate the consumption of 0.3 M sucrose with injections of LiCl (3.0 meq/kg ip, conditioned taste aversion) or given equivalent exposures to the stimuli, but in an unpaired fashion. Then, all rats were subjected to two brief-access tests to assess appetitive and consummatory responses to the taste properties of sucrose (0.01–1.0 M), 0.12 M NaCl, and dH2O (in 10-s trials in randomized blocks). Intraduodenal infusions of either 0.3 M sucrose or equiosmolar 0.15 M NaCl (3.0 ml) were administered, beginning just before each test. For unpaired rats, intraduodenal sucrose specifically enhanced licking for 0.03–1.0 M sucrose, with no effect on trial initiation, relative to intraduodenal NaCl. Rats with an aversion to sucrose suppressed licking responses to sucrose in a concentration-dependent manner, as expected, but the intraduodenal sucrose preload did not appear to further influence licking responses; instead, intraduodenal sucrose attenuated trial initiation. Using a serial taste reactivity (TR) paradigm, however, experiment 2 demonstrated that intraduodenal sucrose preloads suppressed ingestive oromotor responses to intraorally delivered sucrose in rats with a sucrose aversion. Finally, experiment 3 showed that intraduodenal sucrose preloads enhanced preferential licking to some representative tastants tested (sucrose, Polycose, and Intralipid), but not others (NaCl, quinine). Together, the results suggest that the early phase-reinforcing efficacy of post-oral sugar is dependent on the sensory and motivational properties of the ingesta. PMID:27511277

  15. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form.

  16. From human behavior to the spread of mobile phone viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu

    Percolation theory was initiated some 50 years ago as a mathematical framework for the study of random physical processes such as the flow of a fluid through a disordered porous medium. It has been proved to be a remarkably rich theory, with applications from thermodynamic phase transitions to complex networks. In this dissertation percolation theory is used to study the diffusion process of mobile phone viruses. Some methodologies widely used in statistical physics are also applied to uncover the underlying statistical laws of human behavior and simulate the spread of mobile phone viruses in a large population. I find that while Bluetooth viruses can reach all susceptible handsets with time, they spread slowly due to human mobility, offering ample opportunities to deploy antiviral software. In contrast, viruses utilizing multimedia messaging services (MMS) could infect all users in hours, but currently a phase transition on the underlying call graph limits them to only a small fraction of the susceptible users. These results explain the lack of a major mobile virus breakout so far and predict that once a mobile operating system's market share reaches the phase transition point, viruses will pose a serious threat to mobile communications. These studies show how the large datasets and tools of statistical physics can be used to study some specific and important problems, such as the spread of mobile phone viruses.

  17. Micro-indentation fracture behavior of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sanosh Kunjalukkal; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Chu, Min-Cheol; Kim, Taik Nam; Cho, Seong Jai

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the crack resistance behavior (K(R)) of human enamel in relation to its microstructure. Human molar teeth were precision cut, polished and tested using Vickers micro-indentation at different loads ranging from 0.98 to 9.8 N. Five indentation load levels were considered, 20 indentation cracks for each load level were introduced on the surface of the test specimen (10 indentations per tooth) and their variability was evaluated using Weibull statistics and an empirical model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the crack morphology and propagation mechanisms involved. The results showed that enamel exhibited increasing cracking resistance (K(R)) with increasing load. It was found that the crack propagation mainly depended on the location and the microstructure it encountered. SEM showed the formation of crack bridges and crack deflection near the indentation crack tip. The crack mode was of Palmqvist type even at larger loads of 9.8 N. This was mainly attributed to the large process zone created by the interwoven lamellar rod like microstructure exhibited by the enamel surface. This study shows that there are still considerable prospects for improving dental ceramics and for mimicking the enamel structure developed by nature.

  18. R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from rapid progressors lacking X4 strains do not possess X4-type pathogenicity in human thymus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkowitz, R. D.; van't Wout, A. B.; Kootstra, N. A.; Moreno, M. E.; Linquist-Stepps, V. D.; Bare, C.; Stoddart, C. A.; Schuitemaker, H.; McCune, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Some individuals infected with only R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 progress to AIDS as quickly as individuals harboring X4 strains. We determined that three R5 viruses were much less pathogenic than an X4 virus in SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, suggesting that R5 virus-mediated rapid

  19. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  20. Organizational behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Culture conditions that favor rapid multiplication of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC) also support long-term serial propagation of the cells. This is routinely achieved when HUV-EC are grown in Medium 199 (M-199) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) and endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF), on a human fibronectin (HFN) matrix. The HUV-EC can shift from a proliferative to an organized state when the in vitro conditions are changed from those favoring low density proliferation to those supporting high density survival. When ECGF and HFN are omitted, cultures fail to achieve confluence beyond the first or second passage: the preconfluent cultures organize into tubular structures after 4-6 wk. Some tubes become grossly visible and float in the culture medium, remaining tethered to the plastic dish at either end of the tube. On an ultrastructural level, the tubes consist of cells, held together by junctional complexes, arranged so as to form a lumen. The smallest lumens are formed by one cell folding over to form a junction with itself. The cells contain Weibel-Palade bodies and factor VIII-related antigen. The lumens contain granular, fibrillar and amorphous debris. Predigesting the HFN matrix with trypsin (10 min, 37 degrees C) or plasmin significantly accelerates tube formation. Thrombin and plasminogen activator had no apparent effect. Disruption of the largest tubes with trypsin/EDTA permits the cells to revert to a proliferative state if plated on HFN, in M-199, FBS, and ECGF. These observations indicate that culture conditions that do not favor proliferation permit attainment of a state of nonterminal differentiation (organization) by the endothelial cell. Furthermore, proteolytic modification of the HFN matrix may play an important role in endothelial organization. PMID:6813338

  1. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a window on the emotional world of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Paolo; Quaranta, Davide; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Mazza, Marianna; Martini, Annalisa; Canestri, Jorge; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-02-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by motor activity during sleep with dream mentation. Aggressiveness has been considered a peculiar feature of dreams associated with RBD, despite normal score in aggressiveness scales during wakefulness. We aimed to measure daytime aggressiveness and analyze dream contents in a population of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without RBD. This is a single-center prospective observational study; it concerns the description of the clinical features of a medical disorder in a case series. The study was performed in the Department of Neurosciences of the Catholic University in Rome, Italy. Three groups of subjects were enrolled: patients with PD plus RBD, patients with PD without RBD, and healthy controls. The diagnosis of RBD was determined clinically and confirmed by means of overnight, laboratory-based video-polysomnography. For the evaluation of diurnal aggressiveness, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) was used. The content of dreams was evaluated by means of the methods of Hall and Van De Castle. Patients with PD without RBD displayed higher levels of anger, and verbal and physical aggressiveness than patients with PD and RBD and controls. Patients with PD and RBD and controls did not differ in hostility. It can be hypothesized that a noradrenergic impairment at the level of the locus coeruleus could, at the same time, explain the presence of RBD, as well as the reduction of diurnal aggressiveness. This finding also suggests a role for REM sleep in regulating homeostasis of emotional brain function. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal “bitter taste” cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L.; Powley, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral “taste” receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants—and concentrations of tastants—in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion. PMID:21865540

  3. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal "bitter taste" cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Lindsey A; Davidson, Terry L; Powley, Terry L

    2011-11-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral "taste" receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants-and concentrations of tastants-in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion.

  4. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous......-flow lab-scale assay. NH4 + removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4 + removal...... rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4 + removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times...

  5. Internal photoemission study on charge trapping behavior in rapid thermal oxides on strained-Si/SiGe heterolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, M.K.; Mahata, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; Maiti, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study on the nature of defects and their relationship to charge trapping with enhanced photosensitivity has been investigated through magnetic resonance and internal photoemission (IPE) experiments for rapid thermal grown oxides (RTO) on strained-Si/Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 and on co-processed bulk-Si (1 0 0) substrates. Both the band and defect-related electronic states were characterized through EPR, IPE, C-V and I-V measurements under UV-illumination. Surface chemical characterization of as-grown ultrathin oxides (5-7 nm) has been performed using high-resolution XPS. Enhancement in Ge-segregation with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Comparative studies on interface properties and leakage current behavior of rapid thermal oxides have also been studied through fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structures. A degraded electrical property with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Constant voltage stressing (CVS) in the range of 5.5-7 V was used to study the breakdown characteristics of different samples. We observe a distinguishably different time-to-breakdown (t bd ) phenomenon for bulk-Si and strained-Si/SiGe samples. Whereas the oxide on bulk-Si shows a typical breakdown behavior, the RTO grown oxide on strained-Si/SiGe samples showed a quasi-or soft-breakdown with lower t bd value. It may be pointed out that quasi-breakdown may be a stronger reliability limiting factor for strained-Si/SiGe devices in the oxide thickness range studied

  6. The Study on Human-Computer Interaction Design Based on the Users’ Subconscious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Human-computer interaction is human-centered. An excellent interaction design should focus on the study of user experience, which greatly comes from the consistence between design and human behavioral habit. However, users’ behavioral habits often result from subconsciousness. Therefore, it is smart to utilize users’ subconscious behavior to achieve design's intention and maximize the value of products’ functions, which gradually becomes a new trend in this field.

  7. Improvements to Rapfish: a rapid evaluation technique for fisheries integrating ecological and human dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, T J; Lam, M E; Ainsworth, C; Martindale, A; Nakamura, K; Perry, R I; Ward, T

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports recent developments in Rapfish, a normative, scalable and flexible rapid appraisal technique that integrates both ecological and human dimensions to evaluate the status of fisheries in reference to a norm or goal. Appraisal status targets may be sustainability, compliance with a standard (such as the UN code of conduct for responsible fisheries) or the degree of progress in meeting some other goal or target. The method combines semi-quantitative (e.g. ecological) and qualitative (e.g. social) data via multiple evaluation fields, each of which is assessed through scores assigned to six to 12 attributes or indicators: the scoring method allows user flexibility to adopt a wide range of utility relationships. For assessing sustainability, six evaluation fields have been developed: ecological, technological, economic, social, ethical and institutional. Each field can be assessed directly with a set of scored attributes, or several of the fields can be dealt with in greater detail using nested subfields that themselves comprise multidimensional Rapfish assessments (e.g. the hierarchical institutional field encompasses both governance and management, including a detailed analysis of legality). The user has the choice of including all or only some of the available sustainability fields. For the attributes themselves, there will rarely be quantitative data, but scoring allows these items to be estimated. Indeed, within a normative framework, one important advantage with Rapfish is transparency of the rigour, quality and replicability of the scores. The Rapfish technique employs a constrained multidimensional ordination that is scaled to situate data points within evaluation space. Within each evaluation field, results may be presented as a two-dimensional plot or in a one-dimensional rank order. Uncertainty is expressed through the probability distribution of Monte-Carlo simulations that use the C.L. on each original observation. Overall results of the

  8. [Diversity and development of positional behavior in non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Pei; Guo, Song-Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-10-01

    In long-term evolution, wildlife in general and primates in particular have formed specific patterns of behavior to adapt to a diverse variety of habitat environments. Current research on positional behavior in non-human primates has been found to explain a great deal about primate adaptability diversification, ecology, anatomy and evolution. Here, we summarize the noted classifications and differences in seasonal, site-specific and sex-age positional behaviors while also reviewing the development and status of non-human primate positional behavior research. This review is intended to provide reference for the future research of non-human primates and aid in further research on behavioral ecology of primates.

  9. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  10. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues

  11. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sircova

    Full Text Available In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP, a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1 The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940 and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2 The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3 The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4 diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index. It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global

  12. The evidence of the rugoscopy effectiveness as a human identification method in patients submitted to rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Ana A; Scoralick, Raquel A; Naressi, Suely C M; Moraes, Mari E L; Daruge, Eduardo; Daruge, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of rugoscopy as a human identification method, even when the patient is submitted to rapid palatal expansion, which in theory would introduce doubt. With this intent, the Rugoscopic Identity was obtained for each subject using the classification formula proposed by Santos based on the intra-oral casts made before and after treatment from patients who were subjected to palatal expansion. The casts were labeled with the patients' initials and randomly arranged for studying. The palatine rugae kept the same patterns in every case studied. The technical error of the intra-evaluator measurement provided a confidence interval of 95%, making rugoscopy a reliable identification method for patients who were submitted to rapid palatal expansion, because even in the presence of intra-oral changes owing to the use of palatal expanders, the palatine rugae retained the biological and technical requirements for the human identification process. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Assessing university students' sexual risk behaviors as predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Rebecca L; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Christopher, Kara M; Geneus, Christian J; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba

    2018-05-09

    There exists a significant gap in vaccine coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged students. This study assessed sexual risk-taking behavior among university students and analyzed predictors of HPV vaccine initiation and completion in this population. Data (n = 746) were from an anonymous online, cross-sectional survey distributed to university students, between the ages of 19-26 years, at a private Midwestern university. Both chi-square and multivariable logistics regression models estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk factors (including number of vaginal sexual partners, number of oral sexual partners, initiation of oral sex, and initiation of vaginal sex), with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. A significant number of participants (40%) had not received a single dose of the HPV vaccine series. Of those who initiated the series, more than half (51%) did not achieve completion. Additionally, a greater number of participants have had multiple (4 or more) oral sexual partners than vaginal sexual partners (25.7% vs. 20.3%). After adjusting for covariates, it was found that sexual risk factors were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine initiation or completion. HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates are suboptimal among university students. High levels of sexual-risk taking behaviors associated with HPV infection persist, yet are not significant predictors of HPV vaccine behaviors in this age group. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old students, future public health interventions should focus on HPV vaccine education and uptake across the entire population, irrespective of sexual risk profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Lean to Rapidly and Sustainably Transform a Behavioral Health Crisis Program: Impact on Throughput and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Llewellyn, Dawn; Williamson, Robert G; Carson, Chris A

    2017-06-01

    Lean has been increasingly applied in health care to reduce waste and improve quality, particularly in fast-paced and high-acuity clinical settings such as emergency departments. In addition, Lean's focus on engagement of frontline staff in problem solving can be a catalyst for organizational change. In this study, ConnectionsAZ demonstrates how they applied Lean principles to rapidly and sustainably transform clinical operations in a behavioral health crisis facility. A multidisciplinary team of management and frontline staff defined values-based outcome measures, mapped the current and ideal processes, and developed new processes to achieve the ideal. Phase I was implemented within three months of assuming management of the facility and involved a redesign of flow, space utilization, and clinical protocols. Phase II was implemented three months later and improved the provider staffing model. Organizational changes such as the development of shift leads and daily huddles were implemented to sustain change and create an environment supportive of future improvements. Post-Phase I, there were significant decreases (pre vs. post and one-year post) in median door-to-door dwell time (343 min vs. 118 and 99), calls to security for behavioral emergencies (13.5 per month vs. 4.3 and 4.8), and staff injuries (3.3 per month vs. 1.2 and 1.2). Post-Phase II, there were decreases in median door-to-doctor time (8.2 hours vs. 1.6 and 1.4) and hours on diversion (90% vs. 17% and 34%). Lean methods can positively affect safety and throughput and are complementary to patient-centered clinical goals in a behavioral health setting. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct observation of characteristic dissociation behaviors of hydrate-bearing cores by rapid-scanning X-ray CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinuma, T.; Oyama, H.; Utiumi, T.; Nagao, J.; Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Toyohiraku, Sapporo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrate has significant potential as a new source of energy. Major considerations in developing production methods of methane from hydrates are the fundamental properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, and the dissociation behavior of methane hydrate and the gas and water flow generated by its dissociation in sediments. Marine methane hydrates occur several hundred meters below the sea floor, in a variety of forms. The pore-space filling-type is considered to be the most suited to exploitation, as it is contained within the pore spaces of sandy sediments, and has relatively larger gas permeability compared to other forms. However, shallow sandy sediments are not usually consolidated, and methane hydrate is unstable at normal pressure and temperature. Therefore, common methods are not suitable, and new experimental methods have been developed to study the properties of hydrate-bearing sediment and its dissociation process. This paper presented the results of an experimental study involving the dissociation of artificial methane-hydrate-bearing sediments. The experiment was performed using X-ray computed tomography in order to directly observe dissociation behavior in the sediments and the gas and water flows generated by dissociation. The paper described the depressurization process and presented a schematic diagram of rapid scanning X-ray computed tomography scanner and core holder with tri-axial structure. The experimental apparatus for dissociation of methane hydrate was also illustrated. The thermal stimulation process and hot water injection process were explained. It was concluded that dissociation by depressurization demonstrated that the temperature reduction induced by depressurization depended on the phase equilibrium state of methane hydrate, and that dissociation preferentially occurred at the periphery of the core. This behavior was due to the heat flux from the outside of the core, where the heat flux controlled the dissociation rate. 10 refs

  16. Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants ( N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  17. On the R-curve behavior of human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2009-08-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is a function of distance from the dentin enamel junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67+/-0.12 MPam(0.5)), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPam(0.5)/mm to 3.93 MPam(0.5)/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (K(c))) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPam(0.5). Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by a host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone.

  18. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and appropriate therapy. In this study, rolling circle amplification (RCA) is introduced as a sensitive, specific and reproducible isothermal DNA amplification technique for rapid molecular identification of six of the most virulent species (Rhizopus microsporus, R. arrhizus var. arrhizus, R. arrhizus var. delemar, Mucor irregularis, Mucor circinelloides, Lichtheimia ramosa, Lichtheimia corymbifera). DNAs of target species were successfully amplified, with no cross reactivity between species. RCA can be considered as a rapid detection method with high specificity and sensitivity, suitable for large screening. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Rapid Categorization of Human and Ape Faces in 9-Month-Old Infants Revealed by Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Hoehl, Stefanie; Pauen, Sabina; Rossion, Bruno

    2017-10-02

    This study investigates categorization of human and ape faces in 9-month-olds using a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) paradigm while measuring EEG. Categorization responses are elicited only if infants discriminate between different categories and generalize across exemplars within each category. In study 1, human or ape faces were presented as standard and deviant stimuli in upright and inverted trials. Upright ape faces presented among humans elicited strong categorization responses, whereas responses for upright human faces and for inverted ape faces were smaller. Deviant inverted human faces did not elicit categorization. Data were best explained by a model with main effects of species and orientation. However, variance of low-level image characteristics was higher for the ape than the human category. Variance was matched to replicate this finding in an independent sample (study 2). Both human and ape faces elicited categorization in upright and inverted conditions, but upright ape faces elicited the strongest responses. Again, data were best explained by a model of two main effects. These experiments demonstrate that 9-month-olds rapidly categorize faces, and unfamiliar faces presented among human faces elicit increased categorization responses. This likely reflects habituation for the familiar standard category, and stronger release for the unfamiliar category deviants.

  20. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the clinical utility of a rapid blood test for human leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, C. K.; Sugathan, Sheela; Kuriakose, Mariamma; Abdoel, Theresia; Smits, Henk L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid assay device for the detection of Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies was applied on whole blood samples collected from a group of consecutive patients admitted with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis to a district hospital in Kerala, India. The hospital is located in an

  2. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and

  3. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  4. An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollard, Katherine S; Salama, Sofie R; Lambert, Nelle

    2006-01-01

    in the developing human neocortex from 7 to 19 gestational weeks, a crucial period for cortical neuron specification and migration. HAR1F is co-expressed with reelin, a product of Cajal-Retzius neurons that is of fundamental importance in specifying the six-layer structure of the human cortex. HAR1 and the other...

  5. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  6. Detection of Elevated Signaling Amino Acids in Human Diabetic Vitreous by Rapid Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Jen Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated glutamate is implicated in the pathology of PDR. The ability to rapidly assess the glutamate and amino acid content of vitreous provides a more complete picture of the chemical changes occurring at the diabetic retina and may lead to a better understanding of the pathology of PDR. Vitreous humor was collected following vitrectomies of patients with PDR and control conditions of macular hole or epiretinal membrane. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to quantify glutamate and arginine. The analysis is relatively fast (<6 minutes and utilizes a poly(ethyleneoxide and sodium dodecylsulfate run buffer. Both amino acid levels show significant increases in PDR patients versus controls and are comparable to other reports. The levels of vitreal glutamate vary inversely with the degree of observed hemorrhage. The results demonstrate a rapid method for assessment of a number of amino acids to characterize the chemical changes at the diabetic retina to better understand tissue changes and potentially identify new treatments.

