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Sample records for rapid hispanic population

  1. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  2. Breast Cancer Incidence and Risk Reduction in the Hispanic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Eric J; Chin, Megan L; Haq, Mohamed M

    2018-02-26

    Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer amongst women worldwide and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality overall. It is also the foremost reason for cancer-related mortality in Hispanic females in the United States (US). Although the current incidence of breast cancer is significantly lower in Hispanics compared to that of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Blacks, (91.9, 128.1, and 124.3 per 100,000, respectively, annually), this may increase if Hispanics develop similar lifestyle behaviors to other American women, in categories such as weight management, age at first birth, number of children, and breastfeeding habits. Stage-for-stage mortality for Hispanics is similar to NHWs, but the mortality rate is not declining as rapidly in this ethnic group. Hispanic women share many of the same risk factors for developing breast cancer as NHWs and Blacks. This suggests that many of the risk reduction strategies used in other racial populations may also benefit this group. Providing education about breast cancer and implementing risk reduction strategies in culturally-aware environments could help keep incidence low and reduce cancer-related mortality. Since Hispanics are the largest minority group in the US, this could have a significant impact on the incidence and mortality nationally.

  3. Demographic Changes of Hispanic Populations and Hispanic Student Enrollment in Texas Community Colleges: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jack; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    In this literature review, Hispanic demographic changes in the United States and in Texas are examined. Hispanics have accounted for large changes in population, population change, and proportion of population. Accordingly, the literature was reviewed regarding Hispanic immigrants, both authorized and non-authorized immigrants. The issue of…

  4. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  5. Cancer risk disparities between hispanic and non-hispanic white populations: the role of exposure to indoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hun, Diana E; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Morandi, Maria T; Stock, Thomas H; Corsi, Richard L

    2009-12-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States; however, minimal information is available on their cancer risks from exposures to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and how these risks compare to risks to non-Hispanic whites. We estimated the personal exposure and cancer risk of Hispanic and white adults who participated in the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. We evaluated 12 of the sampled volatile organic compounds and carbonyls and identified the HAPs of most concern and their possible sources. Furthermore, we examined sociodemographic factors and building characteristics. Cumulative cancer risks (CCRs) estimated for Hispanics (median = 519 x 10(-6), 90th percentile = 3,968 x 10(-6)) and for whites (median = 443 x 10(-6), 90th percentile = 751 x 10(-6)) were much greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmark of 10(-6). Cumulative risks were dominated by formaldehyde and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) and, to a lesser extent, by acetaldehyde, chloroform, and benzene. Exposure to all of these compounds except benzene was primarily due to indoor residential sources. Hispanics had statistically higher CCRs than did whites (p Hispanics and 88% of whites. Cancer risks for pollutants emitted indoors increased in houses with lower ventilation rates. Hispanics appear to be disproportionately affected by certain HAPs from indoor and outdoor sources. Policies that aim to reduce risk from exposure to HAPs for the entire population and population subgroups should consider indoor air pollution.

  6. Hispanics: A Diverse Population of Students to Influence the Landscape of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic students are a growing and pervasive population within higher education. This position paper examines population characteristics and educational patterns of Hispanic students that underscore failures of the higher education system in serving these students, in addition to institutional issues and cultural values that further complicate…

  7. Genetic basis of hearing loss in Spanish, Hispanic and Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Patel, Amit P; Nguyen, Desiree; Pan, Debbie R; Jhaveri, Vasanti M; Rudman, Jason R; Dharmaraja, Arjuna; Yan, Denise; Feng, Yong; Chapagain, Prem; Lee, David J; Blanton, Susan H; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2018-03-20

    Hearing loss (HL) is the most common neurosensory disorder affecting humans. The screening, prevention and treatment of HL require a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Genetic predisposition is one of the most common factors that leads to HL. Most HL studies include few Spanish, Hispanic and Latino participants, leaving a critical gap in our understanding about the prevalence, impact, unmet health care needs, and genetic factors associated with hearing impairment among Spanish, Hispanic and Latino populations. The few studies which have been performed show that the gene variants commonly associated with HL in non-Spanish and non-Hispanic populations are infrequently responsible for hearing impairment in Spanish as well as Hispanic and Latino populations (hereafter referred to as Hispanic). To design effective screening tools to detect HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations, studies must be conducted to determine the gene variants that are most commonly associated with hearing impairment in this racial/ethnic group. In this review article, we summarize gene variants and loci associated with HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations. Identifying new genetic variants associated with HL in Spanish and Hispanic populations will pave the way to develop effective screening tools and therapeutic strategies for HL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. FastStats: Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  9. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...

  10. Health status of Hispanic elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassford, T L

    1995-02-01

    Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.

  11. Chronic liver disease in the Hispanic population of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Ghanta, Ravi; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Martin, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Hispanic people living in the United States. Environmental, genetic, and behavioral factors, as well as socioeconomic and health care disparities among this ethnic group have emerged as important public health concerns. We review the epidemiology, natural history, and response to therapy of chronic liver disease in Hispanic patients. The review covers nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis B and C, coinfection of viral hepatitis with human immunodeficiency virus, alcoholic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, autoimmune hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. For most of these disorders, the Hispanic population has a higher incidence and more aggressive pattern of disease and overall worse treatment outcomes than in the non-Hispanic white population. Clinicians should be aware of these differences in caring for Hispanic patients with chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity and survival among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white long-term breast cancer survivors and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Christina M; Baumgartner, Richard N; Connor, Avonne E; Boone, Stephanie D; Baumgartner, Kathy B

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association of physical activity with survival for 601 Hispanic women and 682 non-Hispanic white women who participated in the population-based breast cancer case-control New Mexico Women's Health Study. We identified 240 deaths among cases diagnosed with a first primary invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 1994, and 88 deaths among controls. Follow-up extended through 2012 for cases and 2008 for controls. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Higher levels of total physical activity were inversely associated with all-cause mortality among Hispanic cases (Quartile (Q)4: HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.99). A non-significant trend was observed for recreational activity in Hispanic cases also (Q4: HR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.23-1.09, p for trend = 0.08). No significant associations were noted for non-Hispanic white cases or for controls. The results suggest that increasing physical activity may be protective against mortality in Hispanic women with breast cancer, despite reporting lower levels of recreational activity than non-Hispanic white women or Hispanic controls. Public health programs in Hispanic communities should promote physical activity in women as a means of decreasing breast cancer risk and improving survival.

  13. Ethnic disparities in traumatic brain injury care referral in a Hispanic-majority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, Hailey C; Tyroch, Alan H; Milan, Stacey A

    2017-07-01

    Functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be significantly improved by discharge to posthospitalization care facilities. Many variables influence the discharge disposition of the TBI patient, including insurance status, patient condition, and patient prognosis. The literature has demonstrated an ethnic disparity in posthospitalization care referral, with Hispanics being discharged to rehabilitation and nursing facilities less often than non-Hispanics. However, this relationship has not been studied in a Hispanic-majority population, and thus, this study seeks to determine if differences in neurorehabilitation referrals exist among ethnic groups in a predominately Hispanic region. This study is a retrospective cohort that includes 1128 TBI patients who presented to University Medical Center El Paso, Texas, between the years 2005 and 2015. The patients' age, sex, race, residence, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), GCS motor, Injury Severity Score (ISS), hospital and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury, and discharge disposition were analyzed in univariate and multivariate models. Our study population had an insurance rate of 55.5%. Insurance status and markers of injury severity (hospital LOS, intensive care unit LOS, ISS, GCS, and GCS motor) were predictive of discharge disposition to rehabilitation facilities. The study population was 70% Hispanic, yet Hispanics were discharged to rehabilitation facilities (relative risk: 0.56, P: 0.001) and to long-term acute care/nursing facilities (relative risk: 0.35, P < 0.0001) less than non-Hispanics even after LOS, ISS, ethnicity, insurance status, and residence were adjusted for in multivariate analysis. This study suggests that patients of different ethnicities but comparable traumatic severity and insurance status receive different discharge dispositions post-TBI even in regions in which Hispanics are the demographic majority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Web usability testing with a Hispanic medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary; Bias, Randolph G; Prentice, Katherine; Fletcher, Robin; Vaughn, Terry

    2009-04-01

    Skilled website developers value usability testing to assure user needs are met. When the target audience differs substantially from the developers, it becomes essential to tailor both design and evaluation methods. In this study, researchers carried out a multifaceted usability evaluation of a website (Healthy Texas) designed for Hispanic audiences with lower computer literacy and lower health literacy. METHODS INCLUDED: (1) heuristic evaluation by a usability engineer, (2) remote end-user testing using WebEx software; and (3) face-to-face testing in a community center where use of the website was likely. Researchers found standard usability testing methods needed to be modified to provide interpreters, increased flexibility for time on task, presence of a trusted intermediary such as a librarian, and accommodation for family members who accompanied participants. Participants offered recommendations for website redesign, including simplified language, engaging and relevant graphics, culturally relevant examples, and clear navigation. User-centered design is especially important when website developers are not representative of the target audience. Failure to conduct appropriate usability testing with a representative audience can substantially reduce use and value of the website. This thorough course of usability testing identified improvements that benefit all users but become crucial when trying to reach an underserved audience.

  15. Health Education Research and Practice Literature on Hispanic Health Issues: Have We Lost Sight of the Largest Minority Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2016-03-01

    Hispanics constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the United States and are the fastest growing segment of the population. Knowledge about health needs and practices, effective health promotion programs, and health policy making for Hispanics has the potential to improve population health outcomes for this group. Continued research and practice literature will aid in accomplishing these objectives. However, little is known about the extent of health education-related literature available on Hispanic health issues. In this review, we analyzed research and practice publications in all health education-related journals to assess the volume of articles published on Hispanic health issues. We found that the portion of journal articles devoted to Hispanic health issues varied widely among the journals and that there was a very limited emphasis on Hispanic health-related issues. Journal editors and editorial board members may need to be more proactive in soliciting manuscripts on Hispanic health, and our practitioners may have to improve their professional skills and cultural competence in order to work with Hispanic populations to produce research and practice literature that is of adequate quantity and quality to help improve Hispanics' health. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  17. Weight-loss interventions for Hispanic populations: the role of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Halperin, Ruben O

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, ethnic minorities are overrepresented among the overweight and obese population, with Hispanic individuals being among the groups most at risk for obesity and obesity-related disease and disability. Most weight-loss interventions designed for the general population have been less successful with individuals from ethnic minorities and there is a pressing need to develop more effective interventions for these groups. This paper examines the importance of culture in the development of "culturally competent" weight-loss interventions for ethnic minority populations, and discusses specific culturally mediated factors that should be considered in the design and implementation of treatment interventions. While specifically focusing on Hispanic populations, we also address issues of relevance to other multiethnic societies.

  18. Economic analyses of rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1989-01-01

    "Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  19. Trends in Hispanic Teen Births: Differences across States. Research Brief. Publication #2007-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Hispanics represent one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population, and this rapid growth is projected to be even more dramatic for Hispanic teens. The number of Hispanic teens is projected to increase by 50 percent by 2025, even though the total teen population is expected to increase by only 6 percent in the same time period.…

  20. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. An Analysis of Language as a Barrier to Receiving Influenza Vaccinations among an Elderly Hispanic Population in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, William S.; Zhao, Guixiang; Ford, Earl S.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing, and disparities in the receipt of healthcare services as a result of limited English proficiency have been demonstrated. We set out to determine if Spanish language preference was a barrier to receiving influenza vaccinations among Hispanic persons 65 years and older in the USA. Methods. Differences in the receipt of vaccinations by language preference were tested with both Chi-square analyses and adjusted logistic regressio...

  2. Africa: rapid population increase retards development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Organization of African Unity (OAU), the African Development Bank (ADB) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) have criticized African governments for not taking the problem of unchecked population growth seriously enough. "Until recently most African governments did not view rapid population growth as a matter for concern," said the OAU assistant secretary-general for political affairs, Machivenyika Mapuranga, at a seminar on 'population and development'. The OAU estimates that an annual average population increase of 3.1% far outstrips Africa's economic growth, which in 1992 was less than 1%. Mapuranga acknowledged that cutting the population increase is an uphill struggle, especially among rural communities. African agriculture is largely labor intensive, sustained by smallholders, which encourages farmers to have more children. Like other wage earners, African farmers look to support from their family when they grow old and, for that reason, the number of children also counts. But with agricultural production growing at an average annual rate of 2.5%, self-sufficiency in food remains an elusive goal. Cities in sub-Saharan Africa are growing much faster than the overall rate of population increase of 3.1% per year. Between 1980 and 1988 the region's urban population increased at the rate of 6.9% a year. Urban areas now account for nearly 30% of the sub-Saharan Africa population, currently put at 680 million. By 2025, approximately 700 million people are expected to live in urban areas. Despite migration to towns, the rural population is expected to rise more than 68%, reaching over 590 million. full text

  3. A trans-disciplinary approach to the evaluation of social determinants of health in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, Michael F; Tapp, Hazel; Smith, Heather A; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Coffman, Maren J; Ludden, Tom; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J

    2012-09-11

    Individual and community health are adversely impacted by disparities in health outcomes among disadvantaged and vulnerable populations. Understanding the underlying causes for variations in health outcomes is an essential step towards developing effective interventions to ameliorate inequalities and subsequently improve overall community health. Working at the neighborhood scale, this study examines multiple social determinates that can cause health disparities including low neighborhood wealth, weak social networks, inadequate public infrastructure, the presence of hazardous materials in or near a neighborhood, and the lack of access to primary care services. The goal of this research is to develop innovative and replicable strategies to improve community health in disadvantaged communities such as newly arrived Hispanic immigrants. This project is taking place within a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) using key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Associations between social determinants and rates of hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) use, and ED use for primary care treatable or preventable conditions are being examined. Geospatial models are in development using both hospital and community level data to identify local areas where interventions to improve disparities would have the greatest impact. The developed associations between social determinants and health outcomes as well as the geospatial models will be validated using community surveys and qualitative methods. A rapidly growing and underserved Hispanic immigrant population will be the target of an intervention informed by the research process to impact utilization of primary care services and designed, deployed, and evaluated using the geospatial tools and qualitative research findings. The purpose of this intervention will be to reduce health disparities by improving access to, and utilization of, primary care and preventative services. The results

  4. Validating an electronic health literacy scale in an older hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Judith; Nokes, Kathleen M

    2017-09-01

    To examine the validity of the Spanish version of an instrument used to measure electronic health literacy (eHEALS) with an older Hispanic population from a number of Spanish-language countries living in New York City in the United States (US). Although the Internet is available globally, complex skills are needed to use this source of valuable health-related information effectively. Electronic health literacy is a multifactorial concept that includes health literacy but also requires technology skills. Cross-sectional. Recruitment occurred at a Senior Organization located in a largely Hispanic neighbourhood in New York City (N = 100). Participants completed eHEALS and selected items from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) which assesses how adults use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information. Data from the US HINTS sample (N = 162) were matched to the Senior Organization sample on age range and Hispanic ethnicity. The average Senior Organization participant was 68 years old, female, born in one of six different Spanish-language countries, and completed high school while the average HINTS participant was 67 years old, female and had high school or less education. Although there was no relationship with the two HINTS subscales and electronic health literacy, there were significant relationships between electronic health literacy and health status and confidence in self-care. Inadequate electronic health literacy is a barrier to positive health outcomes. The Spanish version of eHEALS could be used as a screening instrument to identify gaps and tailored interventions could be developed to increase consumer confidence in using the Internet for reliable health-related information. Knowledge in self-management is related to positive health outcomes; all persons irrespective of their electronic health literacy should be able to use all sources of health information to enhance their self-care.

  5. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population ar...

  6. Outcomes of combined trabecular micro-bypass and phacoemulsification in a predominantly Hispanic patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo MJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Gallardo,1,2 Richard A Supnet,1 Jane Ellen Giamporcaro,3 Dana M Hornbeak3 1El Paso Eye Surgeons, PA, El Paso, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 3Division of Clinical Research and Medical Affairs, Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP and topical ocular hypotensive medication burden at 12 months postoperatively in a predominantly Hispanic patient population with primary open-angle glaucoma each implanted with one trabecular micro-bypass stent during cataract surgery.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive case series. The main objective was to assess reduction of IOP and/or medication burden in all eyes at the 12-month postoperative exam. A secondary objective was to assess outcomes in 3 subgroups, distinguished preoperatively by IOP control and by medication burden (suboptimal or maximum therapy and with different treatment goals. Group 1 had medication-controlled IOP and goal to reduce medications while maintaining IOP control (n=65; Group 2 had uncontrolled IOP on ≤2 medications and goal to reduce IOP and maintain/reduce medication burden (n=31; and Group 3 had uncontrolled IOP on ≥3 medications and goal to reduce IOP and avoid filtering surgery (n=38. Evaluations included IOP, medication use, cup-to-disc ratio, visual fields, complications, and interventions. One hundred subjects (134 eyes have been followed for 12 months.Results: Most patients (80% were Hispanic and had moderate or severe glaucoma (87%. At 12 months, mean IOP reduced to 12.9 mmHg vs 16.5 mmHg preoperatively; 92% had an IOP ≤15 mmHg at 12 months (99% had ≤18 mmHg. Mean medication burden had decreased to 0.9 vs 2.3 preoperatively. At the 12-month time point, 94% of all eyes achieved their predefined treatment goal of reduced IOP and/or medications. Reductions in medication burden for Group 1, and

  7. Selected Demographic Characteristics of the U.S. Hispanic Population and of Hispanic Subgroups. A Report Prepared by the Congressional Research Service for the Subcommittee on Census and Population of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, U.S. House of Representatives. 99th Congress, 2d Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    The report compares U.S. Hispanic subgroups with regard to five demographic statistics: (1) Geographic Distribution: the greatest number of Hispanics are found in Texas, California, New York and Florida. (2) Age Structure and Fertility: Hispanics are generally younger than the U.S. population, except for Cubans who are usually older. Mexicans have…

  8. Disparities in the Population Distribution of African American and Non-Hispanic White Smokers along the Quitting Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Dennis R.; Xie, Bin; Fagan, Pebbles; Pulvers, Kim; Romero, Devan R.; Blanco, Lyzette; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine disparities and changes over time in the population-level distribution of smokers along a cigarette quitting continuum among African American smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Methods: Secondary data analyses of the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). The CTS are large, random-digit-dialed,…

  9. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  10. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara C Elbers

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 8.8×10(-7 and p = 1.5×10(-6 respectively and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (p = 13.5×10(-12. The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.

  11. ACSS2 gene variant associated with cleft lip and palate in two independent Hispanic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodhia, Sonam; Celis, Katrina; Aylward, Alana; Cai, Yi; Fontana, Maria E; Trespalacios, Alberto; Hoffman, David C; Alfonso, Henry Ostos; Eisig, Sidney B; Su, Gloria H; Chung, Wendy K; Haddad, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    A candidate variant (p.Val496Ala) of the ACSS2 gene (T > C missense, rs59088485 variant at chr20: bp37 33509608) was previously found to consistently segregate with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) in three Honduran families. Objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the frequency of this ACSS2 variant in Honduran unrelated NSCLP patients and unrelated unaffected controls and 2) to investigate the frequency of this variant in Colombian unrelated affected NSCLP patients and unrelated unaffected controls. Case-control studies. Sanger sequencing of 99 unrelated Honduran NSCLP patients and 215 unrelated unaffected controls for the p.Val496Ala ACSS2 variant was used to determine the carrier frequency in NSCLP patients and controls. Sanger sequencing of 230 unrelated Colombian NSCLP patients and 146 unrelated unaffected controls for the p.Val496Ala ACSS2 variant was used to determine the carrier frequency in NSCLP patients and controls. In the Honduran population, the odds ratio of having NSCLP among carriers of the p.Val496Ala ACSS2 variant was 4.0 (P = .03), with a carrier frequency of seven of 99 (7.1%) in unrelated affected and four of 215 (1.9%) in unrelated unaffected individuals. In the Colombian population, the odds ratio of having NSCLP among carriers of the p.Val496Ala ACSS2 variant was 2.6 (P = .04), with a carrier frequency of 23 of 230 (10.0%) in unrelated affected and six of 146 (4.1%) in unrelated unaffected individuals. These findings support the role of ACSS2 in NSCLP in two independent Hispanic populations from Honduras and Colombia. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E336-E339, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial

  13. A population-based study of asthma, quality of life, and occupation among elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites: a cross-sectional investigation

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    Delclos George L

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. population is aging and is expected to double by the year 2030. The current study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and its correlates in the elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white population. Methods Data from a sample of 3021 Hispanics and non-Hispanic White subjects, 65 years and older, interviewed as part of an ongoing cross-sectional study of the elderly in west Texas, were analyzed. The outcome variable was categorized into: no asthma (reference category, current asthma, and probable asthma. Polytomous logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable and various socio-demographic measures, self-rated health, asthma symptoms, quality of life measures (SF-12, and various occupations. Results The estimated prevalence of current asthma and probable asthma were 6.3% (95%CI: 5.3–7.2 and 9.0% (95%CI: 7.8–10.1 respectively. The majority of subjects with current asthma (Mean SF-12 score 35.8, 95%CI: 34.2–37.4 or probable asthma (35.3, 34.0–36.6 had significantly worse physical health-related quality of life as compared to subjects without asthma (42.6, 42.1–43.1. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women had a 1.64 times greater odds of current asthma (95%CI: 1.12–2.38 as compared to men. Hay fever was a strong predictor of both current and probable asthma. The odds of current asthma were 1.78 times (95%CI: 1.24–2.55 greater among past smokers; whereas the odds of probable asthma were 2.73 times (95%CI: 1.77–4.21 greater among current smokers as compared to non-smokers. Similarly fair/poor self rated health and complaints of severe pain were independently associated with current and probable asthma. The odds of current and probable asthma were almost two fold greater for obesity. When stratified by gender, the odds were significantly greater among females (p-value for interaction term = 0.038. The odds of current asthma were significantly greater for

  14. Mobility and accessibility of hispanics in small towns and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Hispanic population has increased 43% (from 35.3 million to 50.5 million) in the 2000s in the U.S. Small towns and : rural areas in the U.S. are among the areas that have experienced rapid growth in : the : Hispanic immigrant population in the : ...

  15. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  16. Exploring differences in adiposity in two U.S. Hispanic populations of Mexican origin using social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic markers: the IRAS Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kendra A; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Langefeld, Carl D; Lorenzo, Carlos; Haffner, Steven M; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Norris, Jill M

    2012-01-01

    The census classification of Hispanic origin is used in epidemiological studies to group individuals, even though there is geographical, cultural, and genetic diversity within Hispanic Americans of purportedly similar backgrounds. We observed differences in our measures of adiposity between our two Mexican American populations, and examined whether these differences were attributed to social, behavioral, physiologic or genetic differences between the two populations. In the IRAS Family Study, we examined 478 Hispanics from San Antonio, Texas and 447 Hispanics from the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Associations with body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) using social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic variables were examined. Hispanics of Mexican origin in our clinic population in San Antonio had significantly higher mean BMI (31.09 vs. 28.35 kg/m2), VAT (126.3 vs. 105.5 cm2), and SAT (391.6 vs. 336.9 cm2), than Hispanics of Mexican origin in the San Luis Valley. The amount of variation in adiposity explained by clinic population was 4.5% for BMI, 2.8% for VAT, and 2.7% for SAT. After adjustment, clinic population was no longer associated with VAT and SAT, but remained associated with BMI, although the amount of variation explained by population was substantially less (1.0% for BMI). Adiposity differences within this population of Mexican origin can be largely explained by social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic differences.

  17. Perceptions of Medicinal Plant Use Amongst the Hispanic Population in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M. Grafford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plant use in the United States has increased as reported by the National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health and U.S. Census Bureau.However, little is known about how many minority groups in the United States use medicinal plants.There is a rise in the Hispanic population; a community with a steep tradition of medicinal plant use, in the U.S., so understanding the perceptions of medicinal plant use is useful to healthcare providers. Methods: A survey was designed to gauge a better understanding of the perceptions of medicinal plant use amongst Latino patients with varying education levels who reside in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area. Survey questions highlighted the perceptions of medicinal plants use, patient communication regarding medicinal plant use with healthcare providers (pharmacists and doctors, and the impact the education level has on medicinal plant use. Results: Surveys were distributed to six different investigational sites around the St. Louis Metropolitan Area from August 2015 to December 2015. Survey respondents identified 45 different plants/herbs that they currently use or had used at some point in their life. Those with higher levels of education had varying opinions on medicinal plant use with their current practices. Conclusion: The participants’ high interest in the use of medicinal plants exemplifies the need for enhanced communication between patients and healthcare professionals about medicinal plant use. However, it was hard to determine whether the participants’ level of education had any direct relationship to this use. Conflict of Interest None   Type: Original Research

  18. Rural Hispanic populations at risk in developing diabetes: sociocultural and familial challenges in promoting a healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuman, Amy N; Scholl, Juliann C; Wilkinson, Kenton

    2013-01-01

    Type II diabetes affects Hispanic populations disproportionately and is the fifth leading cause of death for Hispanic people in the United States ( Smith & Barnett, 2005 ). Risk of diabetes is of great concern throughout the United States and is clearly of epidemic proportions for regions such as the Southwest and Texas where the primary minority populations are Mexican American. We conducted four focus groups with a total of 49 Hispanic participants (23 adults and 26 adolescents) from rural West Texas communities to gain insights about participants' eating habits, knowledge of diabetes, and potential barriers to preventive care. From the data, we identified a three-tiered predisposition or vulnerability to diabetes-heredity; preferences for unhealthy, culturally based food; and temptations from U.S. mainstream fast food culture. These vulnerabilities added to the sociocultural concerns that participants identified-importance of parental and familial modeling; challenges to healthy eating based on a culturally based diet and mainstream fast food culture; and a lack of support from the larger sociocultural networks such as teachers, community leaders, and the media. From these data, we have a better understanding of familial and sociocultural factors that need to be addressed in the development of preventive public awareness and educational plans. We outline implications for practitioners and educators from an integrated cultural biomedical approach.

  19. Organ Donor Registration Preferences among Hispanic Populations: Which Modes of Registration Have the Greatest Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jason T.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Jones, Sara Pace

    2005-01-01

    There is little debate over Hispanics' need for viable organs. Although organ donor registries can potentially assist in alleviating this need, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has called on researchers to investigate methods to maximize such potential. This research effort answers the aforementioned call by surveying…

  20. Using the MMPI/MMPI-2 with the Hispanic/Latino Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Jennifer M.

    Examination of the relationship between Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, racial identification, acculturation, culture, language and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI/MMPI-2) has revealed controversial results. Because the MMPI/MMPI-2 is the most widely used personality assessment, it is important to understand how ethnic and…

  1. Personality Correlates of Alcohol Consumption and Aggression in a Hispanic College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Linda; Hojnowski, Natalya; Nesterova, Svitlana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the association between alcohol consumption and aggression from a personality trait perspective with 92 self-identified Hispanic college students. They partially replicated a study by Quigley, Corbett, and Tedeshi, which examined the relationships between desired image of power, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related…

  2. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  3. Enhancing the Quality of Life for Hispanic Individuals Through Career Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Wash A.; Larke, Jr., Alvin

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid population increase of Hispanic (Spanish, Latin American, or Spanish Indian heritage) individuals in the United States, ensuring economic prosperity and stability of this group is critical. This should include increasing their dwindling participation in agriculture-related fields. Hispanic youths often overlook an…

  4. Pilot of a diabetes primary prevention program in a hard-to-reach, low-income, immigrant Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Ann V; Graham, Margaret A; Wang, Xiaohui; Mier, Nelda; Sánchez, Esmeralda R; Flores, Isidore; Elizondo-Fournier, Marta

    2011-10-01

    An immigrant Hispanic population in the Texas-Mexico border region urgently requested assistance with diabetes. The project team implemented an exploratory pilot intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in the general population through enhanced nutrition and physical activity. Social networks in low-income rural areas(colonias) participated in an adaptation of the Diabetes Empowerment Education Program. The program had a pre-post-test design with a comparison group. The intervention had a small but significant effect in lowering body mass index, the biological outcome variable. The process evaluation shows that the participants valued the pilot project and found it culturally and economically appropriate. This program was the first primary prevention program in diabetes to address a general population successfully. The study shows that low-income, rural Mexican American families will take ownership of a program that is participatory and tailored to their culture and economic situation.

  5. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Viva la Familia Study: genetic and environmental contributions to childhood obesity and its comorbidities in the Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2006-09-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to childhood obesity are poorly delineated. The Viva la Familia Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and its comorbidities in the Hispanic population. The objectives of this report were to describe the study design and to summarize genetic and environmental contributions to the phenotypic variation in obesity and risk factors for metabolic diseases in Hispanic children. The Viva la Familia cohort consisted of 1030 children from 319 families selected based on an overweight proband between the ages of 4 and 19 y. In-depth phenotyping to characterize the overweight children and their siblings included anthropometric and body-composition traits by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and assessments of diet by 24-h recalls, physical activity by accelerometry, and risk factors for metabolic diseases by standard biochemical methods. Univariate quantitative genetic analysis was used to partition phenotypic variance into additive genetic and environmental components by using the computer program SOLAR. Sex, age, and environmental covariates explained 1-91% of the phenotypic variance. Heritabilities of anthropometric indexes ranged from 0.24 to 0.75. Heritability coefficients for the body-composition traits ranged from 0.18 to 0.35. Diet and physical activity presented heritabilities of 0.32 to 0.69. Risk factors for metabolic diseases were heritable with coefficients ranging from 0.25 to 0.73. Significant genetic correlations between obesity traits and risk factors for metabolic diseases substantiated pleiotropy between traits. The Viva la Familia Study provides evidence of a strong genetic contribution to the high prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in Hispanic children.

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risks of abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase in Hispanics: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Jung Pan

    Full Text Available Study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and risk factors for and association with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic injury in a large Hispanic health disparity cohort with high rates of obesity.Analysis of data from a prospective cross-sectional population based study. From 2004-7, we randomly recruited 2000 community participants to the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort collecting extensive socioeconomic, clinical and laboratory data. We excluded 153 subjects due to critical missing data. Pearson chi-square tests and Student's t-tests were used for categorical and continuous variable analysis, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for elevated ALT.The mean age of the cohort was 45 years and 67% were females. The majority of the cohort was either overweight (32.4% or obese (50.7%. Almost half (43.7% had MS and nearly one-third diabetes. Elevated ALT level was more prevalent in males than females. Obesity was a strong risk for abnormal ALT in both genders. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and young age were risks for elevated ALT in males only, whereas increased fasting plasma glucose was associated with elevated ALT in females only.We identified high prevalence of MS and markers of liver injury in this large Mexican American cohort with gender differences in prevalence and risk factors, with younger males at greatest risk.

  8. Hispanic Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 The following hypotheses have been presented regarding suicidal behavior among Hispanics: • Family needs are placed above individual ... the parents and elders is of major importance • Suicidal behavior among Hispanic femails may be related to the ...

  9. EFFECTS OF LIRAGLUTIDE 3.0 MG ON WEIGHT AND RISK FACTORS IN HISPANIC VERSUS NON-HIPANIC POPULATIONS: SUBGROUP ANALYSIS FROM SCALE RANDOMIZED TRIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Garvey, W Timothy; Gonzalez-Campoy, J Michael; Mora, Pablo; Ortiz, Rafael Violante; Guerrero, German; Claudius, Birgitte; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Scarce data exist on pharmacotherapy for obesity in Hispanic individuals. This post hoc analysis of pooled data from 4 phase 3a trials compared the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity, in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic subgroups. We conducted the double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trials in adults with a minimum body mass index (BMI) of 27 kg/m 2 with at least 1 comorbidity, or a minimum BMI of 30 kg/m 2 , at clinical research sites worldwide. In this analysis, we investigated possible differences in treatment effects between 534 Hispanics (10.4% of the population) and 4,597 non-Hispanics (89.6%) through statistical tests of interaction between subgroups and treatment. Variables examined included mean and categorical weight change, cardiovascular risk markers, and safety data. Both subgroups achieved clinically significant mean weight loss at end-of-treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo: Hispanics 7.0% versus 1.5%, treatment difference -5.1% (95% CI, -6.2 to -4.0); non-Hispanics 7.5% versus 2.3%, -5.2% (95% CI, -5.5 to -4.8). More individuals in both subgroups lost ≥5%, >10%, and >15% of their baseline weight with liraglutide 3.0 mg than with placebo. Efficacy endpoints generally did not vary with ethnicity (P>.05). Adverse events were comparable between ethnic subgroups, with more gastrointestinal disorders reported with liraglutide 3.0 mg than placebo. Efficacy and safety were largely similar between Hispanic and non-Hispanic subgroups. Results support that liraglutide 3.0 mg, used with a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity, can facilitate weight loss in Hispanic individuals. A1c = glycated hemoglobin BMI = body mass index CI = confidence interval FPG = fasting plasma glucose GLP-1 = glucagon-like peptide-1 hsCRP = high-sensitivity C-reactive protein SCALE = Satiety and Clinical Adiposity - Liraglutide Evidence in individuals with and without diabetes T2DM

  10. Relationship between body fat and BMI in a U.S. Hispanic population-based cohort study: Results from HCHS/SOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the percentage of body fat (%BF)-BMI relationship, identify %BF levels corresponding to adult BMI cut points, and examine %BF-BMI agreement in a diverse Hispanic/Latino population. %BF by bioelectrical impedance analysis was corrected against %BF by 18O dilution in 434 participants of th...

  11. Educational Journeys of Hispanic Women in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antoinette Navalta

    2012-01-01

    Hispanics continue to be the fastest growing minority population in the Nation. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2011; 2008), the Hispanic or Latino population was 16.3 percent in 2010 and is projected to be over 30 percent in 2050. However, only 3.6% of the RN population is Hispanic indicating an unrealistic representation of today's…

  12. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population are similar to that of African Americans. Although a multitude of previous studies have looked at the impact of segregation among African Americans, the literature remains under-represented in terms of multi-city macro-level analyses among Hispanics. This current study extends the analysis of segregation’s effects on lethal violence to this population. To this end, two measures of segregation were used, the index of dissimilarity and exposure. Using data from the census and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC mortality files, negative binominal regression models were created using a sample of 236 U.S. cities. The results indicated that both measures of segregation show a strong positive influence on rates of Hispanic homicides.

  13. The impact of mass media health communication on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior of u.s. Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media health communication (i.e., quantity of media-based health information received) is more likely to influence Hispanic adults' health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior compared to health literacy and language proficiency variables. Results indicated that quantity of media-based health information is positively associated with health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior above and beyond the influence of health literacy and English and Spanish language proficiency. In a context where physician-patient dynamics are increasingly shifting from a passive patient role model to a more active patient role model, media-based health information can serve as an influential cue to action, prompting Hispanic individuals to make certain health-related decisions and to seek more health advice and information from a health provider. Study implications are discussed.

  14. Psychosocial Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among U.S. Hispanic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Coups, Elliot J.; Stapleton, Jerod L.; Manne, Sharon L.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Medina-Forrester, Amanda; Rosenberg, Stephen A.; Gordon, Marsha; Tatum, Kristina S.; Robinson, June K.; Natale-Pereira, Ana; Goydos, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer among U.S. Hispanics increased 1.3% annually from 1992 to 2008. However, little research has focused on skin cancer prevention among the rapidly growing Hispanic population. In this study, we examined theory-driven, psychosocial correlates of sun protection behaviors in a population-based sample of 787 Hispanic adults (49.6% female, mean age = 41.0 years) residing in five southern or western U.S. states. Participants completed an English- or Spanish-language onlin...

  15. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Hispanics living in Puerto Rico: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pons, María; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Sevilla, Javier; Márquez-Lespier, Juan M; Morgan, Douglas; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important etiologic factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, one of the top ten leading causes of cancer death in Puerto Rico. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in this population was previously unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was designed using an existing population-based biorepository. Seropositivity was determined using the Premier ™ H. pylori immunoassay. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence was estimated with 95% confidence using marginal standardization following logistic regression. To assess the risk factors associated with H. pylori seropositivity, a multivariable log-binomial model was fitted to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 528 population-based serum samples were analyzed. The mean age of the study population was 41 ± 12 years, of whom 55.3% were females. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 33.0% (95% CI = 28.3%-38.1%). Increasing age and having Puerto Rico. The H. pylori seroprevalence observed in Puerto Rico is similar to the seroprevalence reported in the overall population of the United States. The association between H. pylori seroprevalence and the risk factors analyzed offers insight into the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Puerto Rico and warrants further investigation. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Rapid evolution leads to differential population dynamics and top-down control in resurrected Daphnia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitom, Eyerusalem; Kilsdonk, Laurens J; Brans, Kristien; Jansen, Mieke; Lemmens, Pieter; De Meester, Luc

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence of rapid genetic adaptation of natural populations to environmental change, opening the perspective that evolutionary trait change may subsequently impact ecological processes such as population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. To study such eco-evolutionary feedbacks in natural populations, however, requires samples across time. Here, we capitalize on a resurrection ecology study that documented rapid and adaptive evolution in a natural population of the water flea Daphnia magna in response to strong changes in predation pressure by fish, and carry out a follow-up mesocosm experiment to test whether the observed genetic changes influence population dynamics and top-down control of phytoplankton. We inoculated populations of the water flea D. magna derived from three time periods of the same natural population known to have genetically adapted to changes in predation pressure in replicate mesocosms and monitored both Daphnia population densities and phytoplankton biomass in the presence and absence of fish. Our results revealed differences in population dynamics and top-down control of algae between mesocosms harboring populations from the time period before, during, and after a peak in fish predation pressure caused by human fish stocking. The differences, however, deviated from our a priori expectations. An S-map approach on time series revealed that the interactions between adults and juveniles strongly impacted the dynamics of populations and their top-down control on algae in the mesocosms, and that the strength of these interactions was modulated by rapid evolution as it occurred in nature. Our study provides an example of an evolutionary response that fundamentally alters the processes structuring population dynamics and impacts ecosystem features.

  17. Rapid Cycling Genomic Selection in a Multiparental Tropical Maize Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuecai; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Burgueño, Juan; Olsen, Michael; Buckler, Edward; Atlin, Gary; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Vargas, Mateo; San Vicente, Félix; Crossa, José

    2017-07-05

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is the first to show realized genetic gains of rapid cycling genomic selection (RCGS) for four recombination cycles in a multi-parental tropical maize population. Eighteen elite tropical maize lines were intercrossed twice, and self-pollinated once, to form the cycle 0 (C 0 ) training population. A total of 1000 ear-to-row C 0 families was genotyped with 955,690 genotyping-by-sequencing SNP markers; their testcrosses were phenotyped at four optimal locations in Mexico to form the training population. Individuals from families with the best plant types, maturity, and grain yield were selected and intermated to form RCGS cycle 1 (C 1 ). Predictions of the genotyped individuals forming cycle C 1 were made, and the best predicted grain yielders were selected as parents of C 2 ; this was repeated for more cycles (C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 ), thereby achieving two cycles per year. Multi-environment trials of individuals from populations C 0, C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 , together with four benchmark checks were evaluated at two locations in Mexico. Results indicated that realized grain yield from C 1 to C 4 reached 0.225 ton ha -1 per cycle, which is equivalent to 0.100 ton ha -1  yr -1 over a 4.5-yr breeding period from the initial cross to the last cycle. Compared with the original 18 parents used to form cycle 0 (C 0 ), genetic diversity narrowed only slightly during the last GS cycles (C 3 and C 4 ). Results indicate that, in tropical maize multi-parental breeding populations, RCGS can be an effective breeding strategy for simultaneously conserving genetic diversity and achieving high genetic gains in a short period of time. Copyright © 2017 Zhang et al.

  18. Association of hand or knee osteoarthritis with diabetes mellitus in a population of Hispanics from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E; Font, Yvonne M; Mayor, Angel M; Vilá, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Although a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) has been reported among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, inconsistencies and limitations of observational studies have precluded a conclusive association. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of hand or knee OA with DM in a population of Hispanics from Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 subjects (100 adult DM patients as per the National Diabetes Data Group Classification and 102 nondiabetic subjects). Osteoarthritis of hand and knee was ascertained using the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, pharmacotherapy, and DM clinical manifestations were determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of DM with hand or knee OA and to evaluate factors associated with hand or knee OA among DM patients. The mean (SD) age for DM patients was 51.6 (13.1) years; 64.0% were females. The mean (SD) DM duration was 11.0 (10.4) years. The prevalence of OA in patients with DM and nondiabetic subjects was 49.0% and 26.5%, respectively (P Puerto Rico, DM patients were more likely to have OA of hands or knees than were nondiabetic subjects. This association was retained in multivariable models accounting for established risk factors for OA. Among DM patients, females were at greater risk for OA, whereas the use of insulin was negatively associated.

  19. The rapid reproducers paradox: population control and individual procreative rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissenburg, M

    1998-01-01

    This article argues that population policies need to be evaluated from macro and micro perspectives and to consider individual rights. Ecological arguments that are stringent conditions of liberal democracy are assessed against a moral standard. The moral standard is applied to a series of reasons for limiting procreative rights in the cause of sustainability. The focus is directly on legally enforced antinatalist measures and not on indirect policies with incentives and disincentives. The explicit assumption is that population policy violates the fairness to individuals for societal gain and that population policies are incompatible with stringent conditions of liberal democracy. The author identifies the individual-societal tradeoff as the "rapid reproducers paradox." The perfect sustainable population level is either not possible or is a repugnant alternative. 12 ecological arguments are presented, and none are found compatible with notions of a liberal democracy. Three alternative antinatalist options are the acceptance of less rigid and still coercive policies, amendments to the conception of liberal democracy, or loss of hope and choice of noncoercive solutions to sustainability, none of which is found viable. If voluntary abstinence and distributive solutions fail, then frugal demand options and technological supply options both will be necessary.

  20. Pharmacogenetic association study on clopidogrel response in Puerto Rican Hispanics with cardiovascular disease: a novel characterization of a Caribbean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Suarez DF

    2018-06-01

    measured ex vivo using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay and HTPR was defined as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU ≥230. Genotyping testing was performed using Taqman® Genotyping Assays. Results: The mean PRU across the cohort was 203±61 PRU (range 8–324, and 42 (38% patients had HTPR. Multiple logistic regression showed that 27% of the total variation in PRU was explained by a history of diabetes mellitus, hematocrit, CYP2C19*2, and PON1 p.Q192R. Body mass index (odds ratio [OR]=1.15; 95% CI: 1.03–1.27, diabetes mellitus (OR=3.46; 95% CI: 1.05–11.43, hematocrit (OR=0.75; 95% CI: 0.65–0.87, and CYP2C19*2 (OR=4.44; 95% CI: 1.21–16.20 were the only independent predictors of HTPR. Conclusion: Moreover, we propose a predictive model to determine PRU values as measured by VerifyNow P2Y12 assay for the Puerto Rican Hispanic population. This model has the potential to identify Hispanic patients at higher risk for adverse events on clopidogrel. Keywords: clopidogrel, platelet reactivity, genotyping, Hispanics, Puerto Rico

  1. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Carsten [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: cnowak@senckenberg.de; Vogt, Christian [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: vogt@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Pfenninger, Markus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: pfenninger@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwenk, Klaus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: k.schwenk@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oehlmann, Joerg [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Streit, Bruno [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: streit@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oetken, Matthias [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oetken@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-03-15

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius.

