WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid growth occurring

  1. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  2. China urges rapid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong

  3. Rapid growth within India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian government has published (in Hydrocarbon Vision 2025) its ideas for a long term strategy for its oil industry which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. Increasing domestic production and investment in oil exploration and production overseas figure strongly in the plan. At present, India has a refining surplus but with an annual growth of 8-10%, this will disappear in the next 2-3 years. The report recommends that India should maintain 90% self-sufficiency in refining. The report sees development of the domestic oil industry as globally competitive and helping safeguard India's assets. The capability of India's refineries, current upgrading, the newer refineries and plans for new projects are all mentioned

  4. Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni Occurs Beyond Limits of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni. PMID:23049803

  5. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy......Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered...... to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency...

  6. GROWTH OF NATURALLY OCCURING Listeria innocua IN COPPA DI TESTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merialdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coppa di testa is a traditional cooked pork salami produced in different Italian regions. The main raw material is deboned meat of pork head with the addition of tongue and rind. After a long (3-5 h high temperature (97°C cooking, additives and flavourings are added and the salami is prepared. After cooling the salami is often portioned and vacuum- packaged. In this study the growth of naturally occurring contamination of Listeria innocua in three batches of vacuum packaged Coppa di testa, stored at 4°C for 80 days, is described. The average max was 0.24 (days-1 and the average doubling time was 2.87 days. The maximum growth level ranged from 4.90 to 8.17 (log10 cfu/g. These results indicate that Coppa di testa definitely supports the growth of Listeria innocua in the considered storage conditions. Taking into account that at 4°C Listeria monocytogenes strains are associated with higher grow rates than L. innocua, these results emphasize the importance of preventing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the production stages following cooking.

  7. Economic analyses of rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1989-01-01

    "Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  8. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lian Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  9. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pšeničny Viljem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  10. Comparing growth phenology of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen conifers exposed to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Swidrak, Irene; Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological events are influenced by climate factors such as temperature and rainfall. To evaluate phenological responses to water availability in a Spring Heath-Pine wood (Erico-Pinetum typicum), the focus of this study was to determine intra-annual dynamics of apical and lateral growth of co-occurring early successional Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris and late successional Picea abies exposed to drought. The effect of reduced plant water availability on growth phenology was invest...

  11. World pipeline work set for rapid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on international pipeline construction which has entered a fast-growth period, accelerated by the new political and economic realities around the world and increasing demand for natural gas, crude oil and refined petroleum products. Many projects are under way or in planning for completion in the mid- to late 1990s in Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East. Pipeline And Gas Journal's projection calls for construction or other work on 30,700 miles of new natural gas, crude oil and refined products pipelines in the 1992-93 period outside Canada and the U.S. These projects will cost an estimated $30 billion-plus. Natural gas pipelines will comprise most of the mileage, accounting for almost 23,000 miles at an estimated cost of $26.3 billion. Products pipelines, planned or under construction, will add another 5,800 miles at a cost of $2.8 billion. Crude oil pipelines, at a minimum, will total 1,900 new miles at a cost of slightly under $1 billion

  12. Comparing growth phenology of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen conifers exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-12-01

    Plant phenological events are influenced by climate factors such as temperature and rainfall. To evaluate phenological responses to water availability in a Spring Heath-Pine wood (Erico-Pinetum typicum), the focus of this study was to determine intra-annual dynamics of apical and lateral growth of co-occurring early successional Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris and late successional Picea abies exposed to drought. The effect of reduced plant water availability on growth phenology was investigated by conducting a rainfall exclusion experiment. Timing of key phenological dates (onset, maximum rate, end, duration) of growth processes were compared among species at the rain-sheltered and control plot during 2011 and 2012. Shoot and needle elongation were monitored on lateral branches in the canopy at c . 16 m height and radial growth was recorded by automatic dendrometers at c . 1.3 m height of > 120 yr old trees. Different sequences in aboveground growth phenology were detected among the three species under the same growing conditions. While onset of radial growth in April through early May was considerably preceded by onset of needle growth in Larix decidua (5 - 6 weeks) and shoot growth in Pinus sylvestris ( c . 3 weeks), it occurred quite simultaneously with onset of shoot growth in Picea abies . Low water availability had a minor impact on onset of aboveground growth, which is related to utilization of stored water, but caused premature cessation of aboveground growth. At the control plot mean growing season length was 130 days in Pinus sylvestris , 95 days in Larix decidua and 73 days in Picea abies supporting the hypothesis that early successional species are resource expenders, while late successional species are more efficient in utilizing resources and develop safer life strategies. High synchronicity found in culmination of radial growth in late spring (mid-May through early June) prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions in summer

  13. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  14. Fibrous dysplasia: rapid malignant transformation into osteogenic sarcoma - A rare occurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia is rare, occurring in less than 1% of cases with a mean lag period of 13.5 years. We report a case of Osteogenic Sarcoma with chondroid differentiation in a pre-existing Fibrous Dysplasia occurring within one year of surgical resection and without any history of exposure to radiation. To the best of our knowledge and extensive search of literature, malignant transformation of Fibrous Dysplasia in such a short period of time, and without history of radiation exposure has never been reported from India.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2012 Vol. 2, 335-337DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i4.6891

  15. Controls of growth phenology vary in seedlings of three, co-occurring ecologically distinct northern conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D Scott

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and seed-source elevation on height-growth phenology of three co-occurring and ecologically distinct northern conifers (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia (lodgepole pine), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm. (interior spruce) and Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (subalpine fir)). Seed from populations of the three indigenous and co-occurring species was collected across an elevational transect on the southwestern slope of McBride Peak, near Prince George, BC. Collection sites were at elevations of 750 to 1850 m, the latter being close to the tree line. In 2003, seeds were germinated and seedlings raised under favorable growing conditions in a temperature-controlled glasshouse. In 2004, seedlings of each population were grown in natural daylengths at a location within 50 km of the seed collection site both in a temperature-controlled glasshouse and at a nearby field site, and height growth was recorded twice a week throughout the growing season. Species differed in both the date and the accumulated heat sum above 5 degrees C for the initiation and cessation of shoot extension. Growth durations (which integrate growth initiation and growth cessation) were more similar among species in the field than in the glasshouse. This suggests that different mechanisms of phenological control among co-occurring species can result in adaptive "equivalence" under a particular set of climatic conditions.

  16. Rapid bursts of androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene duplication occurred independently in diverse mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukaitis, Christina M; Heger, Andreas; Blakley, Tyler D; Munclinger, Pavel; Ponting, Chris P; Karn, Robert C

    2008-02-12

    The draft mouse (Mus musculus) genome sequence revealed an unexpected proliferation of gene duplicates encoding a family of secretoglobin proteins including the androgen-binding protein (ABP) alpha, beta and gamma subunits. Further investigation of 14 alpha-like (Abpa) and 13 beta- or gamma-like (Abpbg) undisrupted gene sequences revealed a rich diversity of developmental stage-, sex- and tissue-specific expression. Despite these studies, our understanding of the evolution of this gene family remains incomplete. Questions arise from imperfections in the initial mouse genome assembly and a dearth of information about the gene family structure in other rodents and mammals. Here, we interrogate the latest 'finished' mouse (Mus musculus) genome sequence assembly to show that the Abp gene repertoire is, in fact, twice as large as reported previously, with 30 Abpa and 34 Abpbg genes and pseudogenes. All of these have arisen since the last common ancestor with rat (Rattus norvegicus). We then demonstrate, by sequencing homologs from species within the Mus genus, that this burst of gene duplication occurred very recently, within the past seven million years. Finally, we survey Abp orthologs in genomes from across the mammalian clade and show that bursts of Abp gene duplications are not specific to the murid rodents; they also occurred recently in the lagomorph (rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus) and ruminant (cattle, Bos taurus) lineages, although not in other mammalian taxa. We conclude that Abp genes have undergone repeated bursts of gene duplication and adaptive sequence diversification driven by these genes' participation in chemosensation and/or sexual identification.

  17. Catch-Up Growth Occurs after Diarrhea in Early Childhood123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephanie A.; Black, Robert E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Sack, R. Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6–12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12–18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18–24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of

  18. Rapid hydrogen hydrate growth from non-stoichiometric tuning mixtures during liquid nitrogen quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, R Gary; Kerkar, Prasad B; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K

    2012-06-21

    In this study the rapid growth of sII H(2) hydrate within 20 min of post formation quenching towards liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) temperature is presented. Initially at 72 MPa and 258 K, hydrate samples would cool to the conditions of ~60 MPa and ~90 K after quenching. Although within the stability region for H(2) hydrate, new hydrate growth only occurred under LN(2) quenching of the samples when preformed hydrate "seeds" of THF + H(2) were in the presence of unconverted ice. The characterization of hydrate seeds and the post-quenched samples was performed with confocal Raman spectroscopy. These results suggest that quenching to LN(2) temperature, a common preservation technique for ex situ hydrate analysis, can lead to rapid unintended hydrate growth. Specifically, guest such as H(2) that may otherwise need sufficiently long induction periods to nucleate, may still experience rapid growth through an increased kinetic effect from a preformed hydrate template.

  19. Persistent Environmental Toxicants in Breast Milk and Rapid Infant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Rachel; Lenters, Virissa; Mandal, Siddhartha; Stigum, Hein; Iszatt, Nina; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may confound results. We investigated levels of 26 toxicants in breast milk and their associations with rapid infant growth, a risk factor for later obesity. We used data from the Norwegian HUMIS study, a multi-center cohort of 2,606 mothers and newborns enrolled between 2002 and 2008. Milk samples collected 1 month after delivery from a subset of 789 women oversampled by overweight were analyzed for toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals, and pesticides. Growth was defined as change in weight-for-age z-score between 0 and 6 months among the HUMIS population, and rapid growth was defined as change in z-score above 0.67. We used a Bayesian variable selection method to determine the exposures that most explained variation in the outcome. Identified toxicants were included in logistic and linear regression models to estimate associations with growth, adjusting for maternal age, smoking, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, child sex, cumulative breastfeeding, birth weight, gestational age, and preterm status. Of 789 infants, 19.2% displayed rapid growth. The median maternal age was 29.6 years, and the median pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.0 kg/m2, with 45.3% of mothers overweight or obese. Rapid growers were more likely to be firstborn. Hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and PCB-74 were identified in the variable selection method. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in β-HCH exposure was associated with a lower odds of rapid growth (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Newborns exposed to high levels of β-HCH showed reduced infant growth (β = -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01 for IQR increase in breast milk concentration

  20. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  1. Rapid growth, maturity, current problems, future prospects of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The early rapid growth, the attainment of maturity, current problems, and future prospects of NAA (neutron activation analysis) are discussed, each in reasonable detail. In particular, the nature and causes of its current problems are examined, and suggestions are presented for the solution of these problems. The author believes that vigorous action in suggested areas of concentration can reinvigorate the status of NAA as an important method of elemental analysis. (author)

  2. Temporal changes in the abundance, leaf growth and photosynthesis of three co-occurring Philippine seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agawin, N S.R.; Duarte, C M.; Fortes, M D.; Uri, J S.; Vermaat, J E.

    2001-06-01

    The analysis of the temporal changes in shoot density, areal leaf biomass, leaf growth and parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance relationship of three tropical seagrass species (Enhalus acoroides, Thalassia hemprichii and Cymodocea rotundata), co-existing in a shallow subtidal meadow in Cape Bolinao, Philippines, shows that species-specific traits are significant sources of temporal variability, and indicates that these seagrass species respond differently to a common environmental forcing. Species-specific differences are much less important as source of variability of the temporal change in chlorophyll concentration of seagrass leaves. The results indicate that the temporal changes in photosynthetic performance of these seagrasses were driven by environmental forcing and their specific responses to it mostly, but the temporal change in their abundance and leaf growth was also controlled by other factors. The significant contribution of species-specific factors in the temporal changes of biomass, growth and photosynthetic performance of co-occurring seagrass species in Cape Bolinao should contribute to the maintenance of the multispecific, highly productive meadows characteristic of pristine coastal ecosystems in Southeast (SE) Asia.

  3. The rapid growth of OPEC′s domestic oil consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gately, Dermot; Al-Yousef, Nourah; Al-Sheikh, Hamad M.H.

    2013-01-01

    OPEC′s domestic oil consumption has increased seven-fold in 40 years, to 8.5 million barrels per day (mbd). They consume almost as much oil as China. This constitutes one-fourth of their production. Such rapid growth in consumption (5.1% annually, faster than their income growth of 3.1%) will challenge OPEC′s ability to increase their oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE/EIA) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in OPEC oil consumption – to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in OPEC oil exports with only modest increases in production. We analyze 1971–2010 data econometrically, with panel co-integration methods. We estimate that the income elasticity of consumption is about 1 for energy and oil. This means that OPEC′s energy and oil consumption will grow as rapidly as their income. Hence, continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the unprecedented slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE/EIA and BP – adding an extra 6 mbd of OPEC consumption in 2030. This will have major implications for OPEC production and export levels, and for world oil prices. -- Highlights: •We analyze rapid growth of OPEC oil consumption (sevenfold since 1971: 5.1% annually). •Panel co-integration econometric estimate of income elasticity about 1.0. •Consensus projections (IEA, DOE/EIA) have consistently under projected OPEC consumption. •Future oil market implications if OPEC consumption grows as fast as income (as in past)

  4. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  5. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Ryer: Growth and distributional correlates of behavior in three co-occurring juvenile flatfishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from laboratory experiments that explored anti-predator behavior and intrinsic growth in three co-occurring juvenile flatfish species (English sole...

  6. Development of simple and rapid radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Park, Se Young; Yoon, Seok Won; Ha, Wi Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Kook; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is necessary to analyze radioactivity of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products to ensure radiological safety required by Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The pretreatments for the existing analysis methods require high technology and time. Such destructive pretreatments including grinding and dissolution of samples make impossible to reuse products. We developed a rapid and simple procedure of radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing NORM. The developed method requires non-destructive or minimized pretreatment. Radioactivity of the product without pretreatment is initially measured using gamma spectroscopy and then the measured radioactivity is adjusted by considering material composition, mass density, and geometrical shape of the product. The radioactivity adjustment can be made using scaling factors, which is derived by radiation transport Monte Carlo simulation. Necklace, bracelet, male health care product, and tile for health mat were selected as representative products for this study. The products are commonly used by the public and directly contacted with human body and thus resulting in high radiation exposure to the user. The scaling factors were derived using MCNPX code and the values ranged from 0.31 to 0.47. If radioactivity of the products is measured without pretreatment, the thorium series may be overestimated by up to 2.8 times. If scaling factors are applied, the difference in radioactivity estimates are reduced to 3-24%. The developed procedure in this study can be used for other products with various materials and shapes and thus ensuring radiological safety.

  7. Growth medium for the rapid isolation and identification of anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Parker, Jill E.; Grubbs, Teri R.; Alls, John L.

    2000-07-01

    Anthrax has been recognized as a highly likely biological warfare or terrorist agent. The purpose of this work was to design a culture technique to rapidly isolate and identify `live' anthrax. In liquid or solid media form, 3AT medium (3-amino-L-tyrosine, the main ingredient) accelerated germination and growth of anthrax spores in 5 to 6 hours to a point expected at 18 to 24 hours with ordinary medium. During accelerated growth, standard definitive diagnostic tests such as sensitivity to lysis by penicillin or bacteriophage can be run. During this time, the bacteria synthesized a fluorescent and thermochemiluminescent polymer. Bacteria captured by specific antibody are, therefore, already labeled. Because living bacteria are required to generate the polymer, the test converts immunoassays for anthrax into viability assays. Furthermore, the polymer formation leads to the death of the vegetative form and non-viability of the spores produced in the medium. By altering the formulation of the medium, other microbes and even animal and human cells can be grown in it and labeled (including viruses grown in the animal or human cells).

  8. Gradient microfluidics enables rapid bacterial growth inhibition testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Qiu, Yong; Glidle, Andrew; McIlvenna, David; Luo, Qian; Cooper, Jon; Shi, Han-Chang; Yin, Huabing

    2014-03-18

    Bacterial growth inhibition tests have become a standard measure of the adverse effects of inhibitors for a wide range of applications, such as toxicity testing in the medical and environmental sciences. However, conventional well-plate formats for these tests are laborious and provide limited information (often being restricted to an end-point assay). In this study, we have developed a microfluidic system that enables fast quantification of the effect of an inhibitor on bacteria growth and survival, within a single experiment. This format offers a unique combination of advantages, including long-term continuous flow culture, generation of concentration gradients, and single cell morphology tracking. Using Escherichia coli and the inhibitor amoxicillin as one model system, we show excellent agreement between an on-chip single cell-based assay and conventional methods to obtain quantitative measures of antibiotic inhibition (for example, minimum inhibition concentration). Furthermore, we show that our methods can provide additional information, over and above that of the standard well-plate assay, including kinetic information on growth inhibition and measurements of bacterial morphological dynamics over a wide range of inhibitor concentrations. Finally, using a second model system, we show that this chip-based systems does not require the bacteria to be labeled and is well suited for the study of naturally occurring species. We illustrate this using Nitrosomonas europaea, an environmentally important bacteria, and show that the chip system can lead to a significant reduction in the period required for growth and inhibition measurements (<4 days, compared to weeks in a culture flask).

  9. Growth perturbations in a phenotype with rapid fetal growth preceding preterm labor and term birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Michelle; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Gotsch, Francesca; Espinoza, Jimmy; Goncalves, Luis; Lee, Wesley; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A; Romero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The variability in fetal growth rates and gestation duration in humans is not well understood. Of interest are women presenting with an episode of preterm labor and subsequently delivering a term neonate, who is small relative to peers of similar gestational age. To further understand these relationships, fetal growth patterns predating an episode of preterm labor were investigated. Retrospective analysis of fetal biometry assessed by serial ultrasound in a prospectively studied sample of pregnancies in Santiago, Chile, tested the hypothesis that fetal growth patterns among uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 3,706) and those with an episode of preterm labor followed by term delivery (n = 184) were identical across the time intervals 16-22 weeks, 22-28 weeks, and 28-34 weeks in a multilevel mixed-effects regression. The hypothesis was not supported. Fetal weight growth rate was faster from 16 weeks among pregnancies with an episode of preterm labor (P < 0.05), declined across midgestation (22-28 weeks, P < 0.05), and rebounded between 28 and 34 weeks (P = 0.06). This was associated with perturbations in abdominal circumference growth and proportionately larger biparietal diameter from 22 gestational weeks (P = 0.03), greater femur (P = 0.01), biparietal diameter (P = 0.001) and head circumference (P = 0.02) dimensions relative to abdominal circumference across midgestation (22-28 weeks), followed by proportionately smaller femur diaphyseal length (P = 0.02) and biparietal diameter (P = 0.03) subsequently. A distinctive rapid growth phenotype characterized fetal growth preceding an episode of preterm labor among this sample of term-delivered neonates. Perturbations in abdominal circumference growth and patterns of proportionality suggest an altered growth strategy pre-dating the preterm labor episode.

  10. Electromagnetic induction heating for single crystal graphene growth: morphology control by rapid heating and quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan; Chen, Wei; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Ooi, Poh Choon; Guo, Tailiang

    2015-03-01

    The direct observation of single crystal graphene growth and its shape evolution is of fundamental importance to the understanding of graphene growth physicochemical mechanisms and the achievement of wafer-scale single crystalline graphene. Here we demonstrate the controlled formation of single crystal graphene with varying shapes, and directly observe the shape evolution of single crystal graphene by developing a localized-heating and rapid-quenching chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system based on electromagnetic induction heating. Importantly, rational control of circular, hexagonal, and dendritic single crystalline graphene domains can be readily obtained for the first time by changing the growth condition. Systematic studies suggest that the graphene nucleation only occurs during the initial stage, while the domain density is independent of the growth temperatures due to the surface-limiting effect. In addition, the direct observation of graphene domain shape evolution is employed for the identification of competing growth mechanisms including diffusion-limited, attachment-limited, and detachment-limited processes. Our study not only provides a novel method for morphology-controlled graphene synthesis, but also offers fundamental insights into the kinetics of single crystal graphene growth.

  11. Renal epithelial cell growth can occur in absence of Na+-H+ exchanger activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrmann, M.; Cantiello, H.F.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    An electroneutral Na+-H+ exchange system has been described in a variety of tissues and cell types, including those of renal origin, and has been proposed to play a role in the activation of growth. We have recently characterized the presence of this ubiquitous transporter in the apical domain of confluent epithelial LLC-PK1 cells. Because most apical membrane proteins appear late in cell growth, accompanying epithelial cell polarization, we determined whether the Na+-H+ exchanger is required for the growth of LLC-PK1 cells. The studies reported here show that there is no obligatory requirement for increased H+ efflux or Na+ entry via the Na+-H+ exchanger for the initiation of cell growth in this epithelial cell line. We used 22 Na+ influx, acid extrusion, and intracellular pH determinations to show that onset of cell growth, as measured by DNA content, precedes the activity of the Na+-H+ exchanger in exponentially growing cells, whereas confluent monolayers express Na+-H+ exchanger activity. When confluent cells are replated at low density, Na+-H+ exchanger activity disappears within 8 h in contrast to high-density replated cells. The fact that Na+-H+ exchanger activity is only present in confluent monolayers suggests that the development of tight junctions and polar differentiation play a role in the expression of the Na+-H+ exchanger and that this exchanger is more important to the polar epithelial cell for transepithelial transport than for the maintenance of intracellular pH

  12. Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 in dogs with naturally occurring mitral regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Duelund; Falk, Bo Torkel; Häggström, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which mediates most effects of growth hormone, has effects on cardiac mass and function, and plays an important role in the regulation of vascular tone. In humans, an inverse relationship between degree of heart failure (HF) and circulating IGF-1 concentrations...... has been found in several studies. In dogs with HF, few studies have focused on IGF-1. We examined circulating IGF-1 concentrations in dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease. Study 1 included 88 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) with a broad range...... of asymptomatic MR (median serum IGF-1: 76.7 µg/L; 25-75 percentile, 59.8-104.9 µg/L). As expected, standard body weight and percentage under- or overweight correlated directly with IGF-1. MR (assessed in 4 different ways) did not correlate with IGF-1. In study 2, 28 dogs with severe MR and stable, treated...

  13. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage...... of abscisic acid in primed plants under drought stress could contribute to higher grain yield compared to the non-primed plants. Taken together, the results indicate that drought priming during vegetative stages improved tolerance to both drought and heat stress events occurring during grain filling in wheat....

  14. Homologous recombination occurs in Entamoeba and is enhanced during growth stress and stage conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Singh

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR has not been demonstrated in the parasitic protists Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba invadens, as no convenient method is available to measure it. However, HR must exist to ensure genome integrity, and possible genetic exchange, especially during stage conversion from trophozoite to cyst. Here we show the up regulation of mitotic and meiotic HR genes in Entamoeba during serum starvation, and encystation. To directly demonstrate HR we use a simple PCR-based method involving inverted repeats, which gives a reliable read out, as the recombination junctions can be determined by sequencing the amplicons. Using this read out, we demonstrate enhanced HR under growth stress in E. histolytica, and during encystation in E. invadens. We also demonstrate recombination between chromosomal inverted repeats. This is the first experimental demonstration of HR in Entamoeba and will help future investigations into this process, and to explore the possibility of meiosis in Entamoeba.

  15. Rapid Population Growth-Cause or Result of Global Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    Explosive population growth is a symptom of the world's unjust and inequitable social, political, and economic conditions. The current rate of growth is staggering, particularly in the cities of the underdeveloped countries. While some progress has been made in slowing population growth, several factors still contribute to its momentum. One of…

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RAPID GROWTH FACTORS PRESENTED IN THE LITERATURE OF THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALB MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main rapid growth factors, as encountered in literature and discusses the importance and contribution of these factors in achieving the rapid growth, respectively if this growth phenomenon may be achieved in the absence of the aforesaid factors. The paper examines the factors and subfactors considered or found by scholars to have an effect on or be in connection with the rapid growth. A comparative analysis was performed on several studies concerning the rapid growth companies. Among the main factors influencing the rapid growth are those related to the human resources management, the entrepreneur characteritics and the characteristics of the business. The paper also discusses several issues related to the will of the manager or the entrepreneur, repectively the need to understand the role of the factors that intervene when the growth is not wanted and still obtained or when the growth is targeted but not achieved. The conclusion is in agreement with other scholars’ findings reported in the literature. Certain factors correlated with the appropriate actions may lead to the rapid growth. The paper represents a starting point for the study of those management related aspects enabling companies to grow rapidly in the Romanian business environment.

  17. Persistent Environmental Toxicants in Breast Milk and Rapid Infant Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criswell, Rachel; Lenters, Virissa; Mandal, Siddhartha; Stigum, Hein; Iszatt, Nina; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may

  18. Drought occurence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  19. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1994-02-18

    Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the

  20. Communication and The Challenges of Rapid Population Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005) which projected the African Population at 1,349 million by 2025 and 1,969 million by 2050. These figures are so frightening that the use of communication to contribute to checking the high population growth is challenged. We discuss ...

  1. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  2. Uncooled infrared sensors: rapid growth and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Raymond S.

    2000-07-01

    The uncooled infrared cameras are now available for both the military and commercial markets. The current camera technology incorporates the fruits of many years of development, focusing on the details of pixel design, novel material processing, and low noise read-out electronics. The rapid insertion of cameras into systems is testimony to the successful completion of this 'first phase' of development. In the military market, the first uncooled infrared cameras will be used for weapon sights, driver's viewers and helmet mounted cameras. Major commercial applications include night driving, security, police and fire fighting, and thermography, primarily for preventive maintenance and process control. The technology for the next generation of cameras is even more demanding, but within reach. The paper outlines the technology program planned for the next generation of cameras, and the approaches to further enhance performance, even to the radiation limit of thermal detectors.

  3. NADPH promotes the rapid growth of the tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase is the main source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS plays an important role in a variety of tumor types. The ROS mediated by NADPH oxidase increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α through multiple signaling pathways in tumor, and HIF-α could be regulated and controlled by downstream multiple targeted genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor, glucose transporter to promote tumor angiogenesis, cell energy metabolism reprogram and tumor metastasis. Meanwhile, HIF-α can also regulate the expression of NADPH oxidase by ROS, thus further promoting development of tumor. In this review, we summarized the functions of NADPH in tumorigenesis and discussed their potential implications in cancer therapy.

  4. Armenia; The Road to Sustained Rapid Growth-Cross-Country Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Garbis Iradian

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the growth determinants and the economic policy challenges that Armenia faces to sustain the rapid growth of the past two years. The paper also seeks to answer the following two questions: Why has Armenia performed relatively better than other transition economies? What are the roles of macroeconomic policies and the level of financial intermediation in explaining growth differences? The paper also draws upon past cross-country experiences by estimating panel regressions o...

  5. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  6. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. I. Growth can occur without photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light (WL), at least in part as a result of light-induced acidification of the cell walls. It has been proposed that photosynthetic reactions are required for light-stimulated transport processes across plasma membranes of leaf cells, including proton excretion. The involvement of photosynthesis in growth and wall acidification of primary leaves of bean has been tested by inhibiting photosynthesis in two ways: by reducing chlorophyll content of intact plants with tentoxin (TX) and by treating leaf discs with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Exposure to bright WL stimulated growth of intact leaves of TX-treated plants. Discs excised from green as well as from TX-or DCMU-treated leaves also responded by growing faster in WL, as long as exogenous sucrose was supplied to the photosynthetically inhibited tissues. The WL caused acidification of the epidermal surface of intact TX-leaves, but acidification of the incubation medium by mesophyll cells only occurred when photosynthesis was not inhibited. It is concluded that light-stimulated cell enlargement of bean leaves, and the necessary acidification of epidermal cell walls, are mediated by a pigment other than chlorophyll. Light-induced proton excretion by mesophyll cells, on the other hand, may require both a photosynthetic product (or exogenous sugars) and a non-photosynthetic light effect.

  7. Intraplacental gene therapy with Ad-IGF-1 corrects naturally occurring rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Sundeep G; Balaji, Swathi; Katz, Anna B; King, Alice; Omar, Khaled; Habli, Mounira; Klanke, Charles; Crombleholme, Timothy M

    2015-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is a leading cause of perinatal complications for which there is no effective prenatal therapy. We have previously demonstrated that intraplacental injection of adenovirus-mediated insulin-like growth factor-1 (Ad-IGF-1) corrects fetal weight in a murine IUGR model induced by mesenteric uterine artery branch ligation. This study investigated the effect of intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy in a rabbit model of naturally occurring IUGR (runt) due to placental insufficiency, which is similar to the human IUGR condition with onset in the early third trimester, brain sparing, and a reduction in liver weight. Laparotomy was performed on New Zealand White rabbits on day 21 of 30 days of gestation and litters were divided into five groups: Control (first position)+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), control+Ad-IGF-1, runt (third position)+PBS, runt+Ad-IGF-1, and runt+Ad-LacZ. The effect of IGF-1 gene therapy on fetal, placental, liver, heart, lung, and musculoskeletal weights of the growth-restricted pups was examined. Protein expression after gene transfer was seen along the maternal-fetal placenta interface (n=12) 48 hr after gene therapy. There was minimal gene transfer detected in the pups or maternal organs. At term, compared with the normally grown first-position control, the runted third-position pups demonstrated significantly lower fetal, placental, liver, lung, and musculoskeletal weights. The fetal, liver, and musculoskeletal weights were restored to normal by intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy (p<0.01), with no change in the placental weight. Intraplacental gene therapy is a novel strategy for the treatment of IUGR caused by placental insufficiency that takes advantage of an organ that will be discarded at birth. Development of nonviral IGF-1 gene delivery using placenta-specific promoters can potentially minimize toxicity to the mother and fetus and facilitate clinical translation of

  8. Mutations in fibroblast growth-factor receptor 3 in sporadic cases of achondroplasia occur exclusively on the paternally derived chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, D J; Szabo, J K; Cameron, R; Henderson, S; Bellus, G A; Mack, M L; Kaitila, I; Loughlin, J; Munnich, A; Sykes, B; Bonaventure, J; Francomano, C A

    1998-01-01

    More than 97% of achondroplasia cases are caused by one of two mutations (G1138A and G1138C) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which results in a specific amino acid substitution, G380R. Sporadic cases of achondroplasia have been associated with advanced paternal age, suggesting that these mutations occur preferentially during spermatogenesis. We have determined the parental origin of the achondroplasia mutation in 40 sporadic cases. Three distinct 1-bp polymorphisms were identified in the FGFR3 gene, within close proximity to the achondroplasia mutation site. Ninety-nine families, each with a sporadic case of achondroplasia in a child, were analyzed in this study. In this population, the achondroplasia mutation occurred on the paternal chromosome in all 40 cases in which parental origin was unambiguous. This observation is consistent with the clinical observation of advanced paternal age resulting in new cases of achondroplasia and suggests that factors influencing DNA replication or repair during spermatogenesis, but not during oogenesis, may predispose to the occurrence of the G1138 FGFR3 mutations. PMID:9718331

  9. Rapid Urban Growth and Land Use Patterns in Doha, Qatar: Opportunities for Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amidst chaotic growth of Asian cities, the expansion of urban infrastructure in the Middle East's Gulf region is arguably outpacing any other region on the planet. Yet we have a limited understanding of the types of urban form or the extent to which this rapid urbanization is giving rise to sustainable patterns of growth. We ask, what is the pace and character of urban growth in one Middle East city, Doha, Qatar. By using remotely sensed imagery from 1987 to 2013, we examined the pace, quality, and characteristics of urban growth. We further use the results to create a typology of urban growth that integrates historical and spatial dimensions for describing the qualitative aspects of growth and its implications on regional landscapes. Our results suggest that Doha is creating development patterns similar to many Western cities, and that planners may need to consider whether the emerging urban form offers opportunities for more sustainable growth in the future.

  10. Meniscus maturation in the swine model: changes occurring along with anterior to posterior and medial to lateral aspect during growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Deponti, Daniela; Addis, Alessandro; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2014-01-01

    The meniscus plays important roles in knee function and mechanics and is characterized by a heterogeneous matrix composition. The changes in meniscus vascularization observed during growth suggest that the tissue-specific composition may be the result of a maturation process. This study has the aim to characterize the structural and biochemical variations that occur in the swine meniscus with age. To this purpose, menisci were collected from young and adult pigs and divided into different zones. In study 1, both lateral and medial menisci were divided into the anterior horn, the body and the posterior horn for the evaluation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), collagen 1 and 2 content. In study 2, the menisci were sectioned into the inner, the intermediate and the outer zones to determine the variations in the cell phenotype along with the inner–outer direction, through gene expression analysis. According to the results, the swine meniscus is characterized by an increasing enrichment in the cartilaginous component with age, with an increasing deposition in the anterior horn (GAGs and collagen 2; P meniscus maturation, suggesting a specific response of meniscal cells to the regional mechanical stimuli in the knee joint. PMID:25216283

  11. The Seneca effect why growth is slow but collapse is rapid

    CERN Document Server

    Bardi, Ugo

    2017-01-01

    The essence of this book can be found in a line written by the ancient Roman Stoic Philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca: "Fortune is of sluggish growth, but ruin is rapid". This sentence summarizes the features of the phenomenon that we call "collapse," which is typically sudden and often unexpected, like the proverbial "house of cards." But why are such collapses so common, and what generates them? Several books have been published on the subject, including the well-known "Collapse" by Jared Diamond (2005), "The collapse of complex societies" by Joseph Tainter (1998) and "The Tipping Point," by Malcom Gladwell (2000). Why The Seneca Effect? This book is an ambitious attempt to pull these various strands together by describing collapse from a multi-disciplinary viewpoint. The reader will discover how collapse is a collective phenomenon that occurs in what we call today "complex systems," with a special emphasis on system dynamics and t he concept of "feedback." From this foundation, Bardi applies the...

  12. Rapid Startup and Loading of an Attached Growth, Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification Membrane Aerated Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin; Vega, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    The Membrane Aerated Bioreactor (MABR) is an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. This design is an innovative approach to common terrestrial wastewater treatments for nitrogen and carbon removal. Implementing a biologically-based water treatment system for long-duration human exploration is an attractive, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes. Two obstacles to implementing such a system are (1) the "start-up" duration from inoculation to steady-state operations and (2) the amount of surface area needed for the biological activity to occur. The Advanced Water Recovery Systems (AWRS) team at JSC explored these two issues through two tests; a rapid inoculation study and a wastewater loading study. Results from these tests demonstrate that the duration from inoculation to steady state can be reduced to two weeks and that the surface area to volume ratio baseline used in the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test was higher than what was needed to remove the organic carbon and ammonium from the system.

  13. Low-Temperature and Rapid Growth of Large Single-Crystalline Graphene with Ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Lin, Li; Sun, Luzhao; Zhang, Jincan; Rui, Dingran; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Mingzhan; Tan, Congwei; Kang, Ning; Wei, Di; Xu, H Q; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-01-01

    Future applications of graphene rely highly on the production of large-area high-quality graphene, especially large single-crystalline graphene, due to the reduction of defects caused by grain boundaries. However, current large single-crystalline graphene growing methodologies are suffering from low growth rate and as a result, industrial graphene production is always confronted by high energy consumption, which is primarily caused by high growth temperature and long growth time. Herein, a new growth condition achieved via ethane being the carbon feedstock to achieve low-temperature yet rapid growth of large single-crystalline graphene is reported. Ethane condition gives a growth rate about four times faster than methane, achieving about 420 µm min -1 for the growth of sub-centimeter graphene single crystals at temperature about 1000 °C. In addition, the temperature threshold to obtain graphene using ethane can be reduced to 750 °C, lower than the general growth temperature threshold (about 1000 °C) with methane on copper foil. Meanwhile ethane always keeps higher graphene growth rate than methane under the same growth temperature. This study demonstrates that ethane is indeed a potential carbon source for efficient growth of large single-crystalline graphene, thus paves the way for graphene in high-end electronical and optoelectronical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A comparison of test statistics for the recovery of rapid growth-based enumeration tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.

    This paper considers five test statistics for comparing the recovery of a rapid growth-based enumeration test with respect to the compendial microbiological method using a specific nonserial dilution experiment. The finite sample distributions of these test statistics are unknown, because they are

  15. Governing Rapid Growth in Asia: State-led Development in Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T-W. Ngo (Tak-Wing)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth in Asia has often been explained in terms of effective policies pursued by a “developmental state”. In particular, countries in East Asia are said to be characterized by the presence of a strong state with technocratic capacity and social embeddedness. This inaugural address

  16. Tyrosine requirement during the rapid catch-up growth phase of recovery from severe childhood undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The requirement for aromatic amino acids, during the rapid catch-up in weight phase of recovery from severe childhood under nutrition (SCU) is not clearly established. As a first step, the present study aimed to estimate the tyrosine requirement of children with SCU during the catch-up growth phase ...

  17. The performance studies of DKDP crystals grown by a rapid horizontal growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hu; Chen, Duanyang; Shao, Jianda

    2018-04-01

    A deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal with about 70% deuterium level was grown by a rapid horizontal growth method with independent design equipment, which includes a continuous filtration system. The cooling program during crystal growth was designed according to a self-developed software to catch the size of growing crystal in real time. The crystal structure, optical performance and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of this DKDP crystal were investigated in this paper. The deuterium concentration of the crystal was confirmed by the neutron diffraction technique, which was effective and available in determining a complete range of deuteration level. The dielectric property was measured to evaluate the perfection of the lattice. The transmittance and LIDT were carried out further to evaluate the optical and functional properties of this DKDP crystal grown in the rapid horizontal growth technique. All of the detailed characterization for DKDP figured out that the 70% deuterated KDP crystal grown in this way had relatively good qualities.