  7. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carnesecchi

    Full Text Available The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2 addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  8. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Malbouyres, Marilyne; de Mets, Richard; Balland, Martial; Beauchef, Gallic; Vié, Katell; Chamot, Christophe; Lionnet, Claire; Ruggiero, Florence; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2) addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  9. Rapid Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2 by Use of an Improved Piezoelectric Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Virginia; Branch, Darren W.; Edwards, Thayne L.; Larson, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Disasters can create situations in which blood donations can save lives. However, in emergency situations and when resources are depleted, on-site blood donations require the rapid and accurate detection of blood-borne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). Techniques such as PCR and antibody capture by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for HIV-1 and HIV-2 are precise but time-consuming and require sophisticated equipment that is not compatible with emergency point-of-care requirements. We describe here a prototype biosensor based on piezoelectric materials functionalized with specific antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2. We show the rapid and accurate detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in both simple and complex solutions, including human serum, and in the presence of a cross-confounding virus. We report detection limits of 12 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50s) for HIV-1 and 87 TCID50s for HIV-2. The accuracy, precision of measurements, and operation of the prototype biosensor compared favorably to those for nucleic acid amplification. We conclude that the biosensor has significant promise as a successful point-of-care diagnostic device for use in emergency field applications requiring rapid and reliable testing for blood-borne pathogens. PMID:23515541

  10. Rapid kinetics of lysis in human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity: some implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.T.; Babbitt, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    The entire lytic process of natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity against sensitive target cells can occur rapidly, within minutes. This was demonstrated by 51 chromium release and in single-cell assays. At the cellular level, most of the target cell lysis occurred within 15-30 min after binding to effector cells. The enriched natural killer cell subpopulation of lymphocytes obtained by Percoll density gradient centrifugation (containing greater than 70% large granular lymphocytes (LGL)) was the most rapidly lytic population by 51 chromium release. However, in the single-cell assay, the rate of lysis of bound target cells was quite similar for the LGL-enriched effector subpopulation and the higher density subpopulation of effector cells recognized previously. Both the light and dense effector cells contained similar numbers of target binding cells. Therefore, that the light subpopulation effected lysis more rapidly and to a greater extent than the dense subpopulation suggested that the low-density effector cells probably recycled more rapidly than those of higher density. This was corroborated by the finding that when conjugates were formed at 29 degrees C for the single-cell assay, a significant number of dead unconjugated targets could be observed only on the slides made with the LGL-enriched effector cells but not on those made with dense effector cell. Lysis continued to increase in the chromium-release assay probably because of recycling, recruitment, and/or heterogeneity of the effector cells, and/or because of heterogeneity or delayed death of the target cells

  11. A Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Human Toxocariasis Developed Using Three Toxocara canis Recombinant Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Tan Farrizam, Siti Naqiuyah; Abdul Karim, Izzati Zahidah; Noordin, Rahmah

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis is still a challenge especially in developing endemic countries with polyparasitism. In this study, three Toxocara canis recombinant antigens, rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120, were expressed and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) dipsticks. The concordance of the results of the rapid test (comprising three dipsticks) with a commercial IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) was compared against the concordance of two other commercial IgG-ELISA kits (Bordier, Switzerland and NovaTec, Germany) with the Cypress kit. Using Toxocara- positive samples, the concordance of the dipstick dotted with rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120 was 41.4% (12/29), 51.7% (15/29), and 72.4% (21/29), respectively. When positivity with any dipstick was considered as an overall positive rapid test result, the concordance with the Cypress kit was 93% (27/29). Meanwhile, when compared with the results of the Cypress kit, the concordance of IgG-ELISA from NovaTec and Bordier was 100% (29/29) and 89.7% (26/29), respectively. Specific IgG4 has been recognized as a marker of active infection for several helminthic diseases; therefore, the two non-concordant results of the rapid test when compared with the NovaTec IgG-ELISA kit may be from samples of people with non-active infection. All the three dipsticks showed 100% (50/50) concordance with the Cypress kit when tested with serum from individuals who were healthy and with other infections. In conclusion, the lateral flow rapid test is potentially a good, fast, and easy test for toxocariasis. Next, further validation studies and development of a test with the three antigens in one dipstick will be performed.

  12. Microstructure, corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of biodegradable Mg-Sn implant alloys prepared by sub-rapid solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyong; Pan, Fusheng; Zhao, Shuang; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Kai; Tang, Aitao

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodegradable Mg-Sn alloys were fabricated by sub-rapid solidification, and their microstructure, corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, immersion test, potentiodynamic polarization test and cytotoxicity test. The results showed that the microstructure of Mg-1Sn alloy was almost equiaxed grain, while the Mg-Sn alloys with higher Sn content (Sn≥3 wt.%) displayed α-Mg dendrites, and the secondary dendrite arm spacing of the primary α-Mg decreased significantly with increasing Sn content. The Mg-Sn alloys consisted of primary α-Mg matrix, Sn-rich segregation and Mg2Sn phase, and the amount of Mg2Sn phases increased with increasing Sn content. Potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests revealed that the corrosion rates of Mg-Sn alloys increased with increasing Sn content. Cytotoxicity test showed that Mg-1Sn and Mg-3Sn alloys were harmless to MG63 cells. These results of the present study indicated that Mg-1Sn and Mg-3Sn alloys were promising to be used as biodegradable implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Clinical Phenotype of Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder at Presentation: A Study in 203 Consecutive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arcos, Ana; Iranzo, Alex; Serradell, Mónica; Gaig, Carles; Santamaria, Joan

    2016-01-01

    To describe the clinical phenotype of idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) at presentation in a sleep center. Clinical history review of 203 consecutive patients with IRBD identified between 1990 and 2014. IRBD was diagnosed by clinical history plus video-polysomnographic demonstration of REM sleep with increased electromyographic activity linked to abnormal behaviors. Patients were 80% men with median age at IRBD diagnosis of 68 y (range, 50-85 y). In addition to the already known clinical picture of IRBD, other important features were apparent: 44% of the patients were not aware of their dream-enactment behaviors and 70% reported good sleep quality. In most of these cases bed partners were essential to convince patients to seek medical help. In 11% IRBD was elicited only after specific questioning when patients consulted for other reasons. Seven percent did not recall unpleasant dreams. Leaving the bed occurred occasionally in 24% of subjects in whom dementia with Lewy bodies often developed eventually. For the correct diagnosis of IRBD, video-polysomnography had to be repeated in 16% because of insufficient REM sleep or electromyographic artifacts from coexistent apneas. Some subjects with comorbid obstructive sleep apnea reported partial improvement of RBD symptoms following continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Lack of therapy with clonazepam resulted in an increased risk of sleep related injuries. Synucleinopathy was frequently diagnosed, even in patients with mild severity or uncommon IRBD presentations (e.g., patients who reported sleeping well, onset triggered by a life event, nocturnal ambulation) indicating that the development of a neurodegenerative disease is independent of the clinical presentation of IRBD. We report the largest IRBD cohort observed in a single center to date and highlight frequent features that were not reported or not sufficiently emphasized in previous publications. Physicians should be aware of

  14. Rapid Identification of Emerging Human-Pathogenic Sporothrix Species with Rolling Circle Amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Anderson M; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo P

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix infections are emerging as an important human and animal threat among otherwise healthy patients, especially in Brazil and China. Correct identification of sporotrichosis agents is beneficial for epidemiological surveillance, enabling implementation of adequate public-health policies and

  15. Factors That Influence Human Behavior And Negatively Affect Energy Consumption In USMC Ground Units During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    behaviors believed responsible for these actions. The final category of inefficient energy behaviors analyzed is vehicle use. Vehicles consume 70...transitions to a summary of collected data that includes where energy is consumed and inefficient uses resulting from human behavior . The data is...tropical areas of Southeast Asia were gathered that captured the employment of energy producing and consuming devices as well as related user behaviors

  16. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: devising controlled active treatment studies for symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy--a consensus statement from the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B; Hogl, B; Gagnon, J-F; Postuma, R; Sonka, K; Jennum, P; Partinen, M; Arnulf, I; Cochen de Cock, V; Dauvilliers, Y; Luppi, P-H; Heidbreder, A; Mayer, G; Sixel-Döring, F; Trenkwalder, C; Unger, M; Young, P; Wing, Y K; Ferini-Strambi, L; Ferri, R; Plazzi, G; Zucconi, M; Inoue, Y; Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J; Bassetti, C; Möller, J C; Boeve, B F; Lai, Y Y; Pavlova, M; Saper, C; Schmidt, P; Siegel, J M; Singer, C; St Louis, E; Videnovic, A; Oertel, W

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD) and related neurodegeneration in RBD. The consensus statement was generated during the fourth IRBD-SG symposium in Marburg, Germany in 2011. The IRBD-SG identified essential methodologic components for a randomized trial in RBD, including potential screening and diagnostic criteria, inclusion and exclusion criteria, primary and secondary outcomes for symptomatic therapy trials (particularly for melatonin and clonazepam), and potential primary and secondary outcomes for eventual trials with disease-modifying and neuroprotective agents. The latter trials are considered urgent, given the high conversion rate from idiopathic RBD (iRBD) to Parkinsonian disorders (i.e., PD, dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB], multiple system atrophy [MSA]). Six inclusion criteria were identified for symptomatic therapy and neuroprotective trials: (1) diagnosis of RBD needs to satisfy the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition, (ICSD-2) criteria; (2) minimum frequency of RBD episodes should preferably be ⩾2 times weekly to allow for assessment of change; (3) if the PD-RBD target population is included, it should be in the early stages of PD defined as Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3 in Off (untreated); (4) iRBD patients with soft neurologic dysfunction and with operational criteria established by the consensus of study investigators; (5) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and (6) optimally treated comorbid OSA. Twenty-four exclusion criteria were identified. The primary outcome measure for RBD treatment trials was determined to be the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) efficacy index, consisting of a four-point scale with a four-point side-effect scale. Assessment of

  17. Rapid Generation of Human Genetic Loss-of-Function iPSC Lines by Simultaneous Reprogramming and Gene Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Tidball

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Specifically ablating genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs allows for studies of gene function as well as disease mechanisms in disorders caused by loss-of-function (LOF mutations. While techniques exist for engineering such lines, we have developed and rigorously validated a method of simultaneous iPSC reprogramming while generating CRISPR/Cas9-dependent insertions/deletions (indels. This approach allows for the efficient and rapid formation of genetic LOF human disease cell models with isogenic controls. The rate of mutagenized lines was strikingly consistent across experiments targeting four different human epileptic encephalopathy genes and a metabolic enzyme-encoding gene, and was more efficient and consistent than using CRISPR gene editing of established iPSC lines. The ability of our streamlined method to reproducibly generate heterozygous and homozygous LOF iPSC lines with passage-matched isogenic controls in a single step provides for the rapid development of LOF disease models with ideal control lines, even in the absence of patient tissue.

  18. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  19. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Andresen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies ...

  20. Effectiveness of travel restrictions in the rapid containment of human influenza: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Ana LP; Otete, Harmony E; Beck, Charles R; Dolan, Gayle P; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of internal and international travel restrictions in the rapid containment of influenza. Methods We conducted a systematic review according to the requirements of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Health-care databases and grey literature were searched and screened for records published before May 2014. Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were undertaken by two researchers independently. Results were synthesized in a narrative form. Findings The overall risk of bias in the 23 included studies was low to moderate. Internal travel restrictions and international border restrictions delayed the spread of influenza epidemics by one week and two months, respectively. International travel restrictions delayed the spread and peak of epidemics by periods varying between a few days and four months. Travel restrictions reduced the incidence of new cases by less than 3%. Impact was reduced when restrictions were implemented more than six weeks after the notification of epidemics or when the level of transmissibility was high. Travel restrictions would have minimal impact in urban centres with dense populations and travel networks. We found no evidence that travel restrictions would contain influenza within a defined geographical area. Conclusion Extensive travel restrictions may delay the dissemination of influenza but cannot prevent it. The evidence does not support travel restrictions as an isolated intervention for the rapid containment of influenza. Travel restrictions would make an extremely limited contribution to any policy for rapid containment of influenza at source during the first emergence of a pandemic virus. PMID:25552771

  1. Rapid and efficient CRISPR/Cas9 gene inactivation in human neurons during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation and direct reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Alicia; Luoni, Mirko; Giannelli, Serena G; Radice, Isabella; Iannielli, Angelo; Cancellieri, Cinzia; Di Berardino, Claudia; Regalia, Giulia; Lazzari, Giovanna; Menegon, Andrea; Taverna, Stefano; Broccoli, Vania

    2016-11-18

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a rapid and customizable tool for gene editing in mammalian cells. In particular, this approach has widely opened new opportunities for genetic studies in neurological disease. Human neurons can be differentiated in vitro from hPSC (human Pluripotent Stem Cells), hNPCs (human Neural Precursor Cells) or even directly reprogrammed from fibroblasts. Here, we described a new platform which enables, rapid and efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome targeting simultaneously with three different paradigms for in vitro generation of neurons. This system was employed to inactivate two genes associated with neurological disorder (TSC2 and KCNQ2) and achieved up to 85% efficiency of gene targeting in the differentiated cells. In particular, we devised a protocol that, combining the expression of the CRISPR components with neurogenic factors, generated functional human neurons highly enriched for the desired genome modification in only 5 weeks. This new approach is easy, fast and that does not require the generation of stable isogenic clones, practice that is time consuming and for some genes not feasible.

  2. Rapid radioimmunoassay of human apolipoproteins C-II and C-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, S; Oestlund-Lindqvist, A M; Vessby, B [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1984-06-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is an activator of lipoprotein lipase, while apo C-III has the ability to inhibit apo C-II activated lipolysis. In order to study further the relationship between lipoprotein lipase mediated hydrolysis and the serum concentrations of apo C-II and apo C-III radioimmunoassays for these apolipoproteins have been developed. Formalin-treated Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I was used for immunoprecipitation and were shown to give rapid uptake of immune complexes that could easily be harvested by centrifugation. The assays were shown to be sensitive (10 ..mu..g/1), specific, precise (inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation below 10%), rapid (completed in less than 6 h) and simple to perform. Delipidation of serum and lipoproteins had no effect on the results, indicating that the immunologically active sites of apo C-II and apo C-III are exposed to the aqueous environment under assay conditions. Serum apo C-II and apo C-III levels of normolipidaemic subjects were approximately 25 mg/1 and 110 mg/1, respectively. Highly significant positive correlations were found between VLDL apo C-II and VLDL apo C-III, respectively, and VLDL triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and total serum TG. There was also a highly significant correlation between the HDL cholesterol concentration and the HDL apo C-III concentration.

  3. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics and athleticogenomics: a brief look at a rapidly changing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2008-09-01

    Since Hugh Montgomery discovered the first of what are now nearly 200 "fitness genes", together with rapid advances in human gene therapy, there is now a real prospect of the use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and suggests a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport.

  4. Who accepts a rapid HIV antibody test? The role of race/ethnicity and HIV risk behavior among community adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Hadley, Wendy S; Houck, Christopher D; Dance, S Kwame; Brown, Larry K

    2011-05-01

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening in health care settings for all individuals aged 13-64 years; however, overall testing rates among adolescents still continue to remain low. This study examined factors related to the acceptance of HIV testing among an at-risk sample of ethnically/racially diverse community adolescents. Adolescents aged 15-21 (N = 81) years were recruited from community-based youth organizations to complete HIV risk assessment surveys. After the completion of the survey, participants were offered a free OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test. More than half (53.1%) of the participants accepted the test, with the black population being more likely to accept testing as compared to Latinos (75% vs. 39%). After controlling for race/ethnicity, significant predictors of test acceptance included history of sexual intercourse (OR = 5.43), having only one sexual partner in the past 3 months (OR = 4.88), not always using a condom with a serious partner (OR = 3.94), and not using a condom during last sexual encounter (OR = 4.75). Given that many adolescents are willing to know their HIV status, policies that support free or low-cost routine testing may lead to higher rates of case identification among youth. However, approaches must be developed to increase test acceptance among Latino adolescents and teenagers with multiple sexual partners. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The moderating role of human values in planned behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Y.; Thøgersen, John; Ruan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    and filled out a questionnaire outside upscale supermarkets in Guangzhou. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses about personal values’ moderating effect in the theory of planned behavior. Findings – Self-transcendence values moderate the relationship between two antecedents...... and behavioral intentions: the attitude towards buying organic food and perceived behavioral control. Both of these antecedents have a stronger impact on intentions among consumers with strong selftranscendence values than among consumers with weak ones. Research limitations/implications – The study is based...

  6. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  8. A rapid and simple method for cryopreservation of human liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, R; Olinga, Peter; Hof, I.H; de Jager, M.H; Verwillegen, W.A; Slooff, M.JH; Meijer, D.K F; Groothuis, Geny; Koster, H

    1. Precision-cut liver slices represent a suitable and convenient in vitro preparation for studying metabolism and toxicity mechanisms of drugs and toxic chemicals. Particularly in the case of human liver slices, cryopreservation would enable more efficient utilization of this scarce and irregularly

  9. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  10. Rapid increase of bile salt secretion is associated with bile duct injury after human liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuken, Erwin; Visser, Dorien; Kuipers, Folkert; Blokzijl, Hans; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; de Jong, Koert P.; Peeters, Paul M. J. G.; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Slooff, Maarten J. H.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Biliary strictures are a serious cause of morbidity after liver transplantation. We have studied the role of altered bile composition as a mechanism of bile duct injury after human liver transplantation. METHODS: In 28 liver transplant recipients, bile samples were collected daily

  11. Rapid increase of bile salt secretion is associated with bile duct injury after human liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuken, E; Visser, D; Kuipers, F; Blokzijl, H; Leuvenink, HGD; de Jong, KP; Peeters, PMJG; Jansen, PLM; Slooff, MJH; Gouw, ASH; Porte, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: Biliary strictures are a serious cause of morbidity after liver transplantation. We have studied the role of altered bile composition as a mechanism of bile duct injury after human liver transplantation. Methods: In 28 liver transplant recipients, bile samples were collected daily

  12. Polymer based biosensor for rapid electrochemical detection of virus infection of human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Poulsen, Claus R.; Jain, Titoo

    2011-01-01

    The demand in the field of medical diagnostics for simple, cost efficient and disposable devices is growing. Here, we present a label free, all-polymer electrochemical biosensor for detection of acute viral disease. The dynamics of a viral infection in human cell culture was investigated in a mic...

  13. RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERLEUKIN-6 INDUCES A RAPID AND REVERSIBLE ANEMIA IN CANCER-PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEKEN, J; MULDER, NH; VELLENGA, E; LIMBURG, PC; PIERS, DA; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    Initial studies have shown that recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) induces anemia. Until now, the pathophysiologic mechanism of this induced anemia has been unknown. To unravel the underlying mechanism, we examined 15 cancer patients receiving rhIL-6 as an antitumor immunotherapy in a phase II

  14. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Behavior of H-TiO2 Nanorods Hydrogenated by Controlled and Local Rapid Thermal Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodan; Estradé, Sonia; Lin, Yuanjing; Yu, Feng; Lopez-Conesa, Lluis; Zhou, Hao; Gurram, Sanjeev Kumar; Peiró, Francesca; Fan, Zhiyong; Shen, Hao; Schaefer, Lothar; Braeuer, Guenter; Waag, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Recently, colored H-doped TiO 2 (H-TiO 2 ) has demonstrated enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance due to its unique crystalline core-disordered shell nanostructures and consequent enhanced conduction behaviors between the core-shell homo-interfaces. Although various hydrogenation approaches to obtain H-TiO 2 have been developed, such as high temperature hydrogen furnace tube annealing, high pressure hydrogen annealing, hydrogen-plasma assisted reaction, aluminum reduction and electrochemical reduction etc., there is still a lack of a hydrogenation approach in a controlled manner where all processing parameters (temperature, time and hydrogen flux) were precisely controlled in order to improve the PEC performance of H-TiO 2 and understand the physical insight of enhanced PEC performance. Here, we report for the first time a controlled and local rapid thermal annealing (RTA) approach to prepare hydrogenated core-shell H-TiO 2 nanorods grown on F:SnO 2 (FTO) substrate in order to address the degradation issue of FTO in the typical TiO 2 nanorods/FTO system observed in the conventional non-RTA treated approaches. Without the FTO degradation in the RTA approach, we systematically studied the intrinsic relationship between the annealing temperature, structural, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties in order to understand the role of the disordered shell on the improved photoelectrochemical behavior of H-TiO 2 nanorods. Our investigation shows that the improvement of PEC performance could be attributed to (i) band gap narrowing from 3.0 to 2.9 eV; (ii) improved optical absorption in the visible range induced by the three-dimensional (3D) morphology and rough surface of the disordered shell; (iii) increased proper donor density; (iv) enhanced electron-hole separation and injection efficiency due to the formation of disordered shell after hydrogenation. The RTA approach developed here can be used as a suitable hydrogenation process for TiO 2 nanorods

  15. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human.

  16. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goebel, Markus; Thomas, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    ... to interpersonal consistency and interpersonal conformity here. These sources of a systematic deviation from the standard model of the homo oeconomicus result in systematic weaknesses of perception and deviations of behavior...

  17. Human regional cerebral blood flow during rapid-eye-movement sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Holm, S; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    Owing to the coupling between CBF and neuronal activity, regional CBF is a reflection of neural activity in different brain regions. In this study we measured regional CBF during polysomnographically well-defined rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep by the use of single photon emission computerized...... tomography and the new tracer 99mTc-dl-hexamethylpropyleneamine. Eleven healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 27 years were studied. CBF was measured on separate nights during REM sleep and during EEG-verified wakefulness. On awakening from REM sleep, all subjects reported visual dreams. During REM sleep...... dream experiences. On the other hand, the reduced involvement of the inferior frontal cortex observed during REM sleep might explain the poor temporal organization and bizarreness often experienced in dreams....

  18. Rapid tachyphylaxis of the glucagon-like peptide 1-induced deceleration of gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Kemmeries, Guido; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    DESIGN AND METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers (25 ± 4 years old, BMI: 24.6 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were examined with intravenous infusion of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)) or placebo over 8.5 h. Two liquid mixed meals were administered at a 4-h interval. Gastric emptying was determined, and blood samples were...... drawn frequently. RESULTS: GLP-1 decelerated gastric emptying significantly more after the first meal compared with the second meal (P = 0.01). This was associated with reductions in pancreatic polypeptide levels (marker of vagal activation) after the first but not the second meal (P ... but increased after the second test meal (P gastric emptying is subject to rapid tachyphylaxis at the level of vagal nervous activation. As a consequence, postprandial glucose control by GLP-1 is attenuated after its chronic administration...

