Sample records for rapid glass refiner

  1. Rapid Glass Refiner Development Program, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A rapid glass refiner (RGR) technology which could be applied to both conventional and advanced class melting systems would significantly enhance the productivity and the competitiveness of the glass industry in the United States. Therefore, Vortec Corporation, with the support of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-90ID12911, conducted a research and development program for a unique and innovative approach to rapid glass refining. To provide focus for this research effort, container glass was the primary target from among the principal glass types based on its market size and potential for significant energy savings. Container glass products represent the largest segment of the total glass industry accounting for 60% of the tonnage produced and over 40% of the annual energy consumption of 232 trillion Btu/yr. Projections of energy consumption and the market penetration of advanced melting and fining into the container glass industry yield a potential energy savings of 7.9 trillion Btu/yr by the year 2020.

  2. Refining glass structure in two dimensions (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Bhattarai, Bishal; Drabold, D. A.; Thorpe, M. F.; Wilson, Mark


    Recently determined atomistic scale structures of near-two dimensional bilayers of vitreous silica (using scanning probe and electron microscopy) allow us to refine the experimentally determined coordinates to incorporate the known local chemistry more precisely. Further refinement is achieved by using classical potentials of varying complexity: one using harmonic potentials and the second employing an electrostatic description incorporating polarization effects. These are benchmarked against density functional calculations. Our main findings are that (a) there is a symmetry plane between the two disordered layers, a nice example of an emergent phenomena, (b) the layers are slightly tilted so that the Si-O-Si angle between the two layers is not 180∘ as originally thought but rather 175 ±2∘ , and (c) while interior areas that are not completely imagined can be reliably reconstructed, surface areas are more problematic. It is shown that small crystallites that appear are just as expected statistically in a continuous random network. This provides a good example of the value that can be added to disordered structures imaged at the atomic level by implementing computer refinement.

  3. Premixing hydrogen burners for surface refinement of glass; Vormischende Wasserstoffbrenner zur Oberflaechenbearbeitung von Glas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerisch, Matthias [Linde AG, Linde Gas Deutschland, Nuernberg (Germany)


    As a result, inter alia, of unceasing globalisation, European glass producers in practically all sectors - flat glass, container glass, crystal glass and special glasses - are faced with ever tougher competition from Asia. In the 2012 to 2015 period and beyond, the principal focuses in the manufacture of glass products will again be on reducing overall production costs and increasing process efficiency wherever possible, on greater productivity and on enhanced product (surface) quality. To meet these challenges in the field of surface refinement and flame polishing of glass products as efficiently as possible, Linde AG/Linde Gases Division has developed premixing Hydropox {sup registered} burner technology for hydrogen/oxygen fuels. (orig.)

  4. Signaling change during a crisis : Refining conditions for the glass cliff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulich, Clara; Lorenzi-Cioldi, Fabio; Iacoviello, Vincenzo; Faniko, Klea; Ryan, Michelle K.


    Research into the glass cliff indicates that adverse company circumstances, compared to favorable ones, increase the likelihood of women to be appointed in leadership positions. Study 1 refined the conditions under which a glass cliff occurs by demonstrating a preference for a female leader when a

  5. Rapid screening of potential metallic glasses for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.H. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.H. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chuang, J.F. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, J.C., E-mail: [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jang, J.S.C. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, C.H. [Department of Orthopedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Orthopedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    This paper presents a rapid screening process to select potential titanium and zirconium based metallic glasses (MGs) for bio-material applications. Electrochemical activity of 7 MGs including 6 bulk metallic glasses and 1 thin-film deposited MG in simulation body and human serum is first inspected. A low-voltage potential state test is also developed to simulate the cell membrane potential that the implant MGs will suffer. Results show that the MGs composed of Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} and Ta{sub 57}Zr{sub 23}Cu{sub 12}Ti{sub 8} exhibit excellent electrochemical stability in both simulation body fluid and human serum. In addition, the copper content in the MGs plays an important role on the electrochemical activity. MGs with the copper content higher than 17.5% show significant electrochemical responses. The cytotoxicity of the solid MG samples and the corrosion released ions are also evaluated by an in-vitro MTT test utilizing the murine bone marrow stem cells. Results indicate that all the solid MG samples show no acute cytotoxicity yet the corrosion released ions show significant toxicity for murine bone marrow stem cells. The rapid screening process developed in the present study suggests that the Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} metallic glass has high potential for biomedical applications due to its good electrochemical stability and very low cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • A rapid electrochemical cycle screening process is proposed. • This process can select potential metallic glasses for bio-material applications. • The Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} metallic glass exhibits the best response and high potential.

  6. Rapidly-Exploring Roadmaps: Weighing Exploration vs. Refinement in Optimal Motion Planning. (United States)

    Alterovitz, Ron; Patil, Sachin; Derbakova, Anna


    Computing globally optimal motion plans requires exploring the configuration space to identify reachable free space regions as well as refining understanding of already explored regions to find better paths. We present the rapidly-exploring roadmap (RRM), a new method for single-query optimal motion planning that allows the user to explicitly consider the trade-off between exploration and refinement. RRM initially explores the configuration space like a rapidly exploring random tree (RRT). Once a path is found, RRM uses a user-specified parameter to weigh whether to explore further or to refine the explored space by adding edges to the current roadmap to find higher quality paths in the explored space. Unlike prior methods, RRM does not focus solely on exploration or refine prematurely. We demonstrate the performance of RRM and the trade-off between exploration and refinement using two examples, a point robot moving in a plane and a concentric tube robot capable of following curved trajectories inside patient anatomy for minimally invasive medical procedures.

  7. Low-Cost Rapid Prototyping of Whole-Glass Microfluidic Devices (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki; Goral, Vasiliy N.


    A low-cost, straightforward, rapid prototyping of whole-glass microfluidic devices is presented using glass-etching cream that can be easily purchased in local stores. A self-adhered vinyl stencil cut out by a desktop digital craft cutter was used as an etching mask for patterning microstructures in glass using the glass-etching cream. A specific…

  8. Microstructure refinement and hardening of Ag–20 wt.%Cu alloy by rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussana, Danilo, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Castellero, Alberto [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Vedani, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Ripamonti, Dario; Angella, Giuliano [Istituto IENI-CNR, Unità territoriale di Milano, Milano (Italy); Baricco, Marcello [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy)


    Highlights: • Ag80–Cu20 alloy were rapidly solidified by planar flow casting technique. • A significant refinement of the eutectic microstructure has been obtained. • A refinement of the primary silver-rich phase has been achieved with high cooling rate. • The hardness increases up to the 150% of the value of an annealed sample. - Abstract: Ag–20 wt.%Cu (wt%) hypoeutectic alloy has been rapidly solidified by means of planar flow casting technique. Two fcc solid solutions have been identified by X-ray diffraction. Microstructures have been observed by electron microscopy. A refinement of the eutectic microstructure, as well as of the Ag-rich primary phase, has been observed for high quenching rates, leading to a hardness value up to 235 Vickers. The lattice parameter and phase fraction of the Ag-rich solid solution increase as a function of quenching rates (i.e. wheel speed). The solidification processes occurring during rapid quenching have been described on the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic arguments.

  9. Rapid determination of Faraday rotation in optical glasses by means of secondary Faraday modulator. (United States)

    Sofronie, M; Elisa, M; Sava, B A; Boroica, L; Valeanu, M; Kuncser, V


    A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided.

  10. Rapid refinement of protein interfaces incorporating solvation: application to the docking problem. (United States)

    Jackson, R M; Gabb, H A; Sternberg, M J


    A computationally tractable strategy has been developed to refine protein-protein interfaces that models the effects of side-chain conformational change, solvation and limited rigid-body movement of the subunits. The proteins are described at the atomic level by a multiple copy representation of side-chains modelled according to a rotamer library on a fixed peptide backbone. The surrounding solvent environment is described by "soft" sphere Langevin dipoles for water that interact with the protein via electrostatic, van der Waals and field-dependent hydrophobic terms. Energy refinement is based on a two-step process in which (1) a probability-based conformational matrix of the protein side-chains is refined iteratively by a mean field method. A side-chain interacts with the protein backbone and the probability-weighted average of the surrounding protein side-chains and solvent molecules. The resultant protein conformations then undergo (2) rigid-body energy minimization to relax the protein interface. Steps (1) and (2) are repeated until convergence of the interaction energy. The influence of refinement on side-chain conformation starting from unbound conformations found improvement in the RMSD of side-chains in the interface of protease-inhibitor complexes, and shows that the method leads to an improvement in interface geometry. In terms of discriminating between docked structures, the refinement was applied to two classes of protein-protein complex: five protease-protein inhibitor and four antibody-antigen complexes. A large number of putative docked complexes have already been generated for the test systems using our rigid-body docking program, FTDOCK. They include geometries that closely resemble the crystal complex, and therefore act as a test for the refinement procedure. In the protease-inhibitors, geometries that resemble the crystal complex are ranked in the top four solutions for four out of five systems when solvation is included in the energy function

  11. Rapid determination of chlorobutanol in milk by glass capillary gas chromatography. (United States)

    Van Rillaer, W G; Beernaert, H


    A rapid method for the determination of chlorobutanol(1,1,1-trichloro-2-methylpropan-2-ol) in milk is described. The method is based on a steam-distillation solvent-extraction technique and a quantitative determination of chlorobutanol by gas chromatography using a glass-capillary column coated with Carbowax 20M and 2,2,2-trichloroethanol as internal standard. The detection limit is 1 pg and recoveries of chlorobutanol are between 93 und 99%. Fifty-two milk samples have been analysed.

  12. A rapid and reliable bonding process for microchip electrophoresis fabricated in glass substrates. (United States)

    Segato, Thiago Pinotti; Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Almeida, André Luiz de Jesus; Piazetta, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz; Mazo, Luiz Henrique; Carrilho, Emanuel


    In this report, we describe a rapid and reliable process to bond channels fabricated in glass substrates. Glass channels were fabricated by photolithography and wet chemical etching. The resulting channels were bonded against another glass plate containing a 50-microm thick PDMS layer. This same PDMS layer was also used to provide the electrical insulation of planar electrodes to carry out capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The analytical performance of the proposed device was shown by using both LIF and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection systems. Efficiency around 47,000 plates/m was achieved with good chip-to-chip repeatability and satisfactory long-term stability of EOF. The RSD for the EOF measured in three different devices was ca. 7%. For a chip-to-chip comparison, the RSD values for migration time, electrophoretic current and peak area were below 10%. With the proposed approach, a single chip can be fabricated in less than 30 min including patterning, etching and sealing steps. This fabrication process is faster and easier than the thermal bonding process. Besides, the proposed method does not require high temperatures and provides excellent day-to-day and device-to-device repeatability.

  13. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe


    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  14. Merging of the alpha and beta relaxations and aging via the Johari–Goldstein modes in rapidly quenched metallic glasses


    Hachenberg, Jörg; Bedorf, Dennis; Samwer, Konrad; Richert, Ranko; Kahl, Annelen; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.


    This paper provides evidence that the physical aging of deeply and rapidly quenched metallic glasses is promoted by the Johari–Goldstein slow beta relaxation, resulting in a significant irreversible increase in the mechanical modulus on initial heating. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to characterize relaxation phenomena of a strong and a fragile metallic glass. In addition, we can extrapolate the temperature dependence of beta- and alpha-relaxation peaks to higher temperatures and ...

  15. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  16. glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    several applications. Some of the possible applications are optical amplifiers in telecommunication,7 phosphorescence materials and electrochemical batteries.8 Rare earth metal ions when added to borate act as network modifiers and change the properties of glasses .... where R is the universal gas constant. 3.3 Electrical ...

  17. Physical aging of molecular glasses studied by a device allowing for rapid thermal equilibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Niss, Kristine


    Aging to the equilibrium liquid state of organic glasses is studied. The glasses were prepared by cooling the liquid to temperatures just below the glass transition. Aging following a temperature jump was studied by measuring the dielectric loss at a fixed frequency using a microregulator in which...... temperature is controlled by means of a Peltier element. Compared to conventional equipment, the new device adds almost two orders of magnitude to the span of observable aging times. Data for the following five glass-forming liquids are presented: dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, 2,3-epoxy propyl......-phenyl-ether, 5-polyphenyl-ether, and triphenyl phosphite. The aging data were analyzed using the Tool–Narayanaswamy formalism. The following features are found for all five liquids: (1) The liquid has an “internal clock,” a fact that is established by showing that aging is controlled by the same material time...

  18. Rapid calculation of protein chemical shifts using bond polarization theory and its application to protein structure refinement. (United States)

    Jakovkin, Igor; Klipfel, Marco; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Ulrich, Anne S; Luy, Burkhard; Sternberg, Ulrich


    Although difficult to analyze, NMR chemical shifts provide detailed information on protein structure. We have adapted the semi-empirical bond polarization theory (BPT) to protein chemical shift calculation and chemical shift driven protein structure refinement. A new parameterization for BPT amide nitrogen chemical shift calculation has been derived from MP2 ab initio calculations and successfully evaluated using crystalline tripeptides. We computed the chemical shifts of the small globular protein ubiquitin, demonstrating that BPT calculations can match the results obtained at the DFT level of theory at very low computational cost. In addition to the calculation of chemical shift tensors, BPT allows the calculation of chemical shift gradients and consequently chemical shift driven geometry optimizations. We applied chemical shift driven protein structure refinement to the conformational analysis of a set of Trypanosoma brucei (the causative agent of African sleeping sickness) tryparedoxin peroxidase Px III structures. We found that the interaction of Px III with its reaction partner Tpx seems to be governed by conformational selection rather than by induced fit.

  19. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Fine-hole drilling in Upilex polyimide and glass by TEA ? laser ablation (United States)

    Dyer, P. E.; Waldeck, I.; Roberts, G. C.


    Small-scale hole formation in Upilex polyimide and soda-lime glass using TEA 0022-3727/30/6/003/img2 laser ablation is reported. Hole dimensions as small as 0022-3727/30/6/003/img3 produced in the polyimide suggest optical resolution rather than thermal degradation effects limit the feature size attainable in infrared TEA 0022-3727/30/6/003/img2 laser polymer ablation.

  20. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests supporting refinement of the Nepheline model for the high aluminum Hanford Glass composition region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Mcclane, D. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)


    In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated HLW glasses fabricated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as part of an ongoing nepheline crystallization study. The results of these analyses will be used to improve the ability to predict crystallization of nepheline as a function of composition and heat treatment for glasses formulated at high alumina concentrations.

  1. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests supporting refinement of the Nepheline Model for the high aluminum Hanford glass composition region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    In this report, Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated high level waste (HLW) glasses fabricated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as part of an ongoing nepheline crystallization study. The results of these analyses will be used to improve the ability to predict crystallization of nepheline as a function of composition and heat treatment for glasses formulated at high alumina concentrations.

  2. Rapid amperometric detection of coliforms based on MWNTs/Nafion composite film modified glass carbon electrode. (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiao; Liu, Yajun; Huang, Jingjing; Xian, Yuezhong; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Zhonghai; Jin, Litong


    A multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated for the rapid amperometric detection of coliforms, represented by Escherichia coli (E. coli). In the bacterial solution, beta-galactosidase which was used as an indicator of coliforms reacted with substrate, p-aminophenol-beta-galactopyranoside (PAPG), and produced p-aminophenol (PAP). PAP was detected by MWNTs/Nafion modified GCE. Due to the cation-exchange capacity of Nafion and the electrocatalytic ability of MWNTs, the detection sensitivity of PAP was improved and the detection time of coliforms was shortened. The bacterial can be detected within 5h ranging from 10 to 10(4)cfu/mL. The MWNTs/Nafion modified GCE was easy to be constructed and regenerated. To our best knowledge, it was the first time to use MWNTs/Nafion modified GCE to detect the concentration of coliforms.

  3. Rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy CT ex vivo renal calculi characterization using a multiparametric approach: refining parameters on an expanded dataset. (United States)

    Kriegshauser, J Scott; Paden, Robert G; He, Miao; Humphreys, Mitchell R; Zell, Steven I; Fu, Yinlin; Wu, Teresa; Sugi, Mark D; Silva, Alvin C


    We aimed to determine the best algorithms for renal stone composition characterization using rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy computed tomography (rsDECT) and a multiparametric approach after dataset expansion and refinement of variables. rsDECT scans (80 and 140 kVp) were performed on 38 ex vivo 5- to 10-mm renal stones composed of uric acid (UA; n = 21), struvite (STR; n = 5), cystine (CYS; n = 5), and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM; n = 7). Measurements were obtained for 17 variables: mean Hounsfield units (HU) at 11 monochromatic keV levels, effective Z, 2 iodine-water material basis pairs, and 3 mean monochromatic keV ratios (40/140, 70/120, 70/140). Analysis included using 5 multiparametric algorithms: Support Vector Machine, RandomTree, Artificial Neural Network, Naïve Bayes Tree, and Decision Tree (C4.5). Separating UA from non-UA stones was 100% accurate using multiple methods. For non-UA stones, using a 70-keV mean cutoff value of 694 HU had 100% accuracy for distinguishing COM from non-COM (CYS, STR) stones. The best result for distinguishing all 3 non-UA subtypes was obtained using RandomTree (15/17, 88%). For stones 5 mm or larger, multiple methods can distinguish UA from non-UA and COM from non-COM stones with 100% accuracy. Thus, the choice for analysis is per the user's preference. The best model for separating all three non-UA subtypes was 88% accurate, although with considerable individual overlap between CYS and STR stones. Larger, more diverse datasets, including in vivo data and technical improvements in material separation, may offer more guidance in distinguishing non-UA stone subtypes in the clinical setting.

  4. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.


    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  5. Photolithography-free laser-patterned HF acid-resistant chromium-polyimide mask for rapid fabrication of microfluidic systems in glass (United States)

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O.; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Davis, Cristina E.


    Excellent chemical and physical properties of glass, over a range of operating conditions, make it a preferred material for chemical detection systems in analytical chemistry, biology, and the environmental sciences. However, it is often compromised with SU8, PDMS, or Parylene materials due to the sophisticated mask preparation requirements for wet etching of glass. Here, we report our efforts toward developing a photolithography-free laser-patterned hydrofluoric acid-resistant chromium-polyimide tape mask for rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in glass. The patterns are defined in masking layer with a diode-pumped solid-state laser. Minimum feature size is limited to the diameter of the laser beam, 30 µm minimum spacing between features is limited by the thermal shrinkage and adhesive contact of the polyimide tape to 40 µm. The patterned glass substrates are etched in 49% hydrofluoric acid at ambient temperature with soft agitation (in time increments, up to 60 min duration). In spite of the simplicity, our method demonstrates comparable results to the other current more sophisticated masking methods in terms of the etched depth (up to 300 µm in borosilicate glass), feature under etch ratio in isotropic etch (~1.36), and low mask hole density. The method demonstrates high yield and reliability. To our knowledge, this method is the first proposed technique for rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in glass with such high performance parameters. The proposed method of fabrication can potentially be implemented in research institutions without access to a standard clean-room facility.

  6. Indirect rapid prototyping of sol-gel hybrid glass scaffolds for bone regeneration - Effects of organic crosslinker valence, content and molecular weight on mechanical properties. (United States)

    Hendrikx, Stephan; Kascholke, Christian; Flath, Tobias; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela


    We present a series of organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel derived glasses, made from a tetraethoxysilane-derived silica sol (100% SiO2) and oligovalent organic crosslinkers functionalized with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane. The material was susceptible to heat sterilization. The hybrids were processed into pore-interconnected scaffolds by an indirect rapid prototyping method, described here for the first time for sol-gel glass materials. A large panel of polyethylene oxide-derived 2- to 4-armed crosslinkers of molecular weights ranging between 170 and 8000Da were incorporated and their effect on scaffold mechanical properties was investigated. By multiple linear regression, 'organic content' and the 'content of ethylene oxide units in the hybrid' were identified as the main factors that determined compressive strength and modulus, respectively. In general, 3- and 4-armed crosslinkers performed better than linear molecules. Compression tests and cell culture experiments with osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells showed that macroporous scaffolds can be produced with compressive strengths of up to 33±2MPa and with a pore structure that allows cells to grow deep into the scaffolds and form mineral deposits. Compressive moduli between 27±7MPa and 568±98MPa were obtained depending on the hybrid composition and problems associated with the inherent brittleness of sol-gel glass materials could be overcome. SaOS-2 cells showed cytocompatibility on hybrid glass scaffolds and mineral accumulation started as early as day 7. On day 14, we also found mineral accumulation on control hybrid glass scaffolds without cells, indicating a positive effect of the hybrid glass on mineral accumulation. We produced a hybrid sol-gel glass material with significantly improved mechanical properties towards an application in bone regeneration and processed the material into macroporous scaffolds of controlled architecture by indirect rapid prototyping. We were able to produce macroporous materials

  7. Characteristics of MoSe{sub 2} formation during rapid thermal processing of Mo-coated glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soobin; Koo, Jaseok; Kim, Sammi [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-Hyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Taehoon [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jong Seok; Kim, Suk Jin [AVACO Co., Ltd., Daegu 704-833 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Kyoung, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    Multi-layered Mo, prepared using an in-line sputtering system, was selenized by reaction with Se vapor and thermal annealing of bilayer Mo/Se samples. In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the phase evolution of the glass/Mo/Se sample during heat treatment was similar to that of the selenization of glass/Mo with Se vapor, except for crystallization of Se in the glass/Mo/Se sample. However, the MoSe{sub 2} layer formed from the selenization of the Mo layer by Se vapor preferentially grew perpendicularly to the Mo surface, whereas MoSe{sub 2} formed from the reaction of Mo with Se liquid showed random orientation. The detailed reaction pathways of the double-layer random-MoSe{sub 2}/vertical-MoSe{sub 2} formation from the Mo/Se bilayer sample were suggested on the basis of the several characterization results including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected-area electron diffraction patterns. - Highlights: ► The selenization of glass/Mo and glass/Mo/Se samples was investigated. ► The reaction of the Mo layer with Se vapor produced vertically oriented MoSe{sub 2}. ► Randomly oriented MoSe{sub 2} layer was formed from the reaction of Mo with liquid Se.

  8. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology. (United States)

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R


    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28; target: 0.9-1.3 This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows.

  9. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel rapid-setting spherical sub-micron bioactive glasses cements and their biocompatibility in vitro. (United States)

    Li, Yuli; Liang, Qiming; Lin, Cai; Li, Xian; Chen, Xiaofeng; Hu, Qing


    Dental pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and forms the dentin. Bioactive glasses (BGs) may be promising materials for pulp repair due to their excellent abilities of rapidly bonding to bone and stimulating new bone growth. However, the unsatisfied handling property, low plasticity, and poor rapid-setting property of traditional BGs limit its application in vital pulp therapy. Spherical bioactive glasses (SBGs) exhibited higher osteogenesis and odontogenic differentiation than irregular BGs. This study focuses on the application of SBGs with rapid setting property for dental pulp repair. Here, SBGs with various compositions were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel process using dodecylamine (DDA) served as both a catalyst and a template. The maximum content of CaO in SBGs was about 15%. The non-bridge oxygen amounts of the SiO network and the apatite-forming ability increased with the content proportion of CaO and P2O5. Bioactive glass pulp capping materials (BGPCMs) were prepared by mixing the SBGs powders and the phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The K3CaH(PO4)2 and hydroxyapatite (HA) formed between SBGs particles as soon as they were mixed with PBS solution. The compressive strengths of fully set BCPCM-2 molded were measured to be 31.76±1.9577MPa after setting for 24h. The K3CaH(PO4)2 and the low crystallinity HA phases at the initial stage of solidification transformed to crystalline HA for 3days, and the compressive strength was still higher than 10MPa. Additionally, SBG-2 with a designed molar composition of 35% SiO2, 55% CaO and 10% P2O5 more promoted dental pulp cell proliferation, and could be potential pulp capping applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Colloidal glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the concentration of the jamming entity above random loose packing threshold leading to a disordered state. Common examples: toothpaste, hair gel, shaving foam, concentrated suspensions, emulsions, etc.

  11. Refined Hopf Link Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Amer


    We establish a relation between the refined Hopf link invariant and the S-matrix of the refined Chern-Simons theory. We show that the refined open string partition function corresponding to the Hopf link, calculated using the refined topological vertex, when expressed in the basis of Macdonald polynomials gives the S-matrix of the refined Chern-Simons theory.

  12. Assessing surface albedo change and its induced radiation budget under rapid urbanization with Landsat and GLASS data (United States)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Pohl, Christine; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; van Genderen, John


    Radiative forcing (RF) induced by land use (mainly surface albedo) change is still not well understood in climate change science, especially the effects of changes in urban albedo due to rapid urbanization on the urban radiation budget. In this study, a modified RF derivation approach based on Landsat images was used to quantify changes in the solar radiation budget induced by variations in surface albedo in Beijing from 2001 to 2009. Field radiation records from a Beijing meteorological station were used to identify changes in RF at the local level. There has been rapid urban expansion over the last decade, with the urban land area increasing at about 3.3 % annually from 2001 to 2009. This has modified three-dimensional urban surface properties, resulting in lower albedo due to complex building configurations of urban centers and higher albedo on flat surfaces of suburban areas and cropland. There was greater solar radiation (6.93 × 108 W) in the urban center in 2009 than in 2001. However, large cropland and urban fringe areas caused less solar radiation absorption. RF increased with distance from the urban center (less than 14 km) and with greater urbanization, with the greatest value being 0.41 W/m2. The solar radiation budget in urban areas was believed to be mainly influenced by urban structural changes in the horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that cumulative urbanization impacts on the natural radiation budget could evolve into an important driver of local climate change.

  13. [Improving the quality of glass ocular prostheses]. (United States)

    Nadareĭshvili, T B; Pakhomova, T S; Labutina, L V; Kachko, A L


    A critical analysis has been attempted of the current state-of-the-art in studying seleno-cadmium ruby glasses applicable for glass ocular prosthesis production. Better quality of these prostheses can be achieved by both the refinement of the ruby glass composition and by its strengthening (hardening) through proper methods.

  14. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor


    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  15. UV Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanowires Grown on Glass by Rapid Thermal Oxidation of Zinc Films (United States)

    Mihailova, I.; Gerbreders, V.; Sļedevskis, Ē.; Bulanovs, A.; Paškevičs, V.


    The nanostructured ZnO thin films were successfully synthesized by rapid thermal oxidation of metallic zinc films without catalysts or additives. On the surface of thin films the formation of ZnO nanowires was observed. In the work, the optical and electrical parameters and photoresponses of the obtained ZnO thin films were investigated. Nanostructured thin films of the type have a promising potential for the use in optoelectronics, sensor technique and biomedical sciences Šī darba galvenais mērķis bija izpētīt UV fotodetektora izgatavošanas iespējamību uz nanostrukturētu ZnO plāno kārtiņu bāzes, kas sintezētas termiski oksidējot Zn plānās kārtiņas. Termiskās oksidēšanas rezultātā tika novērota adatveidīgu ZnO nanostruktūru formēšanās uz kārtiņu virsmas. Izpētītas iegūto paraugu optiskās un elektriskās īpašības, kā arī fotoreakcija. Tika konstatēts, ka iegūto nanostrukturēto ZnO kārtiņu elektriskā vadītspēja ir ārkārtīgi jutīga pret UV starojumu, taču, apstarojot ar redzamo gaismu, strāva paliek gandrīz nemainīga. Kārtiņu elektriskās vadītspējas fotoreakcija ir atkarīga arī no nanostruktūru daudzuma uz virsmas. Visaugstākā UV fotovadītspēja tika novērota paraugam ar vislielāko ZnO nanoadatu koncentrāciju. UV gaismas inducētais vadītspējas pieaugums ļauj ZnO nanoadatas reversīvi pārslēgt starp stāvokļiem "ieslēgts" un "izslēgts". Līdz ar to, šīs fotojutīgās nanoadatas var tikt izmantotas UV gaismas detektoros un optiskajos slēdžos. Šādas nanostrukturētas plānās kārtiņas var tikt pielietotas arī ķīmiskajos un bioloģiskajos sensoros, pjezoelektriskajās ierīcēs, saules elementos utt. Turklāt, šādu nanostrukturēto ZnO plāno kārtiņu sintēzes process ir salīdzinoši lēts un vienkāršs, dodot iespēju liela mēroga produkcijas ražošanai

  16. Rapid synthesis of rutile TiO2 nano-flowers by dealloying Cu60Ti30Y10 metallic glasses (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Pan, Ye; Wu, Shikai; Zhang, Enming; Dai, Weiji


    The 3D nanostructure rutile TiO2 photocatalyst was rapidly synthesized by dealloying method using Cu60Ti30Y10 amorphous ribbons as precursors. The preparation period was kept down to just 3 h, which is much shorter than those of the samples by dealloying Cu60Ti30Al10, Cu70Ti30 and Cu60Ti30Sn10. The synthesized sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and XPS reveal the successful synthesis of rutile TiO2. The SEM and TEM images show that the synthesized rutile TiO2 nano-material presents homogeneous distributed 3D nanoflowers structure, which is composed of large quantities of fine rice-like nanorods (40-150 nm in diameter and 100-250 nm in length). BET specific surface areas of the samples were investigated by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, the fabricated rutile TiO2 exhibits very high specific surface area (194.08 m2/g). The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by degrading rhodamine B (RhB) dye (10 mg/L) under the irradiation of both simulated visible light (λ > 420 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) light (λ = 365 nm). The results show that the photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 prepared by dealloying Cu60Ti30Y10 amorphous ribbons is higher than those of commercial rutile and the sample synthesized by dealloying Cu70Ti30 precursors. The advantages of both short preparation period and superior photocatalytic activity suggest that Cu60Ti30Y10 metallic glasses are really a kind of perfect titanium source for rapidly fabricating high efficient TiO2 nano-materials. In addition, the influence of chemical composition of the amorphous precursors on preparation period of the rutile TiO2 nano-material was investigated from the point of view of standard electrode potentials.

  17. Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    This report describes work on Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System under US Department of Energy Contract DE-FC36-06GO16010. The project lead was the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). Partners included Owens Corning and Johns Manville. Cost share for this project was provided by NYSERDA (the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority), Owens Corning, Johns Manville, Owens Illinois, and the US natural gas industry through GTI’s SMP and UTD programs. The overreaching focus of this project was to study and develop rapid refining approaches for segmented glass manufacturing processes using high-intensity melters such as the submerged combustion melter. The objectives of this project were to 1) test and evaluate the most promising approaches to rapidly condition the homogeneous glass produced from the submerged combustion melter, and 2) to design a pilot-scale NGMS system for fiberglass recycle.

  18. Negative effect of rapidly resorbing properties of bioactive glass-ceramics as bone graft substitute in a rabbit lumbar fusion model. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Do-Yoon; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki


    Bioactive glass-ceramics have the ability to directly bind to bones and have been widely used as bone graft substitutes due to their high osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics are known to have good osteoconductivity and are used as bone graft extenders. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the resorbing properties of glass-ceramics in bone fusion after producing and analyzing three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with high osteoconductivity that had enhanced resorption by having an increased B2O3 content. The three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with B2O3 contents of 8.0, 9.0, and 9.5 weight % were designated and grouped as P20B80, P10B90, and P5B95, respectively. Glass-ceramic types were tested for fusion rates and bone formation by employing the lumbar 5-6 intertransverse process fusion model in 51 New Zealand male rabbits. Bioactivity was assessed by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro study results showed sufficient hydroxycarbonate apatite layer formation occurred for P20B80 in1 day, for P10B90 in 3 days, and for P5B95 in 5 days after soaking in SBF. For the rabbit lumbar spine posterolateral fusion model, the autograft group recorded a 100% fusion rate with levels significantly higher than those of P20B80 (29.4%), P10B90 (0%), and P5B95 (14.3%), with high resorbing properties. Resorbing property differences among the three glass-ceramic groups were not significant. Histological results showed new bone formation confirming osteoconductivity in all three types of glass-ceramics. Radiomorphometric results also confirmed the resorbing properties of the three glass-ceramic types. The high resorbing properties and osteoconductivity of porous glass-ceramics can be advantageous as no glass-ceramics remain in the body. However, their relatively fast rate of resorption in the body negatively affects their role as an osteoconductive scaffold as glass-ceramics are resorbed before bony fusion.

  19. Program refinement in UNITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, T.E.J.; Swierstra, S.D.


    Program refinement has received a lot of attention in the context of stepwise development of correct programs, since the introduction of transformational programming techniques by [Wir71, Hoa72, Ger75, BD77] in the seventies. This report presents a new framework of program refinement, that is


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AH -- ICp(glass).dt (1) with Cp(glass) being calculated as a linear combination of the C,-functions of the different oxides composing the glass. For validity of this relation, ideal behaviour of the glass components is assumed and the partial heat capacities of the oxides are considered independent of composition in the studied ...