  2. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Vogt, Christian; Pfenninger, Markus; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg; Streit, Bruno; Oetken, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius

  3. Validation of an early childhood caries risk assessment tool in a low-income Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio-Lumsden, Christie L; Wolf, Randi L; Contento, Isobel R; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia A; Koch, Pamela A; Edelstein, Burton L

    2016-03-01

    There is a recognized need for valid risk assessment tools for use by both dental and nondental personnel to identify young children at risk for, or with, precavitated stages of early childhood caries (i.e., early stage decalcifications or white spot lesions).The aim of this study is to establish concurrent criterion validity of "MySmileBuddy" (MSB), a novel technology-assisted ECC risk assessment and behavioral intervention tool against four measures of ECC activity: semi-quantitative assays of salivary mutans streptococci levels, visible quantity of dental plaque, visual evidence of enamel decalcifications, and cavitation status (none, ECC, severe ECC). One hundred eight children 2-6 years of age presenting to a pediatric dental clinic were recruited from a predominantly Spanish-speaking, low-income, urban population. All children received a comprehensive oral examination and saliva culture for assessment of ECC indicators. Their caregivers completed the iPad-based MSB assessment in its entirety (15-20 minutes). MSB calculated both diet and comprehensive ECC risk scores. Associations between all variables were determined using ordinal logistic regression. MSB diet risk scores were significantly positively associated with salivary mutans (P valid risk assessment tool for identifying children with early precursors of cavitations but does not add value in identifying children with extant lesions. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Postdischarge growth and development in a predominantly Hispanic, very low birth weight population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, George C; Ramamurthy, Rajam; Schoolfield, John; Matula, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    The goals were to assess postdischarge growth and developmental progress of very low birth weight (birth weight: population and to identify predictors for neurodevelopmental impairment at 3 years of age. A cohort of 135 very low birth weight infants (gestational age: 23 to 35 weeks) were monitored to 3 years of age. Maternal and neonatal characteristics, anthropometric z scores, and developmental performance (using corrected age until 24 months) were analyzed collectively and according to gestational age groups. Specific criteria for failure to thrive and microcephaly were used. A characteristic pattern of poor weight gain in the first 12 months was followed by accelerated weight gain starting at 18 months, whereas head growth decreased at 18 months, with recovery beginning at 30 months of age. Infants born at gestational age of growth-impaired at 3 years of age, whereas infants born at gestational age of >or=27 weeks achieved catch-up growth by 30 months of age. Mean developmental scores also decreased in infancy, with improvements in motor development emerging at 18 months and cognitive skills at 30 months. Growth z scores, particularly for head growth, correlated with developmental scores. Infants born at gestational age of growth patterns that coincided with developmental progress in the first 3 years of life. Birth at gestational age of

  5. Arsenic and ultraviolet radiation exposure: melanoma in a New Mexico non-Hispanic white population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Janice W; Erdei, Esther; Myers, Orrin; Siegel, Malcolm; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-06-01

    Cases of cutaneous melanoma and controls were enrolled in a New Mexico population-based study; subjects were administered questionnaires concerning ultraviolet (UV) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure. Historical iAs exposure was estimated. UV exposure estimates were also derived using geospatial methods. Drinking water samples were collected for iAs analysis. Blood samples were collected for DNA repair (Comet) and DNA repair gene polymorphism assays. Arsenic concentrations were determined in urine and toenail samples. UV exposures during the previous 90 days did not vary significantly between cases and controls. Mean (±SD) current home iAs drinking water was not significantly different for cases and controls [3.98 μg/L (±3.67) vs. 3.47 μg/L (±2.40)]. iAs exposure showed no effect on DNA repair or association with melanoma. Results did not corroborate a previously reported association between toenail As and melanoma risk. Arsenic biomarkers in urine and toenail were highly significantly correlated with iAs in drinking water. A UV-DNA repair interaction for UV exposure over the previous 7-90 days was shown; cases had higher DNA damage than controls at low UV values. This novel finding suggests that melanoma cases may be more sensitive to low-level UV exposure than are controls. A UV-APEX1 interaction was shown. Subjects with the homozygous rare APEX1 DNA repair gene allele had a higher risk of early melanoma diagnosis at low UV exposure compared with those with the homozygous wild type or the heterozygote. Notably, a UV-arsenic interaction on inhibition of DNA repair was not observed at iAs drinking water concentrations below 10 ppb (μg/L).

  6. Disparities in allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnett Donna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in gene allele frequencies can contribute to differences in the prevalence of some common complex diseases among populations. Natural selection modulates the balance in allele frequencies across populations. Population differentiation (FST can evidence environmental selection pressures. Such genetic information is limited in Puerto Ricans, the second largest Hispanic ethnic group in the US, and a group with high prevalence of chronic disease. We determined allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 30 genes involved in major metabolic and disease-relevant pathways in Puerto Ricans (n = 969, ages 45–75 years and compared them to similarly aged non-Hispanic whites (NHW (n = 597. Results Minor allele frequency (MAF distributions for 45.5% of the SNPs assessed in Puerto Ricans were significantly different from those of NHW. Puerto Ricans carried risk alleles in higher frequency and protective alleles in lower frequency than NHW. Patterns of population differentiation showed that Puerto Ricans had SNPs with exceptional FST values in intronic, non-synonymous and promoter regions. NHW had exceptional FST values in intronic and promoter region SNPs only. Conclusion These observations may serve to explain and broaden studies on the impact of gene polymorphisms on chronic diseases affecting Puerto Ricans.

  7. The effectiveness of a community health program in improving diabetes knowledge in the Hispanic population: Salud y Bienestar (Health and Wellness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Yanira; Hernandez-Lane, Maria-Eugenia; Cohello, Janet I; Bautista, Christian T

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the Salud y Bienestar program to deliver diabetes education in the Hispanic population in the United States. This program uses a community outreach model where community health promoters are trained and then they deliver education to other community members regarding diabetes disease, risk factors, and ways to prevent and control disease. This intervention applies a one-group pre- and post-test design to improve diabetes knowledge. The intervention carried out in the states of California, Texas, and Washington DC. A total of 1,413 participants were enrolled. Of these, 73% were females, 46% were 65 years or older, 59% were Mexican, 64% had at least elementary education, 56% had lived in the US for more than 20 years, and 38% participants were self-reported diabetic. Among diabetic participants, a significant improvement was observed on diabetes knowledge when comparing pre- and post-test scores (13.7 vs. 18.6, P Salud y Bienestar program conducted by community health workers was effective approach to improving diabetes knowledge in the Hispanic population.

  8. Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their

  9. An Analysis of Promotion and Retention Factors Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Marine Corps Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Square OPMEO Office of Diversity Management & Equal Opportunity PES Performance Evaluation System PI Performance Index PLC Platoon Leaders Class...to the Hispanic service members. According to U.S. census estimates, Hispanics or Latinos compose 16.9 percent of the total U.S. population and this...census estimates, Hispanics or Latinos compose 16.9 percent of the total U.S. population which accounted for half the U.S. population growth between

  10. The Rapid Reproducers Paradox: Population Control and Individual Procreative Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, I consider the impact of population policies on individual rights (in a very broad sense of the word), a topic that has received disproportionately little attention in debates on the legitimacy of population rights. I first concentrate on arguments in favour of very radical

  11. Communication and The Challenges of Rapid Population Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005) which projected the African Population at 1,349 million by 2025 and 1,969 million by 2050. These figures are so frightening that the use of communication to contribute to checking the high population growth is challenged. We discuss ...

  12. Rapid Population Growth-Cause or Result of Global Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    Explosive population growth is a symptom of the world's unjust and inequitable social, political, and economic conditions. The current rate of growth is staggering, particularly in the cities of the underdeveloped countries. While some progress has been made in slowing population growth, several factors still contribute to its momentum. One of…

  13. Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women It is a common misconception that osteoporosis only ... seizures. Are There Any Special Issues for Hispanic Women Regarding Bone Health? Several studies indicate a number ...

  14. Impact of comorbidities and drug therapy on development of renal impairment in a predominantly African American and Hispanic HIV clinic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Keith Rawlings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available M Keith Rawlings1, Jennifer Klein1, Edna P Toubes Klingler1, Ejeanée Queen1, Lauren Rogers1, Linda H Yau2, Keith A Pappa2, Gary E Pakes21AIDS Arms Peabody Health Clinic, Dallas, Texas; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USAPurpose: Renal impairment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients could potentially be caused by many factors. HIV-related renal impairment risks have been little studied in African Americans and Hispanics. We investigated the impact of HIV itself, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, comorbidities, and non-HIV-related drug treatment on glomerular filtration rate in a predominantly African American/Hispanic HIV-infected population who had received HAART for at least one year. This study was a retrospective electronic medical record database evaluation of renal impairment risks in a largely African American/Hispanic HIV population obtaining medical care at an HIV clinic in Dallas, Texas.Methods: Proportional hazards models were used to investigate an association between an estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease >25% from baseline (ie, renal impairment and demographics, antiretroviral/nonantiretroviral medications, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection, hepatitis B virus [HBV] infection, CD4+ counts, viral load, and duration patients were monitored at the clinic (time on study.Results: In total, 323 patients were evaluated: 82% males; 61% African American/12% Hispanic/19% Caucasian; mean age 37.9 years (standard deviation [SD] 8.5; 6% HBV-positive; 34% HCV-positive; 29% hypertensive; 3% diabetic; 52% tenofovir-treated; mean weight 75.4 kg (SD, 15.4; mean estimated glomerular filtration 114.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD, 36.7 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD calculation method; mean creatinine clearance (from which estimated glomerular filtration was extrapolated by the Cockcroft-Gault calculation method 120.6 mL/min/1

  15. Pediatric Cushing disease: disparities in disease severity and outcomes in the Hispanic and African-American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkourogianni, Alexandra; Sinaii, Ninet; Jackson, Sharon H; Karageorgiadis, Alexander S; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Keil, Margaret F; Zilbermint, Mihail; Chittiboina, Prashant; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lodish, Maya B

    2017-08-01

    BackgroundLittle is known about the contribution of racial and socioeconomic disparities to severity and outcomes in children with Cushing disease (CD).MethodsA total of 129 children with CD, 45 Hispanic/Latino or African-American (HI/AA) and 84 non-Hispanic White (non-HW), were included in this study. A 10-point index for rating severity (CD severity) incorporated the degree of hypercortisolemia, glucose tolerance, hypertension, anthropomorphic measurements, disease duration, and tumor characteristics. Race, ethnicity, age, gender, local obesity prevalence, estimated median income, and access to care were assessed in regression analyses of CD severity.ResultsThe mean CD severity in the HI/AA group was worse than that in the non-HW group (4.9±2.0 vs. 4.1±1.9, P=0.023); driving factors included higher cortisol levels and larger tumor size. Multiple regression models confirmed that race (P=0.027) and older age (P=0.014) were the most important predictors of worse CD severity. When followed up a median of 2.3 years after surgery, the relative risk for persistent CD combined with recurrence was 2.8 times higher in the HI/AA group compared with that in the non-HW group (95% confidence interval: 1.2-6.5).ConclusionOur data show that the driving forces for the discrepancy in severity of CD are older age and race/ethnicity. Importantly, the risk for persistent and recurrent CD was higher in minority children.

  16. Social Media Use and its Association with Sexual Risk and Parental Monitoring among a Primarily Hispanic Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Dina L; Garnett, Chelsea; Younger, Alayna P; Stockwell, Melissa S; Soren, Karen; Catallozzi, Marina; Neu, Natalie

    2017-08-01

    In this study we assessed the association between social media (SM) use with sexual risk, and with parental monitoring among Hispanic adolescents. Self-administered anonymous survey. Urban primary care clinics. Primarily Hispanic adolescents ages 13-21 years old. Chi-square and regression analyses controlling for age and gender were used to assess associations between SM use or sexting and sexual behaviors (kissing, touching genitals, vaginal oral, and anal sex), sexual risk (≥4 lifetime partners, >1 recent partner, inconsistent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis) and contraceptive use. Similar analyses were used to assess relationships between adolescent-reported parental monitoring and SM use, and sexting. Participants with frequent SM use (social networking sites or apps) had greater odds of all sexual activity. Ever sexters had greater odds of penetrative sex only (oral, vaginal, and anal sex) as well as use of hormonal contraception (except long-acting reversible contraception). Approximately half of the participants reported parental access to profiles on SM. Female participants had higher odds of parental access to online profiles and having a parental discussion of privacy settings. Those having privacy discussions had greater odds of "private" profiles on SM and lower odds of ever sexting. Frequent SM use and sexting was associated with an increase in all types of sexual behaviors; sexting alone was associated with more lifetime and recent sexual partners. Parental discussion of privacy settings was found to be protective. Providers and parents should be aware of the effect of SM use on sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid divergence of mussel populations despite incomplete barriers to dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Diede L; Prost, Stefan; Bi, Ke; Smith, Lydia L; Armstrong, Ellie E; Aji, Ludi P; Toha, Abdul Hamid A; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Becking, Leontine E

    2018-04-01

    Striking genetic structure among marine populations at small spatial scales is becoming evident with extensive molecular studies. Such observations suggest isolation at small scales may play an important role in forming patterns of genetic diversity within species. Isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-environment and historical priority effects are umbrella terms for a suite of processes that underlie genetic structure, but their relative importance at different spatial and temporal scales remains elusive. Here, we use marine lakes in Indonesia to assess genetic structure and assess the relative roles of the processes in shaping genetic differentiation in populations of a bivalve mussel (Brachidontes sp.). Marine lakes are landlocked waterbodies of similar age (6,000-10,000 years), but with heterogeneous environments and varying degrees of connection to the sea. Using a population genomic approach (double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing), we show strong genetic structuring across populations (range F ST : 0.07-0.24) and find limited gene flow through admixture plots. At large spatial scales (>1,400 km), a clear isolation-by-distance pattern was detected. At smaller spatial scales (connection. We hypothesize that (incomplete) dispersal barriers can cause initial isolation, allowing priority effects to give the numerical advantage necessary to initiate strong genetic structure. Priority effects may be strengthened by local adaptation, which the data may corroborate by showing a high correlation between mussel genotypes and temperature. Our study indicates an often-neglected role of (evolution-mediated) priority effects in shaping population divergence. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Reconstruction of the diet of a pre hispanic population sector of Cuauhnahuac, Morelos by means of the chemical elements analysis in skeletal rests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, L.; Garza, I.; Banos, L.; Chaire, F.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work was diet reconstruction of 25 pre hispanic residents of Cuauhnahuac, tributary town of the mexicas, during the Late Pos classic period (1350-1521 a.C.). The analysis included human skull samples proceeding from human femur, tibia and fibula. The applied technique was X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) to know the mineral concentrations, which are closely related with the quality and quantity of the consumed food. The main indicative elements are strontium (Sr), that denotes the consumption of vegetables, zinc (Zn), that shows the consumption of animal proteins, and magnesium (Mg), associated with Meso american food resources. The results indicate the existence of differences in the diet among the same population's individuals, probably because social stratification determined the power resources acquisition. (Author) 28 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  20. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of BLAD in Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena Ilie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD is an autosomal recessive disorder with negative impact on dairy cattle breeding. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (A→G, resulting in a single amino acid substitution (aspartic acid → glycine at amino acid 128 in the adhesion molecule CD18. The object of this study was to establish a fast and sensitive molecular genotyping assay to detect BLAD carriers using high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis. We tested animals with known genotypes for BLAD that were previously confirmed by PCR-RFLP method, and then examined the sensitivity of mutation detection using PCR followed by HRM curve analysis. BLAD carriers were readily detectable using HRM assay. Thus, the PCR-HRM genotyping method is a rapid, easily interpretable, reliable and cost-effective assay for BLAD mutant allele detection. This assay can be useful in cattle genotyping and genetic selection.

  1. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  2. Breast Cancer Mortality in African-American and Non-Hispanic White Women by Molecular Subtype and Stage at Diagnosis: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa H M; Kurian, Allison W; Clarke, Christina A

    2015-07-01

    Higher breast cancer mortality rates for African-American than non-Hispanic White women are well documented; however, it remains uncertain if this disparity occurs in disease subgroups defined by tumor molecular markers and stage at diagnosis. We examined racial differences in outcome according to subtype and stage in a diverse, population-based series of 103,498 patients. We obtained data for all invasive breast cancers diagnosed between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and followed through December 31, 2012, among 93,760 non-Hispanic White and 9,738 African-American women in California. Molecular subtypes were categorized according to tumor expression of hormone receptor (HR, based on estrogen and progesterone receptors) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate relative hazard (RH) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer-specific mortality. After adjustment for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, outcomes were comparable by race for stage I or IV cancer regardless of subtype, and HR(+)/HER2(+) or HR(-)/HER2(+) cancer regardless of stage. We found substantially higher hazards of breast cancer death among African-American women with stage II/III HR(+)/HER2(-) (RH, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.65; and RH, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.75, respectively) and stage III triple-negative cancers relative to Whites. There are substantial racial/ethnic disparities among patients with stages II/III HR(+)/HER2(-) and stage III triple-negative breast cancers but not for other subtype and stage. These data provide insights to assess barriers to targeted treatment (e.g., trastuzumab or endocrine therapy) of particular subtypes of breast cancer among African-American patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Salt sensitivity: a review with a focus on non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Safiya I.; Freedman, Barry I.; Ellison, David H.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information regarding salt sensitivity particularly as it relates to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics and to clarify possible etiologies, especially those that might shed light on potential treatment options. In non-Hispanic blacks, there is evidence that endothelial dysfunction, reduced potassium intake, decreased urinary kallikrein excretion, upregulation of sodium channel activity, dysfunction in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) production, and APOL1 gene nephropathy risk variants may cause or contribute to salt sensitivity. Supported treatment avenues include diets high in potassium and soybean protein, the components of which stimulate nitric oxide production. Racial heterogeneity complicates the study of salt sensitivity in Hispanic populations. Caribbean Hispanics, who have a higher proportion of African ancestry, may respond to commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive agents in a way that is characteristic of non-Hispanic black hypertensives. The low-renin hypertensive phenotype commonly seen in non-Hispanic blacks has been linked to salt sensitivity and may indicate an increased risk for salt sensitivity in a portion of the Hispanic population. In conclusion, increased morbidity and mortality associated with salt sensitivity mandates further studies evaluating the efficacy of tailored dietary and pharmacologic treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and determining the prevalence of low renin hypertension and salt sensitivity within the various subgroups of Hispanic Americans. PMID:23428408

  4. Looking beyond "affordable" health care: cultural understanding and sensitivity-necessities in addressing the health care disparities of the U.S. Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim-Lovseth, Mary K; Aldana, Adriana

    2010-10-01

    Health disparities are pervasive in the United States; but among Hispanics, access to health care is encumbered by poverty, lack of insurance, legal status, and racial or minority status. Research has identified certain aspects of Hispanic culture, values, and traditions contributing to the nature of the Hispanic patient-doctor relationship and the quality of the health care service. Current educational efforts by nonprofit organizations, government, health professionals, and pharmaceutical manufacturers fail to address the needs for accessible and appropriately culture-sensitive information when approaching the diverse Hispanic community. Understanding Hispanics' consumptive practices and expectations surrounding medications is critical to the success of many treatment regimens. Recommendations are presented to address this health care issue.

  5. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Perception and Knowledge: A Comparison of Hispanic and White College Students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Shari; Cathorall, Michelle; Romero, Devan R.

    2007-01-01

    There are clear health conditions that disproportionately affect the Hispanic population. One hundred twenty-four (45%) Hispanic and 153 (55%) White college students completed a questionnaire on cardiovascular disease (CVD) awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of risk. Results indicated that Hispanic students rated themselves as poorer in health,…

  7. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  8. Self-Regulation and Economic Stress in Children of Hispanic Immigrants and Their Peers: Better Regulation at a Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen-Ketchum, Lisa Schlueter; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Stiles, Allison A.; Mendoza, Marina M.; Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Although there is a well-established relationship between economic stress and children's self-regulation, few studies have examined this relationship in children of Hispanic immigrants (COHIs), a rapidly growing population. In a sample of preschool children (N = 165), we examined whether economic stress predicted teacher…

  9. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  10. Barriers to and Methods of Help Seeking for Domestic Violence Victimization: A Comparison of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women Residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J; Karlsson, Marie E; Jackson, Jennifer C; Andrews, Arthur R; Villalobos, Bianca T

    2018-02-01

    This study examined strategies Hispanic and non-Hispanic White victims of domestic violence use to manage violence and leave their relationships. Participants ( N = 76, 41% Hispanic) completed self-report questionnaires and a semistructured interview with a language-congruent research assistant. Hispanics reported child care needs and fears of social embarrassment as barriers to leaving, while non-Hispanic Whites reported fewer social supports as a barrier. Hispanics were more likely to use legal resources for help, while non-Hispanic Whites used more informal resources. Recognizing unique barriers to leaving abusive relationships and accessing help can guide service providers and others to target vulnerable populations more effectively.

  11. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  12. Community assessment in a suburban Hispanic community: a description of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Beymer, P; Blankemeier, J R; Casas-Byots, C; Suarez-Balcazar, Y

    1996-01-01

    The Hispanic population is growing rapidly and is composed of individuals from many countries with varying levels of acculturation, education, income, and citizenship status. The Genesis Health and Empowerment Program was developed locally in 1993 to improve the health status of Hispanics living in Des Plaines, Illinois, USA. Understanding the quality of life and its cultural patterning for the community is an essential aspect of planning and implementing a health care delivery program. Using Leininger's Theory of Culture Care: Diversity and Universality as a framework, adapted the Concerns Report Method was essential for data collection. This paper describes the method used for learning about the Hispanic community. Steps included conducting three focus groups, constructing a structured interview guide, collecting data, analyzing data, and reporting the findings to the community. Some very preliminary findings are presented and implications for transcultural health care are described.

  13. Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Syphilis in High-Risk Populations, Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sabid?, Meritxell; Benzaken, Adele S.; de Andrade Rodrigues, ?nio Jos?; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    : We assessed the acceptability and operational suitability of a rapid point-of-care syphilis test and identified barriers to testing among high-risk groups and healthcare professionals in a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Use of this test could considerably alleviate the impact of syphilis in hard-to-reach populations in the Amazon region of Brazil.

  14. Chronic kidney disease risk reduction in a Hispanic population through pharmacist-based disease-state management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Sandra; Soto, Marisa

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a pharmacist-based disease-state management service to improve the care of indigent, predominately Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes mellitus and common comorbid conditions at high risk for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients at high risk for developing CKD who have diabetes at a community health center were placed in a pharmacist-based disease state management service for CKD risk reduction. A residency-trained, bilingual, certified diabetes educator, with a PharmD served as the patient's provider using diagnostic, educational, and therapeutic management services under a medical staff approved collaborative practice agreement. Outcomes were assessed by using national standards of care for disease control and prevention screening. The impact on CKD was shown with a mean A1C decrease of 2% and improvement in the proportion of patients at target goals for blood pressure, A1C, and cholesterol levels and receiving aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker. A pharmacist-based disease-state management service for CKD risk reduction, care of diabetes, and frequently associated comorbid conditions improved compliance with national standards for diabetes care in a high-risk population.

  15. Self-Efficacy, Health Literacy, and Nutrition and Exercise Behaviors in a Low-Income, Hispanic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A

    2017-04-01

    Public health goals have emphasized healthy nutrition and exercise behaviors, especially in underserved populations. According to social cognitive theory (SCT), self-efficacy and capability (e.g., health literacy) may interact to predict preventative behaviors. We surveyed 100 low-income, native Spanish-speakers living in the United States who were low in English proficiency and predominantly of Mexican heritage. Participants reported their nutritional and exercise self-efficacy, Spanish health literacy, and nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Consistent with SCT, the interaction of self-efficacy and health literacy significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption and weekly exercise, and marginally predicted avoidance of high fat foods. For all three interactions, higher health literacy levels strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and health behaviors. The results offer support for the tenets of SCT and suggest-for low-income, Spanish-speaking adults-that a combination of behavioral confidence and literacy capability are necessary to enact appropriate health behaviors.

  16. Recruitment and Retention of Hispanic Nursing Students: Through the Lens of Associate Degree Nursing Program Administrators and Hispanic Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlos DeVoe, Debra Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic population in the United States is changing and will constitute 30% of the population in 2050; however, the Hispanic registered nurse population is less than 3%. Cultural differences between patients and nurses may cause harm and a mistrust that can affect patient outcomes. A mixed methods convergent research study was done by an…

  17. Rapid evolution in insect pests: the importance of space and time in population genomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissié, Benjamin; Crossley, Michael S; Cohen, Zachary Paul; Schoville, Sean D

    2018-04-01

    Pest species in agroecosystems often exhibit patterns of rapid evolution to environmental and human-imposed selection pressures. Although the role of adaptive processes is well accepted, few insect pests have been studied in detail and most research has focused on selection at insecticide resistance candidate genes. Emerging genomic datasets provide opportunities to detect and quantify selection in insect pest populations, and address long-standing questions about mechanisms underlying rapid evolutionary change. We examine the strengths of recent studies that stratify population samples both in space (along environmental gradients and comparing ancestral vs. derived populations) and in time (using chronological sampling, museum specimens and comparative phylogenomics), resulting in critical insights on evolutionary processes, and providing new directions for studying pests in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Population-based comparison of biomarker concentrations for chemicals of concern among Latino-American and non-Hispanic white children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, M E; Rue, Tessa; Cheadle, Allen; Krieger, James; Karr, Catherine J; Karr, C K

    2015-06-01

    Differences in cultural and economic status may place ethnic subgroups of children at higher risk for exposure, leading to heightened health risks, and health inequities. Although Latino-Americans represent 22% of all children in the United States, few studies have explored within-group differences in their exposure to toxicants. Using socio-demographic and biomarker data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2008, we characterized determinants of health and estimated geometric means of environmental contaminant biomarkers (blood concentrations of lead and mercury, serum concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and cotinine, and urinary metabolites of organophosphate [OP] pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) among 4,257 Mexican American (MA), 677 Other Latino-American (OL), and 3,370 Non-Hispanic White (NHW) children. MAs had the lowest levels of health insurance coverage and regular access to health care, and largest household size compared to NHWs and OLs. MAs had higher levels of p,p'-DDE, lead, and cadmium while OLs had higher estimates of mercury relative to other groups. MAs had higher urinary metabolite concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene; otherwise MAs and OLs had lower concentrations of PAHs. NHWs had higher levels of cotinine and dimethylthiophosphate. For other OP metabolites, differences among groups were less clear. Lead and p,p'-DDE exposure differences likely reflect later and less regulatory control of these chemicals in Latin America. Additionally, poor quality housing with lead paint is more common in economically disadvantaged subpopulations. Dietary habits are possible sources of differential cadmium, mercury, and organophosphate exposure. Cotinine exposure differences by income and U.S.- vs. foreign-born may represent increased acculturation. These results, coupled with additional research on exposure sources may contribute to refinement of environmental health

  19. Targeting Hispanic adolescents with outdoor food & beverage advertising around schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A L; Pasch, K E

    2017-02-09

    Although some research has focused on the food environment and food marketing, little has examined outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising, particularly its relationship to the Hispanic composition in schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of outdoor FB advertising was greater around middle and high schools with a majority Hispanic population as compared to schools with a lower Hispanic population. All FB advertisements located within a half-mile of 47 schools in Central Texas were documented. Advertisements were coded as free standing or on establishments. Advertisements were coded for theme including price (emphasizing price) and deals/value meals (promoting discounted price/meal deals). These two themes were combined to create an overall price promotion variable. In order to determine if the prevalence of FB advertising varied by the Hispanic composition of the students in the school, data from the Texas Education Agency was used to create a variable which dichotomized the schools into two groups: schools that reported ≥60% Hispanic students or 'Hispanic schools' (n = 21) and schools that reported advertising was greater around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Hispanic schools had more overall outdoor FB advertisements as compared to non-Hispanic schools (p = 0.02). Similarly, we found significantly more outdoor FB establishment (p = 0.02) and price promotion (p = 0.05) around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Differences in freestanding advertisements by school type approached significance (p = 0.07) with Hispanic schools having more freestanding FB advertisements on average. Further research is needed that documents the content of these advertisements and determines the extent to which these advertisements affect Hispanic and other racial/ethnic minority youth's attitudes and behaviors toward the consumption of these products.

  20. Hispanic Families and Their Culture: Implications for FCS Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Barbara N.; Bencomo, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic children constitute the largest population of racial/ethnic minority students in the nation's public schools. By the year 2023, the Hispanic enrollment is expected to increase to 30% of the total school population (pre-K through 12) in the United States. Because cultural background affects student learning, family and consumer sciences…

  1. Meta-analysis of lipid-traits in Hispanics identifies novel loci, population-specific effects, and tissue-specific enrichment of eQTLs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Below, Jennifer E.; Parra, Esteban J.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Torres, Jason; Krithika, S.; Candille, Sophie; Lu, Yingchang; Manichakul, Ani; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Duan, Qing; Li, Yun; Morris, Andrew P.; Gottesman, Omri; Bottinger, Erwin; Wang, Xin-Qun; Taylor, Kent D.; Ida Chen, Y.-D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rich, Stephen S.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Tang, Hua; Cox, Nancy J.; Cruz, Miguel; Hanis, Craig L.; Valladares-Salgado, Adan

    2016-01-01

    We performed genome-wide meta-analysis of lipid traits on three samples of Mexican and Mexican American ancestry comprising 4,383 individuals, and followed up significant and highly suggestive associations in three additional Hispanic samples comprising 7,876 individuals. Genome-wide significant

  2. Diagnostic evaluation of rapid tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-05-12

    Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is being described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. Differentiating scrub typhus from other endemic diseases like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever, typhoid, etc. is difficult due to overlapping clinical features and a lower positivity for eschars in Asian populations. Hence, the diagnosis heavily relies on laboratory tests. Costs and the need of technical expertise limit the wide use of indirect immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence assays, ELISA and PCR. The Weil-Felix test is the most commonly used and least expensive serological test, but lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Hence, the diagnosis of scrub typhus is often delayed or overlooked. With due consideration of the cost, rapidity, single test result and simplicity of interpretation, rapid diagnostic tests have come into vogue. However, evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed to justify or discourage their use. Research studies are needed to find the most suitable test in terms of the rapidity of the result, simplicity of the procedure, ease of interpretation and cost to be used in the Indian populace.

  3. Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hispanic whites have a bachelor's degree or higher. Economics: According to a 2015 U.S. Census Bureau report, ... non-Hispanic whites, Puerto Ricans have a low birth weight rate that twice that of non-Hispanic whites. Also, ...

  4. Disparities in Infant Mortality by Race Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Whitney S; Goldfarb, Samantha S; Brisendine, Anne E; Burrows, Stevie; Wingate, Martha S

    2017-07-01

    U.S.-born Hispanic infants have a well-documented health advantage relative to other minority groups. However, little published research has examined racial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, in relation to health outcomes. The current study aims to explore possible implications of racial identification for the health of U.S. born Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic infants. Methods Data were drawn from 2007 to 2008 NCHS Cohort Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files, restricted to deliveries of Hispanic black, Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white mothers (NHW) (n = 7,901,858). Adjusted odds ratios for first week mortality, neonatal, postneonatal, and overall infant mortality were calculated for each group, using NHW as the reference group. A distinct health gradient was observed in which NHB infants (n = 1,250,222) had the highest risk of first week (aOR 2.29, CI 2.21-2.37), neonatal (aOR 2.23, CI 2.17-2.30), postneonatal (aOR 1.74, CI 1.68-1.81), and infant mortality (aOR 2.05, CI 2.00-2.10) compared to NHW infants (n = 4,578,150). Hispanic black infants (n = 84,377) also experienced higher risk of first-week (aOR 1.28 (1.12-1.47), neonatal (aOR .27, CI 1.13-1.44), postneonatal (aOR 1.34, CI 1.15-1.56), and infant mortality (aOR 1.30, CI 1.18-1.43) compared to both NHW and Hispanic white infants (n = 1,989,109). Conclusions for Practice: Risk of infant mortality varies among Hispanic infants by race, with poorer outcomes experienced by Hispanic black infants. Compared to non-Hispanic infants of the same race, Hispanic black infants experience a smaller health disadvantage and Hispanic white infants have better or similar infant health outcomes. Our findings suggest implications of racial heterogeneity on infant health outcomes, and provide insight into the role of race as a social construct.

  5. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  6. Six rapid assessments of alcohol and other substance use in populations displaced by conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelekan Moruf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use among populations displaced by conflict is a neglected area of public health. Alcohol, khat, benzodiazepine, opiate, and other substance use have been documented among a range of displaced populations, with wide-reaching health and social impacts. Changing agendas in humanitarian response-including increased prominence of mental health and chronic illness-have so far failed to be translated into meaningful interventions for substance use. Methods Studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in six different settings of protracted displacement, three in Africa (Kenya, Liberia, northern Uganda and three in Asia (Iran, Pakistan, and Thailand. We used intervention-oriented qualitative Rapid Assessment and Response methods, adapted from two decades of experience among non-displaced populations. The main sources of data were individual and group interviews conducted with a culturally representative (non-probabilistic sample of community members and service providers. Results Widespread use of alcohol, particularly artisanally-produced alcohol, in Kenya, Liberia, Uganda, and Thailand, and opiates in Iran and Pakistan was believed by participants to be linked to a range of health, social and protection problems, including illness, injury (intentional and unintentional, gender-based violence, risky behaviour for HIV and other sexually transmitted infection and blood-borne virus transmission, as well as detrimental effects to household economy. Displacement experiences, including dispossession, livelihood restriction, hopelessness and uncertain future may make communities particularly vulnerable to substance use and its impact, and changing social norms and networks (including the surrounding population may result in changed - and potentially more harmful-patterns of use. Limited access to services, including health services, and exclusion from relevant host population programmes, may exacerbate the harmful consequences

  7. Adapting a 1% or less milk campaign for a Hispanic/Latino population: the Adelante Con Leche Semi-descremada 1% experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Arnell J; Mistry, Ritesh; McCarthy, William J; Yancey, Antronette K

    2008-01-01

    Describe and evaluate a media campaign to encourage 1% or nonfat milk consumption. Uncontrolled pre/post test. One largely rural (Santa Paula) and one urban (East Los Angeles) California community. Community residents and milk vendors in primarily low-income Latino/Hispanic communities. The "1% or Less" milk campaign, which promotes substitution of 2% fat or whole milk with 1% or less fat milk was adapted and implemented. Comparison of post-campaign milk sales with pre-campaign sales. Chi-square tests of independence used to compare precampaign and postcampaign sales. There were decreases in the proportion of whole milk sold and increases in the proportion of reduced-fat, low-fat, and nonfat milk sold in the weeks following each campaign (Santa Paula: p = .0165; East Los Angeles: p Latino/Hispanic communities is not evident.

  8. Pulmonary Disease and Age at Immigration among Hispanics. Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, R Graham; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M; Aldrich, Tom K; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G; Kaplan, Robert C; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S; Mendes, Eliana S; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J

    2016-02-15

    Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18-74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6-39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P immigration. Asthma was more prevalent among Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics born in the United States, and those who had immigrated as children than among other Hispanics. In contrast, the higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Puerto Ricans and Cubans was largely reflective of differential smoking patterns and asthma.

  9. Hispanic health disparities after a flood disaster: results of a population-based survey of individuals experiencing home site damage in El Paso (Texas, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Jimenez, Anthony M; Grineski, Sara E

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, El Paso County, a predominantly Hispanic urban area, was affected by a flood disaster; 1,500 homes were damaged. We assessed the health impacts of the disaster upon 475 individuals whose homes were flood-damaged using mail survey data and logistic regression. Substantial proportions of individuals had one or more physical (43 %) or mental (18 %) health problem in the four months following the floods; 28 % had one or more injury or acute effect related to post-flood cleanup. Adverse event experiences, older age, and lower socioeconomic status were significantly associated with negative post-flood health outcomes in all three logistic regression models. A lack of access to healthcare, non-US citizenship, and English proficiency were significant predictors of negative outcomes in both the physical and mental health models, while Hispanic ethnicity (physical), native-birth (mental), and more serious home damage (cleanup) were significant predictors in one model each. The disaster had disproportionate negative health impacts on those who were more exposed, poorer, older, and with constrained resource-access. While a lack of US citizenship and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with higher risks, being less acculturated (i.e., English-deficient, foreign-born) may have protected against health impacts.

  10. [Reference values for cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in a population of Hispanic children from 6 to 11 y, in the northern border of Mexico and the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Berumen, Ever; Gómez Miranda, Luis Mario; Torres Balcázar, Elías; Padilla Alvarado, Victor Hugo; Renteria, Ivan

    2014-10-31

    Overweight and obesity in children in the Mexico-USA border have evolved differently to the rest of their respective countries. New reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose are required to treatment. To determine the reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years in the Mexico-USA border. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study. A population of Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years of both boys and girls, belonging to three public institutions in the cities of Ensenada and Chihuahua, randomly selected, were studied. The study variables were the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (G). From 300 subjects studied just 54 children completed the study. Higher average values of TC (168.7 ± 27.2 mg / dl), TG (80.6 ± 48.4 mg / dl) and G (88.3 ± 8.9 mg / dl) were observed. An additional behavior was founded, never reported previously to the limit of the knowledge of the authors; glucose levels of the children studied decreased with increased of cholesterol and triglycerides. To discard a random relationship between the variables, the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined between waist circumference and BMI, verifying an inverse association with G and direct with the TG. The reference values for Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years living on the northern border of Mexico-USA differ with respect to the national average values of the countries studied. Further studies are needed in larger populations to confirm the trend ob served in glucose levels of normal children, overweight and obese. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Ancestry and Asthma and Rhinitis Occurrence in Hispanic Children: Findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad T Salam

    Full Text Available Asthma and rhinitis are common childhood health conditions. Being an understudied and rapidly growing population in the US, Hispanic children have a varying risk for these conditions that may result from sociocultural (including acculturative factors, exposure and genetic diversities. Hispanic populations have varying contributions from European, Amerindian and African ancestries. While previous literature separately reported associations between genetic ancestry and acculturation factors with asthma, whether Amerindian ancestry and acculturative factors have independent associations with development of early-life asthma and rhinitis in Hispanic children remains unknown. We hypothesized that genetic ancestry is an important determinant of early-life asthma and rhinitis occurrence in Hispanic children independent of sociodemographic, acculturation and environmental factors.Subjects were Hispanic children (5-7 years who participated in the southern California Children's Health Study. Data from birth certificates and questionnaire provided information on acculturation, sociodemographic and environmental factors. Genetic ancestries (Amerindian, European, African and Asian were estimated based on 233 ancestry informative markers. Asthma was defined by parental report of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Rhinitis was defined by parental report of a history of chronic sneezing or runny or blocked nose without a cold or flu. Sample sizes were 1,719 and 1,788 for investigating the role of genetic ancestry on asthma and rhinitis, respectively.Children had major contributions from Amerindian and European ancestries. After accounting for potential confounders, per 25% increase in Amerindian ancestry was associated with 17.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.99 and 13.6% (95% CI: 0.79-0.98 lower odds of asthma and rhinitis, respectively. Acculturation was not associated with either outcome.Earlier work documented that Hispanic children with significant

  12. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1994-02-18

    Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the

  13. Drastic population fluctuations explain the rapid extinction of the passenger pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Ming; Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Zink, Robert M; Liu, Wei-Chung; Chu, Te-Chin; Huang, Wen-San; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2014-07-22

    To assess the role of human disturbances in species' extinction requires an understanding of the species population history before human impact. The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in the world, with a population size estimated at 3-5 billion in the 1800s; its abrupt extinction in 1914 raises the question of how such an abundant bird could have been driven to extinction in mere decades. Although human exploitation is often blamed, the role of natural population dynamics in the passenger pigeon's extinction remains unexplored. Applying high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain sequences from most of the genome, we calculated that the passenger pigeon's effective population size throughout the last million years was persistently about 1/10,000 of the 1800's estimated number of individuals, a ratio 1,000-times lower than typically found. This result suggests that the passenger pigeon was not always super abundant but experienced dramatic population fluctuations, resembling those of an "outbreak" species. Ecological niche models supported inference of drastic changes in the extent of its breeding range over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. An estimate of acorn-based carrying capacity during the past 21,000 y showed great year-to-year variations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that ecological conditions that dramatically reduced population size under natural conditions could have interacted with human exploitation in causing the passenger pigeon's rapid demise. Our study illustrates that even species as abundant as the passenger pigeon can be vulnerable to human threats if they are subject to dramatic population fluctuations, and provides a new perspective on the greatest human-caused extinction in recorded history.

  14. Cardiovascular mortality in Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the Hispanic paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Goel, Kashish; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Allison, Thomas; Somers, Virend K; Erwin, Patricia J; Sochor, Ondrej; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    Hispanics, the largest minority in the U.S., have a higher prevalence of several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than non-Hispanic whites (NHW). However, some studies have shown a paradoxical lower rate of CV events among Hispanics than NHW. To perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cohort studies comparing CV mortality and all-cause mortality between Hispanic and NHW populations in the U.S. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 1950 through May 2013, using terms related to Hispanic ethnicity, CV diseases and cohort studies. We pooled risk estimates using the least and most adjusted models of each publication. We found 341 publications of which 17 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; data represent 22,340,554 Hispanics and 88,824,618 NHW, collected from 1950 to 2009. Twelve of the studies stratified the analysis by gender, and one study stratified people by place of birth (e.g. U.S.-born, Mexican-born, and Central/South American-born). There was a statistically significant association between Hispanic ethnicity and lower CV mortality (OR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78; pvalue value 0.06. These results confirm the existence of a Hispanic paradox regarding CV mortality. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms mediating this protective CV effect in Hispanics. © 2013.

  15. An assessment of hospice bereavement programs for Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo; Martin, Shadi S; Csikai, Ellen L

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States, numbering over 42 million and comprising 15% of the total population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 ). Hispanics are a heterogeneous group that experience disparities in accessing health care, including at the end of life. Specific gaps can be identified in the care of bereaved Hispanic individuals and families. This exploratory study examined bereavement services available and perceived needs for Hispanics in Florida. Hospice bereavement coordinators indicated that limited services were available specifically for Spanish-speakers and that language and cultural barriers were challenges when communicating, offering, and delivering bereavement services to Hispanics. Implications for social workers include the need to increase access to and evaluate the effectiveness of bereavement services for Hispanics.

  16. Expectancy-Value Beliefs of Early-Adolescent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayssan Safavian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value (E-V theory to test the influence of motivation on mathematics achievement and enrollment using data from a cohort of 926 seventh-grade prealgebra students (49% male, 76% Hispanic, 76% low income, and 55% English learner. E-V beliefs were assessed in seventh grade along with achievement, and enrollment was measured in eighth grade. Differential associations of motivation, achievement, and enrollment were examined across Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations. Expectancy for success and task value uniquely predicted seventh-grade achievement and eighth-grade algebra enrollment after controlling for prior achievement and a full set of demographic controls, including low socioeconomic status and English fluency. The association of interest value and achievement differentiated across Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth, suggesting that the effect of interest value on mathematics achievement was weaker for Hispanic youth than for non-Hispanics after accounting for success expectations and prior achievement.

  17. Bridging the Gap: The Struggle of One Hispanic Father

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Parent involvement has been shown to be one of the keys to student educational success, their ability to perform at a high level and persevere. The latest government statistics reveal that 53 million Hispanics now reside in the United States and 75 % of this population speaks Spanish at home [Cooper, M. (2014). "Hispanics in America and in…

  18. A distinct hematopoietic stem cell population for rapid multilineage engraftment in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Stefan; Adair, Jennifer E; Giese, Morgan A; Chan, Yan-Yi; Norgaard, Zachary K; Enstrom, Mark; Haworth, Kevin G; Schefter, Lauren E; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    Hematopoietic reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation is thought to be driven by committed multipotent progenitor cells followed by long-term engrafting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We observed a population of early-engrafting cells displaying HSC-like behavior, which persisted long-term in vivo in an autologous myeloablative transplant model in nonhuman primates. To identify this population, we characterized the phenotype and function of defined nonhuman primate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) subsets and compared these to human HSPCs. We demonstrated that the CD34 + CD45RA - CD90 + cell phenotype is highly enriched for HSCs. This population fully supported rapid short-term recovery and robust multilineage hematopoiesis in the nonhuman primate transplant model and quantitatively predicted transplant success and time to neutrophil and platelet recovery. Application of this cell population has potential in the setting of HSC transplantation and gene therapy/editing approaches. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, Francesco; Stewart, Barclay T; Palmer, Jennifer J; Grundy, Chris

    2013-01-23

    Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons' camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to "gold standard" reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2-5 working person-days. In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method's development.