  19. Translating human genetics into mouse: the impact of ultra-rapid in vivo genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Tomomi; Imahashi, Risa; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2014-01-01

    Gene-targeted mutant animals, such as knockout or knockin mice, have dramatically improved our understanding of the functions of genes in vivo and the genetic diversity that characterizes health and disease. However, the generation of targeted mice relies on gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is a time-consuming, laborious, and expensive process. The recent groundbreaking development of several genome editing technologies has enabled the targeted alteration of almost any sequence in any cell or organism. These technologies have now been applied to mouse zygotes (in vivo genome editing), thereby providing new avenues for simple, convenient, and ultra-rapid production of knockout or knockin mice without the need for ES cells. Here, we review recent achievements in the production of gene-targeted mice by in vivo genome editing. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers to Assess Substantia Nigra Damage in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Gaurav, Rahul; Arnaldi, Dario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Valabregue, Romain; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered to be a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). At PD onset, 40 to 70% of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are already lost. Thus, milder SN damage is expected in participants with iRBD. We aimed to quantify SN damage in participants with iRBD using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine biomarker efficacy in preclinical Parkinsonism. Nineteen participants with iRBD and 18 controls underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging, neuromelanin (NM)-sensitive imaging, and T2* mapping. Regions of interest in the SN area were drawn in NM-sensitive and T2-weighted images. The volume and normalized signal intensity in NM-sensitive images, R2*, and diffusion tensor measures were quantified in the SN. Additionally, two raters performed visual analysis of the SN using the NM-sensitive images. Participants with iRBD showed a reduction in the NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity and a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) versus controls, but showed no differences in axial, radial, or mean diffusivity or in R2*. For NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity, the receiver operating characteristic analysis discriminated between participants with iRBD and controls with a diagnostic accuracy of 0.86 and 0.79, respectively, whereas the accuracy was 0.77 for FA. The three biomarkers had a combined accuracy of 0.92. The fraction of participants correctly characterized by visual assessment was 0.81. NM-sensitive imaging and FA allowed for the detection of SN damage in participants with iRBD with good diagnostic accuracy. These measures may represent valuable biomarkers for prodromal Parkinsonism. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Study on microstructure of corpus striatum in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder using magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-meng ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the structure of corpus striatum and the integrity of white matter fiber in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD.  Methods Twelve patients with iRBD, 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy subjects that were well matched in gender, age and education were enrolled in this study. Head MRI examination was performed to all subjects to observe the changes of corpus striatum structure (the gray matter volume and the integrity of white matter fiber [fractional anisotropy (FA] by combining voxel?based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI.  Results Compared with healthy subjects, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus was significantly decreased (P < 0.005, and FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.005, right caudate nucleus (P < 0.001 and right putamen (P < 0.05 were all significantly reduced in iRBD patients; FA value of right putamen was significantly decreased in PD patients (P < 0.05. Compared with PD patients, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus of iRBD patients was significantly reduced (P < 0.001, FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.01 and right caudate nucleus (P < 0.005 of iRBD patients were significantly reduced.  Conclusions There is atrophy of gray matter volume and extensive white matter fiber impairment in corpus striatum of patients with iRBD, and the white matter fiber impairment was similar to PD, which provides an anatomical evidence for iRBD being presymptom of PD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.008

  2. Prevalence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson's disease: a meta and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Junhong; Tang, Liou; Xie, Anmu

    2017-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is thought to be one of the most frequent preceding symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the prevalence of RBD in PD stated in the published studies is still inconsistent. We conducted a meta and meta-regression analysis in this paper to estimate the pooled prevalence. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE and EBSCO up to June 2016 for related articles. STATA 12.0 statistics software was used to calculate the available data from each research. The prevalence of RBD in PD patients in each study was combined to a pooled prevalence with a 95 % confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis were performed to search for the causes of the heterogeneity. A total of 28 studies with 6869 PD cases were deemed eligible and included in our meta-analysis based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of RBD in PD was 42.3 % (95 % CI 37.4-47.1 %). In subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis, we found that the important causes of heterogeneity were the diagnosis criteria of RBD and age of PD patients (P = 0.016, P = 0.019, respectively). The results indicate that nearly half of the PD patients are suffering from RBD. Older age and longer duration are risk factors for RBD in PD. We can use the minimal diagnosis criteria for RBD according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders to diagnose RBD patients in our daily work if polysomnography is not necessary.

  3. Remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep but not the nocturnal melatonin surge in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Aucutt-Walter, Natalie; Divittore, Nicole; King, Tonya; Bixler, Edward O; Cronin, Arthur J

    2008-04-01

    Postoperative patients are sleep deprived. Opioids, commonly administered for postoperative pain control, are often mistakenly considered inducers of naturally occurring sleep. This study describes the effect of the opioid remifentanil on nocturnal sleep in healthy volunteers. In addition, this study tests the hypothesis that opioid-induced sleep disturbance is caused by a circadian pacemaker disturbance, reflected by suppressed nocturnal plasma concentration of melatonin. Polysomnography was performed in 10 volunteers from 11:00 pm to 7:00 am for four nights at 6-day intervals. On two nights, remifentanil (0.01-0.04 microg x kg x min) was infused from 10:30 pm to 7:00 am, and either a placebo capsule or 3.0 mg melatonin was administered at 10:30 pm. On two additional nights, saline was infused, and the placebo or melatonin capsules were administered at 10:30 pm. Blood was drawn at 12:00 am, 3:00 am, and 6:00 am to measure the plasma concentration of melatonin and cortisol. A repeated-measures analysis of variance model was used to determine the effect of remifentanil on sleep stages, the effect of remifentanil on the plasma concentration of melatonin, and the effect of exogenous melatonin on remifentanil-induced sleep disturbance. Remifentanil inhibited rapid eye movement sleep (14.1 +/- 7.2% to 3.9 +/- 6.9%). The amount of slow wave sleep decreased from 6.8 +/- 7.6% to 3.2 +/- 6.1%, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Remifentanil did not decrease melatonin concentration. Melatonin administration did not prevent remifentanil-induced sleep disturbance. An overnight constant infusion of remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep without suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  4. Human Behavioral Representations with Realistic Personality and Cultural Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zachary, Wayne; Le Mentec, Jean-Christopher; Miller, Lynn; Read, Stephen; Thomas-Meyers, Gina

    2005-01-01

    ...) with pre-defined and specific personality traits and cultural characteristics. This capability meets a current and growing need for human models that exhibit personality and cultural variability...

  5. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of

  6. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior : A narrative review of animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Both, S.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of

  7. Overview of Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster provides an overview of three key lines of ongoing work at EPA/ORD/NCEA-CIN: Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard collaboration.

  8. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, avian nest predation, and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic consequences of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) have been widely documented for many populations. The mechanisms underlying such patterns, however, are rarely investigated and yet are critical to understand for effective conservation and management.

  9. Rapid, Directed Differentiation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic or Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, LP; Clegg, DO

    2017-01-01

    We describe a robust method to direct the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). The purpose of providing a detailed and thorough protocol is to clearly demonstrate each step and to make this readily available to researchers in the field. This protocol results in a homogenous layer of RPE with minimal or no manual dissection needed. The method presented here has been shown to be effective for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and human embry...

  10. Evaluation of the Tactical Human Optimization, Rapid Rehabilitation, and Reconditioning Program (THOR3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    0.3-0.9). Evidence from this evaluation suggests that ARSOF Soldiers may benefit from participation in THOR3 compared to other human performance...factor that was not modifiable and one of the strongest risk factors for injury. Evidence from this evaluation suggests that Soldiers may benefit from...a Motorized Vehicle 7 2 Walking or Hiking 7 2 Rough Housing or Fighting 3 1 Stepping/Climbing 1 < 1 Repairing or maintaining equipment 1

  11. Rapid Evolution from the First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis to Chronic Pancreatitis in Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Elie Aoun; Adam Slivka; Dionysios J Papachristou; David C Whitcomb; Ferga C Gleeson; Georgios I Papachristou

    2007-01-01

    Context Growing evidence suggests that recurrent acute pancreatitis leads to chronic pancreatitis, but this sequence is seldom reported in human subjects. The sentinel acute pancreatitis event hypothesis suggests that an initial episode of acute pancreatitis is the first step in a complicated series of events ultimately leading to chronic pancreatitis. Objective To identify patients who evolved from recurrent acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Setting The Severity of Acute Pancreatit...

  12. A Rapid and Simple Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Human Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanabara, Yutaro; Ueda, Yutaka

    2016-11-22

    A rapid, simple method for detecting foodborne pathogenic bacteria in human feces is greatly needed. Here, we examined the efficacy of a method that employs a combination of a commercial PCR master mix, which is insensitive to PCR inhibitors, and a DNA extraction method which used sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), and Tween 20 to counteract the inhibitory effects of SDBS on the PCR assay. This method could detect the target genes (stx1 and stx2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, invA of Salmonella Enteritidis, tdh of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, gyrA of Campylobacter jejuni, ceuE of Campylobacter coli, SEA of Staphylococcus aureus, ces of Bacillus cereus, and cpe of Clostridium perfringens) in a fecal suspension containing 1.0 × 10 1 to 1.0 × 10 3 CFU/ml. Furthermore, the assay was neither inhibited nor influenced by individual differences among the fecal samples of 10 subjects or fecal concentration (40-160 mg/ml in the fecal suspension). When we attempted to detect the genes of pathogenic bacteria in 4 actual clinical cases, we found that this method was more sensitive than standard culture method. These results showed that this assay is a rapid, simple detection method for foodborne pathogenic bacteria in human feces.

  13. Probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, nocturnal disturbances and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a case-controlled study using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Keisuke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence provides a clear association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders (RBD and Parkinson’s disease (PD, but the clinical features that determine the co-morbidity of RBD and PD are not yet fully understood. Methods We evaluated the characteristics of nocturnal disturbances and other motor and non-motor features related to RBD in patients with PD and the impact of RBD on their quality of life. Probable RBD (pRBD was evaluated using the Japanese version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ-J. Results A significantly higher frequency of pRBD was observed in PD patients than in the controls (RBDSQ-J ≥ 5 or ≥ 6: 29.0% vs. 8.6%; 17.2% vs. 2.2%, respectively. After excluding restless legs syndrome and snorers in the PD patients, the pRBD group (RBDSQ-J≥5 showed higher scores compared with the non-pRBD group on the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale-2 (PDSS-2 total and three-domain scores. Early morning dystonia was more frequent in the pRBD group. The Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39 domain scores for cognition and emotional well-being were higher in the patients with pRBD than in the patients without pRBD. There were no differences between these two groups with respect to the clinical subtype, disease severity or motor function. When using a cut-off of RBDSQ-J = 6, a similar trend was observed for the PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 scores. Patients with PD and pRBD had frequent sleep onset insomnia, distressing dreams and hallucinations. The stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the PDSS-2 domain “motor symptoms at night”, particularly the PDSS sub-item 6 “distressing dreams”, was the only predictor of RBDSQ-J in PD. Conclusion Our results indicate a significant impact of RBD co-morbidity on night-time disturbances and quality of life in PD, particularly on cognition and emotional well-being. RBDSQ may be a useful tool for not only screening RBD in PD patients

  14. A comparison of antemortem tooth loss in human hunter-gatherers and non-human catarrhines: implications for the identification of behavioral evolution in the human fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Cassandra C

    2013-06-01

    Middle and Late Pleistocene fossil hominin specimens with severe antemortem tooth loss are often regarded as evidence for the precocious evolution of human-like behaviors, such as conspecific care or cooking, in ancient hominin species. The goal of this project was to ask whether the theoretical association between antemortem tooth loss and uniquely human behaviors is supported empirically in a large skeletal sample of human hunter-gatherers, chimpanzees, orangutans, and baboons. Binomial regression modeling in a Bayesian framework allows for the investigation of the effects of tooth class, genus, age, and sex on the likelihood of tooth loss. The results strongly suggest that modern humans experience more antemortem tooth loss than non-human primates and identify age in years as an important predictor. Once age is accounted for, the difference between the humans and the closest non-human genus (chimpanzees) is less pronounced; humans are still more likely on average to experience antemortem tooth loss though 95% uncertainty envelopes around the average prediction for each genus show some overlap. These analyses support theoretical links between antemortem tooth loss and modern human characteristics; humans' significantly longer life history and a positive correlation between age and antemortem tooth loss explain, in part, the reason why humans are more likely to experience tooth loss than non-human primates, but the results do not exclude behavioral differences as a contributing factor. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  16. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the under......The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified...

  17. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the important antecedents were Skinner's own Behavior of Organisms and Keller & Schoenfeld's Pincinples of Psychology. Current developments in education, behavioral economics, and some behavior therapies can be attributed at least in part to Skinner's seminal work. The effective behavioral analysis of governmental and religious systems will probably depend on elaborations of our understanding of verbal behavior.

  18. Implementation of universal rapid human immunodeficiency virus screening on labor and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Stacia; Huang, Chun-Chih; Fries, Melissa; Scott, Rachel K

    2018-03-01

    A case of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at a medical center in Washington, DC, resulted in the implementation of universal opt-out rapid testing of patients admitted for delivery. This article evaluates the policy's efficacy and implementation. We evaluated the implementation using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. We could not evaluate decrease in MTCT rate secondary to low sample size ( n  = 3324) and no true-positive results. Patients not tested ( n  = 458) were predominately secondary to physician omission (93.7%) and were more likely to be White ( p  < 0.01) and older ( p  < 0.01). There was a negative relationship with physician omission over time. The policy was successfully implemented with decreasing proportions of patients not tested. Earlier inclusion of testing into standard admission orders and nurse-based approach may have expedited adoption. Given the low incidence of new HIV diagnosis in labor, we were unable to assess decrease in MTCT.

  19. Rapid kinetics of dehalogenation promoted by iodotyrosine deiodinase from human thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyk, Kostyantyn D; Ballou, David P; Rokita, Steven E

    2015-07-28

    Reductive dehalogenation such as that catalyzed by iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) is highly unusual in aerobic organisms but necessary for iodide salvage from iodotyrosine generated during thyroxine biosynthesis. Equally unusual is the dependence of this process on flavin. Rapid kinetics have now been used to define the basic processes involved in IYD catalysis. Time-dependent quenching of flavin fluorescence was used to monitor halotyrosine association to IYD. The substrates chloro-, bromo-, and iodotyrosine bound with similar rate constants (kon) ranging from 1.3 × 10(6) to 1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Only the inert substrate analogue fluorotyrosine exhibited a significantly (5-fold) slower kon (0.3 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). All data fit a standard two-state model and indicated that no intermediate complex accumulated during closure of the active site lid induced by substrate. Subsequent halide elimination does not appear to limit reactions of bromo- and iodotyrosine since both fully oxidized the reduced enzyme with nearly equivalent second-order rate constants (7.3 × 10(3) and 8.6 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively) despite the differing strength of their carbon-halogen bonds. In contrast to these substrates, chlorotyrosine reacted with the reduced enzyme approximately 20-fold more slowly and revealed a spectral intermediate that formed at approximately the same rate as the bromo- and iodotyrosine reactions.

  20. Sensitivity of human auditory cortex to rapid frequency modulation revealed by multivariate representational similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanisse, Marc F; DeSouza, Diedre D

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the extent, magnitude, and pattern of brain activity in response to rapid frequency-modulated sounds. We examined this by manipulating the direction (rise vs. fall) and the rate (fast vs. slow) of the apparent pitch of iterated rippled noise (IRN) bursts. Acoustic parameters were selected to capture features used in phoneme contrasts, however the stimuli themselves were not perceived as speech per se. Participants were scanned as they passively listened to sounds in an event-related paradigm. Univariate analyses revealed a greater level and extent of activation in bilateral auditory cortex in response to frequency-modulated sweeps compared to steady-state sounds. This effect was stronger in the left hemisphere. However, no regions showed selectivity for either rate or direction of frequency modulation. In contrast, multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) revealed feature-specific encoding for direction of modulation in auditory cortex bilaterally. Moreover, this effect was strongest when analyses were restricted to anatomical regions lying outside Heschl's gyrus. We found no support for feature-specific encoding of frequency modulation rate. Differential findings of modulation rate and direction of modulation are discussed with respect to their relevance to phonetic discrimination.

  1. 99mTechnetium labelled vasoactive intestinal peptide analogue for rapid localization of tumours in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Pallela, V.; Marcus, C.S.; Diggles, L.; Pham, H.L.; Ahdoot, R.; Kalinowski, E.A.; Saeed, S.; Minami, C.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, imaging tumours with receptor specific biomolecules has been the focus of increasing interest. VIP has a high affinity for specific receptors that are expressed in high density on a large number of malignant tumours. VIP was modified (TP 3654) without compromising its biological activity, and labelled with 99m Tc. Pharmacokinetics and feasibility studies were performed in three normal volunteers and 11 patients with a history of cancer. Imaging was performed for up to two h post-injection. Within 24 h after injection of 99m Tc-TP 3654 (10-15 mCi/5 μg), approximately 70% of the tracer cleared through the kidneys, and 20% through the liver. Blood clearance was rapid. No adverse reaction was noted in any subjects. All known tumours were clearly delineated within 20 min. Findings were compared with the results of 99m Tc-MIBI, CT, MRI, or histology. There was concordance in nine patients. In the other two, only the VIP scan was positive for tumours known to express VIP receptors. The early results of imaging tumours with 99m Tc-VIP are promising and warrant further studies. (author)

  2. Sex-related variation in human behavior and the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Male and female fetuses differ in testosterone concentrations beginning as early as week 8 of gestation. This early hormone difference exerts permanent influences on brain development and behavior. Contemporary research shows that hormones are particularly important for the development of sex-typical childhood behavior, including toy choices, which until recently were thought to result solely from sociocultural influences. Prenatal testosterone exposure also appears to influence sexual orientation and gender identity, as well as some, but not all, sex-related cognitive, motor and personality characteristics. Neural mechanisms responsible for these hormone-induced behavioral outcomes are beginning to be identified, and current evidence suggests involvement of the hypothalamus and amygdala, as well as interhemispheric connectivity, and cortical areas involved in visual processing. PMID:20724210

  3. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  4. Preservation and rapid purification of DNA from decomposing human tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Amy; Rahman, Elizabeth; Canela, Cassandra; Gangitano, David; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree

    2016-11-01

    One of the key features to be considered in a mass disaster is victim identification. However, the recovery and identification of human remains are sometimes complicated by harsh environmental conditions, limited facilities, loss of electricity and lack of refrigeration. If human remains cannot be collected, stored, or identified immediately, bodies decompose and DNA degrades making genotyping more difficult and ultimately decreasing DNA profiling success. In order to prevent further DNA damage and degradation after collection, tissue preservatives may be used. The goal of this study was to evaluate three customized (modified TENT, DESS, LST) and two commercial DNA preservatives (RNAlater and DNAgard ® ) on fresh and decomposed human skin and muscle samples stored in hot (35°C) and humid (60-70% relative humidity) conditions for up to three months. Skin and muscle samples were harvested from the thigh of three human cadavers placed outdoors for up to two weeks. In addition, the possibility of purifying DNA directly from the preservative solutions ("free DNA") was investigated in order to eliminate lengthy tissue digestion processes and increase throughput. The efficiency of each preservative was evaluated based on the quantity of DNA recovered from both the "free DNA" in solution and the tissue sample itself in conjunction with the quality and completeness of downstream STR profiles. As expected, DNA quantity and STR success decreased with time of decomposition. However, a marked decrease in DNA quantity and STR quality was observed in all samples after the bodies entered the bloat stage (approximately six days of decomposition in this study). Similar amounts of DNA were retrieved from skin and muscle samples over time, but slightly more complete STR profiles were obtained from muscle tissue. Although higher amounts of DNA were recovered from tissue samples than from the surrounding preservative, the average number of reportable alleles from the "free DNA" was

  5. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part II. Intermetallic Coarsening Behavior of Rapidly Solidified Solders After Multiple Reflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 K (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu6Sn5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu6Sn5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu6Sn5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu6Sn5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. The reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu6Sn5 was maintained for both alloys.

  6. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  7. Work stress, fatigue and risk behaviors at the wheel: Data to assess the association between psychosocial work factors and risky driving on Bus Rapid Transit drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This Data in Brief (DiB article presents a hierarchical multiple linear regression model that examine the associations between psychosocial work factors and risk behaviors at the wheel in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT drivers (n=524. The data were collected using a structured self-administrable questionnaire made of measurements of wok stress (job strain and effort- reward imbalance, fatigue (need for recovery and chronic fatigue, psychological distress and demographics (professional driving experience, hours driven per day and days working per week. The data contains 4 parts: descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations between the study variables and a regression model predicting risk behaviors at the wheel and the entire study dataset. For further information, it is convenient to read the full article entitled “Stress-related Psychosocial Factors at Work, Fatigue, and Risky Driving Behavior in Bus Rapid Transport (BRT Drivers”, published in Accident Analysis & Prevention. Keywords: Professional drivers, Work stress, Fatigue, Psychological distress, Risk behaviors, Bus Rapid Transport, BRT

  8. Novel tandem column method for the rapid isolation of radiostrontium from human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Cory A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Mertz, Carol J.; Dietz, Mark L.; Kaminski, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Method for separation and preconcentration of radiostrontium from human urine. ► Recoveries >98%, concentration factor of ca. 50, processing time of nearly 1 h. ► Retention model developed to assist optimization of separations on Diphonix ® column. ► Semi-automated sample preparation device developed. - Abstract: A method has been developed for the isolation of strontium from human urine for subsequent determination in sample volumes as low as 5–20 mL. This method involves the acidification of the sample using methanesulfonic acid and its decolorization using charcoal, treatment of the filtrate with Diphonix ® resin, and subsequent concentration of strontium on Sr resin. Data from retention model simulations provided the initial conditions which were then optimized by actual column separations. Diphonix ® resin was shown to be effective at removing alkali metal ions from the urine matrix under conditions that retain higher valence ions. The suggested processing method provides 99% recovery of Sr 2+ , a concentration factor of 50, and an expected per sample processing time of less than 1 h.