  18. The Great Transformations of Tibet and Xinjiang: a comparative analysis of rapid labour transitions in times of rapid growth in two contested minority regions of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth since the mid-1990s in the Tibetan and Uyghur areas in Western China has been associated with the rapid transition of the local (mostly Tibetan and Uyghur) labour forces out of the primary sector (mostly farming and herding) and into the tertiary sector (services). The TAR,

  19. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  20. Rapid growth of the US wildland-urban interface raises wildfire risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Volker C; Helmers, David P; Kramer, H Anu; Mockrin, Miranda H; Alexandre, Patricia M; Bar-Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Hawbaker, Todd J; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Syphard, Alexandra D; Stewart, Susan I

    2018-03-27

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle, and where wildfire problems are most pronounced. Here we report that the WUI in the United States grew rapidly from 1990 to 2010 in terms of both number of new houses (from 30.8 to 43.4 million; 41% growth) and land area (from 581,000 to 770,000 km 2 ; 33% growth), making it the fastest-growing land use type in the conterminous United States. The vast majority of new WUI areas were the result of new housing (97%), not related to an increase in wildland vegetation. Within the perimeter of recent wildfires (1990-2015), there were 286,000 houses in 2010, compared with 177,000 in 1990. Furthermore, WUI growth often results in more wildfire ignitions, putting more lives and houses at risk. Wildfire problems will not abate if recent housing growth trends continue.

  1. Rapid Growth of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli during Human Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie S. Forsyth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC strains cause most uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs. These strains are a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC strains that infect extraintestinal sites, including urinary tract, meninges, bloodstream, lungs, and surgical sites. Here, we hypothesize that UPEC isolates adapt to and grow more rapidly within the urinary tract than other E. coli isolates and survive in that niche. To date, there has not been a reliable method available to measure their growth rate in vivo. Here we used two methods: segregation of nonreplicating plasmid pGTR902, and peak-to-trough ratio (PTR, a sequencing-based method that enumerates bacterial chromosomal replication forks present during cell division. In the murine model of UTI, UPEC strain growth was robust in vivo, matching or exceeding in vitro growth rates and only slowing after reaching high CFU counts at 24 and 30 h postinoculation (hpi. In contrast, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU strains tended to maintain high growth rates in vivo at 6, 24, and 30 hpi, and population densities did not increase, suggesting that host responses or elimination limited population growth. Fecal strains displayed moderate growth rates at 6 hpi but did not survive to later times. By PTR, E. coli in urine of human patients with UTIs displayed extraordinarily rapid growth during active infection, with a mean doubling time of 22.4 min. Thus, in addition to traditional virulence determinants, including adhesins, toxins, iron acquisition, and motility, very high growth rates in vivo and resistance to the innate immune response appear to be critical phenotypes of UPEC strains.

  2. Rapid growth, early maturation and short generation time in African annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 24 (2013), s. 24 ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : extreme life history * annual fish * explosive growth * rapid maturation * generation time * killifish * diapause * vertebrate * reaction norm * Savanna Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2013 http://www.evodevojournal.com/content/4/1/24

  3. Rapid growth of the US wildland-urban interface raises wildfire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker C. Radeloff; David P. Helmers; H. Anu Kramer; Miranda H. Mockrin; Patricia M. Alexandre; Avi Bar-Massada; Van Butsic; Todd J. Hawbaker; Sebastián Martinuzzi; Alexandra D. Syphard; Susan I. Stewart

    2018-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle, and where wildfire problems are most pronounced. Here we report that the WUI in the United States grew rapidly from 1990 to 2010 in terms of both number of new houses (from 30.8 to 43.4 million; 41% growth) and land area (from 581,000 to 770,000 km2...

  4. Oxidation phase growth diagram of vanadium oxides film fabricated by rapid thermal annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamura KOZO; Zheng-cao LI; Yu-quan WANG; Jie NI; Yin HU; Zheng-jun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Thermal evaporation deposited vanadium oxide films were annealed in air by rapid thermal annealing (RTP). By adjusting the annealing temperature and time, a series of vanadium oxide films with various oxidation phases and surface morphologies were fabricated, and an oxidation phase growth diagram was established. It was observed that different oxidation phases appear at a limited and continuous annealing condition range, and the morphologic changes are related to the oxidation process.

  5. Rapid growth and childhood obesity are strongly associated with lysoPC(14:0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Kirchberg, Franca F; Peissner, Wolfgang; Harder, Ulrike; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available. 'Rapid growth' was defined as a positive difference in weight within the first 6 months of life standardized to WHO growth standards. Weight change was regressed on each of 168 metabolites (acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and amino acids). Metabolites significant after Bonferroni's correction were tested as predictors of later overweight/obesity. Among the overall 19 significant metabolites, 4 were associated with rapid growth and 15 were associated with a less-than-ideal weight change. After adjusting for feeding group, only the lysophosphatidylcholine LPCaC14:0 remained significantly associated with rapid weight gain (β = 0.18). Only LPCaC14:0 at age 6 months was predictive of overweight/obesity at age 6 years (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69). LPCa14:0 is strongly related to rapid growth in infancy and childhood overweight/obesity. This suggests that LPCaC14:0 levels may represent a metabolically programmed effect of infant weight gain on the later obesity risk. However, these results require confirmation by independent cohorts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. An Inquiry into the Rapid Growth of the Garment Industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    MOTTALEB, Khondoker Abdul; SONOBE, Tetsushi

    2011-01-01

    The export-oriented garment industry in Bangladesh has grown rapidly for the last three decades and now ranks among the largest garment exporters in the world. While its early success is attributed to the initial technology transfer from South Korea, such a one-time infusion of knowledge alone is insufficient to explain the sustained growth for three decades. This paper uses primary data collected from knitwear manufacturers and garment traders to explore the process of the continuous learnin...

  7. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Rapid solidification growth mode transitions in Al-Si alloys by dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehling, John D.; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Gibbs, John W.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Mertens, James C.E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Clarke, Amy J.; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2017-01-01

    In situ dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) imaging of Al-Si thin-film alloys was performed to investigate rapid solidification behavior. Solidification of alloys with compositions from 1 to 15 atomic percent Si was imaged during pulsed laser melting and subsequent solidification. Solely α-Al solidification was observed in Al-1Si and Al-3Si alloys, and solely kinetically modified eutectic growth was observed in Al-6Si and Al-9Si alloys. A transition in the solidification mode in eutectic and hypereutectic alloys (Al-12Si and Al-15Si) from nucleated α-Al dendrites at lower solidification velocities to planar eutectic growth at higher solidification velocities was observed, departing from trends previously seen in laser-track melting experiments. Comparisons of the growth modes and corresponding velocities are compared with previous solidification models, and implications regarding the models are discussed.

  9. Contrasting effects of environmental change on the radial growth of co-occurring beech and fir trees across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bošela, M.; Lukac, M.; Castagneri, D.; Sedmák, R.; Biber, P.; Carrer, M.; Konopka, B.; Nola, P.; Nagel, T.; Popa, I.; Roibu, C. C.; Svoboda, M.; Trotsiuk, V.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 615, feb (2018), s. 1460-1469 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : fagus-sylvatica l. * abies-alba * silver fir * climate - change * site productivity * summer drought * norway spruce * bark beetle * range core * forests * Dendroecology * Climate change * Growth sensitivity * Mixed forests * Plant- climate interactions * Tree rings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  10. Contrasting effects of environmental change on the radial growth of co-occurring beech and fir trees across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosela, M.; Lukac, M.; Castagneri, D.; Sedmák, R.; Biber, P.; Carrer, M.; Konopka, B.; Nola, P.; Nagel, T.; Popa, I.; Roibu, C. C.; Svoboda, M.; Trotsiuk, V.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 615 (2018), s. 1460-1469 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : fagus-sylvatica l. * abies-alba * silver fir * climate - change * site productivity * summer drought * norway spruce * bark beetle * range core * forests * Dendroecology * Climate change * Growth sensitivity * Mixed forests * Plant- climate interactions * Tree rings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  11. Rapid Start-up and Loading of an Attached Growth, Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification Membrane Aerated Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.; Barta, Daniel; Shull, Sarah A.; Vega, Letticia M.; Christenson, Dylan; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Membrane aerated bioreactors (MABR) are attached-growth biological systems used for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification to reclaim water from waste. This design is an innovative approach to common terrestrial wastewater treatments for nitrogen and carbon removal and implementing a biologically-based water treatment system for long-duration human exploration is an attractive, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes. Two obstacles to implementing such a system are (1) the "start-up" duration from inoculation to steady-state operations and (2) the amount of surface area needed for the biological activity to occur. The Advanced Water Recovery Systems (AWRS) team at JSC explored these two issues through two tests; a rapid inoculation study and a wastewater loading study. Results from these tests demonstrate that the duration from inoculation to steady state can be reduced to under two weeks, and that despite low ammonium removal rates, the MABRs are oversized.

  12. Rapid and Controlled In Situ Growth of Noble Metal Nanostructures within Halloysite Clay Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamzadeh, Taha; Islam Khan, Md Shahidul; Riche', Kyle; Lvov, Yuri M; Stavitskaya, Anna V; Wiley, John B

    2017-11-14

    A rapid (≤2 min) and high-yield low-temperature synthesis has been developed for the in situ growth of gold nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled sizes in the interior of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). A combination of HAuCl 4 in ethanol/toluene, oleic acid, and oleylamine surfactants and ascorbic acid reducing agent with mild heating (55 °C) readily lead to the growth of targeted nanostructures. The sizes of Au NPs are tuned mainly by adjusting nucleation and growth rates. Further modification of the process, through an increase in ascorbic acid, allows for the formation of nanorods (NRs)/nanowires within the HNTs. This approach is not limited to gold-a modified version of this synthetic strategy can also be applied to the formation of Ag NPs and NRs within the clay nanotubes. The ability to readily grow such core-shell nanosystems is important to their further development as nanoreactors and active catalysts. NPs within the tube interior can further be manipulated by the electron beam. Growth of Au and Ag could be achieved under a converged electron beam suggesting that both Au@HNT and Ag@HNT systems can be used for the fundamental studies of NP growth/attachment.

  13. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  14. Large plasma-membrane depolarization precedes rapid blue-light-induced growth inhibition in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Blue-light (BL)-induced suppression of elongation of etiolated Cucumis sativus L. hypocotyls began after a 30-s lag time, which was halved by increasing the fluence rate from 10 to 100 micromoles m-2 s-1. Prior to the growth suppression, the plasma-membrane of the irradiated cells depolarized by as much as 100 mV, then returned within 2-3 min to near its initial value. The potential difference measured with surface electrodes changed with an identical time course but opposite polarity. The lag time for the change in surface potential showed an inverse dependence on fluence rate, similar to the lag for the growth inhibition. Green light and red light caused neither the electrical response nor the rapid inhibition of growth. The depolarization by BL did not propagate to nonirradiated regions and exhibited a refractory period of about 10 min following a BL pulse. Fluence-response relationships for the electrical and growth responses provide correlational evidence that the plasma-membrane depolarization reflects an event in the transduction chain of this light-growth response.

  15. Effect of spatial differences in growth on distribution of seasonally co-occurring herring Clupea harengus stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Stæhr, Karl-Johan; Rindorf, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms most likely to determine the distribution of the two major herring Clupea harengus stocks in their common early summer feeding ground in the eastern North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat were investigated through analysis of acoustic survey data from six consecutive years. No change...... was detected in biomass of North Sea autumn spawning C. harengus (NSAS) over time, whereas the biomass of western Baltic spring spawning C. harengus (WBSS) declined severely. Analyses of centre of abundance by stock showed no change in NSAS distribution, whereas the WBSS changed to a more western distribution...... Kattegat. The westward movement of spring spawners over time suggests that growth rate and possibly density of conspecifics influence the migration pattern and distribution of C. harengus in the area. In contrast, there was no evidence to suggest that distribution was constant over time within stocks...

  16. Prenatal exposure to traffic pollution: associations with reduced fetal growth and rapid infant weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure inhibits fetal growth, but implications for postnatal growth are unknown. We assessed weights and lengths of US infants in the Project Viva cohort at birth and 6 months. We estimated 3rd-trimester residential air pollution exposures using spatiotemporal models. We estimated neighborhood traffic density and roadway proximity at birth address using geographic information systems. We performed linear and logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables, fetal growth, and gestational age at birth. Mean birth weight-for-gestational age z-score (fetal growth) was 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.97; n = 2,114), 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain was 0.23 z-units (SD = 1.11; n = 689), and 17% had weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months of age. Infants exposed to the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of neighborhood traffic density had lower fetal growth (-0.13 units [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.25 to -0.01]), more rapid 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (0.25 units [95% CI = 0.01 to 0.49]), and higher odds of weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months (1.84 [95% CI = 1.11 to 3.05]). Neighborhood traffic density was additionally associated with an infant being in both the lowest quartile of fetal growth and the highest quartile of 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 3.01 [95% CI = 1.08 to 8.44]). Roadway proximity and 3rd-trimester black carbon exposure were similarly associated with growth outcomes. For 3rd-trimester particulate matter (PM2.5), effect estimates were in the same direction, but smaller and imprecise. Infants exposed to higher traffic-related pollution in early life may exhibit more rapid postnatal weight gain in addition to reduced fetal growth.

  17. Driving forces of rapid CO2 emissions growth: A case of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Gun; Yoo, Jonghyun; Oh, Wankeun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Korea's final demand structure and its impacts on CO 2 emissions in order to reduce CO 2 emissions and develop environmental policy directions. Based on the environmentally extended input–output model, this study adopts a two-step approach: (1) to estimate the embodied emissions and their intensities for 393 sectors induced by final demand; and (2) to calculate the driving factors of emission growth between 2003 and 2011 and then evaluate the result by using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA). The findings of this study demonstrate that the impact of composition change in export with less embodied emission intensities tends to offset the increase in CO 2 emission by the export scale growth. The relatively low residential electricity price has resulted in the rapid growth of household electricity consumption and significantly contributed to emissions growth. The result of SDA indicates that Korea's final demand behavior yielded high carbonization over the same period. The findings suggest that Korean government should promote exports in industries with less embedded CO 2 in order to protect environments. In addition, emission information of each product and service should be provided for consumers to change their purchase patterns towards contributing to low carbon emissions as active players. -- Highlights: •We investigate Korea's final demand structure and its contribution to CO 2 emissions. •Using SDA, we evaluate the driving factors of emission growth from 2003 to 2011. •Exports play a critical role in Korea's CO 2 emissions growth. •The relatively low residential electricity price has contributed to emission growth. •Korea's final demand behavior yielded high carbonization over the same period

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling can occur independently of the multi-substrate adaptor FRS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Te-Wen; Bennett, Daniel C; Goodman, S Jay; Stern, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The components of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling complexes help to define the specificity of the effects of their activation. The Caenorhabditis elegans fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), EGL-15, regulates a number of processes, including sex myoblast (SM) migration guidance and fluid homeostasis, both of which require a Grb2/Sos/Ras cassette of signaling components. Here we show that SEM-5/Grb2 can bind directly to EGL-15 to mediate SM chemoattraction. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified SEM-5 as able to interact with the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of EGL-15, a domain that is specifically required for SM chemoattraction. This interaction requires the SEM-5 SH2-binding motifs present in the CTD (Y(1009) and Y(1087)), and these sites are required for the CTD role of EGL-15 in SM chemoattraction. SEM-5, but not the SEM-5 binding sites located in the CTD, is required for the fluid homeostasis function of EGL-15, indicating that SEM-5 can link to EGL-15 through an alternative mechanism. The multi-substrate adaptor protein FRS2 serves to link vertebrate FGFRs to Grb2. In C. elegans, an FRS2-like gene, rog-1, functions upstream of a Ras/MAPK pathway for oocyte maturation but is not required for EGL-15 function. Thus, unlike the vertebrate FGFRs, which require the multi-substrate adaptor FRS2 to recruit Grb2, EGL-15 can recruit SEM-5/Grb2 directly.

  19. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika harbor spore-forming thermophiles with extremely rapid growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A thermophilic anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a sublacustrine hydrothermal vent site in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) with recorded fluid temperatures of 66–103 °C and pH values of 7.7–8.9. The bacterium (strain TR10) was rod-shaped, about 1 by 5 μm in size, and readily formed distal...... and peptone. The optimum temperature for growth was 60 °C, while minimum and maximum temperatures were 40 and 75 °C. The pH response was alkalitolerant with optimum pH at 7.4 and 8.5 depending on the growth medium. The distinct feature of rapid proliferation and endospore formation may allow the novel...

  20. The impact of rapid economic growth and globalization on zinc nutrition in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, In-Sook; Do, Mi-Sook; Chung, Hae-Rang; Kim, Yang Ha; Beattie, John H

    2009-08-01

    Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values. Average Zn intake was 5.8, 4.8 and 5.3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7.3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998. Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969-1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.

  1. Water hammer due to rapid bubble growth at a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Adachi, Masaki; Shiozaki, Koki; Inasaka, Fujio

    2000-01-01

    On a severe accident of the light water reactor (LWR), by steam explosion and so forth due to hydrogen formation by water-metal reaction and direct contact of molted core with water, it is presumed that a lot of vapor forms for a short time in water at reactor vessel and under part of containment vessel. This study aims at and carries out, under reference of the conventional study results, experimental elucidation on coherence of water block motion due to rapid bubble growth, proposal on reduction method of water hammering, development of water hammer estimating method in an actual reactor, and proposal for upgrading of reliability on severe accident evaluation. In 1998 fiscal year, an 'Experimental apparatus on water hammering elements on sever accident' simulated rapid bubble growth due to steam explosion by injecting high pressure air into water was produced to carry out its function test. As a result of the carried out function tests, extreme water hammering phenomena were observed, by which validity of establishment on the study objects could be confirmed. (G.K.)

  2. Association of malignancy with rapid growth in early lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin were studied to determine (a) the relationship of malignancy to dose, (b) the types of lesions and circumstances leading to overt malignancy, and (c) the growth rates of lesions progressing to malignancy versus those of lesions remaining benign. High doses of radiation were shown to be associated with the production of epidermal cancers, the maximum yield being obtained at 6,400 rads. Conversely, a peak yield of noncancerous lesions was obtained at 1,600 rads. This association between malignancy and high dose was consistent for cancers evolving from warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers. Although the proportion of warts among the induced lesions was much higher than that of the cysts or chronic ulcers (76, 14, and 10%, respectively), the likelihood of warts becoming cancerous was substantially lower (14, 23, and 21%). The combined data for all doses showed that the latency period of the epidermal cancers was significantly (P = 0.015) shorter than that of the benign tumors. Rapid growth rates were observed for warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers progressing to overt cancer, and these did not overlap at any point on the growth scale with rates for benign tumors. This finding suggested that the potential for malignant development had been established early in the carcinogenic process, very likely at induction

  3. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuanzheng; Lin, Jintai; Song, Chunqiao; Liu, Mengyao; Yan, Yingying; Xu, Yuan; Huang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement) in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. After removing the background influences, we find significant anthropogenic NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr-1 on average, relative to 2005), with the largest increments (15 % yr-1 or more) over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial-level regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005-2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr-1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr-1) and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr-1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 ± 0.3 % yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve sustainable development in Western China.

  4. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.-Z.; Lin, J.-T.; Song, C.; Liu, M.-Y.; Yan, Y.-Y.; Xu, Y.; Huang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement) in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. We find significant NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr-1 on average, relative to 2005), with the largest increments (15 % yr-1 or more) over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005-2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr-1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr-1) and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr-1} over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 ± 0.3 % yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Additional socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth in Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve sustainable development in Western China.

  5. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J

    2018-03-01

    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prenatal bisphenol a urine concentrations and early rapid growth and overweight risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvi, Damaskini; Casas, Maribel; Mendez, Michelle A; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Luque, Noelia; Rubio, Soledad; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2013-11-01

    Increasing experimental evidence suggests that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure induces offspring weight gain, but these effects remain largely unexplored in humans. We examined the effects of prenatal BPA exposure on postnatal growth and obesity. BPA concentrations were measured in two spot-urine samples collected in the 1st and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy from mothers in a Spanish birth cohort study (n = 402). We used the average of the two creatinine-adjusted BPA concentrations as the exposure variable. Rapid child growth was defined as a weight gain Z score >0.67 in the first 6 months of life. Age- and sex-specific Z scores for body mass index (BMI) were calculated at age 14 months and 4 years, based on the World Health Organization referent; overweight was defined as a BMI Z score greater than or equal to the 85th percentile. Age- and sex-specific waist circumference Z scores were calculated at age 14 months and 4 years using the analysis population mean. Twenty-six percent of children were rapid growers; 25% were overweight at 14 months and 21% at 4 years. Geometric mean BPA concentrations were 2.6 μg/g creatinine (standard deviation = 2.3) in 1st trimester and 2.0 (2.3) in 3rd trimester samples (Pearson r = 0.13). At 4 years, BPA exposure was associated with increased waist circumference (β per log10 μg/g = 0.28 [95% confidence interval = 0.01 to 0.57]) and BMI (β = 0.28 [-0.06 to 0.63]). BPA was not associated with obesity-related outcomes at earlier ages. This study provides some evidence for an association between prenatal BPA exposure and obesity-related outcomes in childhood, although not in infancy. The large uncertainties in BPA exposure assessment require that findings be interpreted with caution.

  7. Rapid growth of single-layer graphene on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Dai, D.; Chen, G.X.; Yu, J.H. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Nishimura, K. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Advanced Nano-processing Engineering Lab, Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kogakuin University (Japan); Lin, C.-T. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Jiang, N., E-mail: jiangnan@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhan, Z.L., E-mail: zl_zhan@sohu.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A rapid thermal CVD process has been developed to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates. • The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. • Single-layer and few-layer graphene can be formed on quartz and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates, respectively. • The formation of thinner graphene at the interface is due to the fast precipitation rate of carbon atoms during cooling. - Abstract: The advance of CVD technique to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates is particularly significant for further device fabrication. As graphene is catalytically grown on metal foils, the degradation of the sample properties is unavoidable during transfer of graphene on the dielectric layer. Moreover, shortening the treatment time as possible, while achieving single-layer growth of graphene, is worthy to be investigated for promoting the efficiency of mass production. Here we performed a rapid heating/cooling process to grow graphene films directly on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD. The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. In addition, we found that high-quality, single-layer graphene can be formed on quartz, but on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate only few-layer graphene can be obtained. The pronounced substrate effect is attributed to the different dewetting behavior of Ni films on the both substrates at 950 °C.

  8. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  9. Growth in Rapid Automatized Naming from Grades K to 8 in Children with Math or Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely used to identify reading disabilities (RD) and has recently been considered a potential predictor of risk for mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). Here we longitudinally examine RAN performance from Grades K to 8, to view how growth on RAN response time differs for children with RD versus MLD. Across…

  10. Quantitative, molecular and growth analyses of Ulva microscopic propagules in the coastal sediment of Jiangsu province where green tides initially occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shao Jun; Zhao, Xiao Bo; Hu, Chuan Ming

    2012-03-01

    From 2007 to 2011, large-scale green tides formed by unattached filamentous alga, Ulva prolifera in Ulva linza-procera-prolifera complex, have initially occurred in Jiangsu coasts of China. The real niche or the substrate(s) on which U. prolifera attaches before it starts to float is still under debate. However, great numbers of Ulva propagules would be supposed to exist in the microscopic, overwintering stage for the next spring's bloom in coastal environments. This study was designed to confirm the above prediction and investigate abundance, species composition and growth characteristics of Ulva propagules in the sediments. Quantification result showed that Ulva propagules widely distributed in the sediments and the abundance of these isolates did not change much over a 3-month testing period at low temperature in darkness. Molecular data based on three DNA markers revealed that four Ulva species existed in the sediments, among which green-tide forming alga, U. prolifera, was included. Elevated levels of temperature, irradiance as well as nutrients in seawater greatly facilitated recovery and growth of propagules. Results of this investigation indicated the possibility of microscopic propagules turning directly into floating biomass in season when temperature, irradiance and nutrients together meet the required levels in questioned coastal water area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The rapid growth of domestic oil consumption in Saudi Arabia and the opportunity cost of oil exports foregone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gately, Dermot; Al-Yousef, Nourah; Al-Sheikh, Hamad M.H.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, a nine-fold increase in 40 years, to nearly 3 million barrels per day, about one-fourth of production. Such rapid growth in consumption – 5.7% annually, which is 37% faster than its income growth of 4.2% – will challenge Saudi Arabia's ability to increase its oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in Saudi oil consumption – from 5.7% annual growth historically to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in Saudi oil exports. Using 1971–2010 data, we estimate that the income responsiveness (elasticity) of oil consumption is at least 1.5—using both Ordinary Least Squares regression and Cointegration methods. We believe that continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the dramatic slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE and BP. This will have major implications for Saudi production and export levels. - Highlights: ► We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, now one-fourth of production. ► Estimated income elasticity of oil demand at least 1.5, using OLS and Co-integration. ► Yet IEA, DOE and BP project unprecedented slowdowns, from 5.7% historically to below 2%, half the rate of income growth. ► Continued high growth rates are more likely, with major implications for Saudi production and export levels.

  12. Rapid growth of black holes accompanied with hot or warm outflows exposed to anisotropic super-Eddington radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Eishun; Inayoshi, Kohei; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Mineshige, Shin

    2018-05-01

    We perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations of accretion flows on to a black hole (BH) with a mass of 103 ≤ MBH/ M⊙ ≲ 106 in order to study rapid growth of BHs in the early Universe. For spherically symmetric flows, hyper-Eddington accretion from outside the Bondi radius can occur unimpeded by radiation feedback when MBH ≳ 104 M⊙(n∞/105 cm - 3) - 1(T∞/104 K)3/2, where the density and temperature of ambient gas are initially set to n∞ = 105 cm-3 and T∞ = 104 K. Here, we study accretion flows exposed to anisotropic radiation from a nuclear accretion disc with a luminosity higher than the Eddington value (LEdd) due to collimation towards the bipolar directions. We find that, unlike the spherically symmetric case, even less massive BHs with MBH ionized regions expand towards the poles producing hot outflows with T ˜ 105 K. For more massive BHs with MBH ≳ 5 × 105 M⊙, intense inflows of neutral gas through the equator totally cover the central radiating region due to the non-radial gas motions. Because of efficient recombination by hydrogen, the entire flow settles in neutral and warm gas with T ≃ 8000 K. The BH is fed at a rate of ˜5 × 104LEdd/c2 (a half of the inflow rate from the Bondi radius). Moreover, radiation momentum absorbed by neutral hydrogen produces warm outflows towards the bipolar directions at ˜ 10 per cent of the BH feeding rate and with a velocity several times higher than the escaping value.

  13. Catch-up growth following fetal growth restriction promotes rapid restoration of fat mass but without metabolic consequences at one year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beltrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR followed by rapid weight gain during early life has been suggested to be the initial sequence promoting central adiposity and insulin resistance. However, the link between fetal and early postnatal growth and the associated anthropometric and metabolic changes have been poorly studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the first year of post-natal life, changes in body mass index, skinfold thickness and hormonal concentrations were prospectively monitored in 94 infants in whom the fetal growth velocity had previously been measured using a repeated standardized procedure of ultrasound fetal measurements. 45 infants, thinner at birth, had experienced previous FGR (FGR+ regardless of birth weight. Growth pattern in the first four months of life was characterized by greater change in BMI z-score in FGR+ (+1.26+/-1.2 vs +0.58 +/-1.17 SD in FGR- resulting in the restoration of BMI and of fat mass to values similar to FGR-, independently of caloric intakes. Growth velocity after 4 months was similar and BMI z-score and fat mass remained similar at 12 months of age. At both time-points, fetal growth velocity was an independent predictor of fat mass in FGR+. At one year, fasting insulin levels were not different but leptin was significantly higher in the FGR+ (4.43+/-1.41 vs 2.63+/-1 ng/ml in FGR-. CONCLUSION: Early catch-up growth is related to the fetal growth pattern itself, irrespective of birth weight, and is associated with higher insulin sensitivity and lower leptin levels after birth. Catch-up growth promotes the restoration of body size and fat stores without detrimental consequences at one year of age on body composition or metabolic profile. The higher leptin concentration at one year may reflect a positive energy balance in children who previously faced fetal growth restriction.

  14. Research on water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles at severe accidents of water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Aya, Izuo

    2004-01-01

    At severe accidents of Water Cooled Reactors a great deal of gas is expected to be produced in a short time within the water of lower part of nuclear pressure vessel and containment vessel caused by hydrogen production with a metal water reaction and steam explosions with direct contact of melting core and water. Water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles shall work on the wall of containment vessel and affect its integrity. Coherency of water block movement is not clear, whether simultaneous or in the same direction. Water block behavior and water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles have been tested using a modified scale model and analyzed to obtain experimental correlated equation to estimate water block's rising distance and velocity from water hammer data. Numerical analysis using RELAP5-3D (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) has been conducted to evaluate water hammer forces and makes clear its modifications needed. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Embracing the River: Smart Growth Strategies for Assisting in Cedar Rapids' Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report from an EPA-FEMA technical assistance project with Cedar Rapids, IA, offers ideas to encourage infill development, make development more resilient to floods, and improve stormwater management.

  16. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  17. Colorimetry provides a rapid objective measurement of de novo hair growth rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzung, Tien-Yi; Yang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yung-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Depilated mice have been used as a test platform for hair growth-regulating agents. However, currently available assessment tools for hair growth in mice are less than ideal. Tristimulus colorimetry of the fur color of depilated agouti, albino, and black mice with L*, a*, and b* values were performed daily until the full growth of pelage. Using light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (650 and 890 nm) with a daily dose of 3.5 J/cm(2) as hair growth regulators, the hair growth rates observed by the global assessment were compared with those derived from colorimetry. In contrast to a* and b* values, L* values changed more drastically over time in the anagen phase regardless of fur color. Unlike the inhibitory effect of 650 nm irradiation, LED of 890 nm promoted de novo hair regrowth in mice. The difference in hair growth rates detected by colorimetry paralleled the observation made by the global assessment. The L* value of fur color obtained by tristimulus colorimetry was a sensitive yet quantitative indicator of de novo hair growth, and could be used to project the hair growth rate in mice.

  18. Rapid Growth of Large Single-Crystalline Graphene via Second Passivation and Multistage Carbon Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Sun, Luzhao; Zhang, Jincan; Sun, Jingyu; Koh, Ai Leen; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-06-01

    A second passivation and a multistage carbon-source supply (CSS) allow a 50-fold enhancement of the growth rate of large single-crystalline graphene with a record growth rate of 101 μm min(-1) , almost 10 times higher than for pure copper. To this end the CSS is tailored at separate stages of graphene growth on copper foil, combined with an effective suppression of new spontaneous nucleation via second passivation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Socioeconomic Status Accounts for Rapidly Increasing Geographic Variation in the Incidence of Poor Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999–2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20) to 2004–2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40) indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors. PMID:23799513

  20. Rapid Growth of Psychology Programs in Turkey: Undergraduate Curriculum and Structural Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümer, Nebi

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the other developing countries, undergraduate psychology programs in Turkish universities have rapidly grown in the last two decades. Although this sharp increment signifies the need for psychologists, it has also caused a number of challenges for effective teaching of psychology. The department chairs (N = 42) were interviewed with an…

  1. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Christopher J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Results Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. Conclusions These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  2. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christopher J

    2012-07-04

    Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  3. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Oberheitmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO 2 -emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

  4. The Rapid Urban Growth Triad: A New Conceptual Framework for Examining the Urban Transition in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Farrell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the urban transition is a universal event that unfolds in all countries, the determinants, patterns, and outcomes do not necessarily follow a uniform process. With the urban transition being basically completed in developed countries around the turn of the 21st century, the growth of cities today is almost entirely confined to developing countries. Still, much of our conceptual understanding of this process is derived from earlier accounts, with definitions rooted in a historical context. This has resulted in common misconceptions such as a tendency to view the growth of cities primarily as an outcome of rural to urban migration, neglecting the growing contributions of urban natural population increase and reclassification of rural areas. A tendency to treat the components of urban growth in isolation has created a rift within the urban studies discourse, preventing any real theorization of their combined impacts and the interplay among them. Applying a systems thinking approach, this paper introduces a multidisciplinary framework for conceptualizing rapid urban growth in developing countries. The framework offers explanatory power to previously neglected components of urban growth and serves as a diagnostic for examining the urban transition—ultimately revealing new policy levers for managing it in a sustainable way.

  5. Coral reef growth in an era of rapidly rising sea level: predictions and suggestions for long-term research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R W; Smith, S V

    1988-01-01

    Coral reef growth is intimately linked to sea level. It has been postulated that over the next century, sea level will rise at a probable average rate of 15 mm/year, in response to fossil fuel emissions, heating, and melting of the Antarctic ice cap. This predicted rate of sea level rise is five times the present modal rate of vertical accretion on coral reef flats and 50% greater than the maximum vertical accretion rates apparently attained by coral reefs. We use these predictions and observations to offer the following hypothesis for reef growth over the next century. The vertical accretion rates of protected reef flats will accelerate from the present modal rate up to the maximum rate, in response to the more rapidly rising sea level. This more rapid vertical accretion rate will be insufficient to keep up with sea level rise, if present predictions prove to be correct. Less protected reef flats will slow their rate of growth as they become inundated and subjected to erosion by progressively larger waves. This projected sea level rise and postulated reef response will provide an opportunity for long- term studies of the response of coral reef systems to a predictable and measurable forcing function.

  6. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Torres Tagawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  7. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-16

  8. Rapid warming accelerates tree growth decline in semi-arid forests of Inner Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Park Williams, A; Allen, Craig D; Guo, Dali; Wu, Xiuchen; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Liang, Eryuan; Sandanov, Denis V; Yin, Yi; Qi, Zhaohuan; Badmaeva, Natalya K

    2013-08-01

    Forests around the world are subject to risk of high rates of tree growth decline and increased tree mortality from combinations of climate warming and drought, notably in semi-arid settings. Here, we assess how climate warming has affected tree growth in one of the world's most extensive zones of semi-arid forests, in Inner Asia, a region where lack of data limits our understanding of how climate change may impact forests. We show that pervasive tree growth declines since 1994 in Inner Asia have been confined to semi-arid forests, where growing season water stress has been rising due to warming-induced increases in atmospheric moisture demand. A causal link between increasing drought and declining growth at semi-arid sites is corroborated by correlation analyses comparing annual climate data to records of tree-ring widths. These ring-width records tend to be substantially more sensitive to drought variability at semi-arid sites than at semi-humid sites. Fire occurrence and insect/pathogen attacks have increased in tandem with the most recent (2007-2009) documented episode of tree mortality. If warming in Inner Asia continues, further increases in forest stress and tree mortality could be expected, potentially driving the eventual regional loss of current semi-arid forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Feedbacks between inundation, root production, and shoot growth in a rapidly submerging brackish marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Ecogeomorphic feedbacks between mineral sediment deposition and above-ground plant growth are thought to have dominated the evolution of many coastal ecosystems and landforms. However, land-use-related reductions in sediment delivery rates to estuaries world-wide suggest that these above-ground feedbacks may not apply in some of the world's most vulnerable coastal landscapes.

  10. Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olijve, L.L.C.; Meister, K.; DeVries, A.L.; Duman, J.G.; Guo, S.; Bakker, H.J.; Voets, I.K.

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of

  11. Growth and structure of rapid thermal silicon oxides and nitroxides studied by spectroellipsometry and Auger electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonon, N.; Gagnaire, A.; Barbier, D.; Glachant, A.

    1994-11-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation of Czochralski-grown silicon in either O2 or N2O atmospheres have been studied using spectroellipsometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. Multiwavelength ellipsometric data were processed in order to separately derive the thickness and refractive indexes of rapid thermal dielectrics. Results revealed a significant increase of the mean refractive index as the film thickness falls below 20 nm for both O2 or N2O oxidant species. A multilayer structure including an about 0.3-nm-thick interfacial region of either SiO(x) or nitroxide in the case of O2 and N2O growth, respectively, followed by a densified SiO2 layer, was found to accurately fit the experimental data. The interfacial region together with the densified state of SiO2 close to the interface suggest a dielectric structure in agreement with the continuous random network model proposed for classical thermal oxides. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of noncrystalline Si-Si bonds in the interfacial region, mostly in the case of thin oxides grown in O2. It was speculated that the initial fast growth regime was due to a transient oxygen supersaturation in the interfacial region. Besides, the self-limiting growth in N2O was confirmed and explained in agreement with several recently published data, by the early formation of a very thin nitride or oxynitride membrane in the highly densified oxide beneath the interface. The beneficial effect of direct nitrogen incorporation by rapid thermal oxidation in N2O instead of O2 for the electrical behavior of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors is likely a better SiO2/Si lattice accommodation through the reduction of stresses and Si-Si bonds in the interfacial region of the dielectric.

  12. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost......-efficient light control system. Plant dry matter production was in all cases linear related to DLI, despite changes in daily light duration and light intensity of supplemental light suggesting that DLI is the main limiting factor for the prediction of production time in optimal temperature conditions. The results......Protected plant productions in northern latitudes rely heavily on supplemental light use to extend the number of light hours during the day. To conserve electricity and lower costs, a low-energy input system use supplemental lights preferable during less expensive off-peak hours and turn lighting...

  13. Polygenic risk, rapid childhood growth, and the development of obesity: evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G; Biddle, Andrea K; Blumenthal, James A; Evans, James P; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-06-01

    To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic.