  20. Hispanic Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.

  1. Promotores de Salud: Educating Hispanic Communities on Heart-Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Amanda; Balcazar, Hector; Hollen, Mary Luna; Nkhoma, Ella; Mas, Francisco Soto

    2007-01-01

    Background: Age-adjusted cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates for Hispanics are lower than for non-Hispanics. However, CVD is the leading cause of death among Hispanics, and there is an increasing heart health problem among this population. One strategy for preventing CVD is the use of community health workers (CHWs). A CHW is a member of…

  2. Unique mitochondrial DNA lineages in Irish stickleback populations: cryptic refugium or rapid recolonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Mark; Harrod, Chris; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Prodöhl, Paulo A

    2014-06-01

    Repeated recolonization of freshwater environments following Pleistocene glaciations has played a major role in the evolution and adaptation of anadromous taxa. Located at the western fringe of Europe, Ireland and Britain were likely recolonized rapidly by anadromous fishes from the North Atlantic following the last glacial maximum (LGM). While the presence of unique mitochondrial haplotypes in Ireland suggests that a cryptic northern refugium may have played a role in recolonization, no explicit test of this hypothesis has been conducted. The three-spined stickleback is native and ubiquitous to aquatic ecosystems throughout Ireland, making it an excellent model species with which to examine the biogeographical history of anadromous fishes in the region. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to examine the presence of divergent evolutionary lineages and to assess broad-scale patterns of geographical clustering among postglacially isolated populations. Our results confirm that Ireland is a region of secondary contact for divergent mitochondrial lineages and that endemic haplotypes occur in populations in Central and Southern Ireland. To test whether a putative Irish lineage arose from a cryptic Irish refugium, we used approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). However, we found no support for this hypothesis. Instead, the Irish lineage likely diverged from the European lineage as a result of postglacial isolation of freshwater populations by rising sea levels. These findings emphasize the need to rigorously test biogeographical hypothesis and contribute further evidence that postglacial processes may have shaped genetic diversity in temperate fauna.

  3. Using new media to reach Hispanic/Latino cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Gardiner, Haley; Nutt, Stephanie; Rechis, Ruth; McMillan, Brooke; Warf, Rainy

    2012-03-01

    In the USA, cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among the Hispanic/Latino population. It is estimated that one in two Hispanic men and one in three Hispanic women will be diagnosed with cancer during their lifetime (American Cancer Society 2010). Despite this significant cancer burden, few innovative strategies for communication and outreach to this population currently exist. In 2009, LIVESTRONG launched a national outreach campaign, which utilized social marketing, specifically targeting Hispanics with the goal of increasing awareness and usage of LIVESTRONG's Spanish-language cancer navigation resources. This campaign, one of the first undertaken by a national cancer-related organization, led to increased awareness and utilization of resources, including a 238% increase in traffic over traditional marketing campaigns which focused on radio alone. The success of this campaign highlights the use of social media as a cost-effective method to raise awareness of cancer resources among Hispanics.

  4. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  5. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  6. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  7. HISPANIC ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTREACH PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Puente

    1998-07-25

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics.

  8. HISPANIC ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTREACH PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian Puente

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics

  9. CKD Progression and Mortality among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J; Hsu, Jesse Y; Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Amanda H; Bazzano, Lydia; Cuevas, Magdalena M; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Renteria, Amada; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Raj, Dominic S; Rosas, Sylvia E; Pan, Qiang; Yaffe, Kristine; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2016-11-01

    Although recommended approaches to CKD management are achieved less often in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics, whether long-term outcomes differ between these groups is unclear. In a prospective longitudinal analysis of participants enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies, we used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between race/ethnicity, CKD progression (50% eGFR loss or incident ESRD), incident ESRD, and all-cause mortality, and linear mixed-effects models to assess differences in eGFR slope. Among 3785 participants, 13% were Hispanic, 43% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), and 44% were non-Hispanic black (NHB). Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years for Hispanics and 6.8 years for non-Hispanics, 27.6% of all participants had CKD progression, 21.3% reached incident ESRD, and 18.3% died. Hispanics had significantly higher rates of CKD progression, incident ESRD, and mean annual decline in eGFR than did NHW (P<0.05) but not NHB. Hispanics had a mortality rate similar to that of NHW but lower than that of NHB (P<0.05). In adjusted analyses, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between Hispanics and NHW or NHB. However, among nondiabetic participants, compared with NHB, Hispanics had a lower risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.95) and incident ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.84). At higher levels of urine protein, Hispanics had a significantly lower risk of mortality than did non-Hispanics (P<0.05). Thus, important differences in CKD progression and mortality exist between Hispanics and non-Hispanics and may be affected by proteinuria and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Comparisons Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Informal Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J. Karlin; Joyce Weil; James Gould

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17) and non-Hispanic White (n = 17) caregivers in this study in several areas. H...

  11. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.

  12. Perceived price sensitivity by ethnicity and smoking frequency among California Hispanic and non-Hispanic white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark G; Edland, Steven D; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2013-06-01

    Little is currently known about price sensitivity across ethnic groups as well as for non-daily smokers. To address this issue, this study compared perceived price sensitivity across smoking status (daily and non-daily) and within ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic White) in a recent representative population survey of California smokers. This study employed data from the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (CTS), a large population-based random-digit-dialed telephone survey. Participants were 1,777 non-Hispanic White and 450 Hispanic respondents who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes and currently smoked daily or on some days. Differences in perceived price sensitivity were found by ethnicity when controlling for age, gender, and cigarette consumption. Comparisons across ethnic groups indicated that Hispanic smokers, in general, have more price-sensitive perceptions than non-Hispanic White smokers. However, daily versus non-daily status had no effect on price sensitivity when controlling for cigarette quantity. These findings indicate that pricing increases may be differentially influential for Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White smokers across smoking status categories.

  13. Heart Disease in Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...

  14. Hispanic Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  15. Diabetes in Hispanic American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577

  16. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  17. Bicultural Advertising and Hispanic Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…

  18. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  19. Biobanks in the United States: how to identify an undefined and rapidly evolving population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Gregory J; Whipple, Warren; Cadigan, R Jean; Henderson, Gail E

    2012-12-01

    As part of a larger organizational study, we sought to survey biobanks in the United States. However, we encountered two problems with this population. First, no common definition of biobanks exists. Second, no census is available of these facilities from which to sample in order to implement a survey. In light of these problems, we employed a multifaceted approach using electronic searches of PubMed, RePORTER, and Google. In addition, we systematically searched for biobanks housed within universities that have NIH-designated Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). We expanded this part of the search by looking for biobanks among all members of the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC). Finally, we added banks to our database found previously by other researchers and banks found via correspondence with our colleagues. Our search strategy produced a database of 624 biobanks for which we were able to confirm contact information in order to conduct our online survey. Another 140 biobanks were identified but did not respond to our requests to confirm their existence or contact information. In order to maximize both the uniqueness of banks found and the greatest return on effort for each search, we suggest targeting resources that are already organized. In our work, these included the CTSA, AAMC, and part of the Google searches. We contend that our search provides a model for analysis of new fields of research and/or rapidly evolving industries. Furthermore, our approach demonstrates that with the appropriate tools it is possible to develop a systematic and comprehensive database to investigate undefined populations.

  20. Rapid assessment of trachoma in underserved population of Car-Nicobar Island, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the burden of trachoma and its related risk factors amongst the native population of Car-Nicobar Island in India. METHODS: Rapid assessment for trachoma was conducted in ten villages of Car-Nicobar Island according to standard WHO guidelines. An average of 50 children aged 1-9 years were assessed clinically for signs of active trachoma and facial cleanliness in each village. Additionally, all adults above 15 years of age in these households were examined for evidence of trachomatous trichiasis and corneal opacity. Environmental risk factors contributing to trachoma like limited access to potable water & functional latrine, presence of animal pen and garbage within the Nicobari hut were also noted in all villages. RESULTS: Out of a total of fifteen villages in Car-Nicobar Island, ten villages were selected for trachoma survey depending on evidence of socio-developmental indicators like poverty and decreased access to water, sanitation and healthcare facilities. The total population of the selected clusters was 7277 in the ten villages. Overall, 251 of 516 children (48.6%;CI: 46.5-55.1 had evidence of follicular stage of trachoma and 11 children (2.1%;CI:1.0-3.4 had evidence of inflammatory stage of trachoma. Nearly 15%(CI:12.1-18.3 children were noted to have unclean faces in the ten villages. Trachomatous trichiasis was noted in 73 adults (1.0%;CI:0.8-1.2. The environmental sanitation was not found to be satisfactory in the surveyed villages mainly due to the co-habitance of Nicobari people with domestic animals like pigs, hens, goats, dogs, cats etc in most (96.4% of the households. CONCLUSION: Active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis was observed in all the ten villages surveyed, wherein trachoma control measures are needed.

  1. Hispanic Health: CDC Vitalsigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  2. Hispanic American Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…

  3. Changes in the etiology of valvular heart disease in the rapidly aging Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun-Young; Seo, Su Ra; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the changes in the causes of valvular heart disease between 2006 and 2011 in Korea. Data were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2006 through 2011. These data consisted of primary diagnoses related to valvular heart disease regardless of other conditions. Valvular heart disease included non-rheumatic mitral valve disorders, non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders, rheumatic mitral valve disorders, and rheumatic aortic valve disorders. Overall, the age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart disease was 70.6 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 110.3 in 2011. This represented an increase from 42.2 to 65.2 in women and from 28.4 to 45.1 in men. In particular, there was a greater increase in prevalence in patients aged 65 years or older compared with groups aged 20-44 years or 45-64 years for both genders. The age-standardized cumulative prevalence of rheumatic valve disease did not change dramatically between 2006 and 2011. The overall age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart diseases increased between 2006 and 2011, especially in individuals older than 65 years. These changes should be considered in future designs of cardiovascular healthcare services in countries with a rapidly aging population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid assessment of populations trends of invasive species: Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA, ED

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA is a powerful analytical approach for biodi-versity management. Its main advan-tages are due to its intuitive processing and visualization, since mathematical workflow is conceptually similar to the widely accepted Principal Components Analysis. Detailed analyses of popula-tion trends with mathematical tools are often difficult to achieve for managers by a number of reasons (large numbers or areas monitored, large number of species, insufficient statistics skills, strong knowledge level in demographic analyses, etc.. SSA has been used since the 1970’s in signal processing to clarify signal vs. noisy information, but it has also been used in climate change analy-sis and other developmental areas. Be-sides, SSA is a rapid-learning method for technicians and managers with medium level of mathematical knowledge. Free software in Unix environment is avail-able. Unfortunately, no free and friendly software is available for Win-dows SO. Although R package may offer solutions for really advanced users, it does not fit real work situations for managers of biological invasions. Cater-pillar (Gistat Group, Ltd is by now, the best option found by the author in terms of price, facility for results inter-pretation and time consumed in learn-ing. The main disadvantage is the poor content of tutorial files

  5. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...

  6. History, haldanes and health inequities: exploring phenotypic changes in body size by generation and income level in the US-born White and Black non-Hispanic populations 1959-1962 to 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Kosheleva, Anna; Beckfield, Jason

    2013-02-01

    Most public health literature on trends in population health and health inequities pertains to observed or targeted changes in rates or proportions per year or decade. We explore, in novel analyses, whether additional insight can be gained by using the 'haldane', a metric developed by evolutionary biologists to measure change in traits in standard deviations per generation, thereby enabling meaningful comparisons across species and time periods. We analysed the phenotypic embodied traits of body height, weight and body mass index of US-born White and Black non-Hispanic adults ages 20 to 44 as measured in six large nationally representative population samples spanning from the 1959-1962 National Health Examination Survey I to the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Setting the former as baseline, we computed the haldane for each outcome for each racial/ethnic group for each survey, overall and stratified by family income quintile. For height, high rates of phenotypic change (haldane ≥ 0.3) occurred chiefly between 1960 and 1980, especially for the Black population in the higher income quintiles. By contrast, for weight, high rates of phenotypic change became evident for both the White and Black populations in the late 1980s and increased thereafter; for body mass index, the shift to high rates of change started in both groups in the late 1990s, especially in the middle income quintiles. Our results support use of the haldane as a supplemental metric to place changes in population health and health inequities in a larger biological and historical context.

  7. The population in China’s earthquake-prone areas has increased by over 32 million along with rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Huang, Qingxu; Dou, Yinyin; Tu, Wei; Liu, Jifu

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessments of the population exposed to seismic hazard are crucial in seismic risk mapping. Recent rapid urbanization in China has resulted in substantial changes in the size and structure of the population exposed to seismic hazard. Using the latest population census data and seismic maps, this work investigated spatiotemporal changes in the exposure of the population in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China from 1990 to 2010. In the context of rapid urbanization and massive rural-to-urban migration, nearly one-tenth of the Chinese population in 2010 lived in MSHAs. From 1990 to 2010, the MSHA population increased by 32.53 million at a significantly higher rate of change (33.6%) than the national average rate (17.7%). The elderly population in MSHAs increased by 81.4%, which is much higher than the group’s national growth rate of 58.9%. Greater attention should be paid to the demographic changes in earthquake-prone areas in China.

  8. Comparisons Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Informal Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Karlin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17 and non-Hispanic White (n = 17 caregivers in this study in several areas. Hispanic caregivers indicated fewer sources of income, had less investment money for family member’s treatment, reported caregiving as a greater interference with life’s accomplishments, and indicated a lesser percentage of the total care cost provided by the family member. Non-Hispanic White caregivers reported having completed a higher level of formal education and that organized religion’s importance prior to becoming a caregiver was not quite as important as compared with the Hispanic care provider. With current trends, of demographic and cultural changes, it is crucial to fully understand the changing role and needs of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White caregivers.

  9. Smoking-Cessation Treatment: Use Trends Among Non-Hispanic White and English-Speaking Hispanic/Latino Smokers, Colorado 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedjo, Rebecca L; Li, Yaqiang; Levinson, Arnold H

    2016-08-01

    Most smokers who try to quit do not use an evidence-based treatment (EBT), and in 2001, Hispanic/Latino quit-attempters were about half as likely as non-Hispanic white (NHW) quit-attempters to use one. This study analyzed the patterns of EBT use in Colorado across a recent decade, 2001-2012. Data were from The Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, a random cross-sectional population-level telephone survey. Data included NHW and English-speaking Hispanic/Latino respondents from 2001 (n=11,872), 2005 (n=10,952), 2008 (n=12,323), and 2012 (n=13,265). Statistical analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. EBT measures included nicotine-replacement therapy, prescription cessation medication, telephone quit-line coaching, and other counseling. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations across years between EBT use and ethnicity, adjusting for covariates. Any EBT use increased with each successive survey year, and the relative increase from 2001 to 2012 was greater among Hispanic/Latino than NHW quit-attempters (75.7% vs 38.7%). However, adjusted for covariates, Hispanic/Latino quit-attempters in 2012 were still 54% less likely to use any EBT (AOR=0.46, 95% CI=0.34, 0.63), 45% less likely to use nicotine-replacement therapy (AOR=0.55, 95% CI=0.39, 0.77), and 50% less likely to use a prescription cessation medication (AOR=0.50, 95% CI=0.30, 0.85). Ethnicity was unrelated to use of a quit-line or other counseling service. EBT use for smoking cessation has increased over the past decade, with more rapid increase among English-speaking Hispanics/Latinos compared with NHWs, but a large use gap remains. Healthcare and public health efforts are needed to clarify and overcome factors contributing to this ongoing disparity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Macdonald, David W.; Packer, Craig

    2015-01-01

    At a regional scale, lion populations in West, Central, and East Africa are likely to suffer a projected 50% decline over the next two decades, whereas lion populations are only increasing in southern Africa. Many lion populations are either now gone or expected to disappear within the next few decades to the extent that the intensively managed populations in southern Africa may soon supersede the iconic savannah landscapes in East Africa as the most successful sites for lion conservation. Th...

  11. A qualitative study of science education in nursing school: Narratives of Hispanic female nurses' sense of identity and participation in science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensemer, Patricia S.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to learn from Hispanic nursing students regarding their experiences as participants in science learning. The participants were four female nursing students of Hispanic origin attending a small, rural community college in a southeastern state. The overarching question of this study was "In what ways does being Hispanic mediate the science-related learning and practices of nursing students?" The following questions more specifically provided focal points for the research: (1) In what ways do students perceive being Hispanic as relevant to their science education experiences? (a) What does it mean to be Hispanic in the participants' home community? (b) What has it meant to be Hispanic in the science classroom? (2) In what ways might students' everyday knowledge (at home) relate to the knowledge or ways of knowing they practice in the nursing school community? The study took place in Alabama, which offered a rural context where Hispanic populations are rapidly increasing. A series of four interviews was conducted with each participant, followed by one focus group interview session. Results of the study were re presented in terms of portrayals of participant's narratives of identity and science learning, and then as a thematic interpretation collectively woven across the individuals' narratives. Portraitures of each participant draw upon the individual experiences of the four nursing students involved in this study in order to provide a beginning point towards exploring "community" as both personal and social aspects of science practices. Themes explored broader interpretations of communities of practice in relation to guiding questions of the study. Three themes emerged through the study, which included the following: Importance of Science to Nurses, Crossing with a Nurturing and Caring Identity, and Different Modes of Participation. Implications were discussed with regard to participation in a community of practice and

  12. The impact of rapid evolution on population dynamics in the wild: experimental test of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Reznick, David N; Hare, J Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Rapid evolution challenges the assumption that evolution is too slow to impact short-term ecological dynamics. This insight motivates the study of 'Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics' or how evolution and ecological processes reciprocally interact on short time scales. We tested how rapid evolution impacts concurrent population dynamics using an aphid (Myzus persicae) and an undomesticated host (Hirschfeldia incana) in replicated wild populations. We manipulated evolvability by creating non-evolving (single clone) and potentially evolving (two-clone) aphid populations that contained genetic variation in intrinsic growth rate. We observed significant evolution in two-clone populations whether or not they were exposed to predators and competitors. Evolving populations grew up to 42% faster and attained up to 67% higher density, compared with non-evolving control populations but only in treatments exposed to competitors and predators. Increased density also correlates with relative fitness of competing clones suggesting a full eco-evolutionary dynamic cycle defined as reciprocal interactions between evolution and density. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P activity (P activity (P activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Preparing Young Hispanic Dual Language Learners for a Knowledge Economy. Preschool Policy Brief. Issue 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras-Daniel, Alexandra; Barnett, W. Steven

    2013-01-01

    As the United States works to reclaim economic prosperity, the Hispanic population--with the largest growth in population over the last decade--will likely play a key role in any economic resurgence. Educational success is a crucial part of economic recovery. While statistics on the educational success of Hispanic children are hardly encouraging,…

  15. The Perceived Effects of Condoms on Sexual Experience: A Comparison of Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Fenkl, Eric A; Patsdaughter, Carol A; Chadwell, Katherine; Valdes, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is increasing in older adult populations around the world. This study compares Hispanic and non-Hispanic men ages 50 years and older currently using prescribed erectile dysfunction medications in relation to their perception of the effect of condoms on sexual experience. A sample of 86 men (40 Hispanic and 46 non-Hispanic men) ages 50-79 years completed the 10-item Effect on Sexual Experience (ESE) subscale. Although there was no difference between the 2 groups on the subscale mean score, t(84) = 1.449, p = .151, analysis of the subscale items found 1 item that was significantly different (p = .005) between the 2 groups, although this difference could have been related to different perceptions of the word disgusting. Hispanic men were also less concerned than non-Hispanic men about condom-related loss of erection. This study adds to the literature on HIV and STD prevention for older Hispanic/Latinos.

  16. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  17. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygala, Frank; Korablev, Nikolay; Ansorge, Hermann; Fickel, Joerns; Isomursu, Marja; Elmeros, Morten; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Baltrunaite, Laima; Balciauskas, Linas; Saarma, Urmas; Schulze, Christoph; Borkenhagen, Peter; Frantz, Alain C.

    2016-01-01

    The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species’ dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large ‘central’ population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations. PMID:27064784

  18. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico, and West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego, California, 2006

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes public health surveillance and communication in hard to reach populations in Tijuana, Mexico, and San Diego County, California. Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director of CDC's Health Disparities in the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, discusses the importance of being flexible in determining the most effective media for health communications.

  19. Factors associated with willingness to accept oral fluid HIV rapid testing among most-at-risk populations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmiao Xun

    Full Text Available The availability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing provides an approach that may have the potential to expand HIV testing in China, especially among most-a-risk populations. There are few investigations about the acceptability of oral fluid HIV testing among most-at-risk populations in China.A cross-sectional study with men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients was conducted in three cities of Shandong province, China from 2011 to 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face questionnaire.About 71% of participants were willing to accept the oral fluid HIV rapid testing, and home HIV testing was independently associated with acceptability of the new testing method among MSM, FSW and VCT clients (AOR of 4.46, 3.19 and 5.74, respectively. Independent predictors of oral fluid HIV rapid testing acceptability among MSM were having ever taken an oral fluid HIV rapid test (AOR= 15.25, having ever taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.07, and education level (AOR= 1.74. Engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors (AOR= 1.68 was an independent predictor of acceptability for FSW. Having taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.85 was an independent predictor of acceptability for VCT clients. The primary concern about the oral fluid HIV testing was accuracy. The median price they would pay for the testing ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 U.S. dollars.High acceptability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing was shown among most-at-risk populations. Findings provide support for oral rapid HIV testing as another HIV prevention tool, and provide a backdrop for the implementation of HIV home testing in the near future. Appropriate pricing and increased public education through awareness campaigns that address concerns about the accuracy and safety of the oral fluid HIV rapid testing may help increase acceptability and use among most-at-risk populations in China.

  20. Rapid Development of Specialty Population Registries and Quality Measures from Electronic Health Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vaishnavi; Fish, Jason S; Mutz, Jacqueline M; Carrington, Angela R; Lai, Ki; Davis, Lisa S; Youngblood, Josh E; Rauschuber, Mark R; Flores, Kathryn A; Sara, Evan J; Bhat, Deepa G; Willett, DuWayne L

    2017-01-01

    Creation of a new electronic health record (EHR)-based registry often can be a "one-off" complex endeavor: first developing new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, followed by developing registry-specific data extractions from the EHR for analysis. Each development phase typically has its own long development and testing time, leading to a prolonged overall cycle time for delivering one functioning registry with companion reporting into production. The next registry request then starts from scratch. Such an approach will not scale to meet the emerging demand for specialty registries to support population health and value-based care. To determine if the creation of EHR-based specialty registries could be markedly accelerated by employing (a) a finite core set of EHR data collection principles and methods, (b) concurrent engineering of data extraction and data warehouse design using a common dimensional data model for all registries, and (c) agile development methods commonly employed in new product development. We adopted as guiding principles to (a) capture data as a byproduct of care of the patient, (b) reinforce optimal EHR use by clinicians, (c) employ a finite but robust set of EHR data capture tool types, and (d) leverage our existing technology toolkit. Registries were defined by a shared condition (recorded on the Problem List) or a shared exposure to a procedure (recorded on the Surgical History) or to a medication (recorded on the Medication List). Any EHR fields needed - either to determine registry membership or to calculate a registry-associated clinical quality measure (CQM) - were included in the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) shared dimensional data model. Extract-transform-load (ETL) code was written to pull data at defined "grains" from the EHR into the EDW model. All calculated CQM values were stored in a single Fact table in the EDW crossing all registries. Registry-specific dashboards were created in the EHR to display both

  1. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have lower odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and less decline in lung function than non-Hispanic whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruse, Shannon; Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Celli, Bartolomé; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-12-01

    The epidemiology of cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well characterized in Hispanics in the United States. Understanding how ethnicity influences COPD is important for a number of reasons, from informing public health policies to dissecting the genetic and environmental effects that contribute to disease. The present study assessed differences in risk between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites for longitudinal and cross-sectional COPD phenotypes. Genetic ancestry was used to verify findings based on self-reported ethnicity. Hispanics in New Mexico are primarily differentiated from non-Hispanic whites by their proportion of Native American ancestry. The study was performed in a New Mexican cohort of current and former smokers. Self-reported Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity was validated by defining genetic ancestry proportions at the individual level using 48 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry were independently used to assess associations with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of lung function. Multivariable models were adjusted for indicators of smoking behavior. Self-reported Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with lower odds of COPD (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.71; P = 0.007), and this protection was validated by the observation that Hispanic smokers have reduced risk of rapid decline in lung function (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.78; P = 0.003). Similar findings were noted when Native American genetic ancestry proportions were used as predictors instead of self-report of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic ethnicity is inversely associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal spirometric COPD phenotypes even after adjustment for smoking. Native American genetic ancestry may account for this "Hispanic protection."

  2. Hispanic College Students Library Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Risa; Newman, Eric; Brown, Haakon T.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at undergraduate Hispanic students' interpretations and current perceptions of the academic library's purpose, usefulness and value. What are the reasons to use the library? What are the barriers to use? This study will examine academic libraries' move toward electronic library materials and what it means for Hispanic students.…

  3. First Trimester Prenatal Care Initiation Among Hispanic Women Along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Selchau, Katherine; Babuca, Maricela; Bower, Kara; Castro, Yara; Coakley, Eugenie; Flores, Araceli; Garcia, Jonah O.; Reyes, Maria Lourdes F.; Rojas, Yvonne; Rubin, Jason; Samuels, Deanne; Shattuck, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Background First trimester prenatal care (FTPNC) is associated with improved birth outcomes. U.S.-Mexico border Hispanic women have lower FTPNC than non-border or non-Hispanic women. This study aimed to identify (1) what demographic, knowledge and care-seeking factors influence FTPNC among Hispanic women in border counties served by five Healthy Start sites, and (2) what FTPNC barriers may be unique to this target population. Healthy Starts work to eliminate disparities in perinatal health in...

  4. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico, and West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego, California, 2006

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-10

    This podcast describes public health surveillance and communication in hard to reach populations in Tijuana, Mexico, and San Diego County, California. Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director of CDC's Health Disparities in the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, discusses the importance of being flexible in determining the most effective media for health communications.  Created: 8/10/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 8/10/2010.

  5. Treatment outcomes in undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K Poon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the treatment outcomes of undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection. We sought to compare the treatment outcomes of undocumented and documented patients 12-months after entering HIV care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naive patients 18 years and older attending their first visit at Thomas Street Health Center in Houston, Texas, between 1/1/2003 and 6/30/2008. The study population of 1,620 HIV-infected adults included 186 undocumented Hispanic, 278 documented Hispanic, 986 Black, and 170 White patients. The main outcome measures were retention in care (quarter years with at least one completed HIV primary care provider visit and HIV suppression (HIV RNA <400 copies/mL, both measured 12-months after entering HIV care. RESULTS: Undocumented Hispanic patients had lower median initial CD4 cell count (132 cells/mm(3 than documented Hispanic patients (166 cells/mm(3; P = 0.186, Black patients (226 cells/mm(3; P<0.001, and White patients (264 cells/mm(3; P = 0.001. However, once in care, undocumented Hispanic patients did as well or better than their documented counterparts. One year after entering HIV care, undocumented Hispanics achieved similar rates of retention in care and HIV suppression as documented Hispanic and White patients. Of note, black patients were significantly less likely to have optimal retention in care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65, CI = 0.45-0.94 or achieve HIV suppression (aOR 0.32, CI = 0.17-0.61 than undocumented Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Undocumented Hispanic persons with HIV infection enter care with more advanced disease than documented persons, suggesting testing and/or linkage to care efforts for this difficult-to-reach population need intensification. Once diagnosed, however, undocumented Hispanics have outcomes as good as or better than other racial/ethnic groups. Safety net providers for undocumented immigrants are vital for maintaining

  6. Patterns of residential crowding among Hispanics in later life: immigration, assimilation, and housing market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E; Gerst, Kerstin

    2010-11-01

    We describe patterns of residential crowding among older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. We also examine hypotheses about the relationship of residential crowding with assimilation (language and duration of residence) and housing market characteristics. We employ a multilevel research design, using data from the 2000 U.S. Census of Population. Hierarchical linear models are utilized to estimate the association between residential crowding and both individual and housing market factors. Approximately one third of older Hispanics in metropolitan areas live in crowded housing compared with only one tenth of older non-Hispanic Whites. Foreign-born older persons report higher levels of crowding than U.S.-born older persons. Residential crowding differences between older Hispanics and non-Hispanics are not eliminated after controls are included. Older Hispanics who report better English language skills and a longer duration of residence in the United States live in less crowded housing. We do not find evidence for a relationship between crowding and residential segregation, but we find consistent evidence for an association between residential crowding and relative size of the Hispanic population. The forces that shape household composition and access to housing among older Hispanics appear to result in higher levels of residential crowding for this population.

  7. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T B; Macdonald, David W; Packer, Craig

    2015-12-01

    We compiled all credible repeated lion surveys and present time series data for 47 lion (Panthera leo) populations. We used a Bayesian state space model to estimate growth rate-λ for each population and summed these into three regional sets to provide conservation-relevant estimates of trends since 1990. We found a striking geographical pattern: African lion populations are declining everywhere, except in four southern countries (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe). Population models indicate a 67% chance that lions in West and Central Africa decline by one-half, while estimating a 37% chance that lions in East Africa also decline by one-half over two decades. We recommend separate regional assessments of the lion in the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species: already recognized as critically endangered in West Africa, our analysis supports listing as regionally endangered in Central and East Africa and least concern in southern Africa. Almost all lion populations that historically exceeded ∼ 500 individuals are declining, but lion conservation is successful in southern Africa, in part because of the proliferation of reintroduced lions in small, fenced, intensively managed, and funded reserves. If management budgets for wild lands cannot keep pace with mounting levels of threat, the species may rely increasingly on these southern African areas and may no longer be a flagship species of the once vast natural ecosystems across the rest of the continent.

  8. Physical activity among Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino white visitors to urban-proximate public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia A. Wilhelm Stanis; Ingrid E. Schneider; Kimberly J. Shinew; Deborah J. Chavez; Mary C. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity are well recognized and documented, yet obesity rates remain high in the United States, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos. As our population becomes more urban and ethnically diverse, a greater understanding of specific populations may help agencies better address issues related to obesity and sedentary lifestyles. This study...

  9. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management.

  10. Tobacco Withdrawal Amongst African American, Hispanic, and White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the

  11. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline; Fumagalli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyperlipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and sho...

  12. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  13. Barriers for Hispanic women in receiving the human papillomavirus vaccine: a nursing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janelle

    2009-12-01

    Cervical cancer affects more Hispanic women than non-Hispanic women in the United States. A vaccination exists to aid in the prevention of cervical cancer; an estimated 70% of cases could be avoided with the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, women of Hispanic descent have many access barriers. By identifying and addressing such barriers, nurses can play a significant role in educating Hispanic women about the benefits of vaccination before HPV exposure occurs. Theoretical integration with Leininger's Culture Care Theory of Diversity and Universality provides a framework to address cultural differences and awareness when educating Hispanic women about this health issue. Additional nursing research into effective communication and educational programs to help reach the Hispanic population continues to be a priority in this vulnerable community.

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study - Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearse A Keane

    Full Text Available To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness.In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available "spectral domain" OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon. Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL. This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion.67,321 participants (134,642 eyes in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days.We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging.

  15. Monitoring the welfare of polar bear populations in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Patyk, Kelly A.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Most programs for monitoring the welfare of wildlife populations support efforts aimed at reaching discrete management objectives, like mitigating conflict with humans. While such programs can be effective, their limited scope may preclude systemic evaluations needed for large-scale conservation initiatives, like the recovery of at-risk species. We discuss select categories of metrics that can be used to monitor how polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are responding to the primary threat to their long-term persistence—loss of sea ice habitat due to the unabated rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG; e.g., CO2) concentrations—that can also provide information on ecosystem function and health. Monitoring key aspects of polar bear population dynamics, spatial behavior, health and resiliency can provide valuable insight into ecosystem state and function, and could be a powerful tool for achieving Arctic conservation objectives, particularly those that have transnational policy implications.

  16. Getting Data Right - and Righteous to Improve Hispanic or Latino Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lainz, Alfonso; McDonald, Mariana; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Barrett, Drue H

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics or Latinos constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority in the United States. They are also a very diverse population. Latino/Hispanic's health varies significantly for subgroups defined by national origin, race, primary language, and migration-related factors (place of birth, immigration status, years of residence in the United States). Most Hispanics speak Spanish at home, and one-third have limited English proficiency (LEP). There is growing awareness on the importance for population health monitoring programs to collect those data elements (Hispanic subgroup, primary language, and migration-related factors) that better capture Hispanics' diversity, and to provide language assistance (translation of data collection forms, interpreters) to ensure meaningful inclusion of all Latinos/Hispanics in national health monitoring. There are strong ethical and scientific reasons for such expansion of data collection by public health entities. First, expand data elements can help identify otherwise hidden Hispanic subpopulations' health disparities. This may promote a more just and equitable distribution of health resources to underserved populations. Second, language access is needed to ensure fair and legal treatment of LEP individuals in federally supported data collection activities. Finally, these strategies are likely to improve the quality and representativeness of data needed to monitor and address the health of all Latino/Hispanic populations in the United States.

  17. Overcoming Language and Cultural Barriers in School: Helping Hispanic Students Acquire Success in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Pauline S.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that Hispanic second language students are not as successful as their English-speaking peers in school. The problem is in part due to several factors: curriculum deliverance in a foreign language, cultural differences, and family/school disconnect. Current census reports reveal that Hispanic populations in the United States, and…

  18. Migrant Hispanic Students Speak Up: Linguistic and Cultural Perspectives on Low Academic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieter, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The Hispanic population and their high school dropout rates in the United States have greatly increased over the last several decades. This study investigates linguistic and cultural issues that may have an association with high school abandonment among migrant Hispanic students. Open-ended interview questions were posed to a bilingual education…

  19. Lupus among Asians and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Lupus among Asians and Hispanics Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... compared with white women. Signs and Symptom of Lupus Lupus can affect people of all ages. However, ...

  20. Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; DeVitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

    2011-04-01

    Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

  1. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Tiansheng; Yin, Xiao; Zhang, Chengling; Chen, Jia; Tian, Yanping; Liu, Jinliang

    2017-08-29

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be classified to five phylogenetic lineages, basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and Orchis. To understand the genetic structure of TuMV from radish in China, the 3'-terminal genome of 90 TuMV isolates were determined and analyzed with other available Chinese isolates. The results showed that the Chinese TuMV isolates from radish formed three groups: Asian-BR, basal-BR and world-B. More than half of these isolates (52.54%) were clustered to basal-BR group, and could be further divided into three sub-groups. The TuMV basal-BR isolates in the sub-groups I and II were genetically homologous with Japanese ones, while those in sub-group III formed a distinct lineage. Sub-populations of TuMV basal-BR II and III were new emergent and in a state of expansion. The Chinese TuMV radish populations were under negative selection. Gene flow between TuMV populations from Tai'an, Weifang and Changchun was frequent. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

  2. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  3. Rapid growth and genetic diversity retention in an isolated reintroduced black bear population in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M.; Cox, John J.; Clark, Joseph D.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Hast, John T.; Gibbs, Dan; Strunk, Michael; Dobey, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Animal reintroductions are important tools of wildlife management to restore species to their historical range, and they can also create unique opportunities to study population dynamics and genetics from founder events. We used non-invasive hair sampling in a systematic, closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study design at the Big South Fork (BSF) area in Kentucky during 2010 and Tennessee during 2012 to estimate the demographic and genetic characteristics of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population that resulted from a reintroduced founding population of 18 bears in 1998. We estimated 38 (95% CI: 31–66) and 190 (95% CI: 170–219) bears on the Kentucky and Tennessee study areas, respectively. Based on the Tennessee abundance estimate alone, the mean annual growth rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 17.4–19.5%) from 1998 to 2012. We also compared the genetic characteristics of bears sampled during 2010–2012 to bears in the population during 2000–2002, 2–4 years following reintroduction, and to the source population. We found that the level of genetic diversity since reintroduction as indicated by expected heterozygosity (HE) remained relatively constant (HE(source, 2004) = 0.763, HE(BSF, 2000–2002) = 0.729, HE(BSF, 2010–2012) = 0.712) and the effective number of breeders (NB) remained low but had increased since reintroduction in the absence of sufficient immigration (NB(BSF, 2000–2002) = 12, NB(BSF, 2010–2012)  = 35). This bear population appears to be genetically isolated, but contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of genetic diversity loss or other deleterious genetic effects typically observed from small founder groups. We attribute that to high initial genetic diversity in the founder group combined with overlapping generations and rapid population growth. Although the population remains relatively small, the reintroduction using a small founder group appears to be demographically and genetically

  4. Birth and fertility rates for states by Hispanic origin subgroups: United States, 1990 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul D; Mathews, T J

    2006-05-01

    This report presents U.S. and State-level data on births, birth rates, and fertility rates for Hispanic origin subgroups for 1990 and 2000. Data for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks are provided for comparison. Data are presented in detailed tables, graphs, and maps. Between 1990 and 2000, the total U.S. Hispanic population increased 58 percent, from 22,353,999 to 35,305,818. Over the same period of time, births to Hispanic mothers increased 37 percent, from 595,073 to 815,868. The smaller increases in births compared with the population resulted in a falling birth rate among Hispanic mothers (26.7 in 1990 to 23.1 births per 1,000 total population in 2000). Birth and fertility rates for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban mothers all fell between 1990 and 2000. Among the Hispanic subgroups, fertility rates in 2000 ranged from 105.1 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years for Mexican women to 49.3 for Cuban women. Differences in fertility exist not only between Hispanic subgroups but also within groups among States. For example, total fertility rates for Puerto Rican mothers, which estimates the number of children a group of 1,000 women will have in their lifetime, ranged in 2000 from 1,616.5 in New York to 2,403.0 in Pennsylvania.

  5. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline D; Fumagalli, Matteo; Li, Bo; Harris, Kelley; Xiong, Zijun; Zhou, Long; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Somel, Mehmet; Babbitt, Courtney; Wray, Greg; Li, Jianwen; He, Weiming; Wang, Zhuo; Fu, Wenjing; Xiang, Xueyan; Morgan, Claire C; Doherty, Aoife; O'Connell, Mary J; McInerney, James O; Born, Erik W; Dalén, Love; Dietz, Rune; Orlando, Ludovic; Sonne, Christian; Zhang, Guojie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-08

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyper-lipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479-343 thousand years BP. We find that genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger positive selection than in brown bears; nine of the top 16 genes under strong positive selection are associated with cardiomyopathy and vascular disease, implying important reorganization of the cardiovascular system. One of the genes showing the strongest evidence of selection, APOB, encodes the primary lipoprotein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL); functional mutations in APOB may explain how polar bears are able to cope with life-long elevated LDL levels that are associated with high risk of heart disease in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rationale and Design of the Echocardiographic Study of Hispanics/Latinos (ECHO-SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos J; Dharod, Ajay; Allison, Matthew A; Shah, Sanjiv J; Hurwitz, Barry; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Kitzman, Dalane; Gillam, Linda; Spevack, Daniel; Dadhania, Rupal; Langdon, Sarah; Kaplan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the prevalence and determinants of cardiac structure and function (systolic and diastolic) among the various Hispanic background groups in the United States is limited. The Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL) ancillary study recruited 1,824 participants through a stratified-sampling process representative of the population-based Hispanic Communities Health Study - Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) across four sites (Bronx, NY; Chicago, Ill; San Diego, Calif; Miami, Fla). The HCHS-SOL baseline cohort did not include an echo exam. ECHO-SOL added the echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function to an array of existing HCHS-SOL baseline clinical, psychosocial, and socioeconomic data and provides sufficient statistical power for comparisons among the Hispanic subgroups. Standard two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography protocol, including M-mode, spectral, color and tissue Doppler study was performed. The main objectives were to: 1) characterize cardiac structure and function and its determinants among Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups; and 2) determine the contributions of specific psychosocial factors (acculturation and familismo) to cardiac structure and function among Hispanics. We describe the design, methods and rationale of currently the largest and most comprehensive study of cardiac structure and function exclusively among US Hispanics. ECHO-SOL aims to enhance our understanding of Hispanic cardiovascular health as well as help untangle the relative importance of Hispanic subgroup heterogeneity and sociocultural factors on cardiac structure and function.

  7. Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K; Hoek, Hans W

    2016-11-01

    We reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States. Lifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than non-Hispanic Whites. There are comparable rates of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BED) among Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. BED is the most common eating disorder among Hispanic/Latinos. Evidence-based treatments have begun to be implemented with Hispanics/Latinos. The core concepts of cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and BED apply to this population. Culture-specific adaptations include strengthening the collectivistic framework within an individualistic treatment, psychoeducation of immediate and extended family, and adjustment of meal plans that incorporated cultural foods. There are more similarities than differences in the prevalence of eating disorders across Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. However, the social context such as immigration status and acculturation is important to consider in the development of eating disorders. In addition, the Westernization of Latin America may change the future relationship of immigration status and development of eating disorder within the United States. Overall, cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments involved the inclusion of family within treatment, acculturation-related issues, and managing family conflicts that arise because of the changes in eating patterns.