  9. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  10. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  11. A new rapid method to measure human platelet cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagroop, I Anita; Persaud, Jahm Want; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Platelet cholesterol (PC) could be used to assess "tissue" cholesterol of patients with vascular disease. However, the methods available so far to measure PC involve a complex extraction process. We developed a rapid method to measure PC and assessed its correlation with serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides (TG), and non-HDL-C. We assessed repeatability (20 times, 3 participants) and reproducibility (8 times, 2 participants). A group of 47 healthy participants was studied. Blood was collected to analyze serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. Citrated blood was used to prepare a platelet pellet. A "clear soup" was produced (by disrupting this pellet using freeze-thaw and sonication cycles) and used to measure PC. Repeatability of PC showed a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.8%. The reproducibility of PC over a period of 2 months was CV 7.5% and 8.1% (8 measurements for 2 participants). The PC of participants with serum LDL-C >2.6 mmol/L (treatment goal recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) was 377 ± 120 μmol/10(12) platelets (n = 25). There was a significant correlation (Spearman, correlation coefficient) of PC (n = 25) with serum LDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), LDL-C/HDL-C (r(s) = 0.45, P = .02), TG (r(s) = 0.43, P = .03), and non-HDL-C (r(s) = 0.53, P = .007). This technique of measuring PC has the advantage of being reproducible, fast, and simpler than previous methods. Thus, it may be useful for multiple sampling when investigating changes in PC in hypercholesterolemic patients. More extensive evaluation is necessary.

  12. Behavior of a Spontaneously Arising Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line Cultivated on Thin Alginate Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, Hoda Shams; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ganji, Shahla Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    A cell line spontaneously derived from human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) was cultured on alginate film gelatinized with different concentrations of neurobasal cell culture medium (NCCM) to assess its growth and morphological behavior on this naturally occurring polysaccharide. Neonatal human globes were used to isolate hRPE cells. They were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-medium-and-Ham's-F12-medium-(DMEM/F12) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cultures were continuously studied using phase contrast microscopy. After the nineth passage, cells were characterized through immunocytochemical analysis for Oct4, Chx10, and Pax6 and Ki67 markers. In each well of a 6-well microplate, 1 and 2% weight/volume (w/v) alginate in deionized water was added and gelatinized using 1× and 10× NCCM. hRPE cells were cultured at a density of 2 × 105 cells/well in alginate-coated microplates. After 5 days, hRPE colonies were harvested and re-plated on polystyrene substrates. Morphology and growth of hRPE cultures were determined during the next 2 weeks. The first few passages of the cultures were purely hRPE cells that revealed typical morphological features of the pigmented epithelium. They made spaces, devoid of cells, between hRPE cell monolayer and fill in the unoccupied spaces. They grew faster than native RPE cells and rapidly overgrew. Immunocytochemical test revealed that the founded cells expressed Chx10, Pax6, Ki67 and Oct4. The hRPE cells survived unlimitedly on alginate film and formed giant adjoining colonies. After re-plating, hRPE colonies adhered quickly on polystyrene and displayed native hRPE morphological features. Alginate film can support the survival and growth of hRPE cells and induce the cells to re-organize in tissue-like structures.

  13. Predictive Models of Procedural Human Supervisory Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    821708, Brest , France. Page 139 of 150 Boussemart, Y. and M. L. Cummings (2010). "Predicting Supervisory Control Behavior with Hidden Markov Models...Strategies for Strike Planning. COGIS 2006 - Cognitive Systems with Interactive Sensors, Paris . Burges, C. (1998). "A Tutorial on Support Vector Machines

  14. Human Behavior Drift Detection in a Smart Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Andrea; Trofimova, Anna A; Matteucci, Matteo; Salice, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The proposed system aims at elderly people independent living by providing an early indicator of habits changes which might be relevant for a diagnosis of diseases. It relies on Hidden Markov Model to describe the behavior observing sensors data, while Likelihood Ratio Test gives the variation within different time periods.

  15. Genetic variation and effects on human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Krom, Mariken; Bauer, Florianne; Collier, David; Adan, R. A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding is a physiological process, influenced by genetic factors and the environment. In recent years, many studies have been performed to unravel the involvement of genetics in both eating behavior and its pathological forms: eating disorders and obesity. In this review, we provide a condensed

  16. Human, Social, Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The expectations correspond to different roles individuals perform SocialConstructionis Social constructionism is a school of thought Peter L...HUMAN, SOCIAL , CULTURAL BEHAVIOR (HSCB) MODELING WORKSHOP I: CHARACTERIZING THE CAPABILITY NEEDS FOR HSCB MODELING FINAL REPORT... Social , Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  18. Statistical Models for Predicting Threat Detection From Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Timothy; Amon, Mary J.; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2018-01-01

    Users must regularly distinguish between secure and insecure cyber platforms in order to preserve their privacy and safety. Mouse tracking is an accessible, high-resolution measure that can be leveraged to understand the dynamics of perception, categorization, and decision-making in threat detection. Researchers have begun to utilize measures like mouse tracking in cyber security research, including in the study of risky online behavior. However, it remains an empirical question to what extent real-time information about user behavior is predictive of user outcomes and demonstrates added value compared to traditional self-report questionnaires. Participants navigated through six simulated websites, which resembled either secure “non-spoof” or insecure “spoof” versions of popular websites. Websites also varied in terms of authentication level (i.e., extended validation, standard validation, or partial encryption). Spoof websites had modified Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and authentication level. Participants chose to “login” to or “back” out of each website based on perceived website security. Mouse tracking information was recorded throughout the task, along with task performance. After completing the website identification task, participants completed a questionnaire assessing their security knowledge and degree of familiarity with the websites simulated during the experiment. Despite being primed to the possibility of website phishing attacks, participants generally showed a bias for logging in to websites versus backing out of potentially dangerous sites. Along these lines, participant ability to identify spoof websites was around the level of chance. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic models were used to compare the accuracy of two-factor (i.e., website security and encryption level), survey-based (i.e., security knowledge and website familiarity), and real-time measures (i.e., mouse tracking) in predicting risky online behavior during phishing

  19. Statistical Models for Predicting Threat Detection From Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Kelley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Users must regularly distinguish between secure and insecure cyber platforms in order to preserve their privacy and safety. Mouse tracking is an accessible, high-resolution measure that can be leveraged to understand the dynamics of perception, categorization, and decision-making in threat detection. Researchers have begun to utilize measures like mouse tracking in cyber security research, including in the study of risky online behavior. However, it remains an empirical question to what extent real-time information about user behavior is predictive of user outcomes and demonstrates added value compared to traditional self-report questionnaires. Participants navigated through six simulated websites, which resembled either secure “non-spoof” or insecure “spoof” versions of popular websites. Websites also varied in terms of authentication level (i.e., extended validation, standard validation, or partial encryption. Spoof websites had modified Uniform Resource Locator (URL and authentication level. Participants chose to “login” to or “back” out of each website based on perceived website security. Mouse tracking information was recorded throughout the task, along with task performance. After completing the website identification task, participants completed a questionnaire assessing their security knowledge and degree of familiarity with the websites simulated during the experiment. Despite being primed to the possibility of website phishing attacks, participants generally showed a bias for logging in to websites versus backing out of potentially dangerous sites. Along these lines, participant ability to identify spoof websites was around the level of chance. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic models were used to compare the accuracy of two-factor (i.e., website security and encryption level, survey-based (i.e., security knowledge and website familiarity, and real-time measures (i.e., mouse tracking in predicting risky online behavior

  20. Statistical Models for Predicting Threat Detection From Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Timothy; Amon, Mary J; Bertenthal, Bennett I

    2018-01-01

    Users must regularly distinguish between secure and insecure cyber platforms in order to preserve their privacy and safety. Mouse tracking is an accessible, high-resolution measure that can be leveraged to understand the dynamics of perception, categorization, and decision-making in threat detection. Researchers have begun to utilize measures like mouse tracking in cyber security research, including in the study of risky online behavior. However, it remains an empirical question to what extent real-time information about user behavior is predictive of user outcomes and demonstrates added value compared to traditional self-report questionnaires. Participants navigated through six simulated websites, which resembled either secure "non-spoof" or insecure "spoof" versions of popular websites. Websites also varied in terms of authentication level (i.e., extended validation, standard validation, or partial encryption). Spoof websites had modified Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and authentication level. Participants chose to "login" to or "back" out of each website based on perceived website security. Mouse tracking information was recorded throughout the task, along with task performance. After completing the website identification task, participants completed a questionnaire assessing their security knowledge and degree of familiarity with the websites simulated during the experiment. Despite being primed to the possibility of website phishing attacks, participants generally showed a bias for logging in to websites versus backing out of potentially dangerous sites. Along these lines, participant ability to identify spoof websites was around the level of chance. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic models were used to compare the accuracy of two-factor (i.e., website security and encryption level), survey-based (i.e., security knowledge and website familiarity), and real-time measures (i.e., mouse tracking) in predicting risky online behavior during phishing attacks

  1. Rapid detection of structural variation in a human genome using nanochannel-based genome mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Hastie, Alex R.; Cao, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    mutations; however, none of the current detection methods are comprehensive, and currently available methodologies are incapable of providing sufficient resolution and unambiguous information across complex regions in the human genome. To address these challenges, we applied a high-throughput, cost......-effective genome mapping technology to comprehensively discover genome-wide SVs and characterize complex regions of the YH genome using long single molecules (>150 kb) in a global fashion. RESULTS: Utilizing nanochannel-based genome mapping technology, we obtained 708 insertions/deletions and 17 inversions larger...... fosmid data. Of the remaining 270 SVs, 260 are insertions and 213 overlap known SVs in the Database of Genomic Variants. Overall, 609 out of 666 (90%) variants were supported by experimental orthogonal methods or historical evidence in public databases. At the same time, genome mapping also provides...

  2. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Iranzo, Alex; Gschliesser, Viola; Seppi, Klaus; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner

    2011-02-01

    We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 26 patients with iRBD (mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 6.4 years) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. SPM localized significant decreases of FA in the tegmentum of the midbrain and rostral pons and increases of MD within the pontine reticular formation overlapping with a cluster of decreased FA in the midbrain (p < 0.001). VBM revealed increases of gray matter densities in both hippocampi of iRBD patients (p < 0.001). The observed changes in the pontomesencephalic brainstem localized 2 areas harboring key neuronal circuits believed to be involved in the regulation of REM sleep and overlap with areas of structural brainstem damage causing symptomatic RBD in humans. Bilateral increases in gray matter density of the hippocampus suggest functional neuronal reorganization in this brain area in iRBD. This study indicates that DTI detects distinct structural brainstem tissue abnormalities in iRBD in the regions where REM is modulated. Further studies should explore the relationship between MRI pathology and the risk of patients with iRBD of developing alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  3. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Rapid Prototyped Three-Dimensional Hydroxyapatite/Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canciani, Elena; Dellavia, Claudia; Ferreira, Lorena Maria; Giannasi, Chiara; Carmagnola, Daniela; Carrassi, Antonio; Brini, Anna Teresa

    2016-05-01

    In the study, we assess a rapid prototyped scaffold composed of 30/70 hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP) loaded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to determine cell proliferation, differentiation toward osteogenic lineage, adhesion and penetration on/into the scaffold.In this in vitro study, hASCs isolated from fat tissue discarded after plastic surgery were expanded, characterized, and then loaded onto the scaffold. Cells were tested for: viability assay (Alamar Blue at days 3, 7 and Live/Dead at day 32), differentiation index (alkaline phosphatase activity at day 14), scaffold adhesion (standard error of the mean analysis at days 5 and 18), and penetration (ground sections at day 32).All the hASC populations displayed stemness markers and the ability to differentiate toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.Cellular vitality increased between 3 and 7 days, and no inhibitory effect by HA/β-TCP was observed. Under osteogenic stimuli, scaffold increased alkaline phosphatase activity of +243% compared with undifferentiated samples. Human adipose-derived stem cells adhered on HA/β-TCP surface through citoplasmatic extensions that occupied the macropores and built networks among them. Human adipose derived stem cells were observed in the core of HA/β-TCP. The current combination of hASCs and HA/β-TCP scaffold provided encouraging results. If authors' data will be confirmed in preclinical models, the present engineering approach could represent an interesting tool in treating large bone defects.

  4. Comparison of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Toyota, Risa; Haraki, Shingo; Yano, Hiroyuki; Higashiyama, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshio; Yano, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumihiko; Yatani, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2017-09-27

    Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity can be a normal variant of oromotor activity, which can be exaggerated in patients with sleep bruxism. However, few studies have tested the possibility in naturally sleeping animals to study the neurophysiological mechanisms of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. This study aimed to investigate the similarity of cortical, cardiac and electromyographic manifestations of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep between guinea pigs and human subjects. Polysomnographic recordings were made in 30 freely moving guinea pigs and in eight healthy human subjects. Burst cycle length, duration and activity of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity were compared with those for chewing. The time between R-waves in the electrocardiogram (RR interval) and electroencephalogram power spectrum were calculated to assess time-course changes in cardiac and cortical activities in relation to rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. In animals, in comparison with chewing, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity had a lower burst activity, longer burst duration and longer cycle length (P motor activation in comparison to human subjects. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Deep Space Spaceflight Hazards Effects on Cognition, Behavioral Health, and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Simonsen, L. C.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway missions provide testing grounds to identify the risk of both behavioral performance and cognitive perturbations caused by stressors of spaceflight such as radiation, fluid shifts, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, and others.

  6. Progress in rapid detection and identification of unknown human and agricultural pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T; Holzrichter, J F; Milanovich, F P

    1999-01-01

    contained in pathogen systems, such as their full genomic information, can be very helpful in identifying malevolent users. In addition, it is undoubtedly true that an understanding of replication and human or other sensitivity to pathogens will improve our medical understanding of human health in general

  7. NASA Human Research Program Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.

  8. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  9. Temperature dependent rapid annealing effect induces amorphous aggregation of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Atta, Ayman M; Al-Lohedan, Hammad; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study represents an analysis of the thermal aggregation of human serum albumin (HSA) induced by novel rosin modified compounds. The aggregation process causes conformational alterations in the secondary and tertiary structures of the proteins. The conversion of globular protein to amorphous aggregates was carried out by spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic techniques to investigate the factors that are responsible for the structural, conformational and morphological alteration in the protein. Our outcome results show that the aggregation of HSA was dependent on the hydrophobicity, charge and temperature, because the formation of amorphous aggregates occurs in the presence of a novel cationic rosin compound, quaternary amine of rosin diethylaminoethyl ester (QRMAE), at 40°C and pH 7.4 (but at 25°C on similar pH value, there was no evidence of aggregate formation). In addition, the parent compound of QRMAE, i.e., abietic acid, and other derivatives such as nonionic rosin compounds [(RMPEG-750) and (RMA-MPEG-750)] do not shows the aggregating property. This work provides precise and necessary information that aid in the understanding the effects of rosin derivative compounds on HSA. This study also restrains important information for athletes, health providers, pharmaceutical companies, industries, and soft drink-processing companies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  11. Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J; Brunier, Guillaume; Besset, Manon; Goichot, Marc; Dussouillez, Philippe; Nguyen, Van Lap

    2015-10-08

    As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world's third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia's most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of the delta and many more are now planned. We quantify from high-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images large-scale shoreline erosion and land loss between 2003 and 2012 that now affect over 50% of the once strongly advancing >600 km-long delta shoreline. Erosion, with no identified change in the river's discharge and in wave and wind conditions over this recent period, is consistent with: (1) a reported significant decrease in coastal surface suspended sediment from the Mekong that may be linked to dam retention of its sediment, (2) large-scale commercial sand mining in the river and delta channels, and (3) subsidence due to groundwater extraction. Shoreline erosion is already responsible for displacement of coastal populations. It is an additional hazard to the integrity of this Asian mega delta now considered particularly vulnerable to accelerated subsidence and sea-level rise, and will be exacerbated by future hydropower dams.

  12. Associative learning and the control of human dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2007-07-01

    Most of our food likes and disliked are learned. Relevant forms of associative learning have been identified in animals. However, observations of the same associative processes are relatively scarce in humans. The first section of this paper outlines reasons why this might be the case. Emphasis is placed on recent research exploring individual differences and the importance or otherwise of hunger and contingency awareness. The second section briefly considers the effect of learning on meal size, and the author revisits the question of how learned associations might come to influence energy intake in humans.

  13. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Tropf, Felix C; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F; Chasman, Daniel I; Nolte, Ilja M; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F; McMahon, George; Meddens, S Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M; de Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; Faul, Jessica D; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; de Haan, Hugoline G; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Ring, Susan M; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F; Zondervan, Krina T; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F; Lee, James J; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  14. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; De Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Van Der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; Van Der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; De Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; De Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrikke; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; De Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Roy Thurik, A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior - age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) - has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  15. Methodological and reporting quality in laboratory studies of human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, E.; Bevelander, K.E.; Field, M.; Jones, A.

    2018-01-01

    The methodological quality and reporting practices of laboratory studies of human eating behavior determine the validity and replicability of nutrition science. The aim of this research was to examine basic methodology and reporting practices in recent representative laboratory studies of human

  16. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  17. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kikkas

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity.

  18. Rapid and sensitive multiplex single-tube nested PCR for the identification of five human Plasmodium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Aoi; Kaneko, Akira; Isozumi, Rie; Teramoto, Isao; Kimura, Masatsugu; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium in humans. Microscopy is currently used for pathogen detection, requiring considerable training and technical expertise as the parasites are often difficult to differentiate morphologically. Rapid diagnostic tests are as reliable as microscopy and offer faster diagnoses but possess lower detection limits and are incapable of distinguishing among the parasitic species. To improve global health efforts towards malaria control, a rapid, sensitive, species-specific, and economically viable diagnostic method is needed. In this study, we designed a malaria diagnostic method involving a multiplex single-tube nested PCR targeting Plasmodium mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III and single-stranded tag hybridization chromatographic printed-array strip. The detection sensitivity was found to be at least 40 times higher than that of agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide. This system also enables the identification of both single- and mixed-species malaria infections. The assay was validated with 152 Kenyan samples; using nested PCR as the standard, the assay's sensitivity and specificity were 88.7% and 100.0%, respectively. The turnaround time required, from PCR preparation to signal detection, is 90min. Our method should improve the diagnostic speed, treatment efficacy, and control of malaria, in addition to facilitating surveillance within global malaria eradication programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid response to intensive treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder: A randomized controlled trial of a CBT intervention to facilitate early behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Danielle E; McFarlane, Traci L; Dionne, Michelle M; David, Lauren; Olmsted, Marion P

    2017-09-01

    Rapid response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for eating disorders (i.e., rapid and substantial change to key eating disorder behaviors in the initial weeks of treatment) robustly predicts good outcome at end-of-treatment and in follow up. The objective of this study was to determine whether rapid response to day hospital (DH) eating disorder treatment could be facilitated using a brief adjunctive CBT intervention focused on early change. 44 women (average age 27.3 [8.4]; 75% White, 6.3% Black, 6.9% Asian) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 4-session adjunctive interventions: CBT focused on early change, or motivational interviewing (MI). DH was administered as usual. Outcomes included binge/purge frequency, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were used. The CBT group had a higher rate of rapid response (95.7%) compared to MI (71.4%; p = .04, V = .33). Those who received CBT also had fewer binge/purge episodes (p = .02) in the first 4 weeks of DH. By end-of-DH, CBT participants made greater improvements on overvaluation of weight and shape (p = .008), and emotion regulation (ps .05). The results of this study demonstrate that rapid response can be clinically facilitated using a CBT intervention that explicitly encourages early change. This provides the foundation for future research investigating whether enhancing rates of rapid response using such an intervention results in improved longer term outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction combined with nanospray mass spectrometry for rapid and facile quantitation of ribonucleosides in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lingzhong; Zhu, Haijing; Guan, Yafeng; Huang, Guangming

    2017-07-01

    A rapid and facile analytical method for quantification of ribonucleosides in human urine was developed by the combination of nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction and nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-MS/MS). Cellulose paper used for microextraction was modified by nano-precision deposition of uniform ultrathin zirconia gel film using a sol-gel process. Due to the large surface area of the cellulose paper and the strong affinity between zirconia and the cis-diol compounds, the target analytes were selectively extracted from the complex matrix. Thus, the detection sensitivity was greatly improved. Typically, the nanocoating cellulose paper was immersed into the diluted urine for selective extraction of target analytes, then the extracted analytes were subjected to nESI-MS/MS detection. The whole analytical procedure could be completed within 10min. The method was evaluated by the determination of ribonucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, uridine, guanosine) in urine sample. The signal intensities of the ribonuclesides extracted by the nanocoating cellulose paper were greatly enhanced by 136-459-folds compared with the one of the unmodified cellulose paper based microextraction. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the four ribonucleosides were in the range of 0.0136-1.258μgL -1 and 0.0454-4.194μgL -1 , respectively. The recoveries of the target nucleosides from spiked human urine were in the range of 75.64-103.49% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.36%. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for rapid and facile determination of endogenous ribonucleosides in urine sample. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Rapid reversal of human intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced damage by shedding of injured enterocytes and reepithelialisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep P M Derikx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR is a phenomenon related to physiological conditions (e.g. exercise, stress and to pathophysiological events (e.g. acute mesenteric ischemia, aortic surgery. Although intestinal IR has been studied extensively in animals, results remain inconclusive and data on human intestinal IR are scarce. Therefore, an experimental harmless model for human intestinal IR was developed, enabling us to clarify the sequelae of human intestinal IR for the first time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 30 patients undergoing pancreatico-duodenectomy we took advantage of the fact that in this procedure a variable length of jejunum is removed. Isolated jejunum (5 cm was subjected to 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion. Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein (I-FABP arteriovenous concentration differences across the bowel segment were measured before and after ischemia to assess epithelial cell damage. Tissue sections were collected after ischemia and at 25, 60 and 120 minutes reperfusion and stained with H&E, and for I-FABP and the apoptosis marker M30. Bonferroni's test was used to compare I-FABP differences. Mean (SEM arteriovenous concentration gradients of I-FABP across the jejunum revealed rapidly developing epithelial cell damage. I-FABP release significantly increased from 290 (46 pg/ml before ischemia towards 3,997 (554 pg/ml immediately after ischemia (p<0.001 and declined gradually to 1,143 (237 pg/ml within 1 hour reperfusion (p<0.001. Directly after ischemia the intestinal epithelial lining was microscopically normal, while subepithelial spaces appeared at the villus tip. However, after 25 minutes reperfusion, enterocyte M30 immunostaining was observed at the villus tip accompanied by shedding of mature enterocytes into the lumen and loss of I-FABP staining. Interestingly, within 60 minutes reperfusion the epithelial barrier resealed, while debris of apoptotic, shedded epithelial cells was observed in the lumen

  2. A Human-Centered Smart Home System with Wearable-Sensor Behavior Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jianting; Liu, Ting; Shen, Chao; Wu, Hongyu; Liu, Wenyi; Su, Man; Chen, Siyun; Jia, Zhanpei

    2016-11-17

    Smart home has recently attracted much research interest owing to its potential in improving the quality of human life. How to obtain user's demand is the most important and challenging task for appliance optimal scheduling in smart home, since it is highly related to user's unpredictable behavior. In this paper, a human-centered smart home system is proposed to identify user behavior, predict their demand and schedule the household appliances. Firstly, the sensor data from user's wearable devices are monitored to profile user's full-day behavior. Then, the appliance-demand matrix is constructed to predict user's demand on home environment, which is extracted from the history of appliance load data and user behavior. Two simulations are designed to demonstrate user behavior identification, appliance-demand matrix construction and strategy of appliance optimal scheduling generation.