  1. Ferroic glasses (United States)

    Ji, Yuanchao; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Yumei; Xue, Dezhen; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Wang, Yunzhi; Ren, Xiaobing


    Ferroic glasses (strain glass, relaxor and cluster spin glass) refer to frozen disordered states in ferroic systems; they are conjugate states to the long-range ordered ferroic states—the ferroic crystals. Ferroic glasses exhibit unusual properties that are absent in ferroic crystals, such as slim hysteresis and gradual property changes over a wide temperature range. In addition to ferroic glasses and ferroic crystals, a third ferroic state, a glass-ferroic (i.e., a composite of ferroic glass and ferroic crystal), can be produced by the crystallization transition of ferroic glasses. It can have a superior property not possessed by its two components. These three classes of ferroic materials (ferroic crystal, ferroic glass and glass-ferroic) correspond to three transitions (ferroic phase transition, ferroic glass transition and crystallization transition of ferroic glass, respectively), as demonstrated in a generic temperature vs. defect-concentration phase diagram. Moreover, through constructing a phase field model, the microstructure evolution of three transitions and the phase diagram can be reproduced, which reveals the important role of point defects in the formation of ferroic glass and glass-ferroic. The phase diagram can be used to design various ferroic glasses and glass-ferroics that may exhibit unusual properties.

  2. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  3. Electrolytic refining of gold


    Wohlwill, Emil


    At the request of the editor of ELECTROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY, I herewith give some notes on the electrolytic method of gold refining, to supplement the article of Dr. Tuttle (Vol. I, page 157, January, 1903).

  4. Refining population health comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Jørgensen, Mette Møller; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave


    How to determine if a population group has better overall (multidimensional) health status than another is a central question in the health and social sciences. We apply a multidimensional first order dominance concept that does not rely on assumptions about the relative importance of each...... dimension. In particular, we show how one can explore the “depth” of dominance relations by gradually refining the health dimensions to see which dominance relations persist. We analyze a Danish health survey with many health indicators. These are initially collapsed into a single composite health dimension...... and then refined to four, seven, and ten health dimensions, each representing an (increasingly refined) area of health. Overall we find that younger age groups dominate older age groups in up to four dimensions, but no dominance relations are present with a more refined view of health. Comparing education groups...

  5. Big Data Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eerke A. Boiten


    Full Text Available "Big data" has become a major area of research and associated funding, as well as a focus of utopian thinking. In the still growing research community, one of the favourite optimistic analogies for data processing is that of the oil refinery, extracting the essence out of the raw data. Pessimists look for their imagery to the other end of the petrol cycle, and talk about the "data exhausts" of our society. Obviously, the refinement community knows how to do "refining". This paper explores the extent to which notions of refinement and data in the formal methods community relate to the core concepts in "big data". In particular, can the data refinement paradigm can be used to explain aspects of big data processing?

  6. Proving Refinement Using Transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Bengt; Pnueli, Amir; Rump, Camilla Østerberg


    We present a verification method, in which refinement between two systems is proven by constructing a transducer that inputs a computation of a concrete system and outputs a matching computation of the abstract system.......We present a verification method, in which refinement between two systems is proven by constructing a transducer that inputs a computation of a concrete system and outputs a matching computation of the abstract system....

  7. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva


    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  8. Using OpenRefine

    CERN Document Server

    Verborgh, Ruben


    The book is styled on a Cookbook, containing recipes - combined with free datasets - which will turn readers into proficient OpenRefine users in the fastest possible way.This book is targeted at anyone who works on or handles a large amount of data. No prior knowledge of OpenRefine is required, as we start from the very beginning and gradually reveal more advanced features. You don't even need your own dataset, as we provide example data to try out the book's recipes.

  9. Making Glass


    Parker, K.; Moore, S.


    Journal article comproses: critical reflection, 'Making Glass', HD film with monologue, followed by 'Glass', HD film, stop-motion microscopic and macro photographs In this practice-led exploration of modalities of écriture féminine, I map the shifting subjectivities generated by Glass, a stop-motion animation that performs femininity through close examination and play with glass fragments found among the briny debris of an urban beach. University of Winchester

  10. Architectural Refinement in HETS


    Codescu, Mihai


    The main objective of this work is to bring a number of improvements to the Heterogeneous Tool Set HETS, both from a theoretical and an implementation point of view. In the first part of the thesis we present a number of recent extensions of the tool, among which declarative specifications of logics, generalized theoroidal comorphisms, heterogeneous colimits and integration of the logic of the term rewriting system Maude. In the second part we concentrate on the CASL architectural refinement ...

  11. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  12. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production


    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass.

  13. Cosmos & Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne.......The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne....

  14. Hirshfeld atom refinement. (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan


    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  15. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F


    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  16. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E


    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  17. Glass Glimpsed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock, Charles


    Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology.......Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology....

  18. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton


    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  19. Petroleum refining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bembel' , V.M.; Plyusnin, A.N.; Safonov, G.A.


    Current methods (Sp) for refining petroleum products (NP) and for removing nitrogen, tar, and polycyclic ArU's by means of complex chelation formed with chloride metal in the presence of organic solvents, are examined. These methods are designed to simplify such processes while at the same time preventing the formation of harmful impurities by employing chloride metals from the groups: Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Mn. These chloride metals act in the role of an organic solvent when using alkaline carbonate, dimethylsulphide, dimethylformamide, or fural but do not mix with oil. Currently employed methods are carried out as follows. A chelation solution is prepared in a compatible solvent with a chelation content of 0.01-0.2 gram-molecules per liter. Following this, the solution is mixed with NP at a volume of 0.5 parts extractant to 5 parts NP during a period of 5-25 minutes. Depending on the vicosity of the NP, mixing is done at a temperature of 20-80 degrees. Following the mixing and separation with either a settling or centrifuging phase, the light fraction (clear NP) is routed for catalytic refinement while the extract is mixed with water (at a temperature of 10 - 90 degrees) until it is completely dissolved and following which the nitrogen, pitch, and polyacrylide materials in the NP float to the surface.

  20. Macromolecular crystallographic estructure refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonine, Pavel V.


    Full Text Available Model refinement is a key step in crystallographic structure determination that ensures final atomic structure of macromolecule represents measured diffraction data as good as possible. Several decades have been put into developing methods and computational tools to streamline this step. In this manuscript we provide a brief overview of major milestones of crystallographic computing and methods development pertinent to structure refinement.El refinamiento es un paso clave en el proceso de determinación de una estructura cristalográfica al garantizar que la estructura atómica de la macromolécula final represente de la mejor manera posible los datos de difracción. Han hecho falta varias décadas para poder desarrollar nuevos métodos y herramientas computacionales dirigidas a dinamizar esta etapa. En este artículo ofrecemos un breve resumen de los principales hitos en la computación cristalográfica y de los nuevos métodos relevantes para el refinamiento de estructuras.

  1. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.


    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  2. Hirshfeld atom refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Capelli


    Full Text Available Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly–l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree–Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs are freely refined without constraints or restraints – even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's, all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules, the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å2 as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements – an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  3. Improved ligand geometries in crystallographic refinement using AFITT in PHENIX. (United States)

    Janowski, Pawel A; Moriarty, Nigel W; Kelley, Brian P; Case, David A; York, Darrin M; Adams, Paul D; Warren, Gregory L


    Modern crystal structure refinement programs rely on geometry restraints to overcome the challenge of a low data-to-parameter ratio. While the classical Engh and Huber restraints work well for standard amino-acid residues, the chemical complexity of small-molecule ligands presents a particular challenge. Most current approaches either limit ligand restraints to those that can be readily described in the Crystallographic Information File (CIF) format, thus sacrificing chemical flexibility and energetic accuracy, or they employ protocols that substantially lengthen the refinement time, potentially hindering rapid automated refinement workflows. PHENIX-AFITT refinement uses a full molecular-mechanics force field for user-selected small-molecule ligands during refinement, eliminating the potentially difficult problem of finding or generating high-quality geometry restraints. It is fully integrated with a standard refinement protocol and requires practically no additional steps from the user, making it ideal for high-throughput workflows. PHENIX-AFITT refinements also handle multiple ligands in a single model, alternate conformations and covalently bound ligands. Here, the results of combining AFITT and the PHENIX software suite on a data set of 189 protein-ligand PDB structures are presented. Refinements using PHENIX-AFITT significantly reduce ligand conformational energy and lead to improved geometries without detriment to the fit to the experimental data. For the data presented, PHENIX-AFITT refinements result in more chemically accurate models for small-molecule ligands.

  4. Thailand: refining cultural values. (United States)

    Ratanakul, P


    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values."

  5. Refining Radchem Detectors: Iridium (United States)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Moody, W. A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Couture, A. J.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.


    Accurate determination of neutron fluence is an important diagnostic of nuclear device performance, whether the device is a commercial reactor, a critical assembly or an explosive device. One important method for neutron fluence determination, generally referred to as dosimetry, is based on exploiting various threshold reactions of elements such as iridium. It is possible to infer details about the integrated neutron energy spectrum to which the dosimetry sample or ``radiochemical detector'' was exposed by measuring specific activation products post-irradiation. The ability of radchem detectors like iridium to give accurate neutron fluence measurements is limited by the precision of the cross-sections in the production/destruction network (189Ir-193Ir). The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) located at LANSCE is ideal for refining neutron capture cross sections of iridium isotopes. Recent results from a measurement of neutron capture on 193-Ir are promising. Plans to measure other iridium isotopes are underway.

  6. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine. (United States)

    Afonine, Pavel V; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J; Moriarty, Nigel W; Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Zwart, Peter H; Adams, Paul D


    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  7. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.


    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  8. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between decorated traces systems. There

  9. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste


    Inès M. M. M. Ponsot; Yiannis Pontikes; Giovanni Baldi; Rama K. Chinnam; Rainer Detsch; Aldo R. Boccaccini; Enrico Bernardo


    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low te...

  10. Reactive Atom Plasma Processing of Slumped Glass Wedges Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Reactive Atom Plasma (RAPTM) process will be evaluated as a rapid and practical method for fabricating precision wedges in glass sheets. The glass sheets are to...

  11. Refinement of Cadastral Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Berková


    Full Text Available The amended cadastral ordinance takes effect from 1.7. 2009. Until this date the only cadastral maps for which two listsof coordinates for detailed survey points were filed were digitalized cadastral maps in stable cadastre coordinate systems. The entry intoforce of the amended ordinance has introduced the obligation to file these lists in all forms of cadastral maps. We have one file withcoordinates of image and a second one with coordinates of position. The accuracy of the detailed survey points is defined by a qualitycode. The quality code is indicated in only one of the lists: either that of the image coordinates or that of the positional coordinates.The type of quality code depends on the willingness of property owners to sign a substantiating declaration of consent regardingthe demarcation of a boundary line or the refinement of a boundary line. An integral part of the substantiating declaration is a surveysketch. The paper deals with survey sketch variants with regard to the amended ordinance.

  12. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Rue


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  13. Glass science tutorial lecture {number_sign}6: The melting of silicate glasses, a review of selected topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarts, E.L.


    This report summarizes a two-day lecture given at Westinghouse Hanford Company in March, 1995 and includes the data used in the presentation. Topics included the special needs of a low-level waste vitrification process, glass melting, mechanisms of the formation of foam, glass refining (bubble removal), and homogenization (reduction of chemical heterogeneity to acceptable levels). 96 refs.

  14. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej


    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...

  15. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A


    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  16. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)


    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  17. Technological advances in tellurite glasses properties, processing, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Manzani, Danilo


    This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to the synthesis, optical properties, and photonics applications of tellurite glasses. The book begins with an overview of tellurite glasses, followed by expert chapters on synthesis, properties, and state-of-the-art applications ranging from laser glass, optical fibers, and optical communications through color tuning, plasmonics, supercontinuum generation, and other photonic devices. The book provides in-depth information on the the structural, linear, and non-linear optical properties of tellurite glasses and their implications for device development. Real-world examples give the reader valuable insight into the applications of tellurite glass. A detailed discussion of glass production methods, including raw materials and melting and refining oxide- and fluoro-tellurite glasses, is also included. The book features an extensive reference list for further reading. This highly readable and didactic text draws on chemical composition, glass science,...

  18. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste. (United States)

    Ponsot, Inès M M M; Pontikes, Yiannis; Baldi, Giovanni; Chinnam, Rama K; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Bernardo, Enrico


    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900-1000 °C), whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C). The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests.

  19. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès M. M. M. Ponsot


    Full Text Available Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900–1000 °C, whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C. The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests.

  20. Glass, gold, and gold-glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehouse, David


      Gold-glasses, objects with gold foil ornament sandwiched between two fused layers of glass, were the first category of Roman glass to attract the attention of collectors and antiquarians in the 17th century...

  1. Metallic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Arjen Sybren


    It is shown in section 7.1. that the influence of topological disorder on the range of magnetic interactions in ferromagnetic transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) glasses, is much less than often assumed. This is demonstrated via a study of the temperature dependence of the average iron hyperfine field

  2. Pinhole Glasses (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean


    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole…

  3. Formation of zirconium metallic glass. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng


    Bulk metallic glasses are commonly produced by the rapid cooling of liquid alloys. They have emerged over the past decade as a novel class of materials, with attractive properties and technological promise. The bulk metallic glasses so far produced contain three or more component elements. These complex compositions are necessary to frustrate the crystallization of the liquid melt on cooling, but can also lead to phase separation, which is detrimental to the thermal and mechanical properties of metallic glasses. Here we report, using X-ray diffraction measurements, the formation of a bulk metallic glass from elemental zirconium at high static pressures and low temperatures (relative to its melting temperature at atmospheric pressure). Amorphous zirconium can be recovered at ambient conditions and demonstrates a superior thermal stability compared to amorphous alloys, which could lead to new high-temperature applications of amorphous metals.

  4. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Michael S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)


    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  5. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol


    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  6. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David


    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  7. Investigation of chemical durability mechanisms in fluoride glasses. Report No. 1 (annual) April 1983-June 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.J.; Simmons, J.H.


    Aqueous corrosion mechanisms are investigated in heavy-metal fluoride glasses. The family of glasses based on the Zirconium tetrafluoride glass former is rapidly attacked by water which is either unbuffered or contains acidic components. However, these glasses resist corrosion by basic solutions. ThF4-based glasses exhibit a higher resistance. Comparisons are made between the 2 glass families; pH dependence of corrosion is analyzed and a corrosion model is presented.

  8. Bioactive glasses: Frontiers and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Hench


    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980’s it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are: a discovery; b clinical application; c tissue regeneration; and d innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.



    Doerschuk, Bob


    Constantemente, sin cesar, hay movimiento en la música de Philip Glass. Inclusive cuando se construye a lo largo de armonías y resoluciones simples, refleja el bullicio de una comunidad de abejas, cuyas inquietas danzas circulares se intersectan y unifican creando un solo movimiento, el movimiento de la colmena. Sin embargo, desde la lejanía, la colmena parece estar quieta, gran cantidad de sonido emanando de ella se fusiona en un solo murmullo. Este mismo principio, movimiento y quietud, muc...

  10. Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmella, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

  11. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin


    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple convention...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  12. Refining analgesia strategies using lasers. (United States)

    Hampshire, Victoria


    Sound programs for the humane care and use of animals within research facilities incorporate experimental refinements such as multimodal approaches for pain management. These approaches can include non-traditional strategies along with more established ones. The use of lasers for pain relief is growing in popularity among companion animal veterinary practitioners and technologists. Therefore, its application in the research sector warrants closer consideration.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  14. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders


    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  15. BioRefine Yearbook 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, T.; Kauppi, M. (eds.) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Alakangas, E. (ed.) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland))


    The BioRefine - new biomass products programme is approaching its final active year 2012. The programme contains several significant industrial research and development projects that aim to demonstrate large scale biorefineries. At the same time, a number of projects are led by SMEs focusing on smaller localised solutions. The programme is co-operating closely with Forestcluster Ltd, one of the Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation in Finland, which is owned by major forest-related companies and institutes. Forestcluster has launched a second phase of its Future Biorefinery (FuBio) programme, which aims to create a new world-leading-competence platform in the field of biorefinery and to develop new value chains in which wood is refined into materials and chemicals. Together the two programmes are a central part of the Finnish biorefining entity. One of the main goals of the BioRefine programme has been to bring together multidisciplinary research and development competences and different business areas for creating sustainable and commercially viable biorefinery concepts. With the increasing pressure on low-carbon processes and on the efficient and sustainable use of raw materials, the need for a multidisciplinary approach has become evident. Bioeconomy aims to bring these different competence and business areas into close co-operation for creating new solutions based on non-fossil raw materials. In the future, the holistic and multidisciplinary approach to utilising biomass resources efficiently and in an environmentally and economically sustainable way will be increasingly emphasized

  16. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique


    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  17. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M.


    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  18. Processing metallic glasses by selective laser melting


    Pauly, Simon; Löber, Lukas; Petters, Romy; Stoica, Mihai; Scudino, Sergio; Kühn, Uta; Eckert, Jürgen


    Metallic glasses and their descendants, the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), can be regarded as frozen liquids with a high resistance to crystallization. The lack of a conventional structure turns them into a material exhibiting near-theoretical strength, low Young's modulus and large elasticity. These unique mechanical properties can be only obtained when the metallic melts are rapidly cooled to bypass the nucleation and growth of crystals. Most of the commonly known and used processi...

  19. Dynamic fatigue testing of Zerodur glass-ceramic (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.


    The inherent brittleness of glass invariably leads to a large variability in strength data and a time dependence in strength. Leading rate plays a large role in strength values. Glass is found to be weaker when supporting loads over long periods of time as compared to glass which undergoes rapid leading. These properties complicate the structural design allowables for the utilization of glass components in an application such as Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The test methodology to obtain parameters which can be used to predict the reliability and life time of Zerodur glass-ceramic which is to be used for the mirrors in the AXAF is described.

  20. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.


    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement...

  1. The Refined Function-Behaviour-Structure Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diertens, B.


    We refine the function-behaviour-structure framework for design introduced by John Gero in order to deal with complexity. We do this by connecting the frameworks for the desing of two models, one the refinement of the other. The result is a refined framework for the design of an object on two levels

  2. Overview of segmented glass optics development for the Constellation-X hard X-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, C.J; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.


    We report recent work on segmented glass optics for the Constellation-H hard x-ray telescope. This effort seeks to both improve the figure of the free-standing glass substrates, and to refine a newly-developed mounting technology for the substrates. We discuss metrology on recently characterized...

  3. Survey of glass plutonium contents and poison selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Ellison, A.J.G.; Shaw, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)


    If plutonium and other actinides are to be immobilized in glass, then achieving high concentrations in the glass is desirable. This will lead to reduced costs and more rapid immobilization. However, glasses with high actinide concentrations also bring with them undersirable characteristics, especially a greater concern about nuclear criticality, particularly in a geologic repository. The key to achieving a high concentration of actinide elements in a glass is to formulate the glass so that the solubility of actinides is high. At the same time, the glass must be formulated so that the glass also contains neutron poisons, which will prevent criticality during processing and in a geologic repository. In this paper, the solubility of actinides, particularly plutonium, in three types of glasses are discussed. Plutonium solubilities are in the 2-4 wt% range for borosilicate high-level waste (HLW) glasses of the type which will be produced in the US. This type of glass is generally melted at relatively low temperatures, ca. 1150{degrees}C. For this melting temperature, the glass can be reformulated to achieve plutonium solubilities of at least 7 wt%. This low melting temperature is desirable if one must retain volatile cesium-137 in the glass. If one is not concerned about cesium volatility, then glasses can be formulated which can contain much larger amounts of plutonium and other actinides. Plutonium concentrations of at least 15 wt% have been achieved. Thus, there is confidence that high ({ge}5 wt%) concentrations of actinides can be achieved under a variety of conditions.

  4. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  5. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Rawlings, R D


    Bioactive materials are designed to induce a specific biological activity; in most cases the desired biological activity is one that will give strong bonding to bone. A range of materials has been assessed as being capable of bonding to bone, but this paper is solely concerned with bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. Firstly, the structure and processing of glasses and glass-ceramics are described, as a basic knowledge is essential for the understanding of the development and properties of the bioactive materials. The effect of composition and structure on the bioactivity is then discussed, and it will be shown that bioactivity is associated with the formation of an apatite layer on the surface of the implant. A survey of mechanical performance demonstrates that the structure and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics depend upon whether the processing involves casting or sintering and that the strength and toughness of glass-ceramics are superior to those of glasses. Attempts to further improve the mechanical performance by the use of non-monolithic components, i.e. bioactive coatings on metal substrates and glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites, are also reviewed and are shown to have varying degrees of success. Finally, some miscellaneous applications, namely bioactive bone cements and bone fillers, are briefly covered.

  6. Electrical conduction and glass relaxation in alkali- silicate glasses (United States)

    Angel, Paul William

    Electrical response measurements from 1 Hz to 1 MHz between 50o and 540oC were made on potassium, sodium and lithium-silicate glasses with low alkali oxide contents. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and air quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Quenching was found to lower the dc conductivity, σdc, and activation energy as well as increase the pre-exponential term when compared to the corresponding annealed glass of the same composition. All of the glasses exhibited Arrhenius behavior in the log σdc against 1/T plots. A sharp decrease in σdc was observed for glasses containing alkali concentrations of 7 mol% or less. The σdc activation energy exhibited similar behavior when plotted as a function of alkali composition and was explained in terms of a mixture of the weak and strong electrolyte models. The depression angle for fits to the complex impedance data were also measured as a function of thermal history, alkali concentration and alkali species. These results were interpreted in terms of changes in the distribution of relaxation times. Annealed samples from a single melt of a 10 mol% K2O-90SiO2 glass were reheated to temperatures ranging from 450o to 800oC, held isothermally for 20 min, and then quenched in either air or silicon oil. The complex impedance of both an annealed and the quenched samples were then measured as a function of temperature from 120o to 250oC. The σdc was found to be remain unaffected by heat treatments below 450oC, to increase rapidly over an approximate 200oC range of temperatures that was dependent on cooling rate and to be constant for heat treatments above this range. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the mean structural relaxation time as a function of temperature and cooling rate near the glass transition temperature and glass transformation ranges. A more detailed definition for the transition and transformation temperatures and ranges was also provided.

  7. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  8. The Perfect Glass Paradigm: Disordered Hyperuniform Glasses Down to Absolute Zero. (United States)

    Zhang, G; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S


    Rapid cooling of liquids below a certain temperature range can result in a transition to glassy states. The traditional understanding of glasses includes their thermodynamic metastability with respect to crystals. However, here we present specific examples of interactions that eliminate the possibilities of crystalline and quasicrystalline phases, while creating mechanically stable amorphous glasses down to absolute zero temperature. We show that this can be accomplished by introducing a new ideal state of matter called a "perfect glass". A perfect glass represents a soft-interaction analog of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of hard particles. These latter states can be regarded as the epitome of a glass since they are out of equilibrium, maximally disordered, hyperuniform, mechanically rigid with infinite bulk and shear moduli, and can never crystallize due to configuration-space trapping. Our model perfect glass utilizes two-, three-, and four-body soft interactions while simultaneously retaining the salient attributes of the MRJ state. These models constitute a theoretical proof of concept for perfect glasses and broaden our fundamental understanding of glass physics. A novel feature of equilibrium systems of identical particles interacting with the perfect-glass potential at positive temperature is that they have a non-relativistic speed of sound that is infinite.

  9. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong


    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  10. Refining Visually Detected Object poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Preben; Petersen, Henrik Gordon


    to the particular object and in order to handle the demand for flexibility, there is an increasing demand for avoiding such dedicated mechanical alignment systems. Rather, it would be desirable to automatically locate and grasp randomly placed objects from tables, conveyor belts or even bins with a high accuracy......Automated industrial assembly today require that the 3D position and orientation (hereafter ''pose`) of the objects to be assembled are known precisely. Today this precision is mostly established by a dedicated mechanical object alignment system. However, such systems are often dedicated...... that enables direct assembly. Conventional vision systems and laser triangulation systems can locate randomly placed known objects (with 3D CAD models available) with some accuracy, but not necessarily a good enough accuracy. In this paper, we present a novel method for refining the pose accuracy of an object...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Alexandrino Lotto


    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the phosphorus removal by vacuum from metallurgical grade silicon (MGSi (98.5% to 99% Si. Melting experiments were carried out in a vacuum induction furnace, varying parameters such as temperature, time and relation area exposed to the vacuum / volume of molten silicon. The results of chemical analysis were obtained by inductively coupled plasma (ICP, and evaluated based on thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the reaction of vaporization of the phosphorus in the silicon. The phosphorus was decreased from 33 to approximately 1.5 ppm after three hours of vacuum treatment, concluding that the evaporation step is the controlling step of the process for parameters of temperature, pressure and agitation used and refining by this process is technically feasible.

  12. Microstructuring of glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Hülsenberg, Dagmar; Bismarck, Alexander


    As microstructured glass becomes increasingly important for microsystems technology, the main application fields include micro-fluidic systems, micro-analysis systems, sensors, micro-actuators and implants. And, because glass has quite distinct properties from silicon, PMMA and metals, applications exist where only glass devices meet the requirements. The main advantages of glass derive from its amorphous nature, the precondition for its - theoretically - direction-independent geometric structurability. Microstructuring of Glasses deals with the amorphous state, various glass compositions and their properties, the interactions between glasses and the electromagnetic waves used to modify it. Also treated in detail are methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glasses by mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and electrical treatment, and the methods and equipment required to produce actual microdevices.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T


    produced but are disallowed by the current nepheline discriminator. This may help identify a path for gaining access to glass compositions that are limited by only the nepheline constraint. Dependencies on cooling rates should also be evaluated. A better understanding of these regions, as well as the impacts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO on nepheline crystallization, may allow for relaxation or refinement of the nepheline constraint and subsequently allow for higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations.

  14. Clinical and surgical applications of smart glasses. (United States)

    Mitrasinovic, Stefan; Camacho, Elvis; Trivedi, Nirali; Logan, Julia; Campbell, Colson; Zilinyi, Robert; Lieber, Bryan; Bruce, Eliza; Taylor, Blake; Martineau, David; Dumont, Emmanuel L P; Appelboom, Geoff; Connolly, E Sander


    With the increased efforts to adopt health information technology in the healthcare field, many innovative devices have emerged to improve patient care, increase efficiency, and decrease healthcare costs. A recent addition is smart glasses: web-connected glasses that can present data onto the lenses and record images or videos through a front-facing camera. In this article, we review the most salient uses of smart glasses in healthcare, while also denoting their limitations including practical capabilities and patient confidentiality. Using keywords including, but not limited to, ``smart glasses'', ``healthcare'', ``evaluation'', ``privacy'', and ``development'', we conducted a search on Ovid-MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar. A total of 71 studies were included in this review. Smart glasses have been adopted into the healthcare setting with several useful applications including, hands-free photo and video documentation, telemedicine, Electronic Health Record retrieval and input, rapid diagnostic test analysis, education, and live broadcasting. In order for the device to gain acceptance by medical professionals, smart glasses will need to be tailored to fit the needs of medical and surgical sub-specialties. Future studies will need to qualitatively assess the benefits of smart glasses as an adjunct to the current health information technology infrastructure.

  15. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D


    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  16. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar. (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun


    Rapid advances in the electronic industry led to an excessive amount of early disposal of older electronic devices such as computer monitors and old televisions (TV) before the end of their useful life. The management of cathode ray tubes (CRT), which have been a key component in computer monitors and TV sets, has become a major environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable alternative methods to manage hazardous CRT glass waste. This study assesses the feasibility of utilizing CRT glass as a substitute for natural aggregates in cement mortar. The CRT glass investigated was an acid-washed funnel glass of dismantled CRT from computer monitors and old TV sets. The mechanical properties of mortar mixes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CRT glass were investigated. The potential of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and leachability of lead were also evaluated. The results confirmed that the properties of the mortar mixes prepared with CRT glass was similar to that of the control mortar using sand as fine aggregate, and displayed innocuous behaviour in the ASR expansion test. Incorporating CRT glass in cement mortar successfully prevented the leaching of lead. We conclude that it is feasible to utilize CRT glass in cement mortar production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcomes many of the limitations. We investigate the computational complexity of modal and thorough...

  18. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma ...

  19. Refined large N duality for knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  20. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca


    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  1. Q|R: quantum-based refinement. (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Waller, Mark P; Afonine, Pavel V


    Quantum-based refinement utilizes chemical restraints derived from quantum-chemical methods instead of the standard parameterized library-based restraints used in refinement packages. The motivation is twofold: firstly, the restraints have the potential to be more accurate, and secondly, the restraints can be more easily applied to new molecules such as drugs or novel cofactors. Here, a new project called Q|R aimed at developing quantum-based refinement of biomacromolecules is under active development by researchers at Shanghai University together with PHENIX developers. The central focus of this long-term project is to develop software that is built on top of open-source components. A development version of Q|R was used to compare quantum-based refinements with standard refinement using a small model system.

  2. The psychometric refinement of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) (United States)

    Corkins, James

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) and then recommend revisions. The MCI was administered to a sample of 303 undergraduate engineering students enrolled in a materials engineering course taught by an instructor unrelated to this study. The MCI demonstrated adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha was .73) and strong discriminatory power (Ferguson's delta was 0.96). A pretest MCI was given only two days into the course and was able to predict the final course grade (r = .30, p Cronbach's alpha of the refined-MCI was 0.75, suggesting 'good' reliability. The six factors could only be interpreted by an integration of cognitive processes with content. Those six factors were labeled: (1) compare and contrast ductile and brittle material, (2) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from stretching, (3) understand and analyze the structure and properties of glass, (4) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from bending, (5) understand and analyze the structure and properties of metals, and (6) synthesize and apply graphs and proportions with relation to various materials engineering concepts. Results related to the psychometrics of the refined version of the Materials Concept Inventory are promising, but based on this study's results, further revision may be required.

  3. Geoenvironmental weathering/deterioration of landfilled MSWI-BA glass. (United States)

    Wei, Yunmei; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Zhao, Chun; Peng, Xuya; Gao, Junmin


    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA) glass serves as a matrix of assorted bottom ash (BA) compounds. Deterioration of the BA glass phases is quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of toxic elements. This paper studied landfilled MSWI-BA samples from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint to understand the deterioration behavior of the BA glass phases as well as mechanisms involved. Bulk analysis by PXRD as well as micro-scale analysis by optical microscopy and SEM/EDX was conducted for such purposes. The results revealed that dissolution of the BA glass phases has resulted in a deterioration layer of 10(0)-10(2)μm thickness after years of disposal. This rapid weathering process is highly relevant to the specific glass characteristics and solution pH. The BA glass phases with more embedded compounds and cracks/fissures tend to be more vulnerable. Moreover, the generally alkaline pH in ash deposit favors a rapid disruption of the glass phase. The weathering products are mainly gel phases (including Al-Si gel, Ca-Al-Si gel, Fe-Al-Si gel etc.) with iron oxide/hydroxide as accessory products. Breakdown of the BA glass phases triggers chemical evolution of the embedded compounds. Based on all the findings above, a model is proposed to illustrate a general evolution trend for the landfilled MSWI-BA glass phases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Refining the Jurassic Magnetic Quiet Zone (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivery, M.; Sager, W. W.


    We present a coherent marine magnetic reversal record from the Pacific to refine the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). Our definitive magnetic anomaly record consists of high-resolution sea surface, mid-water (3-km level deep-towed), and near-bottom profiles (0.1-km to the seafloor) with the magnetic source layer constrained by gravity anomaly data and reflection and refraction seismics, all of which are newly collected during TN272 and SKQ2014S2 cruises. All magnetic anomaly data were corrected diurnal variations and the present-day ambient geomagnetic field. In comparing our three-level JQZ magnetic anomaly profiles with previous work in the Japanese lineations, we confirm a globally coherent anomaly sequence in the JQZ from M29 to M42, including the distinctive amplitude envelope decreasing back in time from M19 to M38, with a minimum at M41, and then increasing back in time. A strong similarity in the M37/M38 polarity attributes found both in magnetostratigraphic and marine magnetic records suggest that rapid magnetic reversals were occurring during the M38 time in the JQZ. Seismic and gravity profiles from the Hawaiian JQZ seafloor show late-stage Cretaceous volcanism thickening crust by up to 150% with extra melt emplaced at the Moho, and numerous sills and volcanic cones in the sediment and on the seafloor. The region of thickest crust in the Hawaiian lineation corridor coincides with the region of the lowest JQZ anomaly amplitudes, very similar to the Low Amplitude Zone of Japanese lineation sequence, suggesting that the JQZ anomaly character can represent changes in geomagnetic field intensity over time but is free of the effects of Cretaceous volcanic overprint. We conducted inversion modeling to establish polarity block models and to estimate reversal rates. Reversal rates are the highest during periods with the lowest anomaly amplitudes, indicating a unique period of geomagnetic field behavior in the Earth's history.