  14. The rapid growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using laser heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B; Jeong, S H; Jeong, M S; Lim, S C; Lee, I H; Lee, Y H

    2009-05-06

    Growth of densely packed vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) using laser-induced chemical vapor deposition with visible laser (lambda = 532 nm) irradiation at room temperature is reported. Using a multiple-catalyst layer (Fe/Al/Cr) on quartz as the substrate and an acetylene-hydrogen mixture as the precursor gas, VA-CNT pillars with 60 microm height and 4 microm diameter were grown at a high rate of around 1 microm s(-1) with good reproducibility. It is demonstrated that the fabrication of uniform pillar arrays of VA-CNTs can be achieved with a single irradiation for each pillar using LCVD with no annealing or preprocessing of the substrate. Here, laser fast heating is considered the primary mechanism facilitating the growth of VA-CNT pillars. Field emission characteristics of an array of VA-CNT pillars were then examined to investigate their potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  15. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Rapid and Sustained Nuclear-Cytoplasmic ERK Oscillations Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Chrisler, William B.; Resat, Haluk; Bollinger, Nikki; Opresko, Lee K.; Wiley, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mathematical modeling has predicted that ERK activity should oscillate in response to cell stimulation, but this has never been observed. To explore this inconsistency, we expressed an ERK1-GFP fusion protein in mammary epithelial cells. Following EGF stimulation, we observed rapid and continuous ERK oscillations between the nucleus and cytoplasm with a periodicity of approximately 15 minutes. These oscillations were remarkably persistent (>45 cycles), displayed an asymmetric waveform, and were highly dependent on cell density, essentially disappearing at confluency. We conclude that the ERK pathway is an intrinsic oscillator. Although the functional implications of the observed oscillations are uncertain, this property can be used to continuously monitor ERK activity in single cells.

  17. Spontaneous hemorrhage simulating rapid growth of a benign subperiosteal plexiform neurofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitman, Netta M.; Levsky, Jeffrey M.; Thornhill, Beverly A.; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous subperiosteal hemorrhage is a rare complication of von Recklinghausen's disease. There are few reports describing the MR imaging characteristics of this entity. Our case is unique among these as an underlying plexiform neurofibroma was visualized by MR imaging. We present a 12-year-old child with neurofibromatosis 1 who presented with a rapidly enlarging mass of the fibula. Surgery and pathology revealed subperiosteal hemorrhage into a benign, plexiform neurofibroma. The MR imaging features, pathogenesis and clinical implications of this entity are discussed. Recognition of this disease process and differentiating it from malignant transformation can prevent unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  18. Rapid and highly efficient growth of graphene on copper by chemical vapor deposition of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.lisi@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Buonocore, Francesco; Dikonimos, Theodoros; Leoni, Enrico [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Faggio, Giuliana; Messina, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Morandi, Vittorio; Ortolani, Luca [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Capasso, Andrea [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2014-11-28

    The growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition on metal foils is a promising technique to deliver large-area films with high electron mobility. Nowadays, the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on copper is the most investigated synthesis method, although many other carbon precursors and metal substrates are used too. Among these, ethanol is a safe and inexpensive precursor that seems to offer favorable synthesis kinetics. We explored the growth of graphene on copper from ethanol, focusing on processes of short duration (up to one min). We investigated the produced films by electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A graphene film with high crystalline quality was found to cover the entire copper catalyst substrate in just 20 s, making ethanol appear as a more efficient carbon feedstock than methane and other commonly used precursors. - Highlights: • Graphene films were grown by fast chemical vapor deposition of ethanol on copper. • High-temperature/short-time growth produced highly crystalline graphene. • The copper substrate was entirely covered by a graphene film in just 20 s. • Addition of H{sub 2} had a negligible effect on the crystalline quality.

  19. Controlling Growth High Uniformity Indium Selenide (In2Se3) Nanowires via the Rapid Thermal Annealing Process at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Chu; Hung, Yu-Chen; Wang, Chiu-Yen

    2017-09-15

    High uniformity Au-catalyzed indium selenide (In 2 Se 3) nanowires are grown with the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The diameters of Au-catalyzed In 2 Se 3 nanowires could be controlled with varied thicknesses of Au films, and the uniformity of nanowires is improved via a fast pre-annealing rate, 100 °C/s. Comparing with the slower heating rate, 0.1 °C/s, the average diameters and distributions (standard deviation, SD) of In 2 Se 3 nanowires with and without the RTA process are 97.14 ± 22.95 nm (23.63%) and 119.06 ± 48.75 nm (40.95%), respectively. The in situ annealing TEM is used to study the effect of heating rate on the formation of Au nanoparticles from the as-deposited Au film. The results demonstrate that the average diameters and distributions of Au nanoparticles with and without the RTA process are 19.84 ± 5.96 nm (30.00%) and about 22.06 ± 9.00 nm (40.80%), respectively. It proves that the diameter size, distribution, and uniformity of Au-catalyzed In 2 Se 3 nanowires are reduced and improved via the RTA pre-treated. The systemic study could help to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials through tuning the annealing rate, temperatures of precursor, and growth substrate to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials. Graphical Abstract Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process proved that it can uniform the size distribution of Au nanoparticles, and then it can be used to grow the high uniformity Au-catalyzed In 2 Se 3 nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Comparing with the general growth condition, the heating rate is slow, 0.1 °C/s, and the growth temperature is a relatively high growth temperature, > 650 °C. RTA pre-treated growth substrate can form smaller and uniform Au nanoparticles to react with the In 2 Se 3 vapor and produce the high uniformity In 2 Se 3 nanowires. The in situ annealing TEM is used to realize the effect of heating

  20. Rapid growth in early childhood associated with young adult overweight and obesity--evidence from a community based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutharsan, Ratneswary; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2015-08-08

    Rapid weight gain in early life may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adulthood. We investigated the association between the rate of growth during early childhood and the development of overweight and obesity in young adults. We used a prospective cohort study of 2077 young adults who were born between 1981 and 1984 in Brisbane, Australia and had anthropometry measurements available at birth, 6 months, 5 years, 14 years and 21 years of age. The associations of rate of early growth with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and their categories at 21 years were studied using multivariate analysis. We found that rapid weight gain [> + 0.67 standard deviation score (SDS)] in the first 5 years of life was associated with young adults' overweight status (BMI: adjusted OR = 2.35, 95% CI, 1.82-3.03; WC: adjusted OR = 2.20, 95% CI, 1.65-2.95). We also observed that slow weight gain in the first 5 years of age (young adulthood, in contrast slow weight gain was inversely associated with weight status at 21 years.

  1. Rapid growth of zinc oxide nanobars in presence of electric field by physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouya, Mehraban; Taromian, Fahime; Siami, Simin

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution, electric field has some effects to increase growth for specific time duration on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanobars. First, the zinc (Zn) thin film has been prepared by 235,000 V/m electric field assisted physical vapor deposition (PVD) at vacuum of 1.33 × 10-5 mbar. Second, strong electric field of 134,000 V/m has been used in ambient for growing ZnO nanobars in term of the time include 2.5 and 10 h. The performances of the ZnO nanostructure in absence and presence of electric field have been determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of XRD analysis showed that ZnO has a hexagonal bars structure and a strongly preferred (101) orientation which is strongest than without applying electric field. SEM analysis revealed that physical vapored ZnO thin film in presence of electric field are densely packed with uniform morphological, thinner and denser in distribution. Electric field effect for ZnO growth in 2.5 h is better than it in the 2.5 h without electric field but by passing the time the media influence has good power almost as same as electric field. Through this electric field in PVD, the compact and uniform Zn film has been achieved which is less diameter than ordinary PVD method. Finally, we carry out a series of experiments to grow different-orientation ZnO nanobars with less than 100 nm in diameter, which are the time saving process in base of PVD ever reported. Therefore, the significant conclusion in usage electric field is reducing time of growth.

  2. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... to term pigs. CONCLUSION: Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, while some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 weeks. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal...

  3. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to subreplacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman - not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change - that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times are associated with reduced fertility.

  4. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  5. Rapid growth of ZnO hexagonal prism crystals by direct microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenqi; ZHOU Jian; LIU Guizhen; REN Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal prism crystals were synthesized from ZnO powders by microwave heating in a short time (within 20 min) without any metal catalyst or transport agent.Zinc oxide raw materials were made by evaporating from the high-temperature zone in an enclosure atmosphere and crystals were grown on the self-source substrate.The inherent asymmetry in microwave heating provides the temperature gradient for crystal growth.Substrate and temperature distribution in the oven show significant effects on the growth of the ZnO crystal.The morphologies demonstrate that these samples are pure hexagonal prism crystals with maximum 80 μm in diameter and 600 μm in length,which possess a well faceted end and side surface.X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that these samples are pure crystals.The photoluminescence (PL) exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature,indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices.

  6. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Slavchev

    Full Text Available Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses - PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality.

  7. Exploring features and opportunities of rapid-growth wine firms in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Román

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While much has been studied regarding the wine industry in Spain and France, little has been studied in developing countries. The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of dynamic wine firms in Chile. This paper presents qualitative research and reports six cases of wine companies, where several variables are analyzed according to Barringer, Jones and Neubaum framework. These variables include prior experience, founders’ knowledge regarding large company management, the use of strategic-planning systems and the use of new technology in the majority of its production. The results of this research could prove insightful for wine entrepreneurs looking to enhance their growth, based on greater differentiation and innovation, and not only on being competitive in pricing.

  8. Rapid blockade of telomerase activity and tumor cell growth by the DPL lipofection of ribbon antisense to hTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Arun K; Park, Jeong-Hoh; Moon, Ik-Jae; Kang, Hyungu; Lee, Yun-Han; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Suh, Seong-Il; Chang, Byeong-Churl; Park, Jong-Gu

    2005-09-29

    Ribbon antisense (RiAS) to the hTR RNA, a component of the telomerase complex, was employed to inhibit telomerase activity and cancer cell growth. The antisense molecule, hTR-RiAS, combined with enhanced cellular uptake was shown to effectively inhibit telomerase activity and cause rapid cell death in various cancer cell lines. When cancer cells were treated with hTR-RiAS, the level of hTR RNA was reduced by more than 90% accompanied with reduction in telomerase activity. When checked for cancer cell viability, cancer cell lines treated with hTR-RiAS using DNA+Peptide+Lipid complex showed 70-80% growth inhibition in 3 days. The reduced cell viability was due to apoptosis as the percentage of cells exhibiting the sub-G0 arrest and DNA fragmentation increased after antisense treatment. Further, when subcutaneous tumors of a colon cancer cell line (SW480) were treated intratumorally with hTR-RiAS, tumor growth was markedly suppressed with almost total ablation of hTR RNA in the tumor tissue. Cells in the tumor tissue were also found to undergo apoptosis after hTR-RiAS treatment. These results suggest that hTR-RiAS is an effective anticancer reagent, with a potential for broad efficacy to diverse malignant tumors.

  9. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Li; Chen, Jing; Li, Na; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL −1 can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples

  10. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Chen, Jing; Li, Na; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2014-08-11

    A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV-vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL(-1) can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Li [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); Chen, Jing; Li, Na [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); He, Pingli [State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-08-11

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples.

  12. Effects of CO2 and temperature on growth and resource use of co-occurring C3 and C4 annuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.S.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors examined how CO 2 concentrations and temperature interacted to affect growth, resource acquisition, and resource allocation of two annual plants that were supplied with a single pulse of nutrients. Physiological and growth measurements were made on individuals of Abutilon throphrasti (C 3 ) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4 ) grown in environments with atmospheric CO 2 levels of 400 or 700 μL/L and with light/dark temperatures of 28 degree/22 degree or 38 degree/31 degree C. Elevated CO 2 and temperature treatments had significant independent and interactive effects on plant growth, resource allocation, and resource acquisition, and the strength and direction of these effects were often dependent on plant species. For example, final biomass of Amaranthus was enhanced by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but was depressed at 38 degree. For Abutilon, elevated CO 2 increased initial plant relative growth rates at 28 degree but not at 38 degree, and had no significant effects on final biomass at either temperature. These results are interpreted in light of the interactive effects of CO 2 and temperature on the rates of net leaf area production and loss, and on net whole-plant nitrogen retention. At 28 degree C, elevated CO 2 stimulated the initial production of leaf area in both species, which led to an initial stimulation of biomass accumulation at the higher CO 2 level. However, in elevated CO 2 at 28 degree, the rate of net leaf area loss for Abutilon increased while that of Amaranthus decreased. Furthermore, high CO 2 apparently enhanced the ability of Amaranthus to retain nitrogen at this temperature, which may have helped to enhance photosynthesis, whereas nitrogen retention was unaffected in Abutilon

  13. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  14. Rapid monitoring of glycerol in fermentation growth media: Facilitating crude glycerol bioprocess development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Sergi; Pérez, Xavier; Planas, Antoni; Turon, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the need for crude glycerol valorisation from the biodiesel industry has generated many studies for practical and economic applications. Amongst them, fermentations based on glycerol media for the production of high value metabolites are prominent applications. This has generated a need to develop analytical techniques which allow fast and simple glycerol monitoring during fermentation. The methodology should be fast and inexpensive to be adopted in research, as well as in industrial applications. In this study three different methods were analysed and compared: two common methodologies based on liquid chromatography and enzymatic kits, and the new method based on a DotBlot assay coupled with image analysis. The new methodology is faster and cheaper than the other conventional methods, with comparable performance. Good linearity, precision and accuracy were achieved in the lower range (10 or 15 g/L to depletion), the most common range of glycerol concentrations to monitor fermentations in terms of growth kinetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  16. Incorporating an extended dendritic growth model into the CAFE model for rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Shunli; Wu, Guangxin; Zhang, Jieyu; Yang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    We have extended the dendritic growth model first proposed by Boettinger, Coriell and Trivedi (here termed EBCT) for microstructure simulations of rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys. The temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, obtained from calculations of phase equilibria, and the continuous growth model (CGM) were adopted in the present EBCT model to describe the solute trapping behaviors. The temperature dependence of the physical properties, which were not used in previous dendritic growth models, were also considered in the present EBCT model. These extensions allow the present EBCT model to be used for microstructure simulations of non-dilute alloys. The comparison of the present EBCT model with the BCT model proves that the considerations of the distribution coefficient and physical properties are necessary for microstructure simulations, especially for small particles with high undercoolings. Finally, the EBCT model was incorporated into the cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model to simulate microstructures of gas-atomized ASP30 high speed steel particles that were then compared with experimental results. Both the simulated and experimental results reveal that a columnar dendritic microstructure preferentially forms in small particles and an equiaxed microstructure forms otherwise. The applications of the present EBCT model provide a convenient way to predict the microstructure of non-dilute alloys. - Highlights: • A dendritic growth model was developed considering non-equilibrium distribution coefficient. • The physical properties with temperature dependence were considered in the extended model. • The extended model can be used to non-dilute alloys and the extensions are necessary in small particles. • Microstructure of ASP30 steel was investigated using the present model and verified by experiment.

  17. Incorporating an extended dendritic growth model into the CAFE model for rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhao, Shunli [Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Wu, Guangxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhang, Jieyu, E-mail: zjy6162@staff.shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Yang, Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China)

    2016-05-25

    We have extended the dendritic growth model first proposed by Boettinger, Coriell and Trivedi (here termed EBCT) for microstructure simulations of rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys. The temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, obtained from calculations of phase equilibria, and the continuous growth model (CGM) were adopted in the present EBCT model to describe the solute trapping behaviors. The temperature dependence of the physical properties, which were not used in previous dendritic growth models, were also considered in the present EBCT model. These extensions allow the present EBCT model to be used for microstructure simulations of non-dilute alloys. The comparison of the present EBCT model with the BCT model proves that the considerations of the distribution coefficient and physical properties are necessary for microstructure simulations, especially for small particles with high undercoolings. Finally, the EBCT model was incorporated into the cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model to simulate microstructures of gas-atomized ASP30 high speed steel particles that were then compared with experimental results. Both the simulated and experimental results reveal that a columnar dendritic microstructure preferentially forms in small particles and an equiaxed microstructure forms otherwise. The applications of the present EBCT model provide a convenient way to predict the microstructure of non-dilute alloys. - Highlights: • A dendritic growth model was developed considering non-equilibrium distribution coefficient. • The physical properties with temperature dependence were considered in the extended model. • The extended model can be used to non-dilute alloys and the extensions are necessary in small particles. • Microstructure of ASP30 steel was investigated using the present model and verified by experiment.

  18. Characterizing the growth responses of three co-occurring northern conifer tree species to climate variation across a range of conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, S.; Miyamoto, Y. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program

    2006-07-01

    Climate is the key factor affecting tree growth. Trees regularly adapt to changing environmental conditions. Adjusting forest policies and practices under changing environments necessitates an understanding of species-specific tree responses to climate change. This paper discussed a study that examined the responses of 3 northern conifer tree species, notably the lodgepole pine, subalpine fir, and interior spruce. The purpose of the study was to characterize the climate sensitivities of each species growing under various environmental conditions, represented by mean annual temperatures and mean annual precipitations. The paper provided background information on climate change and tree species and discussed the objectives and implications of the study. Study methods were presented in detail and a geographical map showing the eight sampling sites located in central British Columbia and Yukon was also provided. Last, the paper provided the preliminary results and conclusions. It was found that the impacts of changing seasonal climates on tree growth will be species and site-specific. However, the magnitude of these differences were not completely analysed so that the impacts may be similar or significantly different among species or sites. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Naturally occurring stable isotopes reflect changes in protein turnover and growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles under different dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Perez, Miguel; Fernandez-Borras, Jaume; Ibarz, Antoni; Felip, Olga; Fontanillas, Ramon; Gutierrez, Joaquim; Blasco, Josefina

    2013-09-18

    Ideal nutritional conditions are crucial to sustainable aquaculture due to economic and environmental issues. Here we apply stable isotope analysis as an indicator of fish growth and feeding balance, to define the optimum diet for efficient growing conditions. Juveniles of gilthead sea bream were fed with six isoenergetic diets differing in protein to lipid proportion (from 41/26 to 57/20). As protein intake increased, δ¹⁵N and Δδ¹⁵N of muscle and Δδ¹⁵N and Δδ¹³C of its protein fraction decreased, indicating lower protein turnover and higher protein deposition in muscle. This is reflected in the inverse relationship found between Δδ¹⁵N and growth rate, although no differences were observed in either parameter beyond the protein/lipid proportion 47/23. Principal component analysis (PCA) also signaled 47/23 diet as the pivotal point with the highest growing efficiency, with isotopic parameters having the highest discrimination load. Thus, muscle isotope composition, especially ¹⁵N, can be used to evaluate nutritional status in farmed fish.

  20. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W C; Wyatt, C R; Hamilton, M J; Goff, W L

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethidine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrome, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes containing viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed studies with the parasiticidal drug, Ganaseg, showed that it is possible to use the fluorochrome assay to monitor the effects of the drug on the rate of replication and viability of B. bovis in culture. The assay provides a rapid method for evaluation of the in vitro effect of drugs on hemoparasites and for analysis of the effect of various components of the immune response, such as lymphokines, monocyte products, antibodies, and effector cells (T, NK, LAK, ADCC) on the growth and viability of intraerythrocytic parasites.

  1. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Davis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethiedine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrone, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes contamine viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed studies with the parasiticidal drug, Ganaseg, showed that it is possible to use the fluorochrome assay to monitor the effects of the drug on the rate of replication and viability of B. bovis in culture. The assay provides a rapid method for evaluation of the in vitro effect of drugs on hemoparasites and for analysis of the effect of various components of the immune response, such as lymphokines, monocyte products, antibodies, and effector cells (T, NK, LAK, ADCC on the growth and viability of intraerythrocytic parasites.

  2. Rapid suppression of growth hormone concentration by overeating: potential mediation by hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Andrea S; Barkan, Ariel L; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2011-03-01

    The very low GH concentration in obesity is commonly attributed to high body fat mass; however, the influence of overeating on GH secretion is not clear. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 2 wk of overeating on changes in GH secretion. Subjects were admitted to the hospital and stayed within the Michigan Clinical Research Unit throughout the entire 2-wk overeating period. We studied seven healthy, nonobese men (body mass index, 24 ± 1 kg/m(2); age, 25 ± 1 yr). Subjects ate standardized meals containing 70 kcal/kg fat free mass/d (∼4000 kcal/d) for 2 wk. Twenty-four-hour plasma concentrations of GH (every 20 min) and insulin (every 2 h) were measured before overeating (baseline), on d 3, and after 2 wk of overeating. Compared with baseline, average 24-h plasma GH concentration declined nearly 80% by d 3 of overeating (1.30 ± 0.18 vs. 0.36 ± 0.09 ng/ml; P = 0.01). This marked suppression of GH secretion occurred in the absence of an increase in body weight (77.0 ± 2.2 vs. 76.4 ± 2.4 kg). At the same time, average 24-h insulin concentration doubled (16.6 ± 2.1 vs. 31.7 ± 5.8 μU/ml; P = 0.009). After 2 wk, body weight significantly increased (79.0 ± 2.1 kg; P overeating markedly suppressed GH secretion before any measurable weight gain and was accompanied by chronic hyperinsulinemia. Increased body weight and body fat by 2 wk of overeating did not further suppress GH secretion.

  3. Rapid growth of amorphous carbon films on the inner surface of micron-thick and hollow-core fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Longfei [Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electric Science, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: Dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electric Science, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Zhou, Xinwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310007 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Ni, Weiyuan [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Niu, Jinhai; Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Ultrathick (> 25 μm) carbon films were obtained on the inner surface of hollow and micron-thick quartz fibers by confining CH{sub 4}/He or C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/He microplasmas in their hollow cores. The resulting carbon films were studied by using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The microplasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique resulted in the uniform growth of amorphous carbon films on the inner surface of very long (> 1 m) hollow-core fibers. Film deposition is performed by using microplasmas at atmospheric pressure and at 50 Pa. The carbon films obtained with the latter show the smooth inner surfaces and the well continuity across the film/optical fiber. Low-pressure CH{sub 4}/He and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/He microplasmas can lead to a rapid growth (∼ 2.00 μm/min) of carbon films with their thickness of > 25 μm. The optical emission measurements show that various hydrocarbon species were formed in these depositing microplasmas due to the collisions between CH{sub 4}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules and energetic species. The microplasma-enhanced CVD technique running without the complicated fabrication processes shows its potentials for rapidly depositing the overlong carbon tubes with their inner diameters of tens of microns. - Highlights: • The microplasma device is applied for coating deposition inside hollow-core fibers. • The microplasma device results in > 25 μm-thick carbon films. • The microplasma device is simple for deposition of ultralong carbon tubes.

  4. The dog as a naturally-occurring model for insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor-overexpressing breast cancer: an observational cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaillardon, Laetitia; Abadie, Jérome; Godard, Tiffanie; Campone, Mario; Loussouarn, Delphine; Siliart, Brigitte; Nguyen, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Dogs spontaneously develop invasive mammary carcinoma with a high prevalence of the triple-negative (TN) subtype (lack of ER-Estrogen Receptor and PR-Progesterone Receptor expression, lack of HER2-Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 overexpression), making this animal model relevant for investigating new therapeutic pathways. Insulin-like growth factor Type-1 receptor (IGF1R) is frequently overexpressed in primary human breast cancers, with a growing role in the TN phenotype. The purpose of this study was to investigate the Dog as a candidate model for IGF1R-overexpressing mammary carcinoma. 150 bitches with canine mammary carcinoma (CMC) and a known 2-year follow-up were retrospectively included. IGF1R expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a similar scoring system as for HER2 in breast cancer. The prognostic value of the IGF1R expression was assessed in terms of overall and specific survival as well as disease-free interval (DFI). 47 CMC (31 %) were classified as luminal and 103 (69 %) as triple-negative (TN-CMC). 41 % of CMC overexpressed IGF1R (IHC score 3+) of which 76 % were TN-CMC and 62 % grade III. IGF1R overexpression was associated with aggressive features including lymphovascular invasion, histological grade III, low ER expression and the TN phenotype. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that IGF1R overexpression was associated with shorter overall and specific survivals and shorter DFI in TN-CMC. IGF1R overexpression is common and related to a poor outcome in canine invasive mammary carcinoma, particularly in the triple negative subtype, as in human breast cancer. Preclinical studies using the Dog as a spontaneous animal model could be considered to investigate new therapies targeting IGF1R in triple-negative breast cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1670-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. Glacier Instability, Rapid Glacier Lake Growth and Related Hazards at Belvedere Glacier, Macugnaga, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.; Kaeaeb, A.; Haeberli, W.; Mortara, G.; Chiarle, M.; Epifani, F.

    2002-12-01

    Starting in summer 2000, Belvedere Glacier, near Macugnaga, Italian Alps, developed an extraordinary change in flow, geometry and surface appearance. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte-Rosa east face, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Belvedere Glacier, accompanied by bulging of its orographic right margin. In September 2001, a small supraglacial lake developed on the glacier. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002. The ice, in places, started to override moraines from the Little Ice Age. In late spring and early summer 2002, the supraglacial lake grew at extraordinary rates reaching a maximum area of more than 150'000 m2 by end of June. The evolution of such a large supraglacial lake, a rather unique feature in the Alps, was probably enabled by changes in the subglacial drainage system in the course of the surge-like developments with high water pressure in the glacier. At the end of June, an enhanced growth of the lake level with a rise of about 1 m per day was observed such that the supraglacial lake became a urgent hazard problem for the community of Macugnaga. Emergency measures had to be taken by the Italian Civil Protection. The authors thereby acted as the official expert advisers. Temporal evacuations were ordered and a permanent monitoring and alarm system was installed. Pumps with a maximum output of 1 m3/s were brought to the lake. Bathymetric studies yielded a maximum lake depth of 55 m and a volume of 3.3 millions of cubic meters of water. Aerial photography of 1995, 1999, September 2001 and October 2001 was used to calculate ice flow velocities and changes in surface altitude. Compared to the period of 1995 to 1999, the flow accelerated by about five times in 2001 (max. speeds up to 200 m/yr). Surface uplift measured was about 10-15 m/yr. The results of the photogrammetric studies were used to evaluate different possible lake-outburst scenarios, in particular

  6. Texture control and growth mechanism of WSe{sub 2} film prepared by rapid selenization of W film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, Ganzhou 341300 (China); Gao, Di; Li, Kun; Pang, Mengde; Xie, Senlin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Rutie, E-mail: llrrtt@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zou, Jianpeng [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • We present a highly efficient method for preparing WSe{sub 2} film by rapid selenization. • The W film phase composition has little effect on WSe{sub 2} film orientation. • W film density is a critical factor that influences the WSe{sub 2} orientation. • A growth model was proposed for two kinds of WSe{sub 2} film textures. - Abstract: The tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) films with different orientation present unique properties suitable for specific applications, such as WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate for optoelectronics and WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate for electrocatalysts. Orientation control of WSe{sub 2} is essential for realizing the practical applications. In this letter, a WSe{sub 2} film has been prepared via rapid selenization of a magnetron-sputtered tungsten (W) film. The influence of the magnetron-sputtered W film on WSe{sub 2} film growth was studied systematically. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the morphology, microstructure and phase composition of the W and WSe{sub 2} films. The substrate temperature has a significant effect on the W film phase composition, but little effect on the WSe{sub 2} film orientation. The WSe{sub 2} orientation can be controlled by changing the W film microstructure. A dense W film that is deposited at low pressure is conducive to the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate, whereas a porous W film deposited at high pressure favors the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate. A growth model for the WSe{sub 2} film with different texture has been proposed based on the experimental results. The direction of selenium (Se) vapor diffusion differs at the top and side surfaces. This is a key factor for the preparation of anisotropic WSe{sub 2} films. Highly oriented WSe{sub 2} films with a C-axis⊥substrate grow from the dense W film deposited at low pressure because Se vapor

  7. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  8. Healing effects of Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca in diabetic rats with co-occurring gastric ulcer: cytokines and growth factor by PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Singh, Amit; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2013-11-05

    The present study evaluates the effects of extract of Musa sapientum fruit (MSE) on ulcer index, blood glucose level and gastric mucosal cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β and growth factor, TGF-α (affected in diabetes and chronic ulcer) in acetic acid (AA)-induced gastric ulcer (GU) in diabetic (DR) rat. MSE (100 mg/kg, oral), omeprazole (OMZ, 2.0 mg/kg, oral), insulin (INS, 4 U/kg, sc) or pentoxyphylline (PTX, 10 mg/kg, oral) were given once daily for 10 days in 14 days post-streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic rats while, the normal/diabetic rats received CMC for the same period after induction of GU with AA. Ulcer index was calculated based upon the product of length and width (mm2/rat) of ulcers while, TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-α were estimated in the gastric mucosal homogenate from the intact/ulcer region. Phytochemical screening and HPTLC analysis of MSE was done following standard procedures. An increase in ulcer index, TNF-α and IL-1β were observed in normal (NR)-AA rat compared to NR-normal saline rat, which were further increased in DR-AA rat while, treatments of DR-AA rat with MSE, OMZ, INS and PTX reversed them, more so with MSE and PTX. Significant increase in TGF-α was found in NR-AA rat which did not increase further in DR-AA rat. MSE and PTX tended to increase while, OMZ and INS showed little or no effect on TGF-α in AA-DR rat. Phytochemical screening of MSE showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and alkaloids and HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of eight active compounds. MSE showed antidiabetic and better ulcer healing effects compared with OMZ (antiulcer) or INS (antidiabetic) in diabetic rat and could be more effective in diabetes with concurrent gastric ulcer.

  9. On the mechanism of rapid postirradiation recovery of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.; Kapul'tsevich, Yu.G.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid postirradiation recovery of diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is equally effective both in water and in a liquid nutrition medium. In the haploid strains, rapid recovery occurs more readily in the log phase than in the stationary phase of growth. In the diploid strains, rapid recovery is more effective in the log phase than in the stationary phase. Rapid recovery of yeast does not require an additional protein synthesis. Damages induced by UV-light are not sub ected to rapid recovery

  10. Rapid Measurements of Aerosol Size Distribution and Hygroscopic Growth via Image Processing with a Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pinterich, T.; Spielman, S. R.; Hering, S. V.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity are among key parameters in determining the impact of atmospheric aerosols on global radiation and climate change. In situ submicron aerosol size distribution measurements commonly involve a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The SMPS scanning time is in the scale of minutes, which is often too slow to capture the variation of aerosol size distribution, such as for aerosols formed via nucleation processes or measurements onboard research aircraft. To solve this problem, a Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS) based on image processing was developed for rapid measurements of aerosol size distributions from 10 to 500 nm. The FIMS consists of a parallel plate classifier, a condenser, and a CCD detector array. Inside the classifier an electric field separates charged aerosols based on electrical mobilities. Upon exiting the classifier, the aerosols pass through a three stage growth channel (Pinterich et al. 2017; Spielman et al. 2017), where aerosols as small as 7 nm are enlarged to above 1 μm through water or heptanol condensation. Finally, the grown aerosols are illuminated by a laser sheet and imaged onto a CCD array. The images provide both aerosol concentration and position, which directly relate to the aerosol size distribution. By this simultaneous measurement of aerosols with different sizes, the FIMS provides aerosol size spectra nearly 100 times faster than the SMPS. Recent deployment onboard research aircraft demonstrated that the FIMS is capable of measuring aerosol size distributions in 1s (Figure), thereby offering a great advantage in applications requiring high time resolution (Wang et al. 2016). In addition, the coupling of the FIMS with other conventional aerosol instruments provides orders of magnitude more rapid characterization of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. For example, the combination of a differential mobility analyzer, a relative humidity control unit, and a FIMS was

  11. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2018-01-01

    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i based on our comparison of AGN fractions in mass-matched samples, we determine that the most luminous AGN population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  12. Body Growth and Rapid Hematological Development Support Breath Hold of Baby Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) during Subice Transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, Shawn R; Poll, Caryn P; Edwards, Matthew S

    Body size and oxygen stores in the blood and muscle set breath-hold limits in marine mammals, yet these characteristics are understudied in immature cetaceans. We examined body mass and hematology from birth through adulthood in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). At birth, body mass was 8% and 6% of the maximum mass recorded for adult females and males, respectively. Body mass then increased rapidly, approaching an asymptote around 12 yr for females and 18 yr for males. Interestingly, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin content, and hematocrit levels decreased after birth; this neonatal anemia was reversed as levels increased after 2 mo postpartum. Mature levels were obtained at approximately 8, 9, and 11 mo postpartum, respectively. Neonatal mean corpuscular hemoglobin also increased with ontogeny; mature levels were achieved by approximately 13 mo after birth. In contrast, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration demonstrated a significant but subtle increase throughout ontogeny. Our results indicate that postnatal maturation was required and that maturation occurred far earlier than the age at weaning (i.e., 2-3 yr postpartum). This is atypical of marine mammals, which generally achieve mature hemoglobin levels at weaning. Hematological maturation before maternal independence undoubtedly supports the prolonged breath holds of young belugas transiting under sea ice. This assessment enhances our knowledge of cetacean physiology and provides important inputs for determining age-specific dive capacity, yielding insights into age-specific flexibility to alter underwater behaviors, as will be required for future regime shifts and disturbances.

  13. Rapid growth and genetic diversity retention in an isolated reintroduced black bear population in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M.; Cox, John J.; Clark, Joseph D.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Hast, John T.; Gibbs, Dan; Strunk, Michael; Dobey, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Animal reintroductions are important tools of wildlife management to restore species to their historical range, and they can also create unique opportunities to study population dynamics and genetics from founder events. We used non-invasive hair sampling in a systematic, closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study design at the Big South Fork (BSF) area in Kentucky during 2010 and Tennessee during 2012 to estimate the demographic and genetic characteristics of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population that resulted from a reintroduced founding population of 18 bears in 1998. We estimated 38 (95% CI: 31–66) and 190 (95% CI: 170–219) bears on the Kentucky and Tennessee study areas, respectively. Based on the Tennessee abundance estimate alone, the mean annual growth rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 17.4–19.5%) from 1998 to 2012. We also compared the genetic characteristics of bears sampled during 2010–2012 to bears in the population during 2000–2002, 2–4 years following reintroduction, and to the source population. We found that the level of genetic diversity since reintroduction as indicated by expected heterozygosity (HE) remained relatively constant (HE(source, 2004) = 0.763, HE(BSF, 2000–2002) = 0.729, HE(BSF, 2010–2012) = 0.712) and the effective number of breeders (NB) remained low but had increased since reintroduction in the absence of sufficient immigration (NB(BSF, 2000–2002) = 12, NB(BSF, 2010–2012)  = 35). This bear population appears to be genetically isolated, but contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of genetic diversity loss or other deleterious genetic effects typically observed from small founder groups. We attribute that to high initial genetic diversity in the founder group combined with overlapping generations and rapid population growth. Although the population remains relatively small, the reintroduction using a small founder group appears to be demographically and genetically

  14. Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...

  15. Microbiological evaluation of a new growth-based approach for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eiff, Christof; Maas, Dominik; Sander, Gunnar; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    OBJECTIVES: Recently, a rapid screening tool for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been introduced that applies a novel detection technology allowing the rapid presence or absence of MRSA to be determined from an enrichment broth after only a few hours of incubation. To evaluate

  16. Preliminary morphological and morphometric study of rat cerebellum following sodium arsenite exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Pushpa; Mohari, Nivedita; Mehra, Raj D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period were studied in rat brains with emphasis on the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. The RBG period in rats extends from postnatal day 4 (PND 4) to postnatal day 10 (PND 10) and is reported to be highly vulnerable to environmental insults. Mother reared Wistar rat pups were administered intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of sodium arsenite (aqueous solution) in doses of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) to groups II, III and IV (n = 6 animals/group) from PND 4 to 10 (sub acute). Control animals (group I) received distilled water by the same route. On PND 11, the animals were perfusion fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB) with pH 7.4. The cerebellum obtained from these animals was post-fixed and processed for paraffin embedding. Besides studying the morphological characteristics of Purkinje cells in cresyl violet (CV) stained paraffin sections (10 μm), morphometric analysis of Purkinje cells was carried out using Image Analysis System (Image Proplus software version 4.5) attached to Nikon Microphot-FX microscope. The results showed that on PND 11, the Purkinje cells were arranged in multiple layers extending from Purkinje cell layer (PL) to outer part of granule cell layer (GL) in experimental animals (contrary to monolayer arrangement within PL in control animals). Also, delayed maturation (well defined apical cytoplasmic cones and intense basal basophilia) was evident in Purkinje cells of experimental animals on PND 11. The mean Purkinje cell nuclear area was significantly increased in the arsenic treated animals compared to the control animals. The observations of the present study (faulty migration, delayed maturation and alteration in nuclear area measurements of Purkinje cells subsequent to arsenic exposure) thus provided the morphological evidence of structural alterations subsequent to arsenite induced developmental neurotoxicity which could be presumed to be

  17. High growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets: the case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem, Omaima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the phenomena of the high growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets. It explores the applicability of international entrepreneurship theory to the context of the emerging market enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It integrates the literature of strategic entrepreneurship and that of portfolio entrepreneurship with the literature of international entrepreneurship to provide a closer fi...