  3. Behavioral Responses to Epidemics in an Online Experiment: Using Virtual Diseases to Study Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a ‘self-protection fatigue’ effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time. PMID:23326360

  4. Motion Segments Decomposition of RGB-D Sequences for Human Behavior Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Devanne , Maxime; Berretti , Stefano; Pala , Pietro; Wannous , Hazem; Daoudi , Mohamed; Bimbo , Alberto ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a framework for analyzing and understanding human behavior from depth videos. The proposed solution first employs shape analysis of the human pose across time to decompose the full motion into short temporal segments representing elementary motions. Then, each segment is characterized by human motion and depth appearance around hand joints to describe the change in pose of the body and the interaction with objects. Finally , the sequence of te...

  5. Behavioral Correlations Associated with Fear of Humans Differ between Rural and Urban Burrowing Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Carrete

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies are fundamental to understanding how animal populations face global change. Although much research has centered upon the idea that individuals can adaptively modify their behaviors to cope with environmental changes, recent evidence supports the existence of individual differences in suites of correlated behaviors. However, little is known about how selection can change these behavioral structures in populations subject to different environmental constraints. The colonization of urban environments by birds has been related to their inter-individual variability in their fear of humans, measured as their flight initiation distance to an approaching human, such that urban life would select for fearless individuals. This behavior has been demonstrated to be heritable and highly consistent throughout the adult lifespan of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia. Here, we experimentally assessed, in field conditions, whether urban life involves changes in other behaviors such as exploration and antipredatory response through their correlation with fear of humans. Breeding urban birds were more fearless toward humans and were quicker to explore a new food resource and defend their nests from predators than their rural counterparts. However, while fear of humans positively correlated with exploration and antipredatory response in the rural population, it only correlated with exploration in the urban one. Predator release in urban environments could relax—and even counterselect—antipredator behaviors, thus dismantling the behavioral correlation existent in natural populations. Altogether, our results suggest that rural and urban animals may differ in some behavioral aspects, may be as a consequence of the selection processes acting during the colonization of urban areas as well as the different ecological environments encountered by individuals.

  6. Sex-linked strategies of human reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, K; Urribarri, D; Chacon, G C; Diaz, G; Torres, A; Herzog, G

    1993-01-01

    We present data on fertility characteristics in the Venezuelan population for each sex separately, allowing a detailed comparative analysis of the variance in fertility between males and females. We show that the fertility distribution for both sexes is discontinuous, that the average female has a larger number of offspring per individual than the average male, and that highly fertile males outnumber highly fertile females so that the total number of offspring produced by males and females is balanced. Results indicate that a few males are responsible for a relative higher fertility of the average female and that interactions between polyandric females with monogamic and polygynic males are common. Among the Yanomami, a relatively unacculturated hunter-gatherer-horticulturist tribe, similar differences in fertility distribution of both sexes are apparent. The data suggest that human populations contain statistically distinct subpopulations, with different reproductive strategies, suggesting the existence of complex interactions among human populations which are not evident from the study of individuals or groups.

  7. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have done on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) in order to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ...

  8. Cognitive genomics: Linking genes to behavior in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Konopka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of genetic variation in DNA with functional brain activity have already provided a starting point for delving into human cognitive mechanisms. However, these analyses do not provide the specific genes driving the associations, which are complicated by intergenic localization as well as tissue-specific epigenetics and expression. The use of brain-derived expression datasets could build upon the foundation of these initial genetic insights and yield genes and molecular pathways for testing new hypotheses regarding the molecular bases of human brain development, cognition, and disease. Thus, coupling these human brain gene expression data with measurements of brain activity may provide genes with critical roles in brain function. However, these brain gene expression datasets have their own set of caveats, most notably a reliance on postmortem tissue. In this perspective, I summarize and examine the progress that has been made in this realm to date, and discuss the various frontiers remaining, such as the inclusion of cell-type-specific information, additional physiological measurements, and genomic data from patient cohorts.

  9. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G.; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000–22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene “symbolic” artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia. PMID:28373568

  10. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    Full Text Available The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG and one known (rs8679684 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104 and Border Collie (N = 103 dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  11. Wilson?s disease presenting as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a possible window to early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotthard G. Tribl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease. Method Questionnaire-based interviews (patients and relatives, neurological examinations, two-week prospective dream-diary, video-polysomnography, transcranial sonography, MRI. Results Four Wilson’s disease cases with REM sleep behavior disorder were described; three had REM sleep behavior disorder as initial symptom. All showed mesencephalic tegmental/tectal sonographic hyperechogenicities and two presented ponto-mesencephalic tegmental MRI hyperintensities. Conclusion This first description of REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease in literature documents REM sleep behavior disorder as a possible presenting symptom of Wilson’s disease and adds further evidence to the parallelism of Parkinson’s disease and Wilson’s disease in phenotype and brainstem topography, which ought to be further studied. REM sleep behavior disorder has prognostic relevance for neurodegeneration in α-synucleinopathies. In Wilson’s disease, usefulness of early diagnosis and treatment are already well established. REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease offers a possible theoretical model for potential early treatment in this extrapyramidal and brainstem paradigm syndrome, previewing the possibility of neuroprotective treatment for REM sleep behavior disorder in “pre-clinical” Parkinson’s disease.

  12. On Understanding the Human Nature of Good and Bad Behavior in Business: A Behavioral Ethics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe numerous scandals in business, such as those at AIG, Tyco, WorldCom, Enron and Ahold, have made all of us concerned about the emergence of unethical and irresponsible behavior in organizations. Such widespread corruption in business and politics has, as result, prompted a growth of

  13. Trichloroethylene-mediated cytotoxicity in human epidermal keratinocytes is mediated by the rapid accumulation of intracellular calcium: Interception by naringenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F; Khan, A Q; Khan, R; Sultana, S

    2016-02-01

    Industrial solvents pose a significant threat to the humankind. The mechanisms of their toxicity still remain in debate. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread industrial solvent responsible for severe liver dysfunction, cutaneous toxicity in occupationally exposed humans. We utilized an in vitro system of human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells in this study to avoid complex cell and extracellular interactions. We report the cytotoxicity of organic solvent TCE in HaCaT and its reversal by a natural flavanone, naringenin (Nar). The cytotoxicity was attributed to the rapid intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)) release, which might lead to the elevation of protein kinase C along with robust free radical generation, instability due to energy depletion, and sensitization of intracellular stress signal transducer nuclear factor κB. These effects were actually seen to induce significant amount of genomic DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, all these effects of TCE were effectively reversed by the treatment of Nar, a natural flavanone. Our studies identify intracellular Ca as a unique target used by organic solvents in the cytotoxicity and highlight the Ca(2+) ion stabilizer properties of Nar. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. A Rapid, Simple, and Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantitative Analysis of Levofloxacin in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Notario

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To conduct a bioequivalence study for a copy product of levofloxacin (LEV, a simple and validated analytical method was needed, but the previous developed methods were still too complicated. For this reason, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for LEV quantification in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed under isocratic elution on a Luna Phenomenex® C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column. The mobile phase was comprised of acetonitrile, methanol, and phosphate buffer 25 mM that adjusted at pH 3.0 (13:7:80 v/v/v and pumped at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was performed under UV detector at wavelength of 280 nm. Samples were prepared by adding acetonitrile and followed by centrifugation to precipitate plasma protein. Then followed successively by evaporation and reconstitution step. The optimized method meets the requirements of validation parameters which included linearity (r = 0.995, sensitivity (LLOQ and LOD was 1.77 and 0.57 µg/mL respectively, accuracy (%error above LLOQ ≤ 12% and LLOQ ≤ 20%, precision (RSD ≤ 9%, and robustness in the ranges of 1.77-28.83 µg/mL. Therefore, the method can be used as a routine analysis of LEV in human plasma as well as in bioequivalence study of LEV.

  15. A novel UHPLC method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of daidzein, genistein and equol in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redruello, Begoña; Guadamuro, Lucía; Cuesta, Isabel; Álvarez-Buylla, Jorge R; Mayo, Baltasar; Delgado, Susana

    2015-11-15

    This work reports on a novel method involving reverse-phased ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) plus a spectrophotometric photodiode array/fluorescence (FLR) detection system for determining the concentration of equol and major soy isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) in human urine. The proposed method was validated in terms of its linearity, sensitivity, accuracy (recovery) and precision (intra- and inter-day repeatability). The isoflavone profiles of urine samples from a group of menopausal women following oral soy isoflavone supplementation were determined and compared. Screening for equol-producer status was accomplished with high sensitivity (detection limit of the FLR detector 2.93nM). The method involves a short chromatographic run time compared to conventional HPLC methods while allowing for the simultaneous and reliable quantification of daidzein, genistein and equol in human urine. It also allows for the rapid screening of multiple urine samples when testing for equol production status and checking patient adherence to isoflavone treatment regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Rapid Culture Technique Produces Functional Dendritic-Like Cells from Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies involving dendritic cells (DC as vaccines rely upon the adoptive transfer of DC loaded with exogenous tumour-peptides. This study utilized human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells as progenitors from which functional dendritic-like antigen presenting cells (DLC were generated, that constitutively express tumour antigens for recognition by CD8+ T cells. DLC were generated from AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3 using rapid culture techniques and appropriate cytokines. DLC were evaluated for their cell-surface phenotype, antigen uptake and ability to stimulate allogeneic responder cell proliferation, and production of IFN-γ; compared with DC derived from normal human PBMC donors. KG-1 and MUTZ-3 DLC increased expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR, and MUTZ-3 DLC downregulated CD14 and expressed CD1a. Importantly, both KG-1 and MUTZ-3-derived DLC promoted proliferation of allogeneic responder cells more efficiently than unmodified cells; neither cells incorporated FITC-labeled dextran, but both stimulated IFN-γ production from responding allogeneic CD8+ T cells. Control DC produced from PBMC using the FastDC culture also expressed high levels of critical cell surface ligands and demonstrated good APC function. This paper indicates that functional DLC can be cultured from the AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3, and FastDC culture generates functional KG-1 DLC.

  17. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-β1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  18. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    was applied to detect people. To assess the quality of the trajectories generated by the CV software, a sample of Ground Truth (GT) trajectories were digitized manually for all individuals simultaneously present in the scene in parts of the video recorded. The manual digitization was done in the T......-Analyst software developed at Lund University. Tracks of people walking alone or in social groups of different sizes were recorded, as well as people waiting, people having a conversation, and people dragging their bikes or pushing prams or wheelchairs. The tracks of ‘facers’ working for a charity organization...... will be to develop advanced methods in GIS to enable extraction of behavioral parameters for different classes of tracks that can be used to calibrate models of pedestrian movement. Our approach to tracking urban public life should be seen as a supplement to the traditional qualitative and intuitive manual...

  19. Bounded rationality and risk perception in human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kenichi; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Nagashima, Miyuki; Oda, Junichiro; Tokushige, Kohko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of risk perception associated with nuclear power plants in the framework of the behavioral economics, such as prospect theory. Due to the bounded rationality of the people, the public tends to overestimate the risk of nuclear power, especially after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Social acceptance is an essential element for the nuclear power plants, but nuclear option is getting regarded as a risky choice. On the other hand, experts define and measure risk by the calculation of the probability of damage to the core as a result of sequences of accidents identified by the study. However, this approach also involves limitations to some extent. We explore a possible way to close the gap under in the by wider social context with consideration of risk trade-off among various risk factors, rather than focusing only on nuclear issue. (author)

  20. Contrasting Web Robot and Human Behaviors with Network Models

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kyle; Doran, Derek

    2018-01-01

    The web graph is a commonly-used network representation of the hyperlink structure of a website. A network of similar structure to the web graph, which we call the session graph has properties that reflect the browsing habits of the agents in the web server logs. In this paper, we apply session graphs to compare the activity of humans against web robots or crawlers. Understanding these properties will enable us to improve models of HTTP traffic, which can be used to predict and generate reali...

  1. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  2. Rapid, High-Throughput, and Direct Molecular Beacon Delivery to Human Cancer Cells Using a Nanowire-Incorporated and Pneumatic Pressure-Driven Microdevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Jung; Choi, Jong Seob; Bae, Sunwoong; Kwon, Donguk; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-12-01

    Tracking and monitoring the intracellular behavior of mRNA is of paramount importance for understanding real-time gene expression in cell biology. To detect specific mRNA sequences, molecular beacons (MBs) have been widely employed as sensing probes. Although numerous strategies for MB delivery into the target cells have been reported, many issues such as the cytotoxicity of the carriers, dependence on the random probability of MB transfer, and critical cellular damage still need to be overcome. Herein, we have developed a nanowire-incorporated and pneumatic pressure-driven microdevice for rapid, high-throughput, and direct MB delivery to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to monitor survivin mRNA expression. The proposed microdevice is composed of three layers: a pump-associated glass manifold layer, a monolithic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, and a ZnO nanowire-patterned microchannel layer. The MB is immobilized on the ZnO nanowires by disulfide bonding, and the glass manifold and PDMS membrane serve as a microvalve, so that the cellular attachment and detachment on the MB-coated nanowire array can be manipulated. The combination of the nanowire-mediated MB delivery and the microvalve function enable the transfer of MB into the cells in a controllable way with high cell viability and to detect survivin mRNA expression quantitatively after docetaxel treatment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A classification scheme of erroneous behaviors for human error probability estimations based on simulator data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2017-01-01

    Because it has been indicated that empirical data supporting the estimates used in human reliability analysis (HRA) is insufficient, several databases have been constructed recently. To generate quantitative estimates from human reliability data, it is important to appropriately sort the erroneous behaviors found in the reliability data. Therefore, this paper proposes a scheme to classify the erroneous behaviors identified by the HuREX (Human Reliability data Extraction) framework through a review of the relevant literature. A case study of the human error probability (HEP) calculations is conducted to verify that the proposed scheme can be successfully implemented for the categorization of the erroneous behaviors and to assess whether the scheme is useful for the HEP quantification purposes. Although continuously accumulating and analyzing simulator data is desirable to secure more reliable HEPs, the resulting HEPs were insightful in several important ways with regard to human reliability in off-normal conditions. From the findings of the literature review and the case study, the potential and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. - Highlights: • A taxonomy of erroneous behaviors is proposed to estimate HEPs from a database. • The cognitive models, procedures, HRA methods, and HRA databases were reviewed. • HEPs for several types of erroneous behaviors are calculated as a case study.

  4. Aging and human sexual behavior: biocultural perspectives - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R

    2012-01-01

    In this mini-review, we consider an evolutionary biocultural perspective on human aging and sexuality. An evolutionary approach to senescence highlights the energetic trade-offs between fertility and mortality. By comparing humans to other primates, we situate human senescence as an evolutionary process, with shifts in postreproductive sexual behavior in this light. Age-related declines in sexual behavior are typical for humans but also highly contingent on the sociocultural context within which aging individuals express their sexuality. We briefly review some of the most comprehensive studies of aging and sexual behavior, both from the USA and cross-culturally. We frame these patterns with respect to the long-term relationships within which human sexual behavior typically occurs. Because sexuality is typically expressed within pair-bonds, sexual behavior sometimes declines in both members of a couple with age, but also exhibits sex-specific effects that have their roots in evolved sex differences. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Concept Analysis: Health-Promoting Behaviors Related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Tonna; Schaar, Gina; Parker, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of health-promoting behaviors incorporates ideas presented in the Ottawa Charter of Public Health and the nursing-based Health Promotion Model. Despite the fact that the concept of health-promoting behaviors has a nursing influence, literature suggests nursing has inadequately developed and used this concept within nursing practice. A further review of literature regarding health promotion behaviors and the human papilloma virus suggest a distinct gap in nursing literature. This article presents a concept analysis of health-promoting behaviors related to the human papilloma virus in order to encourage the application of the concept into nursing practice, promote continued nursing research regarding this concept, and further expand the application of health-promoting behaviors to other situations and populations within the nursing discipline. Attributes of health-promoting behaviors are presented and include empowerment, participation, community, and a positive concept of health. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are also presented, as are model, borderline, and contrary cases to help clarify the concept. Recommendations for human papilloma virus health-promoting behaviors within the nursing practice are also provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rapid, simple and highly sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamsulosin in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, N V S; Vishwottam, K N; Manoj, S; Koteshwara, M; Wishu, S; Varma, D P

    2005-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of tamsulosin (I), a highly selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analyte and internal standard, mosapride (II) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether-dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) using a Glas-Col Multi-Pulse Vortexer. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse phase Waters symmetry C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.03% formic acid-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v). The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 409.1 solidus in circle 228.1 and m/z 422.3 solidus in circle 198.3 were used to measure I and II, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.1-50.0 ng/mL for tamsulosin in human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation was 100 pg/mL with a relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve ranges. A run time of 2.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a throughput of more than 400 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong-McSweeney, D., E-mail: D.B.C.WongMcSweeney@salford.ac.uk [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Woodcock, J.S.; Peris, E.; Waddington, D.C.; Moorhouse, A.T. [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Redel-Macías, M.D. [Dep. Rural Engineering Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure–response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure–response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure–response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure–response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N = 321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. - Highlights: • The human response to construction vibration is assessed in residential environments. • Exposure–response relationships are generated based on survey and semi-empirical vibration estimation. • Annoyance, concern and acceptability are compared as response measures. • Concern and acceptability are viable measures complementing annoyance.

  8. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design

  9. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design.

  10. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  11. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils and combining with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone defects healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Bihua; Luo, Xueshi; Li, Zhiwen [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhuang, Caiping [Department of Anesthesiology, Huizhou Central People' s Hospital, Huizhou 516001 (China); Li, Lihua, E-mail: tlihuali@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Lu, Lu; Ding, Shan; Tian, Jinhuan [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Collagen biomineralization is regulated by complicated interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. Here, the use of sodium tripolyphosphate to simulate the templating functional motif of the C-terminal fragment of non-collagenous proteins is reported, and a low molecular weight polyacrylic acid served as a sequestration agent to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate into nanoprecursors. Self-assembled collagen fibrils served as a fixed template for achieving rapid biomimetic mineralization in vitro. Results demonstrated that, during the mineralization process, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar hydroxyapatite mineral with collagen fibrils formed and did so via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallization approach in the presence of these dual biomimetic functional analogues. In vitro human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) culture found that the mineralized scaffolds have a better cytocompatibility in terms of cell viability, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteoblasts. A rabbit femoral condyle defect model was established to confirm the ability of the n-HA/collagen scaffolds to facilitate bone regeneration and repair. The images of gross anatomy, MRI, CT and histomorphology taken 6 and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the biomimetic mineralized collagen scaffolds with hUCMSCs can promote the healing speed of bone defects in vivo, and both of the scaffolds groups performing better than the bone defect control group. As new bone tissue formed, the scaffolds degraded and were gradually absorbed. All these results demonstrated that both of the scaffolds and cells have better histocompatibility. - Highlights: • A rapid and facile biomimetic mineralization approach is proposed. • Intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralization of collagen fibrils was achieved. • HA/COL scaffolds promote hUCMSCs adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. • Feasibility of h

  12. Rapid effects of 17beta-estradiol on epithelial TRPV6 Ca2+ channel in human T84 colonic cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2008-11-01

    The control of calcium homeostasis is essential for cell survival and is of crucial importance for several physiological functions. The discovery of the epithelial calcium channel Transient Receptor Potential Vaniloid (TRPV6) in intestine has uncovered important Ca(2+) absorptive pathways involved in the regulation of whole body Ca(2+) homeostasis. The role of steroid hormone 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), in [Ca(2+)](i) regulation involving TRPV6 has been only limited at the protein expression levels in over-expressing heterologous systems. In the present study, using a combination of calcium-imaging, whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and siRNA technology to specifically knockdown TRPV6 protein expression, we were able to (i) show that TRPV6 is natively, rather than exogenously, expressed at mRNA and protein levels in human T84 colonic cells, (ii) characterize functional TRPV6 channels and (iii) demonstrate, for the first time, the rapid effects of E(2) in [Ca(2+)](i) regulation involving directly TRPV6 channels in T84 cells. Treatment with E(2) rapidly (<5 min) enhanced [Ca(2+)](i) and this increase was partially but significantly prevented when cells were pre-treated with ruthenium red and completely abolished in cells treated with siRNA specifically targeting TRPV6 protein expression. These results indicate that when cells are stimulated by E(2), Ca(2+) enters the cell through TRPV6 channels. TRPV6 channels in T84 cells contribute to the Ca(2+) entry\\/signalling pathway that is sensitive to 17beta-estradiol.