  5. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes


    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  6. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf


    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...... the dimension and the intensity is used to quantify and rank the homogeneity of glass products. Compared with the refractive index method, the image processing method has a wider detection range and a lower statistical uncertainty....

  7. Lévi glass (United States)

    Wiersma, D. S.


    Lévy glass is a new material which is obtained by assembly of scattering elements. The result is a bulk material which has different degrees of elasticity (from rigid as window glass to flexible as certain plastics) and which can be shaped into any desired form. In particular, Lévy glasses have special optical properties not present in other materials. The name Lévy glass is based on the fact that under certain conditions light waves perform a Lévy walk inside these materials and the resulting optical transport is superdiffusive. From a structural point of view a Lévy glass is a random fractal. We will review the optical and structural properties of Lévy glasses, their design criteria, as well as their experimental realization. Also we will go into various fundamental aspects of Lévy-type light transport, discussing both superdiffusion as well as interference effects like weak and strong localization.

  8. Rapid proto typing of dental prosthesis by means of a feldspathic glass composite mixed with muscovite mica via CAD/CAM; Prototipagem rapida de proteses dentarias por meio de um composito de vidro feldspatico misturado com mica moscovita via CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Junior, E.S.; Gomes Junior, G.G.; Fonseca, M.D.; Moraes, E.E.S.; Ogasawara, T., E-mail: edil@metalmat.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e Materiais


    The work consists in the use and integration of CAD/CAM tools as a process of design and manufacture of a rapid prototyping of dental prosthesis by machining using a CNC milling machine. The material machined to obtain the dental prosthesis were cylindrical blocks of a Feldspathic glass composite mixed with muscovite mica in various percentages (15%, 40% and 80%), which was resigned under biaxial pressing and sintered in vacuum at temperatures from 800 to 1100 deg C. The composite was characterized by XRD and SEM. The results show that increasing the crystallization of leucite is consequent to the temperature increase, and that the use of CAD/CAM system using a CNC milling machine is feasible to obtain dental prosthesis. (author)

  9. Rapid solidification of Ni{sub 50}Nb{sub 28}Zr{sub 22} glass former alloy through suction-casting; Solidificacao rapida da liga formadora de fase amorfa Ni{sub 50}Nb{sub 28}Zr{sub 22} atraves de fundicao em coquilha por succao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.I.; Santos, F.S.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais


    To select new alloys with high glass forming ability (GFA) to present amorphous structure in millimeter scale, several semi-empirical models have been developed. In the present work, a new alloy, Ni{sub 50}Nb{sub 28}Zr{sub 22}d, was designed based on the combination of topological instability lambda (A) criterion and electronegativity difference ({Delta}e). The alloy was rapidly solidified in a bulk wedge sample by cooper mold suction casting in order to investigate its amorphization. The sample was characterized by the combination of scanning electron microscopy (MEV), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). For the minimum thickness of 200 {mu}m analyzed, it was found that the alloy did not show a totally amorphous structure. Factor such as low cooling rate, existence of oxides on the surface of the elements and presence of oxygen in the atmosphere of equipment did not allowed the achievement of higher amorphous thickness. (author)

  10. Glass transition temperature and its relevance in food processing. (United States)

    Roos, Yrjö H


    Amorphous, noncrystalline solids are typical of low water content and frozen foods. Solids in these foods, e.g., confectionary, dehydrated foods, cereal foods, and frozen foods, often form nonequilibrium glass-like structures. The glassy state of the solids forms during food processing in a reversible glass transition. Vitrification can occur in numerous glassy states that exhibit various relaxations around the glass transition. The success of freeze drying, spray drying, and extrusion and the stability of dehydrated foods against flow, collapse, and crystallization is based on the control of the glassy state during the dehydration process and storage. Encapsulation processes often use glass-forming materials to entrap dispersed components or improve retention of volatiles. Plasticization of the noncrystalline structures by temperature or water reduce relaxation times exponentially above the glass transition, which results in rapid deterioration. Critical values for water activity and water content express the level of water plasticization leading to glass transition in food storage.

  11. Diamond turning of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.


    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  12. Fractography of glass

    CERN Document Server

    Tressler, Richard


    As the first major reference on glass fractography, contributors to this volume offer a comprehensive account of the fracture of glass as well as various fracture surface topography Contributors discuss optical fibers, glass containers, and flatglass fractography In addition, papers explore fracture origins; the growth of the original flaws of defects; and macroscopic fracture patterns from which fracture patterns evolve This volume is complete with photographs and schematics

  13. Protein NMR structures refined without NOE data. (United States)

    Ryu, Hyojung; Kim, Tae-Rae; Ahn, SeonJoo; Ji, Sunyoung; Lee, Jinhyuk


    The refinement of low-quality structures is an important challenge in protein structure prediction. Many studies have been conducted on protein structure refinement; the refinement of structures derived from NMR spectroscopy has been especially intensively studied. In this study, we generated flat-bottom distance potential instead of NOE data because NOE data have ambiguity and uncertainty. The potential was derived from distance information from given structures and prevented structural dislocation during the refinement process. A simulated annealing protocol was used to minimize the potential energy of the structure. The protocol was tested on 134 NMR structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that also have X-ray structures. Among them, 50 structures were used as a training set to find the optimal "width" parameter in the flat-bottom distance potential functions. In the validation set (the other 84 structures), most of the 12 quality assessment scores of the refined structures were significantly improved (total score increased from 1.215 to 2.044). Moreover, the secondary structure similarity of the refined structure was improved over that of the original structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two energy potentials, statistical torsion angle potential (STAP) and the flat-bottom distance potential, can drive the refinement of NMR structures.

  14. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Alan L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Youtie, Jan [Georgia Institute of Technology, Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)], E-mail:; Shapira, Philip [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Schoeneck, David J. [Search Technology, Inc. (United States)


    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  15. Refining search terms for nanotechnology (United States)

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Schoeneck, David J.


    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as "nano") given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  16. The role of optimization in structural model refinement (United States)

    Lehman, L. L.


    To evaluate the role that optimization can play in structural model refinement, it is necessary to examine the existing environment for the structural design/structural modification process. The traditional approach to design, analysis, and modification is illustrated. Typically, a cyclical path is followed in evaluating and refining a structural system, with parallel paths existing between the real system and the analytical model of the system. The major failing of the existing approach is the rather weak link of communication between the cycle for the real system and the cycle for the analytical model. Only at the expense of much human effort can data sharing and comparative evaluation be enhanced for the two parallel cycles. Much of the difficulty can be traced to the lack of a user-friendly, rapidly reconfigurable engineering software environment for facilitating data and information exchange. Until this type of software environment becomes readily available to the majority of the engineering community, the role of optimization will not be able to reach its full potential and engineering productivity will continue to suffer. A key issue in current engineering design, analysis, and test is the definition and development of an integrated engineering software support capability. The data and solution flow for this type of integrated engineering analysis/refinement system is shown.

  17. Marges et perspectives du raffinage Refining Margins and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudouin C.


    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années le secteur du raffinage est soumis à rude épreuve. La consommation de produits pétroliers augmente peu en Europe, leurs spécifications se durcissent. En raison notamment des progrès permanents dans l'utilisation des unités, les surcapacités de traitement demeurent. . . Tous ces facteurs réunis font que les marges du raffinage à travers le monde restent faibles et insuffisantes pour financer correctement les investissements nouveaux. Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining overcapacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalisation, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins.

  18. Refinement Types for TypeScript


    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit


    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  19. Glass and glass-derivative seals for use in energy-efficient fuel cells and lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshineya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri


    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 18 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. From the whole design space, several glasses were ''downselected'' and studied in detail to describe their behaviors in simulated fuel cell environments. One of the glasses was found to outperform all others, including the well-known G18 sealant developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The new glass composition showed lower bulk electrical conductivity, excellent sealing and wetting behavior when sealing under applied load, and qualitatively superior performance when exposed to wet hydrogen for 800 hours. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses that were studied in detail. The sol-gel approach was used to synthesize several compositions, but it was found that the glasses crystallized very rapidly during heating, precluding sealing. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. The body of fundamental data provides a platform for future developments for high temperature sealants, and the newly-developed glass compositions appear promising for large-scale testing. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria-alumina-silica system at various silica levels. Functional testing of one of the candidate sealants demonstrated that it performs well in current HID lighting applications. Further testing is required to

  20. Rapid solidification mechanism of highly undercooled ternary Cu40Sn45Sb15 alloy (United States)

    Zhai, W.; Wang, B. J.; Lu, X. Y.; Wei, B.


    The rapid solidification of ternary Cu40Sn45Sb15 peri-eutectic type alloy was realized by glass fluxing and drop tube methods, and the corresponding maximum undercoolings are 185 K (0.22 T L) and 321 K (0.39 T L), respectively. The phase constitution of Cu40Sn45Sb15 alloy in these two rapid solidification experiments deviates from the two equilibrium phases (Sn + Cu6Sn5). In glass fluxing method, the structural morphology of Cu40Sn45Sb15 alloy is mainly characterized by a three-layer lamellar structure, which is comprised by an inner layer of long strips of primary ɛ(Cu3Sn) phase, an intermediate layer of η(Cu6Sn5) phase and an outer layer of β(SnSb) phase. As undercooling rises, this lamellar structure is remarkably refined. When small alloy droplets are containerlessly solidified during free fall in drop tube, the primary ɛ(Cu3Sn) phase grows by non-faceted mode into dendrites as droplet diameter decreases. Especially, solidification path alters in the smallest droplet with 50 μm diameter, in which η(Cu6Sn5) and Sn3Sb2 phases form directly from the metastable liquid phase by suppressing the primary ɛ phase formation and the following peri-eutectic transformation.

  1. Bipolar Neutrosophic Refined Sets and Their Applications in Medical Diagnosis


    Deli, Irfan; Yusuf, Şubaş


    This paper proposes concept of bipolar neutrosophic refined set and its some operations. Firstly, a score certainty and accuracy function to compare the bipolar neutrosophic refined information is defined. Secondly, to aggregate the bipolar neutrosophic refined information, a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted average operator and a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted geometric operator is developed.

  2. Lead Smelting and Refining at Kosaka Smelter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MITSUNE, Yutaka; SATOH, Shigeki


      Kosaka Smelting and Refining Co., Ltd. operates lead smelting to produce electrolytic lead and to recover precious metals and bismuth with mainly secondary materials from copper smelter and zinc refinery...

  3. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone


    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  4. Structure refinement of polycrystalline orthorhombic yttrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; .... Final refined lattice parameters, atomic coordinates and Rietveld parameters of CYT-10 ceramic phase at room temperature. Atom x y z. Occupancy ..... Ringwood A E 1978 Safe disposal of high-level nuclear reactor waste: a new strategy ...

  5. Emitter frequency refinement based on maximum likelihood (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Wang, Huijuan


    Frequency estimation via signal sorting is widely recognized as one of the most practical technologies in signal processing. However, the estimated frequencies via signal sorting may be inaccurate and biased due to signal fluctuation under different emitter working modes, problems of transmitter circuit, environmental noises or certain unknown interference sources. Therefore, it has become an important issue to further analyze and refine signal frequencies after signal sorting. To address the above problem, we have brought forward an iterative frequency refinement method based on maximum likelihood. Iteratively, the initial estimated signal frequency values are refined. Experimental results indicate that the refined signal frequencies are more informative than the initial ones. As another advantage of our method, noises and interference sources could be filtered out simultaneously. The efficiency and flexibility enables our method to apply in a wide application area, i.e., communication, electronic reconnaissance and radar intelligence analysis.

  6. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.


    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  7. Dramatic Stained Glass. (United States)

    Prater, Michael


    Describes an art project that is appropriate for students in fifth through twelfth grade in which they create Gothic-style stained-glass windows. Discusses how college students majoring in elementary education created stained-glass windows. Addresses how to adapt this lesson for younger students. (CMK)

  8. Computer simulation of refining process of a high consistency disc refiner based on CFD (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Yang, Jianwei; Wang, Jiahui


    In order to reduce refining energy consumption, the ANSYS CFX was used to simulate the refining process of a high consistency disc refiner. In the first it was assumed to be uniform Newton fluid of turbulent state in disc refiner with the k-ɛ flow model; then meshed grids and set the boundary conditions in 3-D model of the disc refiner; and then was simulated and analyzed; finally, the viscosity of the pulp were measured. The results show that the CFD method can be used to analyze the pressure and torque on the disc plate, so as to calculate the refining power, and streamlines and velocity vectors can also be observed. CFD simulation can optimize parameters of the bar and groove, which is of great significance to reduce the experimental cost and cycle.

  9. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Strachan


    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  10. Enabling Tool for Innovative Glass Applications - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James M. Gillis


    The use of abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting systems in the industrial sector has been limited to applications that are difficult to machine using conventional methods. A major factor for this limited use is the high cost of the garnet abrasive currently used. Initial studies indicated that glass can be processed to produce particles with the desired characteristics at a fraction of the existing price of garnet. Inexpensive abrasive waterjet cutting systems would allow a wider array of glass products to be produced while eliminating many existing design limitations. Availability of low-cost abrasive waterjet cutting media would open new markets for glass applications by making glass a more versatile material. A fundamental goal of this project was to scale up and refine the circuit that was established in the initial phase of this project, which using waste glass as a feed stream, could economically produce glass particles displaying high angularity, sharp edges and a low aspect ratio which would prove suitable for use in abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting systems. Using commercial scale equipment, demonstration runs were conducted at various manufacturers facilities to further establish that waste glass is a viable source for the production of an inexpensive AWJ media for use in cutting glass and a variety of other materials. The glass abrasive produced was used to demonstrate that processed waste glass could serve as a less costly alternative to garnet in many AWJ cutting applications. Studies indicated that glass can be processed to produce particles with the desired characteristics at less than 1% of the existing price of garnet. The waste stream resulting from the use of the glass abrasive in an AWJ system was in turn used as a source for inexpensive fillers in various polymers. The reduced energy requirements needed to produce glass abrasives and lower cost associated with the use of waste glass over garnet, as well as the environmental benefits associated with

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  12. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, P. N.


    Full Text Available Since the late 1960´s, a great interest in the use of bioceramic materials for biomedical applications has been developed. In a previous paper, the authors reviewed crystalline bioceramic materials “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials, constituted for non-metallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidates by thermal treatment of powders at high temperature. In the present review, the authors deal with those called bioactive glasses and glassceramics. Although all of them are also obtained by thermal treatment at high temperature, the first are amorphous and the second are obtained by devitrification of a glass, although the vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases. After an introduction to the concept of bioactive materials, a short historical review of the bioactive glasses development is made. Its preparation, reactivity in physiological media, mechanism of bonding to living tissues and mechanical strength of the bone-implant interface is also reported. Next, the concept of glass-ceramic and the way of its preparation are exposed. The composition, physicochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramic materials: Bioglass®, Ceravital®, Cerabone®, Ilmaplant® and Bioverit® are also reviewed. Finally, a short review on the bioactive-glass coatings and bioactive-composites and most common uses of bioactive-glasses and glass-ceramics are carried out too.

    Desde finales de los años sesenta, se ha despertado un gran interés por el uso de los materiales biocerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. En un trabajo previo, los autores hicieron una revisión de los denominados materiales biocerámicos cristalinos en sentido estricto, es decir, de aquellos materiales, constituidos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados mediante tratamientos térmicos a altas temperaturas. En el presente trabajo, los autores

  13. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar


    Anisotropic glasses are obtained from uniaxial compressing and pulling of glass forming liquids above the transition temperature range. To freeze-in, at least partly the structural state of the flowing melt, cylindrical samples were subjected to a controlled cooling process under constant load...... differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dilatometry. The energy release and expansion-shrinkage behaviour of the glasses are investigated as a function of the applied deformation stress. Structural origins of the frozen-in birefringence induced by viscous flow are discussed and correlation between...

  14. Oxynitride glasses: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngel R. Garcia


    Full Text Available Oxynitride glasses are special types of silicates or silicoaluminates which have been the object of many studies over the last forty years. They can be prepared by means of various complex methods, leading to variable levels of nitrogen incorporation, though in all cases giving limited transparency in the visible range. More recently, a new family of oxynitride glasses incorporating fluorine has been investigated. This paper outlines the effect of composition, in particular nitrogen and fluorine content, on properties such as glass transition temperature, hardness, Young's modulus, compactness and molar volume.

  15. Oxynitride glasses: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.R.; Clausell, C.; Barba, A.


    Oxynitride glasses are special types of silicates or silicoaluminates which have been the object of many studies over the last forty years. They can be prepared by means of various complex methods, leading to variable levels of nitrogen incorporation, though in all cases giving limited transparency in the visible range. More recently, a new family of oxynitride glasses incorporating fluorine has been investigated. This paper outlines the effect of composition, in particular nitrogen and fluorine content, on properties such as glass transition temperature, hardness, Young's modulus, compactness and molar volume. (Author)

  16. A Picture behind Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poprzęcka, Maria


    Full Text Available The paper considers the singular situation of reception occasioned by a painting shielded with a reflective pane of glass. The reflections in the glass dramatically break the cohesion of the painting and bring about distracting – although sometimes intriguing – surprises. The glass is an iconoclastic intrusion, an infection of the artistic order by an invading disorder and transient immediacy, which however can be very attractive visually. The accidental obliterates the significant. "The truth of art" is confronted here with a delusive phantom. Not only two entirely different visual effects are mixed here, but also different ontological and axiological spheres.

  17. Zeolites as catalysts in oil refining. (United States)

    Primo, Ana; Garcia, Hermenegildo


    Oil is nowadays the main energy source and this prevalent position most probably will continue in the next decades. This situation is largely due to the degree of maturity that has been achieved in oil refining and petrochemistry as a consequence of the large effort in research and innovation. The remarkable efficiency of oil refining is largely based on the use of zeolites as catalysts. The use of zeolites as catalysts in refining and petrochemistry has been considered as one of the major accomplishments in the chemistry of the XXth century. In this tutorial review, the introductory part describes the main features of zeolites in connection with their use as solid acids. The main body of the review describes important refining processes in which zeolites are used including light naphtha isomerization, olefin alkylation, reforming, cracking and hydrocracking. The final section contains our view on future developments in the field such as the increase in the quality of the transportation fuels and the coprocessing of increasing percentage of biofuels together with oil streams. This review is intended to provide the rudiments of zeolite science applied to refining catalysis.

  18. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian


    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  19. FEM electrode refinement for electrical impedance tomography. (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartlomiej; Adler, Andy


    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) reconstructs images of electrical tissue properties within a body from electrical transfer impedance measurements at surface electrodes. Reconstruction of EIT images requires the solution of an inverse problem in soft field tomography, where a sensitivity matrix, J, of the relationship between internal changes and measurements is calculated, and then a pseudo-inverse of J is used to update the image estimate. It is therefore clear that a precise calculation of J is required for solution accuracy. Since it is generally not possible to use analytic solutions, the finite element method (FEM) is typically used. It has generally been recommended in the EIT literature that FEMs be refined near electrodes, since the electric field and sensitivity is largest there. In this paper we analyze the accuracy requirement for FEM refinement near electrodes in EIT and describe a technique to refine arbitrary FEMs.

  20. Glass Stronger than Steel (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn


    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  1. Super ionic conductive glass (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Densified Tectosilicate Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Nicole; Lamberson, Lisa; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    Aluminosilicate glasses are widely used in applications such as LCD glass, touchscreens for hand held devices and car windows. We have shown that the tectosilicate compositions exhibit an interesting non-monotonic variation in hardness with increasing SiO2 content. From 40% to 85 mol% SiO2......, hardness and indentation modulus both decrease, consistent with the topological constraint theory. Above 85 mol% SiO2 , hardness increases rapidly with increasing SiO2 content while modulus continues to decrease. A switch from shear to densification based on the species present in the glass has been...... proposed to explain this behavior. To reduce densification and study shear deformation independently, a series of calcium aluminosilicate glasses with tectosilicate compositions were densified by isostatic compression in a gas pressure chamber at elevated temperatures. The compressed glasses have increased...

  3. Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration (United States)

    Hench, Larry L.; Roki, Niksa; Fenn, Michael B.


    This review provides a brief background on the applications, mechanisms and genetics involved with use of bioactive glass to stimulate regeneration of bone. The emphasis is on the role of structural changes of the bioactive glasses, in particular Bioglass, which result in controlled release of osteostimulative ions. The review also summarizes the use of Raman spectroscopy, referred to hereto forward as bio-Raman spectroscopy, to obtain rapid, real time in vitro analysis of human cells in contact with bioactive glasses, and the osteostimulative dissolution ions that lead to osteogenesis. The bio-Raman studies support the results obtained from in vivo studies of bioactive glasses, as well as extensive cell and molecular biology studies, and thus offers an innovative means for rapid screening of new bioactive materials while reducing the need for animal testing.

  4. A Novel Method of Preparation of Inorganic Glasses by Microwave Irradiation (United States)

    Vaidhyanathan, B.; Ganguli, Munia; Rao, K. J.


    Microwave heating is shown to provide an extremely facile and automatically temperature-controlled route to the synthesis of glasses. Glass-forming compositions of several traditional and novel glasses were melted in a kitchen microwave oven, typically within 5 min and quenched into glasses. This is only a fraction of the time required in normal glass preparation methods. The rapidity of melting minimizes undesirable features such as loss of components of the glass, variation of oxidation states of metal ions, and oxygen loss leading to reduced products in the glass such as metal particles. This novel procedure of preparation is applicable when at least one of the components of the glass-forming mixture absorbs microwaves.

  5. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab


    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  6. Thermal Kinetics of Glass Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrales, Louis R.; Du, Jincheng


    Different glass quenching algorithms are used to create simulated silica glass and their effect on the final glass structure is determined. The most distinct changes are seen to occur in the medium-range structure, specifically in the population of the different ring sizes. Some differences in the number of defects formed are also observed. The implications are that modified glass forming algorithms create glasses that are at least as good as traditional simulated glass forming methods. The objective of using modified glass forming algorithms are to understand quenching rates of simulations in comparison to quenching rates of macroscopic real systems.

  7. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee


    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  8. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.


    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...... for a control task, exemplified by a steam boiler.The same formalism is used to refine requirements to a functional design.Through a suitable transformation this is taken to an event andaction based formalism. Finally components in this design for a distributedarchitecture are transformed to occam-like programs....

  9. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  10. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri


    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  11. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.


    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Concrete Cutting Refinement for Crater Repair (United States)


    ER D C/ G SL T R- 15 -2 9 Concrete Cutting Refinement for Crater Repair G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr uc tu re s La bo ra to ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at ERDC/GSL TR-15-29 August 2015 Concrete Cutting Refinement...conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, MS, to evaluate saw- cutting equipment for use by crater repair

  13. Wastes based glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri, L.


    Full Text Available Actually, the inertization, recovery and valorisation of the wastes coming from municipal and industrial processes are the most important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. An alternative technology capable to overcome the problem of the dishomogeneity of the raw material chemical composition is the vitrification process that is able to increase the homogeneity and the constancy of the chemical composition of the system and to modulate the properties in order to address the reutilization of the waste. Moreover, the glasses obtained subjected to different controlled thermal treatments, can be transformed in semy-cristalline material (named glass-ceramics with improved properties with respect to the parent amorphous materials. In this review the tailoring, preparation and characterization of glasses and glass-ceramics obtained starting from municipal incinerator grate ash, coal and steel fly ashes and glass cullet are described.

    Realmente la inertización, recuperación y valorización de residuos que proceden de los procesos de incineración de residuos municipales y de residuos industriales son metas importantes desde el punto de vista ambiental y económico. Una tecnología alternativa capaz de superar el problema de la heterogeneidad de la composición química de los materiales de partida es el proceso de la vitrificación que es capaz de aumentar la homogeneidad y la constancia de la composición química del sistema y modular las propiedades a fin de la reutilización del residuo. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de vitrificación en que los vidrios fueron sometidos a tratamientos térmicos controlados diferentes, de manera que se transforman en materiales semicristalinos (también denominados vitrocerámicos con mejores propiedades respecto a los materiales amorfos originales. En esta revisión se muestra el diseño, preparación y caracterización de vidrios y vitrocerámicos partiendo de

  14. Experimental reduction of lunar mare soil and volcanic glass (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Mckay, David S.


    We have reduced high-titanium lunar mare soil and iron-rich lunar volcanic glass with hydrogen at temperatures of 900-1100 C. Ilmenite is the most reactive phase in the soil, exhibiting rapid and complete reduction at all temperatures. Ferrous iron in the glass is extensively reduced concurrent with partial crystallization. In both samples pyroxene and olivine undergo partial reduction along with chemical and mineralogical modifications. High-temperature reduction provides insight into the optical and chemical effects of lunar soil maturation, and places constraints on models of that process. Mare soil and volcanic glass are attractive feedstocks for lunar oxygen production, with achievable yields of 2-5 wt%.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B


    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  16. Optimized Synthesis of Foam Glass from Recycled CRT Panel Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Most of the panel glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is landfilled today. Instead of landfilling, the panel glass can be turned into new environment-friendly foam glass. Low density foam glass is an effective heat insulating material and can be produced just by using recycle glass and foaming...... additives. In this work we recycle the CRT panel glass to synthesize the foam glass as a crucial component of building and insulating materials. The synthesis conditions such as foaming temperature, duration, glass particle size, type and concentrations of foaming agents, and so on are optimized...... by performing systematic experiments. In particular, the concentration of foaming agents is an important parameter that influences the size of bubbles and the distribution of bubbles throughout the sample. The foam glasses are characterised regarding density and open/closed porosity. Differential scanning...

  17. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 3. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization. N R Munirathnam ... The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical ...

  18. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P


    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  19. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal


    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014

  20. Refinement of protein structures in explicit solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linge, J.P.; Williams, M.A.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Nilges, M.


    We present a CPU efficient protocol for refinement of protein structures in a thin layer of explicit solvent and energy parameters with completely revised dihedral angle terms. Our approach is suitable for protein structures determined by theoretical (e.g., homology modeling or threading) or

  1. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.


    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  2. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.


    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence ...... algorithm makes the method of refined Buneman trees computational competitive to methods based on neighbor joining....

  3. Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement. (United States)

    Hayes-Roth, Frederick; And Others

    This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, knowledge refinement, and autonomous machine learning. The relative advantages of humans and…

  4. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.


    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers

  5. Understanding Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels (United States)


    can be modified to improve properties for grain refined steels. Tec finical Approach Grain size reduction is regularly practiced in steel mills...determine how small rare earth oxides are distributed in the steel. Since no examination of nano sized particles in the matrix was conducted in the

  6. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.


    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  7. Immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis using Google Glass. (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan


    We demonstrate a Google Glass-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) reader platform capable of qualitative and quantitative measurements of various lateral flow immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical diagnostics tests. Using a custom-written Glass application and without any external hardware attachments, one or more RDTs labeled with Quick Response (QR) code identifiers are simultaneously imaged using the built-in camera of the Google Glass that is based on a hands-free and voice-controlled interface and digitally transmitted to a server for digital processing. The acquired JPEG images are automatically processed to locate all the RDTs and, for each RDT, to produce a quantitative diagnostic result, which is returned to the Google Glass (i.e., the user) and also stored on a central server along with the RDT image, QR code, and other related information (e.g., demographic data). The same server also provides a dynamic spatiotemporal map and real-time statistics for uploaded RDT results accessible through Internet browsers. We tested this Google Glass-based diagnostic platform using qualitative (i.e., yes/no) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. For the quantitative RDTs, we measured activated tests at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL for free and total PSA. This wearable RDT reader platform running on Google Glass combines a hands-free sensing and image capture interface with powerful servers running our custom image processing codes, and it can be quite useful for real-time spatiotemporal tracking of various diseases and personal medical conditions, providing a valuable tool for epidemiology and mobile health.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; James Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P


    The performance of a glass used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is generally quantified by its resistance to chemical degradation, or durability. The durability of a HLW glass is dependent on its composition. If crystalline phases form within a glass during cooling, the composition of the residual glass network is altered, therefore affecting the durability of the glass. Crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) has been shown to adversely impact the durability of HLW glasses since it removes glass forming species (in this case, Al and Si) from the glass network. The propensity for nepheline crystallization in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O in the glass. Nepheline crystallization is therefore of concern for processing of HLW at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since the sludge waste streams at the Savannah River Site (SRS) can contain high concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O. Currently, a 'nepheline discriminator' is included as a process control constraint at the DWPF. The nepheline discriminator relates the concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as weight percentages in glass) to a critical value of 0.62. The discriminator defines a boundary line on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary diagram above which (or toward the SiO{sub 2} corner of the ternary) nepheline is not predicted to crystallize in the glass upon quenching or slow cooling. The current equation uses only the concentrations of the SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} components in the glass in predicting whether or not nepheline is likely to crystallize. However, several other components have been shown to impact the propensity for nepheline crystallization, including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO among others. Therefore, the potential exists to further refine the nepheline discriminator to include these components. In addition, recently

  9. Glass strengthening and patterning methods (United States)

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E


    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  10. New High Index Optical Glasses (United States)

    Blair, Gerald E.; Greco, Edgar J.; DeJager, Donald; Wylot, James M.


    The pioneering work of Charles W. Frederick and George W. Morey on the design by Frederick of an "ideal photographic lens" using hypothetical glasses, and the subsequent discovery and development of rare-element borate glasses by Morey, has been resumed at Eastman Kodak. New ultra-high index, low dispersion crown glasses and companion flint glasses have been developed, based on the needs dictated by lens design studies for novel fast cine' and still camera lenses. These new glasses reduce the number of elements required in a lens while maintaining or improving lens performance. Composition studies leading to these new glasses will be discussed.

  11. Bio-Glasses An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Julian


    This new work is dedicated to glasses and their variants which can be used as biomaterials to repair diseased and damaged tissues. Bio-glasses are superior to other biomaterials in many applications, such as healing bone by signaling stem cells to become bone cells.   Key features:  First book on biomaterials to focus on bio-glassesEdited by a leading authority on bio-glasses trained by one of its inventors, Dr Larry HenchSupported by the International Commission on Glass (ICG)Authored by members of the ICG Biomedical Glass Committee, with the goal of creating a seamless textb

  12. Perspectives on spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluigi


    Presenting and developing the theory of spin glasses as a prototype for complex systems, this book is a rigorous and up-to-date introduction to their properties. The book combines a mathematical description with a physical insight of spin glass models. Topics covered include the physical origins of those models and their treatment with replica theory; mathematical properties like correlation inequalities and their use in the thermodynamic limit theory; main exact solutions of the mean field models and their probabilistic structures; and the theory of the structural properties of the spin glass phase such as stochastic stability and the overlap identities. Finally, a detailed account is given of the recent numerical simulation results and properties, including overlap equivalence, ultrametricity and decay of correlations. The book is ideal for mathematical physicists and probabilists working in disordered systems.

  13. Grain Refinement of Freeform Fabricated Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Beam/Arc Modulation (United States)

    Mitzner, Scott; Liu, Stephen; Domack, Marcia S.; Hafley, Robert A.


    Grain refinement can significantly improve the mechanical properties of freeform-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V alloy, promoting increased strength and enhanced isotropy compared with coarser grained material. Large beta-grains can lead to a segregated microstructure, in regard to both alpha-phase morphology and alpha-lath orientation. Beam modulation, which has been used in conventional fusion welding to promote grain refinement, is explored in this study for use in additive manufacturing processes including electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) and gas-tungsten arc (GTA) deposition to alter solidification behavior and produce a refined microstructure. The dynamic molten pool size induced by beam modulation causes rapid heat flow variance and results in a more competitive grain growth environment, reducing grain size. Consequently, improved isotropy and strength can be achieved with relatively small adjustments to deposition parameters.

  14. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee


    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  15. Tip Refinement Grafts: The Designer Tip. (United States)

    Daniel, Rollin K


    In cosmetic rhinoplasty, the patient's satisfaction is most often determined by the quality of the tip surgery, but perfecting a technique for consistently attractive tips can be challenging. As a result, rhinoplasty surgery is now entering a new era of "designer tip" operations, wherein surgeons can employ a combination of open suture tip techniques and tip refinement grafts to achieve consistent results. The grafts are made from excised lateral crural cartilage and, depending upon the specific aesthetic goals, the shape can include the following:domal, shield, diamond, folded, or combination. It is possible to alter dome-defining points, tip point, projection,definition, volume, and size and shape. A study of 100 consecutive female rhinoplasties indicated that tip sutures alone were used in 36% of cases, while a tip refinement graft was added to a sutured tip in 59% of cases.