  8. Incidence and related factors of traffic accidents among the older population in a rapidly aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kimyong; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Jang, Soong-nang

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of traffic accidents and find related factors among the older population. We used the cross-sectional data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS), which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 and completed by 680,202 adults aged 19 years or more. And we used individuals aged 60 years or above (n=210,914). The incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as number of traffic accidents experienced per thousand per year by a number of factors including age, sex, residential area, education, employment status, and diagnosis with chronic diseases. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each potential risk factor adjusted for the others. Incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as 11.74/1,000 per year for men, and 7.65/1,000 per year for women. It tended to decline as age increased among women; compared to the youngest old age group (60-64), the older old groups (70-74 and 80+) were at lower risk for traffic accidents. Depressive symptom was the strongest predictor for both men (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.28-2.61) and women (1.70, 1.23-2.35). Risk of traffic accident was greater in employed men (1.76, 1.40-2.22) and women diagnosis with arthritis (1.36, 1.06-1.75). Given that the incidence of and factors associated with traffic accidents differ between men and women, preventive strategies, such as driver education and traffic safety counseling for older adults, should be modified in accordance with these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  10. Does Your Library Reflect the Hispanic Culture? A Mapping Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Many schools are experiencing substantial growth in the Hispanic student population. These students need books written in Spanish and in English as well as bilingual books. The focus of this article is analyzing the content of the books in the collection, whether in English or Spanish. Standards discuss that the diverse needs, multicultural…

  11. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life Between New Mexican Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Sood, Akshay; Celli, Bartolome; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) across all populations. Because decline in lung function and risk for COPD are lower in New Mexican Hispanic smokers compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts, the goal of this study was to ascertain whether HRQL differs between these two racial/ethnic groups and determine the factors that contribute to this difference. We compared the score results of the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in 378 Hispanic subjects and 1,597 NHW subjects enrolled in the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort (LSC) from New Mexico. The associations of race/ethnicity with SGRQ and SF-36 were assessed by using multivariable regression. Physical functioning (difference, -4.5; P = .0008) but not mental health or role emotional domains of the SF-36 was worse in Hispanic smokers than in their NWH counterparts in multivariable analysis. SGRQ total score and its activity and impact subscores were worse in Hispanic (vs NHW) smokers after adjustment for education level, current smoking, pack-years smoked, BMI, number of comorbidities, and FEV 1 % predicted (difference range, 2.9-5.0; all comparisons, P ≤ .001). Although the difference in the SGRQ activity domain was above the clinically important difference of four units, the total score was not. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have clinically relevant, lower HRQL than their NHW counterparts. A perception of diminished physical functioning and impairment in daily life activities contribute to the poorer HRQL among Hispanic subjects. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. College Completion and Participation in a Developmental Math Course for Hispanic and White Non-Hispanic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Stephen Gene

    2011-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study. The population of interest in the study consisted of white and Hispanic high school graduates in the United States who attended college and completed a college developmental mathematics course. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 were employed, and a longitudinal, quasi-experimental…

  13. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ickes, M.J.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20). Most of the interventions were community based (n=16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16), with social cognitive theory and trans theoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  14. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  15. HIV rapid diagnostic testing by lay providers in a key population-led health service programme in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkanya, Rapeeporn; Pankam, Tippawan; Wolf, Shauna; Pattanachaiwit, Supanit; Jantarapakde, Jureeporn; Pengnongyang, Supabhorn; Thapwong, Prasopsuk; Udomjirasirichot, Apichat; Churattanakraisri, Yutthana; Prawepray, Nanthika; Paksornsit, Apiluk; Sitthipau, Thidadaow; Petchaithong, Sarayut; Jitsakulchaidejt, Raruay; Nookhai, Somboon; Lertpiriyasuwat, Cheewanan; Ongwandee, Sumet; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2018-01-01

    Introduction:  Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for HIV has a quick turn-around time, which increases the proportion of people testing who receive their result. HIV RDT in Thailand has traditionally been performed only by medical technologists (MTs), which is a barrier to its being scaled up. We evaluated the performance of HIV RDT conducted by trained lay providers who were members of, or worked closely with, a group of men who have sex with men (MSM) and with transgender women (TG) communities, and compared it to tests conducted by MTs. Methods:  Lay providers received a 3-day intensive training course on how to perform a finger-prick blood collection and an HIV RDT as part of the Key Population-led Health Services (KPLHS) programme among MSM and TG. All the samples were tested by lay providers using Alere Determine HIV 1/2. HIV-reactive samples were confirmed by DoubleCheckGold Ultra HIV 1&2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2. All HIV-positive and 10% of HIV-negative samples were re-tested by MTs using Serodia HIV 1/2. Results:  Of 1680 finger-prick blood samples collected and tested using HIV RDT by lay providers in six drop-in centres in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chonburi and Songkhla, 252 (15%) were HIV-positive. MTs re-tested these HIV-positive samples and 143 randomly selected HIV-negative samples with 100% concordant test results. Conclusion:  Lay providers in Thailand can be trained and empowered to perform HIV RDT as they were found to achieve comparable results in sample testing with MTs. Based on the task-shifting concept, this rapid HIV testing performed by lay providers as part of the KPLHS programme has great potential to enhance HIV prevention and treatment programmes among key at-risk populations.

  16. The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities and Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Partners in the Advancement of Hispanic Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon Galdeano, Emily; Flores, Antonio R.; Moder, John

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) and the recognition of Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) occurs at the federal level. HACU's origins and the legislative history of the HSI designation in federal law are explored. The demographic growth and corresponding importance of Hispanics in the…

  17. Workplace health promotion--strategies for low-income Hispanic immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Abbott, Perla; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Mahon, Marveen; Allwein, David; Cook, Jennifer; Mikan, Vanessa; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Sethness, Renee; Muñoz, Laura; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2008-05-01

    Addressing health disparities for vulnerable populations in the United States is a national goal. Immigrant Hispanic women, at increased risk for heart disease, face obstacles in receiving adequate health care. Health promotion, especially for Hispanic women, is hindered by language, access to care, lack of insurance, and cultural factors. Innovative health education approaches are needed to reach this population. This article describes the development and evaluation of a culturally sensitive cardiac health education program based on findings from a study of 21 older immigrant Hispanic women employed as housekeepers at a small university in south Texas. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures had decreased 17 months after the intervention.

  18. Hispanic Youth and Military Enlistment Propensity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the issue of Hispanic propensity in more depth than has previously been available, and to identify possible causes of Hispanic youths' declining interest in military service...

  19. Rapid changes in transcription profiles of the Plasmodium yoelii yir multigene family in clonal populations: lack of epigenetic memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Cunningham

    Full Text Available The pir multigene family, found in the genomes of Plasmodium vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species, encode variant antigens that could be targets of the immune response. Individual parasites of the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii, selected by micromanipulation, transcribe only 1 to 3 different pir (yir suggesting tight transcriptional control at the level of individual cells. Using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that despite this very restricted transcription in a single cell, many yir genes are transcribed throughout the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle. The timing and level of transcription differs between genes, with some being more highly transcribed in ring and trophozoite stages, whereas others are more highly transcribed in schizonts. Infection of immunodeficient mice with single infected erythrocytes results in populations of parasites each with transcriptional profiles different from that of the parent parasite population and from each other. This drift away from the original 'set' of transcribed genes does not appear to follow a preset pattern and "epigenetic memory" of the yir transcribed in the parent parasite can be rapidly lost. Thus, regulation of pir gene transcription may be different from that of the well-characterised multigene family, var, of Plasmodium falciparum.

  20. Population Divergence in Venom Bioactivities of Elapid Snake Pseudonaja textilis: Role of Procoagulant Proteins in Rapid Rodent Prey Incapacitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skejić, Jure; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at how toxic proteins in venoms of adult Australian eastern Brown snakes Pseudonaja textilis from South Australian and Queensland populations interact with physiological functions of the lab SD rat Rattus norvegicus. Circulatory collapse and incoagulable blood occurred instantly after injection of venom under the dorsal skin of anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats in an imitation of a P. textilis bite. Intravenous injection of purified P. textilis (Mackay, QLD) venom prothrombin activator proteins caused instant failure of circulation, testifying of high toxicity of these proteins and suggesting their role in rapid incapacitation of rodent prey. The hypothesis is further supported by circulatory collapse occurring instantly despite artificial respiration in envenomed rats and the finding of extremely high venom procoagulant potency in rat plasma. LC-MS and physiology assays revealed divergent venom composition and biological activity of South Australian (Barossa locality) and Queensland (Mackay locality) populations, which may be driven by selection for different prey. The Queensland venom of P. textilis was found to be more procoagulant and to exhibit predominately presynaptic neurotoxicity, while the South Australian venom contained diverse postsynaptic type II and III α-neurotoxins in addition to the presynaptic neurotoxins and caused significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. LC-MS analysis found evidence of multiple coagulation factor X-like proteins in P. textilis venoms, including a match to P. textilis coagulation factor X isoform 2, previously known to be expressed only in the liver. PMID:23691135

  1. Rapidly rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in Chinese population: epidemiology in Shanghai during 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuhui; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Chunfang; Li, Pin; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jun; Gu, Xuefan; Wang, Xiaodong; Shen, Shuixian; Zhi, Dijing; Lu, Zhong; Ye, Rong; Cheng, Ruoqian; Xi, Li; Li, Xiaojing; Zheng, Zhangqian; Zhang, Miaoying; Luo, Feihong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate incidence trend of childhood type 1 diabetes in Shanghai, a megalopolis in east China. We established a population-based retrospective registry for the disease in the city's registered population during 1997-2011 and collected 622 incident type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years. Standardized incidence rates and 95 % CI were estimated by applying the capture-recapture method and assuming Poisson distribution. Incidence trend was analyzed using the Poisson regression model. The mean annual incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years. We did not observe significant difference in incidence between boys and girls. The incidence is unstable and had a mean annual increase 14.2 % per year during the studied period. A faster annual increase was observed in boys, warmer seasons, and in the outer regions of the city. If present trends continue, the number of new type 1 diabetes cases will double from 2016 to 2020, and prevalent cases will sextuple by 2025. Our results showed the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was rising rapidly in Shanghai. More studies are needed to analyze incidence changes in other regions of China for appropriate allocation of healthcare resources.

  2. Population divergence in venom bioactivities of elapid snake Pseudonaja textilis: role of procoagulant proteins in rapid rodent prey incapacitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Skejić

    Full Text Available This study looked at how toxic proteins in venoms of adult Australian eastern Brown snakes Pseudonaja textilis from South Australian and Queensland populations interact with physiological functions of the lab SD rat Rattus norvegicus. Circulatory collapse and incoagulable blood occurred instantly after injection of venom under the dorsal skin of anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats in an imitation of a P. textilis bite. Intravenous injection of purified P. textilis (Mackay, QLD venom prothrombin activator proteins caused instant failure of circulation, testifying of high toxicity of these proteins and suggesting their role in rapid incapacitation of rodent prey. The hypothesis is further supported by circulatory collapse occurring instantly despite artificial respiration in envenomed rats and the finding of extremely high venom procoagulant potency in rat plasma. LC-MS and physiology assays revealed divergent venom composition and biological activity of South Australian (Barossa locality and Queensland (Mackay locality populations, which may be driven by selection for different prey. The Queensland venom of P. textilis was found to be more procoagulant and to exhibit predominately presynaptic neurotoxicity, while the South Australian venom contained diverse postsynaptic type II and III α-neurotoxins in addition to the presynaptic neurotoxins and caused significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. LC-MS analysis found evidence of multiple coagulation factor X-like proteins in P. textilis venoms, including a match to P. textilis coagulation factor X isoform 2, previously known to be expressed only in the liver.

  3. Getting Data Right — and Righteous to Improve Hispanic or Latino Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Lainz, Alfonso; McDonald, Mariana; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Barrett, Drue H.

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics or Latinos constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority in the United States. They are also a very diverse population. Latino/Hispanic’s health varies significantly for subgroups defined by national origin, race, primary language, and migration-related factors (place of birth, immigration status, years of residence in the United States). Most Hispanics speak Spanish at home, and one-third have limited English proficiency (LEP). There is growing awareness on the importance for popul...

  4. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  5. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  6. Education Level of Catholic Hispanic Deacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed self-reported religiosity, spirituality, faith-related behaviors, leadership styles, and personality dimensions of 156 Hispanic Catholic deacons, based on varied educational degrees assisting in Hispanic (n = 91) or non-Hispanic (n = 65) parishes. Results found no significant differences on any self-reported variables…

  7. Alcoholism among Hispanics--A Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando

    1979-01-01

    A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)

  8. Mentoring Revisited: The Hispanic Woman's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, Breda Murphy

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Hispanic female faculty and administrators revealed mentoring to be important to career development but difficult to obtain. Barriers included limited opportunities for informal contact, compounded stereotypes of women and of Hispanic women, and conflicting values of Hispanic and academic cultures. (SK)

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure Traits by Hispanic/Latino Background: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sofer, Tamar; Wong, Quenna; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Taylor, Kent; Warren, Helen R.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Levy, Daniel; Kramer, Holly; Lange, Leslie A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Liang, Jingjing; Le, Thu H.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Tayo, Bamidele O.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension prevalence varies between ethnic groups, possibly due to differences in genetic, environmental, and cultural determinants. Hispanic/Latino Americans are a diverse and understudied population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood pressure (BP) traits in 12,278 participants from the Hispanics Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In the discovery phase we identified eight previously unreported BP loci. In the replication stage, we tested these ...

  10. Mortality among white, black, and Hispanic male and female state prisoners, 2001–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wildeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although much research considers the relationship between imprisonment and mortality, little existing research has tested whether the short-term mortality advantage enjoyed by prisoners extends to Hispanics. We compared the mortality rates of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic male and female state prisoners to mortality rates in the general population using data from the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, the National Prisoner Statistics, the National Corrections Reporting Program, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The results indicate that the mortality advantage for prisoners was greatest for black males, followed by black females, Hispanic males, white females, and white males. Hispanic female prisoners were the only group not at a mortality advantage relative to the general population, with an SMR of 1.18 [95% CI: 0.93–1.43]. Taken together, the results suggest that future research should seek to better understand the curious imprisonment–mortality relationship among Hispanic females, although given the small number of inmate deaths that happen to this group (~0.6%, this research should not detract from broader research on imprisonment and mortality. Keywords: Imprisonment, Mortality, Population health, Racial disparities

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  12. Stories of Success: Understanding Academic Achievement of Hispanic Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Amanda

    A review of the literature shows that there is much evidence to suggest the challenges facing Hispanic students in American public schools. Hispanic enrollment in K--12 public schools has increased from 6 to 19% in the last thirty years, yet schools have not made adequate adjustments to accommodate this changing population. Issues such as remedial tracking and cultural differences have led to low high school graduate rates for Hispanic students and inequities in schooling experiences (Gay, 2000). Particularly in the area of science, Hispanic students struggle with academic success (Cole & Espinoza, 2008). Despite these obstacles, some Hispanic students are academically successful (Rochin & Mello, 2007; Merisotis & Kee, 2006). This dissertation tells the stories of these Hispanic students who have been successful in science in secondary public schools. This study followed a grounded theory methodology and utilized individual interviews to collect data about Hispanics who have demonstrated achievement in the area of science. Through the analysis of these interviews, factors were identified which may have contributed to the success of these Hispanics in the field of science. Implications for future practice in public schools are also discussed.

  13. BREATHING FIRE: HOW STELLAR FEEDBACK DRIVES RADIAL MIGRATION, RAPID SIZE FLUCTUATIONS, AND POPULATION GRADIENTS IN LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Geha, Marla; Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M star  = 2 × 10 6  − 5 × 10 10 M ⊙ ) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ∼1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong fluctuations in the global potential, transferring energy to all stars. These processes produce several dramatic effects. First, galaxies’ effective radii can fluctuate by factors of >2 over ∼200 Myr, and these rapid size fluctuations can account for much of the observed scatter in the radius at fixed M star . Second, the cumulative effects of many outflow/infall episodes steadily heat stellar orbits, causing old stars to migrate outward most strongly. This age-dependent radial migration mixes—and even inverts—intrinsic age and metallicity gradients. Thus, the galactic-archaeology approach of calculating radial star formation histories from stellar populations at z = 0 can be severely biased. These effects are strongest at M star  ≈ 10 7–9.6 M ⊙ , the same regime where feedback most efficiently cores galaxies. Thus, detailed measurements of stellar kinematics in low-mass galaxies can strongly constrain feedback models and test baryonic solutions to small-scale problems in ΛCDM

  14. BREATHING FIRE: HOW STELLAR FEEDBACK DRIVES RADIAL MIGRATION, RAPID SIZE FLUCTUATIONS, AND POPULATION GRADIENTS IN LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA USA (United States); Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André, E-mail: kareem.el-badry@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M{sub star} = 2 × 10{sup 6} − 5 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ∼1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong fluctuations in the global potential, transferring energy to all stars. These processes produce several dramatic effects. First, galaxies’ effective radii can fluctuate by factors of >2 over ∼200 Myr, and these rapid size fluctuations can account for much of the observed scatter in the radius at fixed M{sub star}. Second, the cumulative effects of many outflow/infall episodes steadily heat stellar orbits, causing old stars to migrate outward most strongly. This age-dependent radial migration mixes—and even inverts—intrinsic age and metallicity gradients. Thus, the galactic-archaeology approach of calculating radial star formation histories from stellar populations at z = 0 can be severely biased. These effects are strongest at M{sub star} ≈ 10{sup 7–9.6} M{sub ⊙}, the same regime where feedback most efficiently cores galaxies. Thus, detailed measurements of stellar kinematics in low-mass galaxies can strongly constrain feedback models and test baryonic solutions to small-scale problems in ΛCDM.

  15. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  16. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  17. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  18. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  19. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by

  20. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Smith, Kristine M; Ramirez, Sara D; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P; Brunner, Jesse L; Goldberg, Caren S; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  1. Large Country-Lot Quality Assurance Sampling : A New Method for Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation of Health, Nutrition and Population Programs at Sub-National Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hedt, Bethany L.; Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Sampling theory facilitates development of economical, effective and rapid measurement of a population. While national policy maker value survey results measuring indicators representative of a large area (a country, state or province), measurement in smaller areas produces information useful for managers at the local level. It is often not possible to disaggregate a national survey to obt...

  2. Cardiovascular risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Amy J; Gilbert, Lynn; Baramee, Julaluk; Granger, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Identifying risk factors early in life can facilitate use of preventive strategies to reduce risk and improve health status across the life span. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable (tobacco smoke exposure, physical inactivity, dietary fat intake, overweight, and high blood pressure [BP]) and nonmodifiable (family history, gender, and age) cardiovascular risk factors in low-income preschool children. Low-income preschool children (N = 205) 3-5 years old were recruited to participate. Parents completed a multigenerational cardiovascular health history form and a 24-hour dietary recall for themselves and their child. The children's height, weight, and BP were obtained. Of the 205 children, 61% reported ethnicity as Latino or Hispanic, 31.7% non-Hispanic White, 1% non-Hispanic Black, 3.9% Asian, and 2.4% mixed race. The number of males (50.7%) and females (49.3%) was similar. Only 22 (10.7%) children had no identified cardiovascular risk factors. At least one modifiable risk factor was present in 179 (87.3%) children. Fifty-two (25.5%) children had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 85th percentile for gender and age; 44 (22.3%) had a systolic or diastolic BP over the 90th percentile for gender, age, and height; 128 (66.3%) had a dietary fat intake of > 30%; 77 (37.6%) watched TV or played video games more than 2 hr/day; and 48 (23.4%) were exposed to passive tobacco smoke. The identification of cardiovascular risk factors in almost 90% of presumably healthy preschoolers provides evidence to support testing of interventions that can improve health behaviors and reduce risks.

  3. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  4. Differences in Household Saving between Non-Hispanic White and Hispanic Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Patti J.; Hsu, Chungwen

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to empirically explore differences in saving behavior between Hispanic (N = 533) and non-Hispanic White (N = 2,473) households. The results of the logistic regression model show that self-employed Hispanics were more likely to save, while self-employment was not significant for Whites. Being…

  5. Mitochondrial DNA signature for range-wide populations of Bicyclus anynana suggests a rapid expansion from recent refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike A de Jong

    Full Text Available This study investigates the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the afrotropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Samples from six wild populations covering most of the species range from Uganda to South Africa were compared for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit gene (COI. Molecular diversity indices show overall high mtDNA diversity for the populations, but low nucleotide divergence between haplotypes. Our results indicate relatively little geographic population structure among the southern populations, especially given the extensive distributional range and an expectation of limited gene flow between populations. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events. Tajima's D test and Fu's F(S test both suggested recent population growth for the populations. The results were only significant for the southernmost populations when applying Tajima's D, but Fu's F(S indicated significant deviations from neutrality for all populations except the one closest to the equator. Based on our own findings and those from pollen and vegetation studies, we hypothesize that the species range of B. anynana was reduced to equatorial refugia during the last glacial period, and that the species expanded southwards during the past 10.000 years. These results provide crucial background information for studies of phenotypic and molecular adaptation in wild populations of B. anynana.

  6. Reconstruction of the diet of a pre hispanic population sector of Cuauhnahuac, Morelos by means of the chemical elements analysis in skeletal rests; Reconstruccion de la dieta de un sector de la poblacion prehispanica de Cuauhnahuac, Morelos, a traves del analisis de elementos quimicos en restos esqueleticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, L. [INAH-Estado de Mexico, Av. Morelos Oriente Num. 502, Col. San Sebastian, C.P. 50090, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garza, I. [INAH-Morelos, Matamoros Num. 14, Col. Acapatzingo, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Banos, L. [IIM-UNAM. Circuito escolar s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chaire, F. [ENAH, Periferico Sur y Zapote s/n, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this work was diet reconstruction of 25 pre hispanic residents of Cuauhnahuac, tributary town of the mexicas, during the Late Pos classic period (1350-1521 a.C.). The analysis included human skull samples proceeding from human femur, tibia and fibula. The applied technique was X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) to know the mineral concentrations, which are closely related with the quality and quantity of the consumed food. The main indicative elements are strontium (Sr), that denotes the consumption of vegetables, zinc (Zn), that shows the consumption of animal proteins, and magnesium (Mg), associated with Meso american food resources. The results indicate the existence of differences in the diet among the same population's individuals, probably because social stratification determined the power resources acquisition. (Author) 28 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Salud de Corazon: Cultural Resources for Cardiovascular Health among Older Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adriana; Fleury, Julie; Shearer, Nelma

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hispanic women has been substantiated across studies. While many studies have focused on the impact of these risk factors, few qualitative studies have addressed cultural and contextual meanings of cardiovascular health promotion in this population. This research explored cultural resources for cardiovascular health promotion among older Hispanic women. A qualitative descriptive methodological design using focus groups with 7 Hispanic women was used. Culture provided an overarching perspective, guiding identification and choice of resources and supports in order to promote cardiovascular health. Themes included Living Tradition, Caring for Family, Connecting with Friends, Having Faith, and Moving as Life. Data provide an initial step toward generating a more complete understanding of perceived cultural resources for cardiovascular health in older Hispanic women. Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing that individuals, families and communities uniquely define cultural and contextual meaning of cardiovascular health promotion.

  8. Working with Hispanic women who are deaf: recommendations from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Amber M; Saladin, Shawn P; Hansmann, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors used the hermeneutics approach within social cognitive career theory to explore employment trends and issues over the past 20 years relevant to Hispanic women who are deaf. Barriers to employment were discovered including discrepancies due to gender, race/ethnicity, and severity of hearing loss. Recommendations for policymakers and professionals suggest a need for research that addresses the unique experiences of Hispanic women who are deaf within vocational rehabilitation, the use of social cognitive career theory as it relates to career development and choices, and an increase in education and training to better prepare vocational rehabilitation counselors to work with individuals from multiple minority backgrounds. While information about Hispanic women who are deaf is limited, this review provides a better understanding of Hispanic deaf women and encourages expansion of knowledge in practice and research for professionals working with this unique population.

  9. Needs and preferences for the prevention of intimate partner violence among Hispanics: a community's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, R M; Cummings, A M; Becerra, M; Fernandez, M C; Mesa, I

    2013-08-01

    Research suggest that Hispanics in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by the consequences of intimate partner violence. Nevertheless, few intimate partner violence prevention interventions have been developed to address the unique needs and preferences of this population. The Partnership for Domestic Violence Prevention is a community-based participatory research project that assessed the needs and preferences for prevention programs for Hispanics in Miami-Dade County. Nine focus groups with domestic violence service providers, victims and general community members were conducted (N = 76). Four major themes emerged from the focus groups. These included immigrants and teens as the highest priority groups to target in prevention efforts, culture as a double-edged sword, the system that helps and hurts the victim, and the need for wide-scale prevention programs that would reach Hispanics systematically. The results from this study have important implications for the development of intimate violence prevention interventions targeting Hispanics in the U.S.

  10. Parent-child communication: a model for Hispanics on HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Raquel; Bonazzo, Claude; Torres, Rosamar

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has become a global epidemic that has affected many different racial and ethnic groups. One group that has lacked attention is the Hispanic population, due to its distinctive cultural characteristics. Many of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections in Hispanics occur in adolescents. A protective factor for preventing HIV infections in adolescents is parent-child communication about sexual intercourse; however discussions about sexuality are uncommon in Hispanic families. When promoting parent-child communication among Hispanics regarding sex, it is essential to include cultural characteristics and the use of a model for empowering both parents and adolescents. The cultural characteristics examined in this article are allocentrism, familialism, personal space, time orientation, power distance, gender roles, and fatalism. A partnership model for empowering parents and adolescents, and 5 steps of the partnership process are discussed.

  11. Anguish, Yearning, and Identity: Toward a Better Understanding of the Pregnant Hispanic Woman's Prenatal Care Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran; Cronin, Sherill Nones; Boccella, Sarah Hess

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to seek a better understanding of needs and access issues among pregnant, low-income Hispanic women. Hispanic women who attended a community prenatal education program participated in follow-up focus groups to explore their experiences regarding prenatal education, pregnancy resources, access to, and satisfaction with, the care available to them. Focus groups were facilitated by a leader, bilingual in English and Spanish, with knowledge of the Hispanic culture. Sessions were audiotaped, then translated into English for transcription. Data were analyzed according to guidelines by Colaizzi and three themes emerged: pregnant Hispanic women experienced a sense of anguish (la angustia) from questions and unknowns rampant during pregnancy, leading to a yearning (el anhelo) to learn and understand more, but with a desire to do so without sacrificing native identity (la identidad). Implications of these themes for improving prenatal care for this population are explored. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Spectrum of mismatch repair gene mutations and clinical presentation of Hispanic individuals with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunga, Annette Y; Ricker, Charité; Espenschied, Carin R; Castillo, Danielle; Melas, Marilena; Herzog, Josef; Bannon, Sarah; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Lynch, Patrick; Solomon, Ilana; Gruber, Stephen B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N

    2017-04-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, is caused by mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. However, data about MMR mutations in Hispanics are limited. This study aims to describe the spectrum of MMR mutations in Hispanics with LS and explore ancestral origins. This case series involved an IRB-approved retrospective chart review of self-identified Hispanic patients (n = 397) seen for genetic cancer risk assessment at four collaborating academic institutions in California, Texas, and Puerto Rico who were evaluated by MMR genotyping and/or tumor analysis. A literature review was conducted for all mutations identified. Of those who underwent clinical genetic testing (n = 176), 71 had MMR gene mutations. Nine mutations were observed more than once. One third (3/9) of recurrent mutations and two additional mutations (seen only once) were previously reported in Spain, confirming the influence of Spanish ancestry on MMR mutations in Hispanic populations. The recurrent mutations identified (n = 9) included both previously reported mutations as well as unique mutations not in the literature. This is the largest report of Hispanic MMR mutations in North America; however, a larger sample and haplotype analyses are needed to better understand recurrent MMR mutations in Hispanic populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. RAPID-COMMUNICATION Genetic diversity and differentiation in natural populations of Arapaima gigas from lower Amazon revealed by microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi-Gomes, P F; Melo, N; Palheta, G; Guerreiro, S; Amador, M; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, A K; Santos, S; Hamoy, I

    2017-02-08

    Genetic variability is one of the important criteria for species conservation decisions. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and the population differentiation of two natural populations of Arapaima gigas, a species with a long history of being commercially exploited. We collected 87 samples of A. gigas from Grande Curuai Lake and Paru Lake, located in the Lower Amazon region of Amazônia, Brazil, and genotyped these samples using a multiplex panel of microsatellite markers. Our results showed that the populations of A. gigas analyzed had high levels of genetic variability, which were similar to those described in previous studies. These two populations had a significant population differentiation supported by the estimates of F ST and R ST (0.06), by Bayesian analysis (K = 2), and by population assignment tests, which revealed a moderate genetic distance.

  14. Afra-Hispanic Writers and Feminist Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCosta-Willis, Miriam

    1993-01-01

    Explores Afra-Hispanic literature, the writing of black Spanish-speaking women of the Caribbean and Central and South America. The literary texts of Afra-Hispanic women reveal an emerging feminist consciousness. A more detailed analysis is given of the poetry of Virginia Brindis de Salas and Aida Cartagena Portalatin. (SLD)

  15. Outreach to Future Hispanic Educational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…

  16. The Meaning of Children for Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Gerardo; And Others

    A random sample of 100 Hispanic women waiting to receive birth control services at a low-cost community health center in East Los Angeles was interviewed to learn more about the fertility behavior, attitudes toward family size, and contraceptive use of barrio Hispanic women. The respondents were: young (averaging 27 years old), poorly educated…

  17. Recruitment of Hispanic Students into MIS Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaney, Roger; Martin, Dawne

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides several suggestions Hispanic student recruitment and retention in MIS or other business curricula. Cultural considerations like allocentrism and familialism are discussed along with the situation at K-State. It is believed that the recruitment and retention of Hispanic students can be influenced positively by considering…

  18. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  19. Hispanic Vocational Exploration Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro De La Comunidad, Inc., New London, CT.

    During its second year, the Hispanic Vocational Exploration Project recruited eighth and ninth grade Hispanic youth for a four-week cycle, after-school, career exploratory program at Southeastern Regional Vocational Technical School, Groton, Connecticut. A series of career education workshops was the other major project activity. Supportive…

  20. The Hispanic family and male-female relationships: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Geri-Ann

    2003-07-01

    An overview of the traditional Hispanic family and male-female relationships is presented, with an emphasis on issues relevant to providing health care to Hispanic populations. Aspects of the family presented include visitation, decision making, self-care, and emotional problems. Male-female relationships stem from traditional gender roles. Machismo and patriarchal authority characterize the male role; the roles of a traditional woman are housewife and mother. Women are expected to defer to the authority of their husbands. The negative aspects of machismo can result in heavy drinking and the pursuit of high-risk activities, leading to domestic violence and HIV/AIDS. These health risks are exacerbated by such cultural factors as male dominance, female modesty, and the practice of keeping problems within the family. The importance of personalism in patient-provider encounters is emphasized.

  1. Parent and Child Characteristics Associated with Child Sunburn and Sun Protection Among U.S. Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K; Stapleton, Jerod L; Natale-Pereira, Ana M; Goydos, James S; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-05-01

    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in U.S. Hispanics over several decades and the postdiagnosis outcomes are worse for Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Parents are influential in children's health preventive behaviors, but little is known about parental factors associated with children's skin cancer-related behaviors in the U.S. Hispanic population. The present study examined parental and child correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors (sunburns, sunbathing, sun-protective clothing use, and sunscreen use) of children of Hispanic parents. This survey study included a population-based sample of 360 U.S. Hispanic parents (44.8% male) who had a child 14 years of age or younger. Measures included parental reports of parent and child demographic characteristics, parent skin cancer knowledge and linguistic acculturation, and parent and child skin cancer-related behaviors. Approximately 28% of children and 31.9% of parents experienced at least one sunburn in the past year and approximately 29% of children and 36.7% of parents were reported to sunbathe. Moderate use of sun-protective clothing and sunscreen was reported for parents and their children. Child sun-protective clothing use and sunscreen use, sunburns, and sunbathing were associated with the corresponding behaviors of their parents. Future research should consider the role of acculturation and perceived risk in the sun protection behaviors of U.S. Hispanic children, particularly in those who report a fair skin type. Hispanic parents should be included in interventions targeting their children's skin cancer-related behaviors, and it is suggested that such interventions could also encourage parents to improve their own behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rapid Development of Specialty Population Registries and Quality Measures from Electronic Health Record Data*. An Agile Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vaishnavi; Fish, Jason S; Mutz, Jacqueline M; Carrington, Angela R; Lai, Ki; Davis, Lisa S; Youngblood, Josh E; Rauschuber, Mark R; Flores, Kathryn A; Sara, Evan J; Bhat, Deepa G; Willett, DuWayne L

    2017-06-14

    Creation of a new electronic health record (EHR)-based registry often can be a "one-off" complex endeavor: first developing new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, followed by developing registry-specific data extractions from the EHR for analysis. Each development phase typically has its own long development and testing time, leading to a prolonged overall cycle time for delivering one functioning registry with companion reporting into production. The next registry request then starts from scratch. Such an approach will not scale to meet the emerging demand for specialty registries to support population health and value-based care. To determine if the creation of EHR-based specialty registries could be markedly accelerated by employing (a) a finite core set of EHR data collection principles and methods, (b) concurrent engineering of data extraction and data warehouse design using a common dimensional data model for all registries, and (c) agile development methods commonly employed in new product development. We adopted as guiding principles to (a) capture data as a byproduct of care of the patient, (b) reinforce optimal EHR use by clinicians, (c) employ a finite but robust set of EHR data capture tool types, and (d) leverage our existing technology toolkit. Registries were defined by a shared condition (recorded on the Problem List) or a shared exposure to a procedure (recorded on the Surgical History) or to a medication (recorded on the Medication List). Any EHR fields needed - either to determine registry membership or to calculate a registry-associated clinical quality measure (CQM) - were included in the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) shared dimensional data model. Extract-transform-load (ETL) code was written to pull data at defined "grains" from the EHR into the EDW model. All calculated CQM values were stored in a single Fact table in the EDW crossing all registries. Registry-specific dashboards were created in the EHR to display

  3. A Boom for Whom? Exploring the Impacts of a Rapid Increase in the Male Population Upon Women's Services in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gretchen; Tofa, Matalena; Finlayson, Mary; U'Ren, Julie

    2016-05-03

    A rapidly expanding natural-resource extraction industry and a growing military presence mean an increasingly male-skewed population for the city of Darwin, Australia. This has sparked concerns about the potential for increased violence against women. In this article, we present qualitative research detailing the views of 13 participants from 10 women's support services in the Darwin area. We argue that women's support services bear witness to and are tasked with responding to the impacts of population change on women, yet their work is undermined by uncertainties that stem from neoliberal funding rationales and limited demands on companies to address social issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Rapid population decline in red knots : fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego,

  5. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Graña-Miraglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Rapid-Acting Insulin Analogs in Special Populations with Type 1 Diabetes or Gestational Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Sukumar, Nithya; Rafnsson, Snorri B

    2018-01-01

    Med, EMBASE and Cochrane Reviews were searched electronically, and their bibliographies examined to identify suitable studies for review and inclusion in a meta-analysis. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that reported data on relevant clinical outcomes. A different reviewer abstracted data...... concerns. Meta-analysis indicated severe hypoglycemic events were comparable for rapid-acting insulin analogs versus RHI (risk difference: 0.00 [95% confidence interval - 0.01; 0.01]). In the pregnancy group, insulin lispro and insulin aspart were safe and effective for both mother and fetus, with glycemic......INTRODUCTION: To assess the efficacy and safety of three available rapid-acting insulin analogs (insulins lispro, aspart and glulisine, respectively) in pregnant women, children/adolescents and people using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Pub...

  7. Improving treatment in Hispanic/Latino patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Musi, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher in Hispanic/Latino individuals living in the United States compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Many factors contribute to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including biological characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural aspects. The contribution of genetics to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients is becoming increasingly clear, but this inherent risk factor cannot be modified. However, certain socioeconomic and cultural factors, such as reduced access to healthcare, language barriers, cultural beliefs, and lack of cultural competence by the healthcare provider, are modifiable and should be overcome in order to improve the management of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. At the healthcare system level, policies should be put into place to reduce disparities between Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites regarding health insurance coverage and access to healthcare. At the healthcare provider and patient level, cultural beliefs should be taken into consideration when selecting adequate treatment. Overall, type 2 diabetes management should be individualized by identifying the preferred language and level of acculturation for each patient. These considerations are necessary to further improve communication through culturally appropriate educational materials and programs. These strategies may help to overcome the barriers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic Disease and Depression Among Hispanic Americans: Reconceptualizing the Masculine Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Isabella; Corvin, Jaime A

    2016-11-01

    Hispanic Americans are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. They face a distinct set of health challenges, resulting in persistent health disparities. Chronic disease self-management programs hold promise in addressing individual-level, behavioral risks factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity patterns. In light of the unique barriers Hispanic men face, including low participation in evidence-based health intervention research, this article argues for a gendered perspective when approaching Hispanic men's physical and mental health needs. Through the analysis of data collected from male-only focus groups (N = 3, n = 15) with Hispanic Americans in west central Florida, this study identified that masculine identity is influenced by chronic disease and comorbid depression status. Diagnosis with a chronic disease and/or depression is accompanied by lifestyle adaptations, activity restrictions, and changes in income and health care demands that can undermine traditional notions of Hispanic masculinity. Consequently, masculine identity is associated with self-management strategies in complex ways. Public health interventions aimed at addressing comorbid chronic disease and depression among Hispanic men must take into consideration the role of gender identity and relevant conceptualizations of masculinity in order to better serve this underserved and understudied population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Perceptions of Secondhand and Thirdhand Smoke Among Hispanic Residents of Multiunit Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón, Angélica Delgado; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess; Soto, Daniel W; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    Despite the progressive adoption of smoking bans in public spaces, children living in multi-unit housing remain at risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and thirdhand smoke (THS). Hispanic populations in California are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of SHS and THS because a large proportion of Hispanics live in multi-unit housing. Three focus groups were conducted in the fall of 2012 (in Spanish and English, N = 24) to understand Hispanics' knowledge of and experiences with SHS and THS, including barriers to avoiding smoke exposure and strategies for protecting their homes from smoke. Hispanic residents reported unpleasant experiences with SHS and THS and were generally knowledgeable about the adverse health effects, although they were not familiar with the term "thirdhand smoke." Some participants also mentioned marijuana smoke as a potential health hazard. Hispanic cultural values made participants reluctant to confront their neighbors but also motivated them to find ways to protect their families from smoke. Potential solutions included working with the smokers to designate a smoking area and gaining support from the building owners. Broad smoking policies should be implemented to help Hispanic residents overcome cultural and social barriers to smoke free air.

  10. Promotora de salud: promoting folic acid use among Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Flores, Alina; Mattia-Dewey, Daniel; Mai, Cara T

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that all women in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk of having a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect (NTD). However, disparities exist in the consumption of folic acid, with Hispanic women having lower rates of folic acid consumption than non-Hispanic white women. A community-based feasibility study was designed to assess the utility of the promotora de salud model to promote consumption of multivitamins containing folic acid for the prevention of NTDs among Spanish-speaking Hispanic women in North Carolina. The study consisted of an educational intervention given by a promotora (a lay, community health worker), with data collection occurring at baseline and four months post-intervention to measure changes in knowledge and behavior. Overall, 52% (n=303) of participants completed all components of the study. Self-reported daily multivitamin consumption increased from 24% at baseline to 71% four months post-intervention. During the same time frame, awareness of folic acid increased from 78% to 98% and knowledge of the role of folic acid in the prevention of birth defects increased from 82% to 92%. The results of this study indicate that the promotora de salud model may be effective in reaching a subpopulation of women with the folic acid message. Additional studies with larger population sizes are warranted to validate these findings.

  11. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  12. A Smaller Percent of Hispanic Children Have Special Health Care Needs: Is that Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Wong, Allen; Rojas, Jorge E; Perlman, Steven P

    The results from latest study of children with special health care needs indicate at the national and state levels that (except for Asian children) the proportion of Hispanic children with special needs is less than for other child populations. A review of a series of associated factors raises questions of the validity of these general national and state findings. The significant projected increases in the Hispanic population during the next decades points to the necessity of reconsidering the recent survey findings in light of what could be continued increases in the numbers of youngsters with special health care needs and the evolving family cultural adaptation, education and employment opportunities.

  13. The State of Hispanic Health, 1992. Facing the Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPIRA Association, Inc., Washington, DC. National Office.

    This publication offers an overview of the health of Hispanic Americans in the United States. Topics covered include the following: (1) Hispanic representation in health fields; (2) access to health care; (3) maternal and child health; (4) substance abuse; (5) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Hispanics; (6) Hispanic elderly; (7) migrant…

  14. Factors Affecting the Performance of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Marine Corps Enlistees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    NHSDG Non-High School Diploma Graduates OccFld Occupational Field OMB Office of Management and Budget OLS Ordinary Least Squares PC ASVAB Paragraph...and the te1m "Hispanic" be replaced by "Hispanic or Latino " (Federal Register, 1997). Although this changed how data was collected and stored, the...U.S. Census Bureau still uses the 1977 OMB definition of Hispanic or Latino (Humes et al., 2011). B. REPRESENTATION As indicated in Table 1, Panel 1

  15. Comparison of outcomes for African Americans, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites in the CATIE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Miller, Alexander L; Cañive, José M; Rosenheck, Robert A; Swartz, Marvin S; Mintz, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Medication outcome literature in schizophrenia across racial-ethnic groups is sparse, with inconsistent findings. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study provided an opportunity for exploratory analyses of racial-ethnic outcomes. The study objective was to examine race-ethnicity outcomes for CATIE's main outcome (study discontinuation) and secondary outcomes. CATIE participants included whites (non-Hispanic) (N=722), African Americans (N=506), and Hispanics (N=170). Survival analyses and mixed-effects regression modeling were conducted, with adjustment for baseline sociodemographic differences and baseline scores of the secondary outcomes. Racial-ethnic groups had unique patterns of outcomes. Hispanics were much more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy from perphenazine (64% versus 42% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans) and ziprasidone (71% versus 40% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans); Hispanics' quality of life also declined on these medications. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy in general (averaging olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone discontinuation rates). African Americans were less likely to continue after the first phase (32% continuing versus 40% for non-Hispanic whites and 41% Hispanics). Discontinuations were driven by research burden, personal issues, and unspecified loss to follow-up. Non-Hispanic whites had higher depression scores during the follow-up period. African Americans had fewer side effects. CATIE results did not show disparities favoring non-Hispanic whites. CATIE may have provided state-of-the-art treatment and thus reduced disparate treatments observed in community clinics. African Americans discontinued even after consideration of socioeconomic differences. Why perphenazine and ziprasidone may be less effective with Hispanics should be explored.

  16. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fun-gal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, A.; Marcel, T.C.; Confais, J.; Crane, C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Suffert, F.; Walker, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further

  17. Rapid increase in log populations in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2012-01-01

    Down logs provide important ecosystem services in forests and affect surface fuel loads and fire behavior. Amounts and kinds of logs are influenced by factors such as forest type, disturbance regime, forest man-agement, and climate. To quantify potential short-term changes in log populations during a recent global- climate-change type drought, we sampled logs in mixed-...

  18. Validation of the Mini-TQ in a Dutch-speaking population: a rapid assessment for tinnitus-related distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, S; Plazier, M; van der Loo, E; Ost, J; Meeus, O; Van de Heyning, P; De Ridder, D

    2011-01-01

    Up to 30% of the adult population experiences tinnitus at some point in life. The aim of the present study was to validate the Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) in a Dutch-speaking population for measuring tinnitus-related distress and compare it with the extended version normally used in clinical practice and research. We assessed 181 patients at the Tinnitus Research Initiative clinic of Antwerp University Hospital. Twelve items from the TQ chosen by Hiller and Goebel based on the optimal combination of high item correlation, reliability, and sensitivity were selected and correlated to the different subscale and global scores of the TQ. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the Guttman split-half coefficient was used to confirm reliability. Correlation to the global TQ score was .93, internal consistency was .87, and reliability was .89. This study further revealed that the Mini-TQ correlates better with the different subscales of the TQ in the Dutch-speaking population. The convergence validity was confirmed, ensuring that this new instrument measures distress. In addition, the norms suggested by Hiller and Goebel were verified and established. Based on these results, the Mini-TQ is recommended as a valid instrument for evaluating tinnitus-related distress in Dutch-speaking populations for a compact, quick, and economical assessment.

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Avonne E; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Pinkston, Christina M; Boone, Stephanie D; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Giuliano, Anna R; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-03-01

    Few epidemiological studies have included Hispanics with the evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking and breast cancer. We examined the relationship between cigarette smoking, ethnicity, and breast cancer risk using data from the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study (BCHDS). The BCHDS is a consortium of three population-based case-control studies, including U.S. non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) (1,525 cases; 1,593 controls), U.S. Hispanics/Native Americans (1,265 cases; 1,495 controls), and Mexican women (990 cases; 1,049 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Breast cancer risk was elevated among Mexican former smokers (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.04-1.96) and among those who smoked ≥ 31 years (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13-3.35), compared to never smokers. In addition, Mexican former smokers with a history of alcohol consumption had increased breast cancer risk (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.01-5.21). Among NHW premenopausal women, breast cancer risk was increased for smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes per day (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.07-2.41). Our findings suggest the possibility of ethnic differences with the associations between cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk.

  20. A Profile of Puerto Rican Health in the United States: Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1982-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Eric; And Others

    The health conditions and health status of Hispanic Americans will assume increased importance as their population increases. The goal of this book of charts is to present data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) on Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican HHANES sampling procedure is a multi-stage probability sample of…

  1. The Geology of Mexico: A Quantitative Evaluation of a Course Designed to Increase the Number of Hispanic Students Participating in the Geosciences at California State University, Sacramento

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Lisa C.; Levine, R.; Cornwell, K.; Kusnick, J. E.; Hausback, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of a newly developed introductory course, Geology of Mexico, in attracting Hispanic students, encouraging them to take more geology courses, and recruiting them to the major. The student population in the Geology of Mexico course was 93% Hispanic compared with 18.5% in Physical Geology. We…

  2. Factors Contributing to Successful Employment Outcomes for Hispanic Women Who Are Deaf: Utilization of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector and Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Amber M.