  18. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  19. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  20. What Are Naturally Occurring School Lotteries and How Do We Identify Them? Reflections on Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterman, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    This post is one in a series highlighting MDRC's methodological work. In the past decade, rapid growth in the number of charter schools and school district choice systems has provided education researchers with exciting opportunities to use naturally occurring pockets of randomization to rigorously study the effects of policy-relevant education…

  1. Study of the thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring during power excursion on a heated test section; Etude des phenomenes thermiques et hydrauliques accompagnant une excursion rapide de puissance sur un canal chauffant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyer, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during a power excursion were studied in an out-of-pile loop with a water cooled channel at low pressure (1 to 4 atm. abs. ). Circular and rectangular test sections with electrically heated walls of two different thermal diffusivity materials(aluminium and stainless steel) were used. The rectangular test sections were 600 mm long, 35 mm wide and had a 2, 9 mm gap; they simulate two half plates of the M.T.R. fuel element. Natural or forced convection are possible in the test section; the water height above it can be varied from 2.8 to 8 meters and the maximum allowed pressure at its outlet is 4 atm. abs.The heating source is a series of lead batteries which is able to generate, for short periods of time, 85 volts and 25000 amperes; linear, square or exponential power rise versus time can be realized. A 14 channels tape recorder (0-10 000 Hz bandwidth; is used for the measurements of temperature (8/100 mm diameter thermocouple), pressure ('Statham' pressure transducers) and void fraction (X rays). More than 500 tests have been carried out. The influence of the initial water temperature, flow rate, pressure, water height on the water ejections, pressure variations and void fraction in the test section were studied. Tests with energies up to 3000 W/cm in 50 milliseconds were attempted. The energy above which the instabilities appear was determined. An interpretation of the observed phenomena and a simplified theoretical model are presented. [French] Les phenomenes thermiques et hydrodynamiques qui apparaissent au cours d'une excursion de puissance ont ete etudies sur un canal refroidi par de l'eau a basse pression situe sur une installation hors pile. On a utilise des sections d'essais de geometrie cylindrique ou parallipedique dont les parois chauffees par effet Joule sont constituees de materiaux de diffusivite calorifique differente (aluminium et acier inoxydable). La section d'essais parallipedique a 600 mm de long

  2. Study of the thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring during power excursion on a heated test section; Etude des phenomenes thermiques et hydrauliques accompagnant une excursion rapide de puissance sur un canal chauffant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyer, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during a power excursion were studied in an out-of-pile loop with a water cooled channel at low pressure (1 to 4 atm. abs. ). Circular and rectangular test sections with electrically heated walls of two different thermal diffusivity materials(aluminium and stainless steel) were used. The rectangular test sections were 600 mm long, 35 mm wide and had a 2, 9 mm gap; they simulate two half plates of the M.T.R. fuel element. Natural or forced convection are possible in the test section; the water height above it can be varied from 2.8 to 8 meters and the maximum allowed pressure at its outlet is 4 atm. abs.The heating source is a series of lead batteries which is able to generate, for short periods of time, 85 volts and 25000 amperes; linear, square or exponential power rise versus time can be realized. A 14 channels tape recorder (0-10 000 Hz bandwidth; is used for the measurements of temperature (8/100 mm diameter thermocouple), pressure ('Statham' pressure transducers) and void fraction (X rays). More than 500 tests have been carried out. The influence of the initial water temperature, flow rate, pressure, water height on the water ejections, pressure variations and void fraction in the test section were studied. Tests with energies up to 3000 W/cm in 50 milliseconds were attempted. The energy above which the instabilities appear was determined. An interpretation of the observed phenomena and a simplified theoretical model are presented. [French] Les phenomenes thermiques et hydrodynamiques qui apparaissent au cours d'une excursion de puissance ont ete etudies sur un canal refroidi par de l'eau a basse pression situe sur une installation hors pile. On a utilise des sections d'essais de geometrie cylindrique ou parallipedique dont les parois chauffees par effet Joule sont constituees de materiaux de diffusivite calorifique differente (aluminium et acier inoxydable). La section d

  3. Temperature Effect Study on Growth and Survival of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Jinjiang Oyster (Crassostrea rivularis with Rapid Count Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus in oysters during postharvest storage increases the possibility of its infection in humans. In this work, to investigate the growth or survival profiles in different media, pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in APW, Jinjiang oyster (JO, Crassostrea rivularis slurry, and live JO were studied under different temperatures. All the strain populations were counted through our double-layer agar plate (DLAP method. In APW, the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus showed continuous growth under 15, 25, and 35°C, while a decline in behavior was displayed under 5°C. The similar survival trend of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in JO slurry and live JO was observed under 5, 25, and 35°C, except the delayed growth or decline profile compared to APW. Under 15°C, they displayed decline and growth profile in JO slurry and live JO, respectively. These results indicate the different sensitivity of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in these matrices to temperature variation. Furthermore, nonpathogenic V. parahaemolyticus displayed little difference in survival profiles when inoculated in live JO under corresponding temperatures. The results indicate that inhibition or promotion effect could be regulated under different storage temperature for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Besides, the DLAP method showed the obvious quickness and efficiency during the bacteria count.

  4. Paraneoplastic precocious puberty and excessively rapid somatic growth associated with pediatric malignant hepatic tumor: 1 report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Bahk, Yong Whee [Cathalic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Sexual precocity in a 28-months-old boy and markedly accelerated skeletal growth with large body in a 5 years and 5 months-old-girl are reported. The former resulted from human chorionic gonadotropin-producing hepatoblastoma and the latter from cerebral gigantism associated with hepatoma. These two different disorders are discussed on the common basis of rare association of malignant hepatic tumors with precocious sexual and / or somatic growth. The clinical manifestations, chemical abnormalities, and the radiologic findings are presented with a brief review of the literature.

  5. Paraneoplastic precocious puberty and excessively rapid somatic growth associated with pediatric malignant hepatic tumor: 1 report of 2 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Sexual precocity in a 28-months-old boy and markedly accelerated skeletal growth with large body in a 5 years and 5 months-old-girl are reported. The former resulted from human chorionic gonadotropin-producing hepatoblastoma and the latter from cerebral gigantism associated with hepatoma. These two different disorders are discussed on the common basis of rare association of malignant hepatic tumors with precocious sexual and / or somatic growth. The clinical manifestations, chemical abnormalities, and the radiologic findings are presented with a brief review of the literature

  6. Growth hormone preferentially induces the rapid, transient expression of SOCS-3, a novel inhibitor of cytokine receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, T E; Hansen, J A; Starr, R

    1998-01-01

    Four members (SOCS-1, SOCS-2, SOCS-3, and CIS) of a family of cytokine-inducible, negative regulators of cytokine receptor signaling have recently been identified. To address whether any of these genes are induced in response to growth hormone (GH), serum-starved 3T3-F442A fibroblasts were incuba...

  7. Direct growth of metal-organic frameworks thin film arrays on glassy carbon electrode based on rapid conversion step mediated by copper clusters and hydroxide nanotubes for fabrication of a high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Khaki Sanati, Elnaz; Hosseini, Hadi

    2018-07-30

    The direct growth of self-supported metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) thin film can be considered as an effective strategy for fabrication of the advanced modified electrodes in sensors and biosensor applications. However, most of the fabricated MOFs-based sensors suffer from some drawbacks such as time consuming for synthesis of MOF and electrode making, need of a binder or an additive layer, need of expensive equipment and use of hazardous solvents. Here, a novel free-standing MOFs-based modified electrode was fabricated by the rapid direct growth of MOFs on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In this method, direct growth of MOFs was occurred by the formation of vertically aligned arrays of Cu clusters and Cu(OH) 2 nanotubes, which can act as both mediator and positioning fixing factor for the rapid formation of self-supported MOFs on GCE surface. The effect of both chemically and electrochemically formed Cu(OH) 2 nanotubes on the morphological and electrochemical performance of the prepared MOFs were investigated. Due to the unique properties of the prepared MOFs thin film electrode such as uniform and vertically aligned structure, excellent stability, high electroactive surface area, and good availability to analyte and electrolyte diffusion, it was directly used as the electrode material for non-enzymatic electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Moreover, the potential utility of this sensing platform for the analytical determination of glucose concentration was evaluated by the amperometry technique. The results proved that the self-supported MOFs thin film on GCE is a promising electrode material for fabricating and designing non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweiacker, K., E-mail: Kai@zweiacker.org; Liu, C.; Wiezorek, J. M. K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, 648 Benedum Hall, 3700 OHara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); McKeown, J. T.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Physical and Life Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of the metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ∼1.3 m s{sup −1} to ∼2.5 m s{sup −1} during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s{sup −1} have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. Using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.

  9. Impact of the use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on the quality of life of patients treated with endodontic surgery when a perforation of sinus membrane occurred. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschieri, S; Corbella, S; Tsesis, I; Del Fabbro, M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective investigation was to evaluate the postoperative quality of life after endodontic surgery in maxillary molars when a sinus membrane perforation occurred and platelet concentrates were used. Included patients were treated by microsurgical endodontic treatment in molar and premolar maxillary regions between 2007 and 2010. Patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were screened. Data from the quality of life questionnaire were analyzed. The use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) (test group) was compared with a control group when a Schneiderian membrane perforation occurred during endodontic surgery performed with a modern technique in maxillary molars and premolars. A total of 20 patients (12 in the control group and eight in the test group) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. No differences were evaluated at baseline for clinical parameters. Significantly improved patients' quality of life was observed in the test group considering symptoms as swelling, bad breath or taste, and pain. Functional activities were less impaired in the test group and swelling was significantly higher in the control group. In the test group, pain was significantly lower than the control group during the first 6 days after surgery and also, the consumption of painkillers was lower for patients belonging to the test group even if it was not statistically significant. In general, a small sinus membrane perforation (less than 6 mm) during endodontic surgery did not cause severe complications. The use of platelet concentrates could be effective in reducing the impact on patients' quality of life, decreasing pain and surgery side effects as well as swelling.

  10. Structure of the gene encoding VGF, a nervous system-specific mRNA that is rapidly and selectively induced by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, S R; Fischberg, D J; Dong, K W

    1991-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in the development and survival of neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Following treatment with NGF but not epidermal growth factor, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells undergo neural differentiation. We have cloned a nervous system-specific mRNA, NGF33.1, that is rapidly and relatively selectively induced by treatment of PC12 cells with NGF and basic fibroblast growth factor in comparison with epidermal growth factor. Analysis of the nucleic acid and predicted amino acid sequences of the NGF33.1 cDNA clone suggested that this clone corresponded to the NGF-inducible mRNA called VGF (A. Levi, J. D. Eldridge, and B. M. Paterson, Science 229:393-395, 1985; R. Possenti, J. D. Eldridge, B. M. Paterson, A. Grasso, and A. Levi, EMBO J. 8:2217-2223, 1989). We have used the NGF33.1 cDNA clone to isolate and characterize the VGF gene, and in this paper we report the complete sequence of the VGF gene, including 853 bases of 5' flank revealed TATAA and CCAAT elements, several GC boxes, and a consensus cyclic AMP response element-binding protein binding site. The VGF promoter contains sequences homologous to other NGF-inducible, neuronal promoters. We further show that VGF mRNA is induced in PC12 cells to a greater extent by depolarization and by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment than by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP treatment. By Northern (RNA) and RNase protection analysis, VGF mRNA is detectable in embryonic and postnatal central and peripheral nervous tissues but not in a number of nonneural tissues. In the cascade of events which ultimately leads to the neural differentiation of NGF-treated PC12 cells, the VGF gene encodes the most rapidly and selectively regulated, nervous-system specific mRNA yet identified.

  11. Diagnosis and laparoscopic management of a rare endometriosis-related peritoneal mass with rapid growth in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Nadine; Facchini, Chiara; Leggieri, Concetta; Caprara, Giacomo; Seracchioli, Renato

    2015-08-01

    Herein is described the diagnosis, clinical management and laparoscopic removal of a rapid growing retro-uterine mass in a pregnant woman. After laparoscopic removal of the pelvic mass, diagnosis of peritoneal endometriotic cyst was made on histology. The patient was asymptomatic and no history of endometriosis was reported. The laparoscopic management of the peritoneal mass was safe and effective and to our knowledge this is the first case report describing a decidualized endometriotic lesion in the absence of a pre-pregnancy endometriosis diagnosis. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nehal; Bolorhon, Bolormaa; Narula, Indermohan; Zhu, Shihua; Manaseki-Hollan, Semira

    2017-10-30

    To understand the effect of economic growth on health, we investigated the trend in socio-economic and regional determinants of child health in Mongolia. This Central Asian country had the fastest economic growth amongst low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2010 and a healthcare system in transition. Data was from Mongolian multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS) in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Child nutrition/growth was measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), prevalence of stunted (HAZ economic and environmental health determinants on each outcome in each year; 2000, 2005 and 2010. T-tests were used to measure significant change in HAZ and WAZ over the decade. Overall, from 2000 to 2010, there was a significant improvement (p economic factors increased on both stunting and weight. In 2000, region was a significant determinant: children living in three provinces were significantly more likely to be stunted and less likely to be immunised than Ulaanbaatar, but this was not significant by 2010. By 2010, none of the factors were significant determinants of immunisation in children. In 2000, economic status had no effect on stunting (OR = 0.91; 95%CI:0.49,1.66), however by 2010, children in the poorest economic quintile were 4 times more likely to be stunted than the richest (OR = 0.24; 95% CI:0.13,0.45; p Economic growth in Mongolia from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increase in the effect of social determinants of child health; whilst focused policy improved access to immunisation. Children with less educated mothers and lower household incomes should be targeted in interventions to reduce health inequity.

  13. Diversity as valued and troubled: social identities and demographic categories in understandings of rapid urban growth in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous mainstreaming and diversification of ni-Vanuatu social categories associated with the ways in which population growth is understood as a possible crisis in both demographic knowledge and everyday ni-Vanuatu knowledge. The author is interested in understanding the downplaying but primarily the amplification of difference with respect to place, generation and gender identities. The relationship between reproduction, social reproduction and the multiple meanings of modernity is at issue. In the expert knowledge of demography that proffers advice for the ni-Vanuatu state, it is the lack of modern development - in the form of adequate biomedical birth control, western education, and the equality of women - that is the implicit cause of population growth. Yet, many ni-Vanuatu see population growth as tied to the troubles that arise from the dilution of traditional social forms: there is too much modernity. In both demographic and ni-Vanuatu everyday narrations of the potential population crisis, diversification and mainstreaming take place and vulnerabilities are produced.

  14. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry and chemometrics for high-throughput screening of growth promoters in meat producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Yann; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Jandova, Renata; Stead, Sara; Takats, Zoltan; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2018-01-17

    In a proof of concept perspective, Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) was explored for the direct analysis of meat samples from β-agonist treated livestock. In this context, the combination of REIMS with untargeted metabolomics was investigated to identify carcasses from treated animals on the basis of a modification of indirect metabolites profile. The REIMS analysis generated specific lipid profiles which enabled the differentiation of meat samples collected from pigs treated with ractopamine via their feeding regime. Furthermore, the strategy was found successful when tested on different muscle types (loin, shoulder and thigh), which further expands its applicability. Classification performances were greater than 95% accurate which fully answers requirements of a screening strategy. This research indicates that REIMS implemented in an untargeted-metabolomics workflow can be considered as a high-throughput and accurate strategy for real-time meat classification in relation to ractopamine (and wider β-agonists) treatment in pig production. This approach may subsequently be implemented as a rapid screening test, at the slaughterhouse or at border inspection points, to detect such practice.

  15. Low-Temperature Rapid Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire UV Sensor Array by Laser-Induced Local Hydrothermal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjoon Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ZnO nanowire based UV sensor by laser-induced hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire. By inducing a localized temperature rise using focused laser, ZnO nanowire array at ~15 μm size consists of individual nanowires with ~8 μm length and 200~400 nm diameter is readily synthesized on gold electrode within 30 min at the desired position. The laser-induced growth process is consecutively applied on two different points to bridge the micron gap between the electrodes. The resultant photoconductive ZnO NW interconnections display 2~3 orders increase in the current upon the UV exposure at a fixed voltage bias. It is also confirmed that the amount of photocurrent can be easily adjusted by changing the number of ZnO NW array junctions. The device exhibits clear response to the repeated UV illumination, suggesting that this process can be usefully applied for the facile fabrication of low-cost UV sensor array.

  16. In situ electron beam irradiated rapid growth of bismuth nanoparticles in bismuth-based glass dielectrics at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shiv Prakash; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi 0 NPs) was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics under an electron beam (EB) irradiation at room temperature. The effects of EB irradiation were investigated in situ using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The EB irradiation for 2–8 min enhanced the construction of bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 4–9 nm. The average particle size was found to increase with the irradiation time. Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271 °C and this low melting temperature makes easy the progress of energy induced structural changes during in situ TEM observations. This is a very useful technique in nano-patterning for integrated optics and other applications.

  17. A rapid [3H]glucose incorporation assay for determination of lymphoid cell-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanissios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]glucose uptake by Candida albicans after interaction with lymphoid effector cells was used to provide a quick, accurate and objective assessment of the growth inhibitory potential of lymphoid cells on candida. After 18 h coincubation of effector cells with candida, [ 3 H]glucose was added for 3 h and the amount of radiolabel incorporated into residual candida was measured. The results showed that [ 3 H]glucose uptake was proportional to the number of candida organisms left in the microwell and is dose dependent on the effector/target (E/T) ratio. At an E/T ratio of 300/1, complete inhibition of candida was seen, with significant inhibition still present at 30/1. In addition, monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells were found to be the primary cells responsible for eliminating candida. (Auth.)

  18. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Rapid Turnover and Minimal Accretion of Mineral Soil Carbon During 60-Years of Pine Forest Growth on Previously Cultivated Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.; Mobley, M. L.; Billings, S. A.; Markewitz, D.

    2016-12-01

    At the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem field experiment (1957-present), reforestation of previously cultivated land over fifty years nearly doubled soil organic carbon (SOC) in surface soils (0 to 7.5-cm) but these gains were offset by significant SOC losses in subsoils (35 to 60-cm). Nearly all of the accretions in surface soils amounted to gains in light fraction SOC, whereas losses at depth were associated with silt and clay-sized particles. These changes are documented in the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem (LTSE) study that resampled soil from 16 plots about every five years and archived all soil samples from four soil layers within the upper 60-cm of mineral soil. We combined soil bulk density, density fractionation, stable isotopes, and radioisotopes to explore changes in SOC and soil organic nitrogen (SON) associated with five decades of the growth of a loblolly pine secondary forest. Isotopic signatures showed relatively large accumulations of contemporary forest-derived carbon in surface soils, and no accumulation of forest-derived carbon in subsoils. We interpret results to indicate that land-use change from cotton fields to secondary pine forests drove soil biogeochemical and hydrological changes that enhanced root and microbial activity and SOM decomposition in subsoils. As pine stands matured and are now transitioning to mixed pines and hardwoods, demands on soil organic matter for nutrients to support aboveground growth has eased due to pine mortality, and bulk SOM and SON and their isotopes in subsoils have stabilized. We anticipate major changes in the next fifty years as 1957 pine trees transition to hardwoods. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term experiments and deep soil measurements when characterizing SOC and SON responses to land use change. There is a remarkable paucity of E long-term soil data deeper than 30 cm.

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor employing growth interruption and in situ rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihn, Soo-Ghang; Jo, Seong June; Song, Jong-In

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of high temperature (∼700 deg. C) in situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) carried out during growth interruption between spacer and δ-doping layers of an In 0.52 Al 0.48 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) grown on a compositionally graded InGaAlAs buffer layer. The in situ RTA improved optical and structural properties of the MHEMT without degradation of transport property, while postgrowth RTA improved the structural property of the MHEMT but significantly degraded mobility due to the defect-assisted Si diffusion. The results indicate the potential of the in situ RTA for use in the growth of high-quality metamorphic epitaxial layers for optoelectronic applications requiring improved optical and electrical properties

  1. Plasma leptin and growth hormone levels in the fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) increase gradually during fasting and decline rapidly after refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Kling, Peter; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Alvarez, Marco; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2012-05-15

    In fish, recent studies have indicated an anorexigenic role of leptin and thus its possible involvement in regulation of energy balance and growth. In the present study, the effects of fasting and refeeding periods on plasma leptin levels were studied in the fine flounder, a flatfish with remarkably slow growth. To further assess the endocrine status of the fish during periods of catabolism and anabolism, plasma growth hormone (GH) levels were also analyzed. Under normal feeding condition, plasma leptin and GH levels remained stable and relatively high in comparison with other teleost species. For the three separate groups of fish, fasted for 2, 3, and 4 weeks, respectively, plasma leptin levels increase gradually, becoming significantly elevated after 3 weeks, and reaching highest levels after 4-week fasting. Plasma GH levels were significantly elevated after 2-week fasting. At the onset of refeeding, following a single meal, leptin levels decline rapidly to lower than initial levels within 2 h, irrespective of the length of fasting. Plasma GH also decline, the decrease being significant after 4, 24 and 2 h for the 2, 3 and 4-week fasted groups, respectively. This study shows that plasma leptin levels in the fine flounder are strongly linked to nutritional status and suggests that leptin secretion is regulated by fast-acting mechanisms. Elevated leptin levels in fasted fish may contribute to a passive survival strategy of species which experience natural food shortage periods by lowering appetite and limiting physical foraging activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Milk production and composition, and progeny performance in young ewes with high merit for rapid growth and muscle and fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Bencini, R; Thompson, A N

    2018-02-26

    In ewe lambs, acceleration of growth and accumulation of both muscle and fat leads to earlier sexual maturity and better reproductive performance. The next stage in the development of this theme is to test whether these aspects of growth in young ewes affect milk production in their first lactation and the growth of their first progeny. We studied 75 young Merino ewes that had known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning weight (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). They lambed for the first time at 1 year of age. Their lambs were weighed weekly from birth to weaning at 10 weeks to determine live weight gain and weaning weight. Progeny birth weight was positively associated with live weight gain and weaning weight (P0.05). The PWT of the sire was positively associated with live weight gain (P0.05). The concentrations of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in the milk were not affected by the phenotype or genotype of the mothers or of the sires of the mothers, or by the sex of the progeny (P>0.05). We conclude that selection of young Merino ewes for better growth, and more rapid accumulation of muscle and fat, will lead to progeny that are heavier at birth, grow faster and are heavier at weaning. Moreover, milk production and composition do not seem to be affected by the genetic merit of the mother for post-weaning live weight or PEMD or PFAT. Therefore, Merino ewes can lamb at 1 year of age without affecting the production objectives of the Merino sheep industry.

  3. Better to light a candle than curse the darkness: illuminating spatial localization and temporal dynamics of rapid microbial growth in the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Herron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rhizosphere is a hotbed of microbial activity in ecosystems, fueled by carbon compounds from plant roots. Basic questions about the location and dynamics of plant-spurred microbial growth in the rhizosphere are difficult to answer with standard, destructive soil assays mixing a multitude of microbe-scale microenvironments in a single, often sieved, sample. Soil microbial biosensors designed with the luxCDABE reporter genes fused to a promoter of interest enable continuous imaging of the microbial perception of (and response to environmental conditions in soil. We used the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host to plasmid pZKH2 containing a fusion between the strong constituitive promoter nptII and luxCDABE (coding for light-emitting proteins from Vibrio fischeri. Experiments in liquid media demonstrated that high light production by KT2440/pZKH2 was associated with rapid microbial growth supported by high carbon availability. We applied the biosensors in microcosms filled with non-sterile soil in which corn (Zea mays L., black poplar (Populus nigra L. or tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. was growing. We detected minimal light production from microbiosensors in the bulk soil, but biosensors reported continuously from around roots for as long as six days. For corn, peaks of luminescence were detected 1-4 and 20-35 mm along the root axis behind growing root tips, with the location of maximum light production moving farther back from the tip as root growth rate increased. For poplar, luminescence around mature roots increased and decreased on a coordinated diel rhythm, but was not bright near root tips. For tomato, luminescence was dynamic, but did not exhibit a diel rhythm, appearing in acropetal waves along roots. KT2440/pZKH2 revealed that root tips are not always the only, or even the dominant, hotspots for rhizosphere microbial growth, and carbon availability is highly variable in space and time around roots.

  4. Body composition and energetic efficiency in two lines of mice selected for rapid growth rate and their F1 crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, E J; Bakker, H; Nagai, J

    1977-01-01

    Correlated responses to selection for increased growth rate were compared in two mouse populations (M16 and H6) of distinct genetic origin. Traits studied were body composition, feed intake, constituent gains and energetic efficiency. When compared with their respective controls (ICR and C2) at 6 and 9 weeks of age, body weight increased more in M16 (57%and 69 % of the control mean) than in H6 (40 % and 34%). The M16 showed correlated responses in fat percent of 2.6% (P .05). The correlated responses in fat percent were 2.7 and 4.7 times higher in M16 than H6 at 6 and 9 weeks. The regression of ln fat weight on ln empty body weight was larger in M16 (P calories and ash; fat and caloric gain and efficiency exhibited higher correlated responses in M16 than H6. During the 6- to 9-week interval, the M16 population continued to evince positive correlated responses in gains and efficiencies of fat, protein and calories, whereas H6 did not. Several possible explanations are presented to account for the differences in correlated responses between the selected populations. Partitioning of correlated response differences between M16 and H6 into average direct and average maternal genetic effects indicated that average direct genetic effects, favoring M16, were responsible for the major difference between the selected populations. Direct heterosis in F1 crosses of the selected populations were generally not significant, although there was a tendency for fat percent and fat weight to show heterosis.

  5. Collagen-embedded hydroxylapatite-beta-tricalcium phosphate-silicon dioxide bone substitute granules assist rapid vascularization and promote cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanaati, Shahram M; Thimm, Benjamin W; Unger, Ronald E; Orth, Carina; Barbeck, Mike; Kirkpatrick, C James [Institute of Pathology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, 55101 Mainz (Germany); Kohler, Thomas; Mueller, Ralph, E-mail: ghanaati@uni-mainz.d [Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str.10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    In the present study we assessed the biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo of a low-temperature sol-gel-manufactured SiO{sub 2}-based bone graft substitute. Human primary osteoblasts and the osteoblastic cell line, MG63, cultured on the SiO{sub 2} biomatrix in monoculture retained their osteoblastic morphology and cellular functionality in vitro. The effect of the biomaterial in vivo and its vascularization potential was tested subcutaneously in Wistar rats and demonstrated both rapid vascularization and good integration within the peri-implant tissue. Scaffold degradation was progressive during the first month after implantation, with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive macrophages being present and promoting scaffold degradation from an early stage. This manuscript describes successful osteoblastic growth promotion in vitro and a promising biomaterial integration and vasculogenesis in vivo for a possible therapeutic application of this biomatrix in future clinical studies.

  6. Redundancy and molecular evolution: the rapid Induction of bone formation by the mammalian transforming growth factor-β3 isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation and postnatal bone tissue morphogenesis with translation into clinical contexts. The mammalian TGF-β3 isoform, a pleiotropic member of the family, controls a vast array of biological processes including the induction of bone formation. Recombinant hTGF-β3 induces substantial bone formation when implanted with either collagenous bone matrices or coral-derived macroporous bioreactors in the rectus abdominis muscle of the non-human primate Papio ursinus. In marked contrast, the three mammalian TGF-βs do not initiate the induction of bone formation in rodents and lagomorphs. The induction of bone by hTGF-β3/preloaded bioreactors is orchestrated by inducing fibrin-fibronectin rings that structurally organize tissue patterning and morphogenesis within the macroporous spaces. Induced advancing extracellular matrix rings provide the structural anchorage for hyper chromatic cells, interpreted as differentiating osteoblasts re-programmed by hTGF-β3 from invading myoblastic and/or pericytic differentiated cells. Runx2 and Osteocalcin expression are significantly up-regulated correlating to multiple invading cells differentiating into the osteoblastic phenotype. Bioreactors pre-loaded with recombinant human Noggin (hNoggin, a BMPs antagonist, show down-regulation of BMP-2 and other profiled osteogenic proteins’ genes resulting in minimal bone formation. Coral-derived macroporous constructs preloaded with binary applications of hTGF-β3 and hNoggin also show down-regulation of BMP-2 with the induction of limited bone formation. The induction of bone formation by hTGF-β3 is via the BMPs pathway and it is thus blocked by hNoggin. Our systematic studies in Papio ursinus with translational hTGF-β3 in large cranio-mandibulo-facial defects in humans are now requesting the re-evaluation of Bone

  7. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  8. Direct in Situ Conversion of Metals into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Strategy for the Rapid Growth of MOF Films on Metal Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hoon; Hwang, Sunhyun; Kim, Keonmok; Kim, CheolGi; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2016-11-30

    The fabrication of metal-organic framework (MOF) films on conducting substrates has demonstrated great potential in applications such as electronic conduction and sensing. For these applications, direct contact of the film to the conducting substrate without a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is a desired step that must be achieved prior to the use of MOF films. In this report, we propose an in situ strategy for the rapid one-step conversion of Cu metal into HKUST-1 films on conducting Cu substrates. The Cu substrate acts both as a conducting substrate and a source of Cu 2+ ions during the synthesis of HKUST-1. This synthesis is possible because of the simultaneous reaction of an oxidizing agent and a deprotonating agent, in which the former agent dissolves the metal substrate to form Cu 2+ ions while the latter agent deprotonates the ligand. Using this strategy, the HKUST-1 film could not only be rapidly synthesized within 5 min but also be directly attached to the Cu substrate. Based on microscopic studies, we propose a plausible mechanism for the growth reaction. Furthermore, we show the versatility of this in situ conversion methodology, applying it to ZIF-8, which comprises Zn 2+ ions and imidazole-based ligands. Using an I 2 -filled HKUST-1 film, we further demonstrate that the direct contact of the MOF film to the conducting substrate makes the material more suitable for use as a sensor or electronic conductor.

  9. Rapid and Simple Detection of Hot Spot Point Mutations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, BRAF, and NRAS in Cancers Using the Loop-Hybrid Mobility Shift Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukuma, Shoichi; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Kasai, Fumio; Kato, Akinori; Yoshida, Akira; Akaike, Makoto; Kobayashi, Osamu; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Sakuma, Yuji; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Kameda, Yoichi; Tsuchiya, Eiju; Miyagi, Yohei

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid method to detect the epidermal growth factor receptor hot spot mutation L858R in lung adenocarcinoma was developed based on principles similar to the universal heteroduplex generator technology. A single-stranded oligonucleotide with an internal deletion was used to generate heteroduplexes (loop-hybrids) bearing a loop in the complementary strand derived from the polymerase chain reaction product of the normal or mutant allele. By placing deletion in the oligonucleotide adjacent to the mutational site, difference in electrophoretic mobility between loop-hybrids with normal and mutated DNA was distinguishable in a native polyacrylamide gel. The method was also modified to detect in-frame deletion mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, the method was adapted to detect hot spot mutations in the B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) at V600 and in a Ras-oncogene (NRAS) at Q61, the mutations commonly found in thyroid carcinomas. Our mutation detection system, designated the loop-hybrid mobility shift assay was sensitive enough to detect mutant DNA comprising 7.5% of the total DNA. As a simple and straightforward mutation detection technique, loop-hybrid mobility shift assay may be useful for the molecular diagnosis of certain types of clinical cancers. Other applications are also discussed. PMID:16931592

  10. Effect of Thermal Annealing and Second Harmonic Generation on Bulk Damage Performance of Rapid-Growth KDP Type I Doublers at 1064 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, M; Maricle, S; Torres, R; Auerbach, J; Floyd, R; Hawley-Fedder, R; Burnham, A K

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of thermal annealing and in-situ second harmonic generation (SHG) damage tests performed on six rapid growth KDP type 1 doubler crystals at 1064 nm (1 ω) on the Zeus automated damage test facility. Unconditioned (S/1) and conditioned (R/1) damage probability tests were performed before and after thermal annealing, then with and without SHG on six doubler crystals from the NIF-size, rapid growth KDP boule F6. The tests revealed that unannealed, last-grown material from the boule in either prismatic or pyramidal sectors exhibited the highest damage curves. After thermal annealing at 160 C for seven days, the prismatic sector samples increased in performance ranging from 1.6 to 2.4X, while material from the pyramidal sector increased only modestly, ranging from 1.0 to 1.4X. Second harmonic generation decreased the damage fluence by an average of 20 percent for the S/1 tests and 40 percent for R/1 tests. Conversion efficiencies under test conditions were measured to be 20 to 30 percent and compared quite well to predicted behavior, as modeled by LLNL frequency conversion computer codes. The damage probabilities at the 1 ω NIF redline fluence (scaled to 10 ns via t 0.5 ) for S/1 tests for the unannealed samples ranged from 20 percent in one sample to 90-100 percent for the other 5 samples. Thermal annealing reduced the damage probabilities to less than 35 percent for 3 of the poor-performing crystals, while two pyramidal samples remained in the 80 to 90 percent range. Second harmonic generation in the annealed crystal increased the S/1 damage probabilities on all the crystals and ranged from 40 to 100 percent. In contrast, R/1 testing of an unannealed crystal resulted in a damage probability at the NIF redline fluence of 16%. Annealing increased the damage performance to the extent that all test sites survived NIF redline fluences without damage. Second harmonic generation in the R/1 test yielded a damage probability of less than 2

  11. Rapid point-of-care testing for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in patients with lung cancer using cell-free DNA from cytology specimen supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Shiho; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Saito, Kazusa; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Negishi, Tatsuya; Nakata, Rie; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Akemi; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are associated with responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our previous study revealed a rapid point-of-care system for detecting EGFR mutations. This system analyzes cell pellets from cytology specimens using droplet-polymerase chain reaction (d-PCR), and has a reaction time of 10 min. The present study aimed to validate the performance of the EGFR d-PCR assay using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from supernatants obtained from cytology specimens. Assay results from cfDNA supernatant analyses were compared with those from cell pellets for 90 patients who were clinically diagnosed with, or suspected of having, lung cancer (80 bronchial lavage fluid samples, nine pleural effusion samples and one spinal fluid sample). EGFR mutations were identified in 12 and 15 cases using cfDNA supernatants and cell pellets, respectively. The concordance rates between cfDNA-supernatant and cell‑pellet assay results were 96.7% [kappa coefficient (K)=0.87], 98.9% (K=0.94), 98.9% (K=0.79) and 98.9% (K=0.79) for total EGFR mutations, L858R, E746_A750del and T790M, respectively. All 15 patients with EGFR mutation-positive results, as determined by EGFR d-PCR assay using cfDNA supernatants or cell pellets, also displayed positive results by conventional EGFR assays using tumor tissue or cytology specimens. Notably, EGFR mutations were even detected in five cfDNA supernatants for which the cytological diagnoses of the corresponding cell pellets were 'suspicious for malignancy', 'atypical' or 'negative for malignancy.' In conclusion, this rapid point-of-care system may be considered a promising novel screening method that may enable patients with NSCLC to receive EGFR-TKI therapy more rapidly, whilst also reserving cell pellets for additional morphological and molecular analyses.

  12. The impact of rapid population growth, expanding urbanisation, and other factors on development in sub-Saharan Africa: the contrasting responses of Tanzania and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, M J

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities.

  13. Changing pattern of premature mortality burden over 6 years of rapid growth of the economy in suburban south-west China: 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This study was conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, a poor province in south-west China experiencing rapid economic growth. The study examined the short-term trend in premature mortality burden from common causes of death in a suburban region between 1998 and 2003. Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population and mortality rate per 100,000 population were calculated from medical death certificates, and broken down by cause of death, sex and year without age weighting but with a discounting rate of 3%. Non-communicable diseases contributed over 80% of all causes of YLL, with a slightly increasing trend. The combined rate for communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional deficiencies declined from 4.7 to 2.4 per 1000 population. Remarkably, declining trends in YLL were also seen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug use and road traffic accidents, whereas increasing trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and liver cancer (males). The YLL rate for stroke, self-inflicted injuries, lung cancer and stomach cancer fluctuated over time. The region should focus on further control of IHD and liver cancer.

  14. The growth of high density network of MOF nano-crystals across macroporous metal substrates - Solvothermal synthesis versus rapid thermal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, James W.; Gonzalo, Cristina Pozo; Merenda, Andrea; Kong, Lingxue; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of metal organic framework (MOF) films and membranes across macro-porous metal substrates is extremely challenging, due to the large pore sizes across the substrates, poor wettability, and the lack of sufficient reactive functional groups on the surface, which prevent high density nucleation of MOF crystals. Herein, macroporous stainless steel substrates (pore size 44 × 40 μm) are functionalized with amine functional groups, and the growth of ZIF-8 crystals investigated through both solvothermal synthesis and rapid thermal deposition (RTD), to assess the role of synthesis routes in the resultant membranes microstructure, and subsequently their performance. Although a high density of well interconnected MOF crystals was observed across the modified substrates following both techniques, RTD was found to be a much more efficient route, yielding high quality membranes under 1 h, as opposed to the 24 h required for solvothermal synthesis. The RTD membranes also exhibited high gas permeance, with He permeance of up to 2.954 ± 0.119 × 10-6 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1, and Knudsen selectivities for He/N2, Ar/N2 and CO2/N2, suggesting the membranes were almost defect free. This work opens up route for efficient fabrication of MOF films and membranes across macro-porous metal supports, with potential application in electrically mediated separation applications.

  15. Rapid Visualization of Human Tumor Xenografts through Optical Imaging with a Near-Infrared Fluorescent Anti–Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Nanobody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is found in many types of human epithelial cancers, noninvasive molecular imaging of this receptor is of great interest. A number of studies have employed monoclonal antibodies as probes; however, their characteristic long half-life in the bloodstream has encouraged the development of smaller probes. In this study, an anti-EGFR nanobody-based probe was developed and tested in comparison with cetuximab for application in optical molecular imaging. To this aim, the anti-EGFR nanobody 7D12 and cetuximab were conjugated to the near-infrared fluorophore IRDye800CW. 7D12-IR allowed the visualization of tumors as early as 30 minutes postinjection, whereas with cetuximab-IR, no signal above background was observed at the tumor site. Quantification of the IR-conjugated proteins in the tumors revealed ≈ 17% of injected dose per gram 2 hours after injection of 7D12-IR, which was significantly higher than the tumor uptake obtained 24 hours after injection of cetuximab-IR. This difference is associated with the superior penetration and distribution of 7D12-IR within the tumor. These results demonstrate that this anti-EGFR nanobody conjugated to the NIR fluorophore has excellent properties for rapid preclinical optical imaging, which holds promise for its future use as a complementary diagnostic tool in humans.