  16. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth van Hooland


    Full Text Available Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank cells, duplicates, spelling inconsistencies, etc. OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

  17. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne, E-mail:


    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  18. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Characteristic Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Thornburg, Jonathan


    I consider techniques for Berger-Oliger adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) when numerically solving partial differential equations with wave-like solutions, using characteristic (double-null) grids. Such AMR algorithms are naturally recursive, and the best-known past Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm, that of Pretorius & Lehner (J. Comp. Phys. 198 (2004), 10), recurses on individual "diamond" characteristic grid cells. This leads to the use of fine-grained memory management, with individual grid cells kept in 2-dimensional linked lists at each refinement level. This complicates the implementation and adds overhead in both space and time. Here I describe a Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm which instead recurses on null \\emph{slices}. This algorithm is very similar to the usual Cauchy Berger-Oliger algorithm, and uses relatively coarse-grained memory management, allowing entire null slices to be stored stored in contiguous arrays in memory. The algorithm is very efficient in both space and ti...

  19. Refined 3d-3d correspondence (United States)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; van Loon, Mark


    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N = 2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N = 2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N = 2∗ theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-'t Hooft loops in the 4d N = 2∗ theory. In the presence of a mass parameter cfor the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  20. {sub 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy of tin containing float glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Verena; Vadim, Ksenofontov; Felser, Claudia [Johannes Gutenberg - Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Aigner, Maria Luisa; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Sprenger, Dirk [Schott AG, 55122 Mainz (Germany)


    According to the production process of float glasses tin is used as a common refining agent. Since the surface quality of the glass strongly depends on the local distribution of Sn-redox states, the influence of process parameters on Sn{sup 2+}/Sn{sup 4+} ratios and the assignment to their structural role in the glass network is extremely helpful. Therefore, glass compositions based on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-SnO{sub 2} were molten with additions of 0,1, 0,3 and 0,5 wt% SnO{sub 2}. All samples were tempered for 7 days at 1400 C in N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-air mixtures with controlled p{sub O2}-values of 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -5} bar, respectively. Hyperfine parameters for the tin nucleus in different structural units and their oxidation states were calculated from {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectra, using theoretical simulations of electron densities and electric field gradients with the Wien2k software. Finally, the thermochemical impact of oxygen on the structure of Sn-bearing glasses is discussed.

  1. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle


    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  2. A cluster refinement algorithm for motif discovery. (United States)

    Li, Gang; Chan, Tak-Ming; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Lee, Kin-Hong


    Finding Transcription Factor Binding Sites, i.e., motif discovery, is crucial for understanding the gene regulatory relationship. Motifs are weakly conserved and motif discovery is an NP-hard problem. We propose a new approach called Cluster Refinement Algorithm for Motif Discovery (CRMD). CRMD employs a flexible statistical motif model allowing a variable number of motifs and motif instances. CRMD first uses a novel entropy-based clustering to find complete and good starting candidate motifs from the DNA sequences. CRMD then employs an effective greedy refinement to search for optimal motifs from the candidate motifs. The refinement is fast, and it changes the number of motif instances based on the adaptive thresholds. The performance of CRMD is further enhanced if the problem has one occurrence of motif instance per sequence. Using an appropriate similarity test of motifs, CRMD is also able to find multiple motifs. CRMD has been tested extensively on synthetic and real data sets. The experimental results verify that CRMD usually outperforms four other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the qualities of the solutions with competitive computing time. It finds a good balance between finding true motif instances and screening false motif instances, and is robust on problems of various levels of difficulty.

  3. Foam Glass for Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund


    Foaming is commonly achieved by adding foaming agents such as metal oxides or metal carbonates to glass powder. At elevated temperature, the glass melt becomes viscous and the foaming agents decompose or react to form gas, causing a foamy glass melt. Subsequent cooling to room temperature, result...... in a solid foam glass. The foam glass industry employs a range of different melt precursors and foaming agents. Recycle glass is key melt precursors. Many parameters influence the foaming process and optimising the foaming conditions is very time consuming. The most challenging and attractive goal is to make...... low density foam glass for thermal insulation applications. In this thesis, it is argued that the use of metal carbonates as foaming agents is not suitable for low density foam glass. A reaction mechanism is proposed to justify this result. Furthermore, an in situ method is developed to optimise...

  4. Innovated application of mechanical activation to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass. (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio


    The disposal of scrap cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass has become a global environmental problem due to the rapid shrinkage of new CRT monitor demand, which greatly reduces the reuse for remanufacturing. To detoxificate CRT funnel glass by lead recovery with traditional metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the funnel glass. As a result, substantial physicochemical changes have been observed after mechanical activation including chemical breakage and defects formation in glass inner structure. These changes contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated sample in solution. High yield of 92.5% of lead from activated CRT funnel glass by diluted nitric acid leaching and successful formation of lead sulfide by sulfur sulfidization in water have also been achieved. All the results indicate that the application of mechanical activation on recovering lead from CRT funnel glass is efficient and promising, which is also probably appropriate to detoxificate any other kind of leaded glass.

  5. Glass as matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    Refraiming the Moderns - Substitute Windows and Glass. In general terms, the seminar has contributed to the growing interest in the problems concerning the restoration of Modern Movement architecture. More particularly, it has of course drawn our attention to modern windows, which are increasingly...

  6. Glasses and Contact Lenses (United States)

    ... really fun part of new glasses or contact lenses is how well you can see. They can make your whole world look better! Reviewed by: Jonathan H. Salvin, ... Abrasions Why Do Eyes Water? What It's Like to Be Color Blind Contact ...

  7. Shimmering Stained Glass. (United States)

    Simon, Gail Murray


    Presents an art lesson for fifth- and sixth-graders where they create a translucent design of colored cellophane on black paper inspired by the stained-glass windows of the Middle Ages and the artwork of Lewis Comfort Tiffany. Enables the students to become crafts people rather than just observers of the past. (CMK)

  8. Microchips on glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, L.; De Vreede, L.; Keulemans, M.


    Microchips on glass. What about a mobile phone that uses a single microchip to receive all the available frequency bands, plus extras such as television, gps, and Internet access? Or, in due time, see-though implants that will monitor your state of health, and equipment that will let you see through

  9. Stained Glass and Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Robert Webster, an Emeritus member of the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, discusses his cover art story on stained glass and influenza.  Created: 2/1/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/1/2017.

  10. Glass Working, Use and Discard


    Nicholson, Paul


    Glass in ancient Egypt appeared in the New Kingdom. It was a novel and highly prized material, which quickly found favor with the elite. The first known glass sculpture in the round depicted the Egyptian ruler Amenhotep II. The purposes for which glass was used overlap with those traditionally known for objects made in faience, and both materials can be regarded as artificial versions of semiprecious stones, notably turquoise, lapis lazuli, and green feldspar. The techniques by which glass wa...

  11. Barstow heliostat mirror glass characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, M.A.; Buckwalter, C.Q.


    The technical analysis performed on the special run of low iron float glass procured from the Ford Glass Division for the ten megawatt solar thermal/electric pilot power plant to be constructed at Barstow, California is discussed. The topics that are addressed include the optical properties and the relative durability of the glass. Two optical parameters, solar transmittance and optical flatness, were measured as referenced in the specification and found to be better than the stated tolerances. The average solar transmittance exceeded 0.890 transmittance units. The glass also exhibited optical angular flatness deviations less than +-1.0 mrad as required. Both qualitative and quantitative accelerated weathering tests were performed on the glass in order to compare its durability to other soda lime float glass and alternate composition glasses of interest to the solar community. In both the quantitative leaching experiments and the more qualitative room temperature and elevated temperature water vapor exposure experiments the heliostat glass exhibited the same characteristics as the other soda-lime silicate float glasses. As a final test for mirroring compatability, selected samples of the production run of the glass were sent to four different commercial manufacturers for mirror coating. None of the manufacturers reported any difficulty silvering the glass. Based on the tests performed, the glass meets or exceeds all optical specifications for the Barstow heliostat field.

  12. Yesterday's Trash Makes Tomorrow's "Glass" (United States)

    Wayne, Dale


    In this article, the author describes a glass art project inspired by Dale Chihuly. This project uses two-liter plastic soda bottles which are cut apart and trimmed. Applying heat using a hair dryer, the plastic curls and takes an uneven blown-glass quality. The "glass" is then painted using acrylic paint. (Contains 2 resources and 1 online…

  13. Red glass for the Pharaoh


    Rehren, Thilo


    Glass in ancient Egypt appears to have been used as a substitute for precious stones that were not available in the country. Here the process of glass manufacture is traced through the examination of the fragmentary remains of ceramic reaction vessels and crucibles used in the production of small glass ingots.

  14. Red glass for the Pharaoh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Rehren


    Full Text Available Glass in ancient Egypt appears to have been used as a substitute for precious stones that were not available in the country. Here the process of glass manufacture is traced through the examination of the fragmentary remains of ceramic reaction vessels and crucibles used in the production of small glass ingots.

  15. A method for the determination of the dissociation constants of acids with an uncalibrated glass electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Lengton, W.


    A method is presented for the determination of absolute pKa values of acids in solvents with a high dielectric constant by potentiometry with an uncalibrated glass electrode; in the determination, the glass electrode becomes calibrated. The method has the advantage that it is rapid and simple.

  16. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo


    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  17. Generalizing Refinement Operators to Learn Prenex Conjunctive Normal Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); W. van Laer; J. Ramon; L. de Raedt


    textabstractInductive Logic Programming considers almost exclusively universally quantied theories. To add expressiveness, prenex conjunctive normal forms (PCNF) with existential variables should also be considered. ILP mostly uses learning with refinement operators. To extend refinement operators

  18. Fatigue mechanisms in unidirectional glass-fibre-reinforced polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Berglund, L.A.; Peijs, T.


    Polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene modified with maleic anhydride (MA-PP) reinforced by continuous longitudinal glass fibres have been investigated. The most prominent effect of the modification with maleic anhydride in the composite is a stronger fibre/matrix interface. The effects...... of interfacial strength on fatigue performance and on the underlying micromechanisms have been studied for these composite systems. Tension-tension fatigue tests (R = 0.1) were carried out on 0 degrees glass-fibre/PP and glass-fibre/ MA-PP coupons. The macroscopic fatigue behaviour was characterized in terms...... of stiffness reduction and fatigue-life curves. The results showed that the longitudinal Young's modulus degraded more rapidly for glass-fibre/PP, which was caused by a higher degree of damage growth and accumulation. The improvement in monotonic strength was negligible, but the fatigue life was prolonged...

  19. Improved low-resolution crystallographic refinement with Phenix and Rosetta. (United States)

    DiMaio, Frank; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Adams, Paul D; Baker, David


    Refinement of macromolecular structures against low-resolution crystallographic data is limited by the ability of current methods to converge on a structure with realistic geometry. We developed a low-resolution crystallographic refinement method that combines the Rosetta sampling methodology and energy function with reciprocal-space X-ray refinement in Phenix. On a set of difficult low-resolution cases, the method yielded improved model geometry and lower free R factors than alternate refinement methods.

  20. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.


    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  1. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.


    Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...... of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O...

  2. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. To define a basis of commercial operation of the plant, the process parameters obtained during the pilot plant testing were compared with the laboratory process parameters. The yield of refined oil ...

  3. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminium alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific literature ...

  4. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an effective refining effect on the grain size of AZ31 magnesium alloy under the effect of Al4C3 ...

  5. Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq (United States)

    Choppy, Christine; Mayero, Micaela; Petrucci, Laure


    In this work, we address the formalisation of symmetric nets, a subclass of coloured Petri nets, refinement in COQ. We first provide a formalisation of the net models, and of their type refinement in COQ. Then the COQ proof assistant is used to prove the refinement correctness lemma. An example adapted from a protocol example illustrates our work.

  6. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminium alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific ...

  7. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP. ...

  8. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiaoguang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail:; Ding Haimin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)


    Because flake-like TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of {alpha}-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption.

  9. Retrenchment. An engineering variation on refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banach, R.; Poppleton, M


    It is argued that refinement, in which I/O signatures stay the same, preconditions are weakened and postconditions strengthened, is too restrictive to describe all but a fraction of many realistic developments. An alternative notion is proposed called retrenchment, which allows information to migrate between I/O and state aspects of operations at different levels of abstraction, and which allows only a fraction of the high level behaviour to be captured at the low level. This permits more of the informal aspects of design to be formally captured and checked. The details are worked out for the B-Method. (author)

  10. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server


    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  11. Comparative omics-driven genome annotation refinement: application across Yersiniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C Schrimpe-Rutledge

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing continues to be a rapidly evolving technology, yet most downstream aspects of genome annotation pipelines remain relatively stable or are even being abandoned. The annotation process is now performed almost exclusively in an automated fashion to balance the large number of sequences generated. One possible way of reducing errors inherent to automated computational annotations is to apply data from omics measurements (i.e. transcriptional and proteomic to the un-annotated genome with a proteogenomic-based approach. Here, the concept of annotation refinement has been extended to include a comparative assessment of genomes across closely related species. Transcriptomic and proteomic data derived from highly similar pathogenic Yersiniae (Y. pestis CO92, Y. pestis Pestoides F, and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+ was used to demonstrate a comprehensive comparative omic-based annotation methodology. Peptide and oligo measurements experimentally validated the expression of nearly 40% of each strain's predicted proteome and revealed the identification of 28 novel and 68 incorrect (i.e., observed frameshifts, extended start sites, and translated pseudogenes protein-coding sequences within the three current genome annotations. Gene loss is presumed to play a major role in Y. pestis acquiring its niche as a virulent pathogen, thus the discovery of many translated pseudogenes, including the insertion-ablated argD, underscores a need for functional analyses to investigate hypotheses related to divergence. Refinements included the discovery of a seemingly essential ribosomal protein, several virulence-associated factors, a transcriptional regulator, and many hypothetical proteins that were missed during annotation.

  12. Silver Selenide Thermodynamics for Copper Anode Slime Refining (United States)

    Feng, Dawei; Taskinen, Pekka

    Copper anode slimes are a by-product of the electrolytic refining of anode copper, which contains significant amounts of silver, selenium, copper, and gold. Slimes are usually smelted to recover silver and gold. The thermodynamics of the smelting of such selenium-rich materials have received only little attention. In this work, the numerical values on the standard thermodynamic functions of Ag2Se (Naumannite) were determined by the electromotive force (EMF) method in a solid-state galvanic cell with superionic conductor RbAg4I5 as the solid electrolyte. Ag2Se was synthesized from pure elements in evacuated quartz glass ampoules and examined to be homogenous by SEM and EDS. According to the experimental data on the EMF versus temperature, the analytical equations were obtained for the polymorphic forms of Ag2Se. The temperature of phase transformation from α-Ag2Se to β-Ag2Se is determined experimentally to be 407.7 K by interpolation of the EMF vs. T data, and the enthalpy of phase transformation is 6.06 kJ•mol-1. The Gibbs energy of formation for Ag2Se is given by Δ {\\overline G _{α - A{g_2}Se}},J = - ( {40869.14 ± 0.58129} ) - ( {27.94759 ± 1.53034} ) \\cdot T,( {350 < T/K < 408} ), Δ {\\overline G _{β - A{g_2}Se}},J = - ( {35062.17 ± 0.09895} ) - ( {42.17847 ± 0.21827} ) \\cdot T,( {408 < T/K < 500} ).

  13. Glasses for Mali

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department


    We are collecting old pairs of glasses to take out to Mali, where they can be re-used by people there. The price for a pair of glasses can often exceed 3 months salary, so they are prohibitively expensive for many people. If you have any old spectacles you can donate, please put them in the special box in the ATLAS secretariat, Bldg.40-4-D01 before the Christmas closure on 19 December so we can take them with us when we leave for Africa at the end of the month. (more details in ATLAS e-news edition of 29 September 2008: many thanks! Katharine Leney co-driver of the ATLAS car on the Charity Run to Mali

  14. Spin Glass Patch Planting (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong; Mandra, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.


    In this paper, we propose a patch planting method for creating arbitrarily large spin glass instances with known ground states. The scaling of the computational complexity of these instances with various block numbers and sizes is investigated and compared with random instances using population annealing Monte Carlo and the quantum annealing DW2X machine. The method can be useful for benchmarking tests for future generation quantum annealing machines, classical and quantum mechanical optimization algorithms.

  15. Athermal photofluidization of glasses (United States)

    Fang, G. J.; Maclennan, J. E.; Yi, Y.; Glaser, M. A.; Farrow, M.; Korblova, E.; Walba, D. M.; Furtak, T. E.; Clark, N. A.


    Azobenzene and its derivatives are among the most important organic photonic materials, with their photo-induced trans-cis isomerization leading to applications ranging from holographic data storage and photoalignment to photoactuation and nanorobotics. A key element and enduring mystery in the photophysics of azobenzenes, central to all such applications, is athermal photofluidization: illumination that produces only a sub-Kelvin increase in average temperature can reduce, by many orders of magnitude, the viscosity of an organic glassy host at temperatures more than 100 K below its thermal glass transition. Here we analyse the relaxation dynamics of a dense monolayer glass of azobenzene-based molecules to obtain a measurement of the transient local effective temperature at which a photo-isomerizing molecule attacks its orientationally confining barriers. This high temperature (Tloc~800 K) leads directly to photofluidization, as each absorbed photon generates an event in which a local glass transition temperature is exceeded, enabling collective confining barriers to be attacked with near 100% quantum efficiency.

  16. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li


    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  17. A New Grain Refiner for Ferritic Steels (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Jian-Min; Zheng, Qing; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Geoff; Zhang, Ming-Xing


    A new grain refiner, LaB6, was identified for ferritic steels based on the crystallographic calculation using the edge-to-edge matching model. Addition of 0.5 wt pct LaB6 led to a reduction of the average grain size from 765 to 92 μm and the proportion of the columnar structure from 35 to 8 pct in an as-cast Fe-4Si ferritic alloy. Although LaB6 was supposed to act as an active inoculant for δ-ferrite, thermodynamic calculation indicated that LaB6 is not thermodynamically stable in the melt of the Fe-4Si alloy. It was subject to decompose into La and B solutes. Consequently, both La and B reacted with Fe, O and S, forming different compounds. Microstructural examination at room temperature observed La2SO2 and La2O3 particles within the ferrite grains and Fe2B along the grain boundaries in the samples. Through EBSD analysis, a reproducible orientation relationship between ferrite and La2SO2 was identified. In addition, the edge-to-edge matching calculation also predicted the high potency for La2SO2 to be an effective nucleant for δ-ferrite. It was considered that the grain refinement of LaB6 was attributed to the enhanced heterogeneous nucleation of δ-ferrite by La2SO2, and the solute effect of B due to the high Q-value in ferrite.

  18. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing (United States)

    Xian, Xuefeng; Cui, Zhiming


    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost. PMID:28588611

  19. A New Grain Refiner for Ferritic Steels (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Jian-Min; Zheng, Qing; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Geoff; Zhang, Ming-Xing


    A new grain refiner, LaB6, was identified for ferritic steels based on the crystallographic calculation using the edge-to-edge matching model. Addition of 0.5 wt pct LaB6 led to a reduction of the average grain size from 765 to 92 μm and the proportion of the columnar structure from 35 to 8 pct in an as-cast Fe-4Si ferritic alloy. Although LaB6 was supposed to act as an active inoculant for δ-ferrite, thermodynamic calculation indicated that LaB6 is not thermodynamically stable in the melt of the Fe-4Si alloy. It was subject to decompose into La and B solutes. Consequently, both La and B reacted with Fe, O and S, forming different compounds. Microstructural examination at room temperature observed La2SO2 and La2O3 particles within the ferrite grains and Fe2B along the grain boundaries in the samples. Through EBSD analysis, a reproducible orientation relationship between ferrite and La2SO2 was identified. In addition, the edge-to-edge matching calculation also predicted the high potency for La2SO2 to be an effective nucleant for δ-ferrite. It was considered that the grain refinement of LaB6 was attributed to the enhanced heterogeneous nucleation of δ-ferrite by La2SO2, and the solute effect of B due to the high Q-value in ferrite.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Multi-particle production in QCD is dominated by higher twist contributions. The operator product expansion is not very effective here because the number of relevant operators grow rapidly with increasing twist. The Color Glass Condensate (CGC) provides a framework in QCD to systematically discuss ''classical'' (multiple scattering) and ''quantum'' evolution (shadowing) effects in multi-particle production. The apparently insuperable problem of nucleus-nucleus scattering in QCD simplifies greatly in the CGC. A few examples are discussed with emphasis on open problems.

  1. Consumer liking of refined and whole wheat breads. (United States)

    Bakke, A; Vickers, Z


    Preference for refined bread is often cited as a reason for the relatively low consumption of whole wheat bread; only a few studies, however, have examined consumer preferences between refined and whole wheat breads, and the results of these studies are inconclusive. Our objective was to determine if refined wheat bread is preferred to whole wheat bread. We hypothesized that people would prefer refined wheat bread. We conducted a taste test with 89 people. They rated their liking of 9 different breads chosen to represent several comparisons between equivalent refined and whole wheat breads. The participants also rated the intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and completed a questionnaire about their bread preferences and purchasing habits. We classified the participants by their bread preference and their PROP taster status, and then examined the liking patterns of these subgroups. People preferred refined bread to whole wheat bread when both were made using equivalent ingredients and procedures. They liked the commercial samples of refined and whole wheat breads equally well. When people were classified by their bread preference, those who preferred refined bread liked the refined bread better in all comparisons. PROP nontasters liked all refined and whole wheat breads equally. Sensory preferences are a barrier to whole wheat bread consumption, but ingredient or processing modifications can improve liking of whole wheat bread to the level of refined bread.

  2. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  3. Storage of hydrogen by high pressure microencapsulation in glass (United States)

    Yan, K. L.; Sellars, B. G.; Lo, J.; Johar, S.; Murthy, M. K.

    The storage of compressed hydrogen gas in cylindrical glass microcapsules is a new concept that offers potential merits of lightweight, low cost, and simplicity in system design. The strongly temperature dependent permeability of candidate glass materials to hydrogen gas allows compressed hydrogen gas to be stored and retrieved from microcapsules at required rates by appropriate temperature adjustments. The major emphasis of work has been placed on developing the processes and techniques for hollow fibre drawing, fabrication of microcapsules and test modules, evaluation of microcapsule properties, and laboratory-scale hydrogen charge and discharge trials. These development efforts were followed by those for refinement and optimization, with particular interest in improving microcapsule strength and dimensional consistency. Recently, axial tensile strengths of over 700 MPa were achieved for microcapsules with aspect ratios higher than 25:1. Hydrogen storage capacity of over 2 wt percent has been demonstrated in laboratory trials.

  4. Effects of grain refinement on the biocorrosion and in vitro bioactivity of magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Partha; Roy, Mangal [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Datta, Moni Kanchan [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Lee, Boeun [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)


    Magnesium is a new class of biodegradable metals potentially suitable for bone fracture fixation due to its suitable mechanical properties, high degradability and biocompatibility. However, rapid corrosion and loss in mechanical strength under physiological conditions render it unsuitable for load-bearing applications. In the present study, grain refinement was implemented to control bio-corrosion demonstrating improved in vitro bioactivity of magnesium. Pure commercial magnesium was grain refined using different amounts of zirconium (0.25 and 1.0 wt.%). Corrosion behavior was studied by potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and mass loss immersion tests demonstrating corrosion rate decrease with grain size reduction. In vitro biocompatibility tests conducted by MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells and measured by DNA quantification demonstrate significant increase in cell proliferation for Mg–1 wt.% Zr at day 5. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was higher for grain refined Mg. Alloys were also tested for ability to support osteoclast differentiation using RAW264.7 monocytes with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) supplemented cell culture. Osteoclast differentiation process was observed to be severely restricted for smaller grained Mg. Overall, the results indicate grain refinement to be useful not only for improving corrosion resistance of Mg implants for bone fixation devices but also potentially modulate bone regeneration around the implant. - Highlights: • The biocorrosion and biocompatibility of pure Mg and Mg grain refined with different Zr levels were investigated. • Corrosion resistance in HBSS and compressive strength of pure Mg was significantly improved with Zr addition. • Electrochemical and immersion corrosion tests showed a fourfold decrease in corrosion rate of pure Mg with 1% Zr addition. • Grain refinement of pure Mg demonstrated enhanced osteoblast cell activity and proliferation.

  5. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering (United States)

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.


    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  6. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.


    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  7. Comparative Omics-Driven Genome Annotation Refinement: Application across Yersiniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Jones, Marcus B.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Purvine, Samuel O.; Sanford, James; Monroe, Matthew E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Ansong, Charles; Frank, Bryan C.; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott; Motin, Vladimir L.; Adkins, Joshua N.


    Genome sequencing continues to be a rapidly evolving technology, yet most downstream aspects of genome annotation pipelines remain relatively stable or are even being abandoned. To date, the perceived value of manual curation for genome annotations is not offset by the real cost and time associated with the process. In order to balance the large number of sequences generated, the annotation process is now performed almost exclusively in an automated fashion for most genome sequencing projects. One possible way to reduce errors inherent to automated computational annotations is to apply data from 'omics' measurements (i.e. transcriptional and proteomic) to the un-annotated genome with a proteogenomic-based approach. This approach does require additional experimental and bioinformatics methods to include omics technologies; however, the approach is readily automatable and can benefit from rapid developments occurring in those research domains as well. The annotation process can be improved by experimental validation of transcription and translation and aid in the discovery of annotation errors. Here the concept of annotation refinement has been extended to include a comparative assessment of genomes across closely related species, as is becoming common in sequencing efforts. Transcriptomic and proteomic data derived from three highly similar pathogenic Yersiniae (Y. pestis CO92, Y. pestis pestoides F, and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+) was used to demonstrate a comprehensive comparative omic-based annotation methodology. Peptide and oligo measurements experimentally validated the expression of nearly 40% of each strain's predicted proteome and revealed the identification of 28 novel and 68 previously incorrect protein-coding sequences (e.g., observed frameshifts, extended start sites, and translated pseudogenes) within the three current Yersinia genome annotations. Gene loss is presumed to play a major role in Y. pestis acquiring its niche as a virulent


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tioua


    Full Text Available Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses. In this poster will offer new doped erbium glasses synthesized in silicate crucibles were obtained in the combination Sb2O3-WO3-Na2O. Several properties are measured and correlated with glass compositions. The absorption spectral studies have been performed for erbium doped glasses. The intensities of various absorption bands of the doped glasses are measured and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been computed. From the theory of Judd-Ofelt, various radiative properties, such as transition probability, branching ratio and radiative life time for various emission levels of these doped glasses have been determined and reported. These results confirm the ability of antimony glasses for glass amplification.

  9. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL


    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  10. Spin Glasses : Statics and Dynamics : Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton


    Over the last decade, spin glass theory has turned from a fascinating part of t- oretical physics to a ?ourishing and rapidly growing subject of probability theory as well. These developments have been triggered to a large part by the mathem- ical understanding gained on the fascinating and previously mysterious “Parisi solution” of the Sherrington–Kirkpatrick mean ?eld model of spin glasses, due to the work of Guerra, Talagrand, and others. At the same time, new aspects and applications of the methods developed there have come up. The presentvolumecollects a number of reviewsaswellas shorterarticlesby lecturers at a summer school on spin glasses that was held in July 2007 in Paris. These articles range from pedagogical introductions to state of the art papers, covering the latest developments. In their whole, they give a nice overview on the current state of the ?eld from the mathematical side. The review by Bovier and Kurkova gives a concise introduction to mean ?eld models, starting with the Curie–...

  11. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans


    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  12. Analysis of glass fibre sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl


    Glass fibre reinforced polymer composites are widely used for industrial and engineering applications which include construction, aerospace, automotive and wind energy industry. During the manufacturing glass fibres, they are surface-treated with an aqueous solution. This process and the treated...... surfaces are called sizing. The sizing influences the properties of the interface between fibres and a matrix, and subsequently affects mechanical properties of composites. In this work the sizing of commercially available glass fibres was analysed so as to study the composition and chemical structures....... Soxhlet extraction was used to extract components of the sizing from the glass fibres. The glass fibres, their extracts and coated glass plates were analysed by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis combined with a mass spectrometer (TGA-MS), and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR...

  13. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.


    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  14. Relaxation Pathways in Metallic Glasses (United States)

    Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf


    At temperatures below the glass transition temperature, physical properties of metallic glasses, such as density, viscosity, electrical resistivity or enthalpy, slowly evolve with time. This is the process of physical aging that occurs among all types of glasses and leads to structural changes at the microscopic level. Even though the relaxation pathways are ruled by thermodynamics as the glass attempts to re-attain thermodynamic equilibrium, they are steered by sluggish kinetics at the microscopic level. Understanding the structural and dynamic pathways of the relaxing glassy state is still one of the grand challenges in materials physics. We review some of the recent experimental advances made in understanding the nature of the relaxation phenomenon in metallic glasses and its implications to the macroscopic and microscopic properties changes of the relaxing glass.

  15. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes


    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  16. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent


    with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... grasps. These affordances are represented probabilistically with grasp densities, which correspond to continuous density functions defined on the space of 6D gripper poses. A grasp density characterizes an object’s grasp affordance; densities are linked to visual stimuli through registration......We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...

  17. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James


    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  18. A uniform refinement property for congruence lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrung, F


    The Congruence Lattice Problem asks whether every algebraic distributive lattice is isomorphic to the congruence lattice of a lattice. It was hoped that a positive solution would follow from E. T. Schmidt's construction or from the approach of P. Pudlak, M. Tischendorf, and J. Tuma. In a previous paper, we constructed a distributive algebraic lattice $A$ with $\\aleph\\_2$ compact elements that cannot be obtained by Schmidt's construction. In this paper, we show that the same lattice $A$ cannot be obtained using the Pudlak, Tischendorf, Tuma approach. The basic idea is that every congruence lattice arising from either method satisfies the Uniform Refinement Property, which is not satisfied by our example. This yields, in turn, corresponding negative results about congruence lattices of sectionally complemented lattices and two-sided ideals of von Neumann regular rings.

  19. Refining of metallurgical silicon by directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorano, M.A., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Neto, J.B. Ferreira, E-mail: [Laboratory of Metallurgy and Ceramics Materials, Institute for Technological Research, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 532, Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-901 (Brazil); Oliveira, T.S., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Tsubaki, T.O., E-mail: [Laboratory of Metallurgy and Ceramics Materials, Institute for Technological Research, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 532, Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-901 (Brazil)


    The directional solidification of a typical and a previously refined metallurgical silicon was carried out in a vertical Bridgman furnace. The mold velocity out of the hot zone of the furnace changed from one experiment to another in the range between 5 and 110 {mu}m s{sup -1}. Samples were extracted from the cylindrical ingots obtained in the experiments to investigate the effects of the mold velocity on the micro and macrostructures and on the concentration profiles of impurities along the ingots. At the lowest mold velocity, the macrostructures consist of columnar grains oriented approximately parallel to the ingot axis. As velocity increases, grains become thinner and more inclined in the radial direction. Precipitated particles containing Si, Fe, Al, and Ti are observed at the top of all ingots and, as the mold velocity increases, they are also seen at the ingot bottom and middle. The concentration profiles of several impurities have been measured along the ingots by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP), indicating an accumulation of impurities at the ingot top. Consequently, the bottom and middle of the ingots are purer than the corresponding metallurgical silicon from which they solidified. Slices from the ingot bottom have also been analyzed by the glow discharge mass spectrometry technique (GDMS), allowing measurement of impurity concentrations that were below the quantification limit of the ICP. The purification effect and the accumulation of impurities at the ingot top are more pronounced as the mold velocity decreases. In the ingots obtained from the typical metallurgical silicon at the lowest mold velocities (5 and 10 {mu}m s{sup -1}), except for Al, all impurities are in concentrations below an important maximum limit for the feedstock of solar grade silicon. At the same mold velocities, the concentrations of Fe, Ti, Cu, Mn, and Ni measured at the bottom of the ingots obtained from both types of metallurgical silicon (typical

  20. Corrosion Behavior and Microstructure Influence of Glass-Ceramic Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Asmussen, R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA.; Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA.; Kaspar, Tiffany C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA.; Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA.


    Glass ceramic waste forms present a potentially viable technology for the long term immobilization and disposal of liquid nuclear wastes. Through control of chemistry during fabrication, such waste forms can have designed secondary crystalline phases within a borosilicate glass matrix. In this work, a glass ceramic containing powellite and oxyapatite secondary phases was tested for its corrosion properties in dilute conditions using single pass flow through testing (SPFT). Three glass ceramic samples were prepared using different cooling rates to produce samples with varying microstructure sizes. In testing at 90 °C in buffered pH 7 and pH 9 solutions, it was found that increasing pH and decreasing microstructure size (resulting from rapid cooling during fabrication) both led to a reduction in overall corrosion rate. The phases of the glass ceramic were found, using a combination of solutions analysis, SEM and AFM, to corrode preferably in the order of powellite > bulk glass matrix > oxyapatite.