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic women who are deaf constitute a heterogeneous group of individuals with varying vocational needs. To understand the unique needs of this population, it is important to analyze how consumer characteristics, presence of public supports, and type of services provided influence employment outcomes for Hispanic women who are deaf. The purpose…

  3. Aprendiendo en Casa: Media as a Resource for Learning among Hispanic-Latino Families. A Report of the Families and Media Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June; Barron, Brigid

    2015-01-01

    The Hispanic-Latino population is one of the largest--and most diverse--demographics in the U.S. Aprendiendo en casa reveals findings from a national survey of Hispanic parents about their home media environments and practices, and their perceptions of their children's use of educational media across a range of different platforms. The report…

  4. Exploring opinions and beliefs about cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise

    2010-05-01

    Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.

  5. The Yo me cuido® Program: Addressing Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Among Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region.

  6. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.

  7. Rapid morphological changes, admixture and invasive success in populations of Ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) established in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gros , Ariane; Samadi , Sarah; Zuccon , Dario; Cornette , Raphaël; Braun , Michael P.; Senar , Juan Carlos; Clergeau , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), native of Asia and Africa, is a very successful invasive species in Europe: it has been present there for over 50 years. A recent study showed that European invasive populations occupy a colder climatic niche than in their native range but the establishment of this tropical species in temperate regions remains unexplained. Two main hypotheses may explain the success of Ring-necked parakeet in Europe: admixture between indi...

  8. A Historical Review of R. J. Reynolds’ Strategies for Marketing Tobacco to Hispanics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds’ marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February–July 2011 and April–August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  9. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  10. The impact of rapid population growth, expanding urbanisation, and other factors on development in sub-Saharan Africa: the contrasting responses of Tanzania and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, M J

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities.

  11. The Hispanic Stress Inventory Version 2: Improving the assessment of acculturation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Fisher, Dennis G; Padilla, Amado M; Napper, Lucy E

    2016-05-01

    This article reports on a 2-phase study to revise the Hispanic Stress Inventory (HSI; Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado de Snyder, 1991). The necessity for a revised stress-assessment instrument was determined by demographic and political shifts affecting Latin American immigrants and later-generation Hispanics in the United States in the 2 decades since the development of the HSI. The data for the revision of the HSI (termed the HSI2) was collected at 4 sites: Los Angeles, El Paso, Miami, and Boston, and included 941 immigrants and 575 U.S.-born Hispanics and a diverse population of Hispanic subgroups. The immigrant version of the HSI2 includes 10 stress subscales, whereas the U.S.-born version includes 6 stress subscales. Both versions of the HSI2 are shown to possess satisfactory Cronbach's alpha reliabilities and demonstrate expert-based content validity, as well as concurrent validity when correlated with subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001). The new HSI2 instruments are recommended for use by clinicians and researchers interested in assessing psychosocial stress among diverse Hispanic populations of various ethnic subgroups, age groups, and geographic location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The Trump Administration's assault on health and social programs: potential consequences for older Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Berlinger, Nancy

    2018-04-10

    Health and social welfare policy proposals put forth by the Trump administration and Republican-controlled Congress could have huge impacts on low-income groups. This paper focuses on older Hispanics, with an emphasis on the Mexican-origin population who form the largest Hispanic subgroup. A demographic portrait is presented that indicates that Mexican-origin individuals have less wealth and lower incomes than do non-Hispanic Whites. Given rising health care costs, lower use of nursing homes, and greater propensity to live with grown children, prevailing economic disadvantage has serious consequences for this population. More restrictive immigration policies aimed at limiting family reunification could have intergenerational caregiving consequences. In addition, because of labor-force disadvantages, low-income Mexican-origin adults are less likely to have private insurance compared to non-Hispanic Whites as they approach retirement. Consequently, Mexican-origin older adults tend to rely on Medicaid when eligible; in contrast, late-life migrants-who do not qualify for federally funded benefits for at least five years-and unauthorized migrants-who are excluded from federally funded benefits-have extremely limited access to safety net provisions. The potential effects of proposed cutbacks in health care financing on older Hispanics are discussed.

  14. A pre-Hispanic head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Bianucci

    Full Text Available This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability. Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS. This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.

  15. A pre-Hispanic head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Jeziorska, Maria; Lallo, Rudy; Mattutino, Grazia; Massimelli, Massimo; Phillips, Genevieve; Appenzeller, Otto

    2008-04-30

    This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS) compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability). Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury) incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS). This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.

  16. The need for a rapid and comprehensive adoption of the revised European standard population in cancer incidence comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Dyba, Tadek; Martos, Carmen; Randi, Giorgia; Rooney, Roisin; Bettio, Manola

    2017-09-01

    As cancer incidence varies according to age, it is important to rule out differences in age structures in any comparison. A common way of adjusting for these differences is using direct age standardization, which applies age-specific weights from a standard population. Eurostat has recently introduced a revised European standard population (RESP). The effect of using the new standard, in comparison with that introduced in 1976 [European standard population (ESP)], is evaluated. Cancer incidence data for prostate and testis cancer for Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Iceland from the NORDCAN web site, and for Ireland and Italy-Genoa from Cancer Incidence in five Continents-X, were analyzed. Incidence rates were directly age standardized using ESP and RESP. The RESP conferred greater weight to adults and the elderly than the ESP. For prostate cancer, age-standardized rates computed with RESP are consistently higher by between 50 and 60% than those computed with ESP. However, the use of RESP, instead of ESP, has little impact on the pattern of time trends, the relative ranking of countries, the values of relative risks, or the percentage differences between age-standardized rates. For testis cancer, RESP and ESP provide very similar results because this cancer is more common in young men. Both ESP and RESP are in circulation. It is, therefore, important that European cancer registries reach consensus on a single standard to use to avoid erroneous comparisons of data computed with different standards. Given that Eurostat recently introduced RESP and is using this standard for data collected from the European Union Member States, it would make sense to rally behind RESP.

  17. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M

    2017-01-01

    focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. Methods: We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four...... budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes...... and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs....

  18. Rapid differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes epidemic clones III and IV and their intact compared with heat-killed populations using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond B; Puzey, Kenneth A; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis (chemometrics) could be used to rapidly differentiate epidemic clones (ECs) of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as their intact compared with heat-killed populations. FT-IR spectra were collected from dried thin smears on infrared slides prepared from aliquots of 10 μL of each L. monocytogenes ECs (ECIII: J1-101 and R2-499; ECIV: J1-129 and J1-220), and also from intact and heat-killed cell populations of each EC strain using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared region in a reflectance mode. Chemometric analysis of spectra involved the application of the multivariate discriminant method for canonical variate analysis (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). CVA of the spectra in the wavelength region 4000 to 600 cm(-1) separated the EC strains while LDA resulted in a 100% accurate classification of all spectra in the data set. Further, CVA separated intact and heat-killed cells of each EC strain and there was 100% accuracy in the classification of all spectra when LDA was applied. FT-IR spectral wavenumbers 1650 to 1390 cm(-1) were used to separate heat-killed and intact populations of L. monocytogenes. The FT-IR spectroscopy method allowed discrimination between strains that belong to the same EC. FT-IR is a highly discriminatory and reproducible method that can be used for the rapid subtyping of L. monocytogenes, as well as for the detection of live compared with dead populations of the organism. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis can be used for L. monocytogenes source tracking and for clinical case isolate comparison during epidemiological investigations since the method is capable of differentiating epidemic clones and it uses a library of well-characterized strains. The FT-IR method is potentially less expensive and more rapid compared to genetic

  19. Native American Ancestry Affects the Risk for Gene Methylation in the Lungs of Hispanic Smokers from New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yushi; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Gauderman, W. James; Picchi, Maria A.; Bruse, Shannon E.; Zhang, Xiequn; Flores, Kristina G.; Van Den Berg, David; Stidley, Christine A.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Gene promoter methylation detected in sputum predicts lung cancer risk in smokers. Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW), Hispanics have a lower age-standardized incidence for lung cancer. Objectives: This study compared the methylation prevalence in sputum of NHWs with Hispanics using the Lovelace Smokers cohort (n = 1998) and evaluated the effect of Native American ancestry (NAA) and diet on biomarkers for lung cancer risk. Methods: Genetic ancestry was estimated using 48 ancestry markers. Diet was assessed by the Harvard University Dietary Assessment questionnaire. Methylation of 12 genes was measured in sputum using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The association between NAA and risk for methylation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. The ethnic difference in the association between pack-years and risk for lung cancer was assessed in the New Mexico lung cancer study. Measurements and Main Results: Overall Hispanics had a significantly increased risk for methylation across the 12 genes analyzed (odds ratio, 1.18; P = 0.007). However, the risk was reduced by 32% (P = 0.032) in Hispanics with high versus low NAA. In the New Mexico lung cancer study, Hispanic non–small cell lung cancer cases have significantly lower pack-years than NHW counterparts (P = 0.007). Furthermore, compared with NHW smokers, Hispanic smokers had a more rapidly increasing risk for lung cancer as a function of pack-years (P = 0.058). Conclusions: NAA may be an important risk modifier for methylation in Hispanic smokers. Smoking intensity may have a greater impact on risk for lung cancer in Hispanics compared with NHWs. PMID:24032348

  20. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES IN IC348: A RAPID DECLINE IN THE POPULATION OF SMALL DUST GRAINS AFTER 1 Myr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Williams, Jonathan P.; Cieza, Lucas A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in the 2-3 Myr old cluster, IC348, with the Submillimeter Array. We observed 85 young stellar objects and detected 10 with 1.3 mm fluxes greater than 2 mJy. The brightest source is a young embedded protostar driving a molecular outflow. The other nine detections are dusty disks around optically visible stars. Our millimeter flux measurements translate into total disk masses ranging from 2 to 6 Jupiter masses. Each detected disk has strong mid-infrared emission in excess of the stellar photosphere and has Hα equivalent widths larger than the average in the cluster and indicative of ongoing gas accretion. The disk mass distribution, however, is shifted by about a factor of 20 to lower masses, compared to that in the ∼1 Myr old Taurus and Ophiuchus regions. These observations reveal the rapid decline in the number of small dust grains in disks with time and probably their concomitant growth beyond millimeter sizes. Moreover, if IC348 is to form planets in the same proportion as detected in the field, these faint millimeter detections may represent the best candidates in the cluster to study the progression from planetesimals to planets.

  1. Cooperative Learning in Higher Education: Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Undergraduates' Reflections on Group Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bobbette M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to share reflections from 140 non-Hispanic undergraduate students and 83 Hispanic students who have participated in cooperative written examinations for group grades. Reflections are clustered by themes identified from the students' comments using Van Manen's (1990) hermeneutic phenomonological approach, which is how…

  2. American, Hispanic, Spanish-Speaking? Hispanic Immigrants and the Question of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores Hispanics' concepts of cultural and linguistic identity. It is based on the findings of a recent study conducted by the author in Iglesia hispana de Cristo, a Hispanic church community in Western New York. Data come from ethnographic interviews conducted with 48 participants aged 13 to 80 years and with church leaders and…

  3. Friendships Influence Hispanic Students' Implicit Attitudes toward White Non-Hispanics Relative to African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…

  4. Validation of the Spanish and English versions of the asthma portion of the Brief Pediatric Asthma Screen Plus among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Carolyn A; Quinn, Kelly; Wolf, Raoul; Mosnaim, Giselle; Shalowitz, Madeleine

    2005-07-01

    The health and health care needs of non-English-speaking Hispanic families with children are poorly understood, in part because they are often excluded from research owing to language barriers. Instruments that are valid in English and Spanish are necessary to accurately evaluate the magnitude of asthma prevalence and morbidity among Hispanics. To establish the sensitivity and specificity of the English and Spanish versions of the asthma portion of the Brief Pediatric Asthma Screen Plus (BPAS+) in a low-income Hispanic population. The validation sample consisted of 145 children whose parents completed the BPAS+ in Spanish and 78 whose parents completed it in English. Bilingual clinicians conducted the examinations on which the clinical assessments were based. We compared the BPAS+ results with the clinical assessment findings to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the BPAS + among Hispanics in terms of identifying children who warrant further medical evaluation for asthma. The sensitivity and specificity of the asthma portion of the Spanish BPAS+ were 74% and 86%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the asthma portion of the English BPAS+ were 61% and 83%, respectively. The asthma portion of the BPAS+, a valid screen for identifying children who are in need of further evaluation for potentially undiagnosed asthma, is valid for low-income Hispanics in Spanish and English. As the Hispanic population continues to grow, it is imperative that researchers have English and Spanish instruments that are valid for this population.

  5. Quantitative autistic trait measurements index background genetic risk for ASD in Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Joshua; Constantino, John Nicholas; Zambrana, Katherine; Martin, Eden; Tunc, Ilker; Zhang, Yi; Abbacchi, Anna; Messinger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that quantitative autistic traits (QATs) of parents reflect inherited liabilities that may index background genetic risk for clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their offspring. Moreover, preferential mating for QATs has been observed as a potential factor in concentrating autistic liabilities in some families across generations. Heretofore, intergenerational studies of QATs have focused almost exclusively on Caucasian populations-the present study explored these phenomena in a well-characterized Hispanic population. The present study examined QAT scores in siblings and parents of 83 Hispanic probands meeting research diagnostic criteria for ASD, and 64 non-ASD controls, using the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2). Ancestry of the probands was characterized by genotype, using information from 541,929 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. In families of Hispanic children with an ASD diagnosis, the pattern of quantitative trait correlations observed between ASD-affected children and their first-degree relatives (ICCs on the order of 0.20), between unaffected first-degree relatives in ASD-affected families (sibling/mother ICC = 0.36; sibling/father ICC = 0.53), and between spouses (mother/father ICC = 0.48) were in keeping with the influence of transmitted background genetic risk and strong preferential mating for variation in quantitative autistic trait burden. Results from analysis of ancestry-informative genetic markers among probands in this sample were consistent with that from other Hispanic populations. Quantitative autistic traits represent measurable indices of inherited liability to ASD in Hispanic families. The accumulation of autistic traits occurs within generations, between spouses, and across generations, among Hispanic families affected by ASD. The occurrence of preferential mating for QATs-the magnitude of which may vary across cultures-constitutes a mechanism by which background genetic liability

  6. A survey of a population of anaesthesiologists from South India regarding practices for rapid sequence intubation in patients with head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyen Parida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Evidence and utility of the individual steps of the rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation protocols have been debated, especially in the setting of traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this survey was to determine preferences in the current approach to rapid sequence intubation ( RSI in head injury patients among a population of anaesthesiologists from South India. Methods: A questionnaire was E-mailed to all the members of the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists′ South Zone Chapter to ascertain their preferences, experience and comfort level with regard to their use of rapid sequence intubation techniques in adult patients with head injury. Participants were requested to indicate their practices for RSI technique for a head-injured patient upon arrival at the Emergency Medical Services department of their hospital. Results: The total response rate was 56.9% (530/932. Of the total respondents, 35% of the clinicians used cricoid pressure routinely, most respondents (68% stated that they pre-oxygenate the patients for about 3 min prior to RSI, thiopentone (61% and propofol (34% were commonly used prior to intubation. Rocuronium was the muscle relaxant of choice for RSI among the majority (44%, compared to succinylcholine (39%. Statistical analyses were performed after the initial entry onto a spreadsheet. Data were summarised descriptively using frequency distribution. Conclusion: In a rapid sequence intubation situation, the practice differed significantly among anaesthesiologists. Owing to disagreements and paucity of evidence-based data regarding the standards of RSI, it is apparent that RSI practice still has considerable variability in clinical practice.

  7. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates.

  8. The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Access in Breast Cancer Screening Compliance Among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Smruti; Rajan, Suja S; Abughosh, Susan; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2015-01-01

    Considerable disparities in breast cancer screening exist between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Identifying and quantifying the factors contributing to these racial-ethnic disparities can help shape interventions and policies aimed at reducing these disparities. This study, for the first time, identified and quantified individual-level sociodemographic and health-related factors that contribute to racial-ethnic disparities in breast cancer screening using the nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. Analysis of the retrospective pooled cross-sectional Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2000 to 2010 was conducted. Women aged 40 years and older were included in the study. Logistic regressions were used to estimate racial-ethnic disparities in breast cancer screening. Nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was used to identify and quantify the contribution of each individual-level factor toward racial-ethnic disparities. Based on the unadjusted analyses, Hispanic women had lower odds of receiving mammogram screening (MS) (odds ratio [OR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.80) and breast cancer screening (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.70-0.81) as compared with NHW women. However, the relationship reversed in adjusted analyses, such that Hispanic women had higher odds of receiving MS (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.16-1.40) and breast cancer screening (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.17-1.40) as compared with NHW women. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition estimated that improving insurance status, access to care, education, and income will considerably increase screening rates among Hispanic women. The study projects that improving health care access and health education will considerably increase breast cancer screening compliance among Hispanic women. Policies like the Affordable Care Act, and patient navigation and health education interventions, might considerably reduce screening disparities in the Hispanic population.

  9. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children’s body mass index and adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...

  10. ?Cuan buenas son nuestras viviendas?: Los hispanos [How Good Is Our Housing? Hispanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezer, Anthony; Limmer, Ruth

    This report provides statistical information regarding the quality and cost of housing occupied by Hispanic Americans throughout the United States. Some of the findings include: (1) Hispanos occupy older and worse dwellings than the general U.S. population, with a significant number of dwellings lacking heat and adequate electricity and plumbing…

  11. Risk/Protective Factors for Alcohol Use among Hispanic and White Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Ortiz, Maria; Newcomb, Michael D.

    Changing alcohol and drug use patterns among women and ethnic minorities, such as the over-representation of Hispanics in alcohol-related deaths, drunk driving arrests, and treatment facilities, emphasize the importance of understanding substance use patterns in these populations. This study attempted to identify a single cause of substance abuse…

  12. Focus-Group Evaluation of Nutrition Education Displays by Hispanic Adults Who Live in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Delores H.; Munoz, Alejandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of visual displays of nutrition educational information for low-income Hispanic adults in the USA and to determine whether this population have different perceptions of the same nutrition education displays or express different needs than low-income Caucasian…

  13. COHORT EFFECTS OF SUICIDE MORTALITY ARE SEX SPECIFIC IN THE RAPIDLY DEVELOPED HONG KONG CHINESE POPULATION, 1976-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y; Yip, Benjamin H K; Chan, Sandra S M; Wong, Samuel Y S

    2016-06-01

    To examine temporal variations of age, period, and cohort on suicide mortality rate in Hong Kong (HK) from 1976 to 2010, and speculate the macroenvironmental mechanisms of the observed trends. Poisson age-period-cohort modeling was used to delineate the effects of age, period, and cohort on suicide mortality. Analysis by sex was also conducted to examine if gender difference exists for suicidal behaviours. Age-cohort model provides the best fit to the mortality data, implying that the cohort effect is likely to explain more of the contributions to HK's suicide mortality pattern than the period effect. Risk of suicide mortality increases nonlinearly with age and accelerates after age 65-69 for both sexes. Moreover, the cohort effects differ between the sexes-risk of mortality increases continually for men born after 1961, but no change is observed for women since the 1941 cohort. With increased risk of suicide mortality in younger cohorts and the age effect of suicide mortality, we may see future increase in suicide mortality as these younger cohorts age. Further studies are needed to clarify plausible associations between broader sociohistorical changes in the population impacting psychological risk factors and suicidal behaviour to better inform suicide prevention strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Promoting Multivitamins to Hispanic Adolescents and Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mackert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs can be reduced by 50% to 70% with sufficient periconceptional intake of folic acid. Hispanic women are up to 3 times more likely than non-Hispanics to have a child affected by NTDs. This disparity is complicated by health literacy, as women impacted by this disparity are also at-risk for low health literacy. The purpose of this project was to pilot advertisements to promote multivitamins, increasing folic acid consumption, among Hispanic adolescents. The advertisements for Hispanic adolescents and their mothers focused on broad benefits of a multivitamin, downplaying folic acid’s role in prenatal health. Participants were Hispanic mothers (n = 25 and adolescents (n = 25 at a clinic in the Southwestern United States. Likert-type survey items and an open-ended question were used to assess attitudes toward multivitamins and advertisements. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS was used to assess participants’ health literacy. Participants’ impressions of the ads were positive. Both groups expressed the intent to start taking a daily multivitamin after viewing the ads—adolescents for themselves and mothers to start their daughters on a daily multivitamin. There was no relationship between participants’ health literacy and perceptions of the advertisements or intentions to begin a multivitamin habit. This research illustrates the potential of messages that rely on peripheral health benefits to overcome communication barriers posed by health literacy and address serious health problems such as NTDs.

  15. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  16. Genetic Affiliation of Pre-Hispanic and Contemporary Mayas Through Maternal Linage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna Isabel; Muñoz, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Ramírez, Gerardo; Beaty, Kristine G; López-Armenta, Mauro; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Moreno-Galeana, Miguel; Meza, Adrián Martínez; Ramos, Eduardo; Crawford, Michael H; Romano-Pacheco, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE. Genetic variation in the pre-Hispanic Mayas from archaeological sites in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, and Tabasco and their relationship with the contemporary communities in these regions have not been previously studied. Consequently, the principal aim of this study was to determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the pre-Hispanic Maya population and to assess the relationship of these individuals with contemporary Mesoamerican Maya and populations from Asia, Beringia, and North, Central, and South America. Our results revealed interactions and gene flow between populations in the different archaeological sites assessed in this study. The mtDNA haplogroup frequency in the pre-Hispanic Maya population (60.53%, 34.21%, and 5.26% for haplogroups A, C, and D, respectively) was similar to that of most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, with haplogroup A exhibiting the highest frequency. Haplogroup B most likely arrived independently and mixed with populations carrying haplogroups A and C based on its absence in the pre-Hispanic Mexican Maya populations and low frequencies in most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, although this also may be due to drift. Maya and Ciboneys sharing haplotype H10 belonged to haplogroup C1 and haplotype H4 of haplogroup D, suggesting shared regional haplotypes. This may indicate a shared genetic ancestry, suggesting more regional interaction

  17. From Sea to Shining Sea and the Great Plains to Patagonia: A Review on Current Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Larissa Avilés-Santa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed many advances in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM and its complications. Increased screening has led to a greater recognition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM and prediabetes; however, Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority group in the US, have not fully benefited from these advances. The Hispanic/Latino population is highly diverse in ancestries, birth places, cultures, languages, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and it populates most of the Western Hemisphere. In the US, the prevalence of DM varies among Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, being higher among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans, and lower among South Americans. The risk and prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos are significantly higher than in non-Hispanic Whites, and nearly 40% of Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes have not been formally diagnosed. Despite these striking facts, the representation of Hispanics/Latinos in pharmacological and non-pharmacological clinical trials has been suboptimal, while the prevalence of diabetes in these populations continues to rise. This review will focus on the epidemiology, etiology and prevention of type 2 DM in populations of Latin American origin. We will set the stage by defining the terms Hispanic, Latino, and Latin American, explaining the challenges identifying Hispanics/Latinos in the scientific literature and databases, describing the epidemiology of diabetes—including type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM—and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America, and discussing trends, and commonalities and differences across studies and populations, including methodology to ascertain diabetes. We will discuss studies on mechanisms of disease, and research on prevention of type 2 DM in Hispanics/Latinos, including women with GDM, youth and adults; and finalize with a discussion on lessons learned and opportunities

  18. From Sea to Shining Sea and the Great Plains to Patagonia: A Review on Current Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Santa, M. Larissa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Lindberg, Nangel M.; Mattei, Josiemer; Pasquel, Francisco J.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed many advances in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Increased screening has led to a greater recognition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and prediabetes; however, Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority group in the US, have not fully benefited from these advances. The Hispanic/Latino population is highly diverse in ancestries, birth places, cultures, languages, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and it populates most of the Western Hemisphere. In the US, the prevalence of DM varies among Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, being higher among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans, and lower among South Americans. The risk and prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos are significantly higher than in non-Hispanic Whites, and nearly 40% of Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes have not been formally diagnosed. Despite these striking facts, the representation of Hispanics/Latinos in pharmacological and non-pharmacological clinical trials has been suboptimal, while the prevalence of diabetes in these populations continues to rise. This review will focus on the epidemiology, etiology and prevention of type 2 DM in populations of Latin American origin. We will set the stage by defining the terms Hispanic, Latino, and Latin American, explaining the challenges identifying Hispanics/Latinos in the scientific literature and databases, describing the epidemiology of diabetes—including type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)—and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America, and discussing trends, and commonalities and differences across studies and populations, including methodology to ascertain diabetes. We will discuss studies on mechanisms of disease, and research on prevention of type 2 DM in Hispanics/Latinos, including women with GDM, youth and adults; and finalize with a discussion on lessons learned and opportunities to enhance

  19. From Sea to Shining Sea and the Great Plains to Patagonia: A Review on Current Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Lindberg, Nangel M; Mattei, Josiemer; Pasquel, Francisco J; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed many advances in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Increased screening has led to a greater recognition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and prediabetes; however, Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority group in the US, have not fully benefited from these advances. The Hispanic/Latino population is highly diverse in ancestries, birth places, cultures, languages, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and it populates most of the Western Hemisphere. In the US, the prevalence of DM varies among Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, being higher among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans, and lower among South Americans. The risk and prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos are significantly higher than in non-Hispanic Whites, and nearly 40% of Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes have not been formally diagnosed. Despite these striking facts, the representation of Hispanics/Latinos in pharmacological and non-pharmacological clinical trials has been suboptimal, while the prevalence of diabetes in these populations continues to rise. This review will focus on the epidemiology, etiology and prevention of type 2 DM in populations of Latin American origin. We will set the stage by defining the terms Hispanic, Latino , and Latin American , explaining the challenges identifying Hispanics/Latinos in the scientific literature and databases, describing the epidemiology of diabetes-including type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America, and discussing trends, and commonalities and differences across studies and populations, including methodology to ascertain diabetes. We will discuss studies on mechanisms of disease, and research on prevention of type 2 DM in Hispanics/Latinos, including women with GDM, youth and adults; and finalize with a discussion on lessons learned and opportunities to enhance research

  20. Genome-wide scan in Hispanics highlights candidate loci for brain white matter hyperintensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Ashley; Dong, Chuanhui; Wright, Clinton B; Dueker, Nicole; Brickman, Adam M; Wang, Liyong; DeCarli, Charles; Blanton, Susan H; Rundek, Tatjana; Mayeux, Richard; Sacco, Ralph L

    2017-10-01

    To investigate genetic variants influencing white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in the understudied Hispanic population. Using 6.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with WMH volume (WMHV) in 922 Hispanics who underwent brain MRI as a cross-section of 2 community-based cohorts in the Northern Manhattan Study and the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project. Multiple linear modeling with PLINK was performed to examine the additive genetic effects on ln(WMHV) after controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, and principal components of ancestry. Gene-based tests of association were performed using VEGAS. Replication was performed in independent samples of Europeans, African Americans, and Asians. From the SNP analysis, a total of 17 independent SNPs in 7 genes had suggestive evidence of association with WMHV in Hispanics ( p < 1 × 10 -5 ) and 5 genes from the gene-based analysis with p < 1 × 10 -3 . One SNP (rs9957475 in GATA6 ) and 1 gene ( UBE2C ) demonstrated evidence of association ( p < 0.05) in the African American sample. Four SNPs with p < 1 × 10 -5 were shown to affect binding of SPI1 using RegulomeDB. This GWAS of 2 community-based Hispanic cohorts revealed several novel WMH-associated genetic variants. Further replication is needed in independent Hispanic samples to validate these suggestive associations, and fine mapping is needed to pinpoint causal variants.

  1. Can Economic Deprivation Protect Health? Paradoxical Multilevel Effects of Poverty on Hispanic Children’s Wheezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W.; Kim, Young-an; Grineski, Sara E.; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA) at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children’s current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor’s asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status) at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children’s wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor) Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health. PMID:25101769

  2. Can Economic Deprivation Protect Health? Paradoxical Multilevel Effects of Poverty on Hispanic Children’s Wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy W. Collins

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children’s current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor’s asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children’s wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health.

  3. Familism and Social Inclusion: Hispanics in New London, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amparo Cruz-Saco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the financial support and inclusiveness within Hispanic families in New London, Connecticut, and the causes of their social exclusion in the larger society. We designed and administered a survey of 114 items that was answered by 148 participants representing 1.3% of the non-Puerto Rican Hispanic population. Using factor analysis, we reduced a large number of items in two familism scores to four latent factors: "Financial Support for Family", "Obligation to Family", "Plan to Return", and "Filial Responsibility". We found that financial support for family and obligation to family are strongly endorsed by participants. Approximately one-half would return back to their home countries where they believe to be happier. One-fifth rejects this option. Three-quarters of participants remit money to family, parents in particular, who reside in countries of origin. In contrast to other studies, remitting money is not affected by any given personal characteristic such as gender, income or level of education. Similarly, participants remit irrespective of their degree of self-reported familism measured by scores on the latent factors. A large incidence of poverty among this population, lack of English proficiency, low skills, immigration status, and a lack of voice and political representation inhibit their social inclusion.

  4. A case of probable non-familial early onset Alzheimer dementia in a Hispanic male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Ephrussi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early onset Alzheimer's type dementia (EOAD is usually familial and associated with mutations in the Presenilin-1 (PSEN1, Presenilin-2 (PSEN2 or amyloid precursor protein (APP genes. It is rarely reported in patients of Hispanic descent. Case report: A 49-year-old Hispanic male developed significant cognitive impairment over a 4-year period. PET scan showed diminished metabolic activity in the posterior parietal/temporal lobes. Genetic testing revealed the presence of a PSEN1 gene mutation. Conclusion: Disparities in health care may account for an under-recognition of EOAD in the Hispanic population. Clinicians should test for EOAD in all patients with appropriate symptomatology, regardless of ethnicity. Early recognition and enrollment in clinical trials is vital to enhancing our understanding of the natural history and treatment of this condition.

  5. Hispanic women's health care provider control expectations: the influence of fatalism and acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Berenson, Abbey B

    2011-05-01

    In order to understand how culture influences Hispanic women's views about their health care provider (HCP), we examined the relationship between acculturation and fatalism in the HCP control expectations of Hispanic women. (A HCP control expectation is the extent to which an individual believes that her HCP has control over her health.) We predicted that acculturation would be negatively associated with HCP control expectations, and fatalism would be positively associated with HCP control expectations. A group of 1,027 young Hispanic women (mean age 21.24 years; SD=2.46) who were University of Texas Medical Branch clinic patients completed a comprehensive survey. Structural equation modeling was employed and, as predicted, acculturation was negatively associated with HCP control expectations (pexpectations will help us understand this population's perceptions of their HCPs. This knowledge will assist HCPs in providing culturally competent care which will increase adherence to medical treatment and screening guidelines.

  6. Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Obesity in Hispanic Manufacturing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Grant; Ghaddar, Suad F; Talavera-Garza, Liza

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between obesity and sleep duration among Hispanic manufacturing workers. Two hundred and twenty eight Hispanic workers from eight manufacturing plants completed an in-person interview that included measures of demographics, health literacy, and sleep duration. Height and weight were directly assessed. A logistic regression, controlling for gender, education, age, income, physical activity levels, self-reported health status, and health literacy, indicated that workers who slept six hours or less were significantly more likely to be obese than those sleeping seven to nine hours (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.04-3.47). Our results extend previous research on the association between sleep duration and obesity to an understudied population of Hispanic workers.

  7. Exploratory factor analysis of borderline personality disorder criteria in monolingual Hispanic outpatients with substance use disorders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F.; Añez, Luis Miguel; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) in Hispanic patients. Subjects were 130 monolingual Hispanic adults who had been admitted to a specialty outpatient clinic that provides psychiatric and substance abuse services to Spanish-speaking individuals. All were reliably assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. After evaluating internal consistency of the BPD criterion set, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using principal axis factoring. Results suggested a unidimensional structure, and were consistent with similar studies of the DSM-IV criteria for BPD in non-Hispanic samples. These findings have implications for understanding borderline psychopathology in this population, and for the overall validity of the DSM-IV BPD construct. PMID:20472296

  8. How did Japanese rural dwellers become rapidly healthier in the two decades following World War II?: Examining the diverse policy interventions that improved the population's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    policies implemented in Japan as well as the integration of various policies and programs addressing livelihoods, economics, and education greatly improved the population's health in a relatively short time. These non-health initiatives intersected with a wide range of health determinants. Verifying these hypotheses in detail would help develop effective measures for international aid to poverty-stricken regions. It also encourages alternative ways through which Japan could overcome its present-day challenges such as a rapidly aging population with limited access to national schemes for social security.

  9. Sexual health among U.S. black and Hispanic men and women: a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of sexual behaviors among the black and Hispanic populations in the United States outside the context of sexual risk and disease transmission in "high-risk" samples. This study sought to establish current rates of sexual behaviors, sexual health care practices (i.e., experiences with testing and diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections [STIs]), and condom use in a probability sample of black and Hispanic adult men and women in the United States. Sexual behaviors including solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, receiving oral sex and giving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse were assessed. Self-reported rates of HIV and other STI testing, and self-reported history of STI diagnosis were examined. Also assessed were rates of condom use during most recent and past 10 vaginal intercourse events. Data from a probability sample of 1246 black and Hispanic adults were analyzed to explore sexual behaviors, condom use, and STI testing and diagnosis trends. Masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse were prevalent among black and Hispanic men and women throughout the life course. Anal intercourse and same-gender sexual activities were less common. Self-reported rates of HIV testing were relatively high but varied by gender across age groups. Similarly, rates of testing for other STI were high and differed by gender across age groups. Overall rates of condom use among black and Hispanic men and women were relatively high and did not appear to be related to a variety of situational factors including location of sexual encounter, relationship status, other contraceptive use, and substance use during sexual activity. These data provide a foundation for understanding diverse sexual behaviors, sexual health-care practices, and condom use among the general population of black and Hispanic men and women in the United States. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Science Is "Ciencia": Meeting the Needs of Hispanic American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Bermudez, Andrea B.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews some of the factors known to influence the achievement and retention of Hispanic Americans in technologically related fields. Discusses directions in which research should focus to meet the needs of Hispanic-American students. (PR)

  11. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  12. Differential equilibration and intergranular diffusion of trace elements during rapid regional metamorphism: constraints from LA-ICP-MS mapping of a garnet population

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F. R.; Gaidies, F.

    2017-12-01

    Trace element zoning contained within a metapelitic garnet population yields information pertaining to a more complex prograde reaction history than is evident in major element zoning patterns and other conventional analyses. In particular, while trace elements may not act as a rate-limiting component for garnet crystallization, their incorporation into garnet growth surfaces provides a nuanced insight into the crystallization history of the population, and the extent of equilibration of trace elements in the matrix. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS raster maps of trace element concentrations from several population-representative, centrally sectioned garnets from a garnet-grade metapelite of the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Equilibrium forward modeling of garnet crystallization and simulation of diffusional modification indicates that the garnet population crystallized rapidly over <1 Myr between 515 °C/4.5 kbar and 565 °C/5.5 kbar, as a consequence of high heating rates during regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism. While the rate of diffusional homogenization of major divalent cations is interpreted to have exceeded the rate of interfacial advance (yielding simple prograde growth zoning), trace element distributions record a more complex transport history. In particular, yttrium and the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) document a transition from an overprinted sigmoidal core to concentric repeated HREE and yttrium annuli in all crystals. This suggests that there was a discrete increase in the length scale of equilibration along the advancing garnet interface at some point in the growth history. However, there is no evidence for a coeval change in HREE transport thorough the intergranular network. Conversely, spiral core-to-rim zoning of chromium indicates the element remains almost completely immobile in the matrix over the duration of garnet growth.

  13. Statistical Profile of Older Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all older Americans (10.2 percent). *Income and poverty estimates are based on redesigned income questions from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. SELF-RATED ...

  14. Tuberculosis in Hispanics/Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barriers to treatment of this disease. Language and cultural barriers, including health knowledge, stigma associated with the disease, values, and beliefs may also place certain populations at higher risk. ...

  15. Predictors of Participation in Mammography Screening among non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Melvin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors influence women’s decisions to participate in guideline recommended screening mammography. We evaluated the influence of women’s socioeconomic characteristics, healthcare access, and cultural and psychological healthcare preferences on timely mammography screening participation.Materials and methods: A random digit dial survey of United States non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic women ages 40-75, from January-August 2009 determined self- reported time of most recent mammogram. Screening rates were assessed based on receipt of a screening mammogram within the prior 12 months, the interval recommended at the time by the American Cancer Society.Results: Thirty-nine percent of women reported not having a mammogram within the last 12 months. The odds of not having had a screening mammography was higher for non-Hispanic White women than for non-Hispanic Black (OR=2.16, 95% CI=0.26, 0.82, p=0.009 or Hispanic (OR=4.17, 95% CI=0.12, 0.48, p=0.01 women. Lack of health insurance (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.54, 6.73, p=0.002 and lack of usual source of medical care (OR=3.37, 95% CI=1.43, 7.94, p=0.01 were associated with not being screened as were lower self-efficacy to obtain screening (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.26, 4.73, p=0.01 and greater levels of religiosity and spirituality (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00, 2.00, p=0.05. Neither perceived risk nor present temporal orientation was significant.Discussion: Odds of not having a mammogram increased if women were uninsured, without medical care, non-Hispanic white, older in age, not confident in their ability to obtain screening, or held passive or external religious/spiritual values. Results are encouraging given racial disparities in healthcare participation and suggest that efforts to increase screening among minority women may be working.

  16. Hispanic Americans in the News in Two Southwestern Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Judy VanSlyke; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines how Hispanic Americans and Hispanic issues were covered by daily newspapers in New Mexico and Texas, two states where complaints relating to media coverage were investigated by state human rights commissions. Reports that Hispanics appear to be receiving ample and fair coverage in San Antonio, Texas, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. (MM)

  17. The Supply and Demand of High-Achieving Hispanic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurantz, Oded; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States, increasing almost six-fold from 1970 to 2014. Although Hispanics youth in the U.S. have traditionally had lower college attendance rates, some sources suggest a narrowing of the White-Hispanic postsecondary attendance gap over the last fifteen years. A key question is whether altering…

  18. Oklahoma City's Emerging Hispanic Community: New Partnerships, New Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinders, Mark A.; Pope, Myron L.

    2016-01-01

    The University of Central Oklahoma's new strategic plan sought to increase its connection to the emerging Hispanic community in Oklahoma City. Simultaneously, the Greater Oklahoma City Hispanic Chamber of Commerce was seeking a higher education partner. This case study describes resulting new programs for Hispanic students and businesses. The…

  19. Alternative Definitions of Hispanics: Consequences in a Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul

    1986-01-01

    Examines impact of different definitions of Hispanic ethnicity on sociodemographic characteristics, drinking patterns, and rate of alcohol problems among 1,453 Hispanic-American respondents. Defines Hispanic ethnicity by ethnicity of family of origin, national group, country most ancestors came from, and birthplace. Finds major differences between…

  20. Reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a calcium food frequency questionnaire for use in Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette S; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2015-04-01

    A dietary assessment instrument designed for use in a nationally representative pediatric population was required to examine associations between calcium intake and bone mineral accrual in a large, multicenter study. To determine the reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a youth calcium food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multiracial/ethnic sample of children and adolescents. Reproducibility (n=69) and intermethod reliability (n=393) studies were conducted by administering repeat FFQs and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls to stratified random samples of individuals participating in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study. Children and adolescents ages 5 to 21 years. Calcium intake estimated from the FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls. Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intermethod reliability was assessed by deattenuated Pearson correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls. Attenuation factors and calibration corrected effect estimates for bone density were calculated to determine the potential influence of measurement error on associations with health outcomes. The ICC (0.61) for repeat administrations and deattenuated Pearson correlation between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls (r=0.60) for all subjects indicated reproducibility and intermethod reliability (Pearson r=0.50 to 0.74 across sex and age groups). Attenuation factors were ≤0.50 for all sex and age groups and lower for non-Hispanic blacks (λ=0.20) and Hispanics (λ=0.26) than for non-Hispanic whites (λ=0.42). The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study calcium FFQ appears to provide a useful tool for assessing calcium intake in children and adolescents drawn from multiracial/ethnic populations and/or spanning a wide age range. However, similar to other FFQs, attenuation factors were substantially <1, indicating the potential for appreciable measurement error bias. Calibration correction should be performed and racial/ethnic differences

  1. Evaluation of Performance of Two Rapid Tests for Detection of HIV-1 and -2 in High- and Low-Prevalence Populations in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Mark M; Njoku, Ogbonnaya S; Shutt, Ashley; Malia, Jennifer; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Milazzo, Mark; Suleiman, Aminu; Ogundeji, Amos A; Nelson, Robert; Ayemoba, Ojor R; O'Connell, Robert J; Singer, Darrell E; Michael, Nelson L; Peel, Sheila A

    2015-11-01

    The availability of reliable human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1/2) rapid tests in resource-limited settings represents an important advancement in the accurate diagnosis of HIV infection and presents opportunities for implementation of effective prevention and treatment interventions among vulnerable populations. A study of the potential target populations for future HIV vaccine studies examined the prevalence of HIV infections at six selected sites in Nigeria and evaluated the use of two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for HIV. The populations included market workers at sites adjacent to military installations and workers at highway settlements (truck stops) who may have a heightened risk of HIV exposure. Samples from 3,187 individuals who provided informed consent were tested in parallel using the Determine (DT) and Stat-Pak (SP) RDTs; discordant results were subjected to the Uni-Gold (UG) RDT as a tiebreaker. The results were compared to those of a third-generation enzyme immunoassay screen with confirmation of repeat reactive samples by HIV-1 Western blotting. One participant was HIV-2 infected, yielding positive results on both RDTs. Using the laboratory algorithm as a gold standard, we calculated sensitivities of 98.5% (confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 99.8%) for DT and 98.1% (CI, 96.7 to 99.6%) for SP and specificities of 98.7% (CI, 98.3 -99.1%) for DT and 99.8% (CI, 99.6 to 100%) for SP. Similar results were obtained when the sites were stratified into those of higher HIV prevalence (9.4% to 22.8%) versus those of lower prevalence (3.2% to 7.3%). A parallel two-test algorithm requiring both DT and SP to be positive resulted in the highest sensitivity (98.1%; CI, 96.7 to 99.6%) and specificity (99.97%; CI, 99.9 to 100%) relative to those for the reference laboratory algorithm. Copyright © 2015, Manak et al.

  2. Hispanic women overcoming deterrents to computer science: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Lourdes

    The products of computer science are important to all aspects of society and are tools in the solution of the world's problems. It is, therefore, troubling that the United States faces a shortage in qualified graduates in computer science. The number of women and minorities in computer science is significantly lower than the percentage of the U.S. population which they represent. The overall enrollment in computer science programs has continued to decline with the enrollment of women declining at a higher rate than that of men. This study addressed three aspects of underrepresentation about which there has been little previous research: addressing computing disciplines specifically rather than embedding them within the STEM disciplines, what attracts women and minorities to computer science, and addressing the issues of race/ethnicity and gender in conjunction rather than in isolation. Since women of underrepresented ethnicities are more severely underrepresented than women in general, it is important to consider whether race and ethnicity play a role in addition to gender as has been suggested by previous research. Therefore, this study examined what attracted Hispanic women to computer science specifically. The study determines whether being subjected to multiple marginalizations---female and Hispanic---played a role in the experiences of Hispanic women currently in computer science. The study found five emergent themes within the experiences of Hispanic women in computer science. Encouragement and role models strongly influenced not only the participants' choice to major in the field, but to persist as well. Most of the participants experienced a negative atmosphere and feelings of not fitting in while in college and industry. The interdisciplinary nature of computer science was the most common aspect that attracted the participants to computer science. The aptitudes participants commonly believed are needed for success in computer science are the Twenty

  3. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  4. A Language Challenge to the Hispanic American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Miguel A.