  13. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of collagen fibrils and combining with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone defects healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Bihua; Luo, Xueshi; Li, Zhiwen; Zhuang, Caiping; Li, Lihua; Lu, Lu; Ding, Shan; Tian, Jinhuan; Zhou, Changren

    2016-01-01

    Collagen biomineralization is regulated by complicated interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. Here, the use of sodium tripolyphosphate to simulate the templating functional motif of the C-terminal fragment of non-collagenous proteins is reported, and a low molecular weight polyacrylic acid served as a sequestration agent to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate into nanoprecursors. Self-assembled collagen fibrils served as a fixed template for achieving rapid biomimetic mineralization in vitro. Results demonstrated that, during the mineralization process, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar hydroxyapatite mineral with collagen fibrils formed and did so via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallization approach in the presence of these dual biomimetic functional analogues. In vitro human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) culture found that the mineralized scaffolds have a better cytocompatibility in terms of cell viability, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteoblasts. A rabbit femoral condyle defect model was established to confirm the ability of the n-HA/collagen scaffolds to facilitate bone regeneration and repair. The images of gross anatomy, MRI, CT and histomorphology taken 6 and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the biomimetic mineralized collagen scaffolds with hUCMSCs can promote the healing speed of bone defects in vivo, and both of the scaffolds groups performing better than the bone defect control group. As new bone tissue formed, the scaffolds degraded and were gradually absorbed. All these results demonstrated that both of the scaffolds and cells have better histocompatibility. - Highlights: • A rapid and facile biomimetic mineralization approach is proposed. • Intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralization of collagen fibrils was achieved. • HA/COL scaffolds promote hUCMSCs adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. • Feasibility of h

  14. A Network Neuroscience of Human Learning: Potential to Inform Quantitative Theories of Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Mattar, Marcelo G

    2017-04-01

    Humans adapt their behavior to their external environment in a process often facilitated by learning. Efforts to describe learning empirically can be complemented by quantitative theories that map changes in neurophysiology to changes in behavior. In this review we highlight recent advances in network science that offer a sets of tools and a general perspective that may be particularly useful in understanding types of learning that are supported by distributed neural circuits. We describe recent applications of these tools to neuroimaging data that provide unique insights into adaptive neural processes, the attainment of knowledge, and the acquisition of new skills, forming a network neuroscience of human learning. While promising, the tools have yet to be linked to the well-formulated models of behavior that are commonly utilized in cognitive psychology. We argue that continued progress will require the explicit marriage of network approaches to neuroimaging data and quantitative models of behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The evolution of human cultural behavior: notes on Darwinism and complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mikael; Murrieta, Rui Sérgio Sereni

    2015-12-01

    The article analyzes three schools that can be understood as central in studies of the evolution of human behavior within the paradigm of evolution by natural selection: human behavioral ecology (HBE), evolutionary psychology, and dual inheritance. These three streams of thought are used to depict the Darwinist landscape and pinpoint its strong suits and limitations. Theoretical gaps were identified that seem to reduce these schools' ability to account for the diversity of human evolutionary behavior. Their weak points include issues related to the concept of reproductive success, types of adaptation, and targets of selection. An interdisciplinary approach is proposed as the solution to this dilemma, where complex adaptive systems would serve as a source.

  16. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Samuel

    2009-06-05

    Since Darwin, intergroup hostilities have figured prominently in explanations of the evolution of human social behavior. Yet whether ancestral humans were largely "peaceful" or "warlike" remains controversial. I ask a more precise question: If more cooperative groups were more likely to prevail in conflicts with other groups, was the level of intergroup violence sufficient to influence the evolution of human social behavior? Using a model of the evolutionary impact of between-group competition and a new data set that combines archaeological evidence on causes of death during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene with ethnographic and historical reports on hunter-gatherer populations, I find that the estimated level of mortality in intergroup conflicts would have had substantial effects, allowing the proliferation of group-beneficial behaviors that were quite costly to the individual altruist.

  17. Developing Autonomous Vehicles That Learn to Navigate by Mimicking Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-28

    navigate in an unstructured environment to a specific target or location. 15. SUBJECT TERMS autonomous vehicles , fuzzy logic, learning behavior...ANSI-Std Z39-18 Developing Autonomous Vehicles That Learn to Navigate by Mimicking Human Behavior FINAL REPORT 9/28/2006 Dean B. Edwards Department...the future, as greater numbers of autonomous vehicles are employed, it is hoped that lower LONG-TERM GOALS Use LAGR (Learning Applied to Ground Robots

  18. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human--Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Yamada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language--behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, ``internal dynamics'' refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language--behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language--behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  19. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tatsuro; Murata, Shingo; Arie, Hiroaki; Ogata, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language-behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, "internal dynamics" refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language-behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language-behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  20. Modeling the behavior of human body tissues on penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, A.; Brazil, A. L.; Popovici, D.; Jiga, G.; Lebon, F.

    2018-02-01

    Several procedures in medicine (such as anesthesia, injections, biopsies and percutaneous treatments) involve a needle insertion. Such procedures operate without vision of the internal involved areas. Physicians and anesthetists rely on manual (force and tactile) feedback to guide their movements, so a number of medical practice is strongly based on manual skill. In order to be expert in the execution of such procedures the medical students must practice a number of times, but before practice in a real patient they must be trained in some place and a virtual environment, using Virtual Reality (VR) or Augmented Reality (AR) is the best possible solution for such training. In a virtual environment the success of user practices is improved by the addition of force output using haptic device to improve the manual sensations in the interactions between user and computer. Haptic devices enable simulate the physical restriction of the diverse tissues and force reactions to movements of operator hands. The trainees can effectively "feel" the reactions to theirs movements and receive immediate feedback from the actions executed by them in the implemented environment. However, in order to implement such systems, the tissue reaction to penetration and cutting must be modeled. A proper model must emulate the physical sensations of the needle action in the skin, fat, muscle, and so one, as if it really done in a patient that is as they are holding a real needle and feeling each tissue resistance when inserting it through the body. For example an average force value for human skin puncture is 6.0 N, it is 2.0 N for subcutaneous fat tissue and 4.4 N for muscles: this difference of sensations to penetration of each layers trespassed by the needle makes possible to suppose the correct position inside the body. This work presents a model for tissues before and after the cutting that with proper assumptions of proprieties can model any part of human body. It was based on experiments

  1. Structural behavior of human lumbar intervertebral disc under direct shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Häussler, Kim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Wolfram, Uwe

    2015-03-18

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex, flexible joint between adjacent vertebral bodies that provides load transmission while permitting movements of the spinal column. Finite element models can be used to help clarify why and how IVDs fail or degenerate. To do so, it is of importance to validate those models against controllable experiments. Due to missing experimental data, shear properties are not used thus far in validating finite element models. This study aimed to investigate the structural shear properties of human lumbar IVDs in posteroanterior (PA) and laterolateral (LL) loading directions. Fourteen lumbar IVDs (median age: 49 years) underwent direct shear in PA and LL loading directions. A custom-build shear device was used in combination with a materials testing machine to load the specimens until failure. Shear stiffness, ultimate shear force and displacement, and work to failure were determined. Each specimen was tested until complete or partial disruption. Median stiffness in PA direction was 490 N/mm and in LL direction 568 N/mm. Median ultimate shear force in the PA direction was 2,877 N and in the LL direction 3,199 N. Work to failure was 12 Nm in the PA and 9 Nm in the LL direction. This study was an experiment to subject IVDs to direct shear. The results could help us to understand the structure and function of IVDs with regard to mechanical spinal stability, and they can be used to validate finite element models of the IVD.

  2. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people’s health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people’s self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user’s conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users’ behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user’s context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels.

  3. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sociability and gazing toward humans in dogs and wolves: Simple behaviors with broad implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentosela, Mariana; Wynne, C D L; D'Orazio, M; Elgier, A; Udell, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Sociability, defined as the tendency to approach and interact with unfamiliar people, has been found to modulate some communicative responses in domestic dogs, including gaze behavior toward the human face. The objective of this study was to compare sociability and gaze behavior in pet domestic dogs and in human-socialized captive wolves in order to identify the relative influence of domestication and learning in the development of the dog-human bond. In Experiment 1, we assessed the approach behavior and social tendencies of dogs and wolves to a familiar and an unfamiliar person. In Experiment 2, we compared the animal's duration of gaze toward a person's face in the presence of food, which the animals could see but not access. Dogs showed higher levels of interspecific sociability than wolves in all conditions, including those where attention was unavailable. In addition, dogs gazed longer at the person's face than wolves in the presence of out-of-reach food. The potential contributions of domestication, associative learning, and experiences during ontogeny to prosocial behavior toward humans are discussed. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Rhythm Patterns Interaction - Synchronization Behavior for Human-Robot Joint Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents’ tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans. PMID:24752212

  6. Mixing pleasures: review of the effects of drugs on sex behavior in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Pitchers, Kyle K; Balfour, Margaret E; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-06-01

    Drugs of abuse act on the brain circuits mediating motivation and reward associated with natural behaviors. There is ample evidence that drugs of abuse impact male and female sexual behavior. First, the current review discusses the effect of drugs of abuse on sexual motivation and performance in male and female humans. In particular, we discuss the effects of commonly abused drugs including psychostimulants, opiates, marijuana/THC, and alcohol. In general, drug use affects sexual motivation, arousal, and performance and is commonly associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Second, studies on effects of systemic administration of drugs of abuse on sexual behavior in animals are reviewed. These studies analyze the effects on sexual performance and motivation but do not investigate the effects of drugs on risk-taking behavior, creating a disconnect between human and animal studies. For this reason, we discuss two studies that focus on the effects of alcohol and methamphetamine on inhibition of maladaptive sex-seeking behaviors in rodents. Third, this review discusses potential brain areas where drugs of abuse may be exerting their effect on sexual behavior with a focus on the mesolimbic system as the site of action. Finally, we discuss recent studies that have brought to light that sexual experience in turn can affect drug responsiveness, including a sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in female and male rodents as well as enhanced drug reward in male rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urban Chickens as a Pathway for Human Illness: An Examination of Knowledge, Behavior and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Capoccia; Michael Masters; Scott Risser

    2018-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships between human knowledge, behavior and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the United States. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact between birds and humans. In particular, avian influenza—or bird flu—and Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken hus...

  8. LC-ESI/MS/MS method for rapid screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byoung Wook; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Ho Jun; Jin, Changbae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jaeick

    2011-09-01

    A sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) has been developed and validated for the screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids (29 parent steroids and 15 metabolites) in human urine. The method involves an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and detection by LC-MS/MS. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in positive ESI mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for the screening and product ion scan mode for the confirmation. The protonated molecular ions were used as precursor ions for the SRM analysis and product ion scan. The intraday and interday precisions of the target analytes at concentrations of the minimum required performance levels for the screening were 2-14% and 2-15%, respectively. The limits of detection for the screening and confirmation method were 0.1-10 ng/mL and 0.2-10 ng/mL, respectively, for 44 steroids. This method was successfully applied to analysis of urine samples from suspected anabolic steroid abusers.

  9. Rapid Quantification of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 in Human Serum by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yulin; Müller, Miriam; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2018-04-01

    LC-MS/MS is widely utilized today for quantification of vitamin D in biological fluids. Mass spectrometric assays for vitamin D require very careful method optimization for precise and interference-free, accurate analyses however. Here, we explore chemical derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) as a rapid alternative for quantitative measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum, and compare it to results from LC-MS/MS. The method implemented an automated imaging step of each MALDI spot, to locate areas of high intensity, avoid sweet spot phenomena, and thus improve precision. There was no statistically significant difference in vitamin D quantification between the MALDI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS: mean ± standard deviation for MALDI-MS—29.4 ± 10.3 ng/mL—versus LC-MS/MS—30.3 ± 11.2 ng/mL (P = 0.128)—for the sum of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D epimers. The MALDI-based assay avoided time-consuming chromatographic separation steps and was thus much faster than the LC-MS/MS assay. It also consumed less sample, required no organic solvents, and was readily automated. In this proof-of-concept study, MALDI-MS readily demonstrated its potential for mass spectrometric quantification of vitamin D compounds in biological fluids.

  10. Rapid isolation of antibody from a synthetic human antibody library by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sun Yim

    Full Text Available Antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. Even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. Here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. First, we constructed a library of synthetic human antibody in which single-chain variable fragment (scFv was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After labeling the cells with fluorescent antigen probes, the highly fluorescent cells were sorted by using a high-speed cell sorter, and these cells were reused without regeneration in the next round of sorting. After repeating this sorting, the positive clones were completely enriched in several hours. Thus, we screened the library against three viral antigens, including the H1N1 influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Finally, the potential antibody candidates, which show K(D values between 10 and 100 nM against the target antigens, could be successfully isolated even though the library was relatively small (∼ 10(6. These results show that repeated FACS screening without regeneration of the sorted cells can be a powerful method when a rapid response to a spreading disease is required.

  11. Development of a polymerase chain reaction applicable to rapid and sensitive detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in human stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Mi Choi, Kyung; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lim, Sung-Bin; Cha, Seok Ho; Park, Yun-Kyu; Pak, Jhang Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic examination of eggs of parasitic helminths in stool samples has been the most widely used classical diagnostic method for infections, but tiny and low numbers of eggs in stool samples often hamper diagnosis of helminthic infections with classical microscopic examination. Moreover, it is also difficult to differentiate parasite eggs by the classical method, if they have similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic method for detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in stool samples. Nine primers were designed based on the long-terminal repeat (LTR) of C. sinensis retrotransposon1 (CsRn1) gene, and seven PCR primer sets were paired. Polymerase chain reaction with each primer pair produced specific amplicons for C. sinensis, but not for other trematodes including Metagonimus yokogawai and Paragonimus westermani. Particularly, three primer sets were able to detect 10 C. sinensis eggs and were applicable to amplify specific amplicons from DNA samples purified from stool of C. sinensis-infected patients. This PCR method could be useful for diagnosis of C. sinensis infections in human stool samples with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. PMID:23916334

  12. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  13. A review of human male field studies of hormones and behavioral reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; McHale, Timothy S; Carré, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review field studies of human male hormones and reproductive behavior. We first discuss life history theory and related conceptual considerations. As illustrations, distinctive features of human male life histories such as coalitional aggression, long-term partnering and paternal care are noted, along with their relevance to overall reproductive effort and developmental plasticity. We address broad questions about what constitutes a human male field study of hormones and behavior, including the kinds of hormone and behavioral measures employed in existing studies. Turning to several sections of empirical review, we present and discuss evidence for links between prenatal and juvenile androgens and sexual attraction and aggression. This includes the proposal that adrenal androgens-DHEA and androstenedione-may play functional roles during juvenility as part of a life-stage specific system. We next review studies of adult male testosterone responses to competition, with these studies emphasizing men's involvement in individual and team sports. These studies show that men's testosterone responses differ with respect to variables such as playing home/away, winning/losing, and motivation. Field studies of human male hormones and sexual behavior also focus on testosterone, showing some evidence of patterned changes in men's testosterone to sexual activity. Moreover, life stage-specific changes in male androgens may structure age-related differences in sexual behavior, including decreases in sexual behavior with senescence. We overview the considerable body of research on male testosterone, partnerships and paternal care, noting the variation in social context and refinements in research design. A few field studies provide insight into relationships between partnering and paternal behavior and prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In the third section of the review, we discuss patterns, limitations and directions for future research. This

  14. Enduring increases in anxiety-like behavior and rapid nucleus accumbens dopamine signaling in socially isolated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgason, Jordan T; España, Rodrigo A; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2013-03-01

    Social isolation (SI) rearing, a model of early life stress, results in profound behavioral alterations, including increased anxiety-like behavior, impaired sensorimotor gating and increased self-administration of addictive substances. These changes are accompanied by alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function, such as increased dopamine and metabolite tissue content, increased dopamine responses to cues and psychostimulants, and increased dopamine neuron burst firing. Using voltammetric techniques, we examined the effects of SI rearing on dopamine transporter activity, vesicular release and dopamine D2-type autoreceptor activity in the nucleus accumbens core. Long-Evans rats were housed in group (GH; 4/cage) or SI (1/cage) conditions from weaning into early adulthood [postnatal day (PD) 28-77]. After this initial housing period, rats were assessed on the elevated plus-maze for an anxiety-like phenotype, and then slice voltammetry experiments were performed. To study the enduring effects of SI rearing on anxiety-like behavior and dopamine terminal function, another cohort of similarly reared rats was isolated for an additional 4 months (until PD 174) and then tested. Our findings demonstrate that SI rearing results in lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior, dopamine release and dopamine transporter activity, but not D2 activity. Interestingly, GH-reared rats that were isolated as adults did not develop the anxiety-like behavior or dopamine changes seen in SI-reared rats. Together, our data suggest that early life stress results in an anxiety-like phenotype, with lasting increases in dopamine terminal function. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Female human pluripotent stem cells rapidly lose X chromosome inactivation marks and progress to a skewed methylation pattern during culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, M; Seriola, A; Barbé, L; Santalo, J; Veiga, A; Dée, K; Van Haute, L; Sermon, K; Spits, C

    2016-04-01

    Does a preferential X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern exist in female human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and does the pattern change during long-term culture or upon differentiation? We identified two independent phenomena that lead to aberrant XCI patterns in female hPSC: a rapid loss of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and long non-coding X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) expression during culture, often accompanied by erosion of XCI-specific methylation, and a frequent loss of random XCI in the cultures. Variable XCI patterns have been reported in female hPSC, not only between different hPSC lines, but also between sub-passages of the same cell line, however the reasons for this variability remain unknown. Moreover, while non-random XCI-linked DNA methylation patterns have been previously reported, their origin and extent have not been investigated. We investigated the XCI patterns in 23 human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, during long-term culture and after differentiation, by gene expression analysis, histone modification assessment and study of DNA methylation. The presence and location of H3K27me3 was studied by immunofluorescence, XIST expression by real-time PCR, and mono- or bi-allelic expression of X-linked genes was studied by sequencing of cDNA. XCI-specific DNA methylation was analysed using methylation-sensitive restriction and PCR, and more in depth by massive parallel bisulphite sequencing. All hPSC lines showed XCI, but we found a rapid loss of XCI marks during the early stages of in vitro culture. While this loss of XCI marks was accompanied in several cases by an extensive erosion of XCI-specific methylation, it did not result in X chromosome reactivation. Moreover, lines without strong erosion of methylation frequently displayed non-random DNA methylation, which occurred independently from the loss of XCI marks. This bias in X chromosome DNA methylation did not appear as a passenger event driven by clonal culture

  16. Human Behavior and Environmental Sustainability: promoting a pro-environmental behavior by harnessing the social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusafieh, Shaden; Razem, Maiss

    2017-11-01

    Recently, technological advancements in the sustainable design field have allowed us to reduce the ecological impact of the built environment, to reduce consumption of non-renewable resources, to create healthy environments and in some cases may even rehabilitate the ecosystem. Nevertheless, several studies have been carried out showing that sustainable technology does not automatically lead to environmentally friendly behaviors in its users. Various environmental problems threaten environmental sustainability and many of these problems are rooted in human behavior. Unfortunately, there is a lack in studies which take into consideration the human behavior influences within a sustainable built environment. We believe that the built environment should be used to support human goals and requirements, but at the same time we should consider it as a context in which human values and behaviors are cultivated. This research aimed to help in promoting environmental sustainability by using architectural design in changing relevant human behavior toward an environmentally friendly behavior. In order to achieve this, the research adopted Environment-centered Approach to gain more acute perspective into the relationship between the physical environment and human behavior, focusing on social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment. It appears that environmental psychology's merits have high potential in changing behavior within the built environment. The research provides a systematic approach for selecting, assessing, evaluating the behaviors to be changed and the factors that determine them. Furthermore, this approach helps in choosing the best interventions that could be applied in built environment to encourage such a sustainable behavior. This study tried to construct an agenda for further researches to find particular architectural design elements and strategies that we can harness to develop a pro-environment human behavior.

  17. Intelligent Systems Approach for Automated Identification of Individual Control Behavior of a Human Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.; Cardullo, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator?s control behavior, however little research has been done to identify an individual based on control behavior. The hypothesis investigated is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Two enhancements to existing human operator models, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented. One enhancement accounts for the testing control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust the control strategy. This uses the Artificial Neural Network which can be fine-tuned to model the testing control. Another enhancement takes the form of an equiripple filter which conditions the control system power spectrum. A novel automated parameter identification technique was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models. This utilizes a Genetic Algorithm based optimization engine called the Bit-Climbing Algorithm. Enhancements were validated using experimental data obtained from three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. This manuscript also addresses applying human operator models to evaluate the effectiveness of motion feedback when simulating actual pilot control behavior in a flight simulator.