  1. Effects of recycled glass substitution on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks. (United States)

    Loryuenyong, Vorrada; Panyachai, Thanapan; Kaewsimork, Kanyarat; Siritai, Chatnarong


    In this study, wasted glasses from structural glass walls up to 45 wt.% were added into clay mixtures in brick manufacturing process. Physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks were investigated as functions of the wasted glass content and the firing temperature. The results indicated that with proper amount of wasted glasses and firing temperature, clay bricks with suitable physical and mechanical properties could be obtained. The compressive strength as high as 26-41 MPa and water absorption as low as 2-3% were achieved for bricks containing 15-30 wt.% of glass content and fired at 1100 degrees C. When the glass waste content was 45 wt.%, apparent porosity and water absorption was rapidly increased.

  2. Structural color from colloidal glasses (United States)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia

    When a material has inhomogeneities at a lengthscale comparable to the wavelength of light, interference can give rise to structural colors: colors that originate from the interaction of the material's microstructure with light and do not require absorbing dyes. In this thesis we study a class of these materials, called photonic glasses, where the inhomogeneities form a dense and random arrangement. Photonic glasses have angle-independent structural colors that look like those of conventional dyes. However, when this work started, there was only a handful of colors accessible with photonic glasses, mostly hues of blue. We use various types of colloidal particles to make photonic glasses, and we study, both theoretically and experimentally, how the optical properties of these glasses relate to their structure and constituent particles. Based on our observations from glasses of conventional particles, we construct a theoretical model that explains the scarcity of yellow, orange, and red photonic glasses. Guided by this model, we develop novel colloidal systems that allow a higher degree of control over structural color. We assemble glasses of soft, core-shell particles with scattering cores and transparent shells, where the resonant wavelength can be tuned independently of the reflectivity. We then encapsulate glasses of these core-shell particles into emulsion droplets of tunable size; in this system, we observe, for the first time, angle-independent structural colors that cover the entire visible spectrum. To enhance color saturation, we begin experimenting with inverse glasses, where the refractive index of the particles is lower than the refractive index of the medium, with promising results. Finally, based on our theoretical model for scattering from colloidal glasses, we begin an exploration of the color gamut that could be achieved with this technique, and we find that photonic glasses are a promising approach to a new type of long-lasting, non-toxic, and

  3. Live ECG readings using Google Glass in emergency situations. (United States)

    Schaer, Roger; Salamin, Fanny; Jimenez Del Toro, Oscar Alfonso; Atzori, Manfredo; Muller, Henning; Widmer, Antoine


    Most sudden cardiac problems require rapid treatment to preserve life. In this regard, electrocardiograms (ECG) shown on vital parameter monitoring systems help medical staff to detect problems. In some situations, such monitoring systems may display information in a less than convenient way for medical staff. For example, vital parameters are displayed on large screens outside the field of view of a surgeon during cardiac surgery. This may lead to losing time and to mistakes when problems occur during cardiac operations. In this paper we present a novel approach to display vital parameters such as the second derivative of the ECG rhythm and heart rate close to the field of view of a surgeon using Google Glass. As a preliminary assessment, we run an experimental study to verify the possibility for medical staff to identify abnormal ECG rhythms from Google Glass. This study compares 6 ECG rhythms readings from a 13.3 inch laptop screen and from the prism of Google Glass. Seven medical residents in internal medicine participated in the study. The preliminary results show that there is no difference between identifying these 6 ECG rhythms from the laptop screen versus Google Glass. Both allow close to perfect identification of the 6 common ECG rhythms. This shows the potential of connected glasses such as Google Glass to be useful in selected medical applications.

  4. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib, E-mail: [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)


    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 Å. Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  5. The Latest Developments in Glass Science and Technology


    KARASU, Bekir; BEREKET, Oğuz; BİRYAN, Ecenur; SANOĞLU, Deniz


    The aim of this study is togive detailed information about the latest developments/ applications in theglass science and technology. In this aspect, smart glass, security glass, thinglass, amorphous metal, electrolytes, molecular liquid, colloidal glass, glassadded polymer, glass-ceramic, fiberglass, double glazing, Dragontrail glass,Gorilla glass, fluorescent lamp, glass to metal seal, glassphalt, heatableglass, lamination, nano channel glass, photochromic lenses, night visionglasses, glass ...

  6. Nonequilibrium Solidification, Grain Refinements, and Recrystallization of Deeply Undercooled Ni-20 At. Pct Cu Alloys: Effects of Remelting and Stress (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolong; Hou, Hua; Zhao, Yuhong; Liu, Feng


    Grain refinement phenomena during the microstructural evolution upon nonequilibrium solidification of deeply undercooled Ni-20 at. pct Cu melts were systematically investigated. The dendrite growth in the bulk undercooled melts was captured by a high-speed camera. The first kind of grain refinement occurring in the low undercooling regimes was explained by a current grain refinement model. Besides, for the dendrite melting mechanism, the stress originating from the solidification contraction and thermal strain in the FMZ during rapid solidification could be a main mechanism causing the second kind of grain refinement above the critical undercooling. This internal stress led to the distortion and breakup of the primary dendrites and was semiquantitatively described by a corrected stress accumulation model. It was found that the stress-induced recrystallization could make the primary microstructures refine substantially after recalescence. A new method, i.e., rapidly quenching the deeply undercooled alloy melts before recalescence, was developed in the present work to produce crystalline alloys, which were still in the cold-worked state and, thus, had the driven force for recrystallization.

  7. Structural Glass Beams with Embedded Glass Fibre Reinforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, P.C.; Leung, Calvin; Kolstein, M.H.; Vambersky, J.N.J.A.; Bos, Freek; Louter, Pieter Christiaan; Veer, Fred


    This paper investigates the possibilities of pultruded glass fibre rods as embedded reinforcement in SentryGlas (SG) laminated glass beams. To do so, a series of pullout tests, to investigate the bond strength of the rods to the laminate, and a series of beam tests, to investigate the post-breakage

  8. New Erbium Doped Antimony Glasses for Laser and Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses.

  9. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. (United States)


    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  10. Rapid Polymer Sequencer (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)


    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  11. Institutions in OpenRefine: Cleaning up messes


    Smith, Arthur


    OpenRefine (formerly Google Refine) is a tool for cleaning up messy data, but it is also well-suited to cross-linking different identifiers through their metadata entries. I will share some experiences in using OpenRefine to interlink GRID, ISNI, Wikidata, and our own internal institution identifiers. This matching process also highlights metadata errors (including duplicates and incorrect merges) in the different sources, and can help improve data quality on all sides. (Updated to full versi...

  12. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B


    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  13. The OURSE model: Simulating the World Refining Sector to 2030


    LANTZ Frédéric; SAINT-ANTONIN Valérie; Gruson, Jean-François; SUWALA Wojciech


    The development of a model of the World Refining for the POLES model aims to represent the oil product's supply at a world-wide level in a global energy model. The World oil refining industry faces to several challenges such as the increasing oil derivatives demand in the transport sector, the improvement of the specifications of these products, the crude oil availability and the limitation of carbon emissions. An aggregated refining model linked to the POLES energy model has been developed t...

  14. Applying Functional Refinement to Aid OO Use-Case Realization


    Hee Beng Kuan Tarim; DongYu Sun


    It is beneficial to apply functional refinement in Object-Oriented (OO) software development. This paper proposes a method that enhances our earlier method to complement existing OO methods for realizing uses-cases through functional refinement. With the use of an augmented data flow diagram (DFD), called DFD+, the proposed method bridges functional refinement and OO decomposition systematically and precisely. In the requirements analysis stage, the method realizes use-cases through functiona...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aseev


    Full Text Available We created and synthesized luminescent composite of the "phosphor in glass" type, based on the lead-silicate matrix and fine-dispersed powder of cerium-activated yttrium-aluminum garnet crystal. Lead-silicate system (40SiO2- 20PbO-(40-x PbF2-xAlF3, x = 0-25 was chosen as the glassy matrix. Initial glass was reduced to powder (frit for "phosphor in glass" composite with a particle size about 50 µm. Glass frit and powder of commercial YAG:Ce3+ phosphor were mixed in a ratio of 30 to 70 (wt %. Then this composite was pressed in a tablet and sintered on a quartz substrate at 823 К for 30 minutes. Thus, the plane parallel sheet for composite of the "phosphor in glass" was obtained with a diameter equal to 10 mm. For the purpose to reduce the loss of light in the presence of dispersion at a glass-phosphor boundary, optimization of glass mixture was done by adjusting the refractive index. X-ray phase and spectral-luminescent analysis of the derived composite were done. The results of these studies showed that there was no degradation of YAG: Ce powder during sintering. Dependence of luminescence intensity from temperature in the range from room temperature to 473 К was studied. It was shown, that with the phosphor in glass usage thermal quenching of luminescence was reduced in comparison with the silicone. The model of white LED was created with the "phosphor in glass" composite based on lead-silicate glasses with low temperature of vitrifying. The derived LED emits white light with a color temperature of 4370 K, and the luminous efficiency is equal to 58 lm/W. The developed luminescent composite based on the lead-silicate matrix can be used for the production of high-power white light LED.

  16. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert


    This paper describes a process for systematically refining an enterprise system architecture to resist recognize and recover from deliberate, malicious attacks by applying reusable design primitives...

  17. An approach of requirements tracing in formal refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Leuschel, Michael


    results that we have obtained for tracing informal natural-language requirements into formal models across refinement levels. The approach uses the WRSPM reference model for requirements modeling, and Event-B for formal modeling and formal refinement. The combined use of WRSPM and Event-B is facilitated...... by the rudimentary refinement notion of WRSPM, which provides the foundation for tracing requirements to formal refinements. We assume that requirements are evolving, meaning that we have to cope with frequent changes of the requirements model and the formal model. Our approach is capable of dealing with frequent...

  18. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy


    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  19. Who will buy smart glasses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauschnabel, Philipp; Brem, Alexander; Ivens, Bjørn S.


    Recent market studies reveal that augmented reality (AR) devices, such as smart glasses, will substantially influence the media landscape. Yet, little is known about the intended adoption of smart glasses, particularly: Who are the early adopters of such wearables? We contribute to the growing bo...

  20. Molecular mobility in sugar glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.


    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar

  1. Degradable borate glass polyalkenoate cements. (United States)

    Shen, L; Coughlan, A; Towler, M; Hall, M


    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) containing aluminum-free borate glasses having the general composition Ag2O-Na2O-CaO-SrO-ZnO-TiO2-B2O3 were evaluated in this work. An initial screening study of sixteen compositions was used to identify regions of glass formation and cement compositions with promising rheological properties. The results of the screening study were used to develop four model borate glass compositions for further study. A second round of rheological experiments was used to identify a preferred GPC formulation for each model glass composition. The model borate glasses containing higher levels of TiO2 (7.5 mol %) tended to have longer working times and shorter setting times. Dissolution behavior of the four model GPC formulations was evaluated by measuring ion release profiles as a function of time. All four GPC formulations showed evidence of incongruent dissolution behavior when considering the relative release profiles of sodium and boron, although the exact dissolution profile of the glass was presumably obscured by the polymeric cement matrix. Compression testing was undertaken to evaluate cement strength over time during immersion in water. The cements containing the borate glass with 7.5 mol % TiO2 had the highest initial compressive strength, ranging between 20 and 30 MPa. No beneficial aging effect was observed-instead, the strength of all four model GPC formulations was found to degrade with time.

  2. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  3. Developing the bundled glass column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; da Sousa Cruz, Paulo J.

    In this paper a bundled glass column is presented as a promising solution for a completely transparent, almost dematerialized structural compressive element. The aim is to ob-tain a glass column that can safely carry loads, achieve a high visual result and be relatively eas-ily manufactured.

  4. International Congress on Glass XII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doremus, R H; LaCourse, W C; Mackenzie, J D; Varner, J R; Wolf, W W [eds.


    A total of 158 papers are included under nine headings: structure and glass formation; optical properties; electrical and magnetic properties; mechanical properties and relaxation; mass transport; chemical durability and surfaces; nucleation; crystallization; and glass ceramics; processing; and automatic controls. Separate abstracts were prepared for eight papers; four of the remaining papers had been processed previously for the data base. (DLC)

  5. Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators. (United States)

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

  6. A brief overview of bulk metallic glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingwei Chen


      The discovery of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has stimulated widespread research enthusiasm because of their technological promise for practical applications and scientific importance in understanding glass formation and glass phenomena...

  7. Flow induced/ refined solution crystallization of a semiconducting polymer (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc A.

    Organic photovoltaics, a new generation of solar cells, has gained scientific and economic interests due to the ability of solution-processing and potentially low-cost power production. Though, the low power conversion efficiency of organic/ plastic solar cells is one of the most pertinent challenges that has appealed to research communities from many different fields including materials science and engineering, electrical engineering, chemical engineering, physics and chemistry. This thesis focuses on investigating and controlling the morphology of a semi-conducting, semi-crystalline polymer formed under shear-flow. Molecular structures and processing techniques are critical factors that significantly affect the morphology formation in the plastic solar cells, thus influencing device performance. In this study, flow-induced solution crystallization of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a poor solvent, 2-ethylnapthalene (2-EN) was utilized to make a paint-like, structural liquid. The polymer crystals observed in this structured paint are micrometers long, nanometers in cross section and have a structure similar to that formed under quiescent conditions. There is pi-pi stacking order along the fibril axis, while polymer chain folding occurs along the fibril width and the order of the side-chain stacking is along fibril height. It was revealed that shear-flow not only induces P3HT crystallization from solution, but also refines and perfects the P3HT crystals. Thus, a general strategy to refine the semiconducting polymer crystals from solution under shear-flow has been developed and employed by simply tuning the processing (shearing) conditions with respect to the dissolution temperature of P3HT in 2-EN. The experimental results demonstrated that shear removes defects and allows more perfect crystals to be formed. There is no glass transition temperature observed in the crystals formed using the flow-induced crystallization indicating a significantly different

  8. Protein structure validation and refinement using amide proton chemical shifts derived from quantum mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Steen; Linnet, Troels Emtekær; Borg, Mikael


    that the structural sensitivity of the QM-based amide proton chemical shift predictions is needed to obtain this agreement. The ProCS method thus offers a powerful new tool for refining the structures of hydrogen bonding networks to high accuracy with many potential applications such as protein flexibility in ligand......We present the ProCS method for the rapid and accurate prediction of protein backbone amide proton chemical shifts - sensitive probes of the geometry of key hydrogen bonds that determine protein structure. ProCS is parameterized against quantum mechanical (QM) calculations and reproduces high level......-based structural refinements, starting from high-resolution X-ray structures of Protein G, ubiquitin, and SMN Tudor Domain, result in average chemical shifts, hydrogen bond geometries, and trans-hydrogen bond ((h3) JNC' ) spin-spin coupling constants that are in excellent agreement with experiment. We show...

  9. A Road Map Refinement Method Using Delaunay Triangulation for Big Trace Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luliang Tang


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transportation, people urgently need high-precision and up-to-date road maps. At the same time, people themselves are an important source of road information for detailed map construction, as they can detect real-world road surfaces with GPS devices in the course of their everyday life. Big trace data makes it possible and provides a great opportunity to extract and refine road maps at relatively low cost. In this paper, a new refinement method is proposed for incremental road map construction using big trace data, employing Delaunay triangulation for higher accuracy during the GPS trace stream fusion process. An experiment and evaluation were carried out on the GPS traces collected by taxis in Wuhan, China. The results show that the proposed method is practical and improves upon existing incremental methods in terms of accuracy.

  10. The Scenario Development Tool: Enabling Planners to Develop and Refine a Plan at a Rapid Pace (United States)


    34Coalition Battle Management Services (CBMS)." The Interservice/ Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference (I/ITSEC). Vol. 2012. No. 1...Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents...doctrines, programs of record and a veritable alphabet soup of Three-Letter Acronyms (TLAs). The purpose of these artifacts is to provide a commander with

  11. Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.


    We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.

  12. Linear Prediction Using Refined Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahidur Rahman


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for improving the performance of linear prediction analysis by utilizing a refined version of the autocorrelation function. Problems in analyzing voiced speech using linear prediction occur often due to the harmonic structure of the excitation source, which causes the autocorrelation function to be an aliased version of that of the vocal tract impulse response. To estimate the vocal tract characteristics accurately, however, the effect of aliasing must be eliminated. In this paper, we employ homomorphic deconvolution technique in the autocorrelation domain to eliminate the aliasing effect occurred due to periodicity. The resulted autocorrelation function of the vocal tract impulse response is found to produce significant improvement in estimating formant frequencies. The accuracy of formant estimation is verified on synthetic vowels for a wide range of pitch frequencies typical for male and female speakers. The validity of the proposed method is also illustrated by inspecting the spectral envelopes of natural speech spoken by high-pitched female speaker. The synthesis filter obtained by the current method is guaranteed to be stable, which makes the method superior to many of its alternatives.

  13. Refined Pichia pastoris reference genome sequence (United States)

    Sturmberger, Lukas; Chappell, Thomas; Geier, Martina; Krainer, Florian; Day, Kasey J.; Vide, Ursa; Trstenjak, Sara; Schiefer, Anja; Richardson, Toby; Soriaga, Leah; Darnhofer, Barbara; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Glick, Benjamin S.; Tolstorukov, Ilya; Cregg, James; Madden, Knut; Glieder, Anton


    Strains of the species Komagataella phaffii are the most frequently used “Pichia pastoris” strains employed for recombinant protein production as well as studies on peroxisome biogenesis, autophagy and secretory pathway analyses. Genome sequencing of several different P. pastoris strains has provided the foundation for understanding these cellular functions in recent genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics experiments. This experimentation has identified mistakes, gaps and incorrectly annotated open reading frames in the previously published draft genome sequences. Here, a refined reference genome is presented, generated with genome and transcriptome sequencing data from multiple P. pastoris strains. Twelve major sequence gaps from 20 to 6000 base pairs were closed and 5111 out of 5256 putative open reading frames were manually curated and confirmed by RNA-seq and published LC-MS/MS data, including the addition of new open reading frames (ORFs) and a reduction in the number of spliced genes from 797 to 571. One chromosomal fragment of 76 kbp between two previous gaps on chromosome 1 and another 134 kbp fragment at the end of chromosome 4, as well as several shorter fragments needed re-orientation. In total more than 500 positions in the genome have been corrected. This reference genome is presented with new chromosomal numbering, positioning ribosomal repeats at the distal ends of the four chromosomes, and includes predicted chromosomal centromeres as well as the sequence of two linear cytoplasmic plasmids of 13.1 and 9.5 kbp found in some strains of P. pastoris. PMID:27084056

  14. The refining of secondary lead for use in advanced lead-acid batteries (United States)

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Mirza, Abbas H.

    Secondary lead, i.e. material produced by the recycling of lead-acid batteries has become the primary source of lead in much of the world. This has been important to the secondary lead industry as other uses have dwindled, e.g. lead based pigments, chemicals, fuel additives, solders and CRT glasses [1]. Presently, battery manufacturing accounts for greater than 80% of lead consumption while recycled lead accounts for approximately the same market share of lead supply. These two facts strongly demonstrate the battery manufacturing and recycled lead are intimately coupled in everyday life. In this paper we will explore how recycled lead has become the material of choice for battery construction through the development of a recovery and refining process that exceeds the industries requirements. Particular focus will be on addressing the results presented by Prengaman [2] on the effects of contaminant or tramp elements on gassing in lead-acid batteries.

  15. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.


    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  16. High-throughput drawing and testing of metallic glass nanostructures. (United States)

    Hasan, Molla; Kumar, Golden


    Thermoplastic embossing of metallic glasses promises direct imprinting of metal nanostructures using templates. However, embossing high-aspect-ratio nanostructures faces unworkable flow resistance due to friction and non-wetting conditions at the template interface. Herein, we show that these inherent challenges of embossing can be reversed by thermoplastic drawing using templates. The flow resistance not only remains independent of wetting but also decreases with increasing feature aspect-ratio. Arrays of assembled nanotips, nanowires, and nanotubes with aspect-ratios exceeding 1000 can be produced through controlled elongation and fracture of metallic glass structures. In contrast to embossing, the drawing approach generates two sets of nanostructures upon final fracture; one set remains anchored to the metallic glass substrate while the second set is assembled on the template. This method can be readily adapted for high-throughput fabrication and testing of nanoscale tensile specimens, enabling rapid screening of size-effects in mechanical behavior.

  17. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A.A.


    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

  18. Joints in Tempered Glass Using Glass Dowel Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    One of the major reasons for using glass in structures is its transparency; however, traditional mechanical joints such as friction joints and steel dowel pinned connections are compromising the transparency. The present paper describes a novel joint which is practically maintaining the complete...... transparency of the glass. This is achieved by using a dowel disc made entirely of tempered glass. The concept of the joint is proved by pilot tests and numerical models. From the work it is seen that the load-carrying capacity of such a connection is similar to what is found for traditionally in-plane loaded...

  19. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan


    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  20. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  1. RBT—A Tool for Building Refined Buneman Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, Søren; Mailund; Westh-Nielsen, Lasse


    We have developed a tool implementing an efficient algorithm for refined Buneman tree reconstruction. The algorithm—which has the same complexity as the neighbour-joining method and the (plain) Buneman tree construction—enables refined Buneman tree reconstruction on large taxa sets....

  2. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.


    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the

  3. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cess are discussed; furthermore, effect of holding time on the refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated. 2. Experimental. Al4C3 grain refiner was synthesized by powder metallurgy. The raw materials included aluminum powder (99·8% pure,. 50 μm in diameter), graphite powder (99·6% pure, 50 μm in diameter) ...

  4. Glass ceramic seals to inconel (United States)

    McCollister, Howard L.; Reed, Scott T.


    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16%, Li.sub.2 O, 2-8% , Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 1-8% K.sub.2 O, 1-5% P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and 1.5-7% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to cause growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  5. SCHOTT optical glass in space (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Petzold, Uwe


    Optical systems in space environment have to withstand harsh radiation. Radiation in space usually comes from three main sources: the Van Allen radiation belts (mainly electrons and protons); solar proton events and solar energetic particles (heavier ions); and galactic cosmic rays (gamma- or x-rays). Other heavy environmental effects include short wavelength radiation (UV) and extreme temperatures (cold and hot). Radiation can damage optical glasses and effect their optical properties. The most common effect is solarization, the decrease in transmittance by radiation. This effect can be observed for UV radiation and for gamma or electron radiation. Optical glasses can be stabilized against many radiation effects. SCHOTT offers radiation resistant glasses that do not show solarization effects for gamma or electron radiation. A review of SCHOTT optical glasses in space missions shows, that not only radiation resistant glasses are used in the optical designs, but also standard optical glasses. This publication finishes with a selection of space missions using SCHOTT optical glass over the last decades.

  6. Technical characterization of sintered glass-ceramics derived from glass fibers recovered by pyrolysis


    Martín, María Isabel; López Gómez, Félix Antonio; Alguacil,Francisco José; Romero, Maximina


    Sintered wollastonite-plagioclase glass-ceramics were prepared through crystallization of a parent glass generated by vitrification of pyrolysis residual glass fibers that had been pyrolytically recovered from waste composite materials. A vitrifiable mixture consisting of 95 wt.% glass fiber and 5 wt.% Na2O was melted at 1450ºC to obtain a glass frit. The glass-ceramic materials were produced by a sinter-crystallization process from the powdered glass frit. The effect of firing temperature on...

  7. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  8. Recent developments in laser glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.J.


    The past decade has witnessed a proliferation of new glass-forming compositions including oxides, halides, oxyhalides, and chalcogenides. Many of these glasses are applicable to lasers and have greatly expanded the range of optical properties and spectroscopic parameters available to the laser designer. Our knowledge and understanding of many properties of interest for laser action - transparency, linear and nonlinear refractive indices, and damage threshold of the host glass and the absorption spectrum, radiative and nonradiative transition probabilities, fluorescence wavelength, stimulated emission cross section, and spectroscopic inhomogeneities of the lasing ion Nd/sup 3 +/ - are reviewed.

  9. The molten glass sewing machine (United States)

    Brun, P.-T.; Inamura, Chikara; Lizardo, Daniel; Franchin, Giorgia; Stern, Michael; Houk, Peter; Oxman, Neri


    We present a fluid-instability-based approach for digitally fabricating geometrically complex uniformly sized structures in molten glass. Formed by mathematically defined and physically characterized instability patterns, such structures are produced via the additive manufacturing of optically transparent glass, and result from the coiling of an extruded glass thread. We propose a minimal geometrical model-and a methodology-to reliably control the morphology of patterns, so that these building blocks can be assembled into larger structures with tailored functionally and optically tunable properties. This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications'.

  10. Mechanical properties of laminated glass


    Frlan, Matej


    The goal of this thesis is to research vertical in-plane compression load bearing capacity of a glass panel combined with wood. The basis of my research is the idea to use glass as a part of the load bearing construction of buildings. A test of in-plane compression of a life-sized glass panel has been carried out in the laboratory of Chair for material and construction testing at the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering. The aim was to determine the panel's load bearing capacity, its per...

  11. Accommodation Assisting Glasses for Presbyopia (United States)

    Fujita, Toyomi; Idesawa, Masanori


    We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.

  12. A method for making a glass supported system, such glass supported system, and the use of a glass support therefor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unnikrishnan, S.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Fazal, I.; Louwerse, M.C.; Mogulkoc, B.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; de Boer, Meint J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    The invention relates to a method for making a glass supported micro or nano system, comprising the steps of: i) providing a glass support; ii) mounting at least one system on at least one glass support; and iii) bonding the system to the glass support, such that the system is circumferentially

  13. Silicon Oxynitride Glasses and Glass-Ceramics Preparation and Properties. (United States)


    Cordierite Beta -spodumene, solid sol. 4 1200 Cordierite Rutile 4.1 1200 Cordierite Rutile. Cristobalite ? 4.2 1200 Cordierite Rutile. Cristobalite ... Beta -silicon nitride was found to crystallize from these glasses. It must be noted that amounm the 46 glasses obtained in the framework of the patent...containing nitrogen).In Samples 2 and 2.1, the only crystalline phases are Beta -eucryptite and rutile. Crystallized phases with nitrogen such as

  14. Shattered glass seeking the densest matter: the color glass condensate

    CERN Multimedia

    Appell, D


    "Physicists investigating heavy-particle collisions believe they are on the track of a universal form of matter, one common to very high energy particles ranging from protons to heavy nuclei such as uranium. Some think that this matter, called a color glass condensate, may explain new nuclear properties and the process of particle formation during collisions. Experimentalists have recently reported intriguing data that suggest a color glass condensate has actually formed in past work" (1 page)

  15. Performance of a bridge deck with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars as the top mat of reinforcement. (United States)


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the performance of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars as reinforcement for concrete decks. Today's rapid bridge deck deterioration is calling for a replacement for steel reinforcement. The advan...

  16. Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). (United States)

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa


    Within the European Union, it is estimated that between 8 and 9 million tons of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) arises annually, of which television sets and computers account for an important part. Traditionally, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) have been used for TVs and computer monitors, but are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technology. Only part of the discarded CRT glass is being recycled. Primary smelters use large amounts of silica flux to form iron-silicate slag, and can, in most cases, tolerate lead input. Use of discarded CRT glass in copper smelting is a potential alternative for utilization of the glass. The mineralogical composition of a slag sampled during ordinary slag praxis has been compared with that of a mixture of slag and CRT glass when re-melted and slowly cooled. Slag (iron-silicate slag) from Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, was used for the experiments. Slag and glass have been mixed in various proportions: pure slag, pure glass, 90% slag-10% glass and 65% slag-35% glass, and heated in an inert atmosphere up to 1400 degrees C in a Netzsch Thermal Analysis (TA) instrument. The re-melted material has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in mineralogical composition after mixing with glass. The results show that the main mineralogical component of the slag is fayalite; the CRT glass is amorphous. The main crystalline phases of the slag do not change with addition of glass. An amorphous phase appears when the addition of glass is increased, which gives the sample a different structure.

  17. Potential and challenges of interdisciplinary research on historical window glass, stained glass and reverse glass paintings (United States)

    Trümpler, Stefan; Wolf, Sophie; Kessler, Cordula; Goll, Jürg

    The interdisciplinary study of ancient materials has become an increasingly common strategy, mainly because it has proved to be a highly rewarding approach to studying the age, provenance and production of archaeological objects. The results of such an approach sometimes also provide answers to questions relating not only to socio-cultural, economic or technological developments in a particular region or period (trade, innovation, production etc.), but also the conservation of the materials or artefacts in question. A number of analytical methods, ranging from microscopic to elementary analyses, have been successfully applied to determine the nature of materials and technologies used in the production, as well as to identify the provenance of ancient glass. As far as window glass and stained glass is concerned, the study of architectural context and art history - as well as the technological characteristics of materials - has proved to be most helpful in determining history, production and artistic importance of the objects under study. This paper discusses some of the multidisciplinary studies that the Vitrocentre Romont has conducted on early medieval window glass, stained glass and reverse glass paintings and illustrates the potential of a holistic approach in solving questions about materials, techniques, window design and conservation. It also addresses the limitations of the approach, which are often related to finding appropriate (i.e. non-destructive and possibly portable) methods for the analysis of sometimes extremely fragile stained glass windows.

  18. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.


    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  19. Chalcogenide glass metamaterial optical switch


    Sámson, Z.L; MacDonald, K. F.; De Angelis, F.; ADAMO, G.; Knight, K; Huang, C. C.; Hewak, D W; Di Fabrizio, E.; Zheludev, N. I.


    The technology behind rewritable optical disks offers a new switching paradigm for metamaterials. A switch comprising resonant plasmonic metamaterial and electro-optic chalcogenide glass layers provides 75% optical transmission modulation in a device of subwavelength thickness

  20. High Tech Art: Chameleon Glass (United States)


    Dichroic Glass is a technology wherein extremely thin films of metal are vacuum deposited on a glass surface. The coated glass shields spacecraft instruments from cosmic radiation and protects human vision from unfiltered sunlight in space. Because the coating process allows some wavelengths of light and color to reflect and others to pass through, a chameleon effect is produced. Murray Schwartz, a former aerospace engineer, has based his business KROMA on this NASA optical technology. He produces dichroic stained glass windows, mobiles and jewelry. The technique involves deposition of super thin layers of metal oxides applied one layer at a time in a specific order and thickness for the desired effect. His product line is unique and has been very successful.

  1. Glass-formers vs. Assemblers (United States)

    Glotzer, Sharon


    In most instances, the formation of a glass signifies an inability of the constituents of a system to self-organize into a well-defined, thermodynamically preferred ordered structure. Thus good ''assemblers'' may make poor glass-formers, and good glass-formers tend to be poor assemblers. How good or bad a system is in assembling or vitrifying/jamming depends on many features of the constituent building blocks, including shape and interactions. In many cases, building blocks whose shapes make them good glass-formers can, through almost imperceptible perturbations, become good assemblers, and vice versa. We examine these issues through consideration of several model systems, including colloidal ''rocks'' and foldable nets. *with E.R. Chen, P. Damasceno, P. Dodd, M. Engel, A.S. Keys, D. Klotsa, E. Teich, and G. van Anders

  2. All-glass solar collector (United States)

    Wisnewski, J. P.


    Proposed all tempered glass solar collector uses black collection fluid and mirrored bottom to reduce energy loss and overall costs associated with conventional collectors. Collector is more efficient and practically maintenance-free.

  3. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, Jr, Robert G. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  4. Containerless Manufacture of Glass Optical Fibers (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.; Ethridge, E. C.


    Contamination and crystallization reduced in proposed process. Solid optical fiber drawn from an acoustically levitated lump of molten glass. New material added in solid form, melted and then moved into main body of molten glass. Single axis acoustic levitation furnances levitate glass melts at temperature up to about 700 degrees C. Processing in unit limited to low-melting temperature glasses.

  5. The Future of all glass structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R.


    This paper is new developments in structural engineering related especially to the use of the material glass. After a philosophical discussion about why glass is the material for the Future, all glass elements and related techniques are presented from which an all glass building can be assembled. To

  6. The bearable lightness of all glass structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R.


    This paper is new developments in structural engineering related especially to the use of the material glass. After a philosophical discussion about why glass is the material for the Future, all glass elements and related techniques are presented from which an all glass building can be assembled. To

  7. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  8. A method for texturing a glass surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.; Isabella, O.


    The present invention relates to a new method of texturing a glass surface. In further aspects, the present invention relates to the resulting textured glass surface; to a photovoltaic device comprising the textured glass surface; and, to use of the textured glass surface for scattering light.