    The Hispanic-American, because he or she is bilingual and bicultural, could play an important role in the future economic development of the United States. Declines in steel, automotive, and electronics industries due to foreign competition and market saturation have caused industrial displacement and unemployment. The Maquiladora or Twin Plant…

  5. The Hispanic Experience of Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, Peter L.

    This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…

  6. Predictors of College Adjustment among Hispanic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal and interpersonal predictors of college adjustment among a sample of 190 first-year Hispanic students. Specifically, we examined the extent to which personal factors such as self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity and interpersonal factors such as parental education and parental attachment…

  7. Charter Public Schools Serving Hispanic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The innovative and culturally responsive teaching practices provided in high-quality charter schools are not only providing Hispanic students with an excellent alternative to district public schools, but they are also yielding academic results that show neither race/ethnicity nor income level must determine a child's future. The compilation of…

  8. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  9. Media and Sex: Perspectives from Hispanic Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston Polacek, Georgia N. L.; Rojas, Viviana; Levitt, Steven; Mika, Virginia Seguin

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about Hispanic teens' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to media influences. Information about this relationship could contribute to an understanding of the early onset of sexual behavior and early teen pregnancy. This paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot project conducted to determine…

  10. Expectancy-Value Beliefs of Early-Adolescent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Nayssan Safavian; AnneMarie Conley

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value (E-V) theory to test the influence of motivation on mathematics achievement and enrollment using data from a cohort of 926 seventh-grade prealgebra students (49% male, 76% Hispanic, 76% low income, and 55% English learner). E-V beliefs were assessed in seventh grade along with achievement, and enrollment was measured in eighth grade. Differential associations of motivation, achievement, and enrollment were examined across Hispanic and non-His...

  11. Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among Spanish nationals and Hispanic American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durà-Vilà, Glòria; Hodes, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Susto (fright), nervios (nerves) and ataque de nervios (attack of nerves) are idioms of distress widely experienced amongst Hispanic Americans, often associated with psychiatric disorders. This study explores understanding of these idioms of distress and attitudes to help seeking amongst indigenous Spanish and Hispanic American residents in Spain. A population survey was undertaken in four adult education centres in Spain. Hypothetical case vignettes of individuals suffering from the idioms of distress were used to investigate understanding and help seeking by a Spanish sample compared with Hispanic American migrants to Spain. 350 questionnaires were obtained (94.6% response rate). The idioms ataque de nervios and nervios were recognised by the majority of the Spanish group but by significantly more of the Hispanic American migrants. However, susto was infrequently recognised by the Spanish group but it was recognised by half of the Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Americans were also more likely to recommend consultation with a psychiatrist/psychologist than Spanish respondents for ataque de nervios and nervios. The Spanish group were more likely to recommend non-medical sources of support such as relatives and priest than Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Americans, more recently arrived, did not show greater recognition of the three idioms than those who have been in Spain longer. Regression analysis showed that being Hispanic American and having lower educational attainment was associated with greater use of susto. The study suggests that people hold multiple models of distress and disorder. This may influence clinical presentations and help seeking behaviour in Spanish as well as Hispanic American populations.

  12. Hispanic and Immigrant Paradoxes in U.S. Breast Cancer Mortality: Impact of Neighborhood Poverty and Hispanic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi L. Pruitt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the Hispanic and Immigrant Paradoxes—i.e., survival advantages despite a worse risk factor profile—and the modifying role of neighborhood context, we examined associations between patient ethnicity, birthplace, neighborhood Hispanic density and neighborhood poverty among 166,254 female breast cancer patients diagnosed 1995–2009 in Texas, U.S. Of all, 79.9% were non-Hispanic White, 15.8% Hispanic U.S.-born, and 4.2% Hispanic foreign-born. We imputed birthplace for the 60.7% of Hispanics missing birthplace data using multiple imputation. Shared frailty Cox proportional hazard models (patients nested within census tracts adjusted for age, diagnosis year, stage, grade, histology, urban/rural residence, and local mammography capacity. Whites (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Foreign-born (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Living in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods was generally associated with increased mortality, although associations differed slightly in magnitude and significance by ethnicity, birthplace, and neighborhood poverty. We found no evidence of an Immigrant Paradox and some evidence of a Hispanic Paradox where protective effects were limited to U.S.-born Hispanics. Contrary to prior studies, foreign birthplace and residence in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods were associated with increased mortality. More research on intersections between ethnicity, birthplace and neighborhood context are needed.

  13. Perceived Self-Efficacy to Avoid Cigarette Smoking and Addiction: Differences between Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabogal, Fabio; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Finds that, among 263 Hispanic and 150 non-Hispanic White smokers, Hispanics smoked fewer cigarettes, had lower levels of perceived addiction to nicotine, and had higher perceived self-efficacy to avoid smoking, but these differences shrank with greater acculturation. Discusses implications for smoking cessation programs. Contains 27 references.…

  14. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  15. Physical activity in older, rural, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn J; Marshall, Julie A; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Baxter, Judith; Morgenstern, Nora

    2005-06-01

    Understanding variations in physical activity patterns is important for planning health interventions. This study describes age-related change in physical activity in 903 rural Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults age 55-80. The Physical Activity History assessed 13 categories of productive and recreational activity during the past year with up to four assessments per participant from 1987 to 1998. The most common activities were walking and home maintenance/gardening. Productive and recreational physical activity levels were lower in women than men (P productive activity steadily declined with age in NHW and Hispanics. Recreational activity increased slightly until age 63, then decreased after age 70. In women, productive activity initially stayed stable then decreased in NHW after age 63, and in Hispanics it decreased at younger ages before stabilizing after age 70. Recreational activity levels decreased steadily with age in all women, with a steeper rate of decline in NHW than Hispanics. In both ethnic groups, activity levels were lower in diabetics than nondiabetics, except for recreational activity in women where levels did not differ by diabetes status. The most common activities were similar to other studies of older adults, both recreational and productive activities contributed to total activity, and physical activity decreased in all gender-ethnic subgroups with age. Hispanic women reported the lowest activity levels. Interventions to maintain or increase recreational activity may need to target women at an earlier age than men.

  16. Spirometry Reference Equations from the HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVange, Lisa; Davis, Sonia M; Hankinson, John; Enright, Paul; Wilson, Rebbecca; Barr, R Graham; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kalhan, Ravi; Lemus, Hector; Ni, Ai; Smith, Lewis J; Talavera, Gregory A

    2017-10-15

    Accurate reference values for spirometry are important because the results are used for diagnosing common chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, estimating physiologic impairment, and predicting all-cause mortality. Reference equations have been established for Mexican Americans but not for others with Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. To develop spirometry reference equations for adult Hispanic/Latino background groups in the United States. The HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos) recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years living in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-identified as being of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, or Central or South American background. Spirometry was performed using standardized methods with central quality control monitoring. Spirometric measures from a subset of 6,425 never-smoking participants without respiratory symptoms or disease were modeled as a function of sex, age, height, and Hispanic/Latino background to produce background-specific reference equations for the predicted value and lower limit of normal. Dominican and Puerto Rican Americans had substantially lower predicted and lower limit of normal values for FVC and FEV 1 than those in other Hispanic/Latino background groups and also than Mexican American values from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). For patients of Dominican and Puerto Rican background who present with pulmonary symptoms in clinical practice, use of background-specific spirometry reference equations may provide more appropriate predicted and lower limit of normal values, enabling more accurate diagnoses of abnormality and physiologic impairment.

  17. Do Lung Cancer Eligibility Criteria Align with Risk among Blacks and Hispanics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fiscella

    Full Text Available Black patients have higher lung cancer risk despite lower pack years of smoking. We assessed lung cancer risk by race, ethnicity, and sex among a nationally representative population eligible for lung cancer screening based on Medicare criteria.We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012 to assess lung cancer risk by sex, race and ethnicity among persons satisfying Medicare age and pack-year smoking eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening. We assessed Medicare eligibility based on age (55-77 years and pack-years (≥ 30. We assessed 6-year lung cancer risk using a risk prediction model from Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial that was modified in 2012 (PLCOm2012. We compared the proportions of eligible persons by sex, race and ethnicity using Medicare criteria with a risk cut-point that was adjusted to achieve comparable total number of persons eligible for screening.Among the 29.7 million persons aged 55-77 years who ever smoked, we found that 7.3 million (24.5% were eligible for lung cancer screening under Medicare criteria. Among those eligible, Blacks had statistically significant higher (4.4% and Hispanics lower lung cancer risk (1.2% than non-Hispanic Whites (3.2%. At a cut-point of 2.12% risk for lung screening eligibility, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics showed statistically significant changes. Blacks eligible rose by 48% and Hispanics eligible declined by 63%. Black men and Hispanic women were affected the most. There was little change in eligibility among Whites.Medicare eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening do not align with estimated risk for lung cancer among Blacks and Hispanics. Data are urgently needed to determine whether use of risk-based eligibility screening improves lung cancer outcomes among minority patients.

  18. Cultural buffering as a protective factor against electronic cigarette use among Hispanic emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Nok; Goldenson, Nicholas I; Burner, Elizabeth; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-12-01

    Hispanics in the U.S. historically use tobacco at lower rates than other racial and ethnic groups. Cultural buffering, the process by which aspects of traditional Hispanic culture delay the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, is believed to be a protective factor against tobacco use. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new tobacco product that have not been extensively studied, and it is unknown if cultural factors that protect against tobacco use will buffer against e-cigarette use among the Hispanic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the emergency department (ED) in a safety-net hospital in 2014. Patients visiting the ED participated in a survey assessing demographics and substance use. Cultural buffering was operationalized as participants' primary language spoken at home. Multivariate logistic regression and generalized estimating equations examined the association between Hispanic cultural buffering and e-cigarette ever-use. Of the 1476 Hispanic ED patients (age: 46.6M±14.5SD, 49.3% male), 7.6% reported e-cigarette ever-use and 11.1% reported current combustible cigarette use. In adjusted models, Spanish speakers were half as likely to report e-cigarette ever-use (O.R.: 0.54, 95% C.I.: 0.34-0.84, p=0.007), compared with English speakers. Combustible cigarette use remained the most significant factor associated with e-cigarette ever-use (O.R.: 9.28, 95% C.I.:7.44-11.56, pcigarette ever-use at higher rates than Spanish speakers (28.2% vs. 5.9%, pcigarette ever-use, especially in higher-income neighborhoods. These results support research on culturally-sensitive prevention programs for new and emerging tobacco products in Hispanic communities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Health Assimilation among Hispanic Immigrants in the United States: The Impact of Ignoring Arrival-cohort Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Tod G; Palermo, Tia; Green, Tiffany L

    2015-12-01

    A large literature has documented that Hispanic immigrants have a health advantage over their U.S.-born counterparts upon arrival in the United States. Few studies, however, have disentangled the effects of immigrants' arrival cohort from their tenure of U.S. residence, an omission that could produce imprecise estimates of the degree of health decline experienced by Hispanic immigrants as their U.S. tenure increases. Using data from the 1996-to-2014 waves of the March Current Population Survey, we show that the health (i.e., self-rated health) of Hispanic immigrants varies by both arrival cohort and U.S. tenure for immigrants hailing from most of the primary sending countries/regions of Hispanic immigrants. We also find evidence that acculturation plays an important role in determining the health trajectories of Hispanic immigrants. With respect to self-rated health, however, our findings demonstrate that omitting arrival-cohort measures from health assimilation models may result in overestimates of the degree of downward health assimilation experienced by Hispanic immigrants. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  20. Perceived discrimination and cancer screening behaviors in US Hispanics: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Cristina; Penedo, Frank J; Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Kaplan, Robert C; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Gonzalez, Patricia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Perreira, Krista; Salgado, Hugo; Simon, Melissa A; Wruck, Lisa M; Greenlee, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been associated with lower adherence to cancer screening guidelines. We examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with adherence to breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancer screening guidelines in US Hispanic/Latino adults. Data were obtained from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, including 5,313 Hispanic adults aged 18–74 from Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA, and those who were within appropriate age ranges for specific screening tests were included in the analysis. Cancer screening behaviors were assessed via self-report. Perceived discrimination was measured using the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire. Confounder-adjusted multivariable polytomous logistic regression models assessed the association between perceived discrimination and adherence to cancer screening guidelines. Among women eligible for screening, 72.1 % were adherent to cervical cancer screening guidelines and 71.3 %were adherent to breast cancer screening guidelines. In participants aged 50–74, 24.6 % of women and 27.0 % of men were adherent to fecal occult blood test guidelines; 43.5 % of women and 34.8 % of men were adherent to colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy guidelines; 41.0 % of men were adherent to prostate-specific antigen screening guidelines. Health insurance coverage, rather than perceived ethnic discrimination,was the variable most associated with receiving breast, cervical,colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. The influence of discrimination as a barrier to cancer screening may be modest among Hispanics/Latinos in urban US regions. Having health insurance facilitates cancer screening in this population. Efforts to increase cancer screening in Hispanics/Latinos should focus on increasing access to these services, especially among the uninsured.

  1. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging protocol for detecting femoral head avascular necrosis: A case series-it′s utility in the general population in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sanjay Khaladkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is an increasing cause of musculoskeletal disability, common among the younger population, between the third and fifth decade of life, affecting mainly men, thereby requiring prompt diagnosis and early intervention. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to formulate a limited magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination protocol for detection of avascular necrosis (AVN in clinically suspected cases that can be performed rapidly and will be inexpensive. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients suspected clinically and or on conventional radiography for AVN of the femoral head were referred for MRI hip. MRI hip was done on 1.5 T Siemens Avanto. Of 45, 36 were detected to have AVN (total 58 hips, whereas 9 did not have AVN on MRI. Initially, coronal T1-weighted image (T1WI sequence was obtained as limited MRI protocol, followed by complete MRI examination. Results: Maximum patients belonged to age group 31-40 (30.5%. 32 (88.88% patients were males and 4 (11.11% were females. Bilateral AVN was detected in 44 (61.1% and unilateral in 14 patients (38.8%. Pre collapsed stage (Stages I and II was detected in 18 hips (31.03%, collapsed stage (Stages III and IV was detected in 40 hips (68.9%. Peripheral low-intensity rim was seen on T1WI in all 58 cases of AVN. Double line sign on T2-weighted image was seen in 33/58 (56.8%. Conclusion: Our study concluded that coronal T1W sequence is an easy, rapid and cost-effective method of detecting unilateral or bilateral AVN.

  2. Attitudes and behaviors of Hispanic smokers: implications for cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, B V; Perez-Stable, E J; Marin, G; Sabogal, F; Otero-Sabogal, R

    1990-01-01

    The smoking behavior of Hispanics, especially Mexican Americans, has been reported to differ from that of non-Hispanic whites, in both large gender differences in prevalence as well as a lower self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day. This study compared the responses of a convenience sample of 263 Hispanic (44% Mexican American and 38% Central American) and 150 non-Hispanic white smokers, in order to identify other ethnic; gender, and acculturation differences in smoking behaviors. Hispanic women smoked fewer cigarettes and initiated smoking at a comparatively later age than Hispanic men; they were also less likely to smoke during pregnancy than non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics smoked more cigarettes on Saturday than other days, but this was not true for non-Hispanic whites. Will power (voluntad propia) and knowing the negative effects of smoking were considered the most helpful techniques for quitting by Hispanics. Considering that light smokers are able to quit with less intensive cessation techniques, these data suggest that a properly developed health education community intervention may have an impact on smoking rates among Hispanics.

  3. Hispanic Medical Organizations' Support for LGBT Health Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally.

  4. Does Applied Critical Leadership Theory Really Apply? The Formation of Hispanic-Latin@ Ecclesial Leaders at Seminaries Accredited by the Association of Theological Schools: A Historical-Critical Analysis of the Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Walker, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A front-seat view allows the observer to see (a) the continual growth of the Hispanic population in the United States, (b) an increase in the number of Hispanic churches, and a (c) Latin@ community with significant buying power that also leaves its mark in the entertainment and sports industries. The view from the back is seldom beheld, but it…

  5. Improving access to shared decision-making for Hispanics/Latinos with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jaime A; Rosales, Aracely; Shillington, Alicia C; Bailey, Robert A; Kabir, Chris; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2015-01-01

    To describe the cultural and linguistic adaptation and Spanish translation of an English-language patient decision aid (PDA) for use in supporting shared decision-making in Hispanics/Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a group at a high risk for complications. A steering committee of endocrinologists, a primary care physician, a certified diabetes educator, and a dietician, each with extensive experience in providing care to Hispanics/Latinos was convened to assess a PDA developed for English-speaking patients with T2DM. English content was reviewed for cultural sensitivity and appropriateness for a Hispanic/Latino population. A consensus-building process and iterative version edits incorporated clinician perspectives. The content was adapted to be consistent with traditional Hispanic/Latino cultural communication precepts (eg, avoidance of hostile confrontation; value for warm interaction; respect for authority; value of family support for decisions). The PDA was translated by native-speaking individuals with diabetes expertise. The PDA underwent testing during cognitive interviews with ten Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos with T2DM to ensure that the content is reflective of the experience, understanding, and language Hispanic/Latino patients use to describe diabetes and treatment. Content edits were made to assure a literacy level appropriate to the audience, and the PDA was produced for online video dissemination. High-quality, well-developed tools to facilitate shared decision-making in populations with limited access to culturally sensitive information can narrow gaps and align care with individual patient preferences. A newly developed PDA is available for shared decision-making that provides culturally appropriate treatment information for inadequately controlled Hispanics/Latinos with T2DM. The impact on the overall health of patients and care management of T2DM requires further study.

  6. Comparison of breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among rural and urban Hispanic and American Indian women in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.

  7. Visual Impairment and Blindness Avoided with Ranibizumab in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Whites with Diabetic Macular Edema in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rohit; Bressler, Neil M; Doan, Quan V; Danese, Mark; Dolan, Chantal M; Lee, Abraham; Turpcu, Adam

    2015-05-01

    To estimate visual impairment (VI) and blindness avoided with intravitreal ranibizumab 0.3 mg treatment for central-involved diabetic macular edema (DME) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals in the United States. Population-based model simulating visual acuity (VA) outcomes over 2 years after diagnosis and treatment of DME. Visual acuity changes with and without ranibizumab were based on data from the RISE, RIDE, and DRCR Network trials. For the better-seeing eye, VA outcomes included VI, defined as worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye, and blindness, defined as VA of 20/200 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Incidence of 1 or both eyes with central-involved DME in 2010 were estimated based on the 2010 United States population, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and 1-year central-involved DME incidence rate. Sixty-one percent of incident individuals had bilateral DME and 39% had unilateral DME, but DME could develop in the fellow eye. Cases of VI and blindness avoided with ranibizumab treatment. Among approximately 102 million Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals in the United States 45 years of age and older in 2010, an estimated 37 274 had central-involved DME and VI eligible for ranibizumab treatment. Compared with no ranibizumab treatment, the model predicted that ranibizumab 0.3 mg every 4 weeks would reduce the number of individuals with VI from 11 438 (95% simulation interval [SI], 7249-16 077) to 6304 (95% SI, 3921-8981), a 45% (95% SI, 36%-53%) reduction at 2 years. Ranibizumab would reduce the number of incident eyes with VA worse than 20/40 from 16 910 (95% SI, 10 729-23 577) to 9361 (95% SI, 5839-13 245), a 45% (95% SI, 38%-51%) reduction. Ranibizumab was estimated to reduce the number of individuals with legal blindness by 75% (95% SI, 58%-88%) and the number of incident eyes with VA of 20/200 or worse by 76% (95% SI, 63%-87%). This model suggests that ranibizumab 0.3 mg every 4 weeks substantially reduces prevalence of VI and

  8. Media and Technology Use Among Hispanics/Latinos in New York: Implications for Health Communication Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Gerstner, Gena; Pergolino, Kristen; Graham, Yvonne; Strogatz, David

    2016-09-01

    There is limited information about media and technology use, as well as health information-seeking patterns, specifically for Hispanics/Latinos at the state level. An understanding of access, usage patterns, and preferences for receiving health information is critical for state-level organizations to effectively reach and serve this growing population. A telephone survey was developed to assess media and technology access, use patterns, health-seeking information patterns, and preferences for receiving health information. The survey was conducted in New York state from August 8 to November 4, 2013, using random digit dialing. The overall sample of 1350 included 412 Hispanic/Latino adults who are the focus of this study. Most Hispanic/Latino respondents reported having at least one working computer at home (78 %) and using the Internet (84 %); almost all who had a computer reported having high-speed Internet service (90 %). Cell phone ownership was common (88 %), and many had a smartphone (71 %). Activities most likely to occur several times per day were sending text messages (61 %), using phone apps (49 %), using a search engine (40 %), using email (34 %), and using social networking sites (32 %). The most preferred channels of receiving health information were websites, mail, and television. Older respondents were significantly less likely to have the technologies, engage in technology activities, and prefer newer forms of information dissemination (i.e., text messages). Education and income were important predictors in some cases. While most Hispanics/Latinos have access to various technologies, the reason for using those technologies and preferences for receiving health information most often varies by age and, sometimes, by education and income. Older adults tend to seek health information from traditional sources such as television and brochures, while younger adults favored newer technologies. Knowing preferences of the population can help ensure

  9. Local Ancestry Inference in a Large US-Based Hispanic/Latino Study: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Sharon R; Grinde, Kelsey; Plantinga, Anna; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Stilp, Adrienne M; Kaplan, Robert C; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C

    2016-06-01

    We estimated local ancestry on the autosomes and X chromosome in a large US-based study of 12,793 Hispanic/Latino individuals using the RFMix method, and we compared different reference panels and approaches to local ancestry estimation on the X chromosome by means of Mendelian inconsistency rates as a proxy for accuracy. We developed a novel and straightforward approach to performing ancestry-specific PCA after finding artifactual behavior in the results from an existing approach. Using the ancestry-specific PCA, we found significant population structure within African, European, and Amerindian ancestries in the Hispanic/Latino individuals in our study. In the African ancestral component of the admixed individuals, individuals whose grandparents were from Central America clustered separately from individuals whose grandparents were from the Caribbean, and also from reference Yoruba and Mandenka West African individuals. In the European component, individuals whose grandparents were from Puerto Rico diverged partially from other background groups. In the Amerindian ancestral component, individuals clustered into multiple different groups depending on the grandparental country of origin. Therefore, local ancestry estimation provides further insight into the complex genetic structure of US Hispanic/Latino populations, which must be properly accounted for in genotype-phenotype association studies. It also provides a basis for admixture mapping and ancestry-specific allele frequency estimation, which are useful in the identification of risk factors for disease. Copyright © 2016 Browning et al.

  10. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  11. [Cardiovascular risk factors in an Arab and Hispanic working population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, P; García, A; de Rus, I; Avila, J M; Andrade, R; Escolar, J L; González, P

    1991-07-01

    318 records of male workers, 169 Spanish and 149 Arab were retrospectively studied in 1987 at the "Gabinete de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo" (Council for Safety and Hygiene in the Workplace) in Ceuta in order to prove the hypothesis that 2 different ethnic groups living in the same geographic area have a non-equal distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. The Spanish group showed a higher prevalence in blood hypertension, diabetes, glucose intolerance, obesity and alcohol intake, compared to the Arab group. Smoking and high levels of seric cholesterol were similar in both groups, however, medium levels of seric cholesterol were lower in the Arab group. Family histories of cardiovascular disease were very rare in the latter mentioned group. These observations suggested a major predisposition to ischemic cardiopathy in the Spanish group.

  12. FastStats: Health of Hispanic or Latino Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death Cancer Heart disease Accidents (unintentional injuries) ...

  13. Cultural values associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-02-01

    Hispanic emerging adults are a priority population for substance use prevention, yet few studies have examined whether traditional Hispanic cultural values serve as risk or protective factors for substance use among emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between familism, respeto, fatalism, and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants (ages 18 to 25) completed surveys indicating identification with familism, respeto, and fatalism, past month use of tobacco, marijuana, hard drugs and binge drinking. Separate logistic regression models examined the association between cultural values and each substance use outcome, controlling for acculturation, age and gender. Among participants (n=1445, mean age=23, 60% female), 21% reported past month cigarette use, 18% reported past month alternative tobacco product (ATP) use, 25% reported past month marijuana use, 44% reported past month binge drinking, and 7% reported past month hard drug use. Higher fatalism scores were associated with increased ATP use. Higher familism scores were associated with binge drinking, while higher respeto scores were associated with decreased binge drinking, marijuana, and hard drug use. These findings suggest that substance use prevention and intervention programs should emphasize how substance use interferes with caring and honoring parents (respeto) and family cohesion and functioning (familism). Programs that highlight these cultural values and beliefs may be beneficial for Hispanic emerging adults and members of other collectivistic cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating health literacy and ESL: an interdisciplinary curriculum for Hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Mein, Erika; Fuentes, Brenda; Thatcher, Barry; Balcázar, Héctor

    2013-03-01

    Adult Hispanic immigrants are at a greater risk of experiencing the negative outcomes related to low health literacy, as they confront cultural and language barriers to the complex and predominately monolingual English-based U.S. health system. One approach that has the potential for simultaneously addressing the health, literacy, and language needs of Hispanics is the combination of health literacy and English as a second language (ESL) instruction. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of using ESL instruction as a medium for improving health literacy among Hispanic immigrants. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of an interdisciplinary health literacy/ESL curriculum that integrates theories of health literacy and health behavior research and practice, sociocultural theories of literacy and communication, and adult learning principles. This article describes the curriculum development process and provides preliminary qualitative data on learners' experiences with the curriculum. Results indicate that the curriculum was attractive to participants and that they were highly satisfied with both the format and content. The curriculum described here represents one example of an audience-centered approach designed to meet the specific health and literacy needs of the Hispanic population on the U.S.-Mexico border. The combination of ESL and health literacy contributed to a perceived positive learning experience among participants. Interdisciplinary approaches to health literacy are recommended.

  15. Stymied Mobility or Temporary Lull? The Puzzle of Lagging Hispanic College Degree Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Sigal; Domina, Thurston; Tienda, Marta

    2010-06-01

    We assess the intergenerational educational mobility of recent cohorts of high school graduates to consider whether Hispanics' lagging postsecondary attainment reflects a temporary lull due to immigration of low education parents or a more enduring pattern of unequal transmission of social status relative to whites. Using data from three national longitudinal studies, a recent longitudinal study of Texas high school seniors and a sample of students attending elite institutions, we track post-secondary enrollment and degree attainment patterns at institutions of differing selectivity. We find that group differences in parental education and nativity only partly explain the Hispanic-white gap in college enrollment, and not evenly over time. Both foreign- and native-born college-educated Hispanic parents are handicapped in their ability to transmit their educational advantages to their children compared with white parents. We conclude that both changing population composition and unequal ability to confer status advantages to offspring are responsible for the growing Hispanic-white degree attainment gap.

  16. Translation and adaptation of smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Cruz, Ligia M; Brandon, Thomas H; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking is one of the most important behavior changes a pregnant woman can make, with health benefits extending beyond pregnancy for the woman and her child. Increasing numbers of pregnant women are quitting smoking; however, the majority resume smoking later in their pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-help smoking relapse-prevention booklets; however, there is a dearth of materials available in Spanish for Hispanic smokers. The goal of the present study was to translate and adapt existing, theoretically based, smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. This article describes the transcreation approach used to ensure the Forever Free for Baby and Me booklets were linguistically and culturally relevant for the heterogeneous populations of Hispanic women. The authors conducted multistage formative research to adapt the booklets and modify vignettes and graphics. Compared with previous research conducted with pregnant non-Hispanic women, results revealed the following: (a) a lack of association or concern about smoking and weight gain, (b) the importance of family approval of behavior, and (c) stress related to difficulties surrounding the immigration experience. The authors' qualitative findings confirm and extend past research that has suggested ways to enhance the cultural relevance and acceptability of a health intervention.

  17. The syphilis elimination project: targeting the Hispanic community of Baltimore city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endyke-Doran, Cara; Gonzalez, Rosa Maria; Trujillo, Marangellie; Solera, Angelo; Vigilance, Pierre N; Edwards, Lori A; Groves, Sara L

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the Syphilis Elimination Project was to decrease the incidence of syphilis in the Hispanic community of Baltimore City through a culturally appropriate health initiative. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the study design. Surveillance data were used to collect testing information. Comparisons at the start and end of the project measured change in individual knowledge about syphilis. Cross-sectional data from interviews with business owners and qualitative comments from outreach workers evaluated perception of program effectiveness. The local health department collected surveillance data. A convenience sample of 63 Hispanic community members, 12 business owners/managers, and 8 outreach workers was utilized throughout the evaluation process. The project was a culturally appropriate approach to health promotion with street and business outreach. Post intervention there was a statistically significant increase in knowledge about syphilis within the Hispanic community and an increase in testing behaviors. The Syphilis Elimination Project was created in response to a marked increase in syphilis in Baltimore among the Hispanic population and a health disparity that existed within the city. It increased community members' knowledge of syphilis and positively influenced testing behaviors.

  18. Status of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Allison, Matthew; Daviglus, Martha L.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Keller, Colleen; Leira, Enrique C.; Palaniappan, Latha; Piña, Ileana L.; Ramirez, Sarah M.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Sims, Mario

    2015-01-01

    consideration and approval by the AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Results This statement documents the status of knowledge regarding CVD among Hispanics and the sociocultural issues that impact all subgroups of Hispanics with regard to cardiovascular health. In this review, whenever possible, we identify the specific Hispanic subgroups examined to avoid generalizations. We identify specific areas for which current evidence was less robust, as well as inconsistencies and evidence gaps that inform the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to increase our understanding of the US Hispanic population and its potential impact on the public health and cardiovascular health of the total US population. We provide recommendations specific to the 9 domains outlined by the chair to support the development of these culturally tailored and targeted approaches. Conclusions Healthcare professionals and researchers need to consider the impact of culture and ethnicity on health behavior and ultimately health outcomes. There is a need to tailor and develop culturally relevant strategies to engage Hispanics in cardiovascular health promotion and cultivate a larger workforce of healthcare providers, researchers, and allies with the focused goal of improving cardiovascular health and reducing CVD among the US Hispanic population. PMID:25098323

  19. Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...

  20. The Hispanic pharmacist: Value beyond a common language

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano, Gabriela C; Andrews, Carlota O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients’ language and culture. Summary: Inability to speak and/or write in the patients’ native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish al...

  1. 77 FR 55233 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...

  2. 77 FR 37077 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...

  3. 76 FR 31645 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...

  4. 76 FR 18263 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans Affairs. The... Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the Federal...

  5. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Hispanic women: findings from the national Sister to Sister campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fátima; Naderi, Sahar; Wang, Yun; Johnson, Caitlin E; Foody, JoAnne M

    2013-04-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population and have a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors as compared with non-Hispanic whites. Further data suggests that Hispanics have undiagnosed complications of metabolic syndrome, namely diabetes mellitus, at an earlier age. We sought to better understand the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women using data from a large, community-based health screening program. Using data from the Sister to Sister: The Women's Heart Health Foundation community health fairs from 2008 to 2009 held in 17 U.S. cities, we sought to characterize how cardiometabolic risk profiles vary across age for women by race and ethnicity. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines, which included three or more of the following: Waist circumference ≥35 inches, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <50 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg, or a fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL. A total of 6843 community women were included in the analyses. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 35%. The risk-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women versus white women was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4, 2.0). Dyslipidemia was the strongest predictor of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic women. This disparity appeared most pronounced for younger women. Additional predictors of metabolic syndrome included black race, increasing age, and smoking. In a large, nationally representative sample of women, we found that metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent among young Hispanic women. Efforts specifically targeted to identifying these high-risk women are necessary to prevent the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Getting off on the Wrong Foot: Longitudinal Effects of Hispanic Students' Stability Attributions Following Poor Initial Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Though studies have established that following poor performance, attributions to stable causes affect the performance of minority students, few studies have explored the impact of stability attributions over time. This study explored attributions following initial failure among a predominantly Hispanic student population. We measured students'…

  7. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Sarah E; Park, Grace H; Huffman, Kelly J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, B...

  8. The Effect of Stress on Self-Reported Academic Performance Measures among Hispanic Undergraduate Students at Arizona State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the impact of stress on the academic performance of Hispanic undergraduate students is limited, leaving institutions of higher education without needed information about how to better support this growing population of students. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors that have a negative impact on academic performance of…

  9. Medical decision-making among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites with chronic back and knee pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffrey N; Lyons, Nancy; Wolff, Lisa S; Silverman, Jodie; Emrani, Parastu; Holt, Holly L; Corbett, Kelly L; Escalante, Agustin; Losina, Elena

    2011-04-21

    Musculoskeletal disorders affect all racial and ethnic groups, including Hispanics. Because these disorders are not life-threatening, decision-making is generally preference-based. Little is known about whether Hispanics in the U.S. differ from non-Hispanic Whites with respect to key decision making preferences. We assembled six focus groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White patients with chronic back or knee pain at an urban medical center to discuss management of their conditions and the roles they preferred in medical decision-making. Hispanic groups were further stratified by socioeconomic status, using neighborhood characteristics as proxy measures. Discussions were led by a moderator, taped, transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed ethnic differences in several areas pertinent to medical decision-making. Specifically, Hispanic participants were more likely to permit their physician to take the predominant role in making health decisions. Also, Hispanics of lower socioeconomic status generally preferred to use non-internet sources of health information to make medical decisions and to rely on advice obtained by word of mouth. Hispanics emphasized the role of faith and religion in coping with musculoskeletal disability. The analysis also revealed broad areas of concordance across ethnic strata including the primary role that pain and achieving pain relief play in patients' experiences and decisions. These findings suggest differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in preferred information sources and decision-making roles. These findings are hypothesis-generating. If confirmed in further research, they may inform the development of interventions to enhance preference-based decision-making among Hispanics.

  10. Developing a Leadership Identity as a Hispanic Woman at a Hispanic- Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Suzanne; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are uniquely positioned to educate tomorrow's leaders and initiate change in the number and ethnic diversity of women in leadership roles. The purpose of our study was to understand the essence of Hispanic college women's leadership identity development with participants and researchers co-constructing meaning. We…

  11. Interrelationships of Hormones, Diet, Body Size and Breast Cancer among Hispanic Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Gerson

    2005-01-01

    ...). These women have a relatively low incidence of breast cancer compared with non-Hispanic white women, but in comparison with Hispanic women in the rest of the United States, the Hispanic women...

  12. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Merchant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL that included adults aged 18–74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415. Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631 of participants had >10 h/day and >3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0, or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day, whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day, sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.

  13. Detecting prediabetes among Hispanics/Latinos from diverse heritage groups: Does the test matter? Findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Pérez, Cynthia M; Schneiderman, Neil; Savage, Peter J; Kaplan, Robert C; Teng, Yanping; Suárez, Erick L; Cai, Jianwen; Giachello, Aida L; Talavera, Gregory A; Cowie, Catherine C

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to compare the ability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post oral load plasma glucose (2hPG), and hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) to identify U.S. Hispanic/Latino individuals with prediabetes, and to assess its cardiovascular risk factor correlates. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 15,507 adults without self-reported diabetes mellitus from six Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, which takes place in four U.S. communities. The prevalence of prediabetes was determined according to individual or combinations of ADA-defined cut points: FPG=5.6-7.0mmol/L, 2hPG=7.8-11.1mmol/L, and HbA 1c =5.7%-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). The sensitivity of these criteria to detect prediabetes was estimated. The prevalence ratios (PRs) for selected cardiovascular risk factors were compared among alternative categories of prediabetes versus normoglycemia [FPGprediabetes criteria. Using 2hPG as the gold standard, the sensitivity of FPG was 40.1%, HbA 1c was 45.6%, and that of HbA 1c +FPG was 62.2%. The number of significant PRs for cardiovascular risk factors was higher among individuals with isolated 2hPG=7.8-11.1mmol/L, FPG=5.6-7.0mmol/L+HbA 1c =5.7%-6.4%, or those who met the three prediabetes criteria. Assessing FPG, HbA 1c , and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos at risk might enhance the early prevention of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular complications in this young and growing population, independent of their heritage group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Bile acid synthesis is increased in Chilean Hispanics with gallstones and in gallstone high-risk Mapuche Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gälman, Cecilia; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Pérez, Rosa Maria; Einarsson, Curt; Ståhle, Lars; Marshall, Guillermo; Nervi, Flavio; Rudling, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Gallstone disease is an important, costly health-care problem in Western societies. It is still unclear whether hepatic lipid regulatory enzymes play primary or secondary roles in gallstone formation. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is increased in gallstone disease and to test whether such a metabolic change, if present, might occur before gallstone formation. A total of 125 Chilean Hispanic women (80 without gallstones and 45 with gallstones) matched for age and body mass index were investigated, along with 40 Chilean Mapuche Indian women (20 without gallstones and 20 with gallstones), a population group in which the prevalence for gallstone disease is very high. Fasting blood plasma samples were assayed for 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and lathosterol, 2 strong indicators for hepatic bile acid and body cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels, corrected for plasma cholesterol, were significantly increased by 50% in Hispanic women with gallstones as compared with gallstone-free Hispanics (P or =100% (P Mapuche Indian women, independently of whether gallstones were present. Plasma lathosterol, corrected for plasma cholesterol, was significantly increased by 22% in Hispanic women with gallstones and in Mapuche Indian women compared with Hispanic women. The results indicate that the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is induced in gallstone disease and precedes gallstone development. These inductions presumably occur as a response to an increased intestinal loss of bile acids.

  15. The Social Ecological Model and Physical Activity Interventions for Hispanic Women With Type 2 Diabetes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Patricia Davern

    2017-05-01

    Hispanic women are less physically active and have higher rates of type 2 diabetes (DM2) when compared with other population groups. This review uses the social ecological model as a framework to identify the individual and social environmental factors associated with successful physical activity (PA) interventions for Hispanic women with DM2. Research questions include (a) Which social ecological levels have been applied to PA interventions? (b) Which individual and social environmental intervention strategies are associated with successful PA outcomes? Database searches using CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus for the years 2000 to 2015 identified 10 studies; with 6 using quasi-experimental study designs and 4 using randomized controlled designs. Inclusion criteria were Hispanic/Latina women with DM2, ≥70% women, PA interventions, measures of PA, and quantitative designs. Future research should focus on a combination of intervention levels, and DM2 programs should place a greater emphasis on PA intervention strategies.

  16. Validation of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II for Hispanic male truck drivers in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Iris L; O'Day, Trish; Kan, Tsz Yin

    2013-08-01

    The aims of the study were to validate the English and Spanish Versions of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) with Hispanic male truck drivers and to determine if there were any differences in drivers' responses based on driving responsibility. The methods included a descriptive correlation design, the HPLP II (English and Spanish versions), and a demographic questionnaire. Fifty-two Hispanic drivers participated in the study. There were no significant differences in long haul and short haul drivers' responses to the HPLP II. Cronbach's alpha for the Spanish version was .97 and the subscales alphas ranged from .74 to .94. The English version alpha was .92 and the subscales ranged from .68 to .84. Findings suggest the subscales of Health Responsibility, Physical Activities, Nutrition, and Spirituality Growth on the HPLP II Spanish and English versions may not adequately assess health-promoting behaviors and cultural influences for the Hispanic male population in the southwestern border region.

  17. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-03

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents' risk behaviors.

  18. Hispanic Immigrant Father Involvement with Young Children in the United States: A Comparison with US-Born Hispanic and White non-Hispanic Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Nussbaum, Juliet; Soliday, Ann; Lahiff, Maureen

    2018-02-14

    Objectives Fathering is known to foster child development and health, yet evidence on Hispanic immigrant fathers' involvement with their young children is sparse. This study assessed disparities in pregnancy intendedness and father involvement with children ages 0-4 among Hispanic immigrant co-resident fathers versus two reference groups: US-born Hispanic and US-born White fathers. We hypothesized that differentials in involvement were associated with socioeconomic and cultural factors. Methods Using 2011-2013 data from the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 598), we performed bivariate, logistic and linear regression analyses to assess disparities in pregnancy intendedness and five father involvement outcomes (physical care, warmth, outings, reading and discipline). The models controlled for socio-economic, structural, health and cultural covariates. Results Pregnancy intendedness did not differ significantly between Hispanic immigrant fathers and the two reference groups. Compared with US-born Hispanics, unadjusted models showed that immigrant fathers were less likely to engage in physical care, warmth and reading, (p ≤ 0.05) though the differences were attenuated when controlling for covariates. Hispanic immigrant fathers were less likely than US-born White fathers to engage in each of the father involvement outcomes (p ≤ 0.05), with the disparity in reading to their child persisting even after controlling for all covariates. Conclusions for Practice We found marked socio-economic and cultural differences between Hispanic immigrant and US-born Hispanic and White fathers which contribute to disparities in father involvement with their young children. Hispanic immigrant status is an important determinant of involved fathering and should be taken into account when planning public health policies and programs.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome in Hispanic Youth: Results from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Samantha A; Llabre, Maria M; Vidot, Denise C; Isasi, Carmen R; Perreira, Krista; Carnethon, Mercedes; Parrinello, Christina M; Gallo, Linda C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is being diagnosed in youth. Specific diagnostic criteria used to define MetS influence prevalence estimates and populations considered at risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) provide three MetS definitions used in medical research. This study examined concordance among these definitions in 1137 children 10-16 years of age, who participated in the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. Prevalence of MetS and of individual components was estimated using SAS. Mplus was used to test a single-factor model of MetS components (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and fasting glucose). The ATP definition identified most MetS cases in 10-15 (N = 19, 4.7%) and 16-year-old girls (N = 3, 7.3%). The IDF definition identified most cases of MetS in 10-15 (N = 16, 3.1%) and 16-year-old boys (N = 2, 2.8%). Fewest cases of MetS were identified with the WHO definition across age and sex groups. Only one participant was classified as having MetS across all three definitions. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated fasting glucose and systolic blood pressure did not reliably cluster with other risk factors that define MetS in Hispanic/Latino adolescents. We conclude that prevalence estimates of MetS in youth are unstable across current criteria, calling into question the accuracy of defining and diagnosing MetS in youth.

  20. Difference in airflow obstruction between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Stidley, Christine A; Picchi, Maria A; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2008-10-01

    Smoking-related respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between smoking and respiratory disease has not been well-studied among ethnic minorities in general and among women in particular. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of airflow obstruction and to assess lung function among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female smokers in a New Mexico cohort. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing smoking history and underwent spirometry testing. Outcomes studied included airflow obstruction, selected lung function parameters, and chronic mucus hyper-secretion. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression techniques were utilized. Of the 1,433 eligible women participants, 248 (17.3%) were Hispanic; and 319 had airflow obstruction (22.3%). Hispanic smokers were more likely to be current smokers, and report lower pack-years of smoking, compared to NHW smokers (p smokers were at a reduced risk of airflow obstruction compared to NHW smokers, with an O.R. of 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.34, 0.78 (p = 0.002) after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years and duration of smoking, and current smoking status. Following adjustment for covariates, Hispanic smokers also had a higher mean absolute and percent predicted post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio, as well as higher mean percent predicted FEV(1) (p smokers in this New Mexico-based cohort had lower risk of airflow obstruction and better lung function than NHW female smokers. Further, smoking history did not completely explain these associations.