  16. Rapid microwave-assisted nonaqueous synthesis and growth mechanism of AgCl/Ag, and its daylight-driven plasmonic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Lizhi

    2011-03-21

    We report on a rapid microwave-assisted nonaqueous synthesis and the growth mechanism of AgCl/Ag with controlled size and shape. By rationally varying the reaction temperature and the microwave irradiation time, we achieved the transformation of nanocubes to rounded triangular pyramids by a combined process of "oriented attachment" and Ostwald ripening. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of the as-prepared AgCl/Ag have been found to be somewhat dependent on the size, morphology, and composition. The as-prepared AgCl/Ag exhibits high photocatalytic activity and good reusability for decomposing organic pollutants (such as methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)) under indoor artificial daylight illumination (ca. 1 mW cm(-2)). The AgCl/Ag has also been found to display a superior ability to harvest diffuse indoor daylight (ca. 5 mW cm(-2)), and could complete the degradation of 10 mg  L(-1) MO within 15 min. Experiments involving the trapping of active species have shown that the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in the AgCl/Ag system may proceed through direct hole transfer. This study has revealed that plasmonic daylight photocatalysis may open a new frontier for indoor pollutant control around the clock under fluorescent lamp illumination. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  18. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  19. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  20. Direct demonstration of rapid insulin-like growth factor II receptor internalization and recycling in rat adipocytes. Insulin stimulates 125I-insulin-like growth factor II degradation by modulating the IGF-II receptor recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Rozek, L.M.; Czech, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The photoactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II analogue 4-azidobenzoyl- 125 I-IGF-II was synthesized and used to label specifically and covalently the Mr = 250,000 Type II IGF receptor. When rat adipocytes are irradiated after a 10-min incubation with 4-azidobenzoyl- 125 I-IGF-II at 10 degrees C and immediately homogenized, most of the labeled IGF-II receptors are associated with the plasma membrane fraction, indicating that receptors accessible to the labeling reagent at low temperature are on the cell surface. However, when the photolabeled cells are incubated at 37 degrees C for various times before homogenization, labeled IGF-II receptors are rapidly internalized with a half-time of 3.5 min as evidenced by a loss from the plasma membrane fraction and a concomitant appearance in the low density microsome fraction. The steady state level of cell surface IGF-II receptors in the presence or absence of IGF-II remains constant under these conditions, demonstrating that IGF-II receptors rapidly recycle back to the cell surface at the same rate as receptor internalization. Using the above methodology, it is shown that acute insulin action: 1) increases the steady state number of cell surface IGF-II receptors; 2) increases the number of ligand-bound IGF-II receptors that are internalized per unit of time; and 3) increases the rate of cellular 125 I-IGF-II degradation by a process that is blocked by anti-IGF-II receptor antibody

  1. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane De Diana Teixeira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3, cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5 e quatro ao grupo T (T1 a T4 de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia.Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3, whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5 and four to group T (T1-T4 of Pythium. The identification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40

  2. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  3. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  4. Rapid warming forces contrasting growth trends of subalpine fir ( Abies fabri ) at higher- and lower-elevations in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Jia, Min; Wang, Genxu; Zhu, Wanze; McDowell, Nate G.

    2017-10-01

    Tree radial growth is expected to increase at higher elevations under climate warming, while lower elevation tree growth is expected to decline. However, numerous studies have found tree radial growth responds consistently to climate along elevational gradients. Here, we sampled five plots across the subalpine Abies fabri forest belt on Gongga Mountain in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to determine tree radial growth trends and responses to climate. Three commonly used detrending methods all consistently showed that tree radial growth at high elevation (> 3100 m) increased, while tree growth declined at the lower elevations (2700 m–2900 m) over the last three decades. Increasing late-growing season temperature positively (p < 0.05) correlated to tree radial growth at higher elevations, but the sign of this relationship reversed to become negative at lower elevations. Moving-window correlation analyses indicated the difference between high and low elevations response to temperature variation increased strongly with warming. Placing our result into the global context, 62% of 39 published studies found that trees along elevation gradients respond divergently to warming, and that these are located in warmer and wetter regions of the Earth. Notably, 28% of studies found non-significant responses to temperature at both high and low elevations. Our findings in the subalpine mountain forest in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were consistent with the majority of published datasets, and imply increasing temperature benefit for tree populations at higher elevation, while warming dampens growth at lower elevations.

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training)

  6. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  7. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  8. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tisnérat-Laborde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year. Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr−1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years. We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost

  9. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  10. Naturally-occurring alpha activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayneord, W V

    1960-12-01

    In view of the difficulties of assessing the significance of man-made radioactivity it is important to study for comparison the background of natural radioactivity against which the human race has evolved and lives. It is also important to define the present levels of activity so that it will be possible to detect and study as quickly as possible any changes which may occur owing to the release into the environment of new radioactive materials. Moreover, by the study of the behaviour of natural radioactivity light may be shed upon that of the artificially produced isotopes and a number of analogies traced between the two groups. These concepts have led to studies of naturally-occurring radioactive materials alongside a programme of research into fission products in food, water and air, as well as studies of the metabolism of both sets of materials in the human body. Since the last report there has been a useful increase in our knowledge of natural radioactivity in the biosphere, and its levels relative to the new man-made activities. These studies have necessitated technical developments, particularly in the methods of measuring and identifying alpha-ray emitters, to which group many of the more important natural radioactive materials belong.

  11. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery.

  12. Bioassay of naturally occurring allelochemicals for phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, G R; Einhellig, F A

    1988-10-01

    The bioassay has been one of the most widely used tests to demonstrate allelopathic activity. Often, claims that a particular plant species inhibits the growth of another are based entirely on the seed germination response to solvent extracts of the suspected allelopathic plant; few of these tests are of value in demonstrating allelopathy under natural conditions. The veracity of the bioassay for evaluating naturally occurring compounds for phytotoxicity depends upon the physiological and biochemical response capacity of the bioassay organism and the mechanism(s) of action of the allelochemicals. The possibility that more than one allelochemical, acting in concert at very low concentrations, may be responsible for an observed allelopathic effect makes it imperative that bioassays be extremely sensitive to chemical growth perturbation agents. Among the many measures of phytotoxicity of allelochemicals, the inhibition (or stimulation) of seed germination, radicle elongation, and/or seedling growth have been the parameters of choice for most investigations. Few of these assays have been selected with the view towards the possible mechanism of the allelopathic effect.

  13. Novel insight into the origin of the growth dynamics of sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Alejandro Cerda

    Full Text Available Sauropod dinosaurs include the largest terrestrial animals and are considered to have uninterrupted rapid rates of growth, which differs from their more basal relatives, which have a slower cyclical growth. Here we examine the bone microstructure of several sauropodomorph dinosaurs, including basal taxa, as well as the more derived sauropods. Although our results agree that the plesiomorphic condition for Sauropodomorpha is cyclical growth dynamics, we found that the hypothesized dichotomy between the growth patterns of basal and more derived sauropodomorphs is not supported. Here, we show that sauropod-like growth dynamics of uninterrupted rapid growth also occurred in some basal sauropodomorphs, and that some basal sauropods retained the plesiomorphic cyclical growth patterns. Among the sauropodomorpha it appears that the basal taxa exploited different growth strategies, but the more derived Eusauropoda successfully utilized rapid, uninterrupted growth strategies.

  14. Novel insight into the origin of the growth dynamics of sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Ignacio Alejandro; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Pol, Diego; Apaldetti, Cecilia; Otero, Alejandro; Powell, Jaime Eduardo; Martínez, Ricardo Nestor

    2017-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs include the largest terrestrial animals and are considered to have uninterrupted rapid rates of growth, which differs from their more basal relatives, which have a slower cyclical growth. Here we examine the bone microstructure of several sauropodomorph dinosaurs, including basal taxa, as well as the more derived sauropods. Although our results agree that the plesiomorphic condition for Sauropodomorpha is cyclical growth dynamics, we found that the hypothesized dichotomy between the growth patterns of basal and more derived sauropodomorphs is not supported. Here, we show that sauropod-like growth dynamics of uninterrupted rapid growth also occurred in some basal sauropodomorphs, and that some basal sauropods retained the plesiomorphic cyclical growth patterns. Among the sauropodomorpha it appears that the basal taxa exploited different growth strategies, but the more derived Eusauropoda successfully utilized rapid, uninterrupted growth strategies.

  15. What occurred in the reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Described is what occurred in the reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant at the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) from the aspect of engineering science. The tsunami attacked the Plant 1 hr after the quake. The Plant had reactors in buildings no.1-4 at 10 m height from the normal sea level which was flooded by 1.5-5.5 m high wave. All reactors in no.1-6 in the Plant were the boiling water type, and their core nuclear reactions were stopped within 3 sec due to the first quake by control rods inserted automatically. Reactors in no.1-5 lost their external AC power sources by the breakdown and subsequent submergence (no.1-4) of various equipments and in no.1, 2 and 4, the secondary DC power was then lost by the battery death. Although the isolation condenser started to cool the reactor in no.1 after DC cut, its valve was then kept closed to heat up the reactor, leading to the reaction of heated Zr in the fuel tube and water to yield H 2 which was accumulated in the building: the cause of hydrogen explosion on 12th. The reactor in no.2 had the reactor core isolation cooling system (RCIC) which operated normally for few hrs, then probably stopped to heat up the reactor, resulting in meltdown of the core but no explosion occurred because of the opened door of the blowout panel on the wall by the blast of no.1 explosion. The reactor in no.3 had RCIC and high pressure coolant injection system, but their works stopped to result in the core damage and H 2 accumulation leading to the explosion on 14th. The reactor in no.4 had not been operated because of its periodical annual examination, but was explored on 15th, of which cause was thought to be due to backward flow of H 2 from no.3. Finally, the author discusses about this accident from the industrial aspect of the design of safety level (defense in depth) on international views, and problems and tasks given. (T.T.)

  16. Earl occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter develops health-risk models for early and continuing effects of exposure to beta or gamma radiation that could be associated with light water nuclear power plant accidents. The main purpose of the chapter is to provide details on each health-risk model and on the data used. Early and continuing effects considered are prodromal symptoms and nonneoplastic diseases that usually occur soon after a brief radiation exposure. These effects are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) absorbed organ doses. For most of the effects considered, there is an absorbed organ dose threshold below which no effects are seen. Some information is provided on health effects observed in victims of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or their potential for receiving large doses, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. Exposure of the fetus is also considered. Additional data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study were used to obtain models for morbidity and mortality

  17. Does overtraining occur in triathletes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Margaritis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objective: Long distance triathlon training is characterized by considerably high volume training loads. This volume can provoke an overtraining state. The aim of the study was to determine whether overtraining occurs in well-trained male triathletes in relation with their volume training loads. 2. Experimental design: A questionnaire investigation was completed two days before the Nice long-distance triathlon (October 1995: 4-km swim, 120-km bike ride and 30-km run. 3. Participants: Ninety-three well-trained male triathletes who took part in the triathlon race. 4. Measures: A questionnaire to relate clinical symptoms, which are known to appear in case of overtraining, was collected. 5. Results: 39.8% of the questioned triathletes reported a decrease in triathlon performances within the last month preceding the race. Moreover, these triathletes exhibited significantly more overtraining-relied symptoms than the others (5.9±3.8 vs 3.4±2.6, P<0.05. Surprisingly, the occurrence of overtraining in triathletes appears not to depend on the volume training loads. 6. Conclusions: These results suggest that overtraining has to be considered in the case of triathletes. This preliminary study evidences the need for further investigation in order to monitor triathletes training respond and prevent overtraining.

  18. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  19. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf......Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... expansion, indicating a resetting of these activities with a temporal trigger in the early morning. The starch pool was relatively stable in long-day plants and marginally affected by the change in the time-of-day application in light followed by long days with a night interruption. This was in contrast...

  20. Fatigue crack growth rates and fracture toughness of rapidly solidified Al-8.5 pct Fe-1.2 pct V-1.7 pct Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariprasad, S.; Sastry, S.M.L.; Jerina, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The room-temperature fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) and fracture toughness were evaluated for different crack plane Orientations of an Al-8.5 pct Fe-1.2 pct V-1.7 pct Si alloy produced by planar flow casting (PFC) and atomized melt deposition (AMD) processes. For the alloy produced by the PFC process, properties were determined in six different orientations, including the short transverse directions S-T and S-L. Diffusion bonding and adhesive bonding methods were used to prepare specimens for determining FCGR and fracture toughness in the short transverse direction. Interparticle boundaries control fracture properties in the alloy produced by PFC. Fracture toughness of the PFC alloy varies from 13.4 MPa√ bar m to 30.8 MPa√ bar m, depending on the orientation of the crack plane relative to the interparticle boundaries. Fatigue crack growth resistance and fracture toughness are greater in the L-T, L-S, and T-S directions than in the T-L, S-T, and S-L orientations. The alloy produced by AMD does not exhibit anisotropy in fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth resistance in the as-deposited condition or in the extruded condition. The fracture toughness varies from 17.2 MPa√ bar m to 18.5 MPa√ bar m for the as-deposited condition and from 19.8 MPa√ bar m to 21.0 MPa√ bar m for the extruded condition. Fracture properties are controlled by intrinsic factors in the alloy produced by AMD. Fatigue crack growth rates of the AMD alloy are comparable to those of the PFC alloy in the L-T orientation. The crack propagation modes were studied by optical metallographic examination of crack-microstructure interactions and scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces

  1. KMCThinFilm: A C++ Framework for the Rapid Development of Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    direction, so if the simulation domain is set to be a certain size, then that presents a hard ceiling on the thickness of a film that may be grown in...FFA, Los J, Cuppen HM, Bennema P, Meekes H. MONTY:  Monte Carlo crystal growth on any crystal structure in any crystallographic orientation...mhoffman.github.io/kmos/. 23. Kiravittaya S, Schmidt OG. Quantum-dot crystal defects. Applied Physics Letters. 2008;93:173109. 24. Leetmaa M

  2. Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin susceptibility testing directly from growth-positive blood cultures by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Leanne; Mikhail, Jane; Bome-Mannathoko, Naledi; Hadfield, Stephen J; Harris, Llinos G; El-Bouri, Khalid; Davies, Angharad P; Mack, Dietrich

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR method specific for the mecA, femA-SA and femA-SE genes for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and meticillin susceptibility testing directly in positive blood cultures that grew Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 100 positive blood cultures produced: 39 S. aureus [12 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 31% of all the S. aureus]; 30 S. epidermidis (56.6% of the CoNS), 8 Staphylococcus capitis (15.1%), 3 Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%), 4 Staphylococcus hominis (7.5%), 3 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (5.7%), 2 Staphylococcus warneri (3.8%), 1 Staphylococcus cohnii (1.9%) and 2 unidentified Staphylococcus spp. (3.8%); and 1 Micrococcus luteus in pure culture. Two blood cultures had no growth on subculture and five blood cultures grew mixed CoNS. For the 95 blood cultures with pure growth or no growth on subculture, there was very good agreement between real-time PCR and the BD Phoenix identification system for staphylococcal species categorization in S. aureus, S. epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis CoNS and meticillin-resistance determination (Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient κ=0.882). All MRSA and meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were correctly identified by mecA amplification. PCR amplification of mecA was more sensitive for direct detection of meticillin-resistant CoNS in positive blood cultures than testing with the BD Phoenix system. There were no major errors when identifying staphylococcal isolates and their meticillin susceptibility within 2.5 h. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of using such a rapid test on the consumption of glycopeptide antibiotics and the alteration of empiric therapy in the situation of positive blood cultures growing staphylococci, and the respective clinical outcomes.

  3. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram

    2014-01-01

    BMI growth (7-13 years) using a multilevel model. Early-onset obesity was defined as obesity at examination for national service. OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: We defined metabolic health at the mid-life clinic as non-fasting serum cholesterol fasting glucose ...OBJECTIVE: Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are 'metabolically healthy, but obese' (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, 'metabolically at risk, normal weight' (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early......-onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. SETTING: General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between...

  4. Urban Expansion Occurred at the Expense of Agricultural Lands in the Tarai Region of Nepal from 1989 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent rapid urbanization in developing countries presents challenges for sustainable environmental planning and peri-urban cropland management. An improved understanding of the timing and pattern of urbanization is needed to determine how to better plan urbanization for the near future. Here, we describe the spatio-temporal patterns of urbanization and related land-use/land-cover (LULC changes in the Tarai region of Nepal, as well as discuss the factors underlying its rapid urban expansion. Analyses are based on regional time-series Landsat 5, 7 and 8 image classifications for six years between 1989 and 2016, representing the first long-term observations of their kind for Nepal. During this 27-year period, gains in urban cover and losses of cultivated lands occurred widely. Urban cover occupied 221.1 km2 in 1989 and increased 320% by 2016 to a total 930.22 km2. Cultivated land was the primary source of new urban cover. Of the new urban cover added since 1989, 93% was formerly cultivated. Urban expansion occurred at moderately exponential rates over consecutive observation periods, with nearly half of all urban expansion occurring during 2006–2011 (305 km2. The annual rate of urban growth during 1989–1996 averaged 3.3% but reached as high as 8.09% and 12.61% during 1996–2001 and 2011–2016, respectively. At the district level, the rate of urban growth and, by extension, agricultural loss, were weakly related to total population growth. Variability in this relationship suggests that concerted urban-growth management may reduce losses of agricultural lands relative to historic trends despite further population growth and urbanization. Urbanization and LULC change in the Tarai region are attributable to significant inter-regional migration in a context of poor urban planning and lax policies controlling the conversion and fragmentation of peri-urban cultivated lands. Urban expansion and farmland loss are expected to continue in the future.

  5. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    Full Text Available High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT and high night temperatures (HNT under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT. Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  6. Reaction analysis of initial oxidation of silicon by UV-light-excited ozone and the application to rapid and uniform SiO2 film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaka, Aki; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Ichimura, Shingo; Nishiguchi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    UV-light-excited O 3 prepared by irradiation of nearly 100% pure O 3 with a KrF excimer laser (λ=248 nm, irradiated area=30x10 mm 2 ) was utilized for low-temperature Si oxidation. The initial oxidation rate was determined, and the activation energy was shown to be almost zero (0.049 eV). To clarify the optimum oxidation conditions, the dependence of the SiO 2 film growth rate on the total photon number and the photon density was investigated. The evolution of O 3 density after UV-light irradiation was experimentally measured, and the O( 1 D) density change is discussed. O( 1 D) density changes are successfully explained by using a second-order reaction model, indicating that a pulse supply of oxygen atoms is essential in the initial oxidation process. The uniform oxidation of 8 in. Si wafer has been carried out using a wafer-transfer type chamber by irradiating the wafer with KrF excimer laser light expanded linearly to the wafer width by a concave lens

  7. An Asian dilemma. Modernising the electricity sector in China and India in the context of rapid economic growth and the concern for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.; Vlasblom, J.; Kroeze, C. (eds.)

    2001-12-01

    The research question dealt with in this report is: What are the feasible policy and technology options to modernise the electricity sector in China and India taking into account the supply and demand for electricity and given the conflict between the need for economic growth and the need to anticipate future developments in relation to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions? The project essentially integrates three methodological approaches, a scenario approach, a bottom-up technology approach and an institutional cum stakeholder approach. Following an initial appraisal of the 'business-as-usual' scenario for the electricity sector for both countries, a range of policy and technology options was identified, as well as their potential and technical, economic and political feasibility. These options were combined and compared to the business-as-usual scenario to develop emission reduction scenarios for China and India and were tested with stakeholders to identify their feasibility and to assess the potential of using instruments at national and international level to facilitate their implementation. Although some measures have a high technical potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in both countries, these are not seen as particularly feasible by the stakeholders. For example end use efficiency has a very high technical emission to reduce emissions but is not given much priority in China and India (especially in the small-scale sector). Efficiency improvement in power plants and in transmission and distribution can also yield results in terms of emission reductions but are not seen as important in China. The report discusses the barriers and opportunities in relation to the various options. refs.

  8. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa

  9. Enhanced direct-gap light emission from Si-capped n+-Ge epitaxial layers on Si after post-growth rapid cyclic annealing: impact of non-radiative interface recombination toward Ge/Si double heterostructure lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashitarumizu, Naoki; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2017-09-04

    Enhanced direct-gap light emission is reported for Si-capped n + -Ge layers on Si after post-growth rapid cyclic annealing (RCA), and impact of non-radiative recombination (NRR) at the Ge/Si interface is discussed toward Ge/Si double heterostructure (DH) lasers. P-doped n + -Ge layer (1 × 10 19 cm -3 , 400 nm) is grown on Si by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition, followed by a growth of Si capping layer (5 nm) to form a Si/Ge/Si DH structure. Post-growth RCA to eliminate defects in Ge is performed in N 2 at temperatures between 900°C and 780°C, where the annealing time is minimized to be 5 s in each RCA cycle to prevent an out-diffusion of P dopants from the Ge surface. Direct-gap photoluminescence (PL) intensity at 1.6 µm increases with the RCA cycles up to 40, although the threading dislocation density in Ge is not reduced after 3 cycles in the present condition. The PL enhancement is ascribed to the suppression of NRR at the Ge/Si interface, where an intermixed SiGe alloy is formed. For Ge/Si DH lasers, NRR at the Ge/Si interface is found to have a significant impact on the threshold current density Jth. In order to achieve Jth on the order of 1 kA/cm 2 , similar to III-V lasers, the interface recombination velocity S is required below 10 3 cm/s in spite of S as large as 10 5 cm/s at the ordinary defect-rich Ge/Si interface.

  10. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  11. Large steam turbines for nuclear power stations. Output growth prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riollet, G.; Widmer, M.; Tessier, J.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid growth of the output of nuclear reactors, even if temporary settlement occurs, leads the manufacturer to evaluate, at a given time, technological limitations encountered. The problems dealing with the main components of turbines: steam path, rotors and stators steam valves, controle devices, shafts and bearings, are reviewed [fr

  12. Airway complication occurring during radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Michigishi, Takatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Airway complications rarely occur in 131 I radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. This study presents two cases in which 131 I therapy caused this acute complication. The patients complained of the symptom 6 h and 33 h after administration of 131 I. A histamine H1 receptor antagonist and hydrocortisone rapidly resolved symptoms in both cases. These two cases remind physicians that 131 I therapy for Graves' disease may cause potentially life-threatening complications. (author)

  13. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Lian Sun; Li-Hong Lei; Li-Li Chen; Zhong-Sheng Yu; Jian-Wei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling th...

  14. Involvement of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane associated, rapid response steroid-binding), a novel vitamin D receptor, in growth inhibition of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Cynthia L. [Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Rohe, Ben [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Nemere, Ilka [Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Center for Integrated BioSystems, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 8700 (United States); Meckling, Kelly A., E-mail: kmecklin@uoguelph.ca [Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2010-03-10

    In addition to classical roles in calcium homeostasis and bone development, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} [1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}] inhibits the growth of several cancer types, including breast cancer. Although cellular effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} traditionally have been attributed to activation of a nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), a novel receptor for 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} called 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane-associated, rapid response steroid-binding) protein was identified recently. The purpose of this study was to determine if the level of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS expression modulates 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} activity in breast cancer cells. Relative levels of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS protein in MCF-7, MDA MB 231, and MCF-10A cells were estimated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. To determine if 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor was involved in the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} in MCF-7 cells, a ribozyme construct designed to knock down 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS mRNA was stably transfected into MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 clones in which 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor expression was reduced showed increased sensitivity to 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} ( IC{sub 50} 56 {+-} 24 nM) compared to controls (319 {+-} 181 nM; P < 0.05). Reduction in 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor lengthened the doubling time in transfectants treated with 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. Knockdown of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor also increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to the vitamin D analogs KH1060 and MC903, but not to unrelated agents (all-trans retinoic acid, paclitaxel, serum/glucose starvation, or the isoflavone, pomiferin). These results suggest that 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor expression interferes with the growth inhibitory activity of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} in breast cancer cells, possibly through the nuclear VDR. Further research should examine the potential for pharmacological or natural agents that modify 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS expression or activity as anticancer agents.

  15. QUESTIONS OF EVALUATION OF POSTNATAL GROWTH IN PRETERM CHILDREN PART 2. CATCH-UP GROWTH IN PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Kiosov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term catch-up growth is now widely used in neonatology and pediatrics to describe the growth of preterm infants. Catch-up growth — is a compensatory strengthening of the body's growth after a period of slow growth. The lower the gestational age of the premature baby, the more intense catch-up growth in the future.Catch-up growth is considered an important criterion for evaluating nursing preterm infants. Formation of catch-up growth is seen as a favorable outcome. Evaluation of catch-up growth is carried out with the use of percentiles and standard deviations (Z-score. Catch-up growth has a positive effect on neurological outcome. Catch-up growth achieved if the growth rates are between 5 and 10 percentile. The values of growth are satisfactory if they are located at the 10th percentile and above. Catch-up growth is achieved with a standard deviation greater than minus 2 (Z-score. The optimal parameters are considered indicators located within two standard deviations of the mean.Estimation of the growth should be carried out optimally weekly. Growth curves help to determine when the catch-up growth begins. After discharge from the hospital catch-up growth continues. Catch-up growth occurs within the first year of life. The critical period for catch-up growth are considered the first 6 months. Subsequently, the growth rate decreases. The growth is not sufficient, if the values are below the 3 percentile. About 50% of the causes impaired growth is due to the shortage of supply. Premature babies can have problems with food and after discharge from the hospital. The very rapid growth may lead to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension, stroke, and diabetes. Compensatory growth often occurs with excessive deposition of fat. In assessing the growth necessary to accommodate the growth of muscle mass and fat mass. Maintaining optimal growth rate is important for the

  16. Growth of the skull in young children in Baotou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hai-dong; Liu, Ming; Gong, Ke-rui; Shao, Guo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2014-09-01

    There are some controversies about the optimal time to perform skull repair in very young Chinese children because of the rapid skull growth in this stage of life. The purpose of this current study is to describe the characteristics of skull growth and to discuss the optimal time for skull repair in young Chinese children with skull defects. A total of 112 children born in the First Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College were measured for six consecutive years starting in 2006. Cranial length (CL, linear distance between the eyebrows to the pillow tuberosity), cranial width (CW, double-sided linear distance of connection of external auditory canal), ear over the top line (EOTL), the eyebrows-the posterior tuberosity line (EPTL), and head circumference (HC) were measured to describe the skull growth. The most rapid period of skull growth occurs during the first year of life. The second and third most rapid periods are the second and third years, respectively. Then, the skull growth slowed and the values of the skull growth index of 6-year-old children were close to those of adults. Children 0-1 years old should not receive skull repair due to their rapid skull growth. The indexes of children 3 years old or older were close to those of the adult; therefore, 3 years old or older may receive skull repair.

  17. Mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil occurs rapidly in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkalammi, J; Niemi, M; Neuvonen, P J; Backman, J T

    2011-04-01

    To study the time to onset of mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 by gemfibrozil in vivo, we conducted a randomized five-phase crossover study in 10 healthy volunteers. In one phase the volunteers ingested 0.25 mg of repaglinide alone (control), and in the other phases they received 600 mg of gemfibrozil 0-6 h prior to the repaglinide dose. When gemfibrozil was taken 0, 1, 3, or 6 h before repaglinide, the geometric mean ratio relative to control (90% confidence interval (CI)) of repaglinide area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞)) was 5.0-fold (4.3-5.7-fold), 6.3-fold (5.4-7.5-fold), 6.6-fold (5.6-7.7-fold), and 5.4-fold (4.8-6.1-fold), respectively (P gemfibrozil dosing, has implications in clinical practice and in studies with gemfibrozil as a CYP2C8 model inhibitor.

  18. Protein synthesis, growth and energetics in larval herring (Clupea harengus) at different feeding regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlihan, D F; Pedersen, B H; Steffensen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Rates of growth, protein synthesis and oxygen consumption were measured in herring larvae, Clupea harengus, in order to estimate the contribution that protein synthesis makes to oxygen consumption during rapid growth at 8°C. Protein synthesis rates were determined in larvae 9 to 17 d after hatching....... Larvae were bathed in (3)H phenylalanine for several hours and the free pool and protein-bound phenylalanine specific radioactivities were determined.Fractional rates of protein synthesis increased 5 to 11 fold with feeding after a period of fasting. Efficiencies of retention of synthesized protein were...... approximately 50% during rapid growth. Rapid growth in herring larvae thus appears to be characterized by moderate levels of protein turnover similar to those obtained for larger fish. Increases in growth rate occurred without changes in RNA concentration, i.e., the larvae increased the efficiency of RNA...

  19. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, H.D.; Schroeder, R.L.; Williams, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  20. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ..... thyroid cancers, pancreatic tumors, renal cancers, and melanoma. ... Hsing AW, Yeboah E, Biritwum R, Tettey Y, De Marzo AM,. Adjei A, et ...

  1. A simple, rapid and inexpensive screening method for the identification of Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondolo, Juliana Simoni Moraes; Loreto, Erico Silva; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2013-04-01

    Growth of Pythium insidiosum mycelia around minocycline disks (30μg) did not occur within 7days of incubation at 35°C when the isolates were grown on Sabouraud, corn meal, Muller-Hinton or RPMI agar. This technique offers a simple and rapid method for the differentiation of P. insidiosum from true filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  3. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  4. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    /current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  5. Formal synthesis of naturally occurring norephedrine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A concise and simple synthesis of 1-hydroxy-phenethylamine derivatives has been achieved following classical organic transformations using commercially available chiral pools. The said derivatives were explored for the synthesis of naturally occurring bio-active small molecules. Formal synthesis of norephedrine, virolin ...

  6. Percieved functions of naturally occurring autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replicate...

  7. A naturally occurring trap for antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, J.; Morita, N.; Ito, T.M.

    1993-05-01

    The phenomenon of delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium is the first instance of a naturally occurring trap for antimatter in ordinary matter. Recent studies of this effect at CERN are summarized, and plans are described for laser excitation experiments to test its interpretation in terms of metastable exotic helium atom formation. (author)

  8. Jerky periods: myoclonus occurring solely during menses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, Arthur W. G.; Gelauff, Jeannette M.; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic

  9. Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated associates it with other characteristics that are typical, although not defining: it tends to be unusually fast, to transport high fluxes, and to occur with hydraulic disequilibrium within the medium. It also has a tendency to occur in association with large conduits and high water content, although these are less universal than is commonly assumed. Predictive unsaturated-zone flow models in common use employ several different criteria for when and where preferential flow occurs, almost always requiring a nearly saturated medium. A threshold to be exceeded may be specified in terms of the following (i) water content; (ii) matric potential, typically a value high enough to cause capillary filling in a macropore of minimum size; (iii) infiltration capacity or other indication of incipient surface ponding; or (iv) other conditions related to total filling of certain pores. Yet preferential flow does occur without meeting these criteria. My purpose in this commentary is to point out important exceptions and implications of ignoring them. Some of these pertain mainly to macropore flow, others to fingered or funneled flow, and others to combined or undifferentiated flow modes.

  10. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightTurner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  11. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emara, A E [National Center for radiation Research and Technology Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs.

  12. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs

  13. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur W. Buijink; Jeannette M. Gelauff; Sandra M. van der Salm; Marina A. Tijssen; Anne-Fleur van Rootselaar

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first descr...

  14. Transient flows occurring during the accelerated crucible rotation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Atara; Horowitz, Yigal

    1992-11-01

    The transient flows occurring after a change in the angular velocity of the cylindrical container are described. The dependence of the transient (known as spin-up or spin-down time) on experimental parameters as kinematic viscosity, cylinder dimensions and the cylinder's initial and final angular velocities are elucidates by a review of the literature. It is emphasized that with large Rossby numbers the spin-up time is longer and the amount of fluid mixing is greater than small and moderate Rossby numbers. It is also elucidated that most crystal growth crucibles cannot be considered as infinitely-long cylinders for the evaluation of the fluid dynamics (authors)

  15. Naturally occurring cobalamins have antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Susan M; Chen, Chien-Teng; van Zyl, Robyn L

    2007-05-01

    The acquisition of resistance by malaria parasites towards existing antimalarials has necessitated the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of vitamin B(12) derivatives on the formation of beta-haematin (synthetic haemozoin) was determined under conditions similar to those in the parasitic food vacuole (using chloroquine, a known inhibitor of haemozoin formation for comparison). Adenosylcobalamin (Ado-cbl), methylcobalamin (CH(3)-cbl) and aquocobalamin (H(2)O-cbl) were approximately forty times more effective inhibitors of beta-haematin formation than chloroquine, cyanocobalamin (CN-cbl) was slightly more inhibitory than chloroquine, while dicyanocobinamide had no effect. It is proposed that the cobalamins exert their inhibitory effect on beta-haematin formation by pi-interactions of their corrin ring with the Fe(III)-protoporphyrin ring and by hydrogen-bonding using their 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole/ribose/sugar side-chain. The antimalarial activity for the cobalamins (Ado-cbl>CH(3)-cbl>H(2)O-cbl>CN-cbl) was found to be less than that for chloroquine or quinine. Ado-cbl, CH(3)-cbl and CN-cbl do not accumulate in the parasite food vacuole by pH trapping, but H(2)O-cbl does. Unlike humans, the malaria parasite has only one enzyme that uses cobalamin as a cofactor, namely methionine synthase, which is important for growth and metabolism. Thus cobalamins in very small amounts are necessary for Plasmodium falciparum growth but in larger amounts they display antimalarial properties.

  16. Jerky periods: myoclonus occurring solely during menses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijink, Arthur W G; Gelauff, Jeannette M; van der Salm, Sandra M A; Tijssen, Marina A J; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  17. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur W. Buijink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  18. Leachability of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. Leachability of 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for 210 Pb and 1.7% for 210 Po). The 210 Pb and 210 Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for 210 Pb and 10.0% for 210 Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for 210 Pb and 8.5% for 210 Po. For all samples the results obtained show that 210 Pb is slightly more soluble than 210 Po. (author)

  19. Naturally occurring, tumor-specific, therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, Konstantinos; Panethymitaki, Chrysoula; Tavassoli, Mahvash

    2011-05-01

    The emerging approach to cancer treatment known as targeted therapies offers hope in improving the treatment of therapy-resistant cancers. Recent understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has led to the development of targeted novel drugs such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, mimetics, antisense and small interference RNA-based strategies, among others. These compounds act on specific targets that are believed to contribute to the development and progression of cancers and resistance of tumors to conventional therapies. Delivered individually or combined with chemo- and/or radiotherapy, such novel drugs have produced significant responses in certain types of cancer. Among the most successful novel compounds are those which target tyrosine kinases (imatinib, trastuzumab, sinutinib, cetuximab). However, these compounds can cause severe side-effects as they inhibit pathways such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor, which are also important for normal functions in non-transformed cells. Recently, a number of proteins have been identified which show a remarkable tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. This toxicity is independent of tumor type or specific genetic changes such as p53, pRB or EGFR aberrations. These tumor-specific killer proteins are either derived from common human and animal viruses such as E1A, E4ORF4 and VP3 (apoptin) or of cellular origin, such as TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and MDA-7 (melanoma differentiation associated-7). This review aims to present a current overview of a selection of these proteins with preferential toxicity among cancer cells and will provide an insight into the possible mechanism of action, tumor specificity and their potential as novel tumor-specific cancer therapeutics.

  20. Wegener's granulomatosis occurring de novo during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfhaily, F; Watts, R; Leather, A

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is rarely diagnosed during the reproductive years and uncommonly manifests for the first time during pregnancy. We report a case of de novo WG presenting at 30 weeks gestation with classical symptoms of WG (ENT, pulmonary). The diagnosis was confirmed by radiological, laboratory, and histological investigations. With a multidisciplinary approach, she had a successful vaginal delivery of a healthy baby. She was treated successfully by a combination of steroids, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin in the active phase of disease for induction of remission and by azathioprine and steroids for maintenance of remission. The significant improvement in her symptoms allowed us to continue her pregnancy to 37 weeks when delivery was electively induced. Transplacental transmission of PR3-ANCA occurred but the neonate remained well. This case of de novo WG during pregnancy highlights the seriousness of this disease and the challenge in management of such patients.

  1. Growth and Growth hormone - Insulin Like Growth Factor -I (GH-IGF-I) Axis in Chronic Anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Yassin, Mohamed; Adel, Ashraf

    2017-04-28

    Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health as well as social and economic development. It occurs at all stages of the life cycle, but is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was considered to be among the most important contributing factors to the global burden of disease. Prolonged and/or chronic anemia has a negative effect on linear growth especially during the rapid phases (infancy and puberty). Additionally infants with chronic IDA have delayed cognitive, motor, and affective development that may be long-lasting. In view of the significant impact of chronic anemias on growth, pediatricians endocrinologists and hematologists should advocate primary prevention and screening for growth disturbance in these forms of anemias. The extent of the negative effect of different forms of chronic anemias on linear growth and its possible reversibilty is addressed in this review. The possible mechanisms that may impair growth in the different forms of anemias are addressed with special attention to their effect on the growth hormone (GH) - insulin like growth factor -I (IGF-I).

  2. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  3. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  4. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis: Rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis grown in Mycobacterium growth indicator tube 960 and Lowenstein-Jensen media, employing Standard diagnostics Bioline Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein 64 antigen detection kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kandhakumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB in and around Pondicherry is being carried out since August 2011 in our tertiary care super specialty hospital. Objectives: To compare the rapid Kit SD Bio-Line MPT 64 Ag with conventional and time consuming biochemical tests. Confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a reasonable time frame is the main thrust. Materials and Methods: Thirty three Mycobacterium tuberculosis and four Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM grown in MGIT960 system/Lowenstein-Jensen media (LJ were examined by the rapid MPT 64 antigen detection as well as a battery of conventional tests like niacin, nitrate reduction, paraminobenzoic acid susceptibility and cord formation. Results and Conclusion: . Both the rapid kit and conventional tests correctly identified 33 M.tuberculosis isolates. Keeping conventional identification as reference, sensitivity and specificity for rapid kit was 100%. Rapid kit which takes only 15 minutes is accurate, cost effective, and facilitates early treatment for these EPTB patients, whose clinical specimens are paucibacillary.