  9. Glass microspheres for medical applications (United States)

    Conzone, Samuel David

    Radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres have been developed as biodegradable radiation delivery vehicles for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once injected into a diseased joint, the microspheres deliver a potent dose of radiation to the diseased tissue, while a non-uniform chemical reaction converts the glass into an amorphous, porous, hydrated dysprosium phosphate reaction product. The non-radioactive, lithium-borate component is dissolved from the glass (up to 94% weight loss), while the radioactive 165Dy reacts with phosphate anions in the body fluids, and becomes "chemically" trapped in a solid, dysprosium phosphate reaction product that has the same size as the un-reacted glass microsphere. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) chelation therapy can be used to dissolve the dysprosium phosphate reaction product after the radiation delivery has subsided. The dysprosium phosphate reaction product, which formed in vivo in the joint of a Sprague-Dawley rat, was dissolved by EDTA chelation therapy in 100 Gy) of localized beta radiation to a treatment site within the body, followed by complete biodegradability. The non-uniform reaction process is a desirable characteristic for a biodegradable radiation delivery vehicle, but it is also a novel material synthesis technique that can convert a glass to a highly porous materials with widely varying chemical composition by simple, low-temperature, glass/solution reaction. The reaction product formed by nonuniform reaction occupies the same volume as the un-reacted glass, and after drying for 1 h at 300°C, has a specific surface area of ≈200 m2/g, a pore size of ≈30 nm, and a nominal crushing strength of ≈10 MPa. Finally, rhenium glass microspheres, composed of micron-sized, metallic rhenium particles dispersed within a magnesium alumino borate glass matrix were produced by sintering ReO2 powder and glass frit at 1050°C. A 50 mg injection of radioactive rhenium glass

  10. Strain Hardening in Polymer Glasses: Limitations of Network Models


    Hoy, Robert S.; Robbins, Mark O.


    Simulations are used to examine the microscopic origins of strain hardening in polymer glasses. While traditional entropic network models can be fit to the total stress, their underlying assumptions are inconsistent with simulation results. There is a substantial energetic contribution to the stress that rises rapidly as segments between entanglements are pulled taut. The thermal component of stress is less sensitive to entanglements, mostly irreversible, and directly related to the rate of l...

  11. Penetration Physics of Armor Glass (United States)


    shaft (b). The surface of the fragment agglomerate in contact with the projectile shaft in Figure 6 was blackened and coherent, suggesting frictional...rearrangement and breaking up of glass particles, and sliding at the glass/ metal interface. RESULTS Figure 2 shows shear stress as a function of shear...several decades to relate material failure in metals and composites to the underlying microscopic processes, thereby helping to select appropriate

  12. A combination of a connector for glass elements and such glass elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.


    A combination of a connector for glass elements and such glass elements to provide a loadbearing glass construc- tion that comprises at least one glass post and at least one glass beam that are arranged adjacent to each other, wherein the connector is arranged to provide a rotationally fixed

  13. Glasses-free randot stereotest (United States)

    Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Jong-Young; Hong, Keehoon; Yang, Hee Kyung; Han, Sang Beom; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Lee, Byoungho


    We proposed a glasses-free randot stereotest using a multiview display system. We designed a four-view parallax barrier system and proposed the use of a random-dot multigram as a set of view images for the glasses-free randot stereotest. The glasses-free randot stereotest can be used to verify the effect of glasses in a stereopsis experience. Furthermore, the proposed system is convertible between two-view and four-view structures so that the motion parallax effect could be verified within the system. We discussed the design principles and the method used to generate images in detail and implemented a glasses-free randot stereotest system with a liquid crystal display panel and a customized parallax barrier. We also developed graphical user interfaces and a method for their calibration for practical usage. We performed experiments with five adult subjects with normal vision. The experimental results show that the proposed system provides a stereopsis experience to the subjects and is consistent with the glasses-type randot stereotest and the Frisby-Davis test. The implemented system is free from monocular cues and provides binocular disparity only. The crosstalk of the system is about 6.42% for four-view and 4.17% for two-view, the time required for one measurement is less than 20 s, and the minimum angular disparity that the system can provide is about 23 arc sec.

  14. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.


    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  15. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.


    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  16. Production of lightweight foam glass (invited talk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass production allows low cost recycling of postconsumer glass and industrial waste materials as foaming agent or as melt resource. Foam glass is commonly produced by utilising milled glass mixed with a foaming agent. The powder mixture is heat-treated to around 10^3.7 – 10^6 Pa s, which...... result in viscous sintering and subsequent foaming of the glass melt. The porous glass melt is cooled down to room temperature to freeze-in the foam structure. The resulting foam glass is applied in constructions as a light weight material to reduce load bearing capacity and as heat insulating material...... in buildings and industry. We foam panel glass from old televisions with different foaming agents. We discuss the foaming ability and the foaming mechanism of different foaming systems. We compare several studies to define a viscous window for preparing low density foam glass. However, preparing foam glass...

  17. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. (United States)

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib


    The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 Å. Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  18. Multibillion dollar upgrading costs lie ahead for Canadian refiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This paper reports that Canadian refiners face multibillion dollar upgrading costs in this decade to meet new air quality standards. Industry-wide cost estimates have been developed by the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) and Imperial Oil Ltd., a unit of Exxon Corp., which has about 28% of Canada's 1.825 million b/d refining capacity. They are tentative because refiners still don't know what specific standards federal and provincial governments will impose in 1994.

  19. Method of silicon filter refining from harmful impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Mekhtiyev


    Full Text Available In the article there are considered the types of filters used for silicon refinement, the possibilities of mechanical separation of inclusions when the melt is through the filter, the efficiency of silicon refinement from impurities. There are also considered the advantages of bulk granular filters which consist of the lumpy or granulated elements. There are described the methods of obtaining filtering elements, the functions executed by the filters depending on their type. There are presented the analysis results obtained in filter refinement of silicon which show the impact of different filters materials on the content of impurities.

  20. GAMER: GPU-accelerated Adaptive MEsh Refinement code (United States)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Tsai, Yu-Chih; Chiueh, Tzihong


    GAMER (GPU-accelerated Adaptive MEsh Refinement) serves as a general-purpose adaptive mesh refinement + GPU framework and solves hydrodynamics with self-gravity. The code supports adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), hydrodynamics with self-gravity, and a variety of GPU-accelerated hydrodynamic and Poisson solvers. It also supports hybrid OpenMP/MPI/GPU parallelization, concurrent CPU/GPU execution for performance optimization, and Hilbert space-filling curve for load balance. Although the code is designed for simulating galaxy formation, it can be easily modified to solve a variety of applications with different governing equations. All optimization strategies implemented in the code can be inherited straightforwardly.

  1. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.


    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  2. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zamfirache


    Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

  3. Low-thermal expansion infrared glass ceramics (United States)

    Lam, Philip


    L2 Tech, Inc. is in development of an innovative infrared-transparent glass ceramic material with low-thermal expansion (ZrW2O8) which has Negative Thermal Expansion (NTE). The glass phase is the infrared-transparent germanate glass which has positive thermal expansion (PTE). Then glass ceramic material has a balanced thermal expansion of near zero. The crystal structure is cubic and the thermal expansion of the glass ceramic is isotropic or equal in all directions.

  4. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure (United States)

    Weber, Renee; Gernero, Edward; Lin, Pei-Ying; Thorne, Michael; Schmerr, Nicholas; Han, Shin-Chan


    such as moonquake location, timing errors, and potential seismic heterogeneities. In addition, the modeled velocities may vary with a 1-to-1 trade ]off with the modeled reflector depth. The GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) mission, launched in Sept. 2011, placed two nearly identical spacecraft in lunar orbit. The two satellites make extremely high-resolution measurements of the lunar gravity field, which can be used to constrain the interior structure of the Moon using a "crust to core" approach. GRAIL fs constraints on crustal thickness, mantle structure, core radius and stratification, and core state (solid vs. molten) will complement seismic investigations in several ways. Here we present a progress report on our efforts to advance our knowledge of the Moon fs internal structure using joint gravity and seismic analyses. We will focus on methodology, including 1) refinements to the seismic core constraint accomplished through array processing of Apollo seismic data, made by applying a set of travel time corrections based on GRAIL structure estimates local to each Apollo seismic station; 2) modeling deep lunar structure through synthetic seismograms, to test whether the seismic core model can reproduce the core reflections observed in the Apollo seismograms; and 3) a joint seismic and gravity inversion in which we attempt to fit a family of seismic structure models with the gravity constraints from GRAIL, resulting in maps of seismic velocities and densities that vary from a nominal model both laterally and with depth.

  5. Measurement of chalcogenide glass optical dispersion using a mid-infrared prism coupler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Hong (Amy); Anheier, Norman C.; Musgraves, Jonathan D.; Richardson, Kathleen; Hewak, Daniel W.


    Physical properties of chalcogenide glass, including broadband infrared transparency, high refractive index, low glass transition temperature, and nonlinear properties, make them attractive candidates for advanced mid-infrared (3 to 12 {micro}m) optical designs. Efforts focused at developing new chalcogenide glass formulations and processing methods require rapid quantitative evaluation of their optical contents to guide the materials research. However, characterization of important optical parameters such as optical dispersion remains a slow and costly process, generally with limited accuracy. The recent development of a prism coupler at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) now enables rapid, high precision measurement of refractive indices at discrete wavelengths from the visible to the mid-infrared. Optical dispersion data of several chalcogenide glass families were collected using this method. Variations in the optical dispersion were correlated to glass composition and compared against measurements using other methods. While this work has been focused on facilitating chalcogenide glass synthesis, mid-infrared prism coupler analysis has broader applications to other mid-infrared optical material development efforts, including oxide glasses and crystalline materials.

  6. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Microstructural evolution of AA7449 aerospace alloy refined by intensive shearing (United States)

    Haghayeghi, R.; Nastac, L.


    Many aerospace alloys are sensitive to their composition thus cannot be chemically grain refined. In addition, only 1% grain refiners can act as nuclei for refining the structure. In this paper, physical refinement by intensive shearing above liquidus as an alternative technique will be investigated for AA7449 aerospace alloy. The results can open a new gateway for aerospace industry for refining their microstructure.

  7. Filtration of Glass Delamination Particles with West Pharmaceutical Vial Adapters. (United States)

    Zarour-Shalev, Elinor H; Ovadia, Yaron; Tuchmay, Oren; Reynolds, Graham; Lev, Nimrod


    One major current challenge facing companies producing injectable drugs contained in glass vials is the phenomenon of delamination that results in drug contamination. Particulate contamination of parenteral fluids is a fact of life. Particulate infusion is unlikely to cause immediate or severe signs and symptoms, but adverse effects, tissue damage, and loss of function are likely in the long term. Since 2010, recalls due to glass delamination have increased, and recently the U.S. Food and Drug Administration exercised temporary regulatory flexibility by allowing filtration as means of removing glass particles. The vial adapter is a needle-free product from West Pharmaceuticals Services that provides a simple and cost-effective solution for the safe and rapid transfer reconstitution of drugs between vials and syringes. One variant of the vial adapter is integrated with a filter to address various types of particles. In the present study, the performance of the filter-integrated vial adapter is evaluated with respect to glass delamination particles. Silica particles of 0.5-10 μm are used to emulate glass delamination particles. High-filtration efficiency is demonstrated according to the severest criteria stated by the British Pharmacopoeia that allows up to 100 particles smaller than 5 μm for every 1 mL liquid of a large-volume parenteral. The study was conducted using environmental scanning electron microscopy and statistical analysis. One major current challenge facing companies producing injectable drugs contained in glass vials is the phenomenon of delamination that results in drug contamination. Glass delamination is defined as degradation of surface glass, as from a vial, that produces glass flakes. Contamination of injectable drugs due to glass delamination is a fact of life. Normally, this type of contamination does not involve immediate severe signs, but rather accumulative damage to tissues in the long run. Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  8. Production, Refining, Structural Characterization and Fermentability of Rice Husk Xylooligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gullon, P.; Gonzales-Munoz, M.J.; Gool, van M.P.; Schols, H.A.; Hirsch, J.; Ebringerova, A.; Rarajo, J.C.


    Oligosaccharides produced by hydrothermal processing of rice husks (xylooligosaccharides and glucooligosaccharides) were refined by membrane processing (operating in diafiltration and concentration modes), subjected to xylanase treatment to reduce the average molar mass, and subjected to further

  9. Risk Assessment: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners Refined Human Health Risk Characterization (United States)

    This November 2005 memo and appendices describe the methods by which EPA conducted its refined risk assessment of the Major Source and Area Source facilities within the perchloroethylene (perc) dry cleaners source category.

  10. Refined mapping of loss of heterozygosity in Chinese sporadic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    . Genemapper3.2 software was used for LOH (Loss of. Heterozygosity) scanning and analysis. Comparison between LOH frequency and clinicopathological factors was performed by Fisher's exact test. 26 refined regions were ...

  11. Distributed successive refinement of multiview images using broadcast advantage. (United States)

    Chen, Zichong; Barrenetxea, Guillermo; Vetterli, Martin


    In environmental monitoring applications, having multiple cameras focus on common scenery increases robustness of the system. To save energy based on user demand, successive refinement image coding is important, as it allows us to progressively request better image quality. By exploiting the broadcast nature and correlation between multiview images, we investigate a two-camera setup and propose a novel two-encoder successive refinement scheme which imitates a ping-pong game. For the bivariate Gaussian case, we prove that this scheme is successively refinable on the theoretical rate-distortion limit of distributed coding (Wagner surface) under arbitrary settings. For stereo-view images, we develop a practical successive refinement coding algorithm using the same idea. The simulation results show that this scheme operates close to the distributed coding bound.

  12. Evolving frontiers in severe polytrauma management - refining the essential principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chak Wah, Kam; Wai Man, Choi; Janet Yuen Ha, Wong; Lai, Vincent; Kit Shing John, Wong


    This editorial aims to refine the severe polytrauma management principles. While keeping ABCDE priorities, the termination of futile resuscitation and the early use of tourniquet to stop exsanguinating limb bleeding are crucial...

  13. Determinants of profitability differences among major refiner/marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report attempts to shed light on the factors affecting the differing profitabilities among companies, particularly, the effect of refinery upgrading, to contribute toward a better understanding of the performance of the domestic petroleum refining industry. The determinants of domestic refining-marketing profitability in the short run are evaluated. The focus is on those factors affecting the profitability of operations using the existing capital stock. Of particular interest is the effect on profitability of investments made for refinery upgrading. The refining-marketing segment is assumed to be operated to maximize profits of that segment rather than the profits of some other segment. The cost and financial data used in the analysis are proprietary line-of-business data from the FRS. The FRS provides detailed information on refining-marketing revenue, cost, income, and investment. The specific data used are discussed and key definitions provided later in this report. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Japan`s refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Japan`s downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country`s refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ADAPTIVE MODEL REFINEMENT FOR THE IONOSPHERE AND THERMOSPHERE ANTHONY M. D’AMATO∗, AARON J. RIDLEY∗∗, AND DENNIS S. BERNSTEIN∗∗∗ Abstract. Mathematical models of...

  16. Refinement of macromolecular structures against neutron data with SHELXL2013. (United States)

    Gruene, Tim; Hahn, Hinrich W; Luebben, Anna V; Meilleur, Flora; Sheldrick, George M


    Some of the improvements in SHELX2013 make SHELXL convenient to use for refinement of macromolecular structures against neutron data without the support of X-ray data. The new NEUT instruction adjusts the behaviour of the SFAC instruction as well as the default bond lengths of the AFIX instructions. This work presents a protocol on how to use SHELXL for refinement of protein structures against neutron data. It includes restraints extending the Engh & Huber [Acta Cryst. (1991), A47, 392-400] restraints to H atoms and discusses several of the features of SHELXL that make the program particularly useful for the investigation of H atoms with neutron diffraction. SHELXL2013 is already adequate for the refinement of small molecules against neutron data, but there is still room for improvement, like the introduction of chain IDs for the refinement of macromolecular structures.

  17. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.


    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  18. Reverse mechanical after effect during hydrogenation of zone refined iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, L.V.; Skryabina, N.E.; Kurmaeva, L.D.; Smirnov, L.V. (Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR); AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)


    The relationship between the process of hydrogenation and the reverse mechanical after effect (RMA) microplastic deformation in the zone refined iron has been studied. Metallographic investigations and mechanical testing of the samples hydrogenated under torsional strain have been performed. It is shown that in the zone refined iron the formation of voids responsible for irreversible hydrogen embrittlement does not occur, but the hydrogen-initiated RMA strain is conserved, i. e. the RMA effects are independent of the presence of discontinuities.

  19. A State Space Model for the Wood Chip Refining Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio


    Full Text Available A detailed dynamic model of the fibre size distribution between the refiner discs, distributed along the refiner radius, is presented. Both one- and two-dimensional descriptions for the fibre or shive geometry are given. It is shown that this model may be simplified and that analytic solutions exist under non-restrictive assumptions. A direct method for the recursive estimation of unknown parameters is presented. This method is applicable to linear or linearized systems which have a triangular structure.

  20. Automatic grid refinement criterion for lattice Boltzmann method


    Lagrava, Daniel; Malaspinas, Orestis; Latt, Jonas; Chopard, Bastien


    In all kinds of engineering problems, and in particular in methods for computational fluid dynamics based on regular grids, local grid refinement is of crucial importance. To save on computational expense, many applications require to resolve a wide range of scales present in a numerical simulation by locally adding more mesh points. In general, the need for a higher (or a lower) resolution is not known a priori, and it is therefore difficult to locate areas for which local grid refinement is...

  1. Rapid solidification of Nb-base alloys (United States)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Javed, K. R.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Lewis, R. E.


    New Nb-base alloys are of interest for aerospace structural applications at high temperatures, viz, 800 to 1650 C. Fundamental information regarding the effects of rapid solidification in achieving greatly refined microstructures, extended solid solubility, suppression of embrittling equilibrium phases, and formation of new phases is desired in a number of Nb-X alloys. The microstructures and selected properties of Nb-Si and other Nb-base alloys are presented for materials both rapidly quenched from the equilibrium liquidus and rapidly solidified following deep supercooling. Electromagnetic levitation was used to achieve melting and supercooling in a containerless inert gas environment. A variety of solidification conditions were employed including splatting or drop casting of supercooled samples. The morphology and composition of phases formed are discussed in terms of both solidification history and bulk composition.

  2. Strontium-substituted bioactive glasses in vitro osteogenic and antibacterial effects. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Rawlinson, Simon C F; Hill, Robert G; Fortune, Farida


    Bioactive glass forms a bone mineral apatite interface and can be engineered to promote optimal bone regeneration. Strontium (Sr(2+)) stimulates osteoblast and inhibits osteoclast activities in vitro, and is used clinically as a treatment for osteoporosis. Dental bone defect repair requires rapid bone formation for early osseointegration but, can be subject to infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic and antibacterial effects of strontium-substituted bioactive glasses in vitro. Strontium-substituted bioactive glasses were designed and produced. Then the osteogenic potential and antibacterial effects of bioactive glass particulates were explored. Alkaline phosphatase activity, cell number, Type I collagen and mineral nodule formation of MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly promoted by the 5% strontium-substituted glass (5Sr). Furthermore, after incubation with 0.001g and 0.01g glass particulates, the growth of sub-gingival bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly inhibited; the antibacterial activity being dependent on the percentage of strontium in the glasses. These results show that strontium-substituted bioactive glasses significantly promote osteogenic responses of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and inhibit the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlling ion release from bioactive glass foam scaffolds with antibacterial properties. (United States)

    Jones, Julian R; Ehrenfried, Lisa M; Saravanapavan, Priya; Hench, Larry L


    Bioactive glass scaffolds have been produced, which meet many of the criteria for an ideal scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications, by foaming sol-gel derived bioactive glasses. The scaffolds have a hierarchical pore structure that is very similar to that of cancellous bone. The degradation products of bioactive glasses have been found to stimulate the genes in osteoblasts. This effect has been found to be dose dependent. The addition of silver ions to bioactive glasses has also been investigated to produce glasses with bactericidal properties. This paper discusses how changes in the hierarchical pore structure affect the dissolution of the glass and therefore its bioactivity and rate of ion delivery and demonstrates that silver containing bioactive glass foam scaffolds can be synthesised. It was found that the rate of release of Si and Ca ions was more rapid for pore structures with a larger modal pore diameter, although the effect of tailoring the textural porosity on the rate of ion release was more pronounced. Bioactive glass scaffolds, containing 2 mol% silver, released silver ions at a rate that was similar to that which has previously been found to be bactericidal but not high enough to be cytotoxic to bone cells.

  4. Ultrasonic sensor to characterize wood pulp during refining. (United States)

    Greenwood, M S; Panetta, P D; Bond, L J; McCaw, M W


    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the weight percentage of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 min and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (with a weight percentage less than 0.5 wt%) is observed, after the mixer, which keeps the pulp uniformly distributed, is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak at a time designated as the "peak time." The peak time T increases with the degree of refining, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with known degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T(2)/T(1), where T(1) is an initial peak time and T(2) is the value after additional refining. This method offers an alternative WRV test for the industry to the current time-consuming method.

  5. Software Prototyping: A Case Report of Refining User Requirements for a Health Information Exchange Dashboard. (United States)

    Nelson, Scott D; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R


    Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system.

  6. Sustainable Innovation of Glass Design and Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre-Petersen, Maria


    innovation within the creative practices of glass design and craft. The paper will consist of an exploration of how introduction of sustainable principles may serve as a catalyst for aesthetic innovation in a process of experimentation with materials end techniques. A workshop for students of glass......, reduction of production and transportation of new glass is desirable (Environmental Protection Agency, 2012), and can be realized by recycling glass, that has already been manufactured, used and collected for recycling, but has ended up in landfills due to the market mechanisms that allow manufacturing...... and deposition of glass is reduced Today glass production predominantly consists of window glass, glass wool for insulation and containers such as bottles and jelly jars. Glass craft and design hold only a fraction of the market. Still there is reason to believe that generation and implementation of new...

  7. Finite-Element Numerical Simulation of the Bending Performance of Post-Tensioned Structural Glass Beams with Adhesively Bonded CFRP Tendons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedon, Chiara; Louter, P.C.


    In this paper, a Finite-Element (FE) numerical investigation is carried out on laminated glass beams with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) adhesively bonded post-tensioning tendons. Taking advantage of past four-point bending experimental test results available in literature, a refined full 3D

  8. Study Of Phase Separation In Glass (United States)

    Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.; Smith, Gary L.


    Report describes an experimental study of effect of hydroxide content on phase separation in soda/silica glasses. Ordinary and gel glasses melted at 1,565 degree C, and melts stirred periodically. "Wet" glasses produced by passing bubbles of N2 saturated with water through melts; "dry" glasses prepared in similar manner, except N2 dried before passage through melts. Analyses of compositions of glasses performed by atomic-absorption and index-of-refraction measurements. Authors conclude hydroxide speeds up phase separation, regardless of method (gel or ordinary) by which glass prepared. Eventually helps material scientists to find ways to control morphology of phase separation.

  9. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  10. Glasses for seeing beyond visible. (United States)

    Zhang, XiangHua; Bureau, Bruno; Lucas, Pierre; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Lucas, Jacques


    Conventional glasses based on oxides have a transparency limited by phonon absorption in the near IR region and have a limited interest for analyzing information located far beyond the visible. The IR spectral domain is nevertheless of prime interest, since it covers fundamental wavelength ranges used for thermal imaging as well as molecular vibrational signatures. Besides spectacular advances in the field of IR detectors, the main significant progresses are related to the development of IR glass optics, such as lenses or IR optical fibres. The field of IR glasses is almost totally dominated by glasses formed from heavy atoms such as the chalcogens S, Se and Te. Their transparency extends up to 12, 16 and 28 microm for sulfide-, selenide- and the new generation of telluride-based glasses, respectively. They cover the atmospheric transparency domains, 3-5 and 8-13 microm, respectively, at which the IR radiation can propagate allowing thermal imaging and night-vision operations through thick layers of atmosphere. The development of new glass compositions will be discussed on the basis of structural consideration with the objective of moulding low-cost lenses for IR cameras used, for instance, in car-driving assistance. Additionally, multimode, single-index, optical fibres operating in the 3 to 12 microm window developed for in situ remote evanescent-wave IR spectroscopy will also be mentioned. The detection of molecular IR signatures is applied to environmental monitoring for investigating the pollution of underground water with toxic molecules. The extension of this technique to the investigation of biomolecules in three different studies devoted to liver tissues analysis, bio-film formation, and cell metabolism will also be discussed. Finally we will mention the developments in the field of single-mode fibres operating around 10 mum for the Darwin space mission, which is aiming at discovering, signs of biological life in telluric earth-like exoplanets throughout

  11. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.


    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  12. Experimental Determination of Spin Glass Lower Critical Dimension (United States)

    Guchhait, Samaresh; Orbach, Raymond


    Zero field cooled (ZFC) measurements on thin film Ge:Mn spin glass can explore the lower critical dimension dl. The correlation length ξ(t , T) is nucleated upon a rapid quench into the spin glass phase, and grows to the thickness of the film, L, resulting in a transition for dynamics from d = 3 to d = 2 at a crossover time tco. Our experiments demonstrate that conventional ZFC dynamics vanish at t =tco , but there remain spins within a length scale rise of the remaining ZFC magnetization exhibits an exponential time dependence determined by the highest barrier surmounted at tco, Δmax(tco , T) . By carefully choosing a temperature region where the dynamics fall within experimental time scales, both regimes are observed. Further, there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of ξ(tco , T) and Δmax(tco , T) . This relationship is satisfied, determining the parameters controlling the growth of ξ(t , T) without arbitrary parameters. The existence of the crossover establishes that 2

    glass dynamics, in agreement with theory for Ising (Franz et al.) and Heisenberg (Lee and Young) spin glasses.

  13. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar. (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune


    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  14. Phase transitions and glass transition in a hyperquenched silica–alumina glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.F.; Zhao, D.H.; Yue, Yuanzheng


    We investigate phase transitions, glass transition, and dynamic behavior in the hyperquenched 69SiO2–31Al2O3 (mol%) glass (SA glass). Upon reheating, the SA glass exhibits a series of thermal responses. Subsequent to the sub-Tg enthalpy release, the glass undergoes a large jump in isobaric heat...... capacity (ΔCp) during glass transition, implying the fragile nature of the SA glass. The mullite starts to form before the end of glass transition, indicating that the SA glass is extremely unstable against crystallization. After the mullite formation, the remaining glass phase exhibits an increased Tg...... and a suppressed ΔCp. The formation of cristobalite at 1553 K indicates the dominance of silica in the remaining glass matrix. The cristobalite gradually re-melts as the isothermal heat-treatment temperature is raised from 1823 to 1853 K, which is well below the melting point of cristobalite, while the amount...

  15. Gold based bulk metallic glass


    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan


    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  16. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  17. Joint X-ray and neutron refinement with phenix.refine. (United States)

    Afonine, Pavel V; Mustyakimov, Marat; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Moriarty, Nigel W; Langan, Paul; Adams, Paul D


    Approximately 85% of the structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been solved using X-ray crystallography, making it the leading method for three-dimensional structure determination of macromolecules. One of the limitations of the method is that the typical data quality (resolution) does not allow the direct determination of H-atom positions. Most hydrogen positions can be inferred from the positions of other atoms and therefore can be readily included into the structure model as a priori knowledge. However, this may not be the case in biologically active sites of macromolecules, where the presence and position of hydrogen is crucial to the enzymatic mechanism. This makes the application of neutron crystallography in biology particularly important, as H atoms can be clearly located in experimental neutron scattering density maps. Without exception, when a neutron structure is determined the corresponding X-ray structure is also known, making it possible to derive the complete structure using both data sets. Here, the implementation of crystallographic structure-refinement procedures that include both X-ray and neutron data (separate or jointly) in the PHENIX system is described.

  18. Hollow glass fibers in reinforcing glass ionomer cements. (United States)

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka; Lassila, Lippo


    This study investigated the reinforcing effect of hollow and solid discontinuous glass fiber fillers with two different loading fractions on select mechanical properties of conventional and resin modified glass ionomer cements (GICs). Experimental fiber reinforced GIC was prepared by adding discontinuous glass fiber (hollow/solid) of 0.5mm in length to the powder of commercial GICs (GC Fuji IX and II LC) with two different weight ratios (5 and 10wt%) using a high speed mixing machine. Fracture toughness, work of fracture, flexural strength, flexural modulus, compressive strength and diametral tensile strength were determined for each experimental and control material. The specimens (n=7) were wet stored (37°C for one day) before testing. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the microstructure of the experimental fiber reinforced GICs. Fiber length analysis was carried out to investigate the fiber length distribution of experimental GICs. The results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Level of significance was set at 0.05. An increase in fracture toughness (280 and 200%) and flexural strength (170 and 140%) of hollow discontinuous glass fiber reinforced (10wt%) conventional and resin modified GICs respectively, were achieved compared to unreinforced materials (p0.05) between the fiber reinforced and unreinforced GICs. The use of hollow discontinuous glass fiber fillers with conventional and resin modified GIC matrix is a novel reinforcement. It yielded superior toughening and flexural performance compared to the particulate GICs used. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glass Transition, Crystallization of Glass-Forming Melts, and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürn W. P. Schmelzer


    Full Text Available A critical analysis of possible (including some newly proposed definitions of the vitreous state and the glass transition is performed and an overview of kinetic criteria of vitrification is presented. On the basis of these results, recent controversial discussions on the possible values of the residual entropy of glasses are reviewed. Our conclusion is that the treatment of vitrification as a process of continuously breaking ergodicity with entropy loss and a residual entropy tending to zero in the limit of zero absolute temperature is in disagreement with the absolute majority of experimental and theoretical investigations of this process and the nature of the vitreous state. This conclusion is illustrated by model computations. In addition to the main conclusion derived from these computations, they are employed as a test for several suggestions concerning the behavior of thermodynamic coefficients in the glass transition range. Further, a brief review is given on possible ways of resolving the Kauzmann paradox and its implications with respect to the validity of the third law of thermodynamics. It is shown that neither in its primary formulations nor in its consequences does the Kauzmann paradox result in contradictions with any basic laws of nature. Such contradictions are excluded by either crystallization (not associated with a pseudospinodal as suggested by Kauzmann or a conventional (and not an ideal glass transition. Some further so far widely unexplored directions of research on the interplay between crystallization and glass transition are anticipated, in which entropy may play—beyond the topics widely discussed and reviewed here—a major role.

  20. Recycling of post-consumer glass: energy savings, CO2 emission reduction, effects on glass quality and glass melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.; Kers, G.; Santen, E. van


    This presentation shows the advantages of re-melting post-consumer glass, but also the potential risks of using contaminated cullet in the raw material batch of glass furnaces (e.g. container glass furnaces). As an example of potential advantages: increasing the cullet % in the batch of an efficient

  1. Glass can be recycled forever : Utilisation of end-of-Life cathode ray tube glasses in ceramic and glass industry


    Siikamäki, Raija


    The aim of this study was to find possible applications, in which glass materials from End-of-Life (EOL) Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) can be utilised in ceramic and glass industry. The qualitative objective of the study was to find utilisation targets and applications, where the properties of EOL CRT glass material can be as beneficial as possible.

  2. Assessment of the model refinement category in CASP12. (United States)

    Hovan, Ladislav; Oleinikovas, Vladimiras; Yalinca, Havva; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Saladino, Giorgio; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi


    We here report on the assessment of the model refinement predictions submitted to the 12th Experiment on the Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP12). This is the fifth refinement experiment since CASP8 (2008) and, as with the previous experiments, the predictors were invited to refine selected server models received in the regular (non-refinement) stage of the CASP experiment. We assessed the submitted models using a combination of standard CASP measures. The coefficients for the linear combination of Z-scores (the CASP12 score) have been obtained by a machine learning algorithm trained on the results of visual inspection. We identified 8 groups that improve both the backbone conformation and the side chain positioning for the majority of targets. Albeit the top methods adopted distinctively different approaches, their overall performance was almost indistinguishable, with each of them excelling in different scores or target subsets. What is more, there were a few novel approaches that, while doing worse than average in most cases, provided the best refinements for a few targets, showing significant latitude for further innovation in the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder. (United States)

    Ifland, J R; Preuss, H G; Marcus, M T; Rourke, K M; Taylor, W C; Burau, K; Jacobs, W S; Kadish, W; Manso, G


    Overeating in industrial societies is a significant problem, linked to an increasing incidence of overweight and obesity, and the resultant adverse health consequences. We advance the hypothesis that a possible explanation for overeating is that processed foods with high concentrations of sugar and other refined sweeteners, refined carbohydrates, fat, salt, and caffeine are addictive substances. Therefore, many people lose control over their ability to regulate their consumption of such foods. The loss of control over these foods could account for the global epidemic of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We assert that overeating can be described as an addiction to refined foods that conforms to the DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. To examine the hypothesis, we relied on experience with self-identified refined foods addicts, as well as critical reading of the literature on obesity, eating behavior, and drug addiction. Reports by self-identified food addicts illustrate behaviors that conform to the 7 DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. The literature also supports use of the DSM-IV criteria to describe overeating as a substance use disorder. The observational and empirical data strengthen the hypothesis that certain refined food consumption behaviors meet the criteria for substance use disorders, not unlike tobacco and alcohol. This hypothesis could lead to a new diagnostic category, as well as therapeutic approaches to changing overeating behaviors.