  18. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  19. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  20. Data-Driven Modeling of Target Human Behavior in Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Military Operations Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. Gordon Cooke, MEME Gladstone Reid, MSBMS Robert DeMarco, MSBMS Charles Sheridan BA John...stress, and human behavior modeling and simulation issues. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the TBRL. He was also a Chief

  1. Human Behavior Based Exploratory Model for Successful Implementation of Lean Enterprise in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Rupy; Chason, Stewart

    2005-01-01

    Currently available Lean tools such as Lean Assessments, Value Stream Mapping, and Process Flow Charting focus on system requirements and overlook human behavior. A need is felt for a tool that allows one to baseline personnel, determine personnel requirements and align system requirements with personnel requirements. Our exploratory model--The…

  2. The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)

  3. An Animal Model for Collective Behavior in Humans: The Impact of Manipulated Trust and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    political choice, in consumer preferences , etc.). Numerous terms and theories have been posited in order to explain this group effect (‘Herd morality’; ‘Herd...human collective behavior (e.g. in the stock market, in political choice, in consumer preferences , etc), as well as disclosing the underlying

  4. Rational behavior in decision making. A comparison between humans, computers and fast and frugal strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Rational behavior in decision making. A comparison between humans, computers, and fast and frugal strategies Chris Snijders and Frits Tazelaar (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands) Real life decisions often have to be made in "noisy" circumstances: not all crucial information is

  5. Defy or ally : Neuroendocrine regulation of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Evolution has created a human brain that is characterized by a layered, hierarchical organization. These superimposed layers have gradually evolved to generate ever more complex forms of socio-emotional behavior. The present thesis centers on the neurobiological substrates that generate this

  6. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  7. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  8. Dynamic Socialized Gaussian Process Models for Human Behavior Prediction in a Health Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yelong; Phan, NhatHai; Xiao, Xiao; Jin, Ruoming; Sun, Junfeng; Piniewski, Brigitte; Kil, David; Dou, Dejing

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and predicting human behaviors, such as the level and intensity of physical activity, is a key to preventing the cascade of obesity and helping spread healthy behaviors in a social network. In our conference paper, we have developed a social influence model, named Socialized Gaussian Process (SGP), for socialized human behavior modeling. Instead of explicitly modeling social influence as individuals' behaviors influenced by their friends' previous behaviors, SGP models the dynamic social correlation as the result of social influence. The SGP model naturally incorporates personal behavior factor and social correlation factor (i.e., the homophily principle: Friends tend to perform similar behaviors) into a unified model. And it models the social influence factor (i.e., an individual's behavior can be affected by his/her friends) implicitly in dynamic social correlation schemes. The detailed experimental evaluation has shown the SGP model achieves better prediction accuracy compared with most of baseline methods. However, a Socialized Random Forest model may perform better at the beginning compared with the SGP model. One of the main reasons is the dynamic social correlation function is purely based on the users' sequential behaviors without considering other physical activity-related features. To address this issue, we further propose a novel “multi-feature SGP model” (mfSGP) which improves the SGP model by using multiple physical activity-related features in the dynamic social correlation learning. Extensive experimental results illustrate that the mfSGP model clearly outperforms all other models in terms of prediction accuracy and running time. PMID:27746515

  9. Long-term behaviors of phosphate-based rapid repairing material for concrete shafts in coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Feng; Zhen-Ya, Zhang; Xiao-Dong, Wen; Chao, Xin; Dong-Yuan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Concrete structures in shaft linings are apt to deteriorate prematurely and therefore prompt restoration is required. In considering this, desulphurization fly ash and machine-made tuff sand are employed to fabricate a phosphate-based rapid repairing material. The long-term efficiency of the material is evaluated based on combined factors, so drying shrinkage, interfacial bonding strength, corrosion resistance, and combustibility of the specimens are tested and researched in this paper. Experimental results showed that, under a dry circumstance, the material goes through a minor expansion at an early stage. It goes into a stage of rapid contraction after one day and a stable contraction after seven days. After 28 days, the total deformation is 67 micro-strains. On the other hand, the fabricated material manifests an excellent mechanical property. The one hour bending strength and compressive strength were 9.2 MPa and 32.6 MPa, respectively. A long-term mine water flushing simulation demonstrates that only 10% bending strength is lost and the corrosion resistance coefficient stays above 0.8, so a very good corrosion resistance is thus achieved. What is more, this repairing material retains its stability even at a high temperature of 1000°C, revealing its good thermo-stability. All these prominent properties make it a good prospective material for real restoration applications.

  10. A rapid and simple determination of A77 1726 in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography and its application for optimization of leflunomide therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roon, EN; Yska, JP; Raemaekers, J; Jansen, TLTA; van Wanrooy, M; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2004-01-01

    Leflunomide is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, which is bioactivated by fort-nation of A77 1726. In this study a rapid and simple quantitative assay using a reversed phase HPLC-UV method is validated for detection of A77 1726 in human serum. The HPLC-UV method uses a mobile phase consisting

  11. Risk of iatrogenic human immunodeficiency virus infection through transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in a Zambian hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consten, E. C.; van der Meer, J. T.; de Wolf, F.; Heij, H. A.; Henny, P. C.; van Lanschot, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via the transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in Zambia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Surgical patients (n = 370) were tested with antibody

  12. Homeostasis lighting control based on relationship between lighting environment and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Risa; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although each person has own preferences, living spaces which can respond to various preferences and needs have not become reality. Focusing on the lighting environments which influence on the impression of living spaces, this research aims to offer comfortable lighting environments for each resident by a flexible control. This research examines the relationship between lighting environments and human behaviors considering colored lights. In accord with the relationship, this research proposes an illuminance-color control system which flexibly changes spatial environments responding to human conditions. Firstly, the psychological evaluation was conducted in order to build human models for various environments. As a result, preferred lighting environments for each examinee were determined for particular behaviors. Moreover, satisfaction levels of lighting environments were calculated by using seven types of impression of the environments as parameters. The results were summarized as human models. Secondly, this research proposed "Homeostasis Lighting Control System", which employs the human models. Homeostasis lighting control system embodies the algorithm of homeostasis, which is one of the functions of the physiological adaptation. Human discomfort feelings are obtained automatically by the sensor agent robot. The system can offer comfortable lighting environments without controlling environments by residents autonomously based on the information from the robot. This research takes into accounts both illuminance and color. The robot communicates with the server which contains human models, then the system corresponds to individuals. Combining these three systems, the proposed system can effectively control the lighting environment. At last, the feasibility of the proposed system was verified by simulation experiments.

  13. Evaluation technology of human behavior cognition; Ningen kodo ninchi hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For human engineering and improvement of the living environment, the evaluation technology of human behavior cognition was studied. For the future reformation and creation of economic structure, the following are required: establishment of safe and affluent communities, further improvement of the safety and harmonious balance of people, lives and society, and R & D close to people and social needs. Introduction of Product Liability law and a fail-safe concept are examples of such efforts. However, since many accidents are found in the human society, the relation between human errors and human characteristics should be studied in detail. The cognitive science of human behavior is an objective evaluation technology from the viewpoint of human being, object, environment and society. Based on these social and technological background, the feasibility of the evaluation technology is studied, and the future trend and skeleton of this project are clarified. The domestic and foreign trends of technologies concerned are thus surveyed, and the important points, features, skeleton and ripple effect of the technology are summarized. 500 refs., 70 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Deformation behavior of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Dmitry; Panfilov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Deformation behavior under uniaxial compression of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is considered in comparison with human dentin. This deformation scheme allows estimating the total response from all levels of the hierarchical composite material in contrast with the indentation, which are limited by the mesoscopic and microscopic scales. It was shown for the first time that dental enamel is the strength (up to 1850MPa) hard tissue, which is able to consider some elastic (up to 8%) and plastic (up to 5%) deformation under compression. In so doing, it is almost undeformable substance under the creep condition. Mechanical properties of human enamel depend on the geometry of sample. Human dentin exhibits the similar deformation behavior under compression, but the values of its elasticity (up to 40%) and plasticity (up to 18%) are much more, while its strength (up to 800MPa) is less in two times. Despite the difference in mechanical properties, human enamel is able to suppress the cracking alike dentin. Deformation behavior under the compression of the samples contained DEJ as the same to dentin. This feature allows a tooth to be elastic-plastic (as dentin) and wear resistible (as enamel), simultaneously. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of gene products suppressed by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection or gp120 exposure of primary human astrocytes by rapid subtraction hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zao-Zhong; Kang, Dong-Chul; Chen, Yinming; Pekarskaya, Olga; Chao, Wei; Volsky, David J; Fisher, Paul B

    2003-06-01

    Neurodegeneration and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) are the major disease manifestations of HIV-1 colonization of the central nervous system (CNS). In the brain, HIV-1 replicates in microglial cells and infiltrating macrophages and it persists in a low-productive, noncytolytic state in astrocytes. Astrocytes play critical roles in the maintenance of the brain microenvironment, responses to injury, and in neuronal signal transmission, and disruption of these functions by HIV-1 could contribute to HAD. To better understand the potential effects of HIV-1 on astrocyte biology, the authors investigated changes in gene expression using an efficient and sensitive rapid subtraction hybridization approach, RaSH. Primary human astrocytes were isolated from abortus brain tissue, low-passage cells were infected with HIV-1 or mock infected, and total cellular RNAs were isolated at multiple time points over a period of 1 week. This approach is designed to identify gene products modulated early and late after HIV-1 infection and limits the cloning of genes displaying normal cell-cycle fluctuations in astrocytes. By subtracting temporal cDNAs derived from HIV-1-infected astrocytes from temporal cDNAs made from uninfected cells, 10 genes displaying reduced expression in infected cells, termed astrocyte suppressed genes (ASGs), were identified and their suppression was confirmed by Northern blot hybridization. Both known and novel ASGs, not reported in current DNA databases, that are down-regulated by HIV-1 infection are described. Northern blotting confirms suppression of the same panel of ASGs by treatment of astrocytes with recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120. These results extend our previous analysis of astrocyte genes induced or enhanced by HIV-1 infection and together they suggest that HIV-1 and viral proteins have profound effects on astrocyte physiology, which may influence their function in the CNS.

  16. Human papillomavirus vaccine and sexual behavior among adolescent and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddon, Nicole C; Leichliter, Jami S; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines to prevent certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated cancers are recommended for routine use among young women. Nationally representative reports of vaccine uptake have not explored the relationship between HPV vaccine initiation and various sexual behaviors. Explore sexual behavior and demographic correlates of HPV vaccine initiation from a nationally representative survey of adolescent and young adult women. In 2007-2008, a total of 1243 girls/women aged 15-24 years responded to questions about receiving HPV vaccine in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). In 2010, demographic and sexual behavior correlates were evaluated in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age. HPV vaccine initiation was higher among those aged 15-19 years than those aged 20-24 years (30.3% vs 15.9%, p19 years. No association was found between HPV vaccination and risky sexual behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A new rapid method for quantification of nitrogen in human serum employing the 14N(p,p' γ)14N reaction: application to human pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkenien, P.; Hyvoenen-Dabek, M.; Raeisaenen, J.; Haenninen, R.; Dabek, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The total nitrogen concentrations in dried serum from 54 pregnant women and 17 newborn babies were determined by a new application of the 14 N(p,p'γ) 14 N reaction resonance at 3.9 MeV. The samples were bombarded in a He atmosphere by 4.1 MeV protons from a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The mean dry-weight nitrogen concentration in serum sampled during early pregnancy (6-12 weeks; 13.9 g per 100 g+-5.4%) was significantly higher than that in serum sampled during late pregnancy (38-42 weeks: 13.0 g per 100 g+-3.9%, p<0.001) than that in serum taken from the umbilical cord (13.3 g per 100 g+-4.6%, p<0.01). The nitrogen levels measured using this rapid nuclear technique, applied for the first time to human serum analysis, agree well with parallel Kjeldahl analyses. (author)

  18. Fisetin Reduces the Impact of Aging on Behavior and Physiology in the Rapidly Aging SAMP8 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currais, Antonio; Farrokhi, Catherine; Dargusch, Richard; Armando, Aaron; Quehenberger, Oswald; Schubert, David; Maher, Pamela

    2018-03-02

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rarely addressed in the context of aging even though there is an overlap in pathology. We previously used a phenotypic screening platform based on old age-associated brain toxicities to identify the flavonol fisetin as a potential therapeutic for AD and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Based on earlier results with fisetin in transgenic AD mice, we hypothesized that fisetin would be effective against brain aging and cognitive dysfunction in rapidly aging senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a model for sporadic AD and dementia. An integrative approach was used to correlate protein expression and metabolite levels in the brain with cognition. It was found that fisetin reduced cognitive deficits in old SAMP8 mice while restoring multiple markers associated with impaired synaptic function, stress, and inflammation. These results provide further evidence for the potential benefits of fisetin for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Mechanical Testing of PMCs under Simulated Rapid Heat-Up Propulsion Environments. II; In-Plane Compressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Eric H.; Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber thermoset polymer matrix composites (PMC) with high temperature polyimide based in-situ polymerized monomer reactant (PMR) resin has been used for some time in applications which can see temperatures up to 550 F. Currently, graphite fiber PMR based composites are used in several aircraft engine components including the outer bypass duct for the GE F-404, exit flaps for the P&W F-100-229, and the core cowl for the GE/Snecma CF6-80A3. Newer formulations, including PMR-II-50 are being investigated as potential weight reduction replacements of various metallic components in next generation high performance propulsion rocket engines that can see temperatures which exceed 550 F. Extensive FEM thermal modeling indicates that these components are exposed to rapid heat-up rates (up to -200 F/sec) and to a maximum temperature of around 600 F. Even though the predicted maximum part temperatures were within the capability of PW-II-50, the rapid heat-up causes significant through-thickness thermal gradients in the composite part and even more unstable states when combined with moisture. Designing composite parts for such extreme service environments will require accurate measurement of intrinsic and transient mechanical properties and the hygrothermal performance of these materials under more realistic use conditions. The mechanical properties of polymers degrade when exposed to elevated temperatures even in the absence of gaseous oxygen. Accurate mechanical characterization of the material is necessary in order to reduce system weight while providing sufficient factors of safety. Historically, the testing of PMCs at elevated temperatures has been plagued by the antagonism between two factors. First, moisture has been shown to profoundly affect the mechanical response of these materials at temperatures above their glass transition temperature while concurrently lowering the material's Tg. Moisture phenomena is due to one or a combination of three effects, i

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate induces rapid human prostate cancer cell death by affecting cell energy metabolism, GSH pool and the glyoxalase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Daniela; Vacca, Rosa A; de Bari, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an anti-tumour drug effective on hepatocellular carcinoma and other tumour cell types, which affects both glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, depleting cellular ATP pool. Here we tested 3-BP on human prostate cancer cells showing, differently from other tumour types, efficient ATP production and functional mitochondrial metabolism. We found that 3-BP rapidly induced cultured androgen-insensitive (PC-3) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell death at low concentrations (IC(50) values of 50 and 70 μM, respectively) with a multimodal mechanism of action. In particular, 3-BP-treated PC-3 cells showed a selective, strong reduction of glyceraldeide 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, due to the direct interaction of the drug with the enzyme. Moreover, 3-BP strongly impaired both glutamate/malate- and succinate-dependent mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential generation and ATP synthesis, concomitant with the inhibition of respiratory chain complex I, II and ATP synthase activities. The drastic reduction of cellular ATP levels and depletion of GSH pool, associated with significant increase in cell oxidative stress, were found after 3-BP treatment of PC-3 cells. Interestingly, the activity of both glyoxalase I and II, devoted to the elimination of the cytotoxic methylglyoxal, was strongly inhibited by 3-BP. Both N-acetylcysteine and aminoguanidine, GSH precursor and methylglyoxal scavenger, respectively, prevented 3-BP-induced PC-3 cell death, showing that impaired cell antioxidant and detoxifying capacities are crucial events leading to cell death. The provided information on the multi-target cytotoxic action of 3-BP, finally leading to PC-3 cell necrosis, might be useful for future development of 3-BP as a therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment.

  1. Rapid tryptophan depletion improves decision-making cognition in healthy humans without affecting reversal learning or set shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Peter S; Watson, David R; Barrett, Suzanne L; Cooper, Stephen J

    2006-07-01

    Rapid tryptophan (Trp) depletion (RTD) has been reported to cause deterioration in the quality of decision making and impaired reversal learning, while leaving attentional set shifting relatively unimpaired. These findings have been attributed to a more powerful neuromodulatory effect of reduced 5-HT on ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) than on dorsolateral PFC. In view of the limited number of reports, the aim of this study was to independently replicate these findings using the same test paradigms. Healthy human subjects without a personal or family history of affective disorder were assessed using a computerized decision making/gambling task and the CANTAB ID/ED attentional set-shifting task under Trp-depleted (n=17; nine males and eight females) or control (n=15; seven males and eight females) conditions, in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group design. There was no significant effect of RTD on set shifting, reversal learning, risk taking, impulsivity, or subjective mood. However, RTD significantly altered decision making such that depleted subjects chose the more likely of two possible outcomes significantly more often than controls. This is in direct contrast to the previous report that subjects chose the more likely outcome significantly less often following RTD. In the terminology of that report, our result may be interpreted as improvement in the quality of decision making following RTD. This contrast between studies highlights the variability in the cognitive effects of RTD between apparently similar groups of healthy subjects, and suggests the need for future RTD studies to control for a range of personality, family history, and genetic factors that may be associated with 5-HT function.

  2. Rapid degradation of D- and L-succinimide-containing peptides by a post-proline endopeptidase from human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momand, J.; Clarke, S.

    1987-12-01

    The authors have been interested in the metabolic fate of proteins containing aspartyl succinimide (Asu) residues. These residues can be derived from the spontaneous rearrangement of Asp and Asn residues and from the spontaneous demethylation of enzymatically methylated L-isoAsp and D-Asp residues. Incubation of the synthetic hexapeptide N-Ac-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asu-Gly-Ala with the cytosolic fraction of human erythrocytes resulted in rapid cleavage of the prolyl-aspartyl succinimide bond producing the tripeptide N-Ac-Val-Try-Pro. The rate of this reaction is equal for both L- and D-Asu-containing peptides and is 10-fold greater that the rate of cleavage of a corresponding peptide containing a normal Pro-Asp linkage. When the aspartyl succinimide ring was replaced with an isoaspartyl residue, the cleavage rate was about 5 times that of the normal Pro-Asp peptide. The tripeptide-producing activity copurified on DEAE-cellulose chromatography with an activity that cleaves N-carbobenzoxy-Gly-Pro-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide, a post-proline endopeptidase substrate. These two activities were both inhibited by an antiserum to rat brain post-proline endopeptidase, and it appears that they are catalyzed by the same enzyme. This enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 80,000 and is covalently labeled and inhibited by (/sup 3/H) diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The facile cleavage of the succinimide- and isoaspartyl-containing peptides by this post-proline endopeptidase suggests that it may play a role in the metabolism of peptides containing altered aspartyl residues.

  3. Rapid intravenous infusion of 20 mL/kg saline alters the distribution of perfusion in healthy supine humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A C; Sá, R C; Barash, I A; Holverda, S; Buxton, R B; Hopkins, S R; Prisk, G K

    2012-03-15

    Rapid intravenous saline infusion, a model meant to replicate the initial changes leading to pulmonary interstitial edema, increases pulmonary arterial pressure in humans. We hypothesized that this would alter lung perfusion distribution. Six healthy subjects (29 ± 6 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify perfusion using arterial spin labeling. Regional proton density was measured using a fast-gradient echo sequence, allowing blood delivered to the slice to be normalized for density and quantified in mL/min/g. Contributions from flow in large conduit vessels were minimized using a flow cutoff value (blood delivered > 35% maximum in mL/min/cm(3)) in order to obtain an estimate of blood delivered to the capillary bed (perfusion). Images were acquired supine at baseline, after infusion of 20 mL/kg saline, and after a short upright recovery period for a single sagittal slice in the right lung during breath-holds at functional residual capacity. Thoracic fluid content measured by impedance cardiography was elevated post-infusion by up to 13% (pchanges in conduit vessels, there were no significant changes in perfusion in dependent lung following infusion (7.8 ± 1.9 mL/min/g baseline, 7.9 ± 2.0 post, 8.5 ± 2.1 recovery, p=0.36). There were no significant changes in lung density. These data suggest that saline infusion increased perfusion to nondependent lung, consistent with an increase in intravascular pressures. Dependent lung may have been "protected" from increases in perfusion following infusion due to gravitational compression of the pulmonary vasculature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatiotemporal detection of unusual human population behavior using mobile phone data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Dobra

    Full Text Available With the aim to contribute to humanitarian response to disasters and violent events, scientists have proposed the development of analytical tools that could identify emergency events in real-time, using mobile phone data. The assumption is that dramatic and discrete changes in behavior, measured with mobile phone data, will indicate extreme events. In this study, we propose an efficient system for spatiotemporal detection of behavioral anomalies from mobile phone data and compare sites with behavioral anomalies to an extensive database of emergency and non-emergency events in Rwanda. Our methodology successfully captures anomalous behavioral patterns associated with a broad range of events, from religious and official holidays to earthquakes, floods, violence against civilians and protests. Our results suggest that human behavioral responses to extreme events are complex and multi-dimensional, including extreme increases and decreases in both calling and movement behaviors. We also find significant temporal and spatial variance in responses to extreme events. Our behavioral anomaly detection system and extensive discussion of results are a significant contribution to the long-term project of creating an effective real-time event detection system with mobile phone data and we discuss the implications of our findings for future research to this end.