  5. Grain growth studies on nanocrystalline Ni powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, G.K.; Welzel, U.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure of nanocrystalline Ni powder produced by ball-milling and its thermal stability were investigated by applying different methods of X-ray diffraction line-profile analysis: single-line analysis, whole powder-pattern modelling and the (modified) Warren–Averbach method were employed. The kinetics of grain growth were investigated by both ex-situ and in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements. With increasing milling time, the grain-size reduction is accompanied by a considerable narrowing of the size distribution and an increase in the microstrain. Upon annealing, initial, rapid grain growth occurs, accompanied by the (almost complete) annihilation of microstrain. For longer annealing times, the grain-growth kinetics depend on the initial microstructure: a smaller microstrain with a broad grain-size distribution leads to linear grain growth, followed by parabolic grain growth, whereas a larger microstrain with a narrow grain-size distribution leads to incessant linear grain growth. These effects have been shown to be incompatible with grain-boundary curvature driven growth. The observed kinetics are ascribed to the role of excess free volume at the grain boundaries of nanocrystalline material and the prevalence of an “abnormal grain-growth” mechanism.

  6. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  7. Uranium occurence in California near Bucaramanga (Columbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heider Polania, J.

    1980-01-01

    The mining district of California, Bucaramanga, is on the west side of the Cordillera Oriental in the Santander massif region. The oldest rocks of the area form a complex of metamorphites and migmatites of the predevonic age. Amphibolite various types of paragneiss and orthogneiss are represented. Several stages of metamorphism can be documented in some rocks, as well as double anatexis. Triassic to jurassic quarz diorites and leukogranites show wide distribution. Porphyric rocks of granodioritic to granitic composition, to which the uranium mineralization is mainly bonded, intruded into the sediments of the lower cretaceous. Atomic absorption spectral analyses were carried out for the elements Cu, Zn and Li, as well as the uranium contents of some samples using fluorimetry. Uranium is primarily bonded to pitch blende and coffinite. The latter mostly occur in fine distribution grown in quarz and belong to the most recent mineralization phase. Autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, meta-torbernite, zeunerite, meta-zeunerite and meta uranocircite detected as secondary uranium minerals. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Formation of thermal fatigue cracks in periodic rapid quenching of metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical University, Thermal Engineering Department, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Water lancing is an effective technique for cleaning boiler heating surfaces from ash deposits by burning low-grade fuels with complicated composition of mineral matter. In water cleaning cycles of boiler`s heat transfer surfaces due to rapid quenching destruction of corrosion protective oxide film and formation of thermal fatigue cracks on the outer surface of the tube`s metal occur. The criterion of the thermal fatigue cracks` formation and their growth intensity depend on the character of temperature field in the tube`s metal outer layer. The solution of non-stationary heat conductivity equation for metal rapid quenching conditions is given. The convective heat transfer coefficients from hot metal surface to water jet were established experimentally. Thermal fatigue crack growth intensity was investigated in real boilers` heat transfer surfaces` tubes as well as in laboratory conditions. The formula for predicting thermal fatigue cracks` depth depending on the number of cleaning cycles. (orig.) 5 refs.

  9. Formation of thermal fatigue cracks in periodic rapid quenching of metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A [Tallinn Technical University, Thermal Engineering Department, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    Water lancing is an effective technique for cleaning boiler heating surfaces from ash deposits by burning low-grade fuels with complicated composition of mineral matter. In water cleaning cycles of boiler`s heat transfer surfaces due to rapid quenching destruction of corrosion protective oxide film and formation of thermal fatigue cracks on the outer surface of the tube`s metal occur. The criterion of the thermal fatigue cracks` formation and their growth intensity depend on the character of temperature field in the tube`s metal outer layer. The solution of non-stationary heat conductivity equation for metal rapid quenching conditions is given. The convective heat transfer coefficients from hot metal surface to water jet were established experimentally. Thermal fatigue crack growth intensity was investigated in real boilers` heat transfer surfaces` tubes as well as in laboratory conditions. The formula for predicting thermal fatigue cracks` depth depending on the number of cleaning cycles. (orig.) 5 refs.

  10. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoids are reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral effects of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C. The lab-culturable surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) at titers of ~7 log₁₀ PFU/ml (high titer) or ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml (low titer) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml, were mixed with equal volumes of myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, or naringenin at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 mM, and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Treatments of viruses were neutralized in cell culture medium containing 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, serially diluted, and plaque assayed. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 (low titer) was not found to be reduced by tangeretin or naringenin, but was reduced to undetectable levels by myricetin at both concentrations. Low titer FCV-F9 was also decreased by 1.40 log₁₀ PFU/ml with L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM. FCV-F9 at high titers was decreased by 3.17 and 0.72 log₁₀ PFU/ml with myricetin and L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml with myricetin at 0.25 mM, respectively. However, MNV-1 showed no significant inactivation by the four tested treatments. The antiviral effects of the tested flavonoids are dependent on the virus type, titer, and dose. Further research will focus on understanding the antiviral mechanism of myricetin and L-epicatechin.

  11. Interaction between manufactured gold nanoparticles and naturally occurring organic macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegoli, Sara; Manciulea, Adriana L.; Begum, Shakiela; Jones, Ian P.; Lead, Jamie R.; Preece, Jon A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of nanomaterials into many consumer and other products is raising concerns as these nanomaterials are likely to be released into the environment. Due to our lack of knowledge about the environmental chemistry, transport and ecotoxicology of nanomaterials, it is of paramount importance to study how natural aquatic colloids can interact with manufactured gold nanoparticles as these interactions will determine their environmental fate and behaviour. In this context, our work aims to quantify the effect of naturally occurring riverine macromolecules - International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) Suwannee River Humic Acid Standard (SRHA) - on citrate- and acrylate-stabilized gold nanoparticles. The influence of SRHA on the stability of the gold colloids was studied as a function of pH by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At high ionic strengths (0.1 M), extensive and rapid aggregation occurred, while more subtle effects were observed at lower ionic strength values. Evidence was found that SRHA enhances particle stability at extreme pH values (ionic strength < 0.01 M) by substituting and/or over-coating the original stabilizer on the gold nanoparticle surface, thus affecting surface charge and chemistry. These findings have important implications for the fate and behaviour of nanoparticles in the environment and their ecotoxicity

  12. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  13. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.

  14. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sol; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e., maximally overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e., no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: Neurons that started axon growth early on in serial growth achieved higher out-degrees, higher local efficiency and longer axon lengths while neurons demonstrated more homogeneous connectivity patterns for parallel growth. Second, connection probability decreased more rapidly with distance between neurons for parallel growth than for serial growth. Third, bidirectional connections were more numerous for parallel growth. Finally, we tested our predictions with C. elegans data. Together, this indicates that time windows for axon growth influence the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks opening up the possibility to a posteriori estimate developmental mechanisms based on network properties of a developed network.

  15. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  16. Uranium occurence in nature: Geophysical prospecting, and its occurence in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki

    1985-01-01

    A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Rapidity distributions of secondary particles in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaverdyan, G.B.; Pak, A.S.; Tarasov, A.V.; Tseren, Ch.; Uzhinsky, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of the cascade model of a leading particle the rapidity distributions of secondary particles in the hadron-nucleus interactions are considered. The energy loss fluctuations of leading particles in the successive collisions have been taken into account. It is shown that the centre of rapidity distribution is displaced towards small rapidity with target nucleus atomic number A growth. The model well reproduces the energy and A dependences of the rapidity distributions

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  19. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  20. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and conidial production of Diplocarpon mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Huang, L; Xiao, C L; Liu, J; Wei, J; Gao, X

    2010-06-01

    To identify media and environmental conditions suitable for rapid mycelial growth and sporulation of Diplocarpon mali. Liquid shake cultures were used to evaluate effects of media and environmental conditions on mycelial growth and conidial production of D. mali. Carrot sucrose broth (CSB), potato and carrot dextrose broth (PCDB) and potato and carrot sucrose broth (PCSB) were most favourable for rapid mycelial growth. PCDB, PCSB, PCB (potato and carrot broth) and carrot dextrose broth (CDB) were favourable for conidial production. All carbon sources tested and peptone favoured for mycelial growth. Carbon and nitrogen sources tested did not significantly stimulate conidial production. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and conidial production was 25 degrees C. No mycelial growth occurred at 5 or 30 degrees C, but D. mali survived at these temperatures. Active mycelial growth occurred at pH 5-7, and pH 5-8 was favourable for sporulation. PCDB and PCSB incubated at 25 degrees C for 14 day are recommended for mycelial growth and conidial production of D. mali. The information generated in this study will facilitate mycological and pathological research on D. mali and Marssonina leaf blotch of apple caused by D. mali.

  1. Metazoan operons accelerate recovery from growth arrested states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Baugh, L. Ryan; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Existing theories explain why operons are advantageous in prokaryotes, but their occurrence in metazoans is an enigma. Nematode operon genes, typically consisting of growth genes, are significantly up-regulated during recovery from growth-arrested states. This expression pattern is anti-correlated to non-operon genes consistent with a competition for transcriptional resources. We find that transcriptional resources are initially limiting during recovery, and that recovering animals are highly sensitive to any additional decrease in transcriptional resources. Operons become advantageous because by clustering growth genes into operons, fewer promoters compete for the limited transcriptional machinery, effectively increasing the concentration of transcriptional resources, and accelerating recovery. Mathematical modeling reveals how a moderate increase in transcriptional resources can substantially enhance transcription rate and recovery. This design principle occurs in different nematodes and the chordate C. intestinalis. As transition from arrest to rapid growth is shared by many metazoans, operons could have evolved to facilitate these processes. PMID:21663799

  2. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, K.C.; Moslehi, M.M.; Grossman, D.D.; Wood, S.; Wright, P.; Booth, L.

    1989-01-01

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  3. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  4. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  5. Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2007-01-01

    The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons

  6. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  7. Anticavitation and Differential Growth in Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.; Goriely, Alain

    2010-01-01

    infinite growth or resorption is imposed at the inner surface of the shell. However, void collapse can occur in a limiting sense when radial and circumferential growth are properly balanced. Growth functions which diverge or vanish at a point arise

  8. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Response of old-growth conifers to reduction in stand density in western Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, P.; Tappeiner, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The positive growth response of healthy young trees to density reduction is well known. In contrast, large old trees are usually thought to be intrinsically limited in their ability to respond to increased growing space; therefore, density reduction is seldom used in stands of old-growth trees. We tested the null hypothesis that old-growth trees are incapable of responding with increased growth following density reduction. The diameter growth response of 271 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) trees ranging in age from 158 to 650 years was examined 20 to 50 years after density reduction. Density reduction involved either light thinning with removal of less vigorous trees, or shelterwood treatments in which overstory trees were not removed. Ratios of basal area growth after treatment to basal area growth before treatment, and several other measures of growth, all indicated that the old trees sometimes benefited and were not harmed by density reduction. Growth increased by 10% or more for 68% of the trees in treated stands, and nearly 30% of trees increased growth by over 50%. This growth response persisted for at least 20 years. During this 20-year period, only three trees in treated stands (1.5%) exhibited a rapid decrease in growth, whereas growth decreased in 64% of trees in untreated stands. The length of time before a growth response to density reduction occurred varied from 5 to 25 years, with the greatest growth response often occurring 20 to 25 years after treatment. These results have important implications both for the basic biology of aging in woody plants as well as for silvicultural practices in forests with old-growth trees.

  10. Rapid synthesis of tantalum oxide dielectric films by microwave microwave-assisted atmospheric chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Shannon, Mark A.; Masel, Richard I.

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition has been used to generate high quality, high-k dielectric films on silicon at high deposition rates with film thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 110 μm using inexpensive equipment. Characterization of the post deposition products was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Film growth was determined to occur via rapid formation and accumulation of tantalum oxide clusters from tantalum (v) ethoxide (Ta(OC 2 H 5 ) 5 ) vapor on the deposition surface

  11. Employment and Growth | Page 36 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As an engine of economic growth, private enterprise plays an important role in combatting ... In helping developing countries pursue private sector development ... India's rapid economic growth has reduced extreme poverty in the country.

  12. Previsibilidade de sucesso na disjunção palatina avaliada pelo estágio de maturação esquelética: estudo piloto Sucess predictability in rapid maxillary expansion when assessed by skeletal growth maturation phase: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende de Albuquerque

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a proposta deste estudo foi determinar se a previsibilidade de sucesso da disjunção palatina está correlacionada a algum evento de maturidade esquelética que determine o final do crescimento geral do organismo. METODOLOGIA: utilizando o conhecimento dos estágios de maturação esquelética visualizados por radiografia de mão e punho e registrados em um gráfico do surto de crescimento puberal, foram avaliados dezenove pacientes de ambos os gêneros, com idades variando de dez anos e três meses a vinte e oito anos e quatro meses, supervisionados por análises clínicas e radiográficas específicas antes e após o procedimento de disjunção palatina. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: pode-se afirmar que não foi possível determinar a previsibilidade de sucesso da disjunção palatina quando esta foi correlacionada com a ossificação total do osso rádio.AIM: to evaluate the possibility of rapid maxillary expansion in patients who have reached the decisive event of facial growth ending (total fusion of the radius. METHODS: the study was held using esqueletal maturation data from hand and wrist x-ray plotted in a puberal growth spurt graph from nineteen patients of both genders at ages ranging from ten years and three months to twenty-eight years and four months surveilled by specific clinical and radiographic analysis before and after the rapid maxillary expansion procedure. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: it could be concluded that it was not possible to establish a successful correlation between total fusion of radius with rapid maxillary expansion.

  13. Phytoplankton growth and herbivory in the subarctic Pacific: A chemotaxonomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welschmeyer, N.; Goericke, R.; Strom, S.; Peterson, W.

    1991-01-01

    Chlorophyll crops in the subarctic Pacific are low and relatively constant throughout the year; however, net growth of phytoplankton occurs when natural water is enclosed in incubation containers and exposed to adequate irradiance. Pigment-based measurements of taxon-specific growth rates and taxon-specific grazing pressure were made in an attempt to understand the dynamic processes leading to the net growth of phytoplankton in bottles. Specific growth rates, determined from 14 C labeling of chromatographically separated pigments showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells (diatoms) were the fastest growing microalgae; a rapid net accumulation of fucoxanthin also occurred. Independent measurements of specific growth rates, determined from chromatographic analysis of microzooplankton dilution experiments, also showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells had the highest specific growth rates. Importantly, microzooplankton grazing rates on fucoxanthin-containing cells were only about half the specific growth rate; hence, the resultant bloom of fucoxanthin. The authors speculate that the lag in chlorophyll growth that has been reported previously is an artifact of subculturing; fast-growing, but dilute, fucoxanthin-containing cells do not become a significant portion of the total chlorophyll signal until late in the experiment. Other diagnostic carotenoids, such as 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin and 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, remained nearly constant through long-term incubations. However, they became actively 14 C labeled and showed positive specific rates of growth. Dilution experiments showed that their specific growth rate was compensated by microzooplankton grazing

  14. Possible causes of the recent rapid increase in the radial increment of silver fir in the Western Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bošeľa, Michal; Petráš, Rudolf; Sitková, Zuzana; Priwitzer, Tibor; Pajtík, Jozef; Hlavatá, Helena; Sedmák, Róbert; Tobin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Silver fir is one of the most productive and ecologically valuable native European tree species, however, it has been experiencing decline which has periodically occurred over its natural range. This paper aims to investigate the recent climate–growth relationships of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and its temporal change along the course of its life. Long-term tree-ring databases, as well as records on climate, atmospheric SO 2 , NO 3 and acid concentrations from four different regions in the Western Carpathians were used. The results provide clear evidence of significant increase of silver fir's radial increment over the entire Western Carpathian area since 1970–1980. The results indicated that the most probable factors behind the rapid recovery of tree radial increment were reductions in emissions of NO 3 and SO 2 , alongside a significant increase in mean June, July and April temperatures. Highlights: • Silver fir radial growth was mostly related to mean month late winter temperatures. • Silver fir growth also responded to summer, especially July temperatures. • Strength of the climate–growth response has gradually increased since 1960–1980. • SO 2 , NO 3 , and recent climate change as major factor of the rapid radial growth recovery. -- Reductions of SO 2 and NO 3 emission along with climate change are the major causes of the recent recovery of Silver fir radial growth

  15. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  16. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  17. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vuu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus (SE include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally-occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK of an intravenous (IV dose of topiramate (TPM in dogs with epilepsy, and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB. Four (ID 1-4 were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5 were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 minutes at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC-MS method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. Intracranial EEG (iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 minutes pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. Topiramate concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two-compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6 fold greater clearance and a ~4 fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 minutes of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 µg/mL at 30-minutes post-dose.This study shows that IV

  18. Rapid in situ growth of oriented titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes arrays coated on a nitinol wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coupled to HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Wenlan; Wang, Huiju; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2016-10-01

    An oriented titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coating was in situ grown on a nitinol wire by direct electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol with ammonium fluoride and water for the first time. The morphology and composition of the resulting coating showed that the anodized nitinol wire provided a titania-rich coating. The titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coated fiber was used for solid-phase microextraction of different aromatic compounds coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity, and rapid mass transfer for weakly polar UV filters. Thereafter the important parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated for solid-phase microextraction of UV filters. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-300 μg/L for target UV filters with limits of detection of 0.019-0.082 μg/L. The intraday and interday precision of the proposed method with the single fiber were 5.3-7.2 and 5.9-7.9%, respectively, and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.3 to 8.9% for four fibers fabricated in different batches. Finally, its applicability was evaluated by the extraction and determination of target UV filters in environmental water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Why does rem sleep occur? A wake-up hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W R

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  20. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV-positive and -negative individuals with recent HCV. The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from 50 genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. A total of 12% of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non-dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (that is, Resistance variants (resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low-level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192569.

  1. Growth and photosynthesis responses of two co-occurring marsh grasses to inundation and varied nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    For southern New England tidal marshes, the late twentieth century decline of Spartina patens has been attributed to increased flooding associated with accelerated sea level rise and nitrogen over-enrichment from cultural eutrophication, either singly or in combination. The obje...

  2. EFFECTS OF GROWTH CONDITIONS AND CO-OCCURRING BACTERIA ON BREVETOXIN ACCUMULATION IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstitial water in the swash zone, that area of a beach where waves continuously wash up on the sand, is suspected of accumulating microbes. If pathogens are concentrated in the interstitial water or if they grow, they may pose a health risk, especially for children. This s...

  3. Microstructure of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H.

    1984-07-01

    The basic features of rapidly solidified microstructures are described and differences arising from alternative processing strategies are discussed. The possibility of achieving substantial undercooling prior to solidification in processes such as quench atomization and chill block melt spinning can give rise to striking microstructural transitions even when external heat extraction is nominally Newtonian. The increased opportunity in laser and electron beam surface melting for epitaxial growth on the parent solid at an accelerating rate, however, does not exclude the formation of nonequilibrium phases since the required undercooling can be locally attained at the solidification front which is itself advancing at a sufficiently high velocity. The effects of fluid flow indicated particularly in melt spinning and surface melting are additional to the transformational and heat flow considerations that form the present basis for interpretation of such microstructural effects.

  4. (Plant growth with limited water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

  5. Bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis occuring in an adult with acromegalic gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feydy, A; Carlier, R Y; Mompoint, D; Rougereau, G; Patel, A; Vallée, C

    1997-03-01

    The etiology of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is still unknown. Traumatic, endocrine, toxic, and mechanical causes have all been hypothesized. It is well documented that the highest incidence occurs during the adolescent growth spurt, suggesting the role of an endocrine abnormality. We report a case that supports this hypothesis.

  6. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  8. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  10. On rapid rotation in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, Per

    2008-01-01

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a three-dimensional magnetic field, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields which are approximately isometric. In an isometric magnetic field the dependence of the magnetic field strength B on the arc length l along the field is the same for all field lines on each flux surface ψ. Only in fields where the departure from exact isometry, B=B(ψ,l), is of the order of the ion gyroradius divided by the macroscopic length scale are rotation speeds comparable to the ion thermal speed possible. Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector ∇ψx∇B. (author)

  11. Rapid iconic erasure without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, Charles Albert; Reeves, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We report on the erasure of the iconic memory of an array of 12 black letters flashed on a continuously- present white field. Erasure is accomplished by replacing the 16 ms letter array (frame 1) with a blank white frame for 16 ms (frame 2). The letter array returns in frame 3, with from one to six letters missing. Report of the missing letters is accurate without the blank white frame but is impoverished with it, as if interposing the blank erases the icon. Erasure occurs without any obvious luminance masking, 'mud splashes', pattern masking (backward, forward, or metacontrast), lateral masking, or masking by object substitution. Erasure is greatly decreased if the blank is presented one frame earlier or later. We speculate that erasure is due to a rapid reset of the icon produced by an informational mis-match.

  12. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Age-associated changes in monocyte and innate immune activation markers occur more rapidly in HIV infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve E Martin

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with immune dysfunction and the related development of conditions with an inflammatory pathogenesis. Some of these immune changes are also observed in HIV infection, but the interaction between immune changes with aging and HIV infection are unknown. Whilst sex differences in innate immunity are recognized, little research into innate immune aging has been performed on women.This cross-sectional study of HIV positive and negative women used whole blood flow cytometric analysis to characterize monocyte and CD8(+ T cell subsets. Plasma markers of innate immune activation were measured using standard ELISA-based assays.HIV positive women exhibited elevated plasma levels of the innate immune activation markers CXCL10 (p<0.001, soluble CD163 (sCD163, p = 0.001, sCD14 (p = 0.022, neopterin (p = 0.029 and an increased proportion of CD16(+ monocytes (p = 0.009 compared to uninfected controls. Levels of the innate immune aging biomarkers sCD163 and the proportion of CD16(+ monocytes were equivalent to those observed in HIV negative women aged 14.5 and 10.6 years older, respectively. CXCL10 increased with age at an accelerated rate in HIV positive women (p = 0.002 suggesting a synergistic effect between HIV and aging on innate immune activation. Multivariable modeling indicated that age-related increases in innate immune biomarkers CXCL10 and sCD163 are independent of senescent changes in CD8(+ T lymphocytes.Quantifying the impact of HIV on immune aging reveals that HIV infection in women confers the equivalent of a 10-14 year increase in the levels of innate immune aging markers. These changes may contribute to the increased risk of inflammatory age-related diseases in HIV positive women.

  14. Age-associated changes in monocyte and innate immune activation markers occur more rapidly in HIV infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Genevieve E; Gouillou, Maelenn; Hearps, Anna C; Angelovich, Thomas A; Cheng, Allen C; Lynch, Fiona; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Paukovics, Geza; Palmer, Clovis S; Novak, Richard M; Jaworowski, Anthony; Landay, Alan L; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with immune dysfunction and the related development of conditions with an inflammatory pathogenesis. Some of these immune changes are also observed in HIV infection, but the interaction between immune changes with aging and HIV infection are unknown. Whilst sex differences in innate immunity are recognized, little research into innate immune aging has been performed on women. This cross-sectional study of HIV positive and negative women used whole blood flow cytometric analysis to characterize monocyte and CD8(+) T cell subsets. Plasma markers of innate immune activation were measured using standard ELISA-based assays. HIV positive women exhibited elevated plasma levels of the innate immune activation markers CXCL10 (p<0.001), soluble CD163 (sCD163, p = 0.001), sCD14 (p = 0.022), neopterin (p = 0.029) and an increased proportion of CD16(+) monocytes (p = 0.009) compared to uninfected controls. Levels of the innate immune aging biomarkers sCD163 and the proportion of CD16(+) monocytes were equivalent to those observed in HIV negative women aged 14.5 and 10.6 years older, respectively. CXCL10 increased with age at an accelerated rate in HIV positive women (p = 0.002) suggesting a synergistic effect between HIV and aging on innate immune activation. Multivariable modeling indicated that age-related increases in innate immune biomarkers CXCL10 and sCD163 are independent of senescent changes in CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Quantifying the impact of HIV on immune aging reveals that HIV infection in women confers the equivalent of a 10-14 year increase in the levels of innate immune aging markers. These changes may contribute to the increased risk of inflammatory age-related diseases in HIV positive women.

  15. Re-induction of obese body weight occurs more rapidly and at lower caloric intake in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, D; Mitsuhashi, Y; Angell, R; Bigley, K E; Bauer, J E

    2010-06-01

    For the purpose of investigating the mechanism of obesity-induction/re-induction including weight-cycling in beagles, a study was conducted using commercially available dog food combined with human food to mimic at home-snacking and diet-supplementation behaviours. Adult female beagles, which had free access to water and exercise, were used (n = 9). All dogs were initially offered two times their daily calculated number of calories using a dry extruded diet plus blend of canola and soybean oils and allowed to eat ad libitum. After 3 weeks, Pecan shortbread cookies were added to the diet mixture. Obesity was induced during a 19-week period with 1875-2250 kcal/day consumed, on average, during this period. The dogs were then subjected to a weight-loss regimen while consuming 490-730 kcal/day. After weight loss, a similar degree of obesity was re-induced for 17 weeks even though dogs consumed only 1125-1250 kcal/day. Body weight, body condition scores, kcal consumption and food efficiency were recorded. Results indicated that less time and fewer kcal were required to re-induce the same degree of obesity compared with the initial obesity induction. Human snack foods appeared to stimulate appetite and thus contribute to the obese state. Food efficiency was also increased during the obesity-reinduction period compared with the induction period. This information may help pet owners better understand the need to limit table scraps and human-type food snacks in dogs prone to obesity as well as weight maintenance after weight loss.

  16. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  17. Effects of fluorides and sulphur dioxide on pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of fluorides and sulphur dioxides from emissions from a phosphate fertilizer factory significantly reduced the germination of Scots pine pollen grains. The pollen tube length indicated that its growth is uninhibited even though the pollen was collected under conditions of air-pollution. There are statistically significant differences showing longer tubes in the sensitive trees pollen grains. l he ageing of pollen from the sensitive trees occurs probably more rapidly than in the tolerant trees.

  18. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus x Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-03-31

    Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus x Simmental (A x S; n = 6) steer calves (155 +/- 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 +/- 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A x S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A x S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 microg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A x S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A x S steers. The lipogenic

  19. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graugnard Daniel E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL from Angus (n = 6 and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6 steer calves (155 ± 10 days age fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6 or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6 diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4 being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM. Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A

  20. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6) steer calves (155 ± 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A × S steers. The

  1. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  2. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  3. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  5. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  6. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  7. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  8. A Naturally Occurring Recombinant Enterovirus Expresses a Torovirus Deubiquitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Pengcheng; Misra, Saurav; Hause, Ben; Fang, Ying

    2017-07-15

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. In this study, a novel enterovirus (enterovirus species G [EVG]) (EVG 08/NC_USA/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample from a neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified by using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. The viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic EVG strain (PEV9 UKG/410/73). Remarkably, a 582-nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3C pro cleavage sites at the 5' and 3' ends, was found in the 2C/3A junction region of the viral genome. This insertion encodes a predicted protease with 54 to 68% amino acid identity to torovirus (ToV) papain-like protease (PLP) (ToV-PLP). Structural homology modeling predicts that this protease adopts a fold and a catalytic site characteristic of minimal PLP catalytic domains. This structure is similar to those of core catalytic domains of the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protease and coronavirus PLPs, which act as deubiquitinating and deISGylating (interferon [IFN]-stimulated gene 15 [ISG15]-removing) enzymes on host cell substrates. Importantly, the recombinant ToV-PLP protein derived from this novel enterovirus also showed strong deubiquitination and deISGylation activities and demonstrated the ability to suppress IFN-β expression. Using reverse genetics, we generated a ToV-PLP knockout recombinant virus. Compared to the wild-type virus, the ToV-PLP knockout mutant virus showed impaired growth and induced higher expression levels of innate immune genes in infected cells. These results suggest that ToV-PLP functions as an innate immune antagonist; enterovirus G may therefore gain fitness through the acquisition of ToV-PLP from a recombination event. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses comprise a highly diversified group of viruses. Genetic recombination has been considered a driving force for viral evolution; however, recombination between viruses from two different orders is a rare event. In this study, we

  9. Hp Ge: Purification, crystal growth, and annealing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for growing HP Ge crystals of increased size and purity are examined. One interesting approach is to grow dislocation-free crystals, which must then be annealed to reduce the concentration of V 2 H traps. The phenomena which occur during annealing are discussed and compared with experiment. Hydrogen, present in atomic form at the growth temperature, forms H 2 molecules during cooling, causing the effective diffusion coefficient to decrease rapidly. Models representing the reactions between H and the V 2 H, A(H, Si), and D(H,O) complexes are presented and analyzed

  10. Population growth and development: the Kenyan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamwange, M

    1995-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Kenya and high fertility impacts negatively on economic development. The growth and high fertility results in declines in gross national product, per capita food consumption, and land quality; a high dependency ratio; urban crowding; and inadequate health systems. East Africa has the highest crude birth rates in Africa, and Kenya has the highest birth rate of 54/1000 population in East Africa. The African crude death rate is 50% higher than the world average, but Kenya's death rate is the lowest in East Africa and comparable to North American and European death rates. Kenya has the highest rate of natural increase of about 4%. Population growth rates rose over the decades. Kenya's average population density is well above the sub-Saharan African average and much lower than very high density countries. Population is unequally distributed. Regional densities are widely divergent, and the highest densities in Western province are well above densities in Rwanda and Burundi. Urban growth has increased, as has migration to urban areas. Nairobi has 57% of urban population. Improved health and nutrition have contributed to increased life expectancy. The desired family size is large. The impact of demographic factors on economic conditions is evident in the decline in gross national product per capita growth to under 1% during 1972-88. A slight upswing occurred during 1988-93, but other crises are emerging. Food production has not kept pace with population growth. Production has been low due to serious land degradation, short fallow periods, and traditional farming practices. Population pressure has forced families to shift agriculture onto marginal lands, and desertification has increased. A growing proportion of the population is unemployed or underemployed. Population programs should address the underlying conditions for fertility decline.

  11. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  12. Uranium occurences in calcrete and associated sediments in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.; Horwitz, R.C.; Mann, A.W.

    1977-10-01

    The report is a compilation of data pertaining to the occurence and distribution of uranium mineralization in calcretes and associated sediments in Western Australia and contains brief descriptions of many of the calcrete-uranium occurences, including some of the most minor. Virtually all calcretes in the region are liable to contain traces of uranium mineralization, visible as coatings of carnotite. The locations of the uranium occurences are shown on a map which features the distribution of calcrete

  13. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too much growth hormone. Usually the cause is a pituitary gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, where their bones and their body ...

  14. Super Dwarf Wheat for Growth in Confined Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    USU-Perigee is a dwarf red spring wheat that is a hybrid of a high-yield early tall wheat (USU-Apogee) and a low-yield, extremely short wheat that has poor agronomic characteristics. USU-Perigee was selected for its extremely short height (.0.3 m) and high yield . characteristics that make it suitable for growth in confined spaces in controlled environments. Other desirable characteristics include rapid development and resistance to a leaf-tip necrosis, associated with calcium deficiency, that occurs in other wheat cultivars under rapid-growth conditions (particularly, continuous light). Heads emerge after only 21 days of growth in continuous light at a constant temperature of 25 C. In tests, USU-Perigee was found to outyield other full dwarf (defined as wheat cultivars: The yield advantage at a constant temperature of 23 C was found to be about 30 percent. Originally intended as a candidate food crop to be grown aboard spacecraft on long missions, this cultivar could also be grown in terrestrial growth chambers and could be useful for plant-physiology and -pathology studies.

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  20. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  1. Population Growth and Poverty in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    The link between rapid population growth and the absolute poverty which currently afflicts 780 million people in developing countries (excluding China and other centrally planned economies) is examined. As a result of rapid population growth, many countries suffer slow per capita income growth, a lack of progress in reducing income inequality, and…

  2. Where does particle acceleration occur in extended extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that particle acceleration does not occur in the extended lobes of extragalactic radio sources, but only in the compact heads. Away from these, waves capable of accelerating particles may not propagate. Although wave generation within the lobes would allow acceleration there, it is not obvious that the plasma is sufficiently disturbed for this to occur. (author)

  3. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  4. Rapid-Sequence Serial Sexual Homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Ramirez, Stephanie; Tusa, Brittany; Jarvis, John P; Erdberg, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43.2%) who committed homicides in rapid-sequence fashion, with fewer than 14 days between all or some of the murders. Six offenders (13.6%) killed all their victims in one rapid-sequence, spree-like episode, with homicides just days apart or sometimes two murders in the same day. Thirteen offenders (29.5%) killed in one or two rapid-sequence clusters (i.e., more than one murder within a 14-day period, as well as additional homicides with greater than 14 days between each). The purpose of our study was to describe this subgroup of rapid-sequence offenders who have not been identified until now. These findings argue for accelerated forensic assessments of dangerousness and public safety when a sexual murder is detected. Psychiatric disorders with rapidly occurring symptom patterns, or even atypical mania or mood dysregulation, may serve as exemplars for understanding this extraordinary group of offenders. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  5. Rapid Population Growth and its Implication for Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Environment and Development" was held in Brazil ... income and employment, health and education, ... Fertility is extremely high in Malawi, with the ..... school fees, biased parent/teacher attitudes and ..... Malawi: 'Country profile 1991-92.

  6. p38 MAPK signaling in postnatal tendon growth and remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon is a dynamic tissue whose structure and function is influenced by mechanical loading, but little is known about the fundamental mechanisms that regulate tendon growth and remodeling in vivo. Data from cultured tendon fibroblasts indicated that the p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in tendon fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in vitro. To gain greater insight into the mechanisms of tendon growth, and explore the role of p38 MAPK signaling in this process, we tested the hypotheses that inducing plantaris tendon growth through the ablation of the synergist Achilles tendon would result in rapid expansion of a neotendon matrix surrounding the original tendon, and that treatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 would prevent this growth. Rats were treated with vehicle or SB203580, and subjected to synergist ablation by bilateral tenectomy of the Achilles tendon. Changes in histological and biochemical properties of plantaris tendons were analyzed 3, 7, or 28 days after overload, and comparisons were made to non-overloaded animals. By 28 days after overload, tendon mass had increased by 30% compared to non-overloaded samples, and cross-sectional area (CSA increased by around 50%, with most of the change occurring in the neotendon. The expansion in CSA initially occurred through the synthesis of a hyaluronic acid rich matrix that was progressively replaced with mature collagen. Pericytes were present in areas of active tendon growth, but never in the original tendon ECM. Inhibition of p38 MAPK resulted in a profound decrease in IL6 expression, and had a modest effect on the expression of other ECM and cell proliferation genes, but had a negligible impact on overall tendon growth. The combined results from this study provided novel insights into tendon mechanobiology, and suggest that p38 MAPK signaling does not appear to be necessary for tendon growth in vivo.

  7. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  9. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  11. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  12. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  17. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  1. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Crystallite growth in nanocrystalline tungsten; rate determining mechanism and the role of contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedűs, Zoltán; Meka, Sai Ramudu; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The thermal stability of nanocrystalline tungsten was investigated by tracing the evolution of the microstructure as a function of (isothermal) annealing time at different temperatures (800−875 °C). To this end especially in situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy methods were applied to ball milled tungsten powder. Initially the dislocation density and the crystallite/domain size decreased and increased rapidly, respectively. Upon prolonged annealing the crystallite growth rate decelerated and even became nil: a saturation crystallite size, increasing with increasing annealing temperature, was attained. Application of all available isothermal growth models to the experimental data resulted in very low values for the activation energy (60−120 kJ/mol) indicating that recovery of the deformed microstructure is the dominantly occurring process, leading to pronounced crystallite/domain growth. The effect on the growth kinetics of different levels of contaminations, which exert a drag force on the moving boundaries, was also investigated.

  4. Direct observation of densification and grain growth in a W--Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegger, H.; Pask, J.A.; Exner, H.E.

    1979-04-01

    Densification and grain growth in a tungsten--nickel alloy containing 32 vol % of liquid at 1550 0 C were studied by conventional methods aided by hot stage scanning electron microscopy and cinematography. This technique yields important additional qualitative information on the mechanisms. Two stages can be discerned. In stage 1, essentially complete pore elimination, rapid grain growth and adjustment of microstructural geometry take place. In the second stage, microstructure coarsening occurs which is characterized by geometric similarity. Columnar grain growth at the surface is observed due to squeezing out of Ni--W liquid, flooding of surface grains and fast evaporation of the Ni. The driving forces for these processes are discussed showing that a high ratio of grain boundary energy to liquid surface energy is essential. A W--Cu alloy with 32 vol % liquid at 1100 0 C did not show any grain growth due to essentially no solubility of W in Cu at this temperature

  5. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  6. Phase evolution and dendrite growth in laser cladding of aluminium on zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, T.M.; Xie, H.; Lin, X.; Yang, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Laser cladding of Al on pure Zr. → A series of phase evolutions occurred across the laser-clad coating. → Epitaxial crystal growth, backward dendrite growth and two-phase eutectic dendritic growth. → Phase and microstructure evolution is discussed. - Abstract: Aluminium was laser clad on a pure zirconium substrate using the blown powder method. The microstructure across the laser-clad coating was studied. Starting from the bottom to the top surface of the coating, a series of phase evolutions had occurred: (Zr) → (Zr) + AlZr 2 + AlZr 3 → Al 4 Zr 5 + Al 3 Zr 2 → Al 3 Zr 2 + AlZr 2 → Al 2 Zr → Al 2 Zr + Al 3 Zr. This resulted in an epitaxial columnar crystal growth at the re-melt substrate boundary, a band of backward growth Al 3 Zr 2 dendrites towards the lower half of the coating, and a two-phase eutectic dendritic growth of Al 2 Zr + Al 3 Zr towards the top of the coating. The evolution of the various phases and microstructures is discussed in conjunction with the Al-Zr phase diagram, the criteria for planar interface instability, and the theory of eutectic growth under rapid solidification conditions (the TMK model).