  4. Flight Deck I-Glasses Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal...

  5. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Modular high-intensity plasma melter promises improved performance, reduced energy use, and lower emissions. The glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass for the past 100 years.

  6. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau


    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  7. Optical scattering in glass ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattarelli, M.; Montagna, M.; Verrocchio, P.


    The transparency of glass ceramics with nanocrystals is generally higher than that expected from the theory of Rayleigh scattering. We attribute this ultra-transparency to the spatial correlation of the nanoparticles. The structure factor is calculated for a simple model system, the random

  8. glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Miyazaki and Takeda (1993) studied about effect of matrix materials, reinforcement fibers, interface strength between matrix material and fibers, impact angle, and particle velocity on the solid particle erosion behavior of short glass carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 resin, ABS resin .They found that the erosion rate is larger in ...

  9. Printing Silver Nanogrids on Glass (United States)

    Sanders, Wesley C.; Valcarce, Ron; Iles, Peter; Smith, James S.; Glass, Gabe; Gomez, Jesus; Johnson, Glen; Johnston, Dan; Morham, Maclaine; Befus, Elliot; Oz, Aimee; Tomaraei, Mohammad


    This manuscript describes a laboratory experiment that provides students with an opportunity to create conductive silver nanogrids using polymeric templates. A microcontact-printed polyvinylpyrrolidone grid directs the citrate-induced reduction of silver ions for the fabrication of silver nanogrids on glass substrates. In addition to…

  10. Digimarc Discover on Google Glass (United States)

    Rogers, Eliot; Rodriguez, Tony; Lord, John; Alattar, Adnan


    This paper reports on the implementation of the Digimarc® Discover platform on Google Glass, enabling the reading of a watermark embedded in a printed material or audio. The embedded watermark typically contains a unique code that identifies the containing media or object and a synchronization signal that allows the watermark to be read robustly. The Digimarc Discover smartphone application can read the watermark from a small portion of printed image presented at any orientation or reasonable distance. Likewise, Discover can read the recently introduced Digimarc Barcode to identify and manage consumer packaged goods in the retail channel. The Digimarc Barcode has several advantages over the traditional barcode and is expected to save the retail industry millions of dollars when deployed at scale. Discover can also read an audio watermark from ambient audio captured using a microphone. The Digimarc Discover platform has been widely deployed on the iPad, iPhone and many Android-based devices, but it has not yet been implemented on a head-worn wearable device, such as Google Glass. Implementing Discover on Google Glass is a challenging task due to the current hardware and software limitations of the device. This paper identifies the challenges encountered in porting Discover to the Google Glass and reports on the solutions created to deliver a prototype implementation.

  11. Quantum Spin Glasses, Annealing and Computation (United States)

    Tanaka, Shu; Tamura, Ryo; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.


    List of tables; List of figures, Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Quantum Spin Glass, Annealing and Computation: 2. Classical spin models from ferromagnetic spin systems to spin glasses; 3. Simulated annealing; 4. Quantum spin glass; 5. Quantum dynamics; 6. Quantum annealing; Part II. Additional Notes: 7. Notes on adiabatic quantum computers; 8. Quantum information and quenching dynamics; 9. A brief historical note on the studies of quantum glass, annealing and computation.

  12. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.


    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses....

  13. Effect of small glass composition changes on flue gas emissions of glass furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Kersbergen, M.J. van


    Relatively small changes in glass composition might have drastic consequences on the evaporation rates of volatile glass components in glass melting furnaces. Transpiration evaporation tests have been applied to measure the impact of minor glass composition changes on the evaporation rates of

  14. Elliptic Solvers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Complex Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip, B.


    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally tailoring the resolution computational grids. Multilevel algorithms for solving elliptic problems on adaptive grids include the Fast Adaptive Composite grid method (FAC) and its parallel variants (AFAC and AFACx). Theory that confirms the independence of the convergence rates of FAC and AFAC on the number of refinement levels exists under certain ellipticity and approximation property conditions. Similar theory needs to be developed for AFACx. The effectiveness of multigrid-based elliptic solvers such as FAC, AFAC, and AFACx on adaptively refined overlapping grids is not clearly understood. Finally, a non-trivial eye model problem will be solved by combining the power of using overlapping grids for complex moving geometries, AMR, and multilevel elliptic solvers.

  15. Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation (United States)

    Luchini, Paolo; Giannetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo


    Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh.

  16. Segregation Coefficients of Impurities in Selenium by Zone Refining (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao


    The purification of Se by zone refining process was studied. The impurity solute levels along the length of a zone-refined Se sample were measured by spark source mass spectrographic analysis. By comparing the experimental concentration levels with theoretical curves the segregation coefficient, defined as the ratio of equilibrium concentration of a given solute in the solid to that in the liquid, k = x(sub s)/x(sub l) for most of the impurities in Se are found to be close to unity, i.e., between 0.85 and 1.15, with the k value for Si, Zn, Fe, Na and Al greater than 1 and that for S, Cl, Ca, P, As, Mn and Cr less than 1. This implies that a large number of passes is needed for the successful implementation of zone refining in the purification of Se.

  17. System refinement for content based satellite image retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NourElDin Laban


    Full Text Available We are witnessing a large increase in satellite generated data especially in the form of images. Hence intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by dozens of earth observing satellites, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. Content based satellite image retrieval (CBSIR approaches have mainly been driven so far by approaches dealing with traditional images. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that refines image retrieval process using the unique properties to satellite images. Our approach uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tiling sizes. Accordingly the system uses these multilevel features within a multilevel retrieval system that refines the retrieval process. Our multilevel refinement approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional one yielding enhanced precision and recall rates.

  18. RNA Structure Refinement Using the ERRASER-Phenix Pipeline. (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Chieh; Echols, Nathaniel; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Das, Rhiju


    The final step of RNA crystallography involves the fitting of coordinates into electron density maps. The large number of backbone atoms in RNA presents a difficult and tedious challenge, particularly when experimental density is poor. The ERRASER-Phenix pipeline can improve an initial set of RNA coordinates automatically based on a physically realistic model of atomic-level RNA interactions. The pipeline couples diffraction-based refinement in Phenix with the Rosetta-based real-space refinement protocol ERRASER (Enumerative Real-Space Refinement ASsisted by Electron density under Rosetta). The combination of ERRASER and Phenix can improve the geometrical quality of RNA crystallographic models while maintaining or improving the fit to the diffraction data (as measured by R free). Here we present a complete tutorial for running ERRASER-Phenix through the Phenix GUI, from the command-line, and via an application in the Rosetta On-line Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE).

  19. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique


    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  20. Glass markets information system: Application records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Glass Markets Information System synthesizes technical and economic information on existing and potential uses for recovered glass for the purpose of making this information readily available in a structured form. Access to reliable information regarding the technical characteristics and market conditions for recovered glass facilitates decisions on its use and marketing.

  1. Jagged Edges of the Glass Ceiling (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria L.


    Although many aspiring young women might believe the glass ceiling was shattered a decade ago, they still need to understand how that glass ceiling impacted an older generation of women in educational leadership. They also must be aware that some segments of the glass ceiling might still exist. This article provides a historical overview of the…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 mars 2013 ... ABSTRACT. The kinetics of devitrification of fluoride glasses stabilized by magnesium fluoride when heated for some time between the glass transition and melting temperatures. The crystallization kinetics of AlF3-YF3-PbF2-CdF2-MgF2 glass prepared by melting the halide powders were studied by.

  3. Characterization of Fe -doped silver phosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tures of the glass and at lower concentration of dopant, a nanostructure is obtained. Electrical conductivity mea- surements from 303 to 373 K in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 5 MHz have indicated that all glasses are ionic conductors with Ag+ ions as the charge carrier. Fe2O3 doping in silver phosphate glass increased ...

  4. Simulation of Glass Fiber Forming Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von der Ohe, Renate

    Two glass fiber forming processes have been simulated using FEM, which are the drawing of continuous glass fibers for reinforcement purposes and the spinning of discontinuous glass fibers - stone wool for insulation. The aim of this work was to set up a numerical model for each process, and to use...

  5. Some recent developments in spin glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I give some experimental and theoretical background to spin glasses, and then discuss the nature of the phase transition in spin glasses with vector spins. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Heisenberg spin glass model in three dimensions are presented. A finite-size scaling analysis of the correlation length of the ...

  6. Some recent developments in spin glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I give some experimental and theoretical background to spin glasses, and then discuss the nature of the phase transition in spin glasses with vector spins. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Heisenberg spin glass model in three dimensions are presented. A finite-size scaling analysis of the correlation length ...

  7. Are people adapted to their own glasses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, W.D.; Brenner, E.; Sousa, R.; Smeets, J.B.J.


    Negative lenses, either in the form of glasses or contact lenses, can correct nearsightedness. Unlike contact lenses, glasses do not only correct, but also induce optic distortions. In the scientific literature, it has often been assumed that people who wear corrective glasses instantaneously

  8. SOI silicon on glass for optical MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole


    A newly developed fabrication method for fabrication of single crystalline Si (SCS) components on glass, utilizing Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer is presented. The devices are packaged at wafer level in a glass-silicon-glass (GSG) stack by anodic bonding...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.


    The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

  10. Protection of window glass from acoustic leakage


    Lych, Sergij; Rakobovchuk, Volodymyr


    In a survey was presented an analysis of the most common glass samples on the Ukrainian market on their protection level against leakage of acoustic information. The glass samples were studied by means of roentgen analysis, and the impact of elemental composition of glass according to a laser beam reflection factor was defined.

  11. Brownian versus Newtonian devitrification of hard-sphere glasses (United States)

    Montero de Hijes, Pablo; Rosales-Pelaez, Pablo; Valeriani, Chantal; Pusey, Peter N.; Sanz, Eduardo


    In a recent molecular dynamics simulation work it has been shown that glasses composed of hard spheres crystallize via cooperative, stochastic particle displacements called avalanches [E. Sanz et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 75 (2014), 10.1073/pnas.1308338110]. In this Rapid Communication we investigate if such a devitrification mechanism is also present when the dynamics is Brownian rather than Newtonian. The research is motivated in part by the fact that colloidal suspensions, an experimental realization of hard-sphere systems, undergo Brownian motion. We find that Brownian hard-sphere glasses do crystallize via avalanches with very similar characteristics to those found in the Newtonian case. We briefly discuss the implications of these findings for experiments on colloids.

  12. Optical properties of Dy3+ doped bismuth zinc borate glass and glass ceramics (United States)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Kanth Kumar, V. V. Ravi


    Dy3+ doped bismuth zinc borate transparent glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique and these glasses were used precursor to obtain transparent glass ceramics by heat treatment method. XRD pattern of the glass ceramic shows the formation of the β-BiB3O6 and Bi2ZnOB2O6 phases. The visible emission intensity of the glass ceramics is stronger than the glass. This can be due to the formation of nano nonlinear optical crystallites in glass matrix.

  13. Implementation of a high-throughput ion chromatographic assay to assess glass degradation in drug product formulations. (United States)

    Thirumangalathu, Renuka; Wong, Kwun Ngok; Coultas, James; Hair, Alison; Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy


    The primary container for parenterals is usually composed of glass. Given the recent industry-wide spike in glass-related problems, assays capable of detecting glass degradation before glass-related particles are visible in solution have practical significance. A rapid, high-throughput ion chromatography method coupled with molybdate reaction is described here for detection and quantitation of silicic acid (soluble form of silica) in complex samples. The method involves ion exchange separation of the silicate anion at high pH followed by a post-column derivatization step with sodium molybdate reagent. The resulting molybdo-silicate complex is detected with high sensitivity in the visible wavelength range at 410 nm and correlates to the level of soluble silica in solution. This assay is high-throughput and amenable for implementation during the early phase of product development. The assay provides a direct measurement to assess potential incompatibility between the formulation and its glass container. The Si levels measured by this method showed a direct correlation to the vial surface morphology changes as monitored by differential interference contrast microscopy. Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has been faced with glass quality challenges that have resulted in many products being recalled from the market. Monitoring levels of soluble silica in solution is critical because silica is the primary component of glass containers used in the pharmaceutical industry. Given this recent industry-wide increase in glass-related problems, assays capable of detecting glass degradation before glass-related particles are visible in solution have practical significance. A rapid assay to detect the soluble form of silica is presented here. The method presented will enable earlier detection of a formulation and container incompatibility instead of waiting until glass-related particles are visible in solution. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  14. Analysis of early medieval glass beads - Glass in the transition period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Ziga, E-mail: [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, Timotej [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jezersek, David [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Istenic, Janka [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Glass beads from graves excavated in Slovenia and dated archaeologically to the 7th-10th century AD were analysed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The results indicate two groups of glass; natron glass made in the Roman tradition and glass made with alkalis from the ash of halophytic plants, which gradually replaced natron glass after c. 800 AD. The alkalis used in the second group of glass seem to be in close relation to a variant of the Venetian white glass that appeared several centuries later. The origin of this glass may be traced to glass production in Mesopotamia and around the Aral Sea. All the mosaic beads with eye decoration, as well as most of the drawn-segmented and drawn-cut beads analysed, are of plant-ash glass, which confirms their supposed oriental origin.

  15. Controlling the length scale and distribution of the ductile phase in metallic glass composites through friction stir processing


    Arora, Harpreet Singh; Mridha, Sanghita; Grewal, Harpreet Singh; Singh, Harpreet; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Mukherjee, Sundeep


    We demonstrate the refinement and uniform distribution of the crystalline dendritic phase by friction stir processing (FSP) of titanium based in situ ductile-phase reinforced metallic glass composite. The average size of the dendrites was reduced by almost a factor of five (from 24 ?m to 5 ?m) for the highest tool rotational speed of 900 rpm. The large inter-connected dendrites become more fragmented with increased circularity after processing. The changes in thermal characteristics were meas...

  16. Solving the Euler Equations Using Adaptive Mesh Motion and Refinement (United States)


    REFINEMENT DAVID C. ARNEY RUPAK BISWAS . JOSEPH E. FLAHERTY DTIC GELECTE JUL071992 U A "U APRIL 1992 US ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT AND...6111.02.H610.0 ADAPTIVE MESH MOTION AND REFINEMENT PRON: 1A94Z9CANMSC 6. AUTHOR(S) David C. Arney (USMA, West Point, NY), Rupak Biswas (RPI, Troy, NY), and...Military Academy West Point, NY 10996-1786 Accesion For NTIS CRA&I Rupak Biswas DTIC TAB Department of Computer Science Un no.:;. d L. Rensselaer

  17. Effects of Grain Refining Additions to Aluminum Alloys (United States)

    Gennone, R. J.; Coyle, F. T.; Farrior, G. M.

    An efficient method of controlling the grain-size of commercial aluminum alloys is by continuous additions of grain-refining agents in the form of master-alloy rod which is fed automatically into the launder during casting. The simultaneous addition of titanium and boron in a single rod is more efficient and more economical than separate additions. Response of various alloys to grain refining may be determined using the laboratory test described. Effects of these additions on 6063 alloy are presented; preliminary results on other commercial alloys are included.

  18. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yew-Ai


    Full Text Available This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  19. Coal fired cyclone melting system for glass and mineral wool manufacturing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, J.G.; Talley, W.F.; Bartone, L.M.; Myles, P.T. (Vortec Corporation, Collegeville, PA (USA))


    Because the availability and cost of gas and oil is dependent to a large extent on geographic location and the future cost and availability of these fuels remains uncertain, there is substantial incentive to utilize coal as the primary fuel for glass manufacturing operations. This paper describes progress to date on the development of a cyclone glass melter by Vortec Corporation of Collegeville. Testing with a 20 ton/day pilot scale melter has demonstrated high glass melting thermal efficiency and rapid start up capability. It responds quickly to process control changes and is a low producer of NO{sub x} emissions. Stable combustion and high carbon conversion efficiencies were demonstrated at coal thermal inputs ranging from 30 to 90%. Gas co-firing was used to maintain a fixed total thermal input to the melting system. No discolouration of glass was observed with coal thermal inputs up to approximately 50%. At the higher coal thermal input levels, some glass discolouration towards amber was noted. Based on these results it appears that co-fired operation at approximately 50% coal thermal input could be used in the production of flint and green glasses. The production of amber glasses, insulation fibreglass and mineral products at coal utilization levels approaching 100% also appears to be a likely application of the technology.

  20. Self-healing capacity of nuclear glass observed by NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Charpentier, Thibault; Martel, Laura; Mir, Anamul H; Somers, Joseph; Jégou, Christophe; Peuget, Sylvain


    Safe management of high level nuclear waste is a worldwide significant issue for which vitrification has been selected by many countries. There exists a crucial need for improving our understanding of the ageing of the glass under irradiation. While external irradiation by ions provides a rapid simulation of damage induced by alpha decays, short lived actinide doping is more representative of the reality. Here, we report radiological NMR experiments to compare the damage in International Simplified Glass (ISG) when irradiated by these two methods. In the 0.1 mole percent (244)Cm doped glass, accumulation of high alpha decay only shows small modifications of the local structure, in sharp contrast to heavy ion irradiation. These results reveal the ability of the alpha particle to partially repair the damage generated by the heavy recoil nuclei highlighting the radiation resistance of nuclear glass and the difficulty to accurately simulate its behaviour by single ion beam irradiations.

  1. Effects of the pre-transformation microstructures on the grain refining of medium-carbon 5Cr-Mo-V steels; Chutanso 5Cr-Mo-V ko no gyaku hentai sairyuka ni oyobosu zenhentai soshiki no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukauda, Y.; Shibata, T.; Ono, S.; Ishiguro, T. [Nippon Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of obtaining refined grains over full cross section for improved ductility in heavy-gage products of a medium carbon 5Cr- Mo-V steel, the effects of pre-transformation microstructures on the grain refining during austenitizing were investigated. Samples were prepared to possess either one of three different microstructures , pearlite, bainite and martensite. These samples were heated slowly to the desired austenitizing temperature followed by rapid cooling, and the formation of new austenite grains was examined. Though austenite grains were not refined in cases of martensite and bainite microstructures, these were remarkably refined in case of pearlite. Portions of pearlite were enriched with carbon, where the transformation temperature into austenite was lower, and this is considered to be the reason that finer austenite grains were formed.Above results show that arranging pearlite microstructure before quenching heat treatment is effective for obtaining refined grains over full cross section in heavy-gage products. (author)

  2. Electrical switching in Sb doped Al23Te77 glasses (United States)

    Pumlianmunga; Ramesh, K.


    Bulk glasses (Al23Te77)Sbx (0≤ x≤10) prepared by melt quenching method show a change in switching type from threshold to memory for x≥5. An increase in threshold current (Ith) and a concomitant decrease in threshold voltage (Vth) and resisitivity(ρ) have been observed with the increase of Sb content. Raman spectra of the switched region in memory switching compositions show a red shift with respect to the as prepared glasses whereas in threshold switching compositions no such shift is observed. The magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) of 27Al atom shows three different environments for Al ([4]Al, [5]Al and [6]Al). The samples annealed at their respective crystallization temperatures show rapid increase in [4]Al sites by annihilating [5]Al sites. The melts of threshold switching glasses (x≤2.5) quenched in water at room temperature (27 °C) show amorphous structure whereas, the melt of memory switching glasses (x>2.5) solidify into crystalline structure. The higher coordination of Al increases the cross-linking and rigidity. The addition of Sb increases the glass transition(Tg) and decreases the crystallization temperature(Tc). The decrease in the interval between the Tg and Tc eases the transition between the amorphous and crystalline states and improves the memory properties. The temperature rise at the time of switching can be as high as its melting temperature and the material in between the electrodes may melt to form a filament. The filament may consists of temporary (high resistive amorphous) and permanent (high conducting crystalline) units. The ratio between the temporary and the permanent units may decide the switching type. The filament is dominated by the permanent units in memory switching compositions and by the temporary units in threshold switching compositions. The present study suggests that both the threshold and memory switching can be understood by the thermal model and filament formation.

  3. A study of fracture and inelastic behavior of bioactive glass-ceramics and glasses. (United States)

    Hirao, K; Benino, Y; Soga, N


    The fracture and inelastic behavior of A-W glass-ceramics, phosphate glasses, silicate glasses, and borate glasses were determined in simulated body fluid (SBF), kerosene, and water. By using the stable crack growth technique, an inelastic behavior was observed on the diagram of load versus load-point displacement. From these studies, it was suggested that the inelastic behavior of bioactive glass-ceramics was produced by the plastic deformation of glassy phase on the grain boundary.

  4. Precision glass molding technology for low Tg glasses (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Feng; Tian, Minqiang; Shao, Xinzheng


    Precision glass molding (PGM) technology is a cost-effective manufacturing process for high precision optical elements with complex surfaces. With this processing technology, one or more pieces of lenses may be produced through one-step molding. Due to the high efficiency of the replicative process, PGM has found wide applications in high volume production of optical elements. At present, it has been well developed and widely used in mass industry production in Japan and South Korea, but in China PGM technology research is still in the elementary stage. To develop the PGM technology, we need to conquer several technical difficulties, such as the melting technology of low Tg glasses, highprecision mold design and the corresponding machining technology and the coating technology for the molds. In this paper, we discussed the PGM technology as a complete manufacturing process, focused on the technical difficulties mentioned above, and introduced the development directions for this technology in China.

  5. SenseGlass: using google glass to sense daily emotions


    Picard, Rosalind W.; Hernandez Rivera, Javier


    For over a century, scientists have studied human emotions in laboratory settings. However, these emotions have been largely contrived -- elicited by movies or fake "lab" stimuli, which tend not to matter to the participants in the studies, at least not compared with events in their real life. This work explores the utility of Google Glass, a head-mounted wearable device, to enable fundamental advances in the creation of affect-based user interfaces in natural settings.

  6. Aging in chalcohalide glasses: Origin and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Wang, W.


    The application of chalcogenide and chalcohalide glasses is limited by their uncontrolled drift in properties over time due to aging processes. In the present work, we perform aging experiments on some chalcohalide glasses in oxidizing, inert and reducing atmospheres and afterwards we measure...... the elemental concentration depth profiles in the surface layer of the glasses by using secondary neutral mass spectroscopy. The results show that anionic diffusion processes occur in the glasses during aging. The aging process leads to a decrease in microhardness of the studied glasses, which is attributed...... to both physical aging (i.e., structural relaxation) and chemical aging (i.e., compositional change of the surface layer)....

  7. Dynamics of Glass Relaxation at Room Temperature (United States)

    Welch, Roger C.; Smith, John R.; Potuzak, Marcel; Guo, Xiaoju; Bowden, Bradley F.; Kiczenski, T. J.; Allan, Douglas C.; King, Ellyn A.; Ellison, Adam J.; Mauro, John C.


    The problem of glass relaxation under ambient conditions has intrigued scientists and the general public for centuries, most notably in the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows. Here we report quantitative measurement of glass relaxation at room temperature. We find that Corning® Gorilla® Glass shows measurable and reproducible relaxation at room temperature. Remarkably, this relaxation follows a stretched exponential decay rather than simple exponential relaxation, and the value of the stretching exponent (β=3/7) follows a theoretical prediction made by Phillips for homogeneous glasses.

  8. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses (United States)

    Xia, L.; Li, W. H.; Fang, S. S.; Wei, B. C.; Dong, Y. D.


    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni62Nb38 alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter γ* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  9. Automatic methods for the refinement of system models from the specification to the implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Seiter, Julia; Drechsler, Rolf


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of automatic model refinement, which helps readers close the gap between initial textual specification and its desired implementation. The authors enable readers to follow two “directions” for refinement: Vertical refinement, for adding detail and precision to single description for a given model and Horizontal refinement, which considers several views on one level of abstraction, refining the system specification by dedicated descriptions for structure or behavior. The discussion includes several methods which support designers of electronic systems in this refinement process, including verification methods to check automatically whether a refinement has been conducted as intended.

  10. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurth, R. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Pascual, M.J., E-mail: [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martin, A.; Munoz, F.; Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Boite Postale 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ruessel, C. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)


    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.15 Na{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.2 K{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 1.15 MgO Bullet-Operator 0.8 BaO Bullet-Operator 1.5 ZnO Bullet-Operator 20 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet-Operator 67.2 SiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2.6 TiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.7 ZrO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.2 As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 Degree-Sign C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 Degree-Sign C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, {beta}-eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n {approx} 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 {+-} 20 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  11. Effect of glass composition on the degradation properties and ion release characteristics of phosphate glass--polycaprolactone composites. (United States)

    Prabhakar, Roopa L; Brocchini, Steve; Knowles, Jonathan C


    A series of polycaprolactone and ternary-based (Na(2)O)(0.55-x)(CaO)(x)(P(2)O(5))(0.45) glass composites were created, each containing 20% volume percentage of glass with various calcium compositions. A short-term degradation study was carried out to investigate the physical and ion release behaviour of these composites, utilising analytical techniques such as dynamical mechanical analysis, and ion chromatography. All the composites experienced significant loss of weight and stiffness throughout the study, with the 24 mol% calcium composites losing the greatest amount of weight and stiffness. The pH profile of the aqueous solutions in which the composites were placed were initially acidic, but began to neutralise mid-way through the study, with the 36 mol% solution achieving the most acidic conditions. The ion release behaviour mirrored the mass loss behaviour of the glass component of the composites. The cations (sodium and calcium ions) release was comparable with the initial stages of composite mass degradation, both of which exhibited almost immediate release when placed into solution. The 24 mol% composites underwent rapid rates of cation release, while the 36 mol% experienced the slowest rates of release. By contrast, anion (phosphates and polyphosphates) release showed a dissimilar trend, with rapid release of the P(2)O(7) and P(3)O(10) occurring during the first few hours in solution, whilst the P(3)O(9) structure released steadily during the first 48 h in solution. Finally, PO(4) release was at a constant rate over the duration of the study, releasing up to 300 ppm from the 32 and 36 mol% samples by the end of 200 h. To summarise, these results show that by combining phosphate glasses with biodegradable polymer, it is possible to create composites whose rate of degradation can be controlled to meet the needs of their end application.

  12. Plastic Deformation in Zirconium Based Metallic Glasses via Nanoindentation (United States)

    Melgarejo-Pinto, Zenon Humberto

    Since the discovery in 1960 of Au-Si amorphous alloy by rapidly quenching with cooling rates up to 106 K/s metallic glasses became as an important research topic in the materials science community because of their intriguing processing routes, structure and properties. Recently, new multicomponent glassy- alloy systems, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), appeared with lower critical cooling rates (103 to 1 K/s) and superlative properties, such as corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and high strength/modulus ratio. Nevertheless, low temperature brittleness remains a concern. This brittleness comes from the tendency of plastic deformation to concentrate into extremely narrow shear bands. The present research pursues a better understanding of plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) by studying, via nanoindentation, the effect of thermal history, composition, and loading paths on the mechanical behavior of Zr-based MGs. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis helps to assess structural relaxation near glass transition temperature (T g). Broadband nanoindentation creep (BNC) and load transient nanoindentation experiments contribute to characterize the hardness-strain rate behavior and indentation size effects, respectively. As-cast Zr 50Cu45Al5 (at. %) metallic glasses evidenced hardness-strain rate loading path dependence, which gradually disappears by effect of the annealing treatments. Back-stresses effect is theorized as the cause of load path dependence behavior. Relaxation effect at low and high strain rates in BNC traces and load ramps "overshoots" in transient experiments enabled to confirm structural changes during mechanical deformation, which is not considered by thermal activation models of deformation. Most of the Zr-based metallic glasses exhibited measurable overshoot indentation size effect. Nonetheless, creep fraction size effect was observed just in as-cast Zr50Cu45Al5 alloys. Rheological mechanical model helps to both characterize the

  13. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh


    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  14. Bioactive Glasses in Dentistry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi Z


    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses are silicate-based and can form a strong chemical bond with the tissues. These biomaterials are highly biocompatible and can form a hydroxyapatite layer when implanted in the body or soaked in the simulated body fluid. Due to several disadvantages, conventional glass processing method including melting of glass components, is replaced by sol-gel method with a large number of benefits such as low processing temperature, higher purity and homogeneity and therefore better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, particularly in dentistry. These glasses can be used as particulates or monolithic shapes and porous or dense constructs in different applications such as remineralization or hypersensitivity treatment. Some properties of bioactive glasses such as antibacterial properties can be promoted by adding different elements into the glass. Bioactive glasses can also be used to modify different biocompatible materials that need to be bioactive. This study reviews the significant developments of bioactive glasses in clinical application, especially dentistry. Furthermore, we will discuss the field of bioactive glasses from beginning to the current developments, which includes processing methods, applications, and properties of these glasses.

  15. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials (United States)

    Beall, George H.


    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  16. glass chemistry: structure-property relationships (United States)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Youngman, Randall E.; Mauro, John C.


    Pyrex® glass was one of the first commercial boroaluminosilicate glass compositions, selected in 1915 from thousands of compositions due to its ability to sustain mechanical and thermal shock. While the microscopic structure of Pyrex® glass has recently been investigated, the microscopic origins of its macroscopic properties are not well understood, i.e., the atomic scale foundation of the original empirical invention of Pyrex® glass has yet to be established. In this work, we have tackled this problem by investigating the effects of varying Si/Al and Na/B ratios on the boron and aluminum speciation and a range of physical and rheological properties in the Pyrex® glass family. We show that the canonical Pyrex® boroaluminosilicate composition is indeed optimal for attaining relatively high values of glass transition temperature and elastic moduli and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, while simultaneously maintaining a high glass-forming ability.

  17. Phase separation in an ionomer glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Tian, K.V.; Dobó-Nagy, C.


    The G338 ionomer glass is a fluoro-alumino-silicate system, which is used as the powder component of glass ionomer cements (GICs) in dental applications. However, despite progress in understanding the nature of this glass, chemical identity of its separated amorphous phases has not yet been...... conclusively determined. In this work, we identify these phases by performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses on both the as-received glass and heat-treated samples. We detected three glass transitions in the as-received G338 glass during DSC upscaning, implying...... amorphous phases in G388 are Ca/Na-Al-Si-O, Ca-Al-F and Ca-P-O-F phases, respectively. However, the exact chemical compositions of the three phases still require further exploration. The results of this work are important for understanding the impact of phase separation within ionomer glasses on the setting...

  18. Designing and constructing corrugated glass facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Nijsse


    Full Text Available Flat glass panels are in use since the time of the Roman Empire. In the ruins of the city of Pompeii, destroyed by the Vulcan Vesuvius in 79 DC, a glass panel in a bronze frame of 300 × 600 mm was found. In this article we describe a mayor improvement in the structural behaviour of glass panels by making the glass curved, or more accurately, corrugated. Both the in- and out-plane loading meet far more resistance against deformation, and the corrugated glass panels have a largely increased bearing capacity with the same thickness of glass the flat panel has. Also architecturally the appearance of a corrugated glass panel in facades is far more appealing.

  19. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; /Marne la Vallee U.; Haddi, Amine; /Marne la Valle U.; Trocellier,; /Saclay; Curti, Enzo; /PSI, Villigen; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /SLAC, SSRL


    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context.

  20. Mathematical aspects of Rietveld refinement and crystal structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    studies on PbTiO3 ceramics. NIRANJAN SAHU* and S PANIGRAHI. Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, India. MS received 12 January 2010; revised 29 October 2010. Abstract. The core mathematics, goodness-of-fit parameters of Rietveld refinement technique is introduced.

  1. Disparity refinement process based on RANSAC plane fitting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more accurate than normal flow state-of-the-art stereo matching algorithms. The performance evaluations are based on standard image quality metrics i.e. structural similarity index measure, peak signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. Keywords: computer vision; disparity refinement; image segmentation; RANSAC; ...

  2. Biomass refining for sustainable development : analysis and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Lin


    To understand the contribution of biomass refining to sustainable development, the technical, environmental and economic aspects are summarized in this thesis. This work begins from life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, sugarcane and bagasse,

  3. Challenges for Refinement and Composition of Instrumentations: Position Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansaloni, D.; Binder, W.; Bockisch, Christoph; Bodden, E.; Hatun, Kardelen; Marek, L.; Qi, Z.; Sarimbekov, A.; Sewe, A.; Tuma, P.; Zheng, Y.

    Instrumentation techniques are widely used for implementing dynamic program analysis tools like profilers or debuggers. While there are many toolkits and frameworks to support the development of such low-level instrumentations, there is little support for the refinement or composition of

  4. Runge-Kutta methods and local uniform grid refinement (United States)

    Trompert, R. A.; Verwer, J. G.


    Local uniform grid refinement (LUGR) is an adaptive grid technique for computing solutions of partial differential equations possessing sharp spatial transitions. Using nested, finer-and-finer uniform subgrids, the LUGR technique refines the space grid locally around these transitions, so as to avoid discretization on a very fine grid covering the entire physical domain. This paper examines the LUGR technique for time-dependent problems when combined with static regridding. Static regridding means that in the course of the time evolution, the space grid is adapted at discrete times. The present paper considers the general class of Runge-Kutta methods for the numerical time integration. Following the method of lines approach, we develop a mathematical framework for the general Runge-Kutta LUGR method applied to multispace-dimensional problems. We hereby focus on parabolic problems, but a considerable part of the examination applies to hyperbolic problems as well. Much attention is paid to the local error analysis. The central issue here is a "refinement condition" which is to underly the refinement strategy. By obeying this condition, spatial interpolation errors are controlled in a manner that the spatial accuracy obtained is comparable to the spatial accuracy on the finest grid if this grid would be used without any adaptation. A diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method is discussed for illustration purposes, both theoretically and numerically.

  5. On Architectural Support for Behaviour Refinement in Distributed Systems Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    During the top-down design of distributed systems, abstract designs have to be replaced by more concrete designs, which add details that define how these systems can be implemented using available building blocks. Behaviour refinement is a design operation in which abstract behaviours are replaced

  6. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  7. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo


    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing th...

  8. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stancáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Gonçalo R


    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577

  9. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, C. J.; Schmidt, E. M.; Sengupta, S.


    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individ...

  10. Refinements of Rationalizability for Normal-Form Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; Vannetelbosch, V.


    In normal-form games, rationalizability (Bernheim [3], Pearce [11]) on its own fails to exclude some very implausible strategy choices. Three main refinements of rationalizability have been proposed in the literature: cautious, perfect, and proper rationalizability. Nevertheless, some of these

  11. Academic literacy tests: design, development, piloting and refinement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigates how a blueprint for an academic literacy test may be conceptualised, how that could be operationalised, and demonstrates how pilot tests are analysed with a view to refining them. Finally, that leads to a consideration of how to arrive at a final draft test, and how valid and appropriate interpretations of ...

  12. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.


    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina


    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  14. BioDegradation of Refined Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil | Obire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-dioxide production and hydrocarbon degradation of refined petroleum hydrocarbon in soils treated with 5% gasoline, kerosene and diesel oil were investigated. Soil for study was bulked from around a car park in Port Harcourt. Soil samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks and subsequently at ...

  15. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of refined soybean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the production of biodiesel via transesterification of refined soybean oil obtained locally. Sodium hydroxide was used as the alkali catalyst and methanol (as alcohol) was used in the transesterification process due to its low cost. The methanol-to-oil molar ratio was maintained at 6:1. The effect of ...

  16. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.


    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre

  17. Refining King and Baxter Magolda's Model of Intercultural Maturity (United States)

    Perez, Rosemary J.; Shim, Woojeong; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.


    This study examined 110 intercultural experiences from 82 students attending six colleges and universities to explore how students' interpretations of their intercultural experiences reflected their developmental capacities for intercultural maturity. Our analysis of students' experiences confirmed as well as refined and expanded King and Baxter…

  18. Refining a Framework on Middle School Students' Statistical Thinking. (United States)

    Mooney, Edward S.; Hofbauer, Pamela S.; Langrall, Cynthia W.; Johnson, Yolanda A.

    The purpose of this paper was to refine an existing cognitive framework designed to characterize middle school students' statistical thinking. A case- study analysis was used to focus on two sub-processes of statistical thinking that were not adequately represented in the framework: students' use of multiplicative reasoning in analyzing data, and…

  19. Refining the Journal Club Presentations of Postgraduate Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refining journal club presentations for better EBP. 186. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | May-Jun 2016 | Vol 6 | Issue 3 | clinical use of these guidelines does not occur that between. 10 and 40% of patients do not receive care based on current scientific evidence and that ≥20% of care provided is not.

  20. Refinement for a model describing forage production, animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An existing model describing the influence of Acacia karoo density on forage production, animal production and profitablility is reviewed and amended to introduce recent research results. The refined model predicts that maximum forage production can be attained at 1 220 tree equivalents (TE) per ha, maximum livemass ...

  1. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement (United States)

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie


    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  2. Preparation of high purity tellurium by zone refining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes purification process of tellurium metal using zone refining technique under high purity hydrogen gas ambient in normal room environment. Process automation by newly designed stepper motor drive and allied process control instruments circumvent the complexity of electrical motors. It is observed that ...

  3. High purity tellurium production using dry refining processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    semi-circular of 560 mm long was placed in a thoroughly etched and cleaned quartz boat and inserted into a 44 mm dia and 1600 mm long quartz tube and evacuated for at- least 4 to 5 h under dry hydrogen gas flow of ~ 80 CCM. Microprocessor controlled stepper motor driven quadru- ple zone refiner (QZR) with the heater ...

  4. Optimization of Melt Treatment for Austenitic Steel Grain Refinement (United States)

    Lekakh, Simon N.; Ge, Jun; Richards, Von; O'Malley, Ron; TerBush, Jessica R.


    Refinement of the as-cast grain structure of austenitic steels requires the presence of active solid nuclei during solidification. These nuclei can be formed in situ in the liquid alloy by promoting reactions between transition metals (Ti, Zr, Nb, and Hf) and metalloid elements (C, S, O, and N) dissolved in the melt. Using thermodynamic simulations, experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a predicted sequence of reactions targeted to form precipitates that could act as active nuclei for grain refinement in austenitic steel castings. Melt additions performed to promote the sequential precipitation of titanium nitride (TiN) onto previously formed spinel (Al2MgO4) inclusions in the melt resulted in a significant refinement of the as-cast grain structure in heavy section Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel castings. A refined as-cast structure consisting of an inner fine-equiaxed grain structure and outer columnar dendrite zone structure of limited length was achieved in experimental castings. The sequential of precipitation of TiN onto Al2MgO4 was confirmed using automated SEM/EDX and TEM analyses.

  5. Selected Aspects of Nitrogen Refinement of Silumin 226

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymczak T.


    Full Text Available The work presents the results of the investigations of the effect of the nitrogen (N2 refining time „τraf” and the gas output on the course of the crystallization process, the microstructure and the gassing degree of silumin 226 used for pressure casting. The refinement of the examined silumin was performed with the use of a device with a rotating head. The crystallization process was examined by way of thermal analysis and derivative analysis TDA. The performed examinations showed that the prolongation of the N2 refining time causes a significant rise of the temperature of the crystallization end of the silumin, „tL”, as well as a decrease of its gassing degree, „Z”. An increase of the nitrogen output initially causes an increase of the temperature „tL” and a drop of the gassing degree „Z”, which reach their maximal values with the output of 20 dm3/min. Further increase of the output causes a decrease of the value „tL” and an increase of „Z”. The examined technological factors of the refining process did not cause any significant changes in the microstructure of silumin 226.

  6. Refinement of Bayesian Network Structures upon New Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Xiang, Yanping; Pacekajus, Saulius


    Refinement of Bayesian network (BN) structures using new data becomes more and more relevant. Some work has been done there; however, one problem has not been considered yet – what to do when new data have fewer or more attributes than the existing model. In both cases, data contain important...

  7. Assimilating Remote Ammonia Observations with a Refined Aerosol Thermodynamics Adjoint" (United States)

    Ammonia emissions parameters in North America can be refined in order to improve the evaluation of modeled concentrations against observations. Here, we seek to do so by developing and applying the GEOS-Chem adjoint nested over North America to conductassimilation of observations...

  8. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří


    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  9. Genomic multiple sequence alignments: refinement using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefkowitz Elliot J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic sequence data cannot be fully appreciated in isolation. Comparative genomics – the practice of comparing genomic sequences from different species – plays an increasingly important role in understanding the genotypic differences between species that result in phenotypic differences as well as in revealing patterns of evolutionary relationships. One of the major challenges in comparative genomics is producing a high-quality alignment between two or more related genomic sequences. In recent years, a number of tools have been developed for aligning large genomic sequences. Most utilize heuristic strategies to identify a series of strong sequence similarities, which are then used as anchors to align the regions between the anchor points. The resulting alignment is globally correct, but in many cases is suboptimal locally. We describe a new program, GenAlignRefine, which improves the overall quality of global multiple alignments by using a genetic algorithm to improve local regions of alignment. Regions of low quality are identified, realigned using the program T-Coffee, and then refined using a genetic algorithm. Because a better COFFEE (Consistency based Objective Function For alignmEnt Evaluation score generally reflects greater alignment quality, the algorithm searches for an alignment that yields a better COFFEE score. To improve the intrinsic slowness of the genetic algorithm, GenAlignRefine was implemented as a parallel, cluster-based program. Results We tested the GenAlignRefine algorithm by running it on a Linux cluster to refine sequences from a simulation, as well as refine a multiple alignment of 15 Orthopoxvirus genomic sequences approximately 260,000 nucleotides in length that initially had been aligned by Multi-LAGAN. It took approximately 150 minutes for a 40-processor Linux cluster to optimize some 200 fuzzy (poorly aligned regions of the orthopoxvirus alignment. Overall sequence identity increased only

  10. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Grain refinement of AA5754 aluminum alloy by ultrasonic cavitation: Experimental study and numerical simulation (United States)

    Haghayeghi, R.; Ezzatneshan, E.; Bahai, H.


    In this work, an experimental investigation was carried out on the grain refinement of molten AA5754 Aluminum alloy through ultrasonic treatment. The cavitation induced heterogeneous nucleation was suggested as the major mechanism for grain refinement in the AA5754 aluminum alloy. A numerical simulation was performed to predict the formation, growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles in the molten AA5754 Aluminum alloy. Moreover, the acoustic pressure distribution and the induced acoustic streaming by ultrasonic horn reactor were investigated. It is suggested that the streaming by ultrasonic could transport the small bubbles formed in the ultrasonic cavitation zone into the bulk of melt rapidly. These micro-bubbles are collapsed due to acoustic vibrations where the resulting micro-jets are strong enough to break the oxide layer and to wet the impurities. These exogenous particles, intermetallics and oxides could contribute to the formation of fine, uniform and equiaxed microstructure across the treated melt. The experimental results confirmed the simulation predictions.

  11. Formulation of heat absorbing glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Casariego, Pedro


    Full Text Available In the thermal exchanges between buildings and environment, glazing is an element of major importance, for it largely influences the so-called Solar Heat Gain and Thermal Losses. These parameters can be modified by applying different type of coatings onto glass surface or by adding colorant compounds during glass melting. The latter is a cheaper way to control the Solar Heat Gain. The knowledge of the laws governing the interaction between colorant compounds and solar radiation, allows us to define glass formulations achieving specific aesthetic requirements and solar energy absorption. In this paper two examples of application of the modelling of glass colorants spectral absorptance are presented. First is addressed to obtaining a glass with high luminous transmittance and low solar energy transmittance, and the other one to obtaining a glass with neutral colour appearance and minimized solar energy transmittance. Calculation formulas are defined together with photometric properties so-obtained. These type of glasses are particularly suitable to be used as building and automotive glazing, for they retain the mechanical characteristics and possibilities of transformation of standard glass.

    En los intercambios de energía entre un edificio y el medio exterior, el vidrio es el elemento de mayor importancia, por su influencia en la Ganancia de Calor Solar y en las Pérdidas Térmicas. Estos parámetros pueden ser modificados mediante el depósito de capas sobre el vidrio o mediante la adición de compuestos absorbentes de la radiación solar. Esta última vía es la más económica para controlar la Ganancia de Calor Solar. El conocimiento de las leyes que gobiernan la interacción de los diversos colorantes con la radiación solar, permite definir formulaciones de vidrios con características especificas de tipo estético y de absorción energética. En este trabajo se presentan dos ejemplos de aplicación de esta modelización de las

  12. Controlling Mackey-Glass chaos (United States)

    Kiss, Gábor; Röst, Gergely


    The Mackey-Glass equation is the representative example of delay induced chaotic behavior. Here, we propose various control mechanisms so that otherwise erratic solutions are forced to converge to the positive equilibrium or to a periodic orbit oscillating around that equilibrium. We take advantage of some recent results of the delay differential literature, when a sufficiently large domain of the phase space has been shown to be attractive and invariant, where the system is governed by monotone delayed feedback and chaos is not possible due to some Poincaré-Bendixson type results. We systematically investigate what control mechanisms are suitable to drive the system into such a situation and prove that constant perturbation, proportional feedback control, Pyragas control, and state dependent delay control can all be efficient to control Mackey-Glass chaos with properly chosen control parameters.

  13. The Origins of Spontaneous Grain Refinement in Deeply Undercooled Metallic Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Mullis


    Full Text Available Phase-field modeling of rapid alloy solidification, in which the rejection of latent heat from the growing solid cannot be ignored, has lagged significantly behind the modeling of conventional casting practices which can be approximated as isothermal. This is in large part due to the fact that if realistic materials properties are adopted, the ratio of the thermal to solute diffusivity (the Lewis number is typically 103–104, leading to severe multi-scale problems. However, use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques, such as local mesh adaptivity, implicit time-stepping and a non-linear multi-grid solver, allow these difficulties to be overcome. Here we describe how the application of such a model, formulated in the thin-interface limit, can help to explain the long-standing phenomenon of spontaneous grain refinement in deeply undercooled melts. We find that at intermediate undercoolings the operating point parameter, σ*, may collapse to zero, resulting in the growth of non-dendritic morphologies such as doublons and ‘dendritic seaweed’. Further increases in undercooling then lead to the re-establishment of stable dendritic growth. We postulate that remelting of such seaweed structures gives rise to the low undercooling instance of grain refinement observed in alloys.

  14. Computational Amide I Spectroscopy for Refinement of Disordered Peptide Ensembles: Maximum Entropy and Related Approaches (United States)

    Reppert, Michael; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    The structural characterization of intrinsically disordered peptides (IDPs) presents a challenging biophysical problem. Extreme heterogeneity and rapid conformational interconversion make traditional methods difficult to interpret. Due to its ultrafast (ps) shutter speed, Amide I vibrational spectroscopy has received considerable interest as a novel technique to probe IDP structure and dynamics. Historically, Amide I spectroscopy has been limited to delivering global secondary structural information. More recently, however, the method has been adapted to study structure at the local level through incorporation of isotope labels into the protein backbone at specific amide bonds. Thanks to the acute sensitivity of Amide I frequencies to local electrostatic interactions-particularly hydrogen bonds-spectroscopic data on isotope labeled residues directly reports on local peptide conformation. Quantitative information can be extracted using electrostatic frequency maps which translate molecular dynamics trajectories into Amide I spectra for comparison with experiment. Here we present our recent efforts in the development of a rigorous approach to incorporating Amide I spectroscopic restraints into refined molecular dynamics structural ensembles using maximum entropy and related approaches. By combining force field predictions with experimental spectroscopic data, we construct refined structural ensembles for a family of short, strongly disordered, elastin-like peptides in aqueous solution.

  15. Dilepton p{sub T} distribution through the color glass condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betemps, M.A.; Ducati, M.B. Gay [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fenomenologia de Particulas em Altas Energias]. E-mail:


    We investigate the dilepton production in proton-nucleus collisions at the forward rapidity region using the Color Glass Condensate approach. We focus our attention on the dilepton transverse momentum distribution (p{sub T}), more precisely on the low p{sub T} region where the saturation effects are expected to be increasingly large. (author)

  16. Preparative gel permeation chromatographic separation of solvent refined coal. [Tetrahydrofuran and chloroform; evaluation of 3 column packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, W.M.; Wooton, D.L.; Dorn, H.C.; Taylor, L.T.


    A preparative quantitative separation of THF- and CHCl/sub 3/-soluble solvent refined coal (Pittsburgh No. 8) has been demonstrated employing gel permeation chromatographic techniques utilizing three column packings: a styrene--divinyl benzene packing (Bio-Beads S-X4), a cross-linked poly(N-acryloylmorpholine) polymer (Enzacryl Gel K-1), and a modified alkylated dextran (Sephadex LH-20). Each packing material is evaluated based on the extent and time of separation and the cost of materials. The percent recovery in the Bio-Bead case is greater than 95 percent. Average molecular weights via vapor phase osmometry on the four sized fractions of THF-soluble SRC from Bio-Beads suggests that a separation according to molecular weight has been achieved. The description of a short tapered glass column to economically carry out these preparative separations is described.

  17. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds. (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon


    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  18. Safely splicing glass optical fibers (United States)

    Korbelak, K.


    Field-repair technique fuses glass fibers in flammable environment. Apparatus consists of v-groove vacuum chucks on manipulators, high-voltage dc power supply and tungsten electrodes, microscope to observe joint alignment and fusion, means of test transmission through joint. Apparatus is enclosed in gas tight bos filled with inert gas during fusion. About 2 feet of fiber end are necessary for splicing.

  19. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, BS


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  20. Recycled Glass and Dredged Materials (United States)


    cover, base course, etc.), sandblasting, fiberglass insulation , artwork, water filters, and many others (Reindl 2002). When glass is crushed and...crystal, porcelain , etc.), metal (from bottle caps), organics (from food, paper labels, etc.), and other inorganics (from soil, concrete, bricks, etc...for roadway and airfield design and construction. Friction angles from the direct shear tests of the pure cullet ranged from about 49 deg to 53

  1. In-vitro apatite formation capacity of a bioactive glass - containing toothpaste. (United States)

    Kanwal, Nasima; Brauer, Delia S; Earl, Jonathan; Wilson, Rory M; Karpukhina, Natalia; Hill, Robert G


    The in-vitro dissolution of bioactive glass-based toothpastes and their capacity to form apatite-like phases in buffer solutions have been investigated. The commercial toothpaste samples were tested on immersion in artificial saliva, Earle's salt solution and Tris buffer for duration from 10min to four days. The powder samples collected at the end of the immersion were studied using solid-state 31P and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The fluoride concentration in the solution remained after the immersion was measured. In artificial saliva and in presence of sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), the bioactive glass and bioactive glass-based toothpastes formed fluoridated apatite-like phases in under 10min. A small amount of apatite-like phase was detected by 31P NMR in the toothpaste with MFP but no bioactive glass. The toothpaste with bioactive glass but no fluoride formed an apatite-like phase as rapidly as the paste containing bioactive glass and fluoride. By contrast, apatite-like phase formation was much slower in Earle's salt solution than artificial saliva and slower than Tris buffer. The results of this lab-based study showed that the toothpaste with MFP and bioactive glass formed a fluoridated apatite in artificial saliva and in Tris buffer, as did the mixture of bioactive glass and MFP. The presence of fluoride in bioactive glass-containing toothpastes can potentially lead to the formation of a fluoridated apatite, which may result in improved clinical effectiveness and durability. However, this should be further tested intra-orally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Iterative refinement of implicit boundary models for improved geological feature reproduction (United States)

    Martin, Ryan; Boisvert, Jeff B.


    Geological domains contain non-stationary features that cannot be described by a single direction of continuity. Non-stationary estimation frameworks generate more realistic curvilinear interpretations of subsurface geometries. A radial basis function (RBF) based implicit modeling framework using domain decomposition is developed that permits introduction of locally varying orientations and magnitudes of anisotropy for boundary models to better account for the local variability of complex geological deposits. The interpolation framework is paired with a method to automatically infer the locally predominant orientations, which results in a rapid and robust iterative non-stationary boundary modeling technique that can refine locally anisotropic geological shapes automatically from the sample data. The method also permits quantification of the volumetric uncertainty associated with the boundary modeling. The methodology is demonstrated on a porphyry dataset and shows improved local geological features.

  3. Strain hardening in polymer glasses: limitations of network models. (United States)

    Hoy, Robert S; Robbins, Mark O


    Simulations are used to examine the microscopic origins of strain hardening in polymer glasses. While traditional entropic network models can be fit to the total stress, their underlying assumptions are inconsistent with simulation results. There is a substantial energetic contribution to the stress that rises rapidly as segments between entanglements are pulled taut. The thermal component of stress is less sensitive to entanglements, mostly irreversible, and directly related to the rate of local plastic rearrangements. Entangled and unentangled chains show the same strain hardening when plotted against the microscopic chain orientation rather than the macroscopic strain.

  4. Rapid quenching effects in PVC films (United States)

    Lee, H. D.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.


    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin films (with no additives, 30-100 micrometers thick), due to rapid quenching (approximately 300 C/sec) through the glass transition temperature, have been observed. The more severe the quench, the greater is the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC has also been studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements takes place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra have been applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching have been monitored by tensile creep and stress-strain to failure. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content, due to rapid quenching.

  5. The Effects of Gravity on the Crystallization Behavior of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Smith, Guy A.


    Heavy metal fluoride glasses are used in such applications as fiber lasers and laser amplifiers. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) is one of the more commonly used heavy metal fluoride glasses. ZBLAN is an infrared transmitter and has a theoretical attenuation coefficient of 0.002 db/km. However, due to impurities and small crystallites this attenuation coefficient has not been achieved to date. ZBLAN is a fragile glass which can lead to rapid crystallization, if the glass is not cooled rapidly to below the glass transition temperature or if the glass is reheated near the crystallization temperature for any period of time. Studies carried on at Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville since 1993 have shown that heating ZBLAN glass at the crystallization temperature in reduced gravity results in a suppression of crystallization when compared to ZBLAN processed in unit gravity. These studies utilized NASA's KC-135 aircraft and the Conquest sounding rocket. In the first series of experiments, short lengths of ZBLAN fiber were heated to the crystallization temperature in reduced gravity on board the KC- 135 and the Conquest sounding rocket and compared with fibers heated in unit gravity. The fibers processed in reduced gravity showed no evidence of crystallization when studied with x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. However, the fibers processed in unit gravity were completely crystallized. Subsequent experiments included heating small pieces of ZBLAN glass at the crystallization temperature while viewing with a video camera to follow the crystallization phenomenon. In this experiment crystallization was observed in reduced gravity, however, it was suppressed when compared to heating in unit gravity. In the most recent experiment on board the KC-135, rapid thermal analysis of ZBLAN was performed. A mechanism to explain the observations has been proposed. This mechanism is based on shear thinning whereby, the glass

  6. Use of knowledge-based restraints in phenix.refine to improve macromolecular refinement at low resolution. (United States)

    Headd, Jeffrey J; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Chen, Vincent B; Moriarty, Nigel W; Richardson, David C; Richardson, Jane S; Adams, Paul D


    Traditional methods for macromolecular refinement often have limited success at low resolution (3.0-3.5 Å or worse), producing models that score poorly on crystallographic and geometric validation criteria. To improve low-resolution refinement, knowledge from macromolecular chemistry and homology was used to add three new coordinate-restraint functions to the refinement program phenix.refine. Firstly, a `reference-model' method uses an identical or homologous higher resolution model to add restraints on torsion angles to the geometric target function. Secondly, automatic restraints for common secondary-structure elements in proteins and nucleic acids were implemented that can help to preserve the secondary-structure geometry, which is often distorted at low resolution. Lastly, we have implemented Ramachandran-based restraints on the backbone torsion angles. In this method, a ϕ,ψ term is added to the geometric target function to minimize a modified Ramachandran landscape that smoothly combines favorable peaks identified from nonredundant high-quality data with unfavorable peaks calculated using a clash-based pseudo-energy function. All three methods show improved MolProbity validation statistics, typically complemented by a lowered R(free) and a decreased gap between R(work) and R(free).

  7. Dietary Refinements in a Sensitive Fish Liver Tumor Model (United States)


    homogenized in cold sucrose buffer with a Potter/Elvehjem (Teflon/glass) homogenizer. The S9 fraction was prepared by centifugation of the homogenate for...moderately hard water. Reconstituted water was prepared in batches of 500 gallons using reverse osmosis produced water as a feed. Water temperature was

  8. Analysis of advanced optical glass and systems (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Feng, Chen


    Optical lens systems performance utilizing optical materials comprising reluctant glass forming compositions was studied. Such special glasses are being explored by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) researchers utilizing techniques such as containerless processing in space on the MSFC Acoustic Levitation Furnace and on the High Temperature Acoustic Levitation Furnace in the conceptual design phase for the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series of shuttle flights. The application of high refractive index and low dispersive power glasses in optical lens design was investigated. The potential benefits and the impacts to the optical lens design performance were evaluated. The results of the studies revealed that the use of these extraordinary glasses can result in significant optical performance improvements. Recommendations of proposed optical properties for potential new glasses were also made. Applications of these new glasses are discussed, including the impact of high refractive index and low dispersive power, improvements of the system performance by using glasses which are located outside of traditional glass map, and considerations in establishing glass properties beyond conventional glass map limits.

  9. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K


    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  10. Additive manufacturing of borosilicate glass (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Luo, Junjie; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Kinzel, Edward C.


    Glasses including have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of borosilicate glasses. Compared to soda-lime glasses, borosilicate glasses have improved coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and are widely used because of thermal shock resistance. In this work, borosilicate glass filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the workpiece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed glass as well as the residual stress trapped in the glass. The transparency of glass allows residual stress to be measured using a polariscope. The effect of the substrate as well and substrate temperature are analyzed. We show that if fracture due to thermal shock can be avoided during deposition, then the residual stress can be relieved with an annealing step, removing birefringence. When combined with progress toward avoiding bubble entrapment in printed glass, we show the AM approach has the potential to produce high quality optically transparent glass for optical applications.

  11. Paint-on-Glass Animation: The Fellowship of Digital Paint and Artisanal Control


    VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; Di Fiore, Fabian; Van Haevre, William; Van Reeth, Frank


    Abstract In this paper we deal with paint-on-glass animation, which is a technique for making animated films by pushing slow-drying paints from frame to frame directly under the camera. As artwork is continuously destroyed upon creating new frames, the animator is not able to rehearse or refine the animation afterwards. Furthermore, due to impracticable issues like how to stack up layers containing wet paint or how to overlay masks on the wet medium, one has to take both creative a...

  12. Paint-on-glass animation: the fellowship of digital paint and artisanal control


    VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; Di Fiore, Fabian; Van Haevre, William; Van Reeth, Frank


    In this paper we deal with paint-on-glass animation, which is a technique for making animated films by pushing slow-drying paints from frame to frame directly under the camera. As artwork is continuously destroyed upon creating new frames, the animator is not able to rehearse or refine the animation afterwards. Furthermore, due to impracticable issues like how to stack up layers containing wet paint or how to overlay masks on the wet medium, one has to take both creative as technical decision...

  13. A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Keshani, Fateme


    Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the “smart” materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI) cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA). Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications. PMID:24130573

  14. A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi


    Full Text Available Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the "smart" materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA. Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications.

  15. Effect of Injection Position on In-Flight Melting Behavior of Granular Alkali-Free Glass Raw Material in 12-Phase AC Arc Plasma (United States)

    Yao, Yaochun; Yatsuda, K.; Watanabe, T.; Yano, T.


    An innovative in-flight glass melting technology with a multi-phase AC arc plasma was developed to save energy and reduce emissions for the glass industry. The effect of the injection position on the in-flight melting behavior of granulated powders was investigated. Results show that the injection position has a strong effect on the melting behavior of alkali-free glass raw material. With the increase in injection distance, the vitrification, decomposition, and particle shrinkage of initial powders are improved. Longer injection distance causes much energy to transfer to particles due to a longer residence time of powder in the high temperature zone. The high vitrification and decomposition degrees indicate that the new in-flight melting technology with 12-phase AC arc can substantially reduce the melting and refining time for glass production.

  16. The effect of spark plasma sintering on lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Al Mansour, Fatima; Karpukhina, Natalia; Grasso, Salvatore; Wilson, Rory M; Reece, Mike J; Cattell, Michael J


    To evaluate the effects of spark plasma sintering (SPS) on the microstructure of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. IPS e.max CAD glass-ceramic samples were processed using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and conventionally sintered (CS) as a comparison. Specimens were sintered at varying temperatures (T1: 840°C, T2: 820°C, T3: 800°C), heating rates (HR1: 150°C/min, HR2: 300°C/min, HR3: 500°C/min) and pressures (P1: 15MPa, P2: 50MPa, P3: 70MPa). IPS e.max Press glass powder samples were densified at 750 and 800°C (50 or 200MPa pressure). Samples were characterized using XRD, HTXRD, and SEM and quantitative image analysis. There was a significant increase in median crystal size (MCS) between the CS and the SPS T1 groups. A statistical difference (p>0.05) in MCS between SPS T1 and SPS T2 groups was observed. The SPS HR3 sample produced a smaller MCS than the CS, SPS HR1 and HR2 groups (pglass samples resulted in fine fibrils or graduated lithium disilicate crystals. The effects of SPS were used to refine the microstructure of IPS e.max CAD lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. Densification by SPS of IPS e.max Press glass resulted in textured and fine nano-crystalline microstructures. SPS generated glass-ceramic microstructures may have unique properties and could be useful in the production of CAD/CAM materials for dentistry. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Revisiting local structural changes in GeO2 glass at high pressure. (United States)

    Dong, Juncai; Yao, HuRong; Guo, Zhiying; Jia, Quanjie; Wang, Yan; An, Pengfei; Gong, Yu; Liang, Yaxiang; Chen, Dongliang


    Despite the great importance in fundamental and industrial fields, understanding structural changes for pressure-induced polyamorphism in network-forming glasses remains a formidable challenge. Here, we revisited the local structural transformations in GeO2 glass up to 54 GPa using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy via a combination diamond anvil cell and polycapillary half-lens. Three polyamorphic transitions can be clearly identified by XAFS structure refinement. First, a progressive increase of the nearest Ge-O distance and bond disorder to a maximum at ~5-16 GPa, in the same pressure region of previously observed tetrahedral-octahedral transformation. Second, a markedly decrease of the nearest Ge-O distance at ~16-22.6 GPa but a slight increase at ~22.6-32.7 GPa, with a concomitant decrease of bond disorder. This stage can be related to a second-order-like transition from less dense to dense octahedral glass. Third, another decrease in the nearest Ge-O distance at ~32.7-41.4 GPa but a slight increase up to 54 GPa, synchronized with a gradual increase of bond disorder. This stage provides strong evidence for ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism with coordination number >6. Furthermore, cooperative modification is observed in more distant shells. Those results provide a unified local structural picture for elucidating the polyamorphic transitions and densification process in GeO2 glass. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Behavior of sodium borosilicate glasses under compression using molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilymis, D. A.; Ispas, S., E-mail: [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR 5221 CNRS-Université de Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Delaye, J.-M. [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)


    We have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations in order to study the changes under compression in the local and medium range structural properties of three sodium borosilicate glasses with varying sodium content. These glasses have been isostatically compressed up to 20 GPa and then decompressed in order to analyze the different mechanisms that affect densification, alongside with the permanent modifications of the structure after a full compression/decompression cycle. The results show that the atomic packing is the prominent characteristic that governs the amount of densification in the glass, as well as the setup of the permanent densification. During compression, the bulk modulus increases linearly up to approximately 15 GPa and more rapidly for higher pressures, a behavior which is reflected on the rate of increase of the average coordination for B and Na. Radial distribution functions at different pressures during the cycle help to quantify the amount of distortions in the elementary structural units, with a pronounced shortening of the Na–Na and Na–O bond lengths during compression. A subsequent decomposition of the glassy matrix into elementary Voronoi volumes verifies the high compressibility of Na-rich regions.

  19. Interfacial investigation and mechanical properties of glass-Al-glass anodic bonding process (United States)

    Hu, Lifang; Xue, Yongzhi; Shi, Fangrong


    Glass-Al-glass with Al as common anode was successfully bonded together through the anodic bonding process. SEM and EDS were conducted to investigate the interfacial structure of the glass-Al-glass samples. Special attention was given to the element distribution after the bonding process. The element profile of the transitional layer was investigated by glow discharge optical emission microscopy. The results showed that ion migration played an important role during the anodic bonding process, Na+ would precipitate from the back of the glass, and a Na+ depletion region formed at the bonding interface. At the same time, O2- diffused into the bonding interface and reacted with the Al, which resulted in a successful bonding process. Furthermore, Al migrated into the glass, which could enhance the bonding process. The peak current of the glass-Al-glass bonding was two times larger than that of the Al-glass bonding, which meant that the glass-Al-glass bonding process could be considered equivalent to two individual Al-glass bonding processes. Tensile strength tests showed that the glass was fractured, and the fractures propagated into the bonding interface, which indicated a reliable bonding process.

  20. Detection of structural heterogeneity of glass melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng


    The structural heterogeneity of both supercooled liquid and molten states of silicate has been studied using calorimetric method. The objects of this study are basaltic glasses and liquids. Two experimental approaches are taken to detect the structural heterogeneity of the liquids. One is the hyp......The structural heterogeneity of both supercooled liquid and molten states of silicate has been studied using calorimetric method. The objects of this study are basaltic glasses and liquids. Two experimental approaches are taken to detect the structural heterogeneity of the liquids. One...... is discussed. The ordered structure of glass melts above the liquidus temperature is indirectly characterized by use of X-ray diffraction method. The new approaches are of importance for monitoring the glass melting and forming process and for improving the physical properties of glasses and glass fibers....