  1. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  2. A Novel Admixture-Based Pharmacogenetic Approach to Refine Warfarin Dosing in Caribbean Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Bermúdez-Bosch, Luis; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Cruz, Iadelisse; Feliu, Juan F.; Vergara, Cunegundo; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study is aimed at developing a novel admixture-adjusted pharmacogenomic approach to individually refine warfarin dosing in Caribbean Hispanic patients. Patients & Methods A multiple linear regression analysis of effective warfarin doses versus relevant genotypes, admixture, clinical and demographic factors was performed in 255 patients and further validated externally in another cohort of 55 individuals. Results The admixture-adjusted, genotype-guided warfarin dosing refinement algorithm developed in Caribbean Hispanics showed better predictability (R2 = 0.70, MAE = 0.72mg/day) than a clinical algorithm that excluded genotypes and admixture (R2 = 0.60, MAE = 0.99mg/day), and outperformed two prior pharmacogenetic algorithms in predicting effective dose in this population. For patients at the highest risk of adverse events, 45.5% of the dose predictions using the developed pharmacogenetic model resulted in ideal dose as compared with only 29% when using the clinical non-genetic algorithm (pwarfarin dose variance when externally validated in 55 individuals from an independent validation cohort (MAE = 0.89 mg/day, 24% mean bias). Conclusions Results supported our rationale to incorporate individual’s genotypes and unique admixture metrics into pharmacogenetic refinement models in order to increase predictability when expanding them to admixed populations like Caribbean Hispanics. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318057 PMID:26745506

  3. A Novel Admixture-Based Pharmacogenetic Approach to Refine Warfarin Dosing in Caribbean Hispanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Duconge

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing a novel admixture-adjusted pharmacogenomic approach to individually refine warfarin dosing in Caribbean Hispanic patients.A multiple linear regression analysis of effective warfarin doses versus relevant genotypes, admixture, clinical and demographic factors was performed in 255 patients and further validated externally in another cohort of 55 individuals.The admixture-adjusted, genotype-guided warfarin dosing refinement algorithm developed in Caribbean Hispanics showed better predictability (R2 = 0.70, MAE = 0.72mg/day than a clinical algorithm that excluded genotypes and admixture (R2 = 0.60, MAE = 0.99mg/day, and outperformed two prior pharmacogenetic algorithms in predicting effective dose in this population. For patients at the highest risk of adverse events, 45.5% of the dose predictions using the developed pharmacogenetic model resulted in ideal dose as compared with only 29% when using the clinical non-genetic algorithm (p<0.001. The admixture-driven pharmacogenetic algorithm predicted 58% of warfarin dose variance when externally validated in 55 individuals from an independent validation cohort (MAE = 0.89 mg/day, 24% mean bias.Results supported our rationale to incorporate individual's genotypes and unique admixture metrics into pharmacogenetic refinement models in order to increase predictability when expanding them to admixed populations like Caribbean Hispanics.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318057.

  4. Social Capital, Financial Knowledge, and Hispanic Student College Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Noga; Hammack, Floyd M.; Scott, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Hispanic students are significantly over-represented in community colleges compared to White and Black students. This paper uses a powerful but underutilized statistical technique, the Oaxaca decomposition, to explore the impact of social capital, as manifested through college financial information, on Hispanic student enrollment in 4-year and…

  5. Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund: Los Angeles Program Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, CA.

    The Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund was created in response to the high school dropout problem in Los Angeles. The Fund enables the Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Los Angeles to build upon the successful relationship it has developed in the Hispanic community and maximizes the effectiveness of existing student support programs by directing needy…

  6. The Impact of Acculturation on Hispanic Students' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyea, Nathan E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of acculturation on the learning styles of 151 Hispanic students enrolled in a Hispanic Serving Institution in South Texas, controlling for age, gender, and country of origin. Acculturation did not significantly predict learning style when controlling for these three variables. These results may be because…

  7. Spanish USA, 1984: A Study of the Hispanic Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; And Others

    This report summarizes results of a 1984 study of the lifestyles, values, buying behavior, and media habits of the Hispanic American market. First, a number of shifts in U.S. political, social, and economic life (since 1981, when the first study of this type was conducted) which are changing the orientation of Hispanics are discussed. These shifts…

  8. Intrapersonal and Ecodevelopmental Factors Associated with Smoking in Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…

  9. 75 FR 58283 - National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... compete and thrive. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are key members of our higher education system... prosperous tomorrow for our Nation. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of...

  10. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  11. Meeting the Needs of Future Hispanic Educational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    1999-01-01

    Describes a graduate program in school leadership at Northeastern Illinois University that is intended to meet the administrative and leadership needs of Hispanic teachers in Chicago. The master's degree program is offered as part of the university's El Centro outreach center for the Hispanic-American community and offers collaborative…

  12. Hispanic Origin, Socio-Economic Status, and Community College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Noga

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between parental SES, ethnicity, and college enrollment. Parental SES is found to translate into a significantly smaller advantage for Hispanics compared to Blacks and Whites. This statistical interaction suggests that high-SES Hispanics are at a unique disadvantage, most likely due to limited access to…

  13. Hispanic American Psychocultural Dispositions Relevant to Personnel Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    literature on Hispanic Americans (Lisansky, 1981), make this need for empirical clarification especially unequivocal. The economic, educational, and...money/dinero respect/respecto advancement/avance dignity/dignidad education/ educacion ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION LEADERSHIP VALUES duty/obi lgac ion boss...although interestingly, the Anglo Americans gave more attention to Hispanic origin than the Mexican Americans ( especially the Los Angeles Mexicans). There

  14. Involving Hispanic Parents in Improving Educational Opportunities for Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    Traditionally, school personnel have expressed concern about the relatively poor record of involving Hispanic parents in schools. The root of the problem is that many immigrant and migrant Hispanic parents cherish beliefs and expectations different from those held by schools and by the parents whom schools most frequently engage. This chapter…

  15. Migration of Hispanic Youth and Poverty Status: A Logit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Figueroa, Maria; And Others

    The research investigated whether poor Hispanic youth exhibited less migration than nonpoor Hispanic youth. The hypothesis was that migration is a means to escape poverty, although poverty acts as an inhibitor to migration. The data for the study were derived from The Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS/Y) and the 1988 County and…

  16. Hispanics in the Criminal Justice System--the "Nonexistent" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…

  17. 76 FR 59499 - National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Proclamation To win the future and restore our position as the global leader in education, we must ensure all... Hispanic leaders. The hundreds of HSIs across our country are helping Hispanic students gain access to a... necessary to thrive in the 21st century. Graduates of HSIs are leaders in science, technology, engineering...

  18. 77 FR 71200 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Scheduling of Council Meeting. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (HCFE) will hold a meeting on Monday, December 13th, at the time and location shown below. The Council is an...

  19. 78 FR 45580 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Cancelling and re-scheduling of Council meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (Council) is cancelling the August 29, 2013 Council meeting and will hold its remaining...

  20. 78 FR 65010 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Cancelling and Re-Scheduling of Council Meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (Council) is cancelling the October 31, 2013 Council meeting and will hold its...

  1. 78 FR 12107 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Scheduling of Council Meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment will hold its 2013 Council meetings on the dates and location shown below. The Council is an advisory...

  2. 77 FR 58291 - National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ..., 2012 Proclamation 8865--National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012 Proclamation 8866--National Hispanic... promoting job creation and ensuring Hispanics are represented in the Federal workforce to reshaping our education system to meet the demands of the 21st century, my Administration has built ladders of opportunity...

  3. Intention to Breastfeed as a Predictor of Initiation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ana M; Rayens, Mary K; Gomez, Maria L; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Dignan, Mark B

    2015-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the most efficacious form of infant feeding and nutrition. Hispanic mothers in the US are more likely than mothers of other racial/ethnic groups to supplement with formula in the first 2 days of life. The purpose of this study was to explore infant feeding intentions during the prenatal period as a predictor of EBF at postpartum discharge in a sample of Hispanic women (n = 99). At discharge, 51 % of the women were EBF, 44 % were breastfeeding and supplementing with formula, and 5 % were feeding only formula. Intention to breastfeed was found to be a strong and potentially modifiable predictor of breastfeeding behavior, showing a significant association with EBF upon discharge from the hospital after birth when linked with acceptance of pregnancy and method of delivery. Prenatal care offers a unique opportunity to enhance intentions to breastfeed that may lead to improved EBF in this health vulnerable population.

  4. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.

  5. Food Insecurity Increases the Odds of Obesity Among Young Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Dahl, Alicia; Dominick, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern and is more prevalent among low-income and minority populations. Food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children. We investigated the association between food insecurity and obesity among low-income, Hispanic, mother-child dyads (n = 74). The United States Department of Agriculture 18-item Household Food Security Survey was used to determine food security status. The majority of households were food insecure (74 %) and one-third (30 %) of children were obese. Food insecurity increased the odds of childhood obesity (OR 10.2; 95 % CI 1.2, 85.5) with stronger associations found within households where mothers were also overweight/obese compared to normal weight (p-for interaction food insecurity and childhood obesity were high among this low-income Hispanic sample. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms through which food insecurity impacts childhood obesity.

  6. Quality of Care for White and Hispanic Medicare Advantage Enrollees in the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Leyva, Bryan; Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N

    2016-06-01

    Geographic, racial, and ethnic variations in quality of care and outcomes have been well documented among the Medicare population. Few data exist on beneficiaries living in Puerto Rico, three-quarters of whom enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA). To determine the quality of care provided to white and Hispanic MA enrollees in the United States and Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study of MA enrollees in 2011 was conducted, including white enrollees in the United States (n = 6 289 374), Hispanic enrollees in the United States (n = 795 039), and Hispanic enrollees in Puerto Rico (n = 267 016). The study was conducted from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011; data analysis took place from January 19, 2015, to January 2, 2016. Seventeen performance measures related to diabetes mellitus (including hemoglobin A1c control, retinal eye examination, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control, nephropathy screening, and blood pressure control), cardiovascular disease (including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control, blood pressure control, and use of a β-blocker after myocardial infarction), cancer screening (colorectal and breast), and appropriate medications (including systemic corticosteroids and bronchodilators for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs). Of the 7.35 million MA enrollees in the United States and Puerto Rico in our study, 1.06 million (14.4%) were Hispanic. Approximately 25.1% of all Hispanic MA enrollees resided in Puerto Rico, which was more than those residing in any state. For 15 of the 17 measures assessed, Hispanic MA enrollees in Puerto Rico received worse care compared with Hispanics in the United States, with absolute differences in performance rates ranging from 2.2 percentage points for blood pressure control in diabetes mellitus (P = .03) to 31.3 percentage points for use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy (P Puerto Rico and Hispanic MA enrollees in the

  7. Depression screening and education: an examination of mental health literacy and stigma in a sample of Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Veronica; Sanchez, Katherine; Killian, Michael O; Eghaneyan, Brittany H

    2018-05-22

    Mental health literacy consists of knowledge of a mental disorder and of the associated stigma. Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma which is primarily perpetuated by inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. U.S.-born Hispanics are more likely to have depression compared to Hispanics born in Latin America and are less likely to follow a treatment plan compared to non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic women are more likely to access treatment through a primary care provider, making it an ideal setting for early mental health interventions. Baseline data from 319 female Hispanic patients enrolled in Project DESEO: Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment, were examined. The study implemented universal screening with a self-report depression screening tool (the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and took place at one federally qualified health center (FQHC) over a 24-month period. The current analysis examined the relationship between four culturally adapted stigma measures and depression knowledge, and tested whether mental health literacy was comparable across education levels in a sample of Hispanic women diagnosed with depression. Almost two-thirds of the sample had less than a high school education. Depression knowledge scores were significantly, weakly correlated with each the Stigma Concerns About Mental Health Care (ρ = - .165, p = .003), Latino Scale for Antidepressant Stigma (p = .124, p = .028), and Social Distance scores (p = .150, p = .007). Depression knowledge (F[2, 312] = 11.82, p stigma scores (F[2, 312] = 3.33, p = .037, partial η 2  = .015) significantly varied by education category. Participants with at least some college education reported significantly greater depression knowledge and less stigma surrounding depression and medication than participants with lower education levels. Primary care settings are

  8. First Trimester Prenatal Care Initiation Among Hispanic Women Along the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selchau, Katherine; Babuca, Maricela; Bower, Kara; Castro, Yara; Coakley, Eugenie; Flores, Araceli; Garcia, Jonah O; Reyes, Maria Lourdes F; Rojas, Yvonne; Rubin, Jason; Samuels, Deanne; Shattuck, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Background First trimester prenatal care (FTPNC) is associated with improved birth outcomes. U.S.-Mexico border Hispanic women have lower FTPNC than non-border or non-Hispanic women. This study aimed to identify (1) what demographic, knowledge and care-seeking factors influence FTPNC among Hispanic women in border counties served by five Healthy Start sites, and (2) what FTPNC barriers may be unique to this target population. Healthy Starts work to eliminate disparities in perinatal health in areas with high poverty and poor birth outcomes. Methods 403 Hispanic women of reproductive age in border communities of California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas were surveyed on knowledge and behaviors related to prenatal care (PNC) and basic demographic information. Chi square analyses and logistic regressions were used to identify important relationships. Results Chi square analyses revealed that primiparous women were significantly less likely to start FTPNC than multiparous women (χ 2 = 6.8372, p = 0.0089). Women with accurate knowledge about FTPNC were more likely to obtain FTPNC (χ 2  = 29.280, p < .001) and more likely to have seen a doctor within the past year (χ 2  = 5.550, p = .018). Logistic regression confirmed that multiparity was associated with FTPNC and also that living in Texas was negatively associated with FTPNC (R 2  = 0.066, F(9,340) = 2.662, p = .005). Among 27 women with non-FTPNC, barriers included late pregnancy recognition (n = 19) and no medical insurance (n = 5). Conclusions This study supports research that first time pregnancies have lower FTPNC, and demonstrated a strong association between delayed PNC and late pregnancy recognition. Strengthened investments in preconception planning could improve FTPNC in this population.

  9. Acculturation, Enculturation, and Symptoms of Depression in Hispanic Youth: The Roles of Gender, Hispanic Cultural Values, and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The risk for depression increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society. This association is stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture and family on depressive symptoms, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation, cultural values, and family functioning. The data came from Project RED,…

  10. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: meal and snack intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pchildren's and non-Hispanic children's intakes by eating occasion is at age 12-24 months. Hispanics aged 12-24 months had significantly (Pchildren. For dinner, Hispanic toddlers had significantly (Pcomplement meals by including additional fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are culturally appropriate rather than fruit drinks, cookies, and crackers. This will increase fiber intake and limit fat and sugar intakes. To develop healthful eating patterns, introduce toddlers to foods

  11. Presence of Alcohol and Drugs in Hispanic Versus Non-Hispanic Youth Suicide Victims in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Daniel; Kosoy, Jennifer Ellyn; Ayllon, Karla Diaz; Acuna, Juan

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the association between the presence of drugs and alcohol at time of suicide in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic youth suicide victims in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The Medical Examiner's records of 435 persons aged 24 years or younger classified as suicides in Miami-Dade County, Florida, from 1990 to 2011 were reviewed. Hispanic youth in Miami-Dade County, Florida were 1.62 times more likely than non-Hispanic youth to have used drugs and alcohol at time of suicide (OR 1.62; 95 % CI 1.07-2.04; p = 0.049). Firearm use was significantly associated with drug and alcohol use at time of death. Use of drugs and alcohol at the time of death are important risk factors for suicide in Hispanic youth.

  12. Improving access to shared decision-making for Hispanics/Latinos with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson JA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jaime A Davidson,1 Aracely Rosales,2 Alicia C Shillington,3 Robert A Bailey,4 Chris Kabir,3 Guillermo E Umpierrez51Touchstone Diabetes Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Rosales Communications, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3EPI-Q, Inc., Oakbrook, IL, USA; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA; 5Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, GA, USAPurpose: To describe the cultural and linguistic adaptation and Spanish translation of an English-language patient decision aid (PDA for use in supporting shared decision-making in Hispanics/Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, a group at a high risk for complications.Patients and methods: A steering committee of endocrinologists, a primary care physician, a certified diabetes educator, and a dietician, each with extensive experience in providing care to Hispanics/Latinos was convened to assess a PDA developed for English-speaking patients with T2DM. English content was reviewed for cultural sensitivity and appropriateness for a Hispanic/Latino population. A consensus-building process and iterative version edits incorporated clinician perspectives. The content was adapted to be consistent with traditional Hispanic/Latino cultural communication precepts (eg, avoidance of hostile confrontation; value for warm interaction; respect for authority; value of family support for decisions. The PDA was translated by native-speaking individuals with diabetes expertise.Results: The PDA underwent testing during cognitive interviews with ten Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos with T2DM to ensure that the content is reflective of the experience, understanding, and language Hispanic/Latino patients use to describe diabetes and treatment. Content edits were made to assure a literacy level appropriate to the audience, and the PDA was produced for online video dissemination.Conclusion: High

  13. Impact of Individual and Neighborhood Factors on Cardiovascular Risk in White Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Tanya; Miller, Arlene; Fogg, Louis; Braun, Lynne T; Coke, Lola

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality for adults in the US, regardless of ethnicity. A cross-sectional correlational design was used to describe and compare CVD risk and cardiac mortality in White Hispanic and non-Hispanic women and men. Data from 3,317 individuals (1,523 women and 1,794 men) hospitalized for non-cardiac causes during 2012-2013, and data from the 2010 United States Census were included. The sex-specific 10-year Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS-10) was used to estimate long-term risk for major cardiac events. Approximately three-quarters of the sample was White Hispanic. FRS-10 scores were generally low, but a high prevalence of risk factors not included in the standard FRS-10 scoring formula was seen. White Hispanic women had significantly lower estimated CVD risk scores compared to White Hispanic and non-Hispanic men despite higher non-FRS-10 risks. Neighborhood median household income had a significant negative relationship and Hispanic neighborhood concentration had a significant positive relationship with cardiac mortality. Hispanic concentration was the only predictor of estimated CVD risk in a multilevel model. CVD risk assessment tools that are calibrated for ethnic groups and socioeconomic status may be more appropriate for Hispanic individuals than the FRS-10. Neighborhood-level factors should be included in clinical cardiac assessment in addition to individual characteristics and behavioral risks. Researchers should continue to seek additional risk factors that may contribute to or protect against CVD in order to close the gap between estimated CVD risk and actual cardiac mortality for Hispanics in the US. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Adaptation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Puerto Rican and non-Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K L; Bianchi, L A; Maras, J; Bermudez, O I

    1998-09-01

    To study issues of diet and health among Hispanic adults living in the northeastern United States, the authors adapted a version of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)/Block food frequency questionnaire. Foods that contributed to nutrient intake of Puerto Rican adults in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) were ranked to identify items to be added to the food list. Portion sizes were compared across HHANES and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) to assess the adequacy of the assumed values. Within line items, frequencies of consumption of individual foods were ranked and these data were used to adjust the weighting factors within the database. To test the revised form, 24-hour recalls were collected from 90 elderly Hispanics and 35 elderly non-Hispanic whites. These data were coded into the original and revised food frequency forms and nutrient intake results were compared with recall results by paired t-test, and by Pearson and intraclass correlations. Added foods include plantains, avocado, mango, cassava, empanadas, and custard. Portion sizes differed significantly between HHANES and NHANES II, and were left open-ended. Estimated mean nutrient intakes and correlations with recall data were lower with the original versus the revised form. The authors conclude that the use in minority populations of food frequency questionnaires developed for the general population is likely to result in biased estimates of intake unless modifications are made in the questionnaires.

  15. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level <8). A crosssectional analysis documented associations between serum OC and age adjusted HbA1c levels. There was no direct association between age and OC concentrations in our study. Higher HbA1c was associated with lower serum OC in men (odds ratio -6.5, 95% confidence interval -12.7 to - 0.3, p < 0.04). No significant associations

  16. Predictors of depressive symptoms among Hispanic women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Amber L; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P

    2013-11-01

    U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19-52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression.

  17. Hispanic nurses' experiences of bias in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moceri, Joane T

    2014-01-01

    The continuing issue of health inequity for Hispanics highlights the importance of retaining Hispanic nurses in the workplace. This article describes the use of short answers such as "Describe the bias you experienced" and "If a patient refused care, what was the reason given?" to increase understandings about bias through the descriptions of Hispanic nurses. In this study, bias was defined as those implicit negative stereotypes and attitudes that negatively affect judgments about, evaluations of, and actions toward others. For this qualitative component of a descriptive study employing both qualitative and quantitative methods, 111 Hispanic nurses responded to open-ended questions about experiences of bias that were included with a survey tool and demographic questionnaire. Three themes emerged: being overlooked and undervalued, having to prove competency, and living with "only-ness." Respect was an overarching concept. The written descriptions of bias provided depth and understanding to the quantitative findings. Nurse leaders are well positioned to develop and implement strategies to more effectively support Hispanic nurses and to promote nonbiased interactions in the workplace. Retaining Hispanic nurses is a vital component to address issues of health inequity for Hispanic patients.

  18. Glycemic control, cognitive function, and family support among middle-aged and older Hispanics with diabetes: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizich, Garrett; Kaplan, Robert C; González, Hector M; Daviglus, Martha L; Giachello, Aida L; Teng, Yanping; Lipton, Richard B; Grober, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    To examine among Hispanics in the U.S., a population with increased reliance on informal healthcare support structures, (1) the association between cognitive function and control of diabetes; and (2) whether this association is modified by family support. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), word fluency, and learning and delayed recall components of the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test were administered to 1794 Hispanic adults aged 45-76years with diagnosed diabetes. An executive function index and global cognitive function index (GCFI) were derived. Uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c⩾7% [53mmol/mol]) was compared across quartiles of cognitive function using multivariable logit models with interaction terms for cognitive function and family support. After adjustment, lower DSST scores were associated with uncontrolled diabetes (P=0.03). Family support modified the relationship between other measures of cognition and diabetes control (Pinteraction: 0.002, 0.09). Among individuals with low family support, as cognitive function declined, the odds of uncontrolled diabetes increased (P-trend across quartiles of the GCFI, 0.015). Among those with low family support, persons in the lowest quartile of global cognitive function were more than twice as likely to have uncontrolled diabetes as those in the highest performing quartile (OR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.55). There was no similar effect among those with high family support. Family support may buffer the negative association between low cognitive functioning and diabetes control in US Hispanics/Latinos. Educational programs targeted at family members of middle-age and older persons with diabetes regardless of neurocognitive status may help improve population-level glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid recovery of genetic diversity of dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus L.) populations after local extinction and recolonization contradicts predictions from life-history characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, I; Hughes, R N

    2004-08-01

    The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a predatory marine gastropod populating North Atlantic rocky shores. As with many other gastropod species, N. lapillus was affected by tributyltin (TBT) pollution during the 1970s and 1980s, when local populations became extinct. After a partial ban on TBT in the United Kingdom in 1987, vacant sites have been recolonized. N. lapillus lacks a planktonic larval stage and is therefore expected to have limited dispersal ability. Relatively fast recolonization of some sites, however, contradicts this assumption. We compared levels of genetic diversity and genetic structuring between recolonized sites and sites that showed continuous population at three localities across the British Isles. No significant genetic effects of extinction/recolonization events were observed in SW Scotland and NE England. In SW England we observed a decrease in genetic diversity and an increase in genetic structure in recolonized populations. This last result could be an artefact, however, due to the superposition of other local factors influencing the genetic structuring of dogwhelk populations. We conclude that recolonization of vacant sites was accomplished by a relatively high number of individuals originating from several source populations (the 'migrant-pool' model of recolonization), implying that movements are more widespread than expected on the basis of development mode alone. Comparison with published data on genetic structure of marine organisms with contrasted larval dispersal supports this hypothesis. Our results also stress the importance of local factors (geographical or ecological) in determining genetic structure of dogwhelk populations. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  20. Improving actions to control high blood pressure in Hispanic communities - Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Across the U.S. Project, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Youlian; Siegel, Paul Z; White, Shannon; Dulin, Rick; Taylor, April

    2016-02-01

    Compared with the general population in the United States (U.S.), Hispanics with hypertension are less likely to be aware of their condition, to take antihypertensive medication, and to adopt healthy lifestyles to control high blood pressure. We examined whether a multi-community intervention successfully increased the prevalence of actions to control hypertension among Hispanics. Annual survey from 2009-2012 was conducted in six Hispanic communities in the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Across the U.S. The survey used address based sampling design that matched the geographies of intervention program. Age- and sex-standardized prevalences of taking hypertensive medication, changing eating habits, cutting down on salt, and reducing alcohol use significantly increased among Hispanics with self-reported hypertension in REACH communities. The 3-year relative percent increases were 5.8, 6.8, 7.9, and 35.2% for the four indicators, respectively. These favorable (healthier) trends occurred in both foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanics. This large community-based participatory intervention resulted in more Hispanic residents in the communities taking actions to control high blood pressure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Association of Obesity, BMI, and Hispanic Ethnicity on Ambulatory Status in Children with Spinal Dysraphism followed near the California-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michelle L; Huang, Andy; Proudfoot, James A; Le, Joan T; Chiang, George J; Bush, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), overweight status (OW), or obesity (OB) and ambulatory status in a predominantly Hispanic population of children with spinal dysraphism (SD). Retrospective data were extracted from records of 272 children and youth aged 0-24 years with a diagnosis of SD. Body mass index (BMI) and OW / OB rates were calculated for children 0-3 years, 4-11 years, and adolescents older than 11. Ethnicity was predominantly Hispanic (65.4%). No difference in mean BMI or OW / OB rate was found between ambulation groups (p = .20; p = .72). Mean BMI and OW / OB rate increased with increasing age in all groups (p < .001; p = .02). Forty-four percent of patients were OW / OB, which was greater among Hispanics (48.2%) compared with non-Hispanics [(35.2%), p = .03]. Female gender was a risk factor for increased BMI among Hispanics (p = .00). Despite no difference in ambulatory status, increasing BMI and OW / OB are associated with Hispanic ethnicity and increasing age.

  2. Clinical determinants of clopidogrel responsiveness in a heterogeneous cohort of Puerto Rican Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Scott, Stuart A; Tomey, Matthew I; Melin, Kyle; Lopez-Candales, Angel; Buckley, Charlotte E; Duconge, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Clopidogrel is by far the most prescribed platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist in Puerto Rico despite the advent of newer agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor). Given the paucity of data on clopidogrel responsiveness in Hispanics, we sought to determine the association between clinical characteristics and platelet reactivity in Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy. A total of 100 Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy were enrolled and allocated into two groups: Group I, without high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR); and Group II, with HTPR. Platelet function was measured ex vivo using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. The cohort was comprised of Hispanic patients with coronary artery disease (57%), peripheral artery disease (32%), carotid artery stenosis (7%), cerebral artery aneurysm (2%), and stroke (2%). Mean platelet reactivity was 200 ± 61 P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) (range: 8-324), and 35% of patients had HTPR (PRUs ⩾ 230). Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined that diabetes mellitus (DM) [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-8.96], use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.09-11.82), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.09-8.83) were independent predictors of HTPR ( p Puerto Rican Hispanic patients on clopidogrel, 35% had HTPR. Furthermore, DM, PPIs and CCBs predicted HTPR. Clinical outcome data are needed to identify appropriate PRU thresholds for risk prediction in the Puerto Rican population.

  3. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  4. Psychosocial stress is associated with obesity and diet quality in Hispanic/Latino adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Jung, Molly M; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Espinoza, Rebeca A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Schneiderman, Neil; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of psychosocial stress with obesity, adiposity, and dietary intake in a diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods Participants were 5077 men and women, 18–74 years old, from diverse Hispanic/Latino ethnic backgrounds. Linear regression models were used to assess the association of ongoing chronic stressors and recent perceived stress with measures of adiposity (waist circumference and percentage body fat) and dietary intake (total energy, saturated fat, alternative healthy eating index [AHEI-2010]). Multinomial logistic models were used to describe the odds of obesity or overweight relative to normal weight. Results Greater number of chronic stressors and greater perceived stress were associated with higher total energy intake. Greater recent perceived stress was associated with lower diet quality as indicated by AHEI-2010 scores. Compared to no stressors, reporting ≥ 3 chronic stressors was associated with higher odds of being obese (OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.01–2.1), greater waist circumference (β = 3.3, 95%CI 1.0–5.5) and percentage body fat (β = 1.5, 95%CI 0.4, 2.6). Conclusions The study found an association between stress and obesity and adiposity measures, suggesting that stress management techniques may be useful in obesity prevention and treatment programs that target Hispanic/Latino populations. PMID:25487969

  5. Examining Fall Recurrence Risk of Homebound Hispanic Older Adults Receiving Home Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Guillermina R; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2017-03-01

    Unintentional falls and injuries is a major problem among older adults and the fourth cause of death in the United States. A previous fall event doubles the risk of recurrence and lessens the person's quality of life. Hispanic older adults have higher rates of disability and lower independent functioning due to poor medical health and risk for fall recurrence. Most fall studies focus on fall risk with few studies on fall recurrence in older adults receiving home health care services unrelated to fall incident. A descriptive pilot study of 30 homebound Hispanic older adults receiving home care services who reported a fall within 3 months was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to evaluate risk of fall recurrence. A heightened risk for fall recurrence was identified with high number of chronic illnesses, high intake of medications, vision problems, and prevalence of urinary incontinence. Findings highlight significant number of intrinsic factors for fall risk recurrence and injuries in a Hispanic older adults population that is homebound and receiving home care services. A multidisciplinary evaluation and culturally appropriate interventions to lessen the risk of fall recurrence are recommended.

  6. Use of folk healing practices by HIV-infected Hispanics living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, M; Raffaelli, M; O'Leary, A

    1996-12-01

    In the absence of a medical cure for AIDS, HIV-infected individuals may seek alternative treatments that are consistent with cultural and social beliefs. This paper examines beliefs about, and use of, folk healing practices by HIV-infected Hispanics receiving care at an HIV/AIDS clinic in inner-city New Jersey. Anonymous individual interviews were conducted with 58 male and 18 female HIV-infected Hispanics aged 23-55, primarily of Puerto Rican origin (61%) or descent (29%). The majority of respondents believed in good and evil spirits (73.7%); among the 56 believers, 48% stated that the spirits had a causal role in their infection, either alone or in conjunction with the AIDS virus. Two thirds of the respondents engaged in folk healing (spiritualism and/or santeria). The main desired outcomes of folk healing included physical relief (44%), spiritual relief (40%), and protection from evil (26%). A number of respondents (n = 9) stated that they hoped to effect a cure by engaging in folk healing. These results indicate that health care professionals treating HIV-positive Hispanics should be aware of the prevalence of folk beliefs and alternative healing practices in this population.

  7. Psychosocial stress is associated with obesity and diet quality in Hispanic/Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Jung, Molly M; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Espinoza, Rebeca A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Schneiderman, Neil; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    To examine the association of psychosocial stress with obesity, adiposity, and dietary intake in a diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults. Participants were 5077 men and women, aged 18 to 74 years, from diverse Hispanic/Latino ethnic backgrounds. Linear regression models were used to assess the association of ongoing chronic stressors and recent perceived stress with measures of adiposity (waist circumference and percentage body fat) and dietary intake (total energy, saturated fat, alternative healthy eating index-2010). Multinomial logistic models were used to describe the odds of obesity or overweight relative to normal weight. Greater number of chronic stressors and greater perceived stress were associated with higher total energy intake. Greater recent perceived stress was associated with lower diet quality as indicated by alternative healthy eating index-2010 scores. Compared with no stressors, reporting three or more chronic stressors was associated with higher odds of being obese (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.1), greater waist circumference (β = 3.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.5), and percentage body fat (β = 1.5, 95% CI 0.4-2.6). The study found an association between stress and obesity and adiposity measures, suggesting that stress management techniques may be useful in obesity prevention and treatment programs that target Hispanic/Latino populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Coping with asthma in immigrant Hispanic families: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnaim, Giselle; Kohrman, Claire; Sharp, Lisa K; Wolf, Marion E; Sadowski, Laura S; Ramos, Lori; Grammer, Leslie C

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about how childhood asthma affects immigrant Hispanic families in the United States. Qualitative research is effective for understanding the social, cultural, functional, and structural aspects of asthma in the family context. Furthermore, such knowledge is necessary to develop culturally appropriate interventions for these families. To describe participants' perceptions of their roles in caring for an asthmatic child, to compare family patterns of caring for an asthmatic child by parents' country of origin, to identify barriers to caring for an asthmatic child, and to evaluate specific coping needs of low-income immigrant Hispanic families caring for an asthmatic child. Five focus groups were conducted with low-income, immigrant, Spanish-speaking Hispanic adults caring for an asthmatic child, including community health workers, mothers, fathers, and grandparents, along with women with asthma. Audiotaped focus groups were transcribed verbatim in Spanish, forward translated into English, and back translated into Spanish. Data analysis was performed using qualitative analytic methods. Forty-one participants represented a range of countries of origin. Different themes emerged for community health workers vs parents and grandparents and for women vs men caring for a child with asthma. All the participants reported strong beliefs in using folk medicines. Barriers identified included language, culture, poverty, lack of health insurance, and poor living conditions. Results highlight the lack of asthma self-management skills, diagnostic uncertainty, and the use of folk medicine as factors that should be taken into consideration when tailoring interventions to improve asthma outcomes in this vulnerable population.

  9. Pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer advertising and US Hispanic patient-consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Kristin K; Vasquez Guzman, Cirila Estela

    2015-11-01

    Hispanic Americans use prescription medications at markedly lower rates than do non-Hispanic whites. At the same time, Hispanics are the largest racial-ethnic minority in the USA. In a recent effort to reach this underdeveloped market, the pharmaceutical industry has begun to create Spanish-language direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) campaigns. The substantive content of these campaigns is being tailored to appeal to the purported cultural values, beliefs and identities of Latino consumers. We compare English-language and Spanish-language television commercials for two prescription medications. We highlight the importance of selling medicine to a medically under-served population as a key marketing element of Latino-targeted DTCA. We define selling medicine as the pharmaceutical industry's explicit promotion of medicine's cultural authority as a means of expanding its markets and profits. We reflect on the prospects of this development in terms of promoting medicalisation in a US subgroup that has heretofore eluded the pharmaceutical industry's marketing influence. Our analysis draws on Nikolas Rose's insights concerning variations in the degree to which certain groups of people are more medically made up than others, by reflecting on the racial and ethnic character of medicalisation in the USA and the role DTCA plays in shaping medicalisation trends. A video abstract of this article can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZabCle9-jHw&feature=youtu.be. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  10. Metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children: the Viva la Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.

  11. Physical activity perceptions, context, barriers, and facilitators from a Hispanic child's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharon E. Taverno; Francis, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to develop effective physical activity interventions and to address the burden of obesity in Hispanic children, qualitative studies are needed to build descriptive theory and expand the state of the science. The purpose of this study is to describe physical activity perceptions, context, facilitators, and barriers from the perspective of Hispanic immigrant-origin children. Method This in-depth, ethnographic study included 14, 6- to 11-year old, first- and second- generation Hispanic children recruited from an afterschool program in Southeastern Pennsylvania, USA. Methods included child observation, field notes, semi-structured interviews, and a PhotoVoice activity. Transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed using the constant comparison method to identify overarching themes and patterns in the data. Results Data analysis yielded four overarching themes regarding children's perspectives on physical activity. Children engaged in a variety of physical activities and sedentary behaviors, which differed by physical (e.g., park, outside home, and afterschool programs) and social (e.g., parents, siblings, and friends) contexts. Children discussed specific benefits of physical activity. Children's negative attitudes toward physical activity were related to physical discomfort, low athletic competence, and safety concerns. Children perceived physical activity and play to be one in the same, and “fun” was identified as a primary driver of physical activity preferences. The facilitators and barriers to physical activity were related to specific parent/home, school, and neighborhood factors. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that an emphasis on fun and active play, while taking into account family and neighborhood context, may be a desirable intervention approach in Hispanic immigrant-origin children. This study lays the groundwork for future studies to further explore some of the themes identified here to better understand children

  12. Place of birth,age of immigration,and disability in Hispanics with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Lilyana; Conti, David V; Liu, Lihua; Ledezma, Karina; Langer-Goulda, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in the US are a diverse community where their knowledge and risk for developing disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) may relate to their level of acculturation. To compare the risk of disability in Hispanics with MS in the US by place of birth and age of immigration. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 304 Hispanics with MS residing in Southern California. Place of birth and age of immigration were used as proxies to acculturation. Individuals were classified as US-born, early and late-immigrant (immigration to the US, respectively). Risk of disability (expanded disability status scale ≥6) was adjusted for age at symptom onset, sex, socioeconomic status, and disease duration, using logistic regression. Late-immigrants were older at symptom onset (34.2±11.9 vs. 31.9±12.9 vs. 28.5±9.7 years, pimmigrant and US-born respectively. There was no difference between groups by female sex, type of MS, ethnicity, chronic medical conditions, and disease duration while differences were noted by socioeconomic status. Being late-immigrant was independently associated with increased disability (adjusted OR 2.3 95% CIs 1.07–4.82; p=0.03) compared to US-born. Later immigration to the US in Hispanics with MS is associated with greater disability. These findings may reflect differences in social, environmental and cultural factors that may act as barriers for accessibility and utilization of health services. An in-depth assessment of the perceptions and attitudes about MS are warranted in this population.

  13. Self-sampling for human papillomavirus in a community setting: feasibility in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alba, Israel; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Hubbell, F Allan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hess, James R; Bracho, America; Arias, Caleb; Manetta, Alberto

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was (a) to assess sensitivity and specificity of self-sampling in a community setting for identifying high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and (b) to assess satisfaction with this collection method among Hispanic women. Lay health workers distributed self-collection kits to Hispanic women in the community. Participants collected an unsupervised vaginal sample at home or in the place and time of their preference. A total of 1,213 Hispanics were included and provided a self-sample for HPV testing and were invited for a Pap smear; 662 (55%) of them had a Pap smear and the first 386 of these also had a physician-collected sample for HPV retesting. Using physician collection as the gold standard, unsupervised self-collection had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 88% for identifying high-risk HPV. Compared with physician sampling, self-sampling in a community setting had comparable sensitivity for identifying a low-grade lesions or greater in the Pap smear (50% versus 55%; P = 0.45) but lower specificity (94% versus 79%). Overall experience with self-sampling was reported as excellent or very good by 64% and only 2.6% reported a poor or fair experience. Unsupervised self-collection of vaginal samples for HPV testing in a community setting has a high sensitivity for identifying high-risk HPV and a high satisfaction among Hispanics. This approach may benefit populations with limited access to health care or with cultural barriers to cervical cancer screening.

  14. Physical activity perceptions, context, barriers, and facilitators from a Hispanic child's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Taverno Ross

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop effective physical activity interventions and to address the burden of obesity in Hispanic children, qualitative studies are needed to build descriptive theory and expand the state of the science. The purpose of this study is to describe physical activity perceptions, context, facilitators, and barriers from the perspective of Hispanic immigrant-origin children. Method: This in-depth, ethnographic study included 14, 6- to 11-year old, first- and second- generation Hispanic children recruited from an afterschool program in Southeastern Pennsylvania, USA. Methods included child observation, field notes, semi-structured interviews, and a PhotoVoice activity. Transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed using the constant comparison method to identify overarching themes and patterns in the data. Results: Data analysis yielded four overarching themes regarding children's perspectives on physical activity. Children engaged in a variety of physical activities and sedentary behaviors, which differed by physical (e.g., park, outside home, and afterschool programs and social (e.g., parents, siblings, and friends contexts. Children discussed specific benefits of physical activity. Children's negative attitudes toward physical activity were related to physical discomfort, low athletic competence, and safety concerns. Children perceived physical activity and play to be one in the same, and “fun” was identified as a primary driver of physical activity preferences. The facilitators and barriers to physical activity were related to specific parent/home, school, and neighborhood factors. Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that an emphasis on fun and active play, while taking into account family and neighborhood context, may be a desirable intervention approach in Hispanic immigrant-origin children. This study lays the groundwork for future studies to further explore some of the themes identified here to better

  15. Pregnancy risk among black, white, and Hispanic teen girls in New York City public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S

    2010-05-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students.

  16. Metabolic syndrome in an Hispanic population–cardiovascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo I. Altieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS is presently one of the main medical problems in developing countries. This syndrome was studied in Puerto Rico at the Cardiovascular Center of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean with emphasis on understanding the cardiovascular complications. The medical records of patients admitted between 1999 to 2005 were evaluated for three or more MetS diagnostic criteria. One hundred and seventy-three patients met the consensus criteria of metabolic syndrome (MetS. The mean age of those diagnosed with MetS was 60 years of age. Fifty-seven percent were males and 42 percent females. The mean body mass was 30 kg/m. The ejection fraction was found to be subnormal (49±8% and the end systolic dimension of the left atrium was increased ( 45±10 mm in comparison to a group of diabetic patients without MetS used for comparison. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was found to be 16% higher in the MetS group than in the comparison group. The number of cases of metabolic syndrome recorded within the Hispanic population of Puerto Rico showed a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation without ventricular tachycardia. This is thought to be as a result of the abnormal left ventricular and atrial function.

  17. African Americans' and Hispanics' information needs about cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations' informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N = 45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation.

  18. Massive nest-box supplementation boosts fecundity, survival and even immigration without altering mating and reproductive behaviour in a rapidly recovered bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthier

    Full Text Available Habitat restoration measures may result in artificially high breeding density, for instance when nest-boxes saturate the environment, which can negatively impact species' demography. Potential risks include changes in mating and reproductive behaviour such as increased extra-pair paternity, conspecific brood parasitism, and polygyny. Under particular cicumstances, these mechanisms may disrupt reproduction, with populations dragged into an extinction vortex. With the use of nuclear microsatellite markers, we investigated the occurrence of these potentially negative effects in a recovered population of a rare secondary cavity-nesting farmland bird of Central Europe, the hoopoe (Upupa epops. High intensity farming in the study area has resulted in a total eradication of cavity trees, depriving hoopoes from breeding sites. An intensive nest-box campaign rectified this problem, resulting in a spectacular population recovery within a few years only. There was some concern, however, that the new, high artificially-induced breeding density might alter hoopoe mating and reproductive behaviour. As the species underwent a serious demographic bottleneck in the 1970-1990s, we also used the microsatellite markers to reconstitute the demo-genetic history of the population, looking in particular for signs of genetic erosion. We found i a low occurrence of extra-pair paternity, polygyny and conspecific brood parasitism, ii a high level of neutral genetic diversity (mean number of alleles and expected heterozygosity per locus: 13.8 and 83%, respectively and, iii evidence for genetic connectivity through recent immigration of individuals from well differentiated populations. The recent increase in breeding density did thus not induce so far any noticeable detrimental changes in mating and reproductive behaviour. The demographic bottleneck undergone by the population in the 1970s-1990s was furthermore not accompanied by any significant drop in neutral genetic

  19. Massive nest-box supplementation boosts fecundity, survival and even immigration without altering mating and reproductive behaviour in a rapidly recovered bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Karine; Leippert, Fabio; Fumagalli, Luca; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Habitat restoration measures may result in artificially high breeding density, for instance when nest-boxes saturate the environment, which can negatively impact species' demography. Potential risks include changes in mating and reproductive behaviour such as increased extra-pair paternity, conspecific brood parasitism, and polygyny. Under particular cicumstances, these mechanisms may disrupt reproduction, with populations dragged into an extinction vortex. With the use of nuclear microsatellite markers, we investigated the occurrence of these potentially negative effects in a recovered population of a rare secondary cavity-nesting farmland bird of Central Europe, the hoopoe (Upupa epops). High intensity farming in the study area has resulted in a total eradication of cavity trees, depriving hoopoes from breeding sites. An intensive nest-box campaign rectified this problem, resulting in a spectacular population recovery within a few years only. There was some concern, however, that the new, high artificially-induced breeding density might alter hoopoe mating and reproductive behaviour. As the species underwent a serious demographic bottleneck in the 1970-1990s, we also used the microsatellite markers to reconstitute the demo-genetic history of the population, looking in particular for signs of genetic erosion. We found i) a low occurrence of extra-pair paternity, polygyny and conspecific brood parasitism, ii) a high level of neutral genetic diversity (mean number of alleles and expected heterozygosity per locus: 13.8 and 83%, respectively) and, iii) evidence for genetic connectivity through recent immigration of individuals from well differentiated populations. The recent increase in breeding density did thus not induce so far any noticeable detrimental changes in mating and reproductive behaviour. The demographic bottleneck undergone by the population in the 1970s-1990s was furthermore not accompanied by any significant drop in neutral genetic diversity. Finally

  20. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. 76 FR 58373 - National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... United States carrying nothing but hope for a better life, Hispanics have always been integral to our... and public servants, and brave service members who defend our way of life at home and abroad. My...

  2. 77 FR 5582 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...

  3. 76 FR 4742 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...

  4. 76 FR 54811 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...

  5. 76 FR 75567 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Office of Personnel Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...

  6. 76 FR 67233 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...

  7. 77 FR 23513 - Hispanic Council on Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...

  8. DefenseLink Special: Hispanic American Heritage Month 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    16th and that of Chile on September 18th. Presidential Proclamation Background * Legislative History of Virginia to enable Hispanic* immigrants to more fully participate in and contribute to American society

  9. Clinical and pathological characteristics of Hispanic BRCA-associated breast cancers in the American-Mexican border city of El Paso, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahleh, Zeina; Otoukesh, Salman; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Sanchez, Luis; Saldivar, J Salvador; Cataneda, Kayla; Heydarian, Rosalinda

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in El Paso, TX, a large American-Mexican border city constitute 85% of the population. Limited cancer research has been conducted in this population. We sought to study the prevalence of BRCA mutations among Hispanic patients of Mexican origin, identify reported Mexican founder or recurrent mutations, and study the breast cancer characteristics in mutation carriers. Hispanic women of Mexican descent with a personal history of breast cancer, who presented consecutively for genetic cancer risk assessment, were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved registry and underwent BRCA testing based on national guidelines. The characteristics of tumors and patients with positive BRCA mutation were analyzed. 88 patients were screened; 18 patients (20%) were BRCA carriers. Among BRCA carriers, 72% were diagnosed with breast cancer at younger than 50 years, 61% had "Triple negative disease". BRCA carriers had a significantly higher Body Mass Index (BMI) than non-carriers. Thirteen patients had BRCA1 mutations and five had BRCA2 mutations. A total of 17 deleterious BRCA Mutations were observed. Seven have been previously reported as specific genes from Mexico as country of origin. Five new mutations in BRCA carriers of Mexican descent were identified. Hispanic breast cancer patients of Mexican origin present at a younger age, and have predominantly triple negative tumors and high BMI. We identified 5 new mutations not reported previously in Hispanic BRCA carriers of Mexican descent. Interestingly, 41% of BRCA mutations identified have been reported as recurrent mutations in Hispanic individuals from Mexico as the country of origin. A more cost-effective approach to initial screening of Hispanic individuals based on country of origin is desirable and would potentially decrease the number of cases requiring complete sequencing.

  10. Baroque Poetics and the Logic of Hispanic Exceptionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Baroque Poetics and the Logic of Hispanic Exceptionalismby Allen YoungIn this dissertation I study the how the baroque is used to understand aesthetic modernity in twentieth-century Spain and Latin America. My argument is that the baroque, in contemporary Hispanic and Latin American studies, functions as a myth of cultural exceptionalism, letting critics recast avant-garde and postmodern innovation as fidelity to a timeless essence or identity. That is, by viewing much contemporary Spanish-la...

  11. Genome-wide association study of PR interval in Hispanics/Latinos identifies novel locus at ID2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyerle, Amanda A; Lin, Henry J; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Stilp, Adrienne; Méndez Giráldez, Raul; Soliman, Elsayed; Baldassari, Antoine; Graff, Mariaelisa; Heckbert, Susan; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kooperberg, Charles; Rodriguez, Carlos; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Taylor, Kent D; Whitsel, Eric A; Rotter, Jerome I; Laurie, Cathy C; Avery, Christy L

    2017-11-10

    PR interval (PR) is a heritable electrocardiographic measure of atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction. Changes in PR duration may be associated with atrial fibrillation, heart failure and all-cause mortality. Hispanic/Latino populations have high burdens of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, are highly admixed and represent exceptional opportunities for novel locus identification. However, they remain chronically understudied. We present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PR in 14 756 participants of Hispanic/Latino ancestry from three studies. Study-specific summary results of the association between 1000 Genomes Phase 1 imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PR assumed an additive genetic model and were adjusted for global ancestry, study centre/region and clinical covariates. Results were combined using fixed-effects, inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. Sequential conditional analyses were used to identify independent signals. Replication of novel loci was performed in populations of Asian, African and European descent. ENCODE and RoadMap data were used to annotate results. We identified a novel genome-wide association (PPR at ID2 (rs6730558), which replicated in Asian and European populations (PPR loci to Hispanics/Latinos. Bioinformatics annotation provided evidence for regulatory function in cardiac tissue. Further, for six loci that generalised, the Hispanic/Latino index SNP was genome-wide significant and identical to (or in high linkage disequilibrium with) the previously identified GWAS lead SNP. Our results suggest that genetic determinants of PR are consistent across race/ethnicity, but extending studies to admixed populations can identify novel associations, underscoring the importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  12. Rapid adaptive divergence of life-history traits in response to abiotic stress within a natural population of a parthenogenetic nematode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doroszuk, A.; Wojewodzic, M.W.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is acknowledged to facilitate adaptation to novel environments while asexual eukaryotes are often regarded as having low adaptive potential. This view has been challenged in a number of studies, but the adaptive potential of asexual populations in the field is poorly documented.

  13. The Hispanic pharmacist: Value beyond a common language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Gabriela C; Andrews, Carlota O

    2015-01-01

    To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients' language and culture. Inability to speak and/or write in the patients' native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish alone may not remove completely the barrier for non-compliance among Hispanics. Bilingual Spanish-English pharmacists do not have the language barrier, but if they do not recognize and accept cultural differences, their impact in their patients' response may still be limited. It is time to recognize the added value of Hispanic pharmacists to Hispanic patients' health outcomes. Understanding and sharing a culture allows the pharmacist to make medication education and interventions relevant to the patient and spark interest in their own health care. Thus, in caring for the health of our patients, cultural barriers may be more challenging to conquer than language barriers; deep appreciation and acceptance of our patients' belief system cannot be acquired by just reading about it, having a computerized program, or hiring an interpreter.

  14. The Hispanic pharmacist: Value beyond a common language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C Cipriano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients’ language and culture. Summary: Inability to speak and/or write in the patients’ native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish alone may not remove completely the barrier for non-compliance among Hispanics. Bilingual Spanish–English pharmacists do not have the language barrier, but if they do not recognize and accept cultural differences, their impact in their patients’ response may still be limited. Conclusion: It is time to recognize the added value of Hispanic pharmacists to Hispanic patients’ health outcomes. Understanding and sharing a culture allows the pharmacist to make medication education and interventions relevant to the patient and spark interest in their own health care. Thus, in caring for the health of our patients, cultural barriers may be more challenging to conquer than language barriers; deep appreciation and acceptance of our patients’ belief system cannot be acquired by just reading about it, having a computerized program, or hiring an interpreter.

  15. Panic disorder phenomenology in urban self-identified Caucasian-Non-Hispanics and Caucasian-Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Finley, M Rosina; Skipper, Betty

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology of panic disorder is well known, but data about some phenomenological aspects are sparse. The symptom criteria for panic disorder were developed largely from rational expert consensus methods and not from empirical research. This fact calls attention to the construct validity of the panic disorder diagnosis, which may affect accuracy of epidemiological findings. Seventy self-identified Non-Hispanic-Caucasian (Anglo) and Hispanic-Caucasian (Hispanic) people who were diagnosed with DSM-III-R panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were invited to complete a Panic Phenomenological Questionnaire (PPQ), which was constructed for this study from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale Items and The DSM-III-R panic symptoms. Fifty (71%) subjects agreed to participate, and there was no response bias detected. Seven symptoms on the PPQ that are not in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were reported to occur with a high prevalence in this study. Furthermore, many symptoms that occurred with a high frequency and were reported to be experienced as severe are also not included in current nosology. A few of the DSM-IV criterion symptoms occurred with low prevalence, frequency, and severity. Cognitive symptoms were reported to occur with higher frequency and severity during attacks than autonomic or other symptoms. There were modest differences between ethnic groups with regard to panic attack phenomena. Further research using multiple empirical methods aimed at improving the content validity of the panic disorder diagnosis is warranted. This includes utilizing consistent methods to collect data that will allow for rational decisions about how to construct valid panic disorder criteria across cultures. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Multiplatform plasma metabolic and lipid fingerprinting of breast cancer: A pilot control-case study in Colombian Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Mónica P; Aldana, Julian; Medina, Jessica; Sánchez, Julián; Guio, José; Wist, Julien; Meesters, Roland J W

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a highly heterogeneous disease associated with metabolic reprogramming. The shifts in the metabolome caused by BC still lack data from Latin populations of Hispanic origin. In this pilot study, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches were performed to establish a plasma metabolic fingerprint of Colombian Hispanic women with BC. Data from 1H-NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS were combined and compared. Statistics showed discrimination between breast cancer and healthy subjects on all analytical platforms. The differentiating metabolites were involved in glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multiplatform approaches in metabolic/lipid fingerprinting studies to broaden the outlook of possible shifts in metabolism. Our findings propose relevant plasma metabolites that could contribute to a better understanding of underlying metabolic shifts driven by BC in women of Colombian Hispanic origin. Particularly, the understanding of the up-regulation of long chain fatty acyl carnitines and the down-regulation of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA). In addition, the mapped metabolic signatures in breast cancer were similar but not identical to those reported for non-Hispanic women, despite racial differences.

  17. Multiplatform plasma metabolic and lipid fingerprinting of breast cancer: A pilot control-case study in Colombian Hispanic women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Mónica P.; Aldana, Julian; Medina, Jessica; Sánchez, Julián; Guio, José; Wist, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a highly heterogeneous disease associated with metabolic reprogramming. The shifts in the metabolome caused by BC still lack data from Latin populations of Hispanic origin. In this pilot study, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches were performed to establish a plasma metabolic fingerprint of Colombian Hispanic women with BC. Data from 1H-NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS were combined and compared. Statistics showed discrimination between breast cancer and healthy subjects on all analytical platforms. The differentiating metabolites were involved in glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multiplatform approaches in metabolic/lipid fingerprinting studies to broaden the outlook of possible shifts in metabolism. Our findings propose relevant plasma metabolites that could contribute to a better understanding of underlying metabolic shifts driven by BC in women of Colombian Hispanic origin. Particularly, the understanding of the up-regulation of long chain fatty acyl carnitines and the down-regulation of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA). In addition, the mapped metabolic signatures in breast cancer were similar but not identical to those reported for non-Hispanic women, despite racial differences. PMID:29438405

  18. Social Support: a Key Variable for Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Management in Hispanic Patients with Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa T. Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases, including rheumatic diseases, can cause immense physical and psychosocial burden for patients. Many Hispanics suffering with arthritis face activity limitations. Social support, or the functional content of relationships, may be important to consider when examining treatment and outcomes for Hispanic individuals. Participants were recruited from an urban community health center (CHC as part of a larger health behavior study. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods analysis was conducted to explore the role of social support in the sample. Only Hispanic/Latino patients (n = 46 were included in this analysis. Interviews were conducted in both English and Spanish. The majority of the sample (87% perceived some presence of social support in their lives. The two most commonly cited types of social support were emotional and instrumental. The two most common sources of social support were family members other than spouses (52.2% and spouses (32.6%. Body mass index (BMI was significantly correlated with the number of perceived sources of support. The presence or absence and the role of social support in supporting optimal health outcomes should be considered for Hispanics with chronic rheumatic diseases. Involving family members and spouses in the plan of care for this population could facilitate health promotion and chronic disease management.

  19. A systematic review of interventions for Hispanic women with or at risk of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a serious health concern for pregnant women, with Hispanic women at particular risk for developing the condition. The aim of this review was to critically examine GDM intervention programs for Hispanic women, in the United States of America (US). English and Spanish electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published between 1995 and 2015. Eligible study designs included randomized controlled trial, pre/post-test and quasi experimental methods. Findings indicated that there was a dearth of literature reporting on GDM interventions for Hispanic women and just seven papers met inclusion criteria. These seven studies were included in the review and they reported on interventions for: (1) pregnant women at high risk of developing GDM; (2) pregnant women with GDM. Results suggest that a combination of intensive counselling over a prolonged period of time, together with a low calorie, possibly low glycemic index diet, produces best results. The review found that intensive nutritional counselling approaches which promote low calorie/low GI diets appear to be most effective in BGL management in this population. Interventions that are delivered in Spanish and culturally tailored may be more acceptable to participants. More research is needed to develop suitable interventions to improve GDM management among Hispanic women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Herbal Remedy Use in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Allshouse, Amanda A; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Derby, Carol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, including botanical/herbal remedies, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), New Jersey site. We also examined whether attitudes toward CAM and communication of its use to providers differed for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. SWAN is a community-based, multiethnic cohort study of midlife women. At the 13th SWAN follow-up, women at the New Jersey site completed both a general CAM questionnaire and a culturally sensitive CAM questionnaire designed to capture herbal products commonly used in Hispanic/Latina communities. Prevalence of and attitudes toward CAM use were compared by race/ethnicity and demographic characteristics. Among 171 women (average age 61.8 years), the overall prevalence of herbal remedy use was high in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women (88.8% Hispanic and 81.3% non-Hispanic white), and prayer and herbal teas were the most common modalities used. Women reported the use of multiple herbal modalities (mean 6.6 for Hispanic and 4.0 for non-Hispanic white women; p = 0.001). Hispanic women were less likely to consider herbal treatment drugs (16% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.005) and were less likely to report sharing the use of herbal remedies with their doctors (14.4% Hispanic vs. 34% non-Hispanic white; p = 0.001). The number of modalities used was similar regardless of the number of prescription medications used. High prevalence of herbal CAM use was observed for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Results highlight the need for healthcare providers to query women regarding CAM use to identify potential interactions with traditional treatments and to determine whether CAM is used in lieu of traditional medications.

  1. Pregnancy intention and use of contraception among Hispanic women in the United States: data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masinter, Lisa M; Feinglass, Joe; Simon, Melissa A

    2013-10-01

    Both unintended and adolescent childbearing disproportionately impact the Hispanic population of the United States. We used the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to provide the most recent, nationally representative description of pregnancy, childbearing, and contraception for Hispanic females aged 15-44. We determined baseline fertility data for self-identified Hispanic female respondents. Among those reporting a pregnancy history, we calculated the proportion of pregnancies identified as unintended and their association with sociodemographic variables. We also assessed outcomes and estimates of relative risk for unintended pregnancy. Finally, we examined contraceptive use prior to self-reported unintended pregnancies. Approximately 70% of Hispanic women reported ever being pregnant, including 18% of teenagers. Over half (51%) of those pregnancies were unintended, including 81% among teenagers. The adjusted risk of unintended pregnancy was highest in women 15 to 19 years old and those with three or more pregnancies (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-1.88 and IRR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.53-2.06, respectively). Half of unintended pregnancies were preceded by no contraception. The most common reason for unintended pregnancy preceded by contraception was "improper use" (45%) and among pregnancies without use, the most common response (37%) was "I did not think I could get pregnant." There is a high frequency of unintended pregnancy and lack of contraceptive use among Hispanic women. These findings highlight the need for improved reproductive education and contraceptive counseling in this population.

  2. Are physical activity studies in Hispanics meeting reporting guidelines for continuous monitoring technology? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Charles S; Parker, Nathan H; Soltero, Erica G; Rosales Chavez, José; O'Connor, Daniel P; Gallagher, Martina R; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-09-18

    Continuous monitoring technologies such as accelerometers and pedometers are the gold standard for physical activity (PA) measurement. However, inconsistencies in use, analysis, and reporting limit the understanding of dose-response relationships involving PA and the ability to make comparisons across studies and population subgroups. These issues are particularly detrimental to the study of PA across different ethnicities with different PA habits. This systematic review examined the inclusion of published guidelines involving data collection, processing, and reporting among articles using accelerometers or pedometers in Hispanic or Latino populations. English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) articles published between 2000 and 2013 using accelerometers or pedometers to measure PA among Hispanics or Latinos were identified through systematic literature searches. Of the 253 abstracts which were initially reviewed, 57 met eligibility criteria (44 accelerometer, 13 pedometer). Articles were coded and reviewed to evaluate compliance with recommended guidelines (N = 20), and the percentage of accelerometer and pedometer articles following each guideline were computed and reported. On average, 57.1 % of accelerometer and 62.2 % of pedometer articles reported each recommended guideline for data collection. Device manufacturer and model were reported most frequently, and provision of instructions for device wear in Spanish was reported least frequently. On average, 29.6 % of accelerometer articles reported each guideline for data processing. Definitions of an acceptable day for inclusion in analyses were reported most frequently, and definitions of an acceptable hour for inclusion in analyses were reported least frequently. On average, 18.8 % of accelerometer and 85.7 % of pedometer articles included each guideline for data reporting. Accelerometer articles most frequently included average number of valid days and least frequently

  3. Construction practices in pre-Hispanic flutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawcliffe, Susan

    2002-11-01

    The ancient cultures of the Americas were separated by thousands of miles and thousand of years. There was a long history of trade over the miles and the years with many shared cultural ideals and artifacts, as evidenced by their musical instruments. Flutes were the most prevalent instruments found throughout the ancient Americas. Some types are unique to the pre-Hispanic world. Although flutes were constructed from a variety of materials, including bone, cane, seed pods, skulls, it is primarily the ceramic ones that survived, and it is ceramic flutes which form the bulk of this writer's work and research. This paper includes musical demonstrations to show how ancient flutemakers could have manipulated timbre during construction. Clay's plasticity enabled the construction of some instruments, and limited the development of others. Pitch jump flutes, certain Veracruzano whistles, and chamberduct flutes and whistles all share the addition of clay flaps or chambers around the aperture, as do hooded pipes. Some instruments exhibit a seemingly cultural predilection for complex tones that are windy, raspy, or animalistic. Simple adjustments of the airduct promote these timbres. Also included will be samples of the original sounds of ancient flutes.

  4. Sun protection and exposure behaviors among Hispanic adults in the United States: differences according to acculturation and among Hispanic subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer prevention interventions that target the growing number of U.S. Hispanics are lacking. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of sun protection and exposure behaviors (i.e., sunscreen use, shade seeking, use of sun protective clothing, and sunburns among U.S. Hispanics with sun sensitive skin, with a focus on potential differences according to acculturation and Hispanic origin. Methods The sample consisted of 1676 Hispanic adults who reported having sun sensitive skin (i.e., they would experience a sunburn if they went out in the sun for one hour without protection after several months of not being in the sun. Participants completed survey questions as part of the nationally representative 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were conducted in August 2012. Results Greater acculturation was linked with both risky (i.e., not wearing sun protective clothing and protective (i.e., using sunscreen sun-related practices and with an increased risk of sunburns. Sun protection and exposure behaviors also varied according to individuals’ Hispanic origin, with for example individuals of Mexican heritage having a higher rate of using sun protective clothing and experiencing sunburns than several other subgroups. Conclusions Several Hispanic subpopulations (e.g., those who are more acculturated or from certain origins represent important groups to target in skin cancer prevention interventions. Future research is needed to test culturally relevant, tailored interventions to promote sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. Such initiatives should focus on public health education and increasing healthcare provider awareness of the importance of skin cancer prevention among Hispanics.

  5. Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC) Research Agenda: Impacting Education and Changing Lives through Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Lumina Foundation, the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) has launched HACU's Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC). The first major task of this virtual gathering of researchers and practitioners in Hispanic higher education has been to assess the state of our knowledge of the key issues…

  6. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  7. Recycling attitudes and behavior among a clinic-based sample of low-income Hispanic women in southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Heidi C; Dawson, Lauren N; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18-55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (Precycle (Precycling saves landfill space (Precycling takes too much time (Precycling knowledge and recycling behavior (Precycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population.

  8. Recycling Attitudes and Behavior among a Clinic-Based Sample of Low-Income Hispanic Women in Southeast Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Heidi C.; Dawson, Lauren N.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18–55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (Precycle (Precycling saves landfill space (Precycling takes too much time (Precycling knowledge and recycling behavior (Precycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population. PMID:22493693

  9. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao. More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  10. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  11. Rapid assessment of Wreathed Hornbill Aceros undulates (Aves: Bucerotidae populations and conservation issues in fragmented lowland tropical forests of Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Krishna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A rapid assessment of Wreathed Hornbills, their distribution and abundance was carried out in fragmented lowland tropical forests of Lower Dibang Valley District, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India from October 2010 to April 2011 using the total count method. A total of 62km distance was covered on foot to survey four study sites: Horupahar, Delo, Koronu and Injunu. Nine flocks of 172 hornbills were sighted. Aceros undulatus flock size ranged from 8-38 individuals with a mean of about 19.1 plus or minus 2.6. Illegal logging, hunting for bushmeat and other body parts (feathers, beak etc. for decorating the head gear and house interiors by the local tribals were observed as the major threats to the species in the study areas.

  12. Diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex of the United States medical oncology physician workforce over the past quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Curtiland; Chapman, Christina H; Burgos, Ramon; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R

    2014-09-01

    To assess the medical oncology (MO) physician workforce diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex, with attention to trainees. Public registries were used to assess 2010 differences among MO practicing physicians, academic faculty, and fellows; internal medicine (IM) residents; and the US population, using binomial tests with P diversity remains unchanged. For Blacks alone, representation as MO fellows is decreased compared with IM residents, suggesting greater disparity in MO training. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Geography, Resources, and Environment of Latin America: An Undergraduate Science Course focused on Attracting Hispanic students to Science and on Educating Non-Hispanics about Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest

  14. Prevalence of Low Cardiovascular Risk Profile Among Diverse Hispanic/Latino Adults in the United States by Age, Sex, and Level of Acculturation: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviglus, Martha L; Pirzada, Amber; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Chen, Jinsong; Allison, Matthew; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Cai, Jianwen; González, Hector M; Kaplan, Robert C; Schneiderman, Neil; Sorlie, Paul D; Talavera, Gregory A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2016-08-20

    Favorable levels of all readily measurable major cardiovascular disease risk factors (ie, low risk [LR]) are associated with lower risks of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Data are not available on LR prevalence among Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse ethnic backgrounds. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of a low cardiovascular disease risk profile among Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States and to examine cross-sectional associations of LR with measures of acculturation. The multicenter, prospective, population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos examined 16 415 men and women aged 18 to 74 years at baseline (2008-2011) with diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Analyses involved 14 757 adults (mean age 41.3 years; 60.6% women). LR was defined using national guidelines for favorable levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and body mass index and by not having diabetes mellitus and not currently smoking. Age-adjusted LR prevalence was low (8.4% overall; 5.1% for men, 11.2% for women) and varied by background (4.2% in men of Mexican heritage versus 15.0% in women of Cuban heritage). Lower acculturation (assessed using proxy measures) was significantly associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women only: Age-adjusted odds ratios of having LR were 1.64 (95% CI 1.24-2.17) for foreign-born versus US-born women and 1.96 (95% CI 1.49-2.58) for women residing in the United States profile is low. Lower acculturation is associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women but not men. Comprehensive public health strategies are needed to improve the cardiovascular health of US Hispanic/Latino adults. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, IOL; Schooling, CM; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM

    2013-01-01

    Background:With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong.Methods:Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups) to 2020 in Hong Kong using Po...

  16. Folic Acid Education for Hispanic Women: The Promotora de Salud Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alina L; Isenburg, Jennifer; Hillard, Christina L; deRosset, Leslie; Colen, Lisa; Bush, Troy; Mai, Cara T

    2017-02-01

    Although rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) have declined in the United States since fortification, disparities still exist with Hispanic women having the highest risk of giving birth to a baby with a NTD. The Promotora de Salud model using community lay health workers has been shown to be an effective tool for reaching Hispanics for a variety of health topics; however, literature on its effectiveness in folic acid interventions is limited. An intervention using the Promotora de Salud model was implemented in four U.S. counties with large populations of Hispanic women. The study comprised the following: (1) a written pretest survey to establish baseline levels of folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption; (2) a small group education intervention along with a 90-day supply of multivitamins; and (3) a postintervention (posttest) assessment conducted 4 months following the intervention. Statistically significant differences in pre- and posttests were observed for general awareness about folic acid and vitamins and specific knowledge about the benefits of folic acid. Statistically significant changes were also seen in vitamin consumption and multivitamin consumption. Folic acid supplement consumption increased dramatically by the end of the study. The Promotora de Salud model relies on interpersonal connections forged between promotoras and the communities they serve to help drive positive health behaviors. The findings underscore the positive impact that these interpersonal connections can have on increasing awareness, knowledge, and consumption of folic acid. Utilizing the Promotora de Salud model to reach targeted populations might help organizations successfully implement their programs in a culturally appropriate manner.

  17. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validity of Race, Ethnicity, and National Origin in Population-based Cancer Registries and Rapid Case Ascertainment Enhanced With a Spanish Surname List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lisa C; Rull, Rudolph P; Ayanian, John Z; Boer, Robert; Deapen, Dennis; West, Dee W; Kahn, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information regarding race, ethnicity, and national origins is critical for identifying disparities in the cancer burden. To examine the use of a Spanish surname list to improve the quality of race-related information obtained from rapid case ascertainment (RCA) and to estimate the accuracy of race-related information obtained from cancer registry records collected by routine reporting. Self-reported survey responses of 3954 participants from California enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and percent agreement. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of underreporting and overreporting of a race/ethnicity. Use of the Spanish surname list increased the sensitivity of RCA for Latino ethnicity from 37% to 83%. Sensitivity for cancer registry records collected by routine reporting was ≥95% for whites, blacks, and Asians, and specificity was high for all groups (86%-100%). However, patterns of misclassification by race/ethnicity were found that could lead to biased cancer statistics for specific race/ethnicities. Discordance between self-reported and registry-reported race/ethnicity was more likely for women, Latinos, and Asians. Methods to improve race and ethnicity data, such as using Spanish surnames in RCA and instituting data collection guidelines for hospitals, are needed to ensure minorities are accurately represented in clinical and epidemiological research.

  19. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

  20. What's in It for Me? The Impact to Social Exchange Dynamics of Hispanic Males Serving as Mentors in Formal Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, Annica Meza

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The U.S. Hispanic population is on the rise and will continue to be an important thread in the fabric of American society as a whole. However, in the midst of this burgeoning group lies its male subpopulation which faces its own unique challenges. One outlet that has demonstrated success for minorities is mentoring. Mentoring can provide…

  1. African Americans & Hispanics among Physics & Astronomy Faculty: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics & Astronomy Degree-Granting Departments. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel; Anderson, Garrett; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The United States is becoming more and more diverse, but the representation of some minority groups in physics and astronomy lags behind. Although 13% of the US population is African American or black, and 17% is Hispanic (US Census), the representation of these two groups in physics and astronomy is much lower. For this reason, African Americans…

  2. Design Principles for Equity and Excellence at Hispanic-Serving Institutions. PERSPECTIVAS: Issues in Higher Education Policy and Practice. Issue No. 4, Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom-Piqueux, Lindsey E.; Bensimon, Estela Mara

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) shoulder unique responsibilities, including the education of post-traditional student populations, while facing distinct resource-related challenges. Any efforts to assess the performance of HSIs must be done with these facts in mind. This brief offers design principles for equity and excellence at HSIs that…

  3. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  4. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  5. Acculturation and self-reported health among Hispanics using a socio-behavioral model: the North Texas Healthy Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katandria L; Carroll, Joan F; Fulda, Kimberly G; Cardarelli, Kathryn; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2010-02-02

    Acculturation is a continuous, firsthand contact with other cultures functioning at both group and individual levels and is reflected in our culturally diverse society, calling for a greater understanding of the environmental and cultural impact on health. Self-reported health (SRH), a robust and well validated predictor of future mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, has been differentially reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially based on their acculturation status. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and SRH among Hispanics. An adapted Andersen framework was used to develop logistic regression models to assess for an association between acculturation and general health status. Hispanic participants (n = 135), as part of the North Texas Healthy Heart Study, were administered standardized questionnaires on acculturation, psychosocial measures which included sense of control, stress, depression and social support and a single item SRH measure. In addition, physiological measurements and demographic characteristics including age, gender, body mass index, medical history, and socioeconomic status were also obtained. Bivariate analyses found Mexican-oriented participants 3.16 times more likely to report fair/poor SRH compared to Anglo-oriented Hispanics. Acculturation was also associated with SRH in multiple regression models controlling for enabling, need, and predisposing factors together (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.04, 11.97). Acculturation status was associated with SRH after accounting for other underlying factors. Medical and public health professionals should promote the use of acculturation measures in order to better understand its role in Hispanic behaviors, health outcomes and health care use. Such research findings will contribute to the design of culturally sensitive prevention and treatment strategies for diverse and immigrant populations.

  6. Acculturation and self-reported health among Hispanics using a socio-behavioral model: the North Texas Healthy Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulda Kimberly G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acculturation is a continuous, firsthand contact with other cultures functioning at both group and individual levels and is reflected in our culturally diverse society, calling for a greater understanding of the environmental and cultural impact on health. Self-reported health (SRH, a robust and well validated predictor of future mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, has been differentially reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially based on their acculturation status. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and SRH among Hispanics. An adapted Andersen framework was used to develop logistic regression models to assess for an association between acculturation and general health status. Methods Hispanic participants (n = 135, as part of the North Texas Healthy Heart Study, were administered standardized questionnaires on acculturation, psychosocial measures which included sense of control, stress, depression and social support and a single item SRH measure. In addition, physiological measurements and demographic characteristics including age, gender, body mass index, medical history, and socioeconomic status were also obtained. Results Bivariate analyses found Mexican-oriented participants 3.16 times more likely to report fair/poor SRH compared to Anglo-oriented Hispanics. Acculturation was also associated with SRH in multiple regression models controlling for enabling, need, and predisposing factors together (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.04, 11.97. Conclusions Acculturation status was associated with SRH after accounting for other underlying factors. Medical and public health professionals should promote the use of acculturation measures in order to better understand its role in Hispanic behaviors, health outcomes and health care use. Such research findings will contribute to the design of culturally sensitive prevention and treatment strategies for diverse and immigrant populations.

  7. Relative contributions of lean and fat mass to bone strength in young Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington-Rauth, Megan; Bea, Jennifer W; Blew, Robert M; Funk, Janet L; Hingle, Melanie D; Lee, Vinson R; Roe, Denise J; Wheeler, Mark D; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2018-05-22

    With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, especially among Hispanic children, understanding how body weight and its components of lean and fat mass affect bone development is important, given that the amount of bone mineral accrued during childhood can determine osteoporosis risk later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of lean and fat mass on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones of Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls. Bone vBMD, geometry, and strength were assessed at the 20% distal femur, the 4% and 66% distal tibia, and the 66% distal radius of the non-dominant limb of 326, 9- to 12-year-old girls using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Total body lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent relationships of fat and lean mass with pQCT bone measures while adjusting for relevant confounders. Potential interactions between ethnicity and both fat and lean mass were also tested. Lean mass was a significant positive contributor to all bone outcomes (p Lean mass is the main determinant of bone strength for appendicular skeletal sites. Fat mass contributes to bone strength in the weight-bearing skeleton but does not add to bone strength in non-weight-bearing locations and may potentially be detrimental. Bone vBMD, geometry, and strength did not differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls; fat mass may be a stronger contributor to bone strength in weight-bearing bones of Hispanic girls compared to non-Hispanic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Nasal valve evaluation in the Mexican-Hispanic (mestizo) nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Ramírez, Elizabeth; Sánchez Y Béjar, Fernando; Arcaute Aizpuru, Fernando; Maulen Radován, Irene E; de la Garza Hesles, Héctor

    2018-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the angle of the internal nasal valve in Mexican patients with the "mestizo nose" feature and without nasal obstructive symptoms. The work was prospective, comparative, and observational in nature and included patients >14 years of age who were seen in the Otolaryngology Department at the Los Angeles Lomas Hospital between April and May 2016. The angle of the internal nasal valve was measured in 30 patients without obstructive symptoms. Endoscopic examination was performed with a 0° endoscope framed with tape at a 13-mm distance from the endoscope's tip, and digital photographs of the internal nasal valve were taken. The measurement of the angle of the internal nasal valve was made in sexagesimal degrees using Golden Ratio v3.1 (2012) software. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel v15.13.3. The angles of the internal nasal valve of the patients were (mean ± standard deviation) 24.07 ± 4.8° for the right nasal cavity and 25.07 ± 5.0° for the left nasal cavity, wider than the angle reported in the normal Caucasian nose established in the literature. According to our results, the Mexican-Hispanic mestizo nose has a wider angle in the internal nasal valve than that considered normal in the literature (10°-15°). We believe it is necessary to undertake a second study and add an airflow resistance measurement with a rhinomanometry procedure so we can compare the results with those in the Caucasian population. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Gender role orientation is associated with health-related quality of life differently among African-American, Hispanic, and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Depaoli, Sarah; Elliott, Marc N; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the association between gender role orientation (GRO) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in youth, and how this relationship may differ between males and females as well as among African-American, White, and Hispanic individuals. GRO has been reported to influence serious health outcomes including cancer, heart disease, mental illness, and mortality rates. However, few studies have examined the link between GRO and health outcomes for children, even though gender identity is formed in childhood. Data were examined from 4824 participants in the Healthy Passages™ project, a population-based survey of fifth-grade children in three US metropolitan areas. Children reported their own HRQOL using the PedsQL and degree of female, male, and androgynous GRO using the Children's Sex Role Inventory. Based on structural equations analysis, male GRO was positively associated with HRQOL for all racial/ethnic groups, regardless of sex, whereas female GRO was associated with better HRQOL for Hispanic and White females and poorer HRQOL for Hispanic males. Androgynous GRO was associated with better HRQOL among Hispanic and White females, but not males nor African-Americans of either sex. Racial/ethnic differences emerged for female and androgynous, but not male, GROs. Hispanic males are the only group for which GRO (female) was associated with poorer HRQOL. Future research should find ways to help youth overcome negative effects on health from gender beliefs and behavior patterns with sensitivity to racial/ethnic membership.

  10. School-located influenza vaccination and absenteeism among elementary school students in a Hispanic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Patricia C; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Gonzalez, Hector F; Castillo, Keila D

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal influenza is recognized as a significant health burden to children and is a cause of excess school absenteeism in children. In 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended annual influenza vaccination for all children 6 months to 18 years of age. School nurses influence participation in this recommendation by conducting school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs at their campuses. Knowing the effect of SLIV programs on student absenteeism may motivate school nurses and district administrators to conduct such vaccination programs. This study examines the impact of an SLIV program on elementary school absenteeism in an inner city school district with a predominantly Hispanic population. Using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, we analyzed data from 3,775 records obtained by stratified random sampling. Results of the study indicate that students vaccinated through an SLIV program have fewer absences than unvaccinated students. A surprising result of the study shows that students vaccinated through an SLIV program had fewer absences than students vaccinated elsewhere. These results are of particular importance to school nurses who work with large Hispanic populations. Our study illustrates one way that a school nurse can assess the effect of an SLIV program on absenteeism.

  11. ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Development of a Culturally Based Nutrition Education Curriculum for Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors Using a Theory-Driven Procedural Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycinena, Ana Corina; Jennings, Kerri-Ann; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pamela A; Contento, Isobel R; Gonzalez, Monica; Guidon, Ela; Karmally, Wahida; Hershman, Dawn; Greenlee, Heather

    2017-02-01

    We developed a theory-based dietary change curriculum for Hispanic breast cancer survivors with the goal of testing the effects of the intervention on change in dietary intake of fruits/vegetables and fat in a randomized, clinical trial. Social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model were used as theoretical frameworks to structure curriculum components using the Nutrition Education DESIGN Procedure. Formative assessments were conducted to identify facilitators and barriers common to Hispanic women and test the degree of difficulty and appropriateness of program materials. Focus groups provided valuable insight and informed preimplementation modifications to the dietary program. The result was a systematically planned, evidence-based, culturally tailored dietary intervention for Hispanic breast cancer survivors, ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (Cook for Your Health!). The methodology described here may serve as a framework for the development of future dietary interventions among diverse and minority populations. Short- and long-term study results will be reported elsewhere.

  12. Listening to rural Hispanic immigrants in the Midwest: a community-based participatory assessment of major barriers to health care access and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sergio; Garces, D Marcela; Peters, Karen E; Mueller, Benjamin C

    2008-05-01

    Hispanic immigrants are increasingly residing in rural communities, including in the midwestern United States. Limitations in the ability of rural Hispanics to access and utilize health care contribute to patterns of poor health and health disparity. A conceptual model of "vulnerability" guides this community-based participatory assessment project designed to explore rural Hispanics' perceived barriers to accessing and utilizing health care. Findings from a series of 19 focus groups with 181 participants from three communities in the upper Midwest identified perceived barriers at the individual and health care system levels. The most commonly perceived barriers were the lack of and limitations in health insurance coverage, high costs of health care services, communication issues involving patients and providers, legal status/discrimination, and transportation concerns. Findings imply that these barriers could be addressed using multiple educational and health service delivery policy-related strategies that consider the vulnerable nature of this growing population.

  13. Four years of REU in South Texas: Fostering the Participation of Hispanic Students in Marine Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, E. J.; Erdner, D.

    2011-12-01

    Our REU site is a ten-week summer program that is currently in its fourth year and has served 37 undergraduate students in that time. The range of environments present in south Texas, including barrier islands, estuaries and hypersaline lagoons, and the inherent climatic variability of the region make it an excellent natural laboratory for studying the effects of both natural and human-driven change. REU projects to date have focused on many of the pressing environmental concerns in the region, including the impacts of land use and freshwater demand on the transport of water and waterborne constituents to coastal waters, harmful algal blooms, effects of nutrient loads on coastal ecosystems, and hypoxia. The program begins with a 2 day research cruise that serves as an immediate introduction to local biota and methods in marine science, and it brings the students and mentors together as a group in a more informal setting. The students then carry out independent research projects under the mentorship of a faculty member, and attend workshops on responsible research, graduate school, and science careers. Our program also benefits from a close interaction with the Mission-Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserve, exposing the students to applied research of relevance to coastal management issues. One of the primary goals of our program is to foster the retention of underrepresented groups, particularly Hispanics, in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields by increasing their participation in undergraduate research experiences. We have targeted Hispanic students because our institute is located in a state where 37% of the population is Hispanic, and in a region where the proportion of Hispanic students is even higher. Our recruiting efforts have included advertising the program via in-person presentations at minority serving institutions (UT El Paso, UT San Antonio), and on list-serves for professional societies and sites at minority serving

  14. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  15. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  16. Outcomes of glycemic control in Hispanic geriatric diabetic patients admitted to a general ward community hospital in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Pérez-López, Shirley; Torres-Torres, Nancy; Torres-Semprit, Erick; Millán-Aponte, Ismenio

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent medical conditions among the Hispanic population. Although studies with patients in intensive care units have shown poor outcomes among those with uncontrolled glucose, more recent data have shown increased mortality associated with a tighter inpatient glucose control. In view of the lack of information regarding geriatric Hispanic patients with diabetes this study evaluated the effect of glucose control in the outcomes of this population in a community hospital in Puerto Rico. Through analysis of data from a previous study we evaluated 502 admissions of Hispanic geriatric patients with diabetes as comorbidity, for glucose control, management of diabetes and outcome. Data was stratified by age groups (65-74 years, 75-84 years and > or = 85 years) and outcomes were compared between the groups using chi-square and odds ratio. The most common admission diagnosis was pneumonia. Hypoglycemia was the most common complication and was associated with tighter glucose control in the age group of 75-84 years. An increased risk of having an acute coronary syndrome/acute myocardial infarction among uncontrolled patients was observed in the 75-84 year old group. Finally, although we found a high prevalence of uncontrolled blood glucose, only 54% of the patients received interventions for their glucose control. Poor glucose control seems to be associated with a tendency for decreased risk of hypoglycemia and higher risk of acute coronary syndrome/acute myocardial infarction as complications among geriatric patients with diabetes admitted to a general ward.

  17. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding at 4 months postpartum in a sample of urban Hispanic mothers in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ana Maria; Rayens, Mary K; Dozier, Ann; Wiggins, Amanda; Dignan, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Although Hispanic mothers in the United States have slightly higher rates of breastfeeding initiation than the national average, they are more likely to supplement with formula. To describe infant feeding decisions in a sample of 72 urban Hispanic mothers and assess whether demographic and personal factors influence exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 4 months postpartum. The study was longitudinal and included assessments during pregnancy, in the hospital following childbirth, and monthly up to 4 months following birth. Nearly all of the 72 mothers were breastfeeding at discharge after the birth of their infant (94%); half of these were EBF. By 2 months postpartum, the rate of EBF had declined to 26%, dropping to 22% by 4 months. Significant predictors of EBF status at 4 months included the baseline indicator for mother's partner as the most important person in life (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-28.66) and breastfeeding self-efficacy score at 1 month (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34). These findings have particular relevance in this population, given the high rate of breastfeeding initiation coupled with breastfeeding self-efficacy being a modifiable factor. Support during pregnancy and postpartum, including consultation with a lactation consultant, may increase the self-efficacy of EBF in this low-income population, leading to higher rates of extended EBF among Hispanics. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Bone age assessment in Hispanic children: digital hand atlas compared with the Greulich and Pyle (G&P) atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, James Reza; Zhang, Aifeng; Vachon, Linda; Tsao, Sinchai

    2008-03-01

    Bone age assessment is most commonly performed with the use of the Greulich and Pyle (G&P) book atlas, which was developed in the 1950s. The population of theUnited States is not as homogenous as the Caucasian population in the Greulich and Pyle in the 1950s, especially in the Los Angeles, California area. A digital hand atlas (DHA) based on 1,390 hand images of children of different racial backgrounds (Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian) aged 0-18 years was collected from Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Statistical analysis discovered significant discrepancies exist between Hispanic and the G&P atlas standard. To validate the usage of DHA as a clinical standard, diagnostic radiologists performed reads on Hispanic pediatric hand and wrist computed radiography images using either the G&P pediatric radiographic atlas or the Children's Hospital Los Angeles Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) as reference. The order in which the atlas is used (G&P followed by DHA or vice versa) for each image was prepared before actual reading begins. Statistical analysis of the results was then performed to determine if a discrepancy exists between the two readings.

  19. Moderate Awareness and Limited Knowledge Relating to Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the HPV Vaccine Among Hispanics/Latinos in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the demographic factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in an emerging (rather than established) Hispanic/Latino population. We surveyed 119 Spanish-speaking, mostly low-income and immigrant, Hispanic/Latino parents and guardians of adolescents 11 to 17 years old (i.e., eligible to receive the HPV vaccine) about their HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge. Data collection took place between August 2013 and October 2013 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Participants had moderately high awareness scores, with more than half the participants reporting having heard of cervical cancer (84.5%), HPV (76.4%), and the HPV vaccine (67.3%). HPV vaccine-related knowledge was low, with fewer than half the participants reporting they knew that most people are infected with HPV (32.7%), that HPV is asymptomatic among women (16.4%), that the HPV vaccine requires more than one dose (33.6%), and that the HPV vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls (47.3%) and boys (35.5%). Combined awareness and knowledge was significantly associated with educational attainment (p = .02) and country of origin (p = .03). Results demonstrate moderate to high HPV vaccine-related awareness and limited HPV vaccine-related knowledge among Hispanic/Latino parents living in Utah. These findings will inform educational interventions to improve the HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in this vulnerable population. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. NCHS - Natality Measures for Females by Hispanic Origin Subgroup: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes live births, birth rates, and fertility rates by Hispanic origin of mother in the United States since 1989. National data on births by Hispanic...