  7. Rapidly Progressive Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Herrero Valverde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with no specific pathologic substratum. Its accurate diagnosis is a challenge for neurologists; in order to establish CBS definitively, postmortem confirmation is required. Some clinical and radiological features can help to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Clinical Case: A 74-year-old woman presented with language impairment, difficulty in walking and poor attentiveness that had begun 10 days before. Other symptoms, such as asymmetrical extra-pyramidal dysfunction, limb dystonia and ‘alien limb’ phenomena, were established over the next 2 months, with rapid progression. Death occurred 3 months after symptom onset. Laboratory results were normal. Initially, imaging only showed restricted diffusion with bilateral parieto-occipital gyri involvement on DWI-MRI, with unspecific EEG changes. An autopsy was performed. Brain neuropathology confirmed sporadic CJD (sCJD. Conclusions: CBS is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome whose differential diagnosis is extensive. CJD can occasionally present with clinical characteristics resembling CBS. MRI detection of abnormalities in some sequences (FLAIR, DWI, as previously reported, has high diagnostic utility for sCJD diagnosis – especially in early stages – when other tests can still appear normal. Abnormalities on DWI sequencing may not correlate with neuropathological findings, suggesting a functional basis to explain the changes found.

  8. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during treatment for malignant Iymphoproliferative diseases are described in 5 patients. There appeared to be a temporal relationship between the development of these complications and the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs or extensive radiotherapy.

  10. Ultra-modified rapid sequence induction with transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange: Challenging convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sakharam Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During positive pressure ventilation, gastric inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration can occur. Rapid sequence induction (RSI technique is an age-old formula to prevent this. We adopted a novel approach of RSI for patients with high risk of aspiration and evaluated it further in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries. We believe that, in patients with risk of gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration, transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange can be useful in facilitating pre- and apnoeic oxygenation till tracheal isolation is achieved.

  11. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  12. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  13. A novel Arometic compound acts synergistically with a naturally occurring monoterpene to elicit strong behavioral responses in Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inscent, Inc. has developed methodologies for rapidly screening potential ligands of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) isolated from the antennae of target insects. These novel ligands, referred to as Arometics, mimic naturally-occurring odorants and may function as super-stimuli because of their strong ...

  14. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  15. Epitaxial Growth and Cracking Mechanisms of Thermally Sprayed Ceramic Splats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-jun

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the epitaxial growth and cracking mechanisms of thermally sprayed ceramic splats were explored. We report, for the first time, the epitaxial growth of various splat/substrate combinations at low substrate temperatures (100 °C) and large lattice mismatch (- 11.26%). Our results suggest that thermal spray deposition was essentially a liquid-phase epitaxy, readily forming chemical bonding. The interface temperature was also estimated. The results convincingly demonstrated that atoms only need to diffuse and rearrange over a sufficiently short range during extremely rapid solidification. Concurrently, severe cracking occurred in the epitaxial splat/substrate systems, which indicated high tensile stress was produced during splat deposition. The origin of the tensile stress was attributed to the strong constraint of the locally heated substrate by its cold surroundings.

  16. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  17. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  19. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  20. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.E.; Hoffner, S.E.; Ansehn, S.

    1988-01-01

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria

  1. Coxsackievirus-mediated hyperglycemia is enhanced by reinfection and this occurs independent of T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Marc S.; Ilic, Alex; Fine, Cody; Rodriguez, Enrique; Sarvetnick, Nora

    2003-01-01

    The induction of autoimmunity by viruses has been hypothesized to occur by a number of mechanisms. Coxsackievirus B4 (CB4) induces hyperglycemia in SJL mice resembling diabetes in humans. While virus is effectively cleared within 2 weeks, hyperglycemia does not appear until about 8-12 weeks postinfection at a time when replicative virus is no longer detectable. In SJL mice, reinfection with CB4 enhanced the development of hyperglycemia. As predicted, the immune system responded more rapidly to the second infection and virus was cleared more swiftly. However, while infiltrating T cells were found within the pancreas, depletion of the CD4 T cell population prior to secondary infection or use of CD8 knock-out mice had no effect on the development of virus-mediated hyperglycemia. In conclusion, enhanced hyperglycemia induced by CB4 occurs independent of the T cell response

  2. A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgisser, Alain; Bergantz, George W

    2011-03-10

    The largest products of magmatic activity on Earth, the great bodies of granite and their corresponding large eruptions, have a dual nature: homogeneity at the large scale and spatial and temporal heterogeneity at the small scale. This duality calls for a mechanism that selectively removes the large-scale heterogeneities associated with the incremental assembly of these magmatic systems and yet occurs rapidly despite crystal-rich, viscous conditions seemingly resistant to mixing. Here we show that a simple dynamic template can unify a wide range of apparently contradictory observations from both large plutonic bodies and volcanic systems by a mechanism of rapid remobilization (unzipping) of highly viscous crystal-rich mushes. We demonstrate that this remobilization can lead to rapid overturn and produce the observed juxtaposition of magmatic materials with very disparate ages and complex chemical zoning. What distinguishes our model is the recognition that the process has two stages. Initially, a stiff mushy magma is reheated from below, producing a reduction in crystallinity that leads to the growth of a subjacent buoyant mobile layer. When the thickening mobile layer becomes sufficiently buoyant, it penetrates the overlying viscous mushy magma. This second stage rapidly exports homogenized material from the lower mobile layer to the top of the system, and leads to partial overturn within the viscous mush itself as an additional mechanism of mixing. Model outputs illustrate that unzipping can rapidly produce large amounts of mobile magma available for eruption. The agreement between calculated and observed unzipping rates for historical eruptions at Pinatubo and at Montserrat demonstrates the general applicability of the model. This mechanism furthers our understanding of both the formation of periodically homogenized plutons (crust building) and of ignimbrites by large eruptions.

  3. Earthquakes, fluid pressures and rapid subduction zone metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viete, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism is commonly incomplete, meaning that large tracts of rock can remain metastable at blueschist- and eclogite-facies conditions for timescales up to millions of years [1]. When HP/LT metamorphism does take place, it can occur over extremely short durations (the role of fluids in providing heat for metamorphism [2] or catalyzing metamorphic reactions [1]. Earthquakes in subduction zone settings can occur to depths of 100s of km. Metamorphic dehydration and the associated development of elevated pore pressures in HP/LT metamorphic rocks has been identified as a cause of earthquake activity at such great depths [3-4]. The process of fracturing/faulting significantly increases rock permeability, causing channelized fluid flow and dissipation of pore pressures [3-4]. Thus, deep subduction zone earthquakes are thought to reflect an evolution in fluid pressure, involving: (1) an initial increase in pore pressure by heating-related dehydration of subduction zone rocks, and (2) rapid relief of pore pressures by faulting and channelized flow. Models for earthquakes at depth in subduction zones have focussed on the in situ effects of dehydration and then sudden escape of fluids from the rock mass following fracturing [3-4]. On the other hand, existing models for rapid and incomplete metamorphism in subduction zones have focussed only on the effects of heating and/or hydration with the arrival of external fluids [1-2]. Significant changes in pressure over very short timescales should result in rapid mineral growth and/or disequilibrium texture development in response to overstepping of mineral reaction boundaries. The repeated process of dehydration-pore pressure development-earthquake-pore pressure relief could conceivably produce a record of episodic HP/LT metamorphism driven by rapid pressure pulses. A new hypothesis is presented for the origins of HP/LT metamorphism: that HP/LT metamorphism is driven by effective pressure

  4. Spreading depolarizations occur in human ischemic stroke with high incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohmen, C.; Sakowitz, O.W.; Fabricius, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and periinfarct depolarization (PID) have been shown in various experimental models of stroke to cause secondary neuronal damage and infarct expansion. For decades it has been questioned whether CSD or PID occur in human ischemic stroke. Here, we...... potential change spreading between adjacent channels was accompanied by transient depression of ECoG activity. In PID, a slow potential change spread between neighboring channels despite already established suppression of ECoG activity. Most CSDs and PIDs appeared repetitively in clusters. CSD or PID...... was observed in all but two patients. In these two patients, the electrode strip had been placed over infarcted tissue, and accordingly, no local ECoG or recurrent transient depolarization activity occurred throughout the observation period. Interpretation: CSD and PID occurred spontaneously with high...

  5. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki

    1996-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma

  6. Report of the laboratory building for late occurring injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In order to estimate the danger of low level radiation to human beings, the studies of the late-occurring injuries and internal exposure due to radionuclide deposition are necessary. In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, research on the estimation of the danger of late-occurring injuries due to radiation is proceeding. In this connection, a late-occurring injury laboratory building has been completed recently. Basic ideas behind it are as follows. To carry out the above mentioned studies effectively and efficiently, many experimental animals of high quality must be kept under best possible environment. For the observation in a series of experiments, irradiation room and laboratory rooms are essential. The building comprises the following: the first floor for animal receiving, the second floor for laboratory rooms, the third floor for RI facility and X-ray irradiated animal keeping, the fourth floor for SPF animal keeping, and attic floor for water supply, etc. (J.P.N.)

  7. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma.

  8. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...

  9. Wild Apple Growth and Climate Change in Southeast Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Panyushkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild populations of Malus sieversii [Ldb.] M. Roem are valued genetic and watershed resources in Inner Eurasia. These populations are located in a region that has experienced rapid and on-going climatic change over the past several decades. We assess relationships between climate variables and wild apple radial growth with dendroclimatological techniques to understand the potential of a changing climate to influence apple radial growth. Ring-width chronologies spanning 48 to 129 years were developed from 12 plots in the Trans-Ili Alatau and Jungar Alatau ranges of Tian Shan Mountains, southeastern Kazakhstan. Cluster analysis of the plot-level chronologies suggests different temporal patterns of growth variability over the last century in the two mountain ranges studied. Changes in the periodicity of annual ring-width variability occurred ca. 1970 at both mountain ranges, with decadal-scale variability supplanted by quasi-biennial variation. Seascorr correlation analysis of primary and secondary weather variables identified negative growth associations with spring precipitation and positive associations with cooler fall-winter temperatures, but the relative importance of these relationships varied spatially and temporally, with a shift in the relative importance of spring precipitation ca. 1970 at Trans-Ili Alatau. Altered apple tree radial growth patterns correspond to altered climatology in the Lake Balkhash Basin driven by unprecedented intensified Arctic Oscillations after the late 1970s.

  10. Immunoregulation by naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The role of naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) in homeostasis and in disease manifestations is poorly understood. In the present chapter, we review how NAbs may interfere with the cytokine network and how NAbs, through formation of complement-activating immune complexes with soluble self......-antigens, may promote the uptake and presentation of self-molecules by antigen-presenting cells. Both naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies against a variety of cytokines have been reported, including NAbs against interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  11. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  12. Total retinal detachment occurring after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Pienaru; Ramona, Serban; Mircea, Filip; Andrei, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the case of a patient with a severe decrease of visual acuity that occurred after an apparently minor head injury. Following the investigations, the patient was diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that was triggered by a fall from the same level and which occurred on a background of lattice degeneration. In this case, a minor trauma caused a severe complication because the patient had a contributing factor for the complication. The patient was operated and the end result was satisfactory.

  13. To Internationalize Rapidly from Inception: Crowdsource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosh Kannangara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurs continuously search for tools to accelerate the internationalization of their startups. For the purpose of internationalizing rapidly from inception, we propose that technology startups use crowdsourcing to internalize the tacit knowledge embodied in members of a crowd distributed across various geographies. For example, a technology startup can outsource to a large crowd the definition of a customer problem that occurs across various geographies, the development of the best solution to the problem, and the identification of attractive business expansion opportunities. In this article, we analyze how three small firms use crowdsourcing, discuss the benefits of crowdsourcing, and offer six recommendations to technology entrepreneurs interested in using crowdsourcing to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception.

  14. The duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Jeelani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pubertal growth peak is closely associated with a rapid increase in mandibular length and offers a wide range of therapeutic modifiability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the mean ages of onset and duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of 230 subjects with growth potential (110 males, 120 females. Subjects were categorized into three classes (Class I = 81, Class II = 82, Class III = 67, according to the sagittal relationship established between the maxilla and the mandible. The cervical vertebral maturation stage was recorded by means of Baccetti's method. The mean ages at CS3 and CS4 and the CS3-CS4 age interval were compared between boys and girls and among three skeletal classes. Results: Pubertal growth peak occurred on average four months earlier in girls than boys (p = 0.050. The average duration of pubertal growth peak was 11 months in Class I, seven months in Class II and 17 months in Class III subjects. Interclass differences were highly significant (Cohen's d > 0.08. However, no significant difference was found in the timing of pubertal growth peak onset among three skeletal classes (p = 0.126 in boys, p = 0.262 in girls. Conclusions: Girls enter pubertal growth peak on average four months earlier than boys. Moreover, the duration of pubertal growth peak is on average four months shorter in Class II and six months longer in Class III subjects as compared to Class I subjects.

  15. Nutritionally-Induced Catch-Up Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galia Gat-Yablonski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is considered a leading cause of growth attenuation in children. When food is replenished, spontaneous catch-up (CU growth usually occurs, bringing the child back to its original growth trajectory. However, in some cases, the CU growth is not complete, leading to a permanent growth deficit. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism regulating nutrition and growth, including systemic factors, such as insulin, growth hormone, insulin- like growth factor-1, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-21, etc., and local mechanisms, including autophagy, as well as regulators of transcription, protein synthesis, miRNAs and epigenetics. Studying the molecular mechanisms regulating CU growth may lead to the establishment of better nutritional and therapeutic regimens for more effective CU growth in children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. It will be fascinating to follow this research in the coming years and to translate the knowledge gained to clinical benefit.

  16. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that ...

  17. Transmission of naturally occurring lymphoma in macaque monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, R D; Blake, B J; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; King, N W; Letvin, N L

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and ...

  18. Information disclosure of troubles occurring at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Shinozaki, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), efforts are made so that troubles occurred are promptly reported and announced publicly, and for minor troubles, etc., announcement to the society is made through the web-site and publicity magazines, so as to assure the transparency of the business. (author)

  19. Learning by investing: evidence from a naturally occurring auction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2011), s. 125-149 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : learning * naturally occurring auction * stock market Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2011

  20. Cancer Fatigue: Why It Occurs and How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer fatigue: Why it occurs and how to cope The exact causes of cancer fatigue and how best to treat it aren't ... clear. Find out what doctors know about cancer fatigue and what you can do about it. By ...

  1. Auto-immune Haematological Complications Occurring during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-10-19

    Oct 19, 1974 ... Immunohaematological disorders may complicate the clini- cal course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphocytic lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease.'" Auto- immune haemolytic anaemia is the most common of these complications, occurring in approximately 10 - 25'% of patients with ...

  2. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  3. Adsorption of fluoride ions onto naturally occurring earth materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch sorption system using two naturally occurring earth materials (EM) as adsorbents was investigated to remove fluoride ions from aqueous solution. The system variables studied include initial concentration of the sorbate, agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH, co-ions and temperature. The experimental data fitted well to ...

  4. Does the dilution effect generally occur in animal diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zheng Y.X.; Yu, Yang; Langevelde, Van Frank; Boer, De Willem F.

    2017-01-01

    The dilution effect (DE) has been reported in many diseases, but its generality is still highly disputed. Most current criticisms of DE are related to animal diseases. Particularly, some critical studies argued that DE is less likely to occur in complex environments. Here our meta-analyses

  5. Breakthrough revisited: investigating the requirements for growth of dust beyond the bouncing barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard A.; Meru, Farzana; Lee, Man Hoi; Clarke, Cathie J.

    2018-03-01

    For grain growth to proceed effectively and lead to planet formation, a number of barriers to growth must be overcome. One such barrier, relevant for compact grains in the inner regions of the disc, is the `bouncing barrier' in which large grains (˜mm size) tend to bounce off each other rather than sticking. However, by maintaining a population of small grains, it has been suggested that cm-size particles may grow rapidly by sweeping up these small grains. We present the first numerically resolved investigation into the conditions under which grains may be lucky enough to grow beyond the bouncing barrier by a series of rare collisions leading to growth (so-called `breakthrough'). Our models support previous results, and show that in simple models breakthrough requires the mass ratio at which high-velocity collisions transition to growth instead of causing fragmentation to be low, ϕ ≲ 50. However, in models that take into account the dependence of the fragmentation threshold on mass ratio, we find that breakthrough occurs more readily, even if mass transfer is relatively inefficient. This suggests that bouncing may only slow down growth, rather than preventing growth beyond a threshold barrier. However, even when growth beyond the bouncing barrier is possible, radial drift will usually prevent growth to arbitrarily large sizes.

  6. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    V Saraswat; P V Madhu; Suresh S Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE) have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expecte...

  7. Infrared and X-ray bursts from the rapid burster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Chitre, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on sudden bursts from the cosmic X-ray sources are reported. The processes occuring from the rise in luminosity of an x-ray source to its collapse are described. Records of the x-ray burst from the globular cluster NGC 6624 and the 'Rapid Burster' are shown. The Infra-red bursts from the Rapid Burster are also explained. (A.K.)

  8. Flower Power: Sunflowers as a Model for Logistic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Eileen; Geist, Kristi A.

    2011-01-01

    Logistic growth displays an interesting pattern: It starts fast, exhibiting the rapid growth characteristic of exponential models. As time passes, it slows in response to constraints such as limited resources or reallocation of energy. The growth continues to slow until it reaches a limit, called capacity. When the growth describes a population,…

  9. Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Cephaleuros virescens Occurring in Mango Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Vilela; Pereira, Fabíola Teodoro; Duarte, Elizabeth Amélia Alves; de Oliveira, Thiago Alves Santos; Peixoto, Nei; Carvalho, Daniel Diego Costa

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this work was to accomplish the isolation, molecular identification and characterizing the physiology of the causal agent of the algal spot in mango trees. For this purpose, the pathogen growth was assessed in different culture media, with subsequent observation and measurements of the filamentous cells. The molecular identification was made using mycelium obtained from leaf lesions and pure algae colonies grown in culture medium. Descriptions based on DNA sequencing indicated that the algae is Cephaleuros virescens . The algae must be isolated primarily in liquid medium for further pricking into agar medium. The highest mycelial growth average in Petri dishes occurred when the algae were grown in Trebouxia and BBM. Trebouxia enabled larger cells in the filamentous cells when compared to other culture media.

  10. Synaptic inputs compete during rapid formation of the calyx of Held: a new model system for neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Paul S; Hoffpauir, Brian K; Hoyson, Mitchell C; Jackson, Dakota R; Deerinck, Thomas J; Marrs, Glenn S; Dehoff, Marlin; Wu, Jonathan; Ellisman, Mark H; Spirou, George A

    2013-08-07

    Hallmark features of neural circuit development include early exuberant innervation followed by competition and pruning to mature innervation topography. Several neural systems, including the neuromuscular junction and climbing fiber innervation of Purkinje cells, are models to study neural development in part because they establish a recognizable endpoint of monoinnervation of their targets and because the presynaptic terminals are large and easily monitored. We demonstrate here that calyx of Held (CH) innervation of its target, which forms a key element of auditory brainstem binaural circuitry, exhibits all of these characteristics. To investigate CH development, we made the first application of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to neural development with fine temporal resolution and thereby accomplished the first time series for 3D ultrastructural analysis of neural circuit formation. This approach revealed a growth spurt of added apposed surface area (ASA)>200 μm2/d centered on a single age at postnatal day 3 in mice and an initial rapid phase of growth and competition that resolved to monoinnervation in two-thirds of cells within 3 d. This rapid growth occurred in parallel with an increase in action potential threshold, which may mediate selection of the strongest input as the winning competitor. ASAs of competing inputs were segregated on the cell body surface. These data suggest mechanisms to select "winning" inputs by regional reinforcement of postsynaptic membrane to mediate size and strength of competing synaptic inputs.

  11. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  12. Combinations of Genetic Variants Occurring Exclusively in Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Mellerup

    Full Text Available In studies of polygenic disorders, scanning the genetic variants can be used to identify variant combinations. Combinations that are exclusively found in patients can be separated from those combinations occurring in control persons. Statistical analyses can be performed to determine whether the combinations that occur exclusively among patients are significantly associated with the investigated disorder. This research strategy has been applied in materials from various polygenic disorders, identifying clusters of patient-specific genetic variant combinations that are significant associated with the investigated disorders. Combinations from these clusters are found in the genomes of up to 55% of investigated patients, and are not present in the genomes of any control persons. Keywords: Genetic variants, Polygenic disorder, Combinations of genetic variants, Patient-specific combinations

  13. New data about historical earthquakes occurred on the Romanian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, A.P.; Pantea, A.; Stoica, R.; Amaranadei, C.; Stefan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to enrich qualitatively and quantitatively the existing database about historical earthquakes occurred on the Romanian territory and in the adjacent areas by reevaluating and completing it with new information obtained after some complex research activities. In this respect there were studied the old book funds existing in Bucharest, especially those from the religious and cultural institutions - monasteries, libraries, archives and museums, starting with the documents existing under the custody of the Romanian Patriarchy. For the beginning there were researched three thousand books appeared between 1683-1902 where there were found information about some earthquakes occurred between 1802 and 1913. By this research, there is achieved the extension in the past of the database regarding the seismicity of the Romania's territory, by emphasizing seismic events that, according to some seismicity schemes, can repeat in the future, thus, being taken into account the major contribution of the historical seismicity to the seismic hazard assessment. (authors)

  14. Left Sided Amyand's Hernia, A Rare Occurance: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Mohan, G; Srinivasan, A; Ravindran, G; Ramalingam, A

    2013-06-01

    This is a case report about a 35 year old man admitted with complains of obstructed left sided inguinal hernia. On exploration of the left inguinal canal to our surprise a normal appendix was found in addition to a gangrenous omentum. Resection of the gangrenous omentum was done. Appendectomy was done. This case is reported for its rare occurance as only three such cases of left sided amyand's hernia has been reported so far in literature[4-6].

  15. Case of basal cell epithelioma occurring on chronic radiation dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kase, Kayoko; Matsuoka, Yoshitaka; Urushibata, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Soichi (Toho Univ. Ohashi Hosp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman had been treated with radiation therapy for lymphoid tuberculosis on the right side of the neck 40 years before. Chronic radiation dermatitis occurred on that site. Blackish small mass has appeared 2 years before on the central part of the dermatitis. Histological examination revealed thinning of the epidermis, swelling of the dermal collagen fibers, and follicular clusters composed of basaloid cells from the epidermis to the upper layer of the dermis. (Namekawa, K).

  16. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  17. Lichen striatus occurring after a tetanus vaccine: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Yalçınkaya İyidal; Kadir Balaban; Arzu Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Lichen striatus (LS) is an uncommon, acquired, self-limiting, linear inflammatory dermatosis. The eruption typically presents as pink or tan papules along Blaschko’s lines. It usually occurs in children, rarely affects adults. The rashes usually suddenly emerge in a single extremity and may regress within a few months or years. The incidence is slightly higher among women. The etiology of LS is not exactly known, however, it is thought to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune reaction. Trauma, infe...

  18. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological st...... unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes....

  19. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  20. On the noble gas isotopic fractionation in naturally occurring gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, B.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic composition of neon in the mantle is an important geochemical constraint on the formation of the earth and subsequent degassing. Some deviation of neon isotopic composition in natural gas and rock samples from the atmospheric value which can not be accounted for by the known nuclear process has been reported, and Nagao et al. interpreted the deviation as the result of mass fractionation in natural gas in Japan. The possible cause of such fractionation was investigated. Gaseous diffusion, such as (a) free-molecule diffusion, (b) mutual diffusion and (c) thermal diffusion, is able to cause isotopic fractionation. After the detailed consideration on these three diffusion processes, conclusion that free-molecule diffusion occurs only in very particular condition, and it is questionable that thermal diffusion occurs in nature, were obtained. (b) which means the interaction of two or more gases, is supposed to occur in nature, and is able to confirm experimentally. In mutual diffusion only, gas transfer is concerned, but other form of fractionation should not be neglected. In solid diffusion, gas is trapped by fine grained sedimentary rocks, and may be fractionated by adsorption and communication to exterior through minute channels. Underground water also works as noble gas reservoir. For example, when gas stream is in contact with water, continuous exchange is possible to take place at the interface of gas and liquid, which contributes to the fractionation. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  1. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  2. Percutaneous treatment of complications occurring during hemodialysis graft recanalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T. E-mail: constant@pol.net; Schur, Israel; Koh, Elsie; Hinrichs, Clay; Cooper, Stanley G.; Welber, Adam; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2003-09-01

    Introduction/objective: To describe and evaluate percutaneous treatment methods of complications occurring during recanalization of thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of 579 thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts revealed 48 complications occurring during urokinase thrombolysis (512) or mechanical thrombectomy (67). These include 12 venous or venous anastomotic ruptures not controlled by balloon tamponade, eight arterial emboli, 12 graft extravasations, seven small hematomas, four intragraft pseudointimal 'dissections', two incidents of pulmonary edema, one episode of intestinal angina, one procedural death, and one distant hematoma. Results: Twelve cases of post angioplasty ruptures were treated with uncovered stents of which 10 resulted in graft salvage allowing successful hemodialysis. All arterial emboli were retrieved by Fogarty or embolectomy balloons. The 10/12 graft extravasations were successfully treated by digital compression while the procedure was completed and the graft flow was restored. Dissections were treated with prolonged Percutaneous Trasluminal Angioplasty (PTA) balloon inflation. Overall technical success was 39/48 (81%). Kaplan-Meier Primary and secondary patency rates were 72 and 78% at 30, 62 and 73% at 90 and 36 and 67% at 180 days, respectively. Secondary patency rates remained over 50% at 1 year. There were no additional complications caused by these maneuvers. Discussions and conclusion: The majority of complications occurring during percutaneous thrombolysis/thrombectomy of thrombosed access grafts, can be treated at the same sitting allowing completion of the recanalization procedure and usage of the same access for hemodialysis.

  3. Uranium occurence in the Rio Cristalino area, South of Para

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Ribeiro, E.; Camarco, P.E.N.; Puppin, C.; Santos Filho, J.L. dos.

    1986-01-01

    The Rio Cristalino area where occurs uranium mineralization is located in the Western part of the Santana do Araguaia Town, Para State. This area comprises 1.350 Km 2 , and was selected from the evolution of the 'Projeto Geofisico Brasil - Canada - PGBC'. According to the results obtained from this Project, 15 airbone anomalies were selected for ground check. In the anomalies AN-03 and H-09 were found the best uranium occurence. The host rocks consist of arkose and sandstone of Pre-Cambriam ages, which show a very low-grade of metamorphism. The primary mineralization occurs in arkose along the cataclastic foliation (N70 0 W / 65 0 NE). The secundary mineralization involves clay galls and fills fracture zones in sandstone of the anomaly H-09. The highest grade detected in a rock sample of the anomaly AN-03 was 6,1% U 3 O 8 , whereas in the trenches there are intervals of 6 m thickness with a grade of 0,59% U 3 O 8 . Based on some mineralization aspects and field data, the genetic conceptual model to the uranium mineralization is proposed. (author) [pt

  4. Rapid maxillary expansion in contemporary orthodontic literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Mutinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed our retrospective research about rapid maxillary expansion performed in the early mixed dentition to summarize the results of different studies regarding maxillary dental arch width variation and crowding improvement in light of contemporary literature. The aim is to define the effects of treatments followed until the end of dental arch growth. In all studies, a Haas expander anchored to the deciduous dentition was used. The samples consisted of treated patients with and without a lateral crossbite and homogeneous untreated individuals as controls. Two additional control groups of adolescents and adults in dental Class 1 were also compared. As a result of the analysis, rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage to the deciduous dentition was found to be effective in increasing transverse width in intermolar and intercanine areas, and the change was preserved until the full permanent dentition stage. When performed before maxillary lateral incisors have fully erupted, this procedure allows for a rapid increase in the arch length in the anterior area and consequently, in the space available for permanent incisors with a stable reduction in crowding over time.

  5. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  6. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  7. Short-term thermal response of rapidly solidified Type 304 stainless steel containing helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    Type 304 stainless steel was heat treated for short times near its melting point in order to determine its microstructural response to thermal cycles typical of the near heat-affected zones of welding processes. The material was rapidly solidified as a powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium environment and consolidated by hot extrusion. Along with the ingot metallurgy material used for canning the powder prior to hot extrusion, it was heat treated using a Gleeble at temperatures of 1200 and 1300 degree C for times ranging from <1 to 1000 s, and the samples were examined for microstructure and the existence of porosity due to entrapped helium. At higher test temperatures and longer treatment times, the material developed extensive porosity, which was stabilized by the presence of helium and which may also have a role in anchoring grain boundaries and inhibiting grain growth. The powder material. At lower test temperatures and shorter treatment times, grain growth in the γ phase appeared to be restricted in the powder material, possible by the presence of helium. An intermediate temperatures and times, a γ-δ duplex microstructure also restricted grain growth again occurred in the δ microstructure. 9 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Rapid increases in tropospheric ozone production and export from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraeten, W.W.; Neu, J.L.; Williams, J.E.; Bowman, K.W.; Worden, J.R.; Boersma, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid population growth and industrialization have driven substantial increases in Asian ozone precursor emissions over the past decade1, with highly uncertain impacts on regional and global tropospheric ozone levels. According to ozonesonde measurements2, 3, tropospheric ozone concentrations at two

  9. Rapid Screening of Natural Plant Extracts with Calcium Diacetate for Differential Effects Against Foodborne Pathogens and a Probiotic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, William; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Shetty, Kalidas; Pometto, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    This study focused on advancing a rapid turbidimetric bioassay to screen antimicrobials using specific cocktails of targeted foodborne bacterial pathogens. Specifically, to show the relevance of this rapid screening tool, the antimicrobial potential of generally recognized as safe calcium diacetate (DAX) and blends with cranberry (NC) and oregano (OX) natural extracts was evaluated. Furthermore, the same extracts were evaluated against beneficial lactic acid bacteria. The targeted foodborne pathogens evaluated were Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus using optimized initial cocktails (∼10 8 colony-forming unit/mL) containing strains isolated from human food outbreaks. Of all extracts evaluated, 0.51% (w/v) DAX in ethanol was the most effective against all four pathogens. However, DAX when reduced to 0.26% and with added blends from ethanol extractions consisting of DAX:OX (3:1), slightly outperformed or was equal to same levels of DAX alone. Subculture of wells in which no growth occurred after 1 week indicated that all water and ethanol extracts were bacteriostatic against the pathogens tested. All the targeted antimicrobials had no effect on the probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum. The use of such rapid screening methods combined with the use of multistrain cocktails of targeted foodborne pathogens from outbreaks will allow rapid large-scale screening of antimicrobials and enable further detailed studies in targeted model food systems.

  10. Safety Assessment for transient event occurred during the ASTS test of Hanbit Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Changkeun; Kim, Yohan; Ha, Sangjun

    2014-01-01

    Safety Injection has been actuated during the ASTS (Automatic Seismic Trip System) test of Hanbit Unit 2 on Feb. 28, 2014. It could be bad effect on system integrity. KHNP has been performed safety assessment of system for effect of Safety Injection (SI) actuation occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed according to Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the power plant is in a safe condition were conformed. After ASTS action, thermal elimination has been processed throughout the turbine until turbine signal occurrence because ASTS is connected to M-G set in the present hanbit Unit 2. Therefore, Safety Injection signal has been actuated by rapid reduction of Steam Generator pressure. In this paper, it is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed for Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the plant is in a safe condition were conformed. It is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation

  11. Clinical course of acute atrial fibrillation treated with rapid digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, P; Bassan, M M; Jarchovsky, J; Iusim, S; Plavnick, L

    1983-02-01

    Forty-seven episodes of acute atrial fibrillation (AF) in 45 patients were examined prospectively to determine the course of the disorder treated with rapid digitalization. Patients received 1.5 mg of digoxin intravenously over 12 hours. In 40 of the 47 attacks, reversion to sinus rhythm occurred with no additional therapy at 1 to 96 hours (median 4 hours) after beginning digoxin. In thirty-two patients, conversion occurred within 8 hours; only one patient showed important ventricular slowing before conversion. Thus, if digoxin facilitates conversion, it does not do so by slowing the ventricular response. Of the 11 patients still in AF at 16 hours, conversion subsequently occurred in only four who were receiving digoxin alone. We conclude that the prognosis for quick reversion to sinus rhythm in patients with acute AF treated with rapid digitalization alone is excellent. If reversion does not occur by 16 to 24 hours, additional measures to restore sinus rhythm are indicated.

  12. Analyzing suitability for urban expansion under rapid coastal urbanization with remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Lianyungang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Reenberg, Anette; Sun, Xiang

    2010-10-01

    Beginning in 2000, Lianyungang's urbanization entered a period of rapid growth, spatially as well as economically. Rapid and intensive expansion of "construction land" imposed increasing pressures on regional environment. With the support of remote sensing data and GIS tools, this paper reports a "present-capacity-potential" integrated suitability analysis framework, in order to characterize and evaluate the suitability of urban expansion in Lianyungang. We found that during the rapid coastal urbanization process from 2000 to 2008, the characteristics of physical expansion in the study area were characterized by a combination of high-density expansion and sprawling development. The land use conversion driven by urbanization and industrialization has not occurred only in city districts, but also the surrounding areas that were spatially absorbed by urban growth, while closely associated and greatly influenced by the explosive growth of industrial establishment. The over-consumption of land resources in the areas with low environmental carrying capacity, particularly in the eastern coastal area, should be strictly controlled. Compared to conventional land suitability analysis methods, the proposed integrated approach could better review the potential environmental impacts of urban expansion and provide guidance for decision makers.

  13. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  14. A case report of osteosarcoma occurred in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hwa; Jeon, Seon Doo

    1996-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of bone, The mean age of occurrence of osteosarcoma in the jaws is around 30, somewhat older than for other sites in the body. These lesions occur about equally in the maxilla and mandible. They most frequently develop in the body in the mandible, and the antrum and the posterior portion of alveolar ridge in the maxilla. We report a case of osteosarcoma in 35 years old female complaining swelling of the left cheek. Radiographic features showed cotton wool appearance in upper left posterior area. Histopathologic findings exhibited pleomorphic malignant osteoblasts and neoplastic osteoid.

  15. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included

  16. When modularization fails to occur: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dean; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2011-05-01

    We argue that models of adult cognition defined in terms of independently functioning modules cannot be applied to development, whether typical or atypical. The infant brain starts out highly interconnected, and it is only over developmental time that neural networks become increasingly specialized-that is, relatively modularized. In the case of atypical development, even when behavioural scores fall within the normal range, they are frequently underpinned by different cognitive and neural processes. In other words, in neurodevelopmental disorders the gradual process of relative modularization may fail to occur.

  17. Cavitation phenomena occurring on Pelton turbines buckets. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brivio, R.; Zappi, O.

    1995-01-01

    The article takes into consideration the erosion and/or cavitation phenomena occurring on the Pelton turbine buckets. It describes the main geometrical parameters that can cause the deterioration of the hydraulic profile and the provisions taken for avoid it or at least reduce it at the minimum when this deterioration has taken place. Furthermore, this article describes the development of the profiles up to the definition of bucket shapes that can assure high efficiencies and lack of cavitation. Some significant results, obtained about ten years ago in the hydraulic laboratory utilizing a closed circuit and reduced scale models, are then illustrated

  18. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  19. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, D L; Little, E E

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  20. Perichiasmatic granuloma occuring after radical mastoidectomy: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouhri, H.; Marsot-Dupuch, K.; Tubiana, J.M. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Joutel, A. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Neurologie, Paris (France); Kujas, M. [Hopital la Pitie Salpetriere, Laboratoire d`Histologie-Embryologie, Paris (France); Brette, M.D. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d`ORL, Paris (France); Artuis, F. [Hopital la Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Neurochirurgie de la Pitie, 83 boulevard de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France)

    1998-03-01

    A case of chronic chemical meningitis occurring after a radical mastoidectomy is reported. Imaging and surgical findings were suggestive of a dissemination of cholesteatoma debris within the subarachnoid spaces. Chemical meningitis has been described in epidermoid and dermoid cyst rupture. This report illustrates that clinicians should be aware of this possible complication. Skull base imaging is mandatory before considering the diagnosis of idiopathic meningitis. Only treatment of the abnormal communication between cerebrospinal fluid and middle ear may eradicate the origin of this rare meningitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 15 refs.

  1. Complexes of actinides with naturally occuring organic substances - Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, U.; Allard, B.

    1983-02-01

    Properties of naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids and their formation of actinide complexes are reviewed. Actinides in all the oxdation states III, IV, V and VI would form complexes with many humic and fulvic acids, comparable in strength to the hydroxide and carbonate complexes. Preliminary experiments have shown, that the presence of predominantly humic acid complexes would significantly reduce the sorption of americium on geologic media. This does not, however, necessarily lead to a potentially enhanced mobility under environmental conditions, since humic and fulvic acids carrying trace metals also would be strongly bound to e.g. clayish material. (author)

  2. Naturally occurring radioactive materials at New South Wales mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Until recently mines in New South Wales have been largely exempt from the provisions of the Radiation Control Act with respect to radioactive ore being mined and processed. Legislative changes and the national harmonisation efforts for mine safety regulation have drawn attention to the emerging issue of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). While mine operators are already obliged under their duty of care to manage this hazard, specific control measures are increasingly expected by the community and regulators. This applies throughout the whole mine life cycle from exploration right through to rehabilitation.