  5. Human behavioral biology: commentary on Lerner and von Eye's sociobiology and human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Burgess, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that in their examination of arguments forwarded by sociobiologists to account for key features of human development, R. M. Lerner and A. von Eye (see record 1992-23071-001) misunderstand the role of general theory in science. They also fail to characterize the work of sociobiologists

  6. Sex, drugs, and HIV: rapid assessment of HIV risk behaviors among street-based drug using sex workers in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needle, Richard; Kroeger, Karen; Belani, Hrishikesh; Achrekar, Angeli; Parry, Charles D; Dewing, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    South Africa is experiencing significant changes in patterns of illicit drug use, including increasing injection and non-injection drug use, and the use of drugs by persons engaged in sex work, both of which could further expand the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2005, a rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in Durban, South Africa, to learn more about patterns of drug use and HIV risk behaviors among drug-using, street-based sex workers. Field teams recruited 52 current injection and non-injection drug users for key informant interviews and focus groups, and they conducted mapping and observation in identified high-risk neighborhoods. Key informants were offered free, voluntary counseling and HIV rapid testing. The results of the assessment indicate that in this population, drugs play an organizing role in patterns of daily activities, with sex work closely linked to the buying, selling, and using of drugs. Participants reported using multiple drugs including crack cocaine, heroin, Ecstasy and Mandrax, and their choices were based on their expectations about the functional role and behavioral and pharmacological properties of the drugs. The organization of sex work and patterns of drug use differ by gender, with males exercising more control over daily routines and drug and sexual transactions than females. Activities of female sex workers are subject to considerable control by individual pimps, many of whom also function as landlords and drug dealers. A strong hold over the overlapping economies of drugs and sex work by a few individuals extends to control of the physical and social settings in which sex is exchanged and drugs are sold and used as well as the terms under which sex work is carried out. The potential for accelerated HIV spread is considerable given the evidence of overlapping drug-using and sexual risk behaviors and the mixing patterns across drug and sexual risk networks.

  7. An elevated plus-maze in mixed reality for studying human anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Biedermann, Daniel G; Wenzlaff, Frederike; Kurjak, Tim; Nouri, Sawis; Auer, Matthias K; Wiedemann, Klaus; Briken, Peer; Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Fuss, Johannes

    2017-12-21

    A dearth of laboratory tests to study actual human approach-avoidance behavior has complicated translational research on anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is the gold standard to assess approach-avoidance behavior in rodents. Here, we translated the EPM to humans using mixed reality through a combination of virtual and real-world elements. In two validation studies, we observed participants' anxiety on a behavioral, physiological, and subjective level. Participants reported higher anxiety on open arms, avoided open arms, and showed an activation of endogenous stress systems. Participants' with high anxiety exhibited higher avoidance. Moreover, open arm avoidance was moderately predicted by participants' acrophobia and sensation seeking, with opposing influences. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled experiment, GABAergic stimulation decreased avoidance of open arms while alpha-2-adrenergic antagonism increased avoidance. These findings demonstrate cross-species validity of open arm avoidance as a translational measure of anxiety. We thus introduce the first ecologically valid assay to track actual human approach-avoidance behavior under laboratory conditions.

  8. Combining fMRI and behavioral measures to examine the process of human learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Emberson, Lauren L; Aslin, Richard N

    2014-03-01

    Prior to the advent of fMRI, the primary means of examining the mechanisms underlying learning were restricted to studying human behavior and non-human neural systems. However, recent advances in neuroimaging technology have enabled the concurrent study of human behavior and neural activity. We propose that the integration of behavioral response with brain activity provides a powerful method of investigating the process through which internal representations are formed or changed. Nevertheless, a review of the literature reveals that many fMRI studies of learning either (1) focus on outcome rather than process or (2) are built on the untested assumption that learning unfolds uniformly over time. We discuss here various challenges faced by the field and highlight studies that have begun to address them. In doing so, we aim to encourage more research that examines the process of learning by considering the interrelation of behavioral measures and fMRI recording during learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combining human and machine intelligence to derive agents' behavioral rules for groundwater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Quinn, Christopher J.; Cai, Ximing; Garfinkle, Noah W.

    2017-11-01

    For agent-based modeling, the major challenges in deriving agents' behavioral rules arise from agents' bounded rationality and data scarcity. This study proposes a "gray box" approach to address the challenge by incorporating expert domain knowledge (i.e., human intelligence) with machine learning techniques (i.e., machine intelligence). Specifically, we propose using directed information graph (DIG), boosted regression trees (BRT), and domain knowledge to infer causal factors and identify behavioral rules from data. A case study is conducted to investigate farmers' pumping behavior in the Midwest, U.S.A. Results show that four factors identified by the DIG algorithm- corn price, underlying groundwater level, monthly mean temperature and precipitation- have main causal influences on agents' decisions on monthly groundwater irrigation depth. The agent-based model is then developed based on the behavioral rules represented by three DIGs and modeled by BRTs, and coupled with a physically-based groundwater model to investigate the impacts of agents' pumping behavior on the underlying groundwater system in the context of coupled human and environmental systems.

  10. Behavior of heavy metals in human urine and blood following calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate injection: observations in metal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, F; Araki, S; Murata, K; Aono, H

    1998-06-12

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the behavior of 8 heavy metals in human urine and blood, CaEDTA was administered for 1 h by intravenous injection to 18 male metal foundry workers, whose blood lead concentrations (PbB) were between 16 and 59 (mean 34) microg/dl. Significant increases were found in urinary excretion of manganese, chromium, lead, zinc, and copper after the start of CaEDTA injection. Urinary chromium excretion reached a maximal level within 1 h after the start of injection, while urinary manganese, lead, and zinc excretion reached their highest concentrations between 1 and 2 h. Urinary copper excretion reached the highest level between 2 and 4 h. The rapid increases in urinary excretion of five metals were different from the "circadian rhythms," which are the normal, daily variations in renal glomerular filtration, reabsorption, and excretory mechanisms. Plasma lead concentrations were highest 1.5 h after the start of the 1-h injection, while plasma zinc concentration became lowest 5 h after the start of CaEDTA injection. Data suggest that manganese and chromium absorbed in human tissues might be mobilized by CaEDTA.

  11. City rats: insight from rat spatial behavior into human cognition in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-09-01

    The structure and shape of the urban environment influence our ability to find our way about in the city. Understanding how the physical properties of the environment affect spatial behavior and cognition is therefore a necessity. However, there are inherent difficulties in empirically studying complex and large-scale urban environments. These include the need to isolate the impact of specific urban features and to acquire data on the physical activity of individuals. In the present study, we attempted to overcome the above obstacles and examine the relation between urban environments and spatial cognition by testing the spatial behavior of rats. This idea originated from the resemblance in the operative brain functions and in the mechanisms and strategies employed by humans and other animals when acquiring spatial information and establishing an internal representation, as revealed in past studies. Accordingly, we tested rats in arenas that simulated a grid urban layout (e.g. Manhattan streets) and an irregular urban layout (e.g. Jerusalem streets). We found that in the grid layout, rat movement was more structured and extended over a greater area compared with their restricted movement in the irregular layout. These movement patterns recall those of humans in respective urban environments, illustrating that the structure and shape of the environment affect spatial behavior similarly in humans and rats. Overall, testing rats in environments that simulate facets of urban environments can provide new insights into human spatial cognition in urban environments.

  12. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  13. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  14. The human likeness dimension of the "uncanny valley hypothesis": behavioral and functional MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates "uncanny" research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori's DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future "uncanny" studies consider CP and the DOH's category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects.

  15. Intelligent systems approach for automated identification of individual control behavior of a human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.

    Acceptable results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator's control behavior. However, little research has been done in an attempt to identify an individual based on his/her control behavior. The main hypothesis investigated in this dissertation is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Furthermore, inter-person differences are manifested in the amplitude and frequency content of the non-linear component of the control behavior. Two enhancements to the existing models of the human operator, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented in this dissertation. One of the proposed enhancements accounts for the "testing" control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust his/her control strategy. Such enhancement uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which can be fine-tuned to model the "testing" control behavior of a given individual. The other model enhancement took the form of an equiripple filter (EF), which conditions the power spectrum of the control signal before it is passed through the plant dynamics block. The filter design technique uses Parks-McClellan algorithm, which allows parameterization of the desired levels of power at certain frequencies. A novel automated parameter identification technique (APID) was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models of the human operator. APID utilizes a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization engine called the Bit-climbing Algorithm (BCA). Proposed model enhancements were validated using the experimental data obtained at three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. Validation analysis involves comparison of the actual and simulated control

  16. Rapid shoreline erosion induced by human impacts in a tropical muddy coast context, an example from western French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    The Guyanas coast (French Guiana, Surinam and Guiana) is the longest muddy coast in the world (1500 km). It is under the influence of mud banks in transit from the Amazon delta in Brazil to the Orinoco delta in Venezuela. This westward mud bank migration induces a strong geomorphic control on the shoreline which can be summarized in terms of "bank" (shoreline advance and wave energy dissipation) and "inter-bank" phases (erosion of shoreline by waves). Our study site, rice polders close to Mana city (western French Guiana), is a fine example of the exacerbation, by human activities, of the erosional dynamics on this muddy coast during an "inter-bank" phase. The polders cover 50,000 ha, in 200 x 600 m compartments flanked by earth dikes and canals. They were built in the muddy Holocene coastal plain in the 1980s and are rapidly eroding. Waves (mean significant height = 1.5 m height) comprise Atlantic swell and local trade wind-waves, and the tidal context is semi-diurnal and meso-tidal. We determined historical shoreline evolution from satellite (Landsat & SPOT) and orthophotography images, and conducted four field campaigns between October 2013 and October 2014, comprising topographic (RTK-DGPS) and hydrodynamic (pressure sensors) measurements. The results show intense erosion of 150 m/year affecting the polders since 2001, and lesser retreat (30 to 100 m/year) of the adjacent sectors colonized by mangrove forests. The erosive shoreface shows the same structure in each polder compartment: a chenier beach which freely retreats backwards under the influence of wave overwash. The chenier retreat rate is 100 m/year and it appears to be more intense (net retreat of 45 m) during the high wave-energy season (December to March), which generates more overwashing. In front of the chenier, we observed a large (50 m) inter-tidal mud bed showing different levels of induration and bioturbation by mangrove roots. The mud shorefaces exhibit an erosion rate of 100 m/year on average

  17. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  18. Mechanical behavior of 27CD4 and 100C6 steel joints, rapidly welded using dynamic diffusion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, G. le; Hourcade, M.; Criqui, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new process, dynamic-diffusion-bonding (DDB) was improved in our laboratory (1). It offers the advantages of both classical diffusion-bonding and rapidity, which is consistent with mass production. It was proven possible to carry out high strength bonds in a very short time: 60 seconds with specimens of 27CD4 steel (diameter=16mm). After bonding, the specimens were heat treated in order to homogeneize the structure along the piece. With the optimal bonding conditions, namely a few seconds at 1060 C, in a nitrogen with 5% hydrogen gas, with a proper surface preparation (Ra=0,04 μm) and under a modulated pressure during the whole bonding process (2,3): a) deformation of the bonded specimens is limited to about 2% of the heated length, b) tensile and torsion behaviour is very good: failure occurs out of the interface. No defect remains across the weld interface, c) the failure energy of joints measured with impact tests is lower than that of the base metal, because of the flatness of the interface and because of the presence of very fine oxide particles in the bond, d) fatigue behaviour (rotating beam tests) of bonded pieces is very good: their fatigue strength (720 MPa: stair case estimation for 5 .10 6 cycles) is very closed to those of unbonded specimens (780 MPa), and the crack initiates out of the interface near a big inclusion. With the 100C6 steel, bonds of the same quality were obtained, and with higher roughness of specimens (Ra=0,15 μm), high quality joints were achieved with a duration of 60 seconds at 1050 C. (orig.)

  19. Human exposure to a 60 Hz, 1800 micro tesla magnetic field: a neuro behavioral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, A.; Corbacio, M.; Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W.; Beuter, A.; Goulet, D.; Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.; Plante, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of time-varying magnetic fields (MF) on humans have been actively investigated for the past three decades. One important unanswered question that scientists continue to investigate is the potential for MF exposure to have acute effects on human biology. Different strategies have been used to tackle this question using various physiological, neuro-physiological and behavioral indicators. For example, researchers investigating electro-encephalography (EEG) have reported that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) MF can increase the resting occipital alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) [1, 2]. Interestingly, other studies have demonstrated that human motor behavior can be modulated by ELF MF exposure, reporting that such an exposure can reduce anteroposterior standing balance oscillations [3, 4] or decrease physiological tremor intensity [5]. However, the main limitation in this domain is the difficulty of reproducing the results. A possible reason for this is the large variety of experimental approaches employed. Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effects of a 60 Hz, 1800 μT MF exposure on physiological (i.e. heart rate and peripheral blood perfusion), neuro-physiological (brain electrical activity), and behavioral (postural oscillations, voluntary motor functions, and physiological tremor) aspects in humans using a single experimental procedure.Though the results from this study suggest a subtle reduction of human standing balance as well as a subtle increase of physiological tremor amplitude with MF exposure, no effect appeared on other investigated parameters, suggesting that one hour of 60 Hz, 1800 μT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the electrical activity of the brain. (authors)

  20. Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mao

    Full Text Available Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP, workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment.

  1. A rapid crosstalk of human gammadelta T cells and monocytes drives the acute inflammation in bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eberl

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells are a minor subset of T cells in human blood and differ from other T cells by their immediate responsiveness to microbes. We previously demonstrated that the primary target for Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells is (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP, an essential metabolite produced by a large range of pathogens. Here we wished to study the consequence of this unique responsiveness in microbial infection. The majority of peripheral Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells shares migration properties with circulating monocytes, which explains the presence of these two distinct blood cell types in the inflammatory infiltrate at sites of infection and suggests that they synergize in anti-microbial immune responses. Our present findings demonstrate a rapid and HMB-PP-dependent crosstalk between Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells and autologous monocytes that results in the immediate production of inflammatory mediators including the cytokines interleukin (IL-6, interferon (IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, and oncostatin M (OSM; the chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, and CXCL10; and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Moreover, under these co-culture conditions monocytes differentiate within 18 hours into inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs with antigen-presenting functions. Addition of further microbial stimuli (lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan induces CCR7 and enables these inflammatory DCs to trigger the generation of CD4(+ effector alphabeta T cells expressing IFN-gamma and/or IL-17. Importantly, our in vitro model replicates the responsiveness to microbes of effluent cells from peritoneal dialysis (PD patients and translates directly to episodes of acute PD-associated bacterial peritonitis, where Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cell numbers and soluble inflammatory mediators are elevated in patients infected with HMB-PP-producing pathogens. Collectively, these findings suggest a direct link between invading pathogens, microbe

  2. A survey on human behavior towards energy saving for office worker in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fared

    2015-05-01

    Green environment is a space and energy efficient household, which can offer coziness and healthy living environment to its occupants. Human behavior is focuses to see the impact toward energy and also into green building. This probe can be taken in if everybody reads and share similar objectives in bringing off the energy in an efficient manner. This paper will present and watched over the survey feedback on energy usage by federal agency workers in Malaysia. The study will focus on the proletarians in the government sector since this population is the majority work in place. It is authoritative to present and support the tested data for a project doing, particularly connected to human existence. The matter is referred to discussing about human behavior to compare with the real situation information. Today, there are many researchers thought that the human activity as the primary ingredient for a monitoring arrangement. As a consequence, the energy monitoring system will improve the energy usage efficiency of the basic human actions in different places and surroundings.

  3. Dual Extended Kalman Filter for the Identification of Time-Varying Human Manual Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.; Pool, Daan M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dual Extended Kalman Filter was implemented for the identification of time-varying human manual control behavior. Two filters that run concurrently were used, a state filter that estimates the equalization dynamics, and a parameter filter that estimates the neuromuscular parameters and time delay. Time-varying parameters were modeled as a random walk. The filter successfully estimated time-varying human control behavior in both simulated and experimental data. Simple guidelines are proposed for the tuning of the process and measurement covariance matrices and the initial parameter estimates. The tuning was performed on simulation data, and when applied on experimental data, only an increase in measurement process noise power was required in order for the filter to converge and estimate all parameters. A sensitivity analysis to initial parameter estimates showed that the filter is more sensitive to poor initial choices of neuromuscular parameters than equalization parameters, and bad choices for initial parameters can result in divergence, slow convergence, or parameter estimates that do not have a real physical interpretation. The promising results when applied to experimental data, together with its simple tuning and low dimension of the state-space, make the use of the Dual Extended Kalman Filter a viable option for identifying time-varying human control parameters in manual tracking tasks, which could be used in real-time human state monitoring and adaptive human-vehicle haptic interfaces.

  4. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P oral sex (from 25% to 80%; P oral sex, regardless of tumor HPV status. Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Examination on Impact of Air Ions toward Human Social Disorder Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesha-Tri-Chandrasa

    2000-01-01

    Air ions are something that people can not see and feel. However, they exist surrounding human life. Imbalance inhalation of air ions can affect central nervous system, and physically it will affect human activities and create social disorder behavior. Some investigations have proved the relation above and devices for anticipating ionization have been innovated and available on the market. Furthermore, it has been found that individual resistance against ionization is different between genders. Therefore it is important to study character and to anticipate effects of ions and ionization, in order to build more comfortable environment. (author)

  6. More on contamination: the use of asymmetric molecular behavior to identify authentic ancient human DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Helena; Svensson, Emma M; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2007-01-01

    concerning the authenticity of such data. Although several methods have been developed to the purpose of authenticating ancient DNA (aDNA) results, while they are useful in faunal research, most of the methods have proven complicated to apply to ancient human DNA. Here, we investigate in detail...... the reliability of one of the proposed criteria, that of appropriate molecular behavior. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing, we have quantified the relative levels of authentic aDNA and contaminant human DNA sequences recovered from archaeological dog and cattle remains. In doing...

  7. Scale-free fluctuations in behavioral performance: delineating changes in spontaneous behavior of humans with induced sleep deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremi K Ochab

    Full Text Available The timing and dynamics of many diverse behaviors of mammals, e.g., patterns of animal foraging or human communication in social networks exhibit complex self-similar properties reproducible over multiple time scales. In this paper, we analyze spontaneous locomotor activity of healthy individuals recorded in two different conditions: during a week of regular sleep and a week of chronic partial sleep deprivation. After separating activity from rest with a pre-defined activity threshold, we have detected distinct statistical features of duration times of these two states. The cumulative distributions of activity periods follow a stretched exponential shape, and remain similar for both control and sleep deprived individuals. In contrast, rest periods, which follow power-law statistics over two orders of magnitude, have significantly distinct distributions for these two groups and the difference emerges already after the first night of shortened sleep. We have found steeper distributions for sleep deprived individuals, which indicates fewer long rest periods and more turbulent behavior. This separation of power-law exponents is the main result of our investigations, and might constitute an objective measure demonstrating the severity of sleep deprivation and the effects of sleep disorders.

  8. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  9. Humans as Superorganisms: How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes, and Other Selfish Entities Shape Our Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Peter; Bressan, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists tend to be little aware that (a) microbes in our brains and guts are capable of altering our behavior; (b) viral DNA that was incorporated into our DNA millions of years ago is implicated in mental disorders; (c) many of us carry the cells of another human in our brains; and (d) under the regulation of viruslike elements, the paternally inherited and maternally inherited copies of some genes compete for domination in the offspring, on whom they have opposite physical and behavioral effects. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these selfish entities. The overarching message is that we are not unitary individuals but superorganisms, built out of both human and nonhuman elements; it is their interaction that determines who we are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Knowledge, Behaviors, and Attitudes About Human Papilloma Virus Among Nursing Students in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal-Yılmaz, Hatice; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2017-01-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is transmitted through sexual contact and can cause cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV) in nursing students in a baccalaureate program. This study was conducted with a sample of 624 students. Data were collected via questionnaires administered during the first class time. Students' knowledge about HPV was high; 90.5% knew HPV can cause cervical cancer; 94.6% recognized it as a sexually transmitted disease. Although; 87.7% stated a vaccine is available to protect women from HPV, nearly all participants (98.1%) had not received HPV vaccination. Findings show students' level of knowledge about HPV's risk factors and modes of transmission were high. However, this knowledge did not translate into engagement in health related behaviors such as being vaccinated against HPV.

  11. Specifics of Gender Manifestation of Prosocial and Antisocial Features in Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatyr Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the gender factors in the formation of prosociality – asociality in humans. A set of indicators reflecting the quantitative and qualitative terms motivational prerequisites of social behavior is presented. The estimation actualization needs are characterized as the beginning of the centripetal and focused on the involvement of the individual in society. Comparative analysis and accentuation of personality traits identified predominance of cycles, emotive and exaltation on the background of male domination of reactive aggression and masculinity. Assessment of the severity of empathy revealed the advantage of emotional and intuitive channels in the group of women relative to men. Undertaken study allowed to determine the presence of specific features of the formation of prosocial behavior of women, where the key element is the dominance of emotional factors initiation of social behavior, and situational mode, reactive response.

  12. A Review of Domestic Dogs' ("Canis Familiaris") Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A. R.; Wynne, C. D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are…

  13. Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi scale Models of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self- organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and...AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Report: Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi-scale Models of Human Social Behavior The views, opinions and/or findings

  14. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  15. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise.We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors.These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, suggests that endogenous

  16. Treating Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with a Rapid-Acting Analog Insulin Regimen vs. Regular Human Insulin in German