  3. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades.

  4. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  5. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Ruegsegger

    Full Text Available In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05 between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life.

  6. Rapid Thermal Processing to Enhance Steel Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, V K; Speer, J G; Clarke, K D; Findley, K O; Clarke, A J

    2018-01-11

    Quenching and Tempering (Q&T) has been utilized for decades to alter steel mechanical properties, particularly strength and toughness. While tempering typically increases toughness, a well-established phenomenon called tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) is known to occur during conventional Q&T. Here we show that short-time, rapid tempering can overcome TME to produce unprecedented property combinations that cannot be attained by conventional Q&T. Toughness is enhanced over 43% at a strength level of 1.7 GPa and strength is improved over 0.5 GPa at an impact toughness of 30 J. We also show that hardness and the tempering parameter (TP), developed by Holloman and Jaffe in 1945 and ubiquitous within the field, is insufficient for characterizing measured strengths, toughnesses, and microstructural conditions after rapid processing. Rapid tempering by energy-saving manufacturing processes like induction heating creates the opportunity for new Q&T steels for energy, defense, and transportation applications.

  7. Thermal legacies: transgenerational effects of temperature on growth in a vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Santiago; Munch, Stephan B

    2012-02-01

    Transgenerational plasticity (TGP), a generalisation of more widely studied maternal effects, occurs whenever environmental cues experienced by either parent prior to fertilisation results in a modification of offspring reaction norms. Such effects have been observed in many traits across many species. Despite enormous potential importance-particularly in an era of rapid climate change-TGP in thermal growth physiology has never been demonstrated for vertebrates. We provide the first evidence for thermal TGP in a vertebrate: given sufficient time, sheepshead minnows adaptively program their offspring for maximal growth at the present temperature. The change in growth over a single generation (c. 30%) exceeds the single-generation rate of adaptive evolution by an order of magnitude. If widespread, transgenerational effects on thermal performance may have important implications on physiology, ecology and contemporary evolution, and may significantly alter the extinction risk posed by changing climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  8. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  9. The Biology and Economics of Coral Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Schutter, M.; Griffioen, B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Shafit, S.; Henard, S.; Taruffi, M.; Gili, C.; Lavorano, S.

    2011-01-01

    To protect natural coral reefs, it is of utmost importance to understand how the growth of the main reef-building organisms-the zooxanthellate scleractinian corals-is controlled. Understanding coral growth is also relevant for coral aquaculture, which is a rapidly developing business. This review

  10. Electricity, growth and development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeir, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    In India, the revenue generated by rapid economic growth have been used neither to relieve the enormous social injustices affecting the oppressed, nor to develop the physical-and especially electric power-infrastructure in a determined and planned way. This growth has not reduced poverty, and it has caused huge ecological degradations

  11. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Patterson, Courtney M; Classen, Aimée T; Simberloff, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To maximize limited conservation funds and prioritize management projects that are likely to succeed, accurate assessment of invasive nonnative species impacts is essential. A common challenge to prioritization is a limited knowledge of the difference between the impacts of a single nonnative species compared to the impacts of nonnative species when they co-occur, and in particular predicting when impacts of co-occurring nonnative species will be non-additive. Understanding non-additivity is important for management decisions because the management of only one co-occurring invader will not necessarily lead to a predictable reduction in the impact or growth of the other nonnative plant. Nonnative plants are frequently associated with changes in soil biotic and abiotic characteristics, which lead to plant-soil interactions that influence the performance of other species grown in those soils. Whether co-occurring nonnative plants alter soil properties additively or non-additively relative to their effects on soils when they grow in monoculture is rarely addressed. We use a greenhouse plant-soil feedback experiment to test for non-additive soil impacts of two common invasive nonnative woody shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned by both nonnative shrubs had non-additive impacts on native and nonnative performance. Root mass of the native herbaceous community was 1.5 times lower and the root mass of the nonnative L. sinense was 1.8 times higher in soils conditioned by both L. maackii and L. sinense than expected based upon growth in soils conditioned by either shrub singly. This result indicates that when these two nonnative shrubs co-occur, their influence on soils disproportionally favors persistence

  12. Zygotic Genome Activation Occurs Shortly after Fertilization in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Strieder, Nicholas; Krohn, Nadia G; Cyprys, Philipp; Sprunck, Stefanie; Engelmann, Julia C; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The formation of a zygote via the fusion of an egg and sperm cell and its subsequent asymmetric division herald the start of the plant's life cycle. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is thought to occur gradually, with the initial steps of zygote and embryo development being primarily maternally controlled, and subsequent steps being governed by the zygotic genome. Here, using maize ( Zea mays ) as a model plant system, we determined the timing of zygote development and generated RNA-seq transcriptome profiles of gametes, zygotes, and apical and basal daughter cells. ZGA occurs shortly after fertilization and involves ∼10% of the genome being activated in a highly dynamic pattern. In particular, genes encoding transcriptional regulators of various families are activated shortly after fertilization. Further analyses suggested that chromatin assembly is strongly modified after fertilization, that the egg cell is primed to activate the translational machinery, and that hormones likely play a minor role in the initial steps of early embryo development in maize. Our findings provide important insights into gamete and zygote activity in plants, and our RNA-seq transcriptome profiles represent a comprehensive, unique RNA-seq data set that can be used by the research community. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Naturally occurring Vpr inhibitors from medicinal plants of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ngwe, Hla; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a lentiviral family member that encodes the retroviral Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, along with six additional accessory proteins, Tat, Rev, Vpu, Vif, Nef, and Vpr. The currently approved anti-HIV drugs target the Pol and Env encoded proteins. However, these drugs are only effective in reducing viral replication. Furthermore, the drugs' toxicities and the emergence of drug-resistant strains have become serious worldwide problems. Resistance eventually arises to all of the approved anti-HIV drugs, including the newly approved drugs that target HIV integrase (IN). Drug resistance likely emerges because of spontaneous mutations that occur during viral replication. Therefore, new drugs that effectively block other viral components must be developed to reduce the rate of resistance and suppress viral replication with little or no long-term toxicity. The accessory proteins may expand treatment options. Viral protein R (Vpr) is one of the promising drug targets among the HIV accessory proteins. However, the search for inhibitors continues in anti-HIV drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the naturally occurring compounds discovered from two Myanmar medicinal plants as well as their structure-activity relationships. A total of 49 secondary metabolites were isolated from Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes and Picrasama javanica bark, and the types of compounds were identified as isopimarane diterpenoids and picrasane quassinoids, respectively. Among the isolates, 7 diterpenoids and 15 quassinoids were found to be Vpr inhibitors lacking detectable toxicity, and their potencies varied according to their respective functionalities.

  14. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermodynamic characterization of tandem mismatches found in naturally occurring RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martha E.; Znosko, Brent M.

    2009-01-01

    Although all sequence symmetric tandem mismatches and some sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches have been thermodynamically characterized and a model has been proposed to predict the stability of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches [Christiansen,M.E. and Znosko,B.M. (2008) Biochemistry, 47, 4329–4336], experimental thermodynamic data for frequently occurring tandem mismatches is lacking. Since experimental data is preferred over a predictive model, the thermodynamic parameters for 25 frequently occurring tandem mismatches were determined. These new experimental values, on average, are 1.0 kcal/mol different from the values predicted for these mismatches using the previous model. The data for the sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches reported here were then combined with the data for 72 sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches that were published previously, and the parameters used to predict the thermodynamics of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches were updated. The average absolute difference between the measured values and the values predicted using these updated parameters is 0.5 kcal/mol. This updated model improves the prediction for tandem mismatches that were predicted rather poorly by the previous model. This new experimental data and updated predictive model allow for more accurate calculations of the free energy of RNA duplexes containing tandem mismatches, and, furthermore, should allow for improved prediction of secondary structure from sequence. PMID:19509311

  16. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, C.; Akber, R.; Johnston, A.; Cassels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia. (authors)

  17. Figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Peterson, Mary A

    2008-07-01

    The question of whether or not figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention is unresolved. Early theorists assumed it can, but the evidence is scant and open to alternative interpretations. Recent research indicating that attention can influence figure-ground segmentation raises the question anew. We examined this issue by asking participants to perform a demanding change-detection task on a small matrix presented on a task-irrelevant scene of alternating regions organized into figures and grounds by convexity. Independently of any change in the matrix, the figure-ground organization of the scene changed or remained the same. Changes in scene organization produced congruency effects on target-change judgments, even though, when probed with surprise questions, participants could report neither the figure-ground status of the region on which the matrix appeared nor any change in that status. When attending to the scene, participants reported figure-ground status and changes to it highly accurately. These results clearly demonstrate that figure-ground segmentation can occur without focal attention.

  18. On the mechanical friction losses occurring in automotive differential gearboxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    In the automobile industry, the mechanical losses resulting from friction are largely responsible for various kinds of surface damage, such as the scuffing occurring in some mechanical assemblies. These scuffing processes seem to be due to a local loss of lubrication between certain mechanical elements of the same assembly, leading to a sharp increase in the friction, which can lead to a surface and volume damage in some of them, and even can cause, in the worst case, the whole destruction of the mechanical system if it has continued to operate. Predicting and checking the occurrence of this kind of undesirable phenomena, especially in some principal systems of the vehicle, represents nowadays, a crucial challenge in terms of automobile reliability and safety. This study focuses on the mechanical friction losses liable to occur in differential automobile gearboxes, which can lead in the long term to the scuffing of these mechanical systems. The friction losses involved were modeled, using a simple analytical approach, which is presented and discussed.

  19. Reference Material IAEA 434: Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. In addition, phosphogypsum can be used to make several building materials and it is used in agriculture as a conditioner to maintain soil productivity in areas where soils are poor and erode easily. A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA-434 will assist laboratories in the IAEA Member States in validating their analytical methods for the determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum and to control the quality of the produced analytical results. Reference values for the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties were established for: Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. During sample production and certification, the requirements for reference material production and certification as stated in ISO guides 34 and 35 were taken into account. This report summarizes the preparation and certification process

  20. Frequently Occurring Reconnection Jets from Sunspot Light Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Peter, Hardi; Solanki, Sami K.; Young, Peter R.; Ni, Lei; Cao, Wenda; Ji, Kaifan; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Jingwen; Samanta, Tanmoy; Song, Yongliang; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Chen, Yajie

    2018-02-01

    Solid evidence of magnetic reconnection is rarely reported within sunspots, the darkest regions with the strongest magnetic fields and lowest temperatures in the solar atmosphere. Using the world’s largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m Goode Solar Telescope, we detect prevalent reconnection through frequently occurring fine-scale jets in the Hα line wings at light bridges, the bright lanes that may divide the dark sunspot core into multiple parts. Many jets have an inverted Y-shape, shown by models to be typical of reconnection in a unipolar field environment. Simultaneous spectral imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph show that the reconnection drives bidirectional flows up to 200 km s‑1, and that the weakly ionized plasma is heated by at least an order of magnitude up to ∼80,000 K. Such highly dynamic reconnection jets and efficient heating should be properly accounted for in future modeling efforts of sunspots. Our observations also reveal that the surge-like activity previously reported above light bridges in some chromospheric passbands such as the Hα core has two components: the ever-present short surges likely to be related to the upward leakage of magnetoacoustic waves from the photosphere, and the occasionally occurring long and fast surges that are obviously caused by the intermittent reconnection jets.

  1. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  2. Radiation protection and the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; MacDowell, P.

    1996-01-01

    There are many industries dealing with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), some of them without knowing that their industrial processes and/or their regular wastes involve radioactivity. However, an increasing number of industries that produce NORM wastes are being sued, wherever there is a legal framework to do so. In particular, NORM wastes produced for a long time by the oil industry became foci of legal battles in the United States and elsewhere. The ripple effect of these judicial battles will influence the decision making processes of NORM wastes producing industries, mostly because of the costs incurred by remedial and preventive actions concerning NORM contamination. The regulation of NORM will occur sooner or later, and such actions may become mandatory. A foreseeable consequence of such regulation is a change in attitude concerning the sources and materials associated with NORM. Among those industries likely to be affected one can mention: niobium; rare earth processing; oil production; phosphate; uranium mining and milling; zircon; water treatment; and waste water treatment. The paper will briefly review data on exempt concentration activities, as suggested by the basic safety standards based on realistic environmental and dosimetric models. These activity concentrations are compared with those found in a number of extractive industries, and may be used to establish derived limits from a pre-established dose limit. (author)

  3. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  4. A case of angiosarcoma of the breast occurring after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, Hisafumi; Maeno, Yoshito; Tatsuoka, Toshihiko

    1995-01-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the left breast occurring one month after radiotherapy following partial mastectomy for a cancer of the right breast is described. A 43-year-old woman underwent right partial mastectomy and axillary lymphnode dissection for a right breast cancer on February 23, 1993. Radiation therapy (total 50 grey) was given to the right breast for 3 weeks postoperatively. A small hemangioma appeared near the nipple of her left breast in the following month. On June 23, we excised the grain sized hemangioma and diagnosed as angiosarcoma. After her hesitating several months, she underwent left mastectomy because of some relapses appeared around her left breast on January 20, 1994. Now she is doing well without recurrence. Angiosarcoma of the breast is extremely rare in our country and only 20 cases have been seen in the Japanese literature. This case of angiosarcoma of the breast which occurred after radiotherapy is the first report of Stewart-Treves syndrome. Recent increasing use of radiotherapy following breast-sparing operation may contribute to an increase in occurrence of angiosarcoma. We should strictly follow up irradiated patients with breast cancer entertaining possible occurrence of angiosarcoma of the breast as well as that of the upper extremities. (author)

  5. Structures and properties of naturally occurring polyether antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Jacek; Brzezinski, Bogumil

    2013-01-01

    Polyether ionophores represent a large group of natural, biologically active substances produced by Streptomyces spp. They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. Several of polyether ionophores are widely used as growth promoters in veterinary. Polyether antibiotics show a broad spectrum of bioactivity ranging from antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and tumour cell cytotoxicity. Recently, it has been shown that some of these compounds are able to selectively kill cancer stem cells and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, they are recognized as new potential anticancer drugs. The biological activity of polyether ionophores is strictly connected with their molecular structure; therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of their formula, molecular structure, and properties.

  6. Population growth is a variable open to change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M.

    2016-12-01

    The absolute number of people and the rate of population growth have an impact on climate mitigation, adaptation and possible conflict. Half the pregnancies in the US are unintended. Robust quantitative evidence from California demonstrates that improving access to family planning is the single most cost-effective way of mitigating our carbon footprint. Globally, there are 80 million unintended pregnancies annually. Many non-evidence barriers deprive women of the information and means required to separate sex from childbearing. Between 1960 and 1990, meeting the need for family planning led to a rapid fall in family size in much of Asia. Since 1990, funding for family planning has collapsed and fertility decline has stalled. The UN projects that by 2100 global population will increase by 3.8 billion (equal to world population in 1975). 80% of this growth will be in Africa. Studies project that climate change will undermine crop yields in parts of Africa, especially the Sahel. A high ratio of young males to the rest of the population is a risk factor in conflict. Today, only 1% of overseas assistance is allocated to family planning. Based on analysis of the past, doubling that investment would accelerate fertility decline, facilitating climate mitigation and adaptation, and possibly reducing conflict. Population and family planning were pushed off the international agenda by unacceptably and tragic episodes of coercion in China and India. However, there is compelling data that when voluntary family planning is widely available then family size can fall rapidly, as occurred in the Islamic Republic of Iran, where fertility fell more rapidly than in any other country in history. Family planning is listening to what women want not telling people want to do. Population growth is a variable open to change in a human rights framework. Population and family planning are variables relevant to the scientific agenda of the AGU.

  7. Impact of prematurity and nutrition on the developing gut microbiome and preterm infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Alex; Qiu, Xing; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjukta; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Kessler, Haeja A; Gill, Ann L; Hamilton, Brooke; Huyck, Heidie; Misra, Sara; Mariani, Thomas J; Ryan, Rita M; Scholer, Lori; Scheible, Kristin M; Lee, Yi-Horng; Caserta, Mary T; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Gill, Steven R

    2017-12-11

    Identification of factors that influence the neonatal gut microbiome is urgently needed to guide clinical practices that support growth of healthy preterm infants. Here, we examined the influence of nutrition and common practices on the gut microbiota and growth in a cohort of preterm infants. With weekly gut microbiota samples spanning postmenstrual age (PMA) 24 to 46 weeks, we developed two models to test associations between the microbiota, nutrition and growth: a categorical model with three successive microbiota phases (P1, P2, and P3) and a model with two periods (early and late PMA) defined by microbiota composition and PMA, respectively. The more significant associations with phase led us to use a phase-based framework for the majority of our analyses. Phase transitions were characterized by rapid shifts in the microbiota, with transition out of P1 occurring nearly simultaneously with the change from meconium to normal stool. The rate of phase progression was positively associated with gestational age at birth, and delayed transition to a P3 microbiota was associated with growth failure. We found distinct bacterial metabolic functions in P1-3 and significant associations between nutrition, microbiota phase, and infant growth. The phase-dependent impact of nutrition on infant growth along with phase-specific metabolic functions suggests a pioneering potential for improving growth outcomes by tailoring nutrient intake to microbiota phase.

  8. Angiographic treatment of the arteriovenous malformation occurred after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Büyükkurt

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uterine arteriovenous malformations are classified as acquired or congenital. Caesarean section which is performed more frequently on nowadays, uterine curettage and other uterine surgeries are the most common causes of the acquired arteriovenous malformations. CASE: Twenty-two years old woman delivered her second child by caesarean section, due to history of caesarean section, was admitted with complaint of profuse vaginal bleeding 15 days after the surgery. She demonstrated the clinical features of the hypovolemic shock. At first she treated with four units of red blood suspension, two units of fresh frozen plasma and rapid infusion of the fluids. On endometrial curettage only blood and coagulum were obtained. The bleeding could only be controlled by the internal pressure of the 18 F Foley catheter. Doppler analyze of the uterus revealed a vascular malformation signifying a turbulent flow pattern with low pressure and high flow rate. A unilateral uterine artery embolization was performed her and her menstruel cycles are resumed at the fifth month of the puerperium. DISCUSSION: The clinical presentation of the uterine arteriovenous malformations depends on the localization and the dimensions of the malformation. The uterine arteriovenous malformation should be kept in mind in cases of late occurrence vaginal bleeding unresponsive to the uterotonic medications, especially in a woman with previous history of uterine damage, such as curettage or caesarean section.

  9. Growth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test measuring thyroid ... not affect intelligence or brain function. The cause of growth hormone ...

  10. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the changes your body goes through during puberty. Puberty is the stage of your life when sexual development happens, like breast development and menstrual periods in girls and growth of the penis and testicles in boys. One of the body ...

  11. Temperature influences on growth of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.; Suffern, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially

  12. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in El-Sin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Rayyes, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides levels have been determined in El-Sin water for the period of 1995 and 1996. water samples were collected from four sites, which are the main drinking water sources of the area. Radon concentration was found to vary between 0.88 Bq/1 in Lattakia main water supply site and 8.4 Bq/1 in El-Sin springs.The highest values found for other radionuclides were 51.6 mBq/1, 18.6 mB/1 and 24.8 mBq/1 for sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra, sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and total uranium (sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U) respectively. These levels are much lower than the maximum permissible levels in drinking water set by international organization.(author)

  13. A study on hazard types occurring in hydrogen facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Chul; Jae, Moo Sung; Eon, Yang Joon

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen has ideal characteristics as an energy carrier. Hydrogen can be used as a clean fuel in a variety of energy end-use sectors including the conversion to electricity. After combustion, it produces only water. Therefore, the concept of hydrogen energy system has attracted much interest worldwide. But hydrogen has a defect that the explosion risk is high to an inflammable gas of a colorless, tasteless and odorless. Therefore, to use the hydrogen to the source of energy, hydrogen accident sequences and causes analysis must be needed. For this, hazard types occurring in hydrogen facilities have been considered through the case of domestic and foreign hydrogen accident in this study and hazard types to be considered are ignition, leaks, hydrogen dispersion, fire an explosion, storage vessel failure, vent and exhaust system, purging, condensation of air, hydrogen embrittlement, physiological hazard, and collisions during transportation

  14. Lichen striatus occurring after a tetanus vaccine: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yalçınkaya İyidal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen striatus (LS is an uncommon, acquired, self-limiting, linear inflammatory dermatosis. The eruption typically presents as pink or tan papules along Blaschko’s lines. It usually occurs in children, rarely affects adults. The rashes usually suddenly emerge in a single extremity and may regress within a few months or years. The incidence is slightly higher among women. The etiology of LS is not exactly known, however, it is thought to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune reaction. Trauma, infection, pregnancy, drugs, vaccination, and atopy have been reported as triggering factors. In the literature, four cases of LS developing after vaccination (3 children and 1 adult have been reported. It was the only reported adult case of LS developing after hepatitis B virus vaccination. Herein, we present a 36-year-old woman with LS which was thought to be triggered by a tetanus vaccine.

  15. A comprehensive analysis of the geomagnetic storms occurred dur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ghamry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards. Egyptian geomagnetic observatories observed multiple geomagnetic storms during 18 February to 2 March 2014. During this period, four interplanetary shocks successively hit the Earth’s magnetosphere, leading to four geomagnetic storms. The storm onsets occurred on 18, 20, 23 and 27 February. A non-substorm Pi2 pulsation was observed on 26 February. This Pi2 pulsation was detected in Egyptian observatories (Misallat and Abu Simbel, Kakioka station in Japan and Carson City station in US with nearly identical waveforms. Van Allen Probe missions observed non-compressional Pc4 pulsations on the recovery phase of the third storm. This Pc4 event is may be likely attributed to the decay of the ring current in the recovery phase.

  16. Early diagnosis of osteomyelitis occurred in the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Sook; Na, Seung Mog; Lee, Un Gyeong; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1994-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis provide good prognosis and prevent severe complications. Therefore, it is important to early diagnose and treat before the bony changes are observed in conventional radiograms. Authors experienced three cases of early osteomyelitis, and scintigrams were useful to differentiate them from other diseases. The purpose of this report was to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis occurred in the jaws. The characteristic features were as follows: 1. In clinical examination, the patients complained mild pain and localized swelling in the jaws. 2. In radiographic findings, the conventional radiograms showed relatively mild bony change in the jaws. 3. The more severe periosteal reactions were observed in radiograms in children than in adult patient. 4. It showed marked increased uptake of radioisotopes in all scintigrams. 5. The three phase bone scanning were helpful to differentiate osteomyelitis from soft tissue diseases.

  17. Acylation of proteins with myristic acid occurs cotranslationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.; Hu, J.S.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    Several proteins of viral and cellular origin are acylated with myristic acid early during their biogenesis. To investigate the possibility that myristylation occurred cotranslationally, the BC 3 H1 muscle cell line, which contains a broad array of myristylated proteins, was pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]myristic acid. Nascent polypeptide chains covalently associated with transfer RNA were isolated subsequently by ion-exchange chromatography. [ 3 H]Myristate was attached to nascent chains through an amide linkage and was identified by thin-layer chromatography after its release from nascent chains by acid methanolysis. Inhibition of cellular protein synthesis with puromycin resulted in cessation of [ 3 H]myristate-labeling of nascent chains, in agreement with the dependence of this modification on protein synthesis in vivo. These data represent a direct demonstration that myristylation of proteins is a cotranslational modification

  18. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards

  19. Discrimination of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material in Plastic Scintillator Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Schweppe, John E.; Warner, Ray A.

    2003-01-01

    Plastic scintillator material is used in many applications for the detection of gamma-rays from radioactive material, primarily due to the sensitivity per unit cost compared to other detection materials. However, the resolution and lack of full-energy peaks in the plastic scintillator material prohibits detailed spectroscopy. Therefore, other materials such as doped sodium iodide are used for spectroscopic applications. The limited spectroscopic information can however be exploited in plastic scintillator materials to provide some discrimination. The discrimination between man-made and naturally occurring sources would be useful in reducing alarm screening for radiation detection applications which target man-made sources. The results of applying the limited energy information from plastic scintillator material for radiation portal monitors are discussed.

  20. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  1. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L M; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrilla......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... lasting predominantly between 1 and 4 h. Four recurrent strokes were observed, three in patients with PAF; all three patients were on oral anticoagulation (OAC). CONCLUSIONS: One in five patients with CS had PAF, which occurred at low burden and long after stroke. Future studies should determine the role...

  2. Geological structure of strata and the occurence of gas outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewing, K

    1977-10-20

    Geological conditions which may have an influence on gas outbursts are depth, rank, type of formation, tectonic stresses, and the petrological form of the neighboring rock. The risk of outbursts is greater if there are dirt bands in the seam, since the coal can slide on these. Tectonically disturbed zones in seams containing more than 9 cu m of gas per ton are especially dangerous. Tectonic stress is not necessarily an indication of the severity of outbursts. Gas and sandstone outbursts do not depend on tectonic disturbance; outburst-prone sandstones have a greater pore volume and lower strength than normal. Almost all outbursts from the floor occur where the strata immediately below are impervious to gas and sandstone is present lower down. (In German)

  3. Modification of radiation damage by naturally occurring substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    The major objectives of studying the modification of radiation sensitivity have been (1) to identify a compound that will produce a differential protection or sensitization of the effect of irradiation on normal and tumor tissue, and (2) to understand more about the mechanisms of radiation damage. In spite of massive research on this particular problem since World War II, the first objective remains elusive. During this period, numerous radioprotective and radiosensitizing agents have been identified. These agents have served as important biologic tools for increasing our understanding of radiation injuries. Most of these substances are synthetic compounds and are very toxic to humans. In addition, very few of the compounds provide differential modifications of the effect of radiation on tumor and normal cells. This chapter presents objectives for identifying naturally occurring substances that modify the effect of x-radiation on mammalian cells and discusses the role of physiologic substances in modifying radiation injuries on mammalian normal and tumor cells

  4. Epigenetic variation in mangrove plants occurring in contrasting natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Fonseca Lira-Medeiros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation, are inherited in plant species and may occur in response to biotic or abiotic stress, affecting gene expression without changing genome sequence. Laguncularia racemosa, a mangrove species, occurs in naturally contrasting habitats where it is subjected daily to salinity and nutrient variations leading to morphological differences. This work aims at unraveling how CpG-methylation variation is distributed among individuals from two nearby habitats, at a riverside (RS or near a salt marsh (SM, with different environmental pressures and how this variation is correlated with the observed morphological variation.Significant differences were observed in morphological traits such as tree height, tree diameter, leaf width and leaf area between plants from RS and SM locations, resulting in smaller plants and smaller leaf size in SM plants. Methyl-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP was used to assess genetic and epigenetic (CpG-methylation variation in L. racemosa genomes from these populations. SM plants were hypomethylated (14.6% of loci had methylated samples in comparison to RS (32.1% of loci had methylated samples. Within-population diversity was significantly greater for epigenetic than genetic data in both locations, but SM also had less epigenetic diversity than RS. Frequency-based (G(ST and multivariate (beta(ST methods that estimate population structure showed significantly greater differentiation among locations for epigenetic than genetic data. Co-Inertia analysis, exploring jointly the genetic and epigenetic data, showed that individuals with similar genetic profiles presented divergent epigenetic profiles that were characteristic of the population in a particular environment, suggesting that CpG-methylation changes may be associated with environmental heterogeneity.In spite of significant morphological dissimilarities, individuals of L. racemosa from salt marsh and riverside presented

  5. Naturally occurring minichromosome platforms in chromosome engineering: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Artificially modified chromosome vectors are non-integrating gene delivery platforms that can shuttle very large DNA fragments in various recipient cells: theoretically, no size limit exists for the chromosome segments that an engineered minichromosome can accommodate. Therefore, genetically manipulated chromosomes might be potentially ideal vector systems, especially when the complexity of higher eukaryotic genes is concerned. This review focuses on those chromosome vectors generated using spontaneously occurring small markers as starting material. The definition and manipulation of the centromere domain is one of the main obstacles in chromosome engineering: naturally occurring minichromosomes, due to their inherent small size, were helpful in defining some aspects of centromere function. In addition, several distinctive features of small marker chromosomes, like their appearance as supernumerary elements in otherwise normal karyotypes, have been successfully exploited to use them as gene delivery vectors. The key technologies employed for minichromosome engineering are: size reduction, gene targeting, and vector delivery in various recipient cells. In spite of the significant advances that have been recently achieved in all these fields, several unsolved problems limit the potential of artificially modified chromosomes. Still, these vector systems have been exploited in a number of applications where the investigation of the controlled expression of large DNA segments is needed. A typical example is the analysis of genes whose expression strictly depends on the chromosomal environment in which they are positioned, where engineered chromosomes can be envisaged as epigenetically regulated expression systems. A novel and exciting advance concerns the use of engineered minichromosomes to study the organization and dynamics of local chromatin structures.

  6. 'The NORM Report' : the journal addressing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.T.; Tsurikov, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The need for the specific international publication dedicated to the radiation protection and regulatory issues associated with exposures of workers, general public and the environment in situations involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (Norm) has been identified almost ten years ago. In the 1990-s the journal entitled 'the NORM report' was published in the U.S.A. mainly dealt with legislative updates in regard to NORM in different states and at a later stage Canada. The printed journal has a wide following among industries and regulatory authorities concerned with NORM. Unfortunately, the publishing ceased in early 2000-s with the passing of the editor, Dr. Peter Gray. The publication of 'the NORM Report' will re-commence in early 2008 as an internet based publication that is intended to be a resource for: Regulatory authorities exchange information in regards to the 'NORM-specific' regulations and guidelines applicable in their jurisdictions. They are also able to collect details from authorities in other countries/states - to ensure the adoption of the most appropriate regulatory standards to similar levels of radiation exposure and the same industries world-wide (not only within the USA), a) Researches, who will be able to publish the results of their studies in a journal specifically dedicated to naturally occurring radioactive materials and b) Industries that use, process, and generate - to facilitate the information exchange in regards to best practices in controlling radiation exposure and in the disposal or re-use of NORM-containing materials. The intent of the presentation is to obtain the opinion of a wider radiation protection community of the usefulness and the contents of the publication of 'the NORM Report' to ensure the journal meets its state objectives. (author)

  7. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Gammie

    2008-04-01

    occurring neglect and that MaD1 mice are a useful model for understanding the basis of naturally occurring neglect.

  8. Canine osteosarcoma: a naturally occurring disease to inform pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Joelle M; London, Cheryl A; Kisseberth, William C

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common form of malignant bone cancer in children and dogs, although the disease occurs in dogs approximately 10 times more frequently than in people. Multidrug chemotherapy and aggressive surgical techniques have improved survival; however, new therapies for OSA are critical, as little improvement in survival times has been achieved in either dogs or people over the past 15 years, even with significant efforts directed at the incorporation of novel therapeutic approaches. Both clinical and molecular evidence suggests that human and canine OSA share many key features, including tumor location, presence of microscopic metastatic disease at diagnosis, development of chemotherapy-resistant metastases, and altered expression/activation of several proteins (e.g. Met, ezrin, phosphatase and tensin homolog, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and p53 mutations, among others. Additionally, canine and pediatric OSA exhibit overlapping transcriptional profiles and shared DNA copy number aberrations, supporting the notion that these diseases are similar at the molecular level. This review will discuss the similarities between pediatric and canine OSA with regard to histology, biologic behavior, and molecular genetic alterations that indicate canine OSA is a relevant, spontaneous, large animal model of the pediatric disease and outline how the study of naturally occurring OSA in dogs will offer additional insights into the biology and future treatment of this disease in both children and dogs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10 6 /yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs

  10. Why and Where do Large Shallow Slab Earthquakes Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2001-12-01

    Within a shallow portion (20-60 km depth) of subducting slabs, it has been believed that large earthquakes seldom occur because the differential stress is generally expected to be low between bending at the trench-outer rise and unbending at the intermediate-depth. However, there are several regions in which large ( M>=7.0 ) earthquakes, including three events early in this year, have occurred in this portion. Searching such events from published individual studies and Harvard University centroid moment tensor catalogue, we find nineteen events in eastern Hokkaido, Kyushu-SW Japan, Mariana, Manila, Sumatra, Vanuatu, Chile, Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, and Cascadia. Slab stresses revealed from the mechanism solutions of those large events and smaller events are tensional in a slab dip direction. However, ages of the subducting oceanic plates are generally young, which denies a possibility that the slab pull works as a cause. Except for Manila and Sumatra, the stresses in the overriding plates are characterized by the change in {σ }Hmax direction from arc-parallel in the back-arc to arc-perpendicular in the fore-arc, which implies that a horizontal stress gradient exists in the across-arc direction. Peru and Chile, where the back-arc is compressional, can be categorized into this type, because a horizontal stress gradient exists over the continent from tension in east to compression in the west. In these regions, it is expected that mantle drag forces are operating beneath the upper plates, which drive the upper plates to the trenchward overriding the subducting oceanic plates. Assuming that the mantle drag forces beneath the upper plates originate from the mantle convection currents or upwelling plumes, we infer that the upper plates driven by the convection suck the oceanic plates, making the shallow portion of the slabs in extra-tension, thus resulting in the large shallow slab earthquakes in this tectonic regime.

  11. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  12. Late Acute Rejection Occuring in Liver Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of immunosuppressive reduction on the incidence and consequence of late acute rejection (LAR in liver allograft recipients, mean daily prednisone dose, mean cyclosporine A (CsA trough and nadir levels were retrospectively reviewed for the nearest 12-week period preceding six episodes of LAR in five liver allograft recipients (group 1. Results were compared with those from a cohort of 12 liver allograft recipients who did not develop LAR (group 2. LAR was defined as acute rejection occurring more than 365 days post-transplantation. Median follow-up for both groups was similar (504 days, range 367 to 1050, versus 511 days, range 365 to 666, not significant. Mean trough CsA levels were lower in patients with LAR compared with those without (224±66 ng/mL versus 233±49 ng/mL but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, mean daily prednisone dose (2.5±1.6 mg/ day versus 6.5±2.9 mg/day, P=0.007 and CsA nadir values (129±60 ng/mL versus 186±40 ng/mL, P=0.03 were significantly lower in patients who developed LAR compared with those who did not. Five of six episodes (83% of LAR occurred in patients receiving less than 5 mg/day of prednisone, versus a single LAR episode in only one of 12 patients (8% receiving prednisone 5 mg/day or more (P=0.004. In all but one instance, LAR responded to pulse methylprednisolone without discernible affect on long term graft function. The authors conclude that liver allograft recipients remain vulnerable to acute rejection beyond the first post-transplant year; and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly prednisone, below a critical, albeit low dose, threshold increases the risk of LAR.

  13. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  14. Rapid Continuous Multimaterial Extrusion Bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wanjun; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Heinrich, Marcel A.; De Ferrari, F; Jang, HL; Bakht, SM; Alvarez, MM; Yang, J; Li, YC; Trujillo-de Stantiago, G; Miri, AK; Zhu, K; Khoshakhlagh, P; Prakash, G; Cheng, H; Guan, X; Zhong, Z; Ju, J; Zhu, GH; Jin, X; Ryon Shin, Su; Dokmeci, M.R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    The development of a multimaterial extrusion bioprinting platform is reported. This platform is capable of depositing multiple coded bioinks in a continuous manner with fast and smooth switching among different reservoirs for rapid fabrication of complex constructs, through digitally controlled

  15. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  16. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  17. Fatigue crack growth in fiber reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth in fiber composites occurs by such complex modes as to frustrate efforts at developing comprehensive theories and models. Under certain loading conditions and with certain types of reinforcement, simpler modes of fatigue crack growth are observed. These modes are more amenable to modeling efforts, and the fatigue crack growth rate can be predicted in some cases. Thus, a formula for prediction of ligamented mode fatigue crack growth rate is available.

  18. Using molecular techniques for rapid detection of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... A total of 152 samples of chicken and chicken products ... detection of Salmonella species in the collected field samples ... that 16 million new cases of typhoid fever occur each ... vative methods for the rapid identification of Salmonella ... saved for the PCR-Non Selective test (PCR-NS) and 1 ml of the.

  19. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M. A.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Oliveira, E. G. de

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in pAu and pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio R pA considering transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities when compared with the already known forward ones, since it is related with the large x kinematical region that is being probed. The rapidity dependence of the nuclear modification ratio in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken x behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio R F 2 =F 2 A /F 2 p . The R pA transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large x nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio R pA is reduced as p T increases, presenting an opposite behavior when compared with the forward one. It implies that the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry information of the nuclear effects at large Bjorken x, as well as that it is useful to investigate the p T dependence of the observables in this kinematical regime

  20. Acral keratoses and leucocytoclastic vasculitis occurring during treatment of essential thrombocythaemia with hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, B; Glassman, S J

    2016-03-01

    Hydroxyurea is used in essential thrombocythaemia to lower thromboembolic risk. Cutaneous adverse effects from hydroxyurea are diverse. Small vessel vasculitis has been rarely reported, and the coexistence of several different morphologies has not been described. We report a case of acral keratoses, psoriasiform plaques and leucocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) in a patient with essential thrombocythaemia. A 69-year-old woman developed a confusing array of skin lesions including keratotic papules, psoriasiform plaques and keratoderma 4 years after commencing hydroxyurea therapy. The initial diagnosis was hand and foot psoriasis, but lesions were resistant to therapy. With an increase in the dose of hydroxyurea, the lesions ulcerated. Skin biopsies taken from different sites indicated different diagnoses, including LCV. Discontinuation of hydroxyurea yielded rapid improvement. Although the most commonly reported cutaneous adverse effect from hydroxyurea is leg ulceration, this can be preceded or accompanied by less dramatic skin lesions. Unless recognized, delayed diagnosis and lesion progression can occur